Science.gov

Sample records for air pressure temperature

  1. Air separation with temperature and pressure swing

    DOEpatents

    Cassano, Anthony A.

    1986-01-01

    A chemical absorbent air separation process is set forth which uses a temperature swing absorption-desorption cycle in combination with a pressure swing wherein the pressure is elevated in the desorption stage of the process.

  2. Temperature and pressure influence on explosion pressures of closed vessel propane-air deflagrations.

    PubMed

    Razus, Domnina; Brinzea, Venera; Mitu, Maria; Oancea, Dumitru

    2010-02-15

    An experimental study on pressure evolution during closed vessel explosions of propane-air mixtures was performed, for systems with various initial concentrations and pressures ([C(3)H(8)]=2.50-6.20 vol.%, p(0)=0.3-1.2 bar). The explosion pressures and explosion times were measured in a spherical vessel (Phi=10 cm), at various initial temperatures (T(0)=298-423 K) and in a cylindrical vessel (Phi=10 cm; h=15 cm), at ambient initial temperature. The experimental values of explosion pressures are examined against literature values and compared to adiabatic explosion pressures, computed by assuming chemical equilibrium within the flame front. The influence of initial pressure, initial temperature and fuel concentration on explosion pressures and explosion times are discussed. At constant temperature and fuel/oxygen ratio, the explosion pressures are linear functions of total initial pressure, as reported for other fuel-air mixtures. At constant initial pressure and composition, both the measured and calculated (adiabatic) explosion pressures are linear functions of reciprocal value of initial temperature. Such correlations are extremely useful for predicting the explosion pressures of flammable mixtures at elevated temperatures and/or pressures, when direct measurements are not available.

  3. One-Component Pressure-Temperature Phase Diagrams in the Presence of Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade-Gamboa, Julio; Martire, Daniel O.; Donati, Edgardo R.

    2010-01-01

    One-component phase diagrams are good approximations to predict pressure-temperature ("P-T") behavior of a substance in the presence of air, provided air pressure is not much higher than the vapor pressure. However, at any air pressure, and from the conceptual point of view, the use of a traditional "P-T" phase diagram is not strictly correct. In…

  4. DDT in fuel air mixtures at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Card, J.; Rival, D.; Ciccarelli, G.

    2005-11-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in fuel air mixtures at initial temperatures up to 573 K and pressures up to 2 atm. The fuels investigated include hydrogen, ethylene, acetylene and JP-10 aviation fuel. The experiments were performed in a 3.1-m long, 10-cm inner-diameter heated detonation tube equipped with equally spaced orifice plates. Ionization probes were used to measure the flame time-of-arrival from which the average flame velocity versus propagation distance could be obtained. The DDT composition limits and the distance required for the flame to transition to detonation were obtained from this flame velocity data. The correlation developed by Veser et al. (run-up distance to supersonic flames in obstacle-laden tubes. In the proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Hazards, Prevention and Mitigation of Industrial Explosions, France (2002)) for the flame choking distance proved to work very well for correlating the detonation run-up distance measured in the present study. The only exception was for the hydrogen air data at elevated initial temperatures which tended to fall outside the scatter of the hydrocarbon mixture data. The DDT limits obtained at room temperature were found to follow the classical d/λ = 1 correlation, where d is the orifice plate diameter and λ is the detonation cell size. Deviations found for the high-temperature data could be attributed to the one-dimensional ZND detonation structure model used to predict the detonation cell size for the DDT limit mixtures. This simple model was used in place of actual experimental data not currently available.

  5. Compression-ignition Engine Performance at Altitudes and at Various Air Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Charles S; Collins, John H

    1937-01-01

    Engine test results are presented for simulated altitude conditions. A displaced-piston combustion chamber on a 5- by 7-inch single cylinder compression-ignition engine operating at 2,000 r.p.m. was used. Inlet air temperature equivalent to standard altitudes up to 14,000 feet were obtained. Comparison between performance at altitude of the unsupercharged compression-ignition engine compared favorably with the carburetor engine. Analysis of the results for which the inlet air temperature, inlet air pressure, and inlet and exhaust pressure were varied indicates that engine performance cannot be reliably corrected on the basis of inlet air density or weight of air charge. Engine power increases with inlet air pressure and decreases with inlet air temperatures very nearly as straight line relations over a wide range of air-fuel ratios. Correction factors are given.

  6. The upper explosion limit of lower alkanes and alkenes in air at elevated pressures and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Van den Schoor, F; Verplaetsen, F

    2006-01-16

    The upper explosion limit (UEL) of ethane-air, propane-air, n-butane-air, ethylene-air and propylene-air mixtures is determined experimentally at initial pressures up to 30 bar and temperatures up to 250 degrees C. The experiments are performed in a closed spherical vessel with an internal diameter of 200 mm. The mixtures are ignited by fusing a coiled tungsten wire, placed at the centre of the vessel, by electric current. Flame propagation is said to have taken place if there is a pressure rise of at least 1% of the initial pressure after ignition of the mixture. In the pressure-temperature range investigated, a linear dependence of UEL on temperature and a bilinear dependence on pressure are found except in the vicinity of the auto-ignition range. A comparison of the UEL data of the lower alkanes shows that the UEL expressed as equivalence ratio (the actual fuel/air ratio divided by the stoichiometric fuel/air ratio) increases with increasing carbon number in the homologous series of alkanes.

  7. GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

    2014-05-05

    This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

  8. [Effects of sudden air temperature and pressure changes on mortality in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Plavcová, E; Kyselý, J

    2009-04-01

    We have developed an algorithm for identifying sudden changes in air pressure and temperature over the Czech Republic. Such events were retrieved from the data covering in 1986-2005 and were matched with the daily numbers of all-cause deaths and deaths due to cardiovascular diseases from the national database, separately for the whole population and that aged 70 years and over. Excess daily mortality was determined by calculating deviations of the observed number of deaths from the expected number of deaths for each day in the respective groups. The relative deviation of the mortality the mean was calculated as the ratio of the excess mortality to the expected number of deaths. We used 3-hour air pressure data from 10 meteorological stations and hourly air temperature data from 9 stations representative of the Czech Republic. Pressure changes were evaluated on time scales of 3, 6 and 12 hours, separately for summer and winter time. Temperature changes were evaluated on a 24-hour time scale, separately for summer and winter season. Events characterized by pressure or temperature changes above the critical threshold and recorded within 24 hours at more than 50% of meteorological stations were retrieved. The critical thresholds were defined separately for each station using quantiles of distributions of air pressure and temperature changes. Relative mortality deviations for days D-2 (2 days before the change) to D+7 (7 days after the change) were averaged over the retrieved events. Statistical significance of the mean relative deviation was tested using the Monte Carlo method. Increased mortality followed large temperature increases and large pressure drops both in summer and winter months. Decreased mortality was observed after large pressure increases and large temperature drops in summer. Mortality variations are usually more pronounced in the population aged 70 years and over, and cardiovascular diseases account for most deaths after sudden temperature changes.

  9. Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Real Air Plasma in Wide Range of Temperature and Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunlin; Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Feng, Ying; Rong, Mingzhe; Zhang, Hantian

    2016-07-01

    Air plasma has been widely applied in industrial manufacture. In this paper, both dry and humid air plasmas' thermodynamic and transport properties are calculated in temperature 300-100000 K and pressure 0.1-100 atm. To build a more precise model of real air plasma, over 70 species are considered for composition. Two different methods, the Gibbs free energy minimization method and the mass action law method, are used to determinate the composition of the air plasma in a different temperature range. For the transport coefficients, the simplified Chapman-Enskog method developed by Devoto has been applied using the most recent collision integrals. It is found that the presence of CO2 has almost no effect on the properties of air plasma. The influence of H2O can be ignored except in low pressure air plasma, in which the saturated vapor pressure is relatively high. The results will serve as credible inputs for computational simulation of air plasma. supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program)(No. 2015CB251002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51521065, 51577145), the Science and Technology Project Funds of the Grid State Corporation (SGTYHT/13-JS-177), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and State Grid Corporation Project (GY71-14-004)

  10. Calibrating airborne measurements of airspeed, pressure and temperature using a Doppler laser air-motion sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, W. A.; Spuler, S. M.; Spowart, M.; Lenschow, D. H.; Friesen, R. B.

    2014-09-01

    A new laser air-motion sensor measures the true airspeed with a standard uncertainty of less than 0.1 m s-1 and so reduces uncertainty in the measured component of the relative wind along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft to about the same level. The calculated pressure expected from that airspeed at the inlet of a pitot tube then provides a basis for calibrating the measurements of dynamic and static pressure, reducing standard uncertainty in those measurements to less than 0.3 hPa and the precision applicable to steady flight conditions to about 0.1 hPa. These improved measurements of pressure, combined with high-resolution measurements of geometric altitude from the global positioning system, then indicate (via integrations of the hydrostatic equation during climbs and descents) that the offset and uncertainty in temperature measurement for one research aircraft are +0.3 ± 0.3 °C. For airspeed, pressure and temperature, these are significant reductions in uncertainty vs. those obtained from calibrations using standard techniques. Finally, it is shown that although the initial calibration of the measured static and dynamic pressures requires a measured temperature, once calibrated these measured pressures and the measurement of airspeed from the new laser air-motion sensor provide a measurement of temperature that does not depend on any other temperature sensor.

  11. A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun for nanomaterial synthesis in liquid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Shuang; Wang, Kaile; Zuo, Shasha; Liu, Jiahui; Zhang, Jue Fang, Jing

    2015-10-15

    A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun based on a dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes was proposed. The portable plasma gun with an embedded mini air pump was driven by a 12 V direct voltage battery. The air plasma jet generated from the gun could be touched without a common shock hazard. Besides working in air, the plasma gun can also work in water. The diagnostic result of optical emission spectroscopy showed the difference in reactive species of air plasma jet between in air and in water. The plasma gun was excited in 20 ml chloroauric acid aqueous solution with a concentration of 1.214 mM. A significant amount of gold nanoparticles were synthesized after 2 min continuous discharge. The plasma gun with these unique features is applicable in plasma medicine, etching, and s-nthesis of nanomaterials.

  12. A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun for nanomaterial synthesis in liquid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuang; Wang, Kaile; Zuo, Shasha; Liu, Jiahui; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-10-01

    A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun based on a dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes was proposed. The portable plasma gun with an embedded mini air pump was driven by a 12 V direct voltage battery. The air plasma jet generated from the gun could be touched without a common shock hazard. Besides working in air, the plasma gun can also work in water. The diagnostic result of optical emission spectroscopy showed the difference in reactive species of air plasma jet between in air and in water. The plasma gun was excited in 20 ml chloroauric acid aqueous solution with a concentration of 1.214 mM. A significant amount of gold nanoparticles were synthesized after 2 min continuous discharge. The plasma gun with these unique features is applicable in plasma medicine, etching, and s-nthesis of nanomaterials.

  13. Calibrating airborne measurements of airspeed, pressure and temperature using a Doppler laser air-motion sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, W. A.; Spuler, S. M.; Spowart, M.; Lenschow, D. H.; Friesen, R. B.

    2014-03-01

    A new laser air-motion sensor measures the true airspeed with an uncertainty of less than 0.1 m s-1 (standard error) and so reduces uncertainty in the measured component of the relative wind along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft to about the same level. The calculated pressure expected from that airspeed at the inlet of a pitot tube then provides a basis for calibrating the measurements of dynamic and static pressure, reducing standard-error uncertainty in those measurements to less than 0.3 hPa and the precision applicable to steady flight conditions to about 0.1 hPa. These improved measurements of pressure, combined with high-resolution measurements of geometric altitude from the Global Positioning System, then indicate (via integrations of the hydrostatic equation during climbs and descents) that the offset and uncertainty in temperature measurement for one research aircraft are +0.3 ± 0.3 °C. For airspeed, pressure and temperature these are significant reductions in uncertainty vs. those obtained from calibrations using standard techniques. Finally, it is shown that the new laser air-motion sensor, combined with parametrized fits to correction factors for the measured dynamic and ambient pressure, provides a measurement of temperature that is independent of any other temperature sensor.

  14. Pattern recognition techniques for visualizing the biotropic waveform of air temperature and pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozheredov, V. A.

    2012-12-01

    It is known that long periods of adverse weather have a negative effect on the human cardiovascular system. A number of studies have set a lower limit of around 5 days for the duration of these periods. However, the specific features of the negative dynamics of the main weather characteristics—air temperature and atmospheric pressure—remained open. To address this problem, the present paper proposes a conjunctive method of the theory of pattern recognition. It is shown that this method approaches a globally optimal (in the sense of recognition errors) Neumann critical region and can be used to solve various problems in heliobiology. To illustrate the efficiency of this method, we show that some quickly relaxing short sequences of temperature and pressure time series (the so-called temperature waves and waves of atmospheric pressure changes) increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases and can lead to serious organic lesions (particularly myocardial infarction). It is established that the temperature waves and waves of atmospheric pressure changes increase the average morbidity rate of myocardial infarction by 90% and 110%, respectively. Atmospheric pressure turned out to be a more biotropic factor than air temperature.

  15. Optical refractive index of air: dependence on pressure, temperature and composition.

    PubMed

    Owens, J C

    1967-01-01

    The theoretical background and present status of formulas for the refractive index of air are reviewed. In supplement to Edlén's recently revised formula for relative refractivity, the density dependence of refractive index is reanalyzed. New formulas are presented for both phase and group refractive index which are more useful over a wide range of pressure, temperature, and composition than any presently available. The application of the new formulas to optical distance measuring is briefly discussed.

  16. Integrated LTCC Pressure/Flow/Temperature Multisensor for Compressed Air Diagnostics†

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Yannick; Maeder, Thomas; Boutinard-Rouelle, Grégoire; Barras, Aurélie; Craquelin, Nicolas; Ryser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We present a multisensor designed for industrial compressed air diagnostics and combining the measurement of pressure, flow, and temperature, integrated with the corresponding signal conditioning electronics in a single low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) package. The developed sensor may be soldered onto an integrated electro-fluidic platform by using standard surface mount device (SMD) technology, e.g., as a standard electronic component would be on a printed circuit board, obviating the need for both wires and tubes and thus paving the road towards low-cost integrated electro-fluidic systems. Several performance aspects of this device are presented and discussed, together with electronics design issues. PMID:22163518

  17. Integrated LTCC pressure/flow/temperature multisensor for compressed air diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Yannick; Maeder, Thomas; Boutinard-Rouelle, Grégoire; Barras, Aurélie; Craquelin, Nicolas; Ryser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We present a multisensor designed for industrial compressed air diagnostics and combining the measurement of pressure, flow, and temperature, integrated with the corresponding signal conditioning electronics in a single low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) package. The developed sensor may be soldered onto an integrated electro-fluidic platform by using standard surface mount device (SMD) technology, e.g., as a standard electronic component would be on a printed circuit board, obviating the need for both wires and tubes and thus paving the road towards low-cost integrated electro-fluidic systems. Several performance aspects of this device are presented and discussed, together with electronics design issues.

  18. Research Update: Direct conversion of amorphous carbon into diamond at ambient pressures and temperatures in air

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, Jagdish Bhaumik, Anagh

    2015-10-01

    We report on fundamental discovery of conversion of amorphous carbon into diamond by irradiating amorphous carbon films with nanosecond lasers at room-temperature in air at atmospheric pressure. We can create diamond in the form of nanodiamond (size range <100 nm) and microdiamond (>100 nm). Nanosecond laser pulses are used to melt amorphous diamondlike carbon and create a highly undercooled state, from which various forms of diamond can be formed upon cooling. The quenching from the super undercooled state results in nucleation of nanodiamond. It is found that microdiamonds grow out of highly undercooled state of carbon, with nanodiamond acting as seed crystals.

  19. Effect of Fuel-Air Ratio, Inlet Temperature, and Exhaust Pressure on Detonation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, E S; Leary, W A; Diver, J R

    1940-01-01

    An accurate determination of the end-gas condition was attempted by applying a refined method of analysis to experimental results. The results are compared with those obtained in Technical Report no. 655. The experimental technique employed afforded excellent control over the engine variables and unusual cyclic reproducibility. This, in conjunction with the new analysis, made possible the determination of the state of the end-gas at any instant to a fair degree of precision. Results showed that for any given maximum pressure the maximum permissible end-gas temperature increased as the fuel-air ratio was increased. The tendency to detonate was slightly reduced by an increase in residual gas content resulting from an increase in exhaust backpressure with inlet pressure constant.

  20. A simple atmospheric pressure room-temperature air plasma needle device for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X.; Xiong, Z.; Zhao, F.; Xian, Y.; Xiong, Q.; Gong, W.; Zou, C.; Jiang, Z.; Pan, Y.

    2009-11-01

    Rather than using noble gas, room air is used as the working gas for an atmospheric pressure room-temperature plasma. The plasma is driven by submicrosecond pulsed directed current voltages. Several current spikes appear periodically for each voltage pulse. The first current spike has a peak value of more than 1.5 A with a pulse width of about 10 ns. Emission spectra show that besides excited OH, O, N2(C-B), and N2+(B-X) emission, excited NO, N2(B-A), H, and even N emission are also observed in the plasma, which indicates that the plasma may be more reactive than that generated by other plasma jet devices. Utilizing the room-temperature plasma, preliminary inactivation experiments show that Enterococcus faecalis can be killed with a treatment time of only several seconds.

  1. Effects of the air pressure on the wave-packet dynamics of gaseous iodine molecules at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Rongwei; He, Ping; Chen, Deying; Xia, Yuanqin; Yu, Xin; Wang, Jialing; Jiang, Yugang

    2013-02-01

    Based on ultrafast laser pulses, time-resolved resonance enhancement coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (RE-CARS) is applied to investigate wave-packet dynamics in gaseous iodine. The effects of air pressure on the wave-packet dynamics of iodine molecules are studied at pressures ranging from 1.5 Torr to 750 Torr. The RE-CARS signals are recorded in a gas cell filled with a mixture of about 0.3 Torr iodine in air buffer gas at room temperature. The revivals and fractional revival structures in the wave-packet signal are found to gradually disappear with rising air pressure up to 750 Torr, and the decay behaviors of the excited B-state and ground X-state become faster with increasing air pressure, which is due to the collision effects of the molecules and the growing complexity of the spectra at high pressures.

  2. Temperature and pressure influence on maximum rates of pressure rise during explosions of propane-air mixtures in a spherical vessel.

    PubMed

    Razus, D; Brinzea, V; Mitu, M; Movileanu, C; Oancea, D

    2011-06-15

    The maximum rates of pressure rise during closed vessel explosions of propane-air mixtures are reported, for systems with various initial concentrations, pressures and temperatures ([C(3)H(8)]=2.50-6.20 vol.%, p(0)=0.3-1.3 bar; T(0)=298-423 K). Experiments were performed in a spherical vessel (Φ=10 cm) with central ignition. The deflagration (severity) index K(G), calculated from experimental values of maximum rates of pressure rise is examined against the adiabatic deflagration index, K(G, ad), computed from normal burning velocities and peak explosion pressures. At constant temperature and fuel/oxygen ratio, both the maximum rates of pressure rise and the deflagration indices are linear functions of total initial pressure, as reported for other fuel-air mixtures. At constant initial pressure and composition, the maximum rates of pressure rise and deflagration indices are slightly influenced by the initial temperature; some influence of the initial temperature on maximum rates of pressure rise is observed only for propane-air mixtures far from stoichiometric composition. The differentiated temperature influence on the normal burning velocities and the peak explosion pressures might explain this behaviour.

  3. Association between blood pressure changes during self-paced outdoor walking and air temperature.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Takeshi; Ishii, Nanako

    2017-03-01

    Exaggerated elevation of systolic blood pressure (SBP) during exercise is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease. Although there are differences between the outdoor exercise and exercise tests in the laboratory setting, there is little information regarding SBP changes during practical outdoor exercise. We investigated SBP changes during self-paced outdoor walking and the relationship to air temperature. Subjects (n = 109, 47-83 years) walked outdoors at their own pace wearing a blood pressure monitor on their wrist. SBP increased during walking compared to rest, but was higher at the 1 km mark than both the 2 and 3 km marks (rest, 124 ± 14 mmHg; 1 km, 140 ± 16 mmHg; 2 km, 136 ± 18 mmHg; 3 km, 135 ± 18 mmHg). SBP at rest, air temperature, body mass index (BMI) and walking intensity during the first 1 km were identified as predictors of SBP at the 1 km mark in the stepwise regression analysis, independent of other confounders (R(2)  = 0·606). SBP at the 1 km mark was higher in the lower temperature group (11·6-14·3°C, 145 ± 14 mmHg) than in the intermediate (15·1-16·7°C, 140 ± 18 mmHg) and higher (17·0-19·6°C, 136 ± 16 mmHg) temperature groups, independent of SBP at rest, BMI and walking intensity. These results suggest that increases in SBP are higher on lower temperature days and are greater at 1 km than at 2 and 3 km. It is therefore recommended that measures are taken against the cold on lower temperature days to attenuate the SBP response during onset of walking.

  4. Effects of light intensity and air velocity on air temperature, water vapor pressure, and CO2 concentration inside a plant canopy under an artificial lighting condition.

    PubMed

    Kitaya, Y; Shibuya, T; Kozai, T; Kubota, C

    1998-01-01

    In order to characterize environmental variables inside a plant canopy under artificial lighting in the CELSS, we investigated the effects of light intensity and air velocity on air temperature, water vapor pressure, and CO2 concentration inside a plant canopy. Under a PPF of 500 micromoles m-2 s-1, air temperature was 2-3 degrees C higher, water vapor pressure was 0.6 kPa higher, and CO2 concentration was 25-35 micromoles mol-1 lower at heights ranging from 0 to 30 mm below the canopy than at a height 60 mm above the canopy. Increasing the PPF increased air temperature and water vapor pressure and decreased CO2 concentration inside the canopy. The air temperature was lower and the CO2 concentration was higher inside the canopy at an air velocity of 0.3 m s-1 than at an air velocity of 0.1 m s-1. The environmental variables inside the canopy under a high light intensity were characterized by higher air temperature, higher vapor pressure, and lower CO2 concentration than those outside the canopy.

  5. Synthesis of ammonia directly from air and water at ambient temperature and pressure

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Rong; Irvine, John T. S.; Tao, Shanwen

    2013-01-01

    The N≡N bond (225 kcal mol−1) in dinitrogen is one of the strongest bonds in chemistry therefore artificial synthesis of ammonia under mild conditions is a significant challenge. Based on current knowledge, only bacteria and some plants can synthesise ammonia from air and water at ambient temperature and pressure. Here, for the first time, we report artificial ammonia synthesis bypassing N2 separation and H2 production stages. A maximum ammonia production rate of 1.14 × 10−5 mol m−2 s−1 has been achieved when a voltage of 1.6 V was applied. Potentially this can provide an alternative route for the mass production of the basic chemical ammonia under mild conditions. Considering climate change and the depletion of fossil fuels used for synthesis of ammonia by conventional methods, this is a renewable and sustainable chemical synthesis process for future. PMID:23362454

  6. Synthesis of ammonia directly from air and water at ambient temperature and pressure.

    PubMed

    Lan, Rong; Irvine, John T S; Tao, Shanwen

    2013-01-01

    The N≡N bond (225 kcal mol⁻¹) in dinitrogen is one of the strongest bonds in chemistry therefore artificial synthesis of ammonia under mild conditions is a significant challenge. Based on current knowledge, only bacteria and some plants can synthesise ammonia from air and water at ambient temperature and pressure. Here, for the first time, we report artificial ammonia synthesis bypassing N₂ separation and H₂ production stages. A maximum ammonia production rate of 1.14 × 10⁻⁵ mol m⁻² s⁻¹ has been achieved when a voltage of 1.6 V was applied. Potentially this can provide an alternative route for the mass production of the basic chemical ammonia under mild conditions. Considering climate change and the depletion of fossil fuels used for synthesis of ammonia by conventional methods, this is a renewable and sustainable chemical synthesis process for future.

  7. Do sudden air temperature and pressure changes affect cardiovascular morbidity and mortality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavcová, E.; Davídkovová, H.; Kyselý, J.

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that sudden changes in weather (usually represented by air temperature and/or pressure) are associated with increases in daily mortality. Little is understood about physiological mechanisms responsible for the impacts of weather changes on mortality, and whether similar patterns appear for morbidity as well. Relatively little is known also about differences in the magnitude of the mortality response in provincial regions and in cities, where the impacts may be exacerbated by air pollution effects and/or heat island. The present study examines the effects of sudden air temperature and pressure changes on morbidity (represented by hospital admissions) and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in the population of the Czech Republic (approx. 10 million inhabitants) and separately in the city of Prague (1.2 million inhabitants). The events are selected from data covering 1994-2009 using the methodology introduced by Plavcová and Kyselý (2010), and they are compared with the datasets on hospital admissions and daily mortality (both standardized to account for long-term changes and the seasonal and weekly cycles). Relative deviations of morbidity/mortality from the baseline were averaged over the selected events for days D-2 (2 days before a change) up to D+7 (7 days after), and their statistical significance was tested by means of the Monte Carlo method. The study aims at (i) identifying those weather changes associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity/mortality, separately in summer and winter, (ii) comparing the effects of weather changes on morbidity and mortality, (iii) identifying whether urban population of Prague is more/less vulnerable in comparison to the population of the whole Czech Republic, (iv) comparing the effects for different cardiovascular diseases (ischaemic heart diseases, ICD-10 codes I20-I25; cerebrovascular diseases, I60-I69; hypertension, I10; atherosclerosis, I70) and individual population groups (by age

  8. Performance of a hydrogen burner to simulate air entering scramjet combustors. [simulation of total temperature, total pressure, and volume fraction of oxygen of air at flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russin, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the performance of a hydrogen burner used to produce a test gas that simulates air entering a scramjet combustor at various flight conditions. The test gas simulates air in that it duplicates the total temperature, total pressure, and the volume fraction of oxygen of air at flight conditions. The main objective of the tests was to determine the performance of the burner as a function of the effective exhaust port area. The conclusions were: (1) pressure oscillations of the chugging type were reduced in amplitude to plus or minus 2 percent of the mean pressure level by proper sizing of hydrogen, oxygen, and air injector flow areas; (2) combustion efficiency remained essentially constant as the exhaust port area was increased by a factor of 3.4; (3) the mean total temperature determined from integrating the exit radial gas property profiles was within plus or minus 5 percent of the theoretical bulk total temperature; (4) the measured exit total temperature profile had a local peak temperature more than 30 percent greater than the theoretical bulk total temperature; and (5) measured heat transfer to the burner liner was 75 percent of that predicted by theory based on a flat radial temperature profile.

  9. Ambient temperature and air pressure modulate hormones and behaviour in Greylag geese (Anser anser) and Northern bald ibis (Geronticus eremita).

    PubMed

    Dorn, Sebastian; Wascher, Claudia A F; Möstl, Erich; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2014-10-01

    Ambient temperature and air pressure are relevant stimuli that can elicit hormonal responses in alignment with adjusting individuals' physiology and behaviour. This study investigated possible changes in corticosterone (C) and testosterone (T) and contingencies with behaviour in response to ambient temperature and air pressure, and it evaluated the temporal response dynamics of these hormones in 12 individual Greylag geese (Anser anser) over 26 and 12 individual Northern bald ibis (Geronticus eremita) over 27 days, during late winter. Immunoreactive metabolites of C and T were analysed non-invasively from 626 fecal samples by means of group-specific antibodies and correlated to behaviour and weather factors. In both species, high C levels correlated with low temperatures 24h before sampling, but low C levels correlated with high air pressure 6-12h before sampling. In both species, C levels and behavioural activity were negatively correlated. In addition, temperature had a positive influence on T levels in both species 12-24h before sampling. The fact that weather conditions influenced changes in levels of C, while social interactions did not, is indicative of a general mechanism of graduated physiological adjustment to environmental variations affecting metabolism, stress responses and behaviour.

  10. Effect of air-pressure on room temperature hydrogen sensing characteristics of nanocrystalline doped tin oxide MEMS-based sensor.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Satyajit; Ludwig, Lawrence; Cho, Hyoung J; Duarte, Julian; Seal, Sudipta

    2005-11-01

    Nanocrystalline indium oxide (In2O3)-doped tin oxide (SnO2) thin film sensor has been sol-gel dip-coated on a microelectrochemical system (MEMS) device using a sol-gel dip-coating technique. Hydrogen (H2) at ppm-level has been successfully detected at room temperature using the present MEMS-based sensor. The room temperature H2 sensing characteristics (sensitivity, response and recovery time, and recovery rate) of the present MEMS-based sensor has been investigated as a function of air-pressure (50-600 Torr) with and without the ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure. It has been demonstrated that, the concentration of the surface-adsorbed oxygen-ions (which is related to the sensor-resistance in air), the ppm-level H2, and the oxygen (O2) partial pressure are the three major factors, which determine the variation in the room temperature H2 sensing characteristics of the present MEMS-based sensor as a function of air-pressure.

  11. Research Update: Direct conversion of h-BN into pure c-BN at ambient temperatures and pressures in air

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, Jagdish Bhaumik, Anagh

    2016-02-01

    We report a direct conversion of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) into pure cubic boron nitride (c-BN) by nanosecond laser melting at ambient temperatures and atmospheric pressure in air. According to the phase diagram, the transformation from h-BN into c-BN can occur only at high temperatures and pressures, as the hBN-cBN-Liquid triple point is at 3500 K/9.5 GPa. Using nanosecond laser melting, we have created super undercooled state and shifted this triple point to as low as 2800 K and atmospheric pressure. The rapid quenching from super undercooled state leads to formation of super undercooled BN (Q-BN). The c-BN phase is nucleated from Q-BN depending upon the time allowed for nucleation and growth.

  12. Excreted corticosterone metabolites co-vary with ambient temperature and air pressure in male Greylag geese (Anser anser).

    PubMed

    Frigerio, Didone; Dittami, John; Möstl, Erich; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2004-05-15

    In many species, seasonal activities such as reproduction or migration need to be fine-tuned with weather conditions. Air pressure and temperature changes are the best parameters for such conditions. Adapting to climatic changes invariably involves physiological and behavioral reactions associated with the adrenals. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ambient temperature and air pressure on excreted immuno-reactive metabolites of corticosterone (BM) and androgens (AM). Focal individuals were 14 paired male greylag geese (Anser anser) from a semi-tame, unrestrained flock. BM and AM were measured in individual fecal samples over 25 days in November and December. Two different ACTH-validated assays were used for the assessment of BM: the first one cross-reacting with 11beta,21-diol-20-one structures ("old assay") and the second one with 5beta,3alpha,11beta-diol structures ("new assay"). With the "new assay," BM correlated negatively with the minimum ambient temperature of the night before, which may reflect corticosterone involvement in thermoregulation. BM also correlated positively with the minimum air pressure of the previous afternoon, which supports the value of air pressure for predicting weather conditions. Together, these reactions suggest a role of the adrenals in responding behaviorally and physiologically to changes in weather. Preliminary analysis indicated a higher sensitivity to the excreted glucocorticosteroid metabolites in the "new assay." As expected for outside the mating season, no relationships were found between excreted AM and the weather parameters considered. The gradual changes in BM excretion in parallel with weather conditions may be part of the fine-tuning of physiology and behavior by environmental clues.

  13. Pressurized liquid extraction of diesel and air particulate standard reference materials: effect of extraction temperature and pressure.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; McGaw, Elizabeth; Wise, Stephen A

    2012-10-02

    Four particulate matter Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were used to evaluate the effect of solvent, number of static cycles and static times, pressure, and temperature when using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated-PAHs. The four materials used in the study were SRM 1648a Urban Particulate Matter, SRM 1649b Urban Dust, SRM 1650b Diesel Particulate Matter, and SRM 2975 Diesel Particulate Matter (Industrial Forklift). The results from the study indicate that the choice of solvent, dichloromethane compared to toluene and toluene/methanol mixtures, had little effect on the extraction efficiency. With three to five extraction cycles, increasing the extraction time for each cycle from 5 to 30 min had no significant effect on the extraction efficiency. The differences in extraction efficiency were not significant (with over 95% of the differences being <10%) when the pressure was increased from 13.8 to 20.7 MPa. The largest increase in extraction efficiency occurred for selected PAHs when the temperature of extraction was increased from 100 to 200 °C. At 200 °C naphthalene, biphenyl, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, and anthracene show substantially higher mass fractions (>30%) than when extracted at 100 °C in all the SRMs studied. For SRM 2975, large increases (>100%) are also observed for some other PAHs including benz[a]anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and benzo[b]chrysene when extracted at the higher temperatures; however, similar trends were not observed for the other diesel particulate sample, SRM 1650b. The results are discussed in relation to the use of the SRMs for evaluating analytical methods.

  14. Analytical evaluation of effect of equivalence ratio inlet-air temperature and combustion pressure on performance of several possible ram-jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, Leonard K; Gammon, Benson E

    1953-01-01

    The results of an analytical investigation of the theoretical air specific impulse performance and adiabatic combustion temperatures of several possible ram-jet fuels over a range of equivalence ratios, inlet-air temperatures, and combustion pressures, is presented herein. The fuels include octane-1, 50-percent-magnesium slurry, boron, pentaborane, diborane, hydrogen, carbon, and aluminum. Thermal effects from high combustion temperatures were found to effect considerably the combustion performance of all the fuels. An increase in combustion pressure was beneficial to air specific impulse at high combustion temperatures. The use of these theoretical data in engine operation and in the evaluation of experimental data is described.

  15. Effects of air temperature and water vapor pressure deficit on storage of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Suzuki, Takeshi; Amano, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Katsumi

    2012-10-01

    To determine the optimum air temperature and water vapor pressure deficit (VPD) for the storage of the predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus, 3-day-old mated females were stored at air temperatures of 0, 5, 10, or 15 °C and VPDs of 0.1, 0.3, or 0.5 kPa for 10, 20, or 30 days. At 10 °C and 0.1 kPa, 83 % of females survived after 30 days of storage; this percentage was the highest among all conditions. VPDs of 0.3 and 0.5 kPa regardless of air temperature, and an air temperature of 0 °C regardless of VPD were detrimental to the survival of the females during storage. Since the highest survival was observed at 10 °C and 0.1 kPa, the effect of the storage duration on the post-storage quality of the stored females and their progeny was investigated at 25 °C to evaluate the effectiveness of the storage condition. The oviposition ability of the stored females, hatchability, and sex ratio of their progeny were not affected even when the storage duration was extended to 30 days. Although a slight decrease in the survival during the immature stages of progeny was observed when the storage duration was ≥20 days, the population growth of N. californicus may not be affected when individuals stored in these conditions are applied to greenhouses and agricultural fields. The results indicate that mated N. californicus females can be stored at 10 °C and 0.1 kPa VPD for at least 30 days.

  16. A Comparative Study of Sound Speed in Air at Room Temperature between a Pressure Sensor and a Sound Sensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrani, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of sound speed measurements in air using two types of sensor that are widely employed in physics and engineering education, namely a pressure sensor and a sound sensor. A computer-based laboratory with pressure and sound sensors was used to carry out measurements of air through a 60 ml syringe. The fast Fourier…

  17. Impact of two-way air flow due to temperature difference on preventing the entry of outdoor particles using indoor positive pressure control method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; Zhao, Bin; Yang, Xudong

    2011-02-28

    Maintaining positive pressure indoors using mechanical ventilation system is a popular control method for preventing the entry of outdoor airborne particles. The idea is, as long as the supply air flow rate is larger than return air flow rate, the pressure inside the ventilated room should be positive since the superfluous air flow must exfiltrate from air leakages or other openings of the room to the outdoors. Based on experimental and theoretical analyses this paper aims to show the impact of two-way air flow due to indoor/outdoor temperature difference on preventing the entry of outdoor particles using positive pressure control method. The indoor positive pressure control method is effective only when the size of the opening area is restricted to a certain level, opening degree less than 30° in this study, due to the two-way air flow effect induced by differential temperature. The theoretical model was validated using the experimental data. The impacts of two-way air flow due to temperature difference and the supply air flow rate were also analyzed using the theoretical model as well as experimental data. For real houses, it seems that the idea about the positive pressure control method for preventing the entry of outdoor particles has a blind side.

  18. Pressure and concentration dependences of the autoignition temperature for normal butane + air mixtures in a closed vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Chandraratna, M.R.; Griffiths, J.F. . School of Chemistry)

    1994-12-01

    The condition at which autoignition occurs in lean premixed n-butane + air mixtures over the composition range 0.2%--2.5% n-butane by volume (0.06 < [phi] < 0.66) were investigated experimentally. Total reactant pressure from 0.1 to 0.6 MPa (1--6 atm) were studied in a spherical, stainless-steel, closed vessel (0.5 dm[sup 3]). There is a critical transition from nonignition to ignition, at pressures above 0.1 MPa, as the mixture is enriched in the vicinity of 1% fuel vapor by volume. There is also a region of multiplicity, which exhibits three critical temperatures at a given composition. Chemical analyses show that partially oxygenated components,including many o-heterocyclic compounds, are important products of the lean combustion of butane at temperatures up to 800 K. The critical conditions for autoignition are discussed with regard to industrial ignition hazards, especially in the context of the autoignition temperature of alkanes given by ASTM or BS tests. The differences between the behavior of n-butane and the higher n-alkanes are explained. The experimental results are also used as a basis for testing a reduced kinetic model to represent the oxidation and autoignition of n-butane or other alkanes.

  19. Effect of inlet-air humidity, temperature, pressure, and reference Mach number on the formation of oxides of nitrogen in a gas turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effect of inlet air humidity on the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from a gas turbine combustor. Combustor inlet air temperature ranged from 506 K (450 F) to 838 K (1050 F). The tests were primarily run at a constant pressure of 6 atmospheres and reference Mach number of 0.065. The NOx emission index was found to decrease with increasing inlet air humidity at a constant exponential rate: NOx = NOx0e-19H (where H is the humidity and the subscript 0 denotes the value at zero humidity). the emission index increased exponentially with increasing normalized inlet air temperature to the 1.14 power. Additional tests made to determine the effect of pressure and reference Mach number on NOx showed that the NOx emission index varies directly with pressure to the 0.5 power and inversely with reference Mach number.

  20. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOEpatents

    Echtler, J. Paul; Scandrol, Roy O.

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  1. Investigation of X24C-2 10-Stage Axial-Flow Compressor. 2; Effect of Inlet-Air Pressure and Temperature of Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, Harold B.; Schum, Harold J.; Buckner, Howard Jr.

    1947-01-01

    Effect of inlet-air pressure and temperature on the performance of the X24-2 10-Stage Axial-Flow Compressor from the X24C-2 turbojet engine was evaluated. Speeds of 80, 89, and 100 percent of equivalent design speed with inlet-air pressures of 6 and 12 inches of mercury absolute and inlet-air temperaures of approximately 538 degrees, 459 degrees,and 419 degrees R ( 79 degrees, 0 degrees, and minus 40 degrees F). Results were compared with prior investigations.

  2. Modelling of heat and mass transfer in a granular medium during high-temperature air drying. Effect of the internal gas pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othmani, Hammouda; Hassini, Lamine; Lamloumi, Raja; El Cafsi, Mohamed Afif

    2016-02-01

    A comprehensive internal heat and water transfer model including the gas pressure effect has been proposed in order to improve the industrial high-temperature air drying of inserts made of agglomerated sand. In this model, the internal gas phase pressure effect was made perfectly explicit, by considering the liquid and vapour transfer by filtration and the liquid expulsion at the surface. Wet sand enclosed in a tight cylindrical glass bottle dried convectively at a high temperature was chosen as an application case. The model was validated on the basis of the experimental average water content and core temperature curves for drying trials at different operating conditions. The simulations of the spatio-temporal distribution of internal gas pressure were performed and interpreted in terms of product potential damage. Based on a compromise between the drying time and the pressure increase, a simple drying cycle was implemented in order to optimize the drying process.

  3. Effects of Environmental Humidity and Temperature on Sterilization Efficiency of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasmas in Atmospheric Pressure Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Yusuke; Miyamae, Masanori; Nagata, Masayoshi; Fukumoto, Naoyuki

    2011-01-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus spores by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in atmospheric humid air was investigated in order to develop a low-temperature, low-cost, and high-speed plasma sterilization technique. The biological indicators covered with a Tyvek sheet were set just outside the DBD plasma region, where air temperature and humidity as a discharge gas were precisely controlled by an environmental test chamber. The results show that the inactivation of B. atrophaeus spores was found to be dependent strongly on humidity, and was completed within 15 min at a relative humidity of 90% and a temperature of 30 °C. The treatment time for sterilization is shorter than those of conventional sterilization methods using ethylene oxide gas and dry heat treatment. The inactivation rates depend on not only relative humidity but also temperature, so that water content in air could determine the generation of reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals that are effective for the inactivation of B. atrophaeus spores.

  4. Comparison of Calculated and Experimental Temperatures and Coolant Pressure Losses for a Cascade of Small Air-Cooled Turbine Rotor Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepka, Francis S

    1958-01-01

    Average spanwise blade temperatures and cooling-air pressure losses through a small (1.4-in, span, 0.7-in, chord) air-cooled turbine blade were calculated and are compared with experimental nonrotating cascade data. Two methods of calculating the blade spanwise metal temperature distributions are presented. The method which considered the effect of the length-to-diameter ratio of the coolant passage on the blade-to-coolant heat-transfer coefficient and assumed constant coolant properties based on the coolant bulk temperature gave the best agreement with experimental data. The agreement obtained was within 3 percent at the midspan and tip regions of the blade. At the root region of the blade, the agreement was within 3 percent for coolant flows within the turbulent flow regime and within 10 percent for coolant flows in the laminar regime. The calculated and measured cooling-air pressure losses through the blade agreed within 5 percent. Calculated spanwise blade temperatures for assumed turboprop engine operating conditions of 2000 F turbine-inlet gas temperature and flight conditions of 300 knots at a 30,000-foot altitude agreed well with those obtained by the extrapolation of correlated experimental data of a static cascade investigation of these blades.

  5. Monitoring Air Circulation Under Reduced Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygalov, Vadim

    Adequate air circulation is required for controlled environments to maintain uniform temperature and humidity control, and hence the ability to measure air flow accurately is important. Human and associated life support habitats (e.g.,. plant production systems) for future space missions will likely be operated at pressures less than 100 kPa to minimize gas leakage and structural mass. Under such reduced pressures, the outputs from conventional anemometers for monitoring air flow can change and require re-calibration. These effects of atmospheric pressure on different types of air flow measurements are not completely understood; hence we compared the performance of several air flow sensors across a range of hypobaric pressures. Sensors included a propeller type anemometer, a hot-wire anemometer, and a Pitot-tube based device. Theoretical schematics (including mathematical models) underlying these measurements were developed. Results demonstrated that changes in sensor outputs were predictable based on their operating principles, and that corrections could be developed for sensors calibrated under normal Earth atmosphere pressure ( 100 kPa) and then used at different pressures. The potential effects of hypobaric atmospheres and their altered air flows on plant physiology are also discussed.

  6. Temperature dependence of Lorentz air-broadening and pressure-shift coefficients of (12)CH4 lines in the 2.3-micron spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Smith, M. A. H.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution (0.01/cm) absorption spectra of lean mixtures of CH4 in dry air were recorded with the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) of the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak at various temperatures between 24 and -61 C. The spectra have been analyzed to determine the values at room temperature of pressure-broadened widths and pressure-induced shifts of more than 740 transitions. The temperature dependence of air-broadened widths and pressure-induced shifts was deduced for approx. 370 transitions in the nu(sub 1) + nu(sub 4), nu(sub 3) + nu(sub 4), and nu(sub 2) + nu(sub 3) bands of (12)CH4 located between 4118 and 4615/cm. These results were obtained by analyzing a total of 29 spectra simultaneously using a multi-spectral non-linear least-squares fitting technique. This new technique allowed the determination of correlated spectral line parameters (e.g. intensity and broadening coefficient) better than the procedure of averaging values obtained by fitting the spectra individually. This method also provided a direct determination of the uncertainties in the retrieved parameters due to random errors. For each band analysed in this study the dependence of the various spectral line parameters upon the tetrahedral symmetry species and the rotational quantum numbers of the transitions is also presented.

  7. Space and time analysis of the nanosecond scale discharges in atmospheric pressure air: I. Gas temperature and vibrational distribution function of N2 and O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, A.; Cessou, A.; Boubert, P.; Vervisch, P.

    2014-03-01

    Reliable experimental data on nanosecond discharge plasmas in air become more and more crucial considering their interest in a wide field of applications. However, the investigations on such nonequilibrium plasmas are made difficult by the spatial non-homogeneities, in particular under atmospheric pressure, the wide range of time scales, and the complexity of multi-physics processes involved therein. In this study, we report spatiotemporal experimental analysis on the gas temperature and the vibrational excitation of N2 and O2 in their ground electronic state during the post-discharge of an overvoltage nanosecond-pulsed discharge generated in a pin-to-plane gap of air at atmospheric pressure. The gas temperature during the pulsed discharge is measured by optical emission spectroscopy related to the rotational bands of the 0-0 vibrational transition N2(C 3 Πu, v = 0) → N2(B3 Πg, v = 0) of nitrogen. The results show a rapid gas heating up to 700 K in tens of nanoseconds after the current rise. This fast gas heating leads to a high gas temperature up to 1000 K measured at 150 ns in the first stages of the post-discharge using spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS). The spatiotemporal measurements of the gas temperature and the vibrational distribution function of N2 and O2, also obtained by SRS, over the post-discharge show the spatial expansion of the high vibrational excitation of N2, and the gas heating during the post-discharge. The present measurements, focused on thermal and energetic aspect of the discharge, provide a base for spatiotemporal analysis of gas number densities of N2, O2 and O atoms and hydrodynamic effects achieved during the post-discharge in part II of this investigation. All these results provide space and time database for the validation of plasma chemical models for nanosecond-pulsed discharges at atmospheric pressure air.

  8. Measurement of Off-Body Velocity, Pressure, and Temperature in an Unseeded Supersonic Air Vortex by Stimulated Raman Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Gregory C.

    2008-01-01

    A noninvasive optical method is used to make time-averaged (30 sec) off-body measurements in a supersonic airflow. Seeding of tracer particles is not required. One spatial component of velocity, static pressure, and static temperature are measured with stimulated Raman scattering. The three flow parameters are determined simultaneously from a common sample volume (0.3 by 0.3 by 15 mm) using concurrent measurements of the forward and backward scattered line shapes of a N2 vibrational Raman transition. The capability of this technique is illustrated with laboratory and large-scale wind tunnel testing that demonstrate 5-10% measurement uncertainties. Because the spatial resolution of the present work was improved to 1.5 cm (compared to 20 cm in previous work), it was possible to demonstrate a modest one-dimensional profiling of cross-flow velocity, pressure, and translational temperature through the low-density core of a stream-wise vortex (delta-wing model at Mach 2.8 in NASA Langley's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel).

  9. Laser-based air data system for aircraft control using Raman and elastic backscatter for the measurement of temperature, density, pressure, moisture, and particle backscatter coefficient.

    PubMed

    Fraczek, Michael; Behrendt, Andreas; Schmitt, Nikolaus

    2012-01-10

    Flight safety in all weather conditions demands exact and reliable determination of flight-critical air parameters. Air speed, temperature, density, and pressure are essential for aircraft control. Conventional air data systems can be impacted by probe failure caused by mechanical damage from hail, volcanic ash, and icing. While optical air speed measurement methods have been discussed elsewhere, in this paper, a new concept for optically measuring the air temperature, density, pressure, moisture, and particle backscatter is presented, being independent on assumptions on the atmospheric state and eliminating the drawbacks of conventional aircraft probes by providing a different measurement principle. The concept is based on a laser emitting laser pulses into the atmosphere through a window and detecting the signals backscattered from a fixed region just outside the disturbed area of the fuselage flows. With four receiver channels, different spectral portions of the backscattered light are extracted. The measurement principle of air temperature and density is based on extracting two signals out of the rotational Raman (RR) backscatter signal of air molecules. For measuring the water vapor mixing ratio-and thus the density of the moist air-a water vapor Raman channel is included. The fourth channel serves to detect the elastic backscatter signal, which is essential for extending the measurements into clouds. This channel contributes to the detection of aerosols, which is interesting for developing a future volcanic ash warning system for aircraft. Detailed and realistic optimization and performance calculations have been performed based on the parameters of a first prototype of such a measurement system. The impact and correction of systematic error sources, such as solar background at daytime and elastic signal cross talk appearing in optically dense clouds, have been investigated. The results of the simulations show the high potential of the proposed system for

  10. Estimation of upper flammability limits of C-H compounds in air at standard atmospheric pressure and evaluation of temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    Mendiburu, Andrés Z; de Carvalho, João A; Coronado, Christian R

    2016-03-05

    This study focuses on estimating the upper flammability limits of C-H compounds. A method was developed to determine the upper flammability limits in air at standard atmospheric pressure for the following cases: (a) estimation of the UFLs of pure C-H compounds at standard ambient temperature (25°C); (b) estimation of the UFLs of binary mixtures of C-H compounds at standard ambient temperature (25°C); (c) estimation of the UFLs of C-H compounds at different initial temperatures. The method was accurate in all cases. In case (a), for a total set of 115 compounds, the absolute average relative error was 7.27% and a squared correlation coefficient of 0.9248 was obtained. In case (b), the average absolute relative error was 5.55%; in case (c) it was 2.19%.

  11. Multispectrum Analysis of 12CH4 in the v4 Band: I. Air-Broadened Half Widths, Pressure-Induced Shifts, Temperature Dependences and Line Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, MaryAnn H.; Benner, D. Chris; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2009-01-01

    Lorentz air-broadened half widths, pressure-induced shifts and their temperature dependences have been measured for over 430 transitions (allowed and forbidden) in the v4 band of (CH4)-12 over the temperature range 210 to 314 K. A multispectrum non linear least squares fitting technique was used to simultaneously fit a large number of high-resolution (0.006 to 0.01/cm) absorption spectra of pure methane and mixtures of methane diluted with dry air. Line mixing was detected for pairs of A-, E-, and F-species transitions in the P- and R-branch manifolds and quantified using the off-diagonal relaxation matrix elements formalism. The measured parameters are compared to air- and N2-broadened values reported in the literature for the v4 and other bands. The dependence of the various spectral line parameters upon the tetrahedral symmetry species and rotational quantum numbers of the transitions is discussed. All data used in the present work were recorded using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer located at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak.

  12. Controlled-Temperature Hot-Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    Materials that find applications in wind tunnels first tested in laboratory. Hot-Air Gun differs from commercial units in that flow rate and temperature monitored and controlled. With typical compressed-airsupply pressure of 25 to 38 psi (170 to 260 kPa), flow rate and maximum temperature are 34 stdft3/min (0.96 stdm3/min) and 1,090 degrees F (590 degrees C), respectively. Resembling elaborate but carefully regulated hot-air gun, setup used to apply blasts of air temperatures above 1,500 degrees F (815 degrees C) to test specimens.

  13. Characterizing the effects of elevated temperature on the air void pore structure of advanced gas-cooled reactor pressure vessel concrete using x-ray computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. C.; Petkovski, M.; Engelberg, D. L.; Leonard, F.; Withers, P. J.

    2013-07-01

    X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) has been applied to nondestructively characterise changes in the microstructure of a concrete used in the pressure vessel structure of Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGR) in the UK. Concrete specimens were conditioned at temperatures of 105 °C and 250 °C, to simulate the maximum thermal load expected to occur during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Following thermal treatment, these specimens along with an unconditioned control sample were characterised using micro-focus X-ray CT with a spatial resolution of 14.6 microns. The results indicate that the air void pore structure of the specimens experienced significant volume changes as a result of the increasing temperature. The increase in the porous volume was more prevalent at 250 °C. Alterations in air void size distributions were characterized with respect to the unconditioned control specimen. These findings appear to correlate with changes in the uni-axial compressive strength of the conditioned concrete.

  14. Degradation of cationic red GTL by catalytic wet air oxidation over Mo-Zn-Al-O catalyst under room temperature and atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yin; Li, Xiaoyi; Cheng, Xiang; Sun, Dezhi; Wang, Xueye

    2012-03-06

    To overcome the drawback of catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) with high temperature and high pressure, the catalytic activity of Mo-Zn-Al-O catalyst for degradation of cationic red GTL under room temperature and atmospheric pressure was investigated. Mo-Zn-Al-O catalyst was prepared by coprecipitation and impregnation. XRD, TG-DTG, and XPS were used to characterize the resulting sample. Central composition design using response surface methodology was employed to optimize correlation of factors on the decolorization of cationic red GTL. The results show that the optimal conditions of pH value, initial concentration of dye and catalyst dosage were found to be 4.0, 85 mg/L and 2.72 g/L, respectively, for maximum decolorization of 80.1% and TOC removal of 50.9%. Furthermore, the reaction on the Mo-Zn-Al-O catalyst and degradation mechanism of cationic red GTL was studied by Electron spin resonance (ESR) and GC-MS technique. The possible reaction mechanism was that the Mo-Zn-Al-O catalyst can efficiently react with adsorbed oxygen/H(2)O to produce ·OH and (1)O(2) and finally induce the degradation of cationic red GTL. GC-MS analysis of the degradation products indicates that cationic red GTL was initiated by the cleavage of -N ═ N- and the intermediates were further oxidized by ·OH or (1)O(2).

  15. Effect of forward rapidly rotating shift work on circadian rhythms of arterial pressure, heart rate and oral temperature in air traffic controllers.

    PubMed

    Stoynev, A G; Minkova, N K

    1998-02-01

    Twenty-four-hour records of arterial pressure (AP), heart rate (HR), oral temperature (OT) and physical and mental performance were obtained in air traffic controllers during morning (n = 16), afternoon (n = 17) and night (n = 19) shifts. Data were analyzed by the cosinor method. The results obtained during the morning shift were as follows (mesor/amplitude/acrophase): systolic AP (mm Hg)--113.6/10.0/16:03 h; diastolic AP--71.1/8.2/15:19 h; mean AP--85.6/8.8/15:41 h; HR (beats/min)--77.5/8.9/16:00 h; OT (dg C)--36.71/0.21/15:49 h; right-hand grip strength (kg)--49.8/2.0/17:43 h; left-hand grip strength--46.1/2.0/16:08 h; mental performance (calculations/min)--14.9/1.1/16:39 h. During the night shift either no change of the circadian acrophases (HR, right-hand grip strength) or acrophase delays ranging from about 2 h (systolic AP, OT, mental performance) up to 3 h (diastolic and mean AP, left-hand grip strength) were observed. Our data suggest that the shift system studied does not significantly alter the circadian rhythms, and does not induce a desynchronization, particularly as concerns arterial pressure and oral temperature.

  16. Degradation of phenol accumulated in a micellar molybdovanadophosphate nanoreactor by air at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shun; Sun, Congliang; Wang, Lei; Xu, Xiaobin; Wang, Xiaohong

    2010-06-07

    A novel route to facilitate the degradation of phenol is reported. This new approach is based on a micellar polyoxometalate (POM) catalytic system. The micellar POM catalyst could promote phenol molecules' degradation into a simple inorganic compound such as CO2 using only air as an oxidant under room conditions. The results of the recycling experiment suggests that the micellar POMs may be used as a potential catalyst for the degradation of phenol in wastewater.

  17. Influence of air pressure, humidity, solar radiation, temperature, and wind speed on ambulatory visits due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Bavaria, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Uta; Exner, Teresa; Wanka, Eva R.; Bergemann, Christoph; Meyer-Arnek, Julian; Hildenbrand, Beate; Tufman, Amanda; Heumann, Christian; Huber, Rudolf M.; Bittner, Michael; Fischer, Rainald

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. The disease is often aggravated by periods of increased symptoms requiring medical attention. Among the possible triggers for these exacerbations, meteorological factors are under consideration. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of various meteorological factors on the health status of patients with COPD. For this purpose, the daily number of ambulatory care visits due to COPD was analysed in Bavaria, Germany, for the years 2006 and 2007. The meteorological factors were provided by the model at the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). For the multivariate analysis, a generalised linear model was used. In Bavaria, an increase of 1% of daily consultations (about 103 visits per day) was found to be associated with a change of 0.72 K temperature, 209.55 of log air surface pressure in Pa, and a decrease of 1% of daily consultations with 1,453,763 Ws m2 of solar radiation. There also seem to be regional differences between north and south Bavaria; for instance, the effect of wind speed and specific humidity with a lag of 1 day were only significant in the north. This study could contribute to a tool for the prevention of exacerbations. It also serves as a model for the further evaluation of the impact of meteorological factors on health, and could easily be applied to other diseases or other regions.

  18. Influence of air pressure, humidity, solar radiation, temperature, and wind speed on ambulatory visits due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Bavaria, Germany.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Uta; Exner, Teresa; Wanka, Eva R; Bergemann, Christoph; Meyer-Arnek, Julian; Hildenbrand, Beate; Tufman, Amanda; Heumann, Christian; Huber, Rudolf M; Bittner, Michael; Fischer, Rainald

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. The disease is often aggravated by periods of increased symptoms requiring medical attention. Among the possible triggers for these exacerbations, meteorological factors are under consideration. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of various meteorological factors on the health status of patients with COPD. For this purpose, the daily number of ambulatory care visits due to COPD was analysed in Bavaria, Germany, for the years 2006 and 2007. The meteorological factors were provided by the model at the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). For the multivariate analysis, a generalised linear model was used. In Bavaria, an increase of 1% of daily consultations (about 103 visits per day) was found to be associated with a change of 0.72 K temperature, 209.55 of log air surface pressure in Pa, and a decrease of 1% of daily consultations with 1,453,763 Ws m(2) of solar radiation. There also seem to be regional differences between north and south Bavaria; for instance, the effect of wind speed and specific humidity with a lag of 1 day were only significant in the north. This study could contribute to a tool for the prevention of exacerbations. It also serves as a model for the further evaluation of the impact of meteorological factors on health, and could easily be applied to other diseases or other regions.

  19. Laser plasma at low air pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vas'kovskii, Iu. M.; Moiseev, V. N.; Rovinskii, R. E.; Tsenina, I. S.

    1993-01-01

    The ambient-pressure dependences of the dynamic and optical characteristics of a laser plasma generated by CO2-laser irradiation of an obstacle are investigated experimentally. The change of the sample's surface roughness after irradiation is investigated as a function of air pressure. It is concluded that the transition from the air plasma to the erosion plasma takes place at an air pressure of about 1 mm Hg. The results confirm the existing theory of plasma formation near the surface of an obstacle under the CO2-laser pulse effect in air.

  20. Ultrahigh Temperature Capacitive Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harsh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Robust, miniaturized sensing systems are needed to improve performance, increase efficiency, and track system health status and failure modes of advanced propulsion systems. Because microsensors must operate in extremely harsh environments, there are many technical challenges involved in developing reliable systems. In addition to high temperatures and pressures, sensing systems are exposed to oxidation, corrosion, thermal shock, fatigue, fouling, and abrasive wear. In these harsh conditions, sensors must be able to withstand high flow rates, vibration, jet fuel, and exhaust. In order for existing and future aeropropulsion turbine engines to improve safety and reduce cost and emissions while controlling engine instabilities, more accurate and complete sensor information is necessary. High-temperature (300 to 1,350 C) capacitive pressure sensors are of particular interest due to their high measurement bandwidth and inherent suitability for wireless readout schemes. The objective of this project is to develop a capacitive pressure sensor based on silicon carbon nitride (SiCN), a new class of high-temperature ceramic materials, which possesses excellent mechanical and electric properties at temperatures up to 1,600 C.

  1. Explosion pressures of hydrocarbon-air mixtures in closed vessels.

    PubMed

    Razus, Domnina; Movileanu, Codina; Brinzea, Venera; Oancea, D

    2006-07-31

    An experimental study on pressure evolution during closed vessel explosions of several gaseous fuel-air mixtures was performed, at various initial pressures within 0.3-1.2 bar and ambient initial temperature. Explosion pressures and explosion times are reported for methane-, n-pentane-, n-hexane-, propene-, butene-, butadiene-, cyclohexane- and benzene-air mixtures. The explosion pressures measured in a spherical vessel (Phi=10 cm) and in three cylindrical vessels with different diameter/height ratios are examined in comparison with the adiabatic explosion pressures, computed by assuming chemical equilibrium within the flame front. The influence of initial pressure, fuel concentration and heat losses during propagation (determined by the size and shape of the explosion vessel and by the position of the ignition source) on explosion pressures and explosion times are discussed for some of the examined systems.

  2. A high-temperature wideband pressure transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    A condenser microphone AM carrier system, which has been developed to measure pressure fluctuations at elevated temperatures, consists of the following components: a condenser microphone designed for operation at elevated temperatures; existing carrier electronics developed under two previous research grants but adapted to meet present requirements; a 6 m cable operating as a half-wavelength transmission line between the microphone and carrier electronics; and a voltage-controlled oscillator used in a feedback loop for automatic tuning control. Both theoretical and practical aspects of the development program are considered. The three predominant effects of temperature changes are changes in the membrane-backplate gap, membrane tension, and air viscosity. The microphone is designed so that changes in gap and membrane tension tend to have compensating effects upon the microphone sensitivity.

  3. Microfluidic pressure sensing using trapped air compression.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Nimisha; Burns, Mark A

    2007-05-01

    We have developed a microfluidic method for measuring the fluid pressure head experienced at any location inside a microchannel. The principal component is a microfabricated sealed chamber with a single inlet and no exit; the entrance to the single inlet is positioned at the location where pressure is to be measured. The pressure measurement is then based on monitoring the movement of a liquid-air interface as it compresses air trapped inside the microfabricated sealed chamber and calculating the pressure using the ideal gas law. The method has been used to measure the pressure of the air stream and continuous liquid flow inside microfluidic channels (d approximately 50 microm). Further, a pressure drop has also been measured using multiple microfabricated sealed chambers. For air pressure, a resolution of 700 Pa within a full-scale range of 700-100 kPa was obtained. For liquids, pressure drops as low as 70 Pa were obtained in an operating range from 70 Pa to 10 kPa. Since the method primarily uses a microfluidic sealed chamber, it does not require additional fabrication steps and may easily be incorporated in several lab-on-a-chip fluidic applications for laminar as well as turbulent flow conditions.

  4. Pressure Drop in Radiator Air Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, S R

    1921-01-01

    This report describes a method for measuring the drop in static pressure of air flowing through a radiator and shows (1) a reason for the discrepancy noted by various observers between head resistance and drop in pressure; (2) a difference in degree of contraction of the jet in entering a circular cell and a square cell; (3) the ratio of internal frictional resistance to total head resistance for two representative types; (4) the effect of smoothness of surface on pressure gradient; and (5) the effects of supplying heat to the radiator on pressure gradient. The fact that the pressure gradients are found to be approximately proportional to the square of the rate of flow of air appears to indicate turbulent flow, even in the short tubes of the radiator. It was found that the drop in the static pressure in the air stream through a cellular radiator and the pressure gradient in the air tubes are practically proportional to the square of the air flow in a given air density; that the difference between the head resistance per unit area and the fall of static pressure through the air tubes in radiators is apparent rather than real; and that radiators of different types differ widely in the amount of contraction of the jet at entrance. The frictional resistance was found to vary considerably, and in one case to be two-thirds of the head resistance in the type using circular cells and one-half of the head resistance of the radiator type using square cells of approximately the same dimensions.

  5. Precision pressure/temperature logging tool

    SciTech Connect

    Henfling, J.A.; Normann, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Past memory logging tools have provided excellent pressure/temperature data when used in a geothermal environment, and they are easier to maintain and deploy than tools requiring an electric wireline connection to the surface. However, they are deficient since the tool operator is unaware of downhole conditions that could require changes in the logging program. Tools that make ``decisions`` based on preprogrammed scenarios can partially overcome this difficulty, and a suite of such memory tools has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The first tool, which forms the basis for future instruments, measures pressure and temperature. Design considerations include a minimization of cost while insuring quality data, size compatibility with diamond-cored holes, operation in holes to 425 C (800 F), transportability by ordinary passenger air service, and ease of operation. This report documents the development and construction of the pressure/temperature tool. It includes: (1) description of the major components; (2) calibration; (3) typical logging scenario; (4) tool data examples; and (5) conclusions. The mechanical and electrical drawings, along with the tool`s software, will be furnished upon request.

  6. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Geohegan, David B.

    2016-12-13

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  7. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Geohegan, David B.

    2016-11-15

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  8. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Geohegan, David B.

    2016-10-25

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  9. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

    2013-10-29

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  10. Generation of high pressure homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Naoki; Takashi, Ami; Yoshioka, Yoshio; Hanaoka, Ryoichi

    2013-02-01

    We succeeded in generating an atmospheric pressure Townsend discharge (APTD) in air by using a simple DBD device that consists of alumina barriers and plane electrodes. So far, we applied the APTD to an ozonizer and found that the ozone generation efficiency was higher by the APTD mode than by the conventional DBD mode in larger specific input energy region. It is well known that an operation under an optimized high gas pressure is advantageous for efficient ozone generation from air. In this paper, we investigated whether the Townsend discharge (TD) in dry air in high pressure up to 0.17 MPa can be generated or not. From the observation results of current waveforms and discharge photographs, we found that (1) the discharge currents flow continuously and have only one peak in every half cycle in all gas pressure and (2) filamentary discharges are not recognized between barriers in all gas pressure. These features completely agree with the features of the APTD we reported. Therefore, we concluded that our TD can be generated even in dry air in the pressure range of 0.1 and 0.17 MPa. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  11. Surface Temperature variability from AIRS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.; Dang, V. T.; Aumann, H. H.

    2015-12-01

    To address the existence and possible causes of the climate hiatus in the Earth's global temperature we investigate the trends and variability in the surface temperature using retrievals obtained from the measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its companion instrument, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), onboard of Aqua spacecraft in 2002-2014for the day and night conditions. The data used are L3 monthly means on a 1x1degree spatial grid. We separate the land and ocean temperatures, as well as temperatures in Artic, Antarctic and desert regions. We compare the satellite data with the new surface data produced by Karl et al. (2015) who denies the reality of the climate hiatus. The difference in the regional trends can help to explain why the global surface temperature remains almost unchanged but the frequency of occurrence of the extreme events increases under rising anthropogenic forcing. The day-night difference is an indicator of the anthropogenic trend. This work was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. Simultaneous Luminescence Pressure and Temperature Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Gregory M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A simultaneous luminescence pressure and temperature mapping system is developed including improved dye application techniques for surface temperature and pressure measurements from 5 torr to 1000 torr with possible upgrade to from 0.5 torr to several atmospheres with improved camera resolution. Adsorbed perylene dye on slip-cast silica is pressure (oxygen) sensitive and reusable to relatively high temperatures (-150 C). Adsorbed luminescence has an approximately linear color shift with temperature, which can be used for independent temperature mapping and brightness pressure calibration with temperature.

  13. Simultaneous Luminescence Pressure and Temperature Mapping System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Gregory M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A simultaneous luminescence pressure and temperature mapping system is developed including improved dye application techniques for surface temperature and pressure measurements from 5 torr to 1000 torr with possible upgrade to from 0.5 torr to several atmospheres with improved camera resolution. Adsorbed perylene dye on slip-cast silica is pressure (oxygen) sensitive and reusable to relatively high temperatures (approximately 150 C). Adsorbed luminescence has an approximately linear color shift with temperature, which can be used for independent temperature mapping and brightness pressure calibration with temperature.

  14. Optical calibration of pressure sensors for high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, A F; Gregoryanz, E; Zaug, J M; Crowhurst, J C

    2004-10-04

    We present the results of Raman scattering measurements of diamond ({sup 12}C) and of cubic boron nitride (cBN), and fluorescence measurements of ruby, Sm:YAG, and SrB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Sm{sup 2+} in the diamond anvil cell (DAC) at high pressures and temperatures. These measurements were accompanied by synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements on gold. We have extended the room-temperature calibration of Sm:YAG in a quasihydrostatic regime up to 100 GPa. The ruby scale is shown to systematically underestimate pressure at high pressures and temperatures compared with all other sensors. On this basis, we propose a new high-temperature ruby pressure scale that should be valid to at least 100 GPa and 850 K. Historically, the accurate determination of pressure at high temperature and ultrahigh pressure has been extremely difficult. In fact, the lack of a general pressure scale nullifies, to a significant extent, the great innovations that have been made in recent years in DAC experimental techniques [1]. Now, more than ever a scale is required whose accuracy is comparable with that of the experimental data. Since pressure in the DAC is dependent on temperature (due to thermal pressure and also to changes in the properties of the materials that constitute the DAC) such a scale requires quantitative, and separate measurements of pressure and temperature.

  15. Building pressurization control with rooftop air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, S.

    1982-10-01

    The modulated exhaust fan appears to be the most cost effective positive means to maintain close building pressure control with rooftop air conditioning, but because building construction and applications vary, every building's pressure control needs must be analyzed. Requirements will vary from no relief to barometric dampers to return fans to modulated exhaust fans. As heating and cooling costs continue to rise and tighter building codes prevail, proper selection of building pressure control is one area that must be monitored more carefully by the HVAC system designer.

  16. Polymer-gas reactions (air pollutants: NO2 and SO2) as function of pressure, UV light, temperature, and morphology: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jellinek, H. H. G.

    1972-01-01

    Reactions of various polymers, such as polystyrene and its stereo-specific isomers, butylrubber, nylon, etc., with nitrogen dioxide and sulfur-dioxide were studied over the past few years. More recently, work has been initiated on the influence of polymer morphology on degradation of polymers in presence of these gases, near UV radiation and oxygen. Unexpected effects have been observed during chain scission near room temperature. Thus, for instance, isotactic polystyrene of various crystallinities, as far as extent and type are concerned, show marked differences in their degradation characteristics. Thus, for instance, crystalline polymers show faster degradation than amorphous ones, which seems to be contrary to expectations. However, this phenomenon can be explained in quite a consistent manner. The importance of all these reactions in connection with air pollution is briefly discussed.

  17. Inverse association between air pressure and rheumatoid arthritis synovitis.

    PubMed

    Terao, Chikashi; Hashimoto, Motomu; Furu, Moritoshi; Nakabo, Shuichiro; Ohmura, Koichiro; Nakashima, Ran; Imura, Yoshitaka; Yukawa, Naoichiro; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Ito, Hiromu; Fujii, Takao; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a bone destructive autoimmune disease. Many patients with RA recognize fluctuations of their joint synovitis according to changes of air pressure, but the correlations between them have never been addressed in large-scale association studies. To address this point we recruited large-scale assessments of RA activity in a Japanese population, and performed an association analysis. Here, a total of 23,064 assessments of RA activity from 2,131 patients were obtained from the KURAMA (Kyoto University Rheumatoid Arthritis Management Alliance) database. Detailed correlations between air pressure and joint swelling or tenderness were analyzed separately for each of the 326 patients with more than 20 assessments to regulate intra-patient correlations. Association studies were also performed for seven consecutive days to identify the strongest correlations. Standardized multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate independent influences from other meteorological factors. As a result, components of composite measures for RA disease activity revealed suggestive negative associations with air pressure. The 326 patients displayed significant negative mean correlations between air pressure and swellings or the sum of swellings and tenderness (p = 0.00068 and 0.00011, respectively). Among the seven consecutive days, the most significant mean negative correlations were observed for air pressure three days before evaluations of RA synovitis (p = 1.7 × 10(-7), 0.00027, and 8.3 × 10(-8), for swellings, tenderness and the sum of them, respectively). Standardized multiple linear regression analysis revealed these associations were independent from humidity and temperature. Our findings suggest that air pressure is inversely associated with synovitis in patients with RA.

  18. Inverse Association between Air Pressure and Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovitis

    PubMed Central

    Furu, Moritoshi; Nakabo, Shuichiro; Ohmura, Koichiro; Nakashima, Ran; Imura, Yoshitaka; Yukawa, Naoichiro; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Ito, Hiromu; Fujii, Takao; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a bone destructive autoimmune disease. Many patients with RA recognize fluctuations of their joint synovitis according to changes of air pressure, but the correlations between them have never been addressed in large-scale association studies. To address this point we recruited large-scale assessments of RA activity in a Japanese population, and performed an association analysis. Here, a total of 23,064 assessments of RA activity from 2,131 patients were obtained from the KURAMA (Kyoto University Rheumatoid Arthritis Management Alliance) database. Detailed correlations between air pressure and joint swelling or tenderness were analyzed separately for each of the 326 patients with more than 20 assessments to regulate intra-patient correlations. Association studies were also performed for seven consecutive days to identify the strongest correlations. Standardized multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate independent influences from other meteorological factors. As a result, components of composite measures for RA disease activity revealed suggestive negative associations with air pressure. The 326 patients displayed significant negative mean correlations between air pressure and swellings or the sum of swellings and tenderness (p = 0.00068 and 0.00011, respectively). Among the seven consecutive days, the most significant mean negative correlations were observed for air pressure three days before evaluations of RA synovitis (p = 1.7×10−7, 0.00027, and 8.3×10−8, for swellings, tenderness and the sum of them, respectively). Standardized multiple linear regression analysis revealed these associations were independent from humidity and temperature. Our findings suggest that air pressure is inversely associated with synovitis in patients with RA. PMID:24454853

  19. Measurement Corner: Volume, Temperature and Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teates, Thomas G.

    1977-01-01

    Boyle's Law and basic relationships between volume and pressure of a gas at constant temperature are presented. Suggests two laboratory activities for demonstrating the effect of temperature on the volume of a gas or liquid. (CS)

  20. Low-pressure performance of annular, high-pressure (40 atm) high-temperature (2480 K) combustion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wear, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental tests were conducted to develop a combustion system for a 40 atmosphere pressure, 2480 K exhaust gas temperature, turbine cooling facility. The tests were conducted in an existing facility with a maximum pressure capability of 10 atmospheres and where inlet air temperatures as high as 894 K could be attained. Exhaust gas temperatures were as high as 2365 K. Combustion efficiences were about 100 percent over a fuel air ratio range of 0.016 to 0.056. Combustion efficiency decreased at leaner and richer ratios when the inlet air temperature was 589 K. Data are presented that show the effect of fuel air ratio and inlet air temperature on liner metal temperature. Isothermal system pressure loss as a function of diffuser inlet Mach number is also presented. Data included exhaust gas pattern factors; unburned hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen emission index values; and smoke numbers.

  1. Pressure-temperature microscopy of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Perrotta, A.J.; McCullough, J.P.; Beuther, H.

    1983-03-01

    An apparatus allowing microscopy of petroleum derived hydrocarbons at pressures and temperatures comparable to those encountered in the hydroprocessing of coal and oil, and its use in the study of pressure and temperature effects on the crystallization behavior of a decant oil-derived air blown-pitch (DODAB) is described in this paper. Crystallization of the mesophase from aromatic rich precursors can be used as a tracking vehicle whose anisotropy allows easy detection under the polarizing microscope. Mesophase formation pressure dependence using N/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/ reveals that there is a chemical effect associated with H/sub 2/ since N/sub 2/ pressure to 1900 psig had no effect on mesophase formation. In both cases a fine grained anisotropic phase forms initially at the crystallization temperature and 25 psig. In pyrolyzed material mesophase formation under N/sub 2/ is a pressure dependent transformation.

  2. Basic Studies on High Pressure Air Plasmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-30

    33, 2268 (2000). [3] Non- Equilibrium Air Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure, K.H. Becker, U. Kogelschatz, K.H. Schoenbach, and R.J. Barker, eds., IOP...10). Note that LIFBASE assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium . 120 100 oExperimentalm Siuation 80 60 20- 0 -J ~ LkXi 3060 3070 3080 3090 3100...Dual laser interferometer for plasma density measurements on large tokamaks >>, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49 p.919 (1978) [5] C.W. Gowers, C. Lamb, « A

  3. Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric temperature and pressure profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The theory and methodology of using differential absorption lidar techniques for the remote measurement of atmospheric pressure profiles, surface pressure, and temperature profiles from ground, air, and space-based platforms are presented. Pressure measurements are effected by means of high resolution measurement of absorption at the edges of the oxygen A band lines where absorption is pressure dependent due to collisional line broadening. Temperature is assessed using measurements of the absorption at the center of the oxygen A band line originating from a quantum state with high ground state energy. The population of the state is temperature dependent, allowing determination of the temperature through the Boltzmann term. The results of simulations of the techniques using Voigt profile and variational analysis are reported for ground-based, airborne, and Shuttle-based systems. Accuracies in the 0.5-1.0 K and 0.1-0.3% range are projected.

  4. Crowdsourcing urban air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James C. R.; Leijnse, Hidde; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-05-01

    Accurate air temperature observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. However, the availability of temperature observations in cities is often limited. Here we show that relatively accurate air temperature information for the urban canopy layer can be obtained from an alternative, nowadays omnipresent source: smartphones. In this study, battery temperatures were collected by an Android application for smartphones. It has been shown that a straightforward heat transfer model can be employed to estimate daily mean air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures for eight major cities around the world. The results demonstrate the enormous potential of this crowdsourcing application for real-time temperature monitoring in densely populated areas. Battery temperature data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery temperature data to a server for storage. In this study, battery temperatures are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery temperatures for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily air temperatures from battery temperatures. The model is calibrated with observed air temperatures from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of air temperatures are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. The methodology has been applied to Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved air temperatures often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily air temperatures is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree

  5. The Relationship Between Air Temperature and Stream Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, J. C.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2001-05-01

    This study examined the relationship, both linear and non-linear, between air temperature and stream temperature in order to determine if air temperature can be used as an accurate predictor of stream temperature, if general relationships could be developed that apply to a large number of streams, and how changes in stream temperature associated with climate variability or climate warming might affect the dissolved oxygen level, and thus the quality of life, in some of these streams. Understanding the relationship between air temperature and water temperature is important if we want to predict how stream temperatures are likely to respond to the increase in surface air temperature that is occurring. Data from over 50 streams in 13 countries, mostly gathered by K-12 students in the GLOBE program (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment), are examined. Only a few streams display a linear 1:1 air/water temperature trend. The majority of streams instead show an increase in water temperature of about 0.6 to 0.8 degrees for every 1-degree increase in air temperature. At some of these sites, where dissolved oxygen content is already low, an increase in summer stream temperatures of 2-3 degrees could cause the dissolved oxygen levels to fall into a critically low range. At some locations, such as near the source of a stream, water temperature does not change much despite wide ranges in air temperatures. The temperatures at these sites are likely to be least affected by surface warming. More data are needed in warmer climates, where the water temperature already gets above 25oC, in order to better examine the air/water temperature relationship under warmer conditions. Global average surface air temperature is expected to increase by 3-5oC by the middle of this century. Surface water temperature in streams, lakes and wetlands will likely increase as air temperature increases, although the change in water temperature may not be as large as the change in

  6. 21 CFR 880.5550 - Alternating pressure air flotation mattress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5550 Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. (a) Identification. An alternating pressure air flotation mattress is a device intended for medical purposes...

  7. 21 CFR 880.5550 - Alternating pressure air flotation mattress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5550 Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. (a) Identification. An alternating pressure air flotation mattress is a device intended for medical purposes...

  8. 21 CFR 880.5550 - Alternating pressure air flotation mattress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5550 Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. (a) Identification. An alternating pressure air flotation mattress is a device intended for medical purposes...

  9. Laser-machined microcavities for simultaneous measurement of high-temperature and high-pressure.

    PubMed

    Ran, Zengling; Liu, Shan; Liu, Qin; Huang, Ya; Bao, Haihong; Wang, Yanjun; Luo, Shucheng; Yang, Huiqin; Rao, Yunjiang

    2014-08-07

    Laser-machined microcavities for simultaneous measurement of high-temperature and high-pressure are demonstrated. These two cascaded microcavities are an air cavity and a composite cavity including a section of fiber and an air cavity. They are both placed into a pressure chamber inside a furnace to perform simultaneous pressure and high-temperature tests. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the short air cavity are ~0.0779 nm/°C and ~1.14 nm/MPa, respectively. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the composite cavity are ~32.3 nm/°C and ~24.4 nm/MPa, respectively. The sensor could be used to separate temperature and pressure due to their different thermal and pressure coefficients. The excellent feature of such a sensor head is that it can withstand high temperatures of up to 400 °C and achieve precise measurement of high-pressure under high temperature conditions.

  10. Flame structures in the pressurized methane-air combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Miyazaki, Tomonaga, Furuhata, Tomohiko; Arai, Norio

    1998-07-01

    This study has been carried out in order to investigate the applicability of a pressurized and fuel-rich burner at a first stage combustor for a newly proposed chemical gas turbine system. The flammability limits, exhaust gas composition and the NO{sub x} emission characteristics under the pressurized conditions of 1.1--4.1 MPa have been investigated in a model combustor. This paper focuses on the influence of pressure and F/A equivalence ratio on flame structures of pressurized combustion with methane and air to obtain detailed data for designing of fuel-rich combustor for gas turbine application. The flame under fuel-rich condition and pressure of 1 MPa showed underventilated structure like other atmospheric fuel-rich flames while the flame under pressure over 1.5 MPa had shapes as fuel-lean flame. The flame becomes longer as the pressure was increased under the fuel-lean conditions, which under fuel-rich condition the influence of pressure on flame length was smaller in comparison with the flame under fuel-lean conditions. These results give an opportunity for developing smaller combustor under fuel-rich and pressurized condition compared to fuel-lean one. Numerical simulation has been done for defining the temperature profile in the model combustor using the k-{var{underscore}epsilon} turbulence model and three-step reaction model. The comparison between theoretical results and experimental data showed fair agreements.

  11. Pressure, velocity, and temperature sensitivities of a bleed-type pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanangeli, J. P.; Chambaud, P.

    1987-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a complete series of tests and calibrations of a bleed-type pressure sensor used in order to determine in-stream static pressure fluctuations in a turbulent boundary layer just above a pure laboratory wind-wave field. The static calibrations show that for air flow mean velocities lower than 15 m/s, the sensor response depends not only upon the pressure but also upon the velocity and the temperature of the air flow. Dynamic calibrations prove that the temperature and velocity sensitivities depend strongly upon the frequency. They are important for low frequencies and equal to zero only for frequencies greater than 0.1 Hz if the sensor is operated in an isothermal turbulent flow and greater than 1 Hz for a nonisothermal flow. Pressure sensitivity does not depend upon frequency for a range from dc to 600 Hz.

  12. Generalized Charts for Determination of Pressure Drop of a High-speed Compressible Fluid in Heat-exchanger Passages I : Air Heated in Smooth Passages of Constant Area with Constant Wall Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valerino, Michael F

    1948-01-01

    In the present paper an analysis is made of the compressible-flow variations occurring in heat-exchanger passages. The results of the analysis describe the flow and heating characteristics for which specific flow passages can be treated as segments of generalized flow systems. The graphical representation of the flow variations in the generalized flow systems can then be utilized as working charts to determine directly the pressure changes occurring in any specific flow passage. On the basis of these results, working charts are constructed to handle the case of air heated at constant wall temperature under turbulent-flow conditions. A method is given of incorporating the effect on the heat-exchanger flow process of high temperature differential between passage wall and fluid as based on recent NACA experimental data. Good agreement is obtained between the experimental and the chart pressure-drop values for passage-wall average temperatures as high as 1752 degrees R (experimental limit) and for flow Mach numbers ranging from 0.32 to 1.00 (choke) at the passage exit.

  13. "Deflategate": Time, Temperature, and Moisture Effects on Football Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenthal, Jack; Beljak, Lauren; Macatangay, Dahlia-Marie; Helmuth-Malone, Lilly; McWilliams, Catharina; Raptis, Sofia

    2016-09-01

    In a recent paper in TPT, DiLisi and Rarick used the National Football League "Deflategate" controversy to introduce to physics students the physics of a bouncing ball. In this paper, we measure and analyze the environmental effects of time, ambient temperature, and moisture on the internal pressure of an NFL football. We focus on the rate of pressure recovery that occurs when a cold football (either wet or dry) is returned to the warm locker room environment where the pressure was initially measured. Both studies stem from the so-called NFL "Deflategate" controversy in which footballs that initially met a minimum internal pressure requirement were rechecked at halftime of the AFC Championship game, and in some cases were reported to have fallen below the minimum pressure requirement. The question is whether the pressure changes were due to environmental exposure or rather to some air being released from the balls, or both.

  14. Vapor pressures of acetylene at low temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masterson, C. M.; Allen, John E., Jr.; Kraus, G. F.; Khanna, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The atmospheres of many of the outer planets and their satellites contain a large number of hydrocarbon species. In particular, acetylene (C2H2) has been identified at Jupiter, Saturn and its satellite Titan, Uranus and Neptune. In the lower atmospheres of these planets, where colder temperatures prevail, the condensation and/or freezing of acetylene is probable. In order to obtain accurate models of the acetylene in these atmospheres, it is necessary to have a complete understanding of its vapor pressures at low temperatures. Vapor pressures at low temperatures for acetylene are being determined. The vapor pressures are measured with two different techniques in order to cover a wide range of temperatures and pressures. In the first, the acetylene is placed in a sample tube which is immersed in a low temperature solvent/liquid nitrogen slush bath whose temperature is measured with a thermocouple. The vapor pressure is then measured directly with a capacitance manometer. For lower pressures, a second technique which was called the thin-film infrared method (TFIR) was developed. It involves measuring the disappearance rate of a thin film of acetylene at a particular temperature. The spectra are then analyzed using previously determined extinction coefficient values, to determine the disappearance rate R (where R = delta n/delta t, the number of molecules that disappear per unit time). This can be related to the vapor pressure directly. This technique facilitates measurement of the lower temperatures and pressures. Both techniques have been calibrated using CO2, and have shown good agreement with the existing literature data.

  15. Pressure and Temperature Sensitive Paint Field System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Obara, Clifford J.; Amer, Tahani R.; Faulcon, Nettie D.; Carmine, Michael T.; Burkett, Cecil G.; Pritchard, Daniel W.; Oglesby, Donald M.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the Pressure and Temperature Sensitive Paint Field System that is used to provide global surface pressure and temperature measurements on models tested in Langley wind tunnels. The system was developed and is maintained by Global Surface Measurements Team personnel of the Data Acquisition and Information Management Branch in the Research Facilities Services Competency. Descriptions of the system hardware and software are presented and operational procedures are detailed.

  16. Crowdsourcing urban air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, A.; Robinson, J. C. R.; Leijnse, H.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Horn, B. K. P.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2013-08-01

    Accurate air temperature observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. However, the availability of temperature observations in cities is often limited. Here we show that relatively accurate air temperature information for the urban canopy layer can be obtained from an alternative, nowadays omnipresent source: smartphones. In this study, battery temperatures were collected by an Android application for smartphones. A straightforward heat transfer model is employed to estimate daily mean air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures for eight major cities around the world. The results demonstrate the enormous potential of this crowdsourcing application for real-time temperature monitoring in densely populated areas.

  17. Fluorescence spectroscopy of anisole at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, K. H.; Morin, C.; Kühni, M.; Guibert, P.

    2014-06-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence of anisole as tracer of isooctane at an excitation wavelength of 266 nm was investigated for conditions relevant to rapid compression machine studies and for more general application of internal combustion engines regarding temperature, pressure, and ambient gas composition. An optically accessible high pressure and high temperature chamber was operated by using different ambient gases (Ar, N2, CO2, air, and gas mixtures). Fluorescence experiments were investigated at a large range of pressure and temperature (0.2-4 MPa and 473-823 K). Anisole fluorescence quantum yield decreases strongly with temperature for every considered ambient gas, due to efficient radiative mechanisms of intersystem crossing. Concerning the pressure effect, the fluorescence signal decreases with increasing pressure, because increasing the collisional rate leads to more important non-radiative collisional relaxation. The quenching effect is strongly efficient in oxygen, with a fluorescence evolution described by Stern-Volmer relation. The dependence of anisole fluorescence versus thermodynamic parameters suggests the use of this tracer for temperature imaging in specific conditions detailed in this paper. The calibration procedure for temperature measurements is established for the single-excitation wavelength and two-color detection technique.

  18. A high-temperature wideband pressure transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    Progress in the development of a pressure transducer for measurement of the pressure fluctuations in the high temperature environment of a jet exhaust is reported. A condenser microphone carrier system was adapted to meet the specifications. A theoretical analysis is presented which describes the operation of the condenser microphone in terms of geometry, materials, and other physical properties. The analysis was used as the basis for design of a prototype high temperature microphone. The feasibility of connecting the microphone to a converter over a high temperature cable operating as a half-wavelength transmission line was also examined.

  19. Air Temperature in the Undulator Hall

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-07

    Various analyses have been performed recently to estimate the performance of the air conditioning (HVAC) system planned for the Undulator Hall. This reports summarizes the results and provides an upgrade plan to be used if new requirements are needed in the future. The estimates predict that with the planned loads the tunnel air temperature will be well within the allowed tolerance during normal operation.

  20. 21 CFR 880.5550 - Alternating pressure air flotation mattress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... body pressure. The device is used to prevent and treat decubitus ulcers (bed sores). (b) Classification... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5550 Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. (a)...

  1. Solar activity influence on air temperature regimes in caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeva, Penka; Mikhalev, Alexander; Stoev, Alexey

    . It is based on the variations in transparency of the atmosphere to visible and infrared radiation under the influence of ionizing cosmic radiation. Influence of solar cosmic rays on the formation of clouds in the lower atmosphere of the Earth and pressure fields in the territory of Bulgaria is also studied. Investigations of the cave air temperature response to variations of the climate and solar and geomagnetic activity show that cave systems very faithfully preserves a record of environmental changes, which is very important for prognosis of their future and ecological protection.

  2. Henry's law constant, octanol-air partition coefficient and supercooled liquid vapor pressure of carbazole as a function of temperature: application to gas/particle partitioning in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Cetin, Banu; Sofuoglu, Aysun

    2006-02-01

    The Henry's law constant for carbazole was experimentally determined between 5 and 35 degrees C using a gas-stripping technique. The following equation was obtained for dimensionless Henry's law constant (H') versus temperature (T, K): ln H' = -3982(T,K)(-1) + 1.01. Temperature-dependent octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and supercooled liquid vapor pressures (PL,Pa) of carbazole were also determined using the GC retention time method. The temperature dependence of KOA and PL were explained by the following: log KOA = 4076/(T,K) - 5.65, log PL(Pa) = -3948(T,K)(- 1) + 11.48. The gas and particle-phase carbazole concentrations measured previously in Chicago, IL in 1995 was used for gas/particle partitioning modeling. Octanol based absorptive partitioning model consistently underpredicted the gas/particle partition coefficients (Kp) for all sampling periods. However, overall there was a good agreement between the measured Kp and soot-based model predictions.

  3. Airtight metallic sealing at room temperature under small mechanical pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagon, Stephen P.; Huang, Hanchen

    2013-10-01

    Metallic seals can be resistant to air leakage, resistant to degradation under heat, and capable of carrying mechanical loads. Various technologies - such as organic solar cells and organic light emitting diodes - need, at least benefit from, such metallic seals. However, these technologies involve polymeric materials and can tolerate neither the high-temperature nor the high-pressure processes of conventional metallic sealing. Recent progress in nanorod growth opens the door to metallic sealing for these technologies. Here, we report a process of metallic sealing using small well-separated Ag nanorods; the process is at room temperature, under a small mechanical pressure of 9.0 MPa, and also in ambient. The metallic seals have an air leak rate of 1.1 × 10-3 cm3atm/m2/day, and a mechanical shear strength higher than 8.9 MPa. This leak rate meets the requirements of organic solar cells and organic light emitting diodes.

  4. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature.

    PubMed

    Savage, M J

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient (b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  5. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  6. Simple and direct method for detecting phosphorus in air at normal pressure and temperature using a combination of LIBS and LIFS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jeffery, Mohammad O.; Kondou, H.; Belenkevitch, Alexander; Azzeer, Abdallah M.

    2002-05-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EAP) designated phosphorus as hazardous material; it is flammable and poisonous. Phosphorus attacks the respiratory system, liver, kidneys, jaw, teeth, blood, eyes, and skin. Phosphorus is an element that has a high detection limit when using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) techniques. In order to improve on detection limits, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) has been proposed, as an extension to LIBS. The ultimate goal of this work is to use the combined LIBS & LIFS techniques to detect the presence of phosphorus in air and to measure its level. In order to provide 'proof-of-concept' results, the sample used for our experiment was prepared using the 'igniting' strip of a safety match box. The spectrally and temporally resolved detection of the specific atomic emission revealed analytical information about the elemental composition of the sample. A tunable Ti: sapphire laser, at the resonance wavelength of 253.4 nm, was then used to probe the plume by exciting the phosphorus element and we measured the fluorescence from the atoms at 213.62 nm and 214.91 nm. The whole experiment was carried out in a few minutes. We have thus demonstrated for the first time, to our knowledge, the use of LIBS and LIFS in air quality monitoring and in particular for phosphorus detection.

  7. Temperature and Transpiration Resistances of Xanthium Leaves as Affected by Air Temperature, Humidity, and Wind Speed 1

    PubMed Central

    Drake, B. G.; Raschke, K.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1970-01-01

    Transpiration and temperatures of single, attached leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. were measured in high intensity white light (1.2 calories per square centimeter per minute on a surface normal to the radiation), with abundant water supply, at wind speeds of 90, 225, and 450 centimeters per second, and during exposure to moist and dry air. Partitioning of absorbed radiation between transpiration and convection was determined, and transpiration resistances were computed. Leaf resistances decreased with increasing temperature (down to a minimum of 0.36 seconds per centimeter). Silicone rubber replicas of leaf surfaces proved that the decrease was due to increased stomatal apertures. At constant air temperature, leaf resistances were higher in dry than in moist air with the result that transpiration varied less than would have been predicted on the basis of the water-vapor pressure difference between leaf and air. The dependence of stomatal conductance on temperature and moisture content of the air caused the following effects. At air temperatures below 35 C, average leaf temperatures were above air temperature by an amount dependent on wind velocity; increasing wind diminished transpiration. At air temperatures above 35 C, leaf temperatures were below air temperatures, and increasing wind markedly increased transpiration. Leaf temperatures equaled air temperature near 35 C at all wind speeds and in moist as well as in dry air. PMID:16657458

  8. Pressure sensor for high-temperature liquids

    DOEpatents

    Forster, George A.

    1978-01-01

    A pressure sensor for use in measuring pressures in liquid at high temperatures, especially such as liquid sodium or liquid potassium, comprises a soft diaphragm in contact with the liquid. The soft diaphragm is coupled mechanically to a stiff diaphragm. Pressure is measured by measuring the displacment of both diaphragms, typically by measuring the capacitance between the stiff diaphragm and a fixed plate when the stiff diaphragm is deflected in response to the measured pressure through mechanical coupling from the soft diaphragm. Absolute calibration is achieved by admitting gas under pressure to the region between diaphragms and to the region between the stiff diaphragm and the fixed plate, breaking the coupling between the soft and stiff diaphragms. The apparatus can be calibrated rapidly and absolutely.

  9. Temperature Tunable Air-Gap Etalon Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Stephen, Mark A.; Lunt, David L.

    1998-01-01

    We report on experimental measurements of a temperature tuned air-gap etalon filter. The filter exhibits temperature dependent wavelength tuning of 54 pm/C. It has a nominal center wavelength of 532 nm. The etalon filter has a 27 pm optical bandpass and 600 pm free spectral range (finesse approximately 22). The experimental results are in close agreement with etalon theory.

  10. Undulator Hall Air Temperature Fault Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Sevilla, J.; Welch, J.; /SLAC

    2010-11-17

    Recent experience indicates that the LCLS undulator segments must not, at any time following tuning, be allowed to change temperature by more than about {+-}2.5 C or the magnetic center will irreversibly shift outside of acceptable tolerances. This vulnerability raises a concern that under fault conditions the ambient temperature in the Undulator Hall might go outside of the safe range and potentially could require removal and retuning of all the segments. In this note we estimate changes that can be expected in the Undulator Hall air temperature for three fault scenarios: (1) System-wide power failure; (2) Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system shutdown; and (3) HVAC system temperature regulation fault. We find that for either a system-wide power failure or an HVAC system shutdown (with the technical equipment left on), the short-term temperature changes of the air would be modest due to the ability of the walls and floor to act as a heat ballast. No action would be needed to protect the undulator system in the event of a system-wide power failure. Some action to adjust the heat balance, in the case of the HVAC power failure with the equipment left on, might be desirable but is not required. On the other hand, a temperature regulation failure of the HVAC system can quickly cause large excursions in air temperature and prompt action would be required to avoid damage to the undulator system.

  11. Modeling monthly mean air temperature for Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvares, Clayton Alcarde; Stape, José Luiz; Sentelhas, Paulo Cesar; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo

    2013-08-01

    Air temperature is one of the main weather variables influencing agriculture around the world. Its availability, however, is a concern, mainly in Brazil where the weather stations are more concentrated on the coastal regions of the country. Therefore, the present study had as an objective to develop models for estimating monthly and annual mean air temperature for the Brazilian territory using multiple regression and geographic information system techniques. Temperature data from 2,400 stations distributed across the Brazilian territory were used, 1,800 to develop the equations and 600 for validating them, as well as their geographical coordinates and altitude as independent variables for the models. A total of 39 models were developed, relating the dependent variables maximum, mean, and minimum air temperatures (monthly and annual) to the independent variables latitude, longitude, altitude, and their combinations. All regression models were statistically significant ( α ≤ 0.01). The monthly and annual temperature models presented determination coefficients between 0.54 and 0.96. We obtained an overall spatial correlation higher than 0.9 between the models proposed and the 16 major models already published for some Brazilian regions, considering a total of 3.67 × 108 pixels evaluated. Our national temperature models are recommended to predict air temperature in all Brazilian territories.

  12. Estimation of lower flammability limits of C-H compounds in air at atmospheric pressure, evaluation of temperature dependence and diluent effect.

    PubMed

    Mendiburu, Andrés Z; de Carvalho, João A; Coronado, Christian R

    2015-03-21

    Estimation of the lower flammability limits of C-H compounds at 25 °C and 1 atm; at moderate temperatures and in presence of diluent was the objective of this study. A set of 120 C-H compounds was divided into a correlation set and a prediction set of 60 compounds each. The absolute average relative error for the total set was 7.89%; for the correlation set, it was 6.09%; and for the prediction set it was 9.68%. However, it was shown that by considering different sources of experimental data the values were reduced to 6.5% for the prediction set and to 6.29% for the total set. The method showed consistency with Le Chatelier's law for binary mixtures of C-H compounds. When tested for a temperature range from 5 °C to 100 °C, the absolute average relative errors were 2.41% for methane; 4.78% for propane; 0.29% for iso-butane and 3.86% for propylene. When nitrogen was added, the absolute average relative errors were 2.48% for methane; 5.13% for propane; 0.11% for iso-butane and 0.15% for propylene. When carbon dioxide was added, the absolute relative errors were 1.80% for methane; 5.38% for propane; 0.86% for iso-butane and 1.06% for propylene.

  13. Modeling of global surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakova, M. A.; Karlin, L. N.

    2012-04-01

    A model to assess a number of factors, such as total solar irradiance, albedo, greenhouse gases and water vapor, affecting climate change has been developed on the basis of Earth's radiation balance principle. To develop the model solar energy transformation in the atmosphere was investigated. It's a common knowledge, that part of the incoming radiation is reflected into space from the atmosphere, land and water surfaces, and another part is absorbed by the Earth's surface. Some part of outdoing terrestrial radiation is retained in the atmosphere by greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide) and water vapor. Making use of the regression analysis a correlation between concentration of greenhouse gases, water vapor and global surface air temperature was obtained which, it is turn, made it possible to develop the proposed model. The model showed that even smallest fluctuations of total solar irradiance intensify both positive and negative feedback which give rise to considerable changes in global surface air temperature. The model was used both to reconstruct the global surface air temperature for the 1981-2005 period and to predict global surface air temperature until 2030. The reconstructions of global surface air temperature for 1981-2005 showed the models validity. The model makes it possible to assess contribution of the factors listed above in climate change.

  14. Students' Investigations in Temperature and Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Patrick L.; Concannon, James; Hansert, Bernhard; Frederick, Ron; Frerichs, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Why does a balloon deflate when it is left in a cold car; or why does one have to pump up his or her bike tires in the spring after leaving them in the garage all winter? To answer these questions, students must understand the relationships among temperature, pressure, and volume of a gas. The purpose of the Predict, Share, Observe, and Explain…

  15. High temperature pressure coupled ultrasonic waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Caines, Michael J.

    1983-01-01

    A pressure coupled ultrasonic waveguide is provided to which one end may be attached a transducer and at the other end a high temperature material for continuous ultrasonic testing of the material. The ultrasonic signal is coupled from the waveguide into the material through a thin, dry copper foil.

  16. High pressure and high temperature apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Voronov, Oleg A.

    2005-09-13

    A design for high pressure/high temperature apparatus and reaction cell to achieve .about.30 GPa pressure in .about.1 cm volume and .about.100 GPa pressure in .about.1 mm volumes and 20-5000.degree. C. temperatures in a static regime. The device includes profiled anvils (28) action on a reaction cell (14, 16) containing the material (26) to be processed. The reaction cell includes a heater (18) surrounded by insulating layers and screens. Surrounding the anvils are cylindrical inserts and supporting rings (30-48) whose hardness increases towards the reaction cell. These volumes may be increased considerably if applications require it, making use of presses that have larger loading force capability, larger frames and using larger anvils.

  17. Association between ambient temperature and blood pressure and blood pressure regulators: 1831 hypertensive patients followed up for three years.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Wang, Jinwei; Tian, Jun; Tang, Xun; Yu, Canqing; Marshall, Roger J; Chen, Dafang; Cao, Weihua; Zhan, Siyan; Lv, Jun; Lee, Liming; Hu, Yonghua

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between ambient air temperature and blood pressure. However, this has not been reliably confirmed by longitudinal studies. Also, whether the reaction to temperature stimulation is modified by other factors such as antihypertensive medication is rarely investigated. The present study explores the relationship between ambient temperature and blood pressure, without and with antihypertensive medication, in a study of 1,831 hypertensive patients followed up for three years, in two or four weekly check ups, accumulating 62,452 follow-up records. Both baseline and follow-up blood pressure showed an inverse association with ambient temperature, which explained 32.4% and 65.6% of variation of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (P<0.05) respectively. The amplitude of individual blood pressure fluctuation with temperature throughout a year (a 29 degrees centigrade range) was 9.4/7.3 mmHg. Medication with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor benazepril attenuated the blood pressure fluctuation by 2.4/1.3 mmHg each year, though the inverse association of temperature and blood pressure remained. Gender, drinking behavior and body mass index were also found to modify the association between temperature and diastolic blood pressure. The results indicate that ambient temperature may negatively regulate blood pressure. Hypertensive patients should monitor and treat blood pressure more carefully in cold days, and it could be especially important for the males, thinner people and drinkers.

  18. Pulsed positive streamer discharges in air at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Ryo; Kamakura, Taku

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric-pressure air pulsed positive streamer discharges are generated in a 13 mm point-plane gap in the temperature range of 293 K-1136 K, and the effect of temperature on the streamer discharges is studied. When the temperature is increased, the product of applied voltage and temperature VT proportional to the reduced electric field can be used as a primary parameter that determines some discharge parameters regardless of temperature. For a given VT, the transferred charge per pulse, streamer diameter, product of discharge energy and temperature, and length of secondary streamer are almost constant regardless of T, whereas the streamer velocity decreases with increasing T and the decay rate of the discharge current is proportional to 1/T. The N2(C) emission intensity is approximately determined by the discharge energy independent of T. These results are useful to predict the streamer discharge and its reactive species production when the ambient temperature is increased.

  19. Crystal structures at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Wendel Alexander

    2000-10-01

    The diamond anvil cell (DAC) is a unique instrument that can generate pressures equivalent to those inside planetary interiors (pressures on the order of 1 million atmospheres) under sustained conditions. When combined with a bright source of collimated x-rays, the DAC can be used to probe the structure of materials in-situ at ultra-high pressures. An understanding of the high-pressure structure of materials is important in determining what types of processes may take place in the Earth at great depths. Motivated by previous studies showing that xenon becomes metallic at pressures above ˜1 megabar (100 GPa), we examined the stable structures and reactivity of xenon at pressures approaching that of the core-mantle boundary in the Earth. Our findings indicate the transformation of xenon from face-centered cubic (fcc) to hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structures is kinetically hindered at room temperature, with the equilibrium fcc--hcp phase boundary at 21 (+/-3) gigapascals, a pressure lower than was previously thought. Additionally, we find no tendency on the part of xenon to form a metal alloy with iron or platinum to at least 100 to 150 gigapascals, making it unlikely that the Earth's core serves as a reservoir for primordial xenon. Measurements of the compressibility of natural (Mg.75,Fe .25)2SiO4 gamma-spinel at pressures of the Earth's transition zone yield a pressure derivative of the bulk modulus K0 ' = 6.3 (+/-0.3). As gamma-spinel is considered to be a dominant mineral phase of the transition-zone of the Earth's mantle (400--670 km depth), the relatively high value of K0' for gamma-spinel may help explain the rapid increase with depth of seismic velocities through the transition zone. The thermodynamics, mechanisms and kinetics of pressure-induced amorphization are not well understood. We report here new studies indicating little or no entropy difference between the crystalline and glassy states of Ca(OH) 2 (portlandite). Additional work on the pressure

  20. AIRS Retrieved Temperature Isotherms over Southern Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    AIRS Retrieved Temperature Isotherms over Southern Europe viewed from the west, September 8, 2002. The isotherms in this map made from AIRS data show regions of the same temperature in the atmosphere.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Noncontact Monitoring of Respiration by Dynamic Air-Pressure Sensor.

    PubMed

    Takarada, Tohru; Asada, Tetsunosuke; Sumi, Yoshihisa; Higuchi, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that a dynamic air-pressure sensor system allows respiratory status to be visually monitored for patients in minimally clothed condition. The dynamic air-pressure sensor measures vital information using changes in air pressure. To utilize this device in the field, we must clarify the influence of clothing conditions on measurement. The present study evaluated use of the dynamic air-pressure sensor system as a respiratory monitor that can reliably detect change in breathing patterns irrespective of clothing. Twelve healthy volunteers reclined on a dental chair positioned horizontally with the sensor pad for measuring air-pressure signals corresponding to respiration placed on the seat back of the dental chair in the central lumbar region. Respiratory measurements were taken under 2 conditions: (a) thinly clothed (subject lying directly on the sensor pad); and (b) thickly clothed (subject lying on the sensor pad covered with a pressure-reducing sheet). Air-pressure signals were recorded and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration were calculated. This information was compared with expiratory tidal volume measured simultaneously by a respirometer connected to the subject via face mask. The dynamic air-pressure sensor was able to receive the signal corresponding to respiration regardless of clothing conditions. A strong correlation was identified between expiratory tidal volume and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration for all subjects under both clothing conditions (0.840-0.988 for the thinly clothed condition and 0.867-0.992 for the thickly clothed condition). These results show that the dynamic air-pressure sensor is useful for monitoring respiratory physiology irrespective of clothing.

  2. Requirements for high-temperature air-cooled central receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. D.; Copeland, R. J.

    1983-12-01

    The design of solar thermal central receivers will be shaped by the end user's need for energy. This paper identifies the requirements for receivers supplying heat for industrial processes or electric power generation in the temperature range 540 to 1000(0)C and evaluates the effects of the requirements on air cooled central receivers. Potential IPH applications are identified as large baseload users that are located some distance from the receiver. In the electric power application, the receiver must supply heat to a pressurized gas power cycle. The difficulty in providing cost effective thermal transport and thermal storage for air cooled receivers is a critical problem.

  3. Effect of air pressure differential on vapor flow through sample building walls

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.E. Jr.

    1998-12-31

    Laboratory scale experiments were performed on two small sample composite walls of typical building construction to determine the approximate opposing air pressure difference required to stop or significantly reduce the transmission of water vapor due to a water vapor pressure difference. The experiments used wall section samples between two controlled atmosphere chambers. One chamber was held at a temperature and humidity condition approximating that of a typical summer day, while the other chamber was controlled at a condition typical of indoor conditioned space. Vapor transmission data through the wall samples were obtained over a range of vapor pressure differentials and opposing air pressure differentials. The results show that increasing opposing air pressure differences decrease water vapor transmission, as expected, and relatively small opposing air pressure differentials are required for wall materials of small vapor permeability and large air permeability. The opposing air pressure that stopped or significantly reduced the flow of water vapor through the wall sample was determined experimentally and also compared to air pressures as predicted by an analytical model.

  4. High Temperature Dynamic Pressure Measurements Using Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Meredith, Roger D.; Chang, Clarence T.; Savrun, Ender

    2014-01-01

    Un-cooled, MEMS-based silicon carbide (SiC) static pressure sensors were used for the first time to measure pressure perturbations at temperatures as high as 600 C during laboratory characterization, and subsequently evaluated in a combustor rig operated under various engine conditions to extract the frequencies that are associated with thermoacoustic instabilities. One SiC sensor was placed directly in the flow stream of the combustor rig while a benchmark commercial water-cooled piezoceramic dynamic pressure transducer was co-located axially but kept some distance away from the hot flow stream. In the combustor rig test, the SiC sensor detected thermoacoustic instabilities across a range of engine operating conditions, amplitude magnitude as low as 0.5 psi at 585 C, in good agreement with the benchmark piezoceramic sensor. The SiC sensor experienced low signal to noise ratio at higher temperature, primarily due to the fact that it was a static sensor with low sensitivity.

  5. Hydrogen at high pressure and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W J

    1999-09-30

    Hydrogen at high pressures and temperatures is challenging scientifically and has many real and potential applications. Minimum metallic conductivity of fluid hydrogen is observed at 140 GPa and 2600 K, based on electrical conductivity measurements to 180 GPa (1.8 Mbar), tenfold compression, and 3000 K obtained dynamically with a two-stage light-gas gun. Conditions up to 300 GPa, sixfold compression, and 30,000 K have been achieved in laser-driven Hugoniot experiments. Implications of these results for the interior of Jupiter, inertial confinement fusion, and possible uses of metastable solid hydrogen, if the metallic fluid could be quenched from high pressure, are discussed.

  6. Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell integral air accumular containment

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Basel, Richard A.

    2004-02-10

    A fuel cell generator apparatus contains at least one fuel cell subassembly module in a module housing, where the housing is surrounded by a pressure vessel such that there is an air accumulator space, where the apparatus is associated with an air compressor of a turbine/generator/air compressor system, where pressurized air from the compressor passes into the space and occupies the space and then flows to the fuel cells in the subassembly module, where the air accumulation space provides an accumulator to control any unreacted fuel gas that might flow from the module.

  7. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  8. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  9. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  10. Determination of octanol-air partition coefficients and supercooled liquid vapor pressures of PAHs as a function of temperature: Application to gas-particle partitioning in an urban atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Cetin, Eylem; Sofuoglu, Aysun

    Octanol-air partition coefficients ( KOA) for 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined as a function of temperature using the gas chromatographic retention time method. log KOA values at 25° ranged over six orders of magnitude, between 6.34 (acenaphthylene) and 12.59 (dibenz[ a,h]anthracene). The determined KOA values were within factor of 0.7 (dibenz[ a,h]anthracene) to 15.1 (benz[ a]anthracene) of values calculated as the ratio of octanol-water partition coefficient to dimensionless Henry's law constant. Supercooled liquid vapor pressures ( PL) of 13 PAHs were also determined using the gas chromatographic retention time technique. Activity coefficients in octanol calculated using KOA and PL ranged between 3.2 and 6.2 indicating near-ideal solution behavior. Atmospheric concentrations measured in this study in Izmir, Turkey were used to investigate the partitioning of PAHs between particle and gas-phases. Experimental gas-particle partition coefficients ( Kp) were compared to the predictions of KOA absorption and KSA (soot-air partition coefficient) models. Octanol-based absorptive partitioning model predicted lower partition coefficients especially for relatively volatile PAHs. Ratios of measured/modeled partition coefficients ranged between 1.1 and 15.5 (4.5±6.0, average±SD) for KOA model. KSA model predictions were relatively better and measured to modeled ratios ranged between 0.6 and 5.6 (2.3±2.7, average±SD).

  11. Comparing model predictions and experimental data for the response of stomatal conductance and guard cell turgor to manipulations of cuticular conductance, leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference and temperature: feedback mechanisms are able to account for all observations.

    PubMed

    Eamus, Derek; Taylor, Daniel T; Macinnis-Ng, Catriona M O; Shanahan, Steve; De Silva, Lionel

    2008-03-01

    Stomata respond to increasing leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference (LAVPD) (D) by closing. The mechanism by which this occurs is debated. A role for feedback and peristomatal transpiration has been proposed. In this paper, we apply a recent mechanistic model of stomatal behaviour, and compare model and experimental data for the influence of increasing D on stomatal conductance. We manipulated cuticular conductance (g(c)) by three independent methods. First, we increased g(c) by using a solvent mixture applied to both leaf surfaces prior to determining stomatal responses to D; second, we increased g(c) by increasing leaf temperature at constant D; and third, we coated a small area of leaf with a light oil to decrease g(c). In all three experiments, experimental data and model outputs showed very close agreement. We conclude, from the close agreement between model and experimental data and the fact that manipulations of g(c), and hence cuticular transpiration, influenced g(s) in ways consistent with a feedback mechanism, that feedback is central in determining stomatal responses to D.

  12. Pressure-loss and flow coefficients inside a chordwise-finned, impingement, convection, and film air-cooled turbine vane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    Total-pressure-loss coefficients, flow discharge coefficients, and friction factors were determined experimentally for the various area and geometry changes and flow passages within an air-cooled turbine vane. The results are compared with those of others obtained on similar configurations, both actual and large models, of vane passages. The supply and exit air pressures were controlled and varied. The investigation was conducted with essentially ambient-temperature air and without external flow of air over the vane.

  13. High Temperature Ceramic Guide Vane Temperature and Pressure Distribution Calculation for Flow with Cooling Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Rakesh

    2004-01-01

    A ceramic guide vane has been designed and tested for operation under high temperature. Previous efforts have suggested that some cooling flow may be required to alleviate the high temperatures observed near the trailing edge region. The present report describes briefly a three-dimensional viscous analysis carried out to calculate the temperature and pressure distribution on the blade surface and in the flow path with a jet of cooling air exiting from the suction surface near the trailing edge region. The data for analysis was obtained from Dr. Craig Robinson. The surface temperature and pressure distribution along with a flowfield distribution is shown in the results. The surface distribution is also given in a tabular form at the end of the document.

  14. Modeling air temperature changes in Northern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuchin, A.; Korets, M.; Shvidenko, A.; Burenina, T.; Musokhranova, A.

    2014-11-01

    Based on time series (1950-2005) of monthly temperatures from 73 weather stations in Northern Asia (limited by 70-180° EL and 48-75° NL), it is shown that there are statistically significant spatial differences in character and intensity of the monthly and yearly temperature trends. These differences are defined by geomorphological and geographical parameters of the area including exposure of the territory to Arctic and Pacific air mass, geographic coordinates, elevation, and distances to Arctic and Pacific oceans. Study area has been divided into six domains with unique groupings of the temperature trends based on cluster analysis. An original methodology for mapping of temperature trends has been developed and applied to the region. The assessment of spatial patterns of temperature trends at the regional level requires consideration of specific regional features in the complex of factors operating in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-lithosphere-biosphere system.

  15. Generation of low-temperature air plasma for food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, Olga; Demidova, Maria; Astafiev, Alexander; Pinchuk, Mikhail; Balkir, Pinar; Turantas, Fulya

    2015-11-01

    The project is aimed at developing a physical and technical foundation of generating plasma with low gas temperature at atmospheric pressure for food industry needs. As known, plasma has an antimicrobial effect on the numerous types of microorganisms, including those that cause food spoilage. In this work an original experimental setup has been developed for the treatment of different foods. It is based on initiating corona or dielectric-barrier discharge in a chamber filled with ambient air in combination with a certain helium admixture. The experimental setup provides various conditions of discharge generation (including discharge gap geometry, supply voltage, velocity of gas flow, content of helium admixture in air and working pressure) and allows for the measurement of the electrical discharge parameters. Some recommendations on choosing optimal conditions of discharge generation for experiments on plasma food processing are developed.

  16. Laboratory performance of alternating pressure air mattresses component and sequelae.

    PubMed

    Bain, Duncan

    The performance of three different alternating pressure air mattresses with different geometries of air cell were compared (Nimbus 3, Heritage, Tamora Plus), using simple performance indices based on pressure mapping. The aim of this study was to examine the effect on performance of elevating the backrest and thigh section of the bed into sitting position. Ten healthy volunteers of various sizes were pressure-mapped over the full pressure cycle on three alternating pressure air mattresseses with differing cell geometries. This was then repeated with the beds profiled to a sitting position. Performance of the alternating pressure air mattresses in terms of their ability to redistribute pressure dynamically was assessed in the different positions. The different alternating pressure air mattresses performed similarly with the bed in the lying flat position, but smaller cells appeared to be more effective in the sitting position. A conclusion was made that cell geometry may have an effect on the ability of the mattress to achieve alternating behaviour in the sitting position.

  17. The rate of pressure rise of gaseous propylene-air explosions in spherical and cylindrical enclosures.

    PubMed

    Razus, Domnina; Movileanua, Codina; Oancea, Dumitru

    2007-01-02

    The maximum rates of pressure rise of propylene-air explosions at various initial pressures and various fuel/oxygen ratios in three closed vessels (a spherical vessel with central ignition and two cylindrical vessels with central or with top ignition) are reported. It was found that in explosions of quiescent mixtures the maximum rates of pressure rise are linear functions on total initial pressure, at constant initial temperature and fuel/oxygen ratio. The slope and intercept of found correlations are greatly influenced by vessel's volume and shape and by the position of the ignition source--factors which determine the amount of heat losses from the burned gas in a closed vessel explosion. Similar data on propylene-air inert mixtures are discussed in comparison with those referring to propylene-air, revealing the influence of nature and amount of inert additive. The deflagration index KG of centrally ignited explosions was also calculated from maximum rates of pressure rise.

  18. 58. AIR PRESSURIZATION TANK BEING LIFTED INTO PLACE ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. AIR PRESSURIZATION TANK BEING LIFTED INTO PLACE ON THE VAL BRIDGE STRUCTURE AT ISLIP CANYON, April 9, 1948. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 27. EXTENSION OF SURGE CHAMBER AND AIR PIPES TO PRESSURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. EXTENSION OF SURGE CHAMBER AND AIR PIPES TO PRESSURE LINE, HIGHLINE PUMPING PLANT. December 11, 1920 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. Global surface air temperatures - Update through 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

    1988-01-01

    Data from meteorological stations show that surface air temperatures in the 1980s are the warmest in the history of instrumental records. The four warmest years on record are all in the 1980s, with the warmest years in the analysis being 1981 and 1987. The rate of warming between the mid-1960s and the present is higher than that which occurrred in the previous period of rapid warming between the 1880s and 1940.

  1. Global trends of measured surface air temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the results of surface air temperature measurements from available meteorological stations for the period of 1880-1985. It is shown that the network of meteorological stations is sufficient to yield reliable long-term, decadal, and interannual temperature changes for both the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, despite the fact that most stations are located on the continents. The results indicate a global warming of about 0.5-0.7 C in the past century, with warming of similar magnitude in both hemispheres. A strong warming trend between 1965 and 1980 raised the global mean temperature in 1980 and 1981 to the highest level in the period of instrumental records. Selected graphs of the temperature change in each of the eight latitude zones are included.

  2. Air bubble migration rates as a proxy for bubble pressure distribution in ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadic, Ruzica; Schneebeli, Martin; Bertler, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    Air bubble migration can be used as a proxy to measure the pressure of individual bubbles and can help constrain the gradual close-off of gas bubbles and the resulting age distribution of gases in ice cores. The close-off depth of single bubbles can vary by tens of meters, which leads to a distribution of pressures for bubbles at a given depth. The age distribution of gases (along with gas-age-ice-age differences) decreases the resolution of the gas level reconstructions from ice cores and limits our ability to determine the phase relationship between gas and ice, and thus, the impact of rapid changes of greenhouse gases on surface temperatures. For times of rapid climate change, including the last 150 years, and abrupt climate changes further back in the past, knowledge of the age distribution of the gases trapped in air bubbles will enable us to refine estimates of atmospheric changes. When a temperature gradient is applied to gas bubbles in an ice sample, the bubbles migrate toward warmer ice. This motion is caused by sublimation from the warm wall and subsequent frost deposition on the cold wall. The migration rate depends on ice temperature and bubble pressure and is proportional to the temperature gradient. The spread in migration rates for bubbles in the same samples at given temperatures should therefore reflect the variations in bubble pressures within a sample. Air bubbles with higher pressures would have been closed off higher in the firn column and thus have had time to equilibrate with the surrounding ice pressure, while air bubbles that have been closed off recently would have pressures that are similar to todays atmospheric pressure above the firn column. For ice under pressures up to ~13-16 bar, the pressure distribution of bubbles from a single depth provides a record of the trapping function of air bubbles in the firn column for a certain time in the past. We will present laboratory experiments on air bubble migration, using Antarctic ice core

  3. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Surface Air Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing (Inventor); Hu, Yongxiang (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for remotely measuring surface air pressure. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention utilizes the steps of transmitting a signal having multiple frequencies into the atmosphere, measuring the transmitted/reflected signal to determine the relative received power level of each frequency and then determining the surface air pressure based upon the attenuation of the transmitted frequencies.

  4. Temperature Dependence of Lithium Reactions with Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrod, Roman; Skinner, C. H.; Koel, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    Liquid lithium plasma facing components (PFCs) are being developed to handle long pulse, high heat loads in tokamaks. Wetting by lithium of its container is essential for this application, but can be hindered by lithium oxidation by residual gases or during tokamak maintenance. Lithium PFCs will experience elevated temperatures due to plasma heat flux. This work presents measurements of lithium reactions at elevated temperatures (298-373 K) when exposed to natural air. Cylindrical TZM wells 300 microns deep with 1 cm2 surface area were filled with metallic lithium in a glovebox containing argon with less than 1.6 ppm H20, O2, and N2. The wells were transferred to a hot plate in air, and then removed periodically for mass gain measurements. Changes in the surface topography were recorded with a microscope. The mass gain of the samples at elevated temperatures followed a markedly different behavior to that at room temperature. One sample at 373 K began turning red indicative of lithium nitride, while a second turned white indicative of lithium carbonate formation. Data on the mass gain vs. temperature and associated topographic changes of the surface will be presented. Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship funded by Department of Energy.

  5. Underground storage systems for high-pressure air and gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beam, B. H.; Giovannetti, A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the safety and cost of underground high-pressure air and gas storage systems based on recent experience with a high-pressure air system installed at Moffett Field, California. The system described used threaded and coupled oil well casings installed vertically to a depth of 1200 ft. Maximum pressure was 3000 psi and capacity was 500,000 lb of air. A failure mode analysis is presented, and it is shown that underground storage offers advantages in avoiding catastrophic consequences from pressure vessel failure. Certain problems such as corrosion, fatigue, and electrolysis are discussed in terms of the economic life of such vessels. A cost analysis shows that where favorable drilling conditions exist, the cost of underground high-pressure storage is approximately one-quarter that of equivalent aboveground storage.

  6. Study of Ram-air Heat Exchangers for Reducing Turbine Cooling-air Temperature of a Supersonic Aircraft Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaguila, Anthony J; Livingood, John N B; Eckert, Ernst R G

    1956-01-01

    The sizes and weights of the cores of heat exchangers were determined analytically for possible application for reducing turbine cooling-air temperatures of an engine designed for a Mach number of 2.5 and an altitude The sizes and weights of the cores of heat exchangers were determined analytically for possible application for reducing turbine cooling-air temperatures of an engine designed for a Mach number of 2.5 and an altitude of 70,000 feet. A compressor-bleed-air weight flow of 2.7 pounds per second was assumed for the coolant; ram air was considered as the other fluid. Pressure drops and inlet states of both fluids were prescribed, and ranges of compressor-bleed-air temperature reductions and of the ratio of compressor-bleed to ram-air weight flows were considered.

  7. Very high temperature silicon on silicon pressure transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Anthony D.; Nunn, Timothy A.; Briggs, Stephen A.; Ned, Alexander

    1992-01-01

    A silicon on silicon pressure sensor has been developed for use at very high temperatures (1000 F). The design principles used to fabricate the pressure sensor are outlined and results are presented of its high temperature performance.

  8. Trends in Surface Temperature from AIRS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.; Aumann, H. H.

    2014-12-01

    To address possible causes of the current hiatus in the Earth's global temperature we investigate the trends and variability in the surface temperature using retrievals obtained from the measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its companion instrument, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), onboard of Aqua spacecraft in 2002-2014. The data used are L3 monthly means on a 1x1degree spatial grid. We separate the land and ocean temperatures, as well as temperatures in Artic, Antarctic and desert regions. We find a monotonic positive trend for the land temperature but not for the ocean temperature. The difference in the regional trends can help to explain why the global surface temperature remains almost unchanged but the frequency of occurrence of the extreme events increases under rising anthropogenic forcing. The results are compared with the model studies. This work was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  9. Pressure of air on coming to rest from various speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1927-01-01

    The text gives theoretical formulas from which is computed a table for the pressure of air on coming to rest from various speeds, such as those of aircraft and propeller blades. Pressure graphs are given for speeds from 1 cm. Sec. up to those of swift projectiles.

  10. Teaching Science: Air Pressure "Eggs-periments."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how teachers can introduce students to various scientific concept concerning motion, air composition, and heat by conducting an experiment: A peeled, hard-boiled egg is sucked into a bottle neck slightly smaller than the egg, after the bottle has been filled and emptied of hot water. Also discusses how students' understanding of the…

  11. Is Air Temperature Enough to Predict Lake Surface Temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolroaz, S.; Toffolon, M.; Majone, B.

    2014-12-01

    Lake surface water (LST) is a key factor that controls most of the physical and ecological processes occurring in lakes. Reliable estimates are especially important in the light of recent studies, which revealed that inland water bodies are highly sensitive to climate, and are rapidly warming throughout the world. However, an accurate estimation of LST usually requires a significant amount of information that is not always available. In this work, we present an application of air2water, a lumped model that simulates LST as a function of air temperature only. In addition, air2water allows for a qualitative evaluation of the depth of the epilimnion during the annual stratification cycle. The model consists in a simplification of the complete heat budget of the well-mixed surface layer, and has a few parameters (from 4 to 8 depending on the version) that summarize the role of the different heat flux components. Model calibration requires only air and water temperature data, possibly covering sufficiently long historical periods in order to capture inter-annual variability and long-term trends. During the calibration procedure, the information included in input data is retrieved to directly inform model parameters, which can be used to classify the thermal behavior of the lake. In order to investigate how thermal dynamics are related to morphological features, the model has been applied to 14 temperate lakes characterized by different morphological and hydrological conditions, by different sources of temperature data (buoys, satellite), and by variable frequency of acquisition. A good agreement between observed and simulated LST has been achieved, with a RMSE in the order of 1°C, which is fully comparable to the performances of more complex process-based models. This application allowed for a deeper understanding of the thermal response of lakes as a function of their morphology, as well as for specific analyses as for example the investigation of the exceptional

  12. 40 CFR 1065.315 - Pressure, temperature, and dewpoint calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pressure, temperature, and dewpoint... Parameters and Ambient Conditions § 1065.315 Pressure, temperature, and dewpoint calibration. (a) Calibrate instruments for measuring pressure, temperature, and dewpoint upon initial installation. Follow the...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.315 - Pressure, temperature, and dewpoint calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pressure, temperature, and dewpoint... Parameters and Ambient Conditions § 1065.315 Pressure, temperature, and dewpoint calibration. (a) Calibrate instruments for measuring pressure, temperature, and dewpoint upon initial installation. Follow the...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.315 - Pressure, temperature, and dewpoint calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pressure, temperature, and dewpoint... Parameters and Ambient Conditions § 1065.315 Pressure, temperature, and dewpoint calibration. (a) Calibrate instruments for measuring pressure, temperature, and dewpoint upon initial installation. Follow the...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.315 - Pressure, temperature, and dewpoint calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pressure, temperature, and dewpoint... Parameters and Ambient Conditions § 1065.315 Pressure, temperature, and dewpoint calibration. (a) Calibrate instruments for measuring pressure, temperature, and dewpoint upon initial installation. Follow the...

  16. Laser-Machined Microcavities for Simultaneous Measurement of High-Temperature and High-Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Zengling; Liu, Shan; Liu, Qin; Huang, Ya; Bao, Haihong; Wang, Yanjun; Luo, Shucheng; Yang, Huiqin; Rao, Yunjiang

    2014-01-01

    Laser-machined microcavities for simultaneous measurement of high-temperature and high-pressure are demonstrated. These two cascaded microcavities are an air cavity and a composite cavity including a section of fiber and an air cavity. They are both placed into a pressure chamber inside a furnace to perform simultaneous pressure and high-temperature tests. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the short air cavity are ∼0.0779 nm/°C and ∼1.14 nm/MPa, respectively. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the composite cavity are ∼32.3 nm/°C and ∼24.4 nm/MPa, respectively. The sensor could be used to separate temperature and pressure due to their different thermal and pressure coefficients. The excellent feature of such a sensor head is that it can withstand high temperatures of up to 400 °C and achieve precise measurement of high-pressure under high temperature conditions. PMID:25106018

  17. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  18. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  19. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  20. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  2. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  4. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  5. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  6. Correction of Temperatures of Air-Cooled Engine Cylinders for Variation in Engine and Cooling Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Pinkel, Benjamin; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1939-01-01

    Factors are obtained from semiempirical equations for correcting engine-cylinder temperatures for variation in important engine and cooling conditions. The variation of engine temperatures with atmospheric temperature is treated in detail, and correction factors are obtained for various flight and test conditions, such as climb at constant indicated air speed, level flight, ground running, take-off, constant speed of cooling air, and constant mass flow of cooling air. Seven conventional air-cooled engine cylinders enclosed in jackets and cooled by a blower were tested to determine the effect of cooling-air temperature and carburetor-air temperature on cylinder temperatures. The cooling air temperature was varied from approximately 80 degrees F. to 230 degrees F. and the carburetor-air temperature from approximately 40 degrees F. to 160 degrees F. Tests were made over a large range of engine speeds, brake mean effective pressures, and pressure drops across the cylinder. The correction factors obtained experimentally are compared with those obtained from the semiempirical equations and a fair agreement is noted.

  7. Historical Air Temperatures Across the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa-Viviani, A.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on an analysis of daily temperature from over 290 ground-based stations across the Hawaiian Islands from 1905-2015. Data from multiple stations were used to model environmental lapse rates by fitting linear regressions of mean daily Tmax and Tmin on altitude; piecewise regressions were also used to model the discontinuity introduced by the trade wind inversion near 2150m. Resulting time series of both model coefficients and lapse rates indicate increasing air temperatures near sea level (Tmax: 0.09°C·decade-1 and Tmin: 0.23°C·decade-1 over the most recent 65 years). Evaluation of lapse rates during this period suggest Tmax lapse rates (~0.6°C·100m-1) are decreasing by 0.006°C·100m-1decade-1 due to rapid high elevation warming while Tmin lapse rates (~0.8°C·100m-1) are increasing by 0.002°C·100m-1decade-1 due to the stronger increase in Tmin at sea level versus at high elevation. Over the 110 year period, temperatures tend to vary coherently with the PDO index. Our analysis verifies warming trends and temperature variability identified earlier by analysis of selected index stations. This method also provides temperature time series we propose are more robust to station inhomogeneities.

  8. Air Cooling for High Temperature Power Electronics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Waye, S.; Musselman, M.; King, C.

    2014-09-01

    Current emphasis on developing high-temperature power electronics, including wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride, increases the opportunity for a completely air-cooled inverter at higher powers. This removes the liquid cooling system for the inverter, saving weight and volume on the liquid-to-air heat exchanger, coolant lines, pumps, and coolant, replacing them with just a fan and air supply ducting. We investigate the potential for an air-cooled heat exchanger from a component and systems-level approach to meet specific power and power density targets. A proposed baseline air-cooled heat exchanger design that does not meet those targets was optimized using a parametric computational fluid dynamics analysis, examining the effects of heat exchanger geometry and device location, fixing the device heat dissipation and maximum junction temperature. The CFD results were extrapolated to a full inverter, including casing, capacitor, bus bar, gate driver, and control board component weights and volumes. Surrogate ducting was tested to understand the pressure drop and subsequent system parasitic load. Geometries that met targets with acceptable loads on the system were down-selected for experimentation. Nine baseline configuration modules dissipated the target heat dissipation, but fell below specific power and power density targets. Six optimized configuration modules dissipated the target heat load, exceeding the specific power and power density targets. By maintaining the same 175 degrees C maximum junction temperature, an optimized heat exchanger design and higher device heat fluxes allowed a reduction in the number of modules required, increasing specific power and power density while still maintaining the inverter power.

  9. The predictable influence of soil temperature and barometric pressure changes on vapor intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, David L.; McRae, Mary F.

    2017-02-01

    Intrusion of volatile organic compounds in the gas phase has impacted many buildings in many different locations. Various building and environmental factors such as buoyancy of heated air and changes in barometric pressure can influence indoor air concentrations due to vapor intrusion in these buildings resulting in seasonal and daily variability. One environmental factor that previous research has not adequately addressed is soil temperature. In this study we present two northern region study sites where the seasonal trends in indoor air VOC concentrations positively correlate with soil temperature, and short-term (days) variations are associated with barometric pressure changes. We present simple and multivariate linear relationships of indoor air concentrations as a function of soil temperature and barometric pressure. Results from this study show that small changes in soil temperature can result in relatively large changes in indoor air VOC concentrations where the gas phase VOCs are sourced from non-aqueous phase liquids contained in the soil. We use the results from this study to show that a five degree Celsius increase in soil temperature, a variation in soil temperature that is possible in many climatic regions, results in a two-fold increase in indoor air VOC concentrations. Additionally, analysis provides insight into how building ventilation, diffusion, and the relative rate of soil-gas flow across the slab both from the subsurface into the building and from the building into the subsurface impact short term variations in concentrations. With these results we are able to provide monitoring recommendations for practitioners.

  10. Fuel Cells Utilizing Oxygen From Air at Low Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisar, Alan; Boyer, Chris; Greenwald, Charles

    2006-01-01

    A fuel cell stack has been developed to supply power for a high-altitude aircraft with a minimum of air handling. The fuel cell is capable of utilizing oxygen from ambient air at low pressure with no need for compression. For such an application, it is advantageous to take oxygen from the air (in contradistinction to carrying a supply of oxygen onboard), but it is a challenging problem to design a fuel-cell stack of reasonable weight that can generate sufficient power while operating at reduced pressures. The present fuel-cell design is a response to this challenge. The design features a novel bipolar plate structure in combination with a gas-diffusion structure based on a conductive metal core and a carbon gas-diffusion matrix. This combination makes it possible for the flow fields in the stack to have a large open fraction (ratio between open volume and total volume) to permit large volumes of air to flow through with exceptionally low backpressure. Operations at reduced pressure require a corresponding increase in the volume of air that must be handled to deliver the same number of moles of oxygen to the anodes. Moreover, the increase in the open fraction, relative to that of a comparable prior fuel-cell design, reduces the mass of the stack. The fuel cell has been demonstrated to operate at a power density as high as 105 W/cm2 at an air pressure as low as 2 psia (absolute pressure 14 kPa), which is the atmospheric pressure at an altitude of about 50,000 ft ( 15.2 km). The improvements in the design of this fuel cell could be incorporated into designs of other fuel cells to make them lighter in weight and effective at altitudes higher than those of prior designs. Potential commercial applications for these improvements include most applications now under consideration for fuel cells.

  11. Thermodynamic Pressure/Temperature Transducer Health Check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher D. (Inventor); Eckhoff, Anthony (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Deyoe, Richard T. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A device and procedure for checking the health of a pressure transducer in situ is provided. The procedure includes measuring a fixed change in pressure above ambient pressure and a fixed change in pressure below ambient pressure. This is done by first sealing an enclosed volume around the transducer with a valve. A piston inside the sealed volume is increasing the pressure. A fixed pressure below ambient pressure is obtained by opening the valve, driving the piston The output of the pressure transducer is recorded for both the overpressuring and the underpressuring. By comparing this data with data taken during a preoperative calibration, the health of the transducer is determined from the linearity, the hysteresis, and the repeatability of its output. The further addition of a thermometer allows constant offset error in the transducer output to be determined.

  12. Tongue-Palate Contact Pressure, Oral Air Pressure, and Acoustics of Clear Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searl, Jeff; Evitts, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared articulatory contact pressure (ACP), oral air pressure (Po), and speech acoustics for conversational versus clear speech. They also assessed the relationship of these measures to listener perception. Method: Twelve adults with normal speech produced monosyllables in a phrase using conversational and clear speech.…

  13. Rotor Blade Pressure Measurement in a Rotating Machinery Using Pressure and Temperature Sensitive Paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgerson, S.; Liu, T.; Sullivan, J.

    1998-01-01

    Pressure and temperature sensitive paints have been utilized for the measurement of blade surface pressure and temperature distributions in a high speed axial compressor and an Allied Signal F109 gas turbine engine. Alternate blades were painted with temperature sensitive paints and then pressure sensitive paint. This combination allows temperature distributions to be accounted for when determining the blade suction surface pressure distribution. Measurements were taken and pressure maps on the suction surface of a blade were obtained over a range of rotational speeds. Pressure maps of the suction surface show-strong shock waves at the higher speeds.

  14. Temperature in molybdenum at high shock pressure: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-lu; Liu, Zhong-li; Gu, Yun-jun; Cai, Ling-cang; Jing, Fu-qian

    2008-09-01

    Shock temperature of molybdenum is deduced to be 7853±813 K from release temperature at 374 GPa via pyrometry experiment. Theoretically, temperatures along the Hügoniot are calculated up to pressures of 500 GPa, over the shock melting pressure region, with contributions from electrons considered. At low pressures, the calculated results are consistent with NRS temperature measurements and pyrometry measurements, and accord with SESAME EOS and theoretical calculations taking the strength of the sample into account. At pressures above 100 GPa the results are much different from calculations without the contribution from the electrons, but consistent with the shock temperature deduced from experimental results in this work.

  15. Variation in the urban vegetation, surface temperature, air temperature nexus.

    PubMed

    Shiflett, Sheri A; Liang, Liyin L; Crum, Steven M; Feyisa, Gudina L; Wang, Jun; Jenerette, G Darrel

    2017-02-01

    Our study examines the urban vegetation - air temperature (Ta) - land surface temperature (LST) nexus at micro- and regional-scales to better understand urban climate dynamics and the uncertainty in using satellite-based LST for characterizing Ta. While vegetated cooling has been repeatedly linked to reductions in urban LST, the effects of vegetation on Ta, the quantity often used to characterize urban heat islands and global warming, and on the interactions between LST and Ta are less well characterized. To address this need we quantified summer temporal and spatial variation in Ta through a network of 300 air temperature sensors in three sub-regions of greater Los Angeles, CA, which spans a coastal to desert climate gradient. Additional sensors were placed within the inland sub-region at two heights (0.1m and 2m) within three groundcover types: bare soil, irrigated grass, and underneath citrus canopy. For the entire study region, we acquired new imagery data, which allowed calculation of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and LST. At the microscale, daytime Ta measured along a vertical gradient, ranged from 6 to 3°C cooler at 0.1 and 2m, underneath tall canopy compared to bare ground respectively. At the regional scale NDVI and LST were negatively correlated (p<0.001). Relationships between diel variation in Ta and daytime LST at the regional scale were progressively weaker moving away from the coast and were generally limited to evening and nighttime hours. Relationships between NDVI and Ta were stronger during nighttime hours, yet effectiveness of mid-day vegetated cooling increased substantially at the most arid region. The effectiveness of vegetated Ta cooling increased during heat waves throughout the region. Our findings suggest an important but complex role of vegetation on LST and Ta and that vegetation may provide a negative feedback to urban climate warming.

  16. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  6. Air temperature variation across the seed cotton dryer mixpoint

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen tests were conducted in six gins in the fall of 2008 to measure air temperature variation within various heated air seed cotton drying systems with the purpose of: checking validation of recommendations by a professional engineering society and measuring air temperature variation across the...

  7. AIR TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN SEED COTTON DRYING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten tests were conducted in the fall of 2007 to measure air temperature variation within various heated air seed cotton drying systems with the purpose of: checking validation of recommendations by a professional engineering society and measuring air temperature variation across the airflow ductwork...

  8. Possible Economies in Air-Conditioning by Accepting Temperature Swings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loudon, A. G.; Petherbridge, P.

    Public building air conditioning systems, which use constant and varying heat and cooling loads, are compared and investigated. Experiments indicated that constant temperature controls based on outside air temperature alone were inefficient. Ventilating a building with outside air and the methods of doing so are cited as being the most economical…

  9. Hydraulic Resistance and Liberation of Air in Aviation Kerosene Flow Through Diaphragms at Low Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitanin, É. L.; Kitanina, E. É.; Zherebtsov, V. A.; Peganova, M. M.; Stepanov, S. G.; Bondarenko, D. A.; Morisson, D.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental investigations of the liberation of air in gravity flow of aviation fuel through a pipeline with diaphragms. Experiments were carried out in the pressure range 0.2-1.0 bar and temperature range -20 to +20°C. The TC-1 kerosene was preliminarily saturated with air at atmospheric pressure. The liberation of air after the diaphragms with three ratios of the flow area to the cross-sectional area of the pipeline has been investigated. The results of investigations of the two-phase flow in several experimental pipelines containing one or two diaphragms and other local hydraulic resistances have been generalized. The obtained approximation equations permit calculating the hydraulic resistance of the diaphragm in the two-phase flow and the mass gas content of air after the diaphragm in pipelines of complex geometry.

  10. The Jar Magic--Instructional Activities for Teaching Air Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Bing-Hong; Chen, Chyong-Sun

    2013-01-01

    There are a variety of impressive activities designed for teaching the concept of air pressure to junior high school students. Water, glasses, balloons, plastic bottles, and suction cups are some of the items commonly used in these experiments. For example, if we take a glass of water, cover it with a piece of cardboard, and invert the glass,…

  11. 21 CFR 880.5550 - Alternating pressure air flotation mattress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. 880.5550 Section 880.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital...

  12. Experimental Air Pressure Tank Systems for Process Control Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Christopher E.; Holland, Charles E.; Gatzke, Edward P.

    2006-01-01

    In process control education, particularly in the field of chemical engineering, there is an inherent need for industrially relevant hands-on apparatuses that enable one to bridge the gap between the theoretical content of coursework and real-world applications. At the University of South Carolina, two experimental air-pressure tank systems have…

  13. Air Circulation and Heat Exchange Under Reduced Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rygalov, V.; Wheeler, R.; Dixon, M.; Fowler, P.; Hillhouse, L.

    2010-01-01

    Heat exchange rates decrease non-linearly with reductions in atmospheric pressure. This decrease creates risk of thermal stress (elevated leaf temperatures) for plants under reduced pressures. Forced convection (fans) significantly increases heat exchange rate under almost all pressures except below 10 kPa. Plant cultivation techniques under reduced pressures will require forced convection. The cooling curve technique is a reliable means of assessing the influence of environmental variables like pressure and gravity on gas exchange of plant. These results represent the extremes of gas exchange conditions for simple systems under variable pressures. In reality, dense plant canopies will exhibit responses in between these extremes. More research is needed to understand the dependence of forced convection on atmospheric pressure. The overall thermal balance model should include latent and radiative exchange components.

  14. Dual-pump CARS of Air in a Heated Pressure Vessel up to 55 Bar and 1300 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantu, Luca; Gallo, Emanuela; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-pump Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements have been performed in a heated pressure vessel at NASA Langley Research Center. Each measurement, consisting of 500 single shot spectra, was recorded at a fixed location in dry air at various pressures and temperatures, in a range of 0.03-55×10(exp 5) Pa and 300-1373 K, where the temperature was varied using an electric heater. The maximum output power of the electric heater limited the combinations of pressures and temperatures that could be obtained. Charts of CARS signal versus temperature (at constant pressure) and signal versus pressure (at constant temperature) are presented and fit with an empirical model to validate the range of capability of the dual-pump CARS technique; averaged spectra at different conditions of pressure and temperature are also shown.

  15. A Resonant Pressure Microsensor Capable of Self-Temperature Compensation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinan; Wang, Junbo; Luo, Zhenyu; Chen, Deyong; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Resonant pressure microsensors are widely used in the fields of aerospace exploration and atmospheric pressure monitoring due to their advantages of quasi-digital output and long-term stability, which, however, requires the use of additional temperature sensors for temperature compensation. This paper presents a resonant pressure microsensor capable of self-temperature compensation without the need for additional temperature sensors. Two doubly-clamped “H” type resonant beams were arranged on the pressure diaphragm, which functions as a differential output in response to pressure changes. Based on calibration of a group of intrinsic resonant frequencies at different pressure and temperature values, the functions with inputs of two resonant frequencies and outputs of temperature and pressure under measurement were obtained and thus the disturbance of temperature variations on resonant frequency shifts was properly addressed. Before compensation, the maximal errors of the measured pressure values were over 1.5% while after compensation, the errors were less than 0.01% of the full pressure scale (temperature range of −40 °C to 70 °C and pressure range of 50 kPa to 110 kPa). PMID:25938197

  16. Model-based estimation of changes in air temperature seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Susana; Trigo, Ricardo

    2010-05-01

    Seasonality is a ubiquitous feature in climate time series. Climate change is expected to involve not only changes in the mean of climate parameters but also changes in the characteristics of the corresponding seasonal cycle. Therefore the identification and quantification of changes in seasonality is a highly relevant topic in climate analysis, particularly in a global warming context. However, the analysis of seasonality is far from a trivial task. A key challenge is the discrimination between long-term changes in the mean and long-term changes in the seasonal pattern itself, which requires the use of appropriate statistical approaches in order to be able to distinguish between overall trends in the mean and trends in the seasons. Model based approaches are particularly suitable for the analysis of seasonality, enabling to assess uncertainties in the amplitude and phase of seasonal patterns within a well defined statistical framework. This work addresses the changes in the seasonality of air temperature over the 20th century. The analysed data are global air temperature values close to surface (2m above ground) and mid-troposphere (500 hPa geopotential height) from the recently developed 20th century reanalysis. This new 3-D Reanalysis dataset is available since 1891, considerably extending all other Reanalyses currently in use (e.g. NCAR, ECWMF), and was obtained with the Ensemble Filter (Compo et al., 2006) by assimilation of pressure observations into a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model that includes the radiative effects of historical time-varying CO2 concentrations, volcanic aerosol emissions and solar output variations. A modeling approach based on autoregression (Barbosa et al, 2008; Barbosa, 2009) is applied within a Bayesian framework for the estimation of a time varying seasonal pattern and further quantification of changes in the amplitude and phase of air temperature over the 20th century. Barbosa, SM, Silva, ME, Fernandes, MJ

  17. Improved fireman's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. A.; Morris, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Prototype high pressure glass filament-wound, aluminum-lined pressurant vessels suitable for use in a fireman's compressed air breathing system were designed, fabricated, and acceptance tested in order to demonstrate the feasibility of producing such high performance, lightweight units. The 4000 psi tanks have a 60 standard cubic foot (SCF) air capacity, and have a 6.5 inch diamter, 19 inch length, 415 inch volume, weigh 13 pounds when empty, and contain 33 percent more air than the current 45 SCF (2250 psi) steel units. The current steel 60 SCF (3000 psi) tanks weigh approximately twice as much as the prototype when empty, and are 2 inches, or 10 percent shorter. The prototype units also have non-rusting aluminum interiors, which removes the hazard of corrosion, the need for internal coatings, and the possibility of rust particles clogging the breathing system.

  18. Some Effects of Air and Fuel Oil Temperatures on Spray Penetration and Dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelalles, A G

    1930-01-01

    Presented here are experimental results obtained from a brief investigation of the appearance, penetration, and dispersion of oil sprays injected into a chamber of highly heated air at atmospheric pressure. The development of single sprays injected into a chamber containing air at room temperature and at high temperature was recorded by spray photography equipment. A comparison of spray records showed that with the air at the higher temperature, the spray assumed the appearance of thin, transparent cloud, the greatest part of which rapidly disappeared from view. With the chamber air at room temperature, a compact spray with an opaque core was obtained. Measurements of the records showed a decrease in penetration and an increase in the dispersion of the spray injected into the heated air. No ignition of the fuel injected was observed or recorded until the spray particles came in contact with the much hotter walls of the chamber about 0.3 second after the start of injection.

  19. Investigation of air solubility in jet A fuel at high pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupprecht, S. D.; Faeth, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    The solubility and density properties of saturated mixtures of fuels and gases were measured. The fuels consisted of Jet A and dodecane, the gases were air and nitrogen. The test range included pressures of 1.03 to 10.34 MPa and temperatures of 298 to 373 K. The results were correlated successfully, using the Soave equation of state. Over this test range, dissolved gas concentrations were roughly proportional to pressure and increased slightly with increasing temperature. Mixture density was relatively independent of dissolved gas concentration.

  20. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  1. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  2. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  3. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  4. Thermomechanical properties and performance of ceramic resonators for wireless pressure reading at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturesson, P.; Khaji, Z.; Knaust, S.; Klintberg, L.; Thornell, G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on the design, fabrication, and thermomechanical study of ceramic LC resonators for wireless pressure reading, verified at room temperature, at 500 °C and at 1000 °C for pressures up to 2.5 bar. Five different devices were fabricated from high-temperature co-fired ceramics (HTCC) and characterized. Alumina green tape sheets were screen printed with platinum paste, micromachined, laminated, and fired. The resulting samples were 21 mm  ×  19 mm with different thicknesses. An embedded communicator part was integrated with either a passive backing part or with a pressure-sensing element, including an 80 µm thick and 6 mm diameter diaphragm. The study includes measuring thermally and mechanically induced resonance frequency shifts, and thermally induced deformations. For the pressure sensor device, contributions from changes in the relative permittivity and from expanding air trapped in the cavity were extracted. The devices exhibited thermomechanical robustness during heating, regardless of the thickness of the backing. The pressure sensitivity decreased with increasing temperature from 15050 ppm bar-1 at room temperature to 2400 ppm bar-1 at 1000 °C, due to the decreasing pressure difference between the external pressure and the air pressure inside the cavity.

  5. Air and gas pockets in sewerage pressure mains.

    PubMed

    Lubbers, C L; Clemens, F

    2005-01-01

    In The Netherlands, wastewater is collected in municipal areas and transported to large centralised WWTPs by means of an extensive system of pressure mains. Over the past decades these pressure mains did not receive much attention in terms of monitoring of performance or maintenance. For that reason, in practice their state of functioning is often not known. Failure of operation is only noticed when the capacity of the system proves to be insufficient to fulfil the minimum design capacity demand. A recent inventory showed that half of the pressure mains show an increased pressure loss for no directly obvious reason. Many causes may account for the reduction of the system's nominal capacity like an increased wall roughness, scaling or occurrence of free gas in the pipeline. The occurrence of free gas may be caused by degassing of dissolved (bio) gas or by air entrained at the pumps' inlet or at air valves. A research study is started that will focus on three main issues: The description of the gas-water phenomena in wastewater pressure mains with respect to transportation and dynamic hydraulic behaviour, A method to diagnose gas problems, and To overcome future problems by either applying remedial measures or improving the design of wastewater pressure systems. For this study, two experimental facilities are constructed, a small circuit for the study of multi-phase flow and a second, larger one for the research into diagnostic methods. This paper describes the preliminary results of the experiments in the multi-phase circuit.

  6. Optimizing the temperature compensation of an electronic pressure measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Maxey, L.C.; Blalock, T.V.

    1990-08-01

    In an effort to minimize temperature sensitivity, the pressure measurement channels in the sensor/electronics modules of a high-resolution multiplexed pressure measurement system were analyzed. The pressure sensor (a silicon diaphragm strain gage) was known to have two temperature-dependent parameters. Component testing revealed that the current source driving the pressure sensor was also temperature sensitive. Although the transducer manufacturer supplies empirically selected temperature compensation resistors with each transducer, it was determined that the temperature sensitivity compensation could be optimized for this application by changing one of these resistors. By modifying the value of the sensitivity compensation resistor to optimize performance in this application, the temperature sensitivity of the pressure measurement channels was reduced by more than 60%.

  7. High pressure and anesthesia: pressure stimulates or inhibits bacterial bioluminescence depending upon temperature.

    PubMed

    Nosaka, S; Kamaya, H; Ueda, I

    1988-10-01

    Although high pressure is often viewed as a nonspecific stimulus counteracting anesthesia, pressure can either excite or inhibit biological activity depending on the temperature at application. Temperature and pressure are two independent variables that determine equilibrium quantity, e.g., the state of organisms in terms of activity and anesthesia depth. We used the light intensity of luminous bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) as an activity parameter, and studied the effects of pressure and anesthetics on the bacteria's light intensity at various temperatures. The light intensity was greatest at about 30 degrees C at ambient pressure. When the system was pressurized up to 204 atm, the temperature for maximum light intensity was shifted to higher temperatures. Above the optimal temperature for the maximal light intensity, high pressure increased the light intensity. Below the optimal temperature, pressure decreased light intensity. Pressure only shifts the reaction equilibrium to the lower volume state (Le Chatelier's principle). When the volume of the excited state is larger than the resting state, high pressure inhibits excitation, and vice versa. Halothane 0.008 atm and isoflurane 0.021 atm inhibited the light intensity both above and below the optimal temperature. When pressurized, the light intensity increased in the high temperature range but decreased in the low temperature range, as in the control. Thus, high pressure seemingly potentiated the anesthetic action at low temperatures. When the ratio of the light intensity in bacteria exposed to anesthesia and those not exposed to anesthesia was plotted against the pressure, however, the value approached unity in proportion to the pressure increase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Heat transfer and pressure distributions on hemisphere-cylinders in methane-air combustion products at Mach 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, I.

    1973-01-01

    Heat-transfer and pressure distributions were measured over the surfaces of three hemisphere-cylinder models tested at a nominal Mach number of 7 in the Langley 8-foot high-temperature structures tunnel which uses methane-air products of combustion as a test medium. The results showed that the heat-transfer and pressure distributions over the surface of the models were in good agreement with experimental data obtained in air and also with theoretical predictions.

  9. Experimental study of pulsed corona discharge in air at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yunghsu; Singleton, Dan; Sanders, Jason; Kuthi, Andras; Gundersen, Martin A.

    2012-10-01

    Understanding of the dynamics of nanosecond scale pulse discharges in air at multiatmospheric pressure is essential for the development of transient plasma enhanced combustion in internal combustion engines. Here we report the result of our experimental investigation of cathode-directed streamer discharges in synthetic air at pressures ranging from 1 to 20 bar. Two pulse generators with maximum pulse amplitudes of 50 kV and 65 kV, pulse width of approximately 12 ns and 85 ns and pulse rise times of 5 ns and 50 ns are used to generate streamers. The electrodes are coaxial with various radial gaps up to 11.75 mm. The discharge chamber is evacuated and backfilled with synthetic dry air at room temperature. Optical data is obtained from PI-MAX 3 ICCD camera with 3 ns gate width. The streamer propagation velocity variation with applied voltage, different pressures and reduced electric field, E/P, will be shown. Preliminary results indicate that the (pd) similarity law is violated at high pressures in agreement with other recent experiments [1].[4pt] [1] ``Nanosecond Scale Discharge Dynamics in High Pressure Air,'' Pierre Tardiveau, Nicolas Moreau, Francois Jorand, Christian Postel, St'ephane Pasquiers, and Pierre Vervisch, IEEE Trans. on Plasma Sci., Vol. 36, No. 4, 2008.

  10. Effects of pressure and temperature on gate valve unwedging

    SciTech Connect

    Damerell, P.S.; Harrison, D.H.; Hayes, P.W.; Simons, J.W.; Walker, T.A.

    1996-12-01

    The stem thrust required to unwedge a gate valve is influenced by the pressure and temperature when the valve is closed and by the changes in these conditions between closure and opening. {open_quotes}Pressure locking{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}thermal binding{close_quotes} refer to situations where pressure and temperature effects cause the unwedging load to be much higher than normal. A model of these phenomena has been developed. Wedging (closure) is modeled as developing an {open_quotes}interference{close_quotes} between the disk and its seat rings in the valve. The effects of pressure and temperature are analyzed to determine the change in this disk-to-seat {open_quotes}interference{close_quotes}. Flexibilities, of the disk, body, stem and yoke strongly influence the unwedging thrust. Calculations and limited comparisons to data have been performed for a range of valve designs and scenarios. Pressure changes can increase the unwedging load when there is either a uniform pressure decrease, or a situation where the bonnet pressure exceeds the pressures in the adjacent piping. Temperature changes can increase the unwedging load when: (1) valve closure at elevated system temperature produces a delayed stem expansion, (2) a temperature increase after closure produces a bonnet pressure increase, or (3) a temperature change after closure produces an increase in the disk-to-seat {open_quotes}interference{close_quotes} or disk-to-seat friction.

  11. High pressure and high temperature behaviour of ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Thakar, Nilesh A.; Bhatt, Apoorva D.; Pandya, Tushar C.

    2014-04-24

    The thermodynamic properties with the wurtzite (B4) and rocksalt (B1) phases of ZnO under high pressures and high temperatures have been investigated using Tait's Equation of state (EOS). The effects of pressures and temperatures on thermodynamic properties such as bulk modulus, thermal expansivity and thermal pressure are explored for both two structures. It is found that ZnO material gradually softens with increase of temperature while it hardens with the increment of the pressure. Our predicted results of thermodynamics properties for both the phases of ZnO are in overall agreement with the available data in the literature.

  12. Optical Pressure-Temperature Sensor for a Combustion Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, John; Korman, Valentin; Gregory, Don

    2008-01-01

    A compact sensor for measuring temperature and pressure in a combusti on chamber has been proposed. The proposed sensor would include two optically birefringent, transmissive crystalline wedges: one of sapph ire (Al2O3) and one of magnesium oxide (MgO), the optical properties of both of which vary with temperature and pressure. The wedges wou ld be separated by a vapor-deposited thin-film transducer, which wou ld be primarily temperaturesensitive (in contradistinction to pressur e- sensitive) when attached to a crystalline substrate. The sensor w ould be housed in a rugged probe to survive the extreme temperatures and pressures in a combustion chamber.

  13. Variation of Azeotropic Composition and Temperature with Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbard, H. Frank; Emptage, Michael R.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment in which an azeotropic mixture is studied using the vapor pressures of the components as functions of temperature and the azeotropic composition and temperature at one pressure. Discusses in detail the mathematical treatment of obtained thermodynamic data. (MLH)

  14. Generation of subnanosecond electron beams in air at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyrya, I. D.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.; Rybka, D. V.

    2009-11-01

    Optimum conditions for the generation of runaway electron beams with maximum current amplitudes and densities in nanosecond pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure are determined. A supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) with a current amplitude of ˜30 A, a current density of ˜20 A/cm2, and a pulse full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ˜100 ps has been observed behind the output foil of an air-filled diode. It is shown that the position of the SAEB current maximum relative to the voltage pulse front exhibits a time shift that varies when the small-size collector is moved over the foil surface.

  15. Effects of confining pressure, pore pressure and temperature on absolute permeability. SUPRI TR-27

    SciTech Connect

    Gobran, B.D.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

    1981-10-01

    This study investigates absolute permeability of consolidated sandstone and unconsolidated sand cores to distilled water as a function of the confining pressure on the core, the pore pressure of the flowing fluid and the temperature of the system. Since permeability measurements are usually made in the laboratory under conditions very different from those in the reservoir, it is important to know the effect of various parameters on the measured value of permeability. All studies on the effect of confining pressure on absolute permeability have found that when the confining pressure is increased, the permeability is reduced. The studies on the effect of temperature have shown much less consistency. This work contradicts the past Stanford studies by finding no effect of temperature on the absolute permeability of unconsolidated sand or sandstones to distilled water. The probable causes of the past errors are discussed. It has been found that inaccurate measurement of temperature at ambient conditions and non-equilibrium of temperature in the core can lead to a fictitious permeability reduction with temperature increase. The results of this study on the effect of confining pressure and pore pressure support the theory that as confining pressure is increased or pore pressure decreased, the permeability is reduced. The effects of confining pressure and pore pressure changes on absolute permeability are given explicitly so that measurements made under one set of confining pressure/pore pressure conditions in the laboratory can be extrapolated to conditions more representative of the reservoir.

  16. 40 CFR 1065.120 - Fuel properties and fuel temperature and pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel properties and fuel temperature and pressure. 1065.120 Section 1065.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.120...

  17. 40 CFR 1065.120 - Fuel properties and fuel temperature and pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel properties and fuel temperature and pressure. 1065.120 Section 1065.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.120...

  18. 40 CFR 1065.120 - Fuel properties and fuel temperature and pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel properties and fuel temperature and pressure. 1065.120 Section 1065.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.120...

  19. 40 CFR 1065.120 - Fuel properties and fuel temperature and pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel properties and fuel temperature and pressure. 1065.120 Section 1065.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.120...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.120 - Fuel properties and fuel temperature and pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel properties and fuel temperature and pressure. 1065.120 Section 1065.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.120...

  1. Impacts of Changes of Indoor Air Pressure and Air Exchange Rate in Vapor Intrusion Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Shen, Rui; Suuberg, Eric M

    2016-02-01

    There has, in recent years, been increasing interest in understanding the transport processes of relevance in vapor intrusion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into buildings on contaminated sites. These studies have included fate and transport modeling. Most such models have simplified the prediction of indoor air contaminant vapor concentrations by employing a steady state assumption, which often results in difficulties in reconciling these results with field measurements. This paper focuses on two major factors that may be subject to significant transients in vapor intrusion situations, including the indoor air pressure and the air exchange rate in the subject building. A three-dimensional finite element model was employed with consideration of daily and seasonal variations in these factors. From the results, the variations of indoor air pressure and air exchange rate are seen to contribute to significant variations in indoor air contaminant vapor concentrations. Depending upon the assumptions regarding the variations in these parameters, the results are only sometimes consistent with the reports of several orders of magnitude in indoor air concentration variations from field studies. The results point to the need to examine more carefully the interplay of these factors in order to quantitatively understand the variations in potential indoor air exposures.

  2. Impacts of Changes of Indoor Air Pressure and Air Exchange Rate in Vapor Intrusion Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Rui; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    There has, in recent years, been increasing interest in understanding the transport processes of relevance in vapor intrusion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into buildings on contaminated sites. These studies have included fate and transport modeling. Most such models have simplified the prediction of indoor air contaminant vapor concentrations by employing a steady state assumption, which often results in difficulties in reconciling these results with field measurements. This paper focuses on two major factors that may be subject to significant transients in vapor intrusion situations, including the indoor air pressure and the air exchange rate in the subject building. A three-dimensional finite element model was employed with consideration of daily and seasonal variations in these factors. From the results, the variations of indoor air pressure and air exchange rate are seen to contribute to significant variations in indoor air contaminant vapor concentrations. Depending upon the assumptions regarding the variations in these parameters, the results are only sometimes consistent with the reports of several orders of magnitude in indoor air concentration variations from field studies. The results point to the need to examine more carefully the interplay of these factors in order to quantitatively understand the variations in potential indoor air exposures. PMID:28090133

  3. Single-Tip Probe Senses Pressure Or Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimarchi, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Single-tip probe designed for use in supersonic wind tunnel switched to sense pressure or temperature measurements nearly simultaneous at that point. Includes small valve like valves used in bicycle and automotive tires, called "Schraeder valve". Tire valve opened or closed by push rod and solenoid. In open position, flow past thermocouple enables measurements of temperature. In closed position, flow blocked and pressure in probe backs up to pressure transducer.

  4. Honeybee flight metabolic rate: does it depend upon air temperature?

    PubMed

    Woods, William A; Heinrich, Bernd; Stevenson, Robert D

    2005-03-01

    Differing conclusions have been reached as to how or whether varying heat production has a thermoregulatory function in flying honeybees Apis mellifera. We investigated the effects of air temperature on flight metabolic rate, water loss, wingbeat frequency, body segment temperatures and behavior of honeybees flying in transparent containment outdoors. For periods of voluntary, uninterrupted, self-sustaining flight, metabolic rate was independent of air temperature between 19 and 37 degrees C. Thorax temperatures (T(th)) were very stable, with a slope of thorax temperature on air temperature of 0.18. Evaporative heat loss increased from 51 mW g(-1) at 25 degrees C to 158 mW g(-1) at 37 degrees C and appeared to account for head and abdomen temperature excess falling sharply over the same air temperature range. As air temperature increased from 19 to 37 degrees C, wingbeat frequency showed a slight but significant increase, and metabolic expenditure per wingbeat showed a corresponding slight but significant decrease. Bees spent an average of 52% of the measurement period in flight, with 19 of 78 bees sustaining uninterrupted voluntary flight for periods of >1 min. The fraction of time spent flying declined as air temperature increased. As the fraction of time spent flying decreased, the slope of metabolic rate on air temperature became more steeply negative, and was significant for bees flying less than 80% of the time. In a separate experiment, there was a significant inverse relationship of metabolic rate and air temperature for bees requiring frequent or constant agitation to remain airborne, but no dependence for bees that flew with little or no agitation; bees were less likely to require agitation during outdoor than indoor measurements. A recent hypothesis explaining differences between studies in the slope of flight metabolic rate on air temperature in terms of differences in metabolic capacity and thorax temperature is supported for honeybees in voluntary

  5. Microcontrolled air-mattress for ulcer by pressure prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasluosta, Cristian F.; Fontana, Juan M.; Beltramone, Diego A.; Taborda, Ricardo A. M.

    2007-11-01

    An ulcer by pressure is produced when a constant pressure is exerted over the skin. This generates the collapse of the blood vessels and, therefore, a lack in the contribution of the necessary nutrients for the affected zone. As a consequence, the skin deteriorates, eventually causing an ulcer. In order to prevent it, a protocol must be applied to the patient, which is reflected on time and cost of treatment. There are some air mattresses available for this purpose, but whose performance does not fulfill all requirements. The prototype designed in our laboratory is based on the principle of the air mattress. Its objective is to improve on existing technologies and, due to an increased automation, reduce time dedication for personnel in charge of the patient. A clinical experience was made in the local Emergencies Hospital and also in an institution dedicated to aged patients care. In both cases, the results obtained and the comments from the personnel involved were favorable.

  6. The Jar Magic -- Instructional Activities for Teaching Air Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Bing-Hong; Chen, Chyong-Sun

    2013-12-01

    There are a variety of impressive activities designed for teaching the concept of air pressure to junior high school students. Water, glasses, balloons, plastic bottles, and suction cups are some of the items commonly used in these experiments. For example, if we take a glass of water, cover it with a piece of cardboard, and invert the glass, amazingly, no water spills out. Further, one may also use balloons and plastic bottles as the components in another experiment. Place a balloon in a plastic bottle and spread the balloon's mouth over the bottle's rim. Inflate the balloon by blowing into it. Students will be astonished at the fact that the balloon remains inflated even though its mouth is open. Making suction cups "stick" to the wall is also an instance of proving how air pressure works.

  7. Wastewater temperature decrease in pressure sewers.

    PubMed

    Sallanko, Jarmo; Pekkala, Mari

    2008-12-01

    The centralization of wastewater treatment in large central treatment plants and the connection of sparsely populated areas to sewerage systems have increased the time wastewater is retained in sewers. These retention times lead to a decrease in wastewater temperature and affect wastewater treatment, especially the removal of nitrogen. In this study, temperature changes in long transfer sewers were examined. The temperature change was greatest at the end of winter and in the front part of the sewer. Temperature changes in the front parts of the sewers ranged from 0.16 to 0.27 degree C/km, and in the end parts from 0.02 to 0.10 degree C/km. When expressed in terms of the retention time for wastewater in the sewer, the temperature changes ranged from 0.12 to 0.17 degree C per retention hour.

  8. AIR SEPARATION BY PRESSURE SWING ADSORPTION USING SUPERIOR ADSORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph T. Yang

    2001-08-31

    Li-X zeolite (Si/Al = 1.0) is currently the best sorbent for use in the separation of air by adsorption processes. In particular, pressure swing adsorption (PSA) using zeolite sorbents is being increasingly used for air separation. Silver is also known to strongly affect the adsorptive properties of zeolites; and it is known that thermal vacuum dehydration of silver zeolites leads to the formation of silver clusters within the zeolite. In this work we have synthesized type X zeolites containing Ag and also varying mixtures of Li and Ag. In this project, we developed the Ag-containing zeolite as the best sorbent for air separation. We have also studied Co-ligand compounds as oxygen-selective sorbents. Syntheses, structural characterization and adsorption properties have been performed on all sorbents. The results are described in detail in 5 chapters.

  9. Compliant Foil Journal Bearing Performance at Alternate Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Robert J.; Puleo, Bernadette J.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental test program has been conducted to determine the highly loaded performance of current generation gas foil bearings at alternate pressures and temperatures. Typically foil bearing performance has been reported at temperatures relevant to turbomachinery applications but only at an ambient pressure of one atmosphere. This dearth of data at alternate pressures has motivated the current test program. Two facilities were used in the test program, the ambient pressure rig and the high pressure rig. The test program utilized a 35 mm diameter by 27 mm long foil journal bearing having an uncoated Inconel X-750 top foil running against a shaft with a PS304 coated journal. Load capacity tests were conducted at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 krpm at temperatures from 25 to 500 C and at pressures from 0.1 to 2.5 atmospheres. Results show an increase in load capacity with increased ambient pressure and a reduction in load capacity with increased ambient temperature. Below one-half atmosphere of ambient pressure a dramatic loss of load capacity is experienced. Additional lightly loaded foil bearing performance in nitrogen at 25 C and up to 48 atmospheres of ambient pressure has also been reported. In the lightly loaded region of operation the power loss increases for increasing pressure at a fixed load. Knowledge of foil bearing performance at operating conditions found within potential machine applications will reduce program development risk of future foil bearing supported turbomachines.

  10. Low pressure high speed Stirling air engine. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.A.

    1980-06-16

    The purpose of this project was to design, construct and test a simple, appropriate technology low pressure, high speed, wood-fired Stirling air engine of 100 W output. The final design was a concentric piston/displacer engine of 454 in. bore and 1 in. stroke with a rhombic drive mechanism. The project engine was ultimately completed and tested, using a propane burner for all tests as a matter of convenience. The 100 W aim was exceeded, at atmospheric pressure, over a wide range of engine speed with the maximum power being 112 W at 1150 rpm. A pressure can was constructed to permit pressurization; however the grant funds were running out, and the only pressurized power test attempted was unsuccessful due to seal difficulties. This was a disappointment because numerous tests on the 4 cubic inch engine suggested power would be more than doubled with pressurization at 25 psig. A manifold was designed and constructed to permit operation of the engine over a standard No. 40 pot bellied stove. The engine was run successfully, but at reduced speed and power, over this stove. The project engine started out being rather noisy in operation, but modifications ultimately resulted in a very quiet engine. Various other difficulties and their solutions also are discussed. (LCL)

  11. Estimation of Surface Air Temperature from MODIS 1km Resolution Land Surface Temperature Over Northern China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Surface air temperature is a critical variable to describe the energy and water cycle of the Earth-atmosphere system and is a key input element for hydrology and land surface models. It is a very important variable in agricultural applications and climate change studies. This is a preliminary study to examine statistical relationships between ground meteorological station measured surface daily maximum/minimum air temperature and satellite remotely sensed land surface temperature from MODIS over the dry and semiarid regions of northern China. Studies were conducted for both MODIS-Terra and MODIS-Aqua by using year 2009 data. Results indicate that the relationships between surface air temperature and remotely sensed land surface temperature are statistically significant. The relationships between the maximum air temperature and daytime land surface temperature depends significantly on land surface types and vegetation index, but the minimum air temperature and nighttime land surface temperature has little dependence on the surface conditions. Based on linear regression relationship between surface air temperature and MODIS land surface temperature, surface maximum and minimum air temperatures are estimated from 1km MODIS land surface temperature under clear sky conditions. The statistical errors (sigma) of the estimated daily maximum (minimum) air temperature is about 3.8 C(3.7 C).

  12. PTV analysis of the entrained air into the diesel spray at high-pressure injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Naoki; Yamashita, Hayato; Mashida, Makoto

    2014-08-01

    In order to clarify the effect of high-pressure injection on soot reduction in terms of the air entrainment into spray, the air flow surrounding the spray and set-off length indicating the distance from the nozzle tip to the flame region in diffusion diesel combustion were investigated using 300MPa injection of a multi-hole injector. The measurement of the air entrainment flow was carried out at non-evaporating condition using consecutive PTV (particle tracking velocimetry) method with a high-speed camera and a high-frequency pulse YAG laser. The set-off length was measured at highpressure and high-temperature using the combustion bomb of constant volume and optical system of shadow graph method. And the amount of air entrainment into spray until reaching set-off length in diffusion combustion was studied as a factor of soot formation.

  13. Bronchomotor response to cold air or helium-oxygen at normal and high ambient pressures.

    PubMed

    Jammes, Y; Burnet, H; Cosson, P; Lucciano, M

    1988-05-01

    Effects of inhalation of cold air or helium-oxygen mixture on lung resistance (RL) were studied in anesthetized and tracheotomized rabbits under normal ambient pressure and in human volunteers under normo- and hyperbaric conditions. In artificially ventilated rabbits, an increase in RL occurred when the tracheal temperature fell to 10 degrees C. This effect was more than double with helium breathing compared to air, despite a lower respiratory heat loss by convection (Hc) with helium. In 3 normal humans, inhalation of cold air (mouth temperature = 8 degrees C) at sea level had no effect on RL value. However, with a helium-nitrogen-oxygen mixture, a weak but significant increase in RL due to cold gas breathing was measured in 1 subject at 2 ATA and in 2 individuals at 3.5 ATA. The density of inhaled gas mixture (air or He-N2-O2) was near the same in the three circumstances (1, 2, and 3.5 ATA) but Hc value increased with helium. At 8 ATA a 30-55% increase in RL occurred in the 3 divers during inhalation of cold gas (Hc was multiplied by 6 compared to air at sea level) and at 25 ATA the cold-induced bronchospasm ranged between 38 and 95% (Hc multiplied by 27). Thus, in rabbits and humans helium breathing enhanced the cold-induced increase in RL at normal or elevated ambient pressure, and this effect was interpreted as resulting from different mechanisms in the two circumstances.

  14. Ion Based High-Temperature Pressure Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Humphrey, and Chapman - Jouguet Detonation cycles to be 27%, 47%, and 49% respectively.1 In addition to the clear thermodynamic advantages, the PDE also...and durable (vibration resistant) devices. Traditional pressure sensors can be used, however thermal insulating materials must be used to protect the...ignited using a traditional spark plug connected to an ignition coil. A low DC voltage is applied across the ion sensor, a Champion RC12LYC spark plug

  15. Method and apparatus for simultaneously measuring temperature and pressure

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, Tomas B.; Haugen, Gilbert R.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for simultaneously measuring temperature and pressure in a class of crystalline materials having anisotropic thermal coefficients and having a coefficient of linear compression along the crystalline c-axis substantially the same as those perpendicular thereto. Temperature is determined by monitoring the fluorescence half life of a probe of such crystalline material, e.g., ruby. Pressure is determined by monitoring at least one other fluorescent property of the probe that depends on pressure and/or temperature, e.g., absolute fluorescent intensity or frequency shifts of fluorescent emission lines.

  16. Amorphization of Serpentine at High Pressure and High Temperature

    PubMed

    Irifune; Kuroda; Funamori; Uchida; Yagi; Inoue; Miyajima

    1996-06-07

    Pressure-induced amorphization of serpentine was observed at temperatures of 200° to 300°C and pressures of 14 to 27 gigapascals with a combination of a multianvil apparatus and synchrotron radiation. High-pressure phases then crystallized rapidly when the temperature was increased to 400°C. These results suggest that amorphization of serpentine is an unlikely mechanism for generating deep-focus earthquakes, as the temperatures of subducting slabs are significantly higher than those of the rapid crystallization regime.

  17. Emission measurements for a lean premixed propane/air system at pressures up to 30 atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roffe, G.; Venkataramani, K. S.

    1978-01-01

    The emissions of a lean premixed system of propane/air were measured in a flametube apparatus. Tests were conducted at inlet temperatures of 600K and 800K and pressures of 10 atm and 30 atm over a range of equivalence ratios. The data obtained were combined with previous data taken in the same apparatus to correlate nitrogen oxide emissions with operating conditions. Sampling probe design was found to have a pronounced effect on measured CO levels but did not influence measurements. The most effective probe tested was one which combined thermal and pressure quenching of the gas sample.

  18. 78 FR 1735 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. Air Data Pressure Transducers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... International Inc. Air Data Pressure Transducers AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... certain Honeywell International Inc. air data pressure transducers as installed on various aircraft. This AD requires various tests or checks of equipment having certain air data pressure transducers,...

  19. Development of a high temperature capacitive pressure transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egger, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    High temperature pressure transducers capable of continuous operation while exposed to 650 C were developed and evaluated over a full-scale differential pressure range of + or - 69 kPa. The design of the pressure transducers was based on the use of a diaphragm to respond to pressure, variable capacitive elements arranged to operate as a differential capacitor to measure diaphragm response and on the use of fused silica for the diaphragm and its supporting assembly. The uncertainty associated with measuring + or - 69 kPa pressures between 20C and 650C was less than + or - 6%.

  20. Recent Improvement of Medical Optical Fibre Pressure and Temperature Sensors.

    PubMed

    Poeggel, Sven; Duraibabu, Dineshbabu; Kalli, Kyriacos; Leen, Gabriel; Dooly, Gerard; Lewis, Elfed; Kelly, Jimmy; Munroe, Maria

    2015-07-13

    This investigation describes a detailed analysis of the fabrication and testing of optical fibre pressure and temperature sensors (OFPTS). The optical sensor of this research is based on an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) with integrated fibre Bragg grating (FBG) for simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements. The sensor is fabricated exclusively in glass and with a small diameter of 0.2 mm, making it suitable for volume-restricted bio-medical applications. Diaphragm shrinking techniques based on polishing, hydrofluoric (HF) acid and femtosecond (FS) laser micro-machining are described and analysed. The presented sensors were examined carefully and demonstrated a pressure sensitivity in the range of sp = 2-10 nm/kPa and a resolution of better than ΔP = 10 Pa protect (0.1 cm H2O). A static pressure test in 38 cm H2O shows no drift of the sensor in a six-day period. Additionally, a dynamic pressure analysis demonstrated that the OFPTS never exceeded a drift of more than 130 Pa (1.3 cm H2O) in a 12-h measurement, carried out in a cardiovascular simulator. The temperature sensitivity is given by k = 10.7 pm/K, which results in a temperature resolution of better than ΔT = 0.1 K. Since the temperature sensing element is placed close to the pressure sensing element, the pressure sensor is insensitive to temperature changes.

  1. Experimental Study on a Standing Wave Thermoacoustic Prime Mover with Air Working Gas at Various Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Ikhsan; Achmadin, Wahyu N.; Murti, Prastowo; Nohtomi, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    Thermoacoustic prime mover is an energy conversion device which converts thermal energy into acoustic work (sound wave). The advantages of this machine are that it can work with air as the working gas and does not produce any exhaust gases, so that it is environmentally friendly. This paper describes an experimental study on a standing wave thermoacoustic prime mover with air as the working gas at various pressures from 0.05 MPa to 0.6 MPa. We found that 0.2 MPa is the optimum pressure which gives the lowest onset temperature difference of 355 °C. This pressure value would be more preferable in harnessing low grade heat sources to power the thermoacoustic prime mover. In addition, we find that the lowest onset temperature difference is obtained when rh /δ k ratio is 2.85, where r h is the hydraulic radius of the stack and δ k is the thermal penetration depth of the gas. Moreover, the pressure amplitude of the sound wave is significantly getting larger from 2.0 kPa to 9.0 kPa as the charged pressure increases from 0.05 MPa up to 0.6 MPa.

  2. Analysis of Environmental Effects on Leaf Temperature under Sunlight, High Pressure Sodium and Light Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jacob A.; Bugbee, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The use of LED technology is commonly assumed to result in significantly cooler leaf temperatures than high pressure sodium technology. To evaluate the magnitude of this effect, we measured radiation incident to and absorbed by a leaf under four radiation sources: clear sky sunlight in the field, sunlight in a glass greenhouse, and indoor plants under either high pressure sodium or light emitting diodes. We then applied a common mechanistic energy-balance model to compare leaf to air temperature difference among the radiation sources and environments. At equal photosynthetic photon flux, our results indicate that the effect of plant water status and leaf evaporative cooling is much larger than the effect of radiation source. If plants are not water stressed, leaves in all four radiation sources were typically within 2°C of air temperature. Under clear sky conditions, cool sky temperatures mean that leaves in the field are always cooler than greenhouse or indoor plants-when photosynthetic photon flux, stomatal conductance, wind speed, vapor pressure deficit, and leaf size are equivalent. As water stress increases and cooling via transpiration decreases, leaf temperatures can increase well above air temperature. In a near-worst case scenario of water stress and low wind, our model indicates that leaves would increase 6°, 8°, 10°, and 12°C above air temperature under field, LED, greenhouse, and HPS scenarios, respectively. Because LED fixtures emit much of their heat through convection rather than radiative cooling, they result in slightly cooler leaf temperatures than leaves in greenhouses and under HPS fixtures, but the effect of LED technology on leaf temperature is smaller than is often assumed. Quantifying the thermodynamic outputs of these lamps, and their physiological consequences, will allow both researchers and the horticulture industry to make informed decisions when employing these technologies. PMID:26448613

  3. Analysis of Environmental Effects on Leaf Temperature under Sunlight, High Pressure Sodium and Light Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jacob A; Bugbee, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The use of LED technology is commonly assumed to result in significantly cooler leaf temperatures than high pressure sodium technology. To evaluate the magnitude of this effect, we measured radiation incident to and absorbed by a leaf under four radiation sources: clear sky sunlight in the field, sunlight in a glass greenhouse, and indoor plants under either high pressure sodium or light emitting diodes. We then applied a common mechanistic energy-balance model to compare leaf to air temperature difference among the radiation sources and environments. At equal photosynthetic photon flux, our results indicate that the effect of plant water status and leaf evaporative cooling is much larger than the effect of radiation source. If plants are not water stressed, leaves in all four radiation sources were typically within 2°C of air temperature. Under clear sky conditions, cool sky temperatures mean that leaves in the field are always cooler than greenhouse or indoor plants-when photosynthetic photon flux, stomatal conductance, wind speed, vapor pressure deficit, and leaf size are equivalent. As water stress increases and cooling via transpiration decreases, leaf temperatures can increase well above air temperature. In a near-worst case scenario of water stress and low wind, our model indicates that leaves would increase 6°, 8°, 10°, and 12°C above air temperature under field, LED, greenhouse, and HPS scenarios, respectively. Because LED fixtures emit much of their heat through convection rather than radiative cooling, they result in slightly cooler leaf temperatures than leaves in greenhouses and under HPS fixtures, but the effect of LED technology on leaf temperature is smaller than is often assumed. Quantifying the thermodynamic outputs of these lamps, and their physiological consequences, will allow both researchers and the horticulture industry to make informed decisions when employing these technologies.

  4. High-pressure-temperature gradient instrument: use for determining the temperature and pressure limits of bacterial growth.

    PubMed Central

    Yayanos, A A; van Boxtel, R; Dietz, A S

    1984-01-01

    A pressurized temperature gradient instrument allowed a synoptic determination of the effects of temperature and pressure on the reproduction of bacteria. The instrument consisted of eight pressure vessels housed parallel to each other in an insulated aluminum block in which a linear temperature gradient was supported. For a given experiment, eight pressures between 1 and 1,100 bars were chosen; the linear temperature gradient was established over an interval within -20 to 100 degrees C. Pure cultures and natural populations were studied in liquid or solid medium either in short (ca. 2-cm) culture tubes or in long (76.2-cm) glass capillaries. In the case of a pure culture, experiments with the pressurized temperature gradient instrument determined values of temperature and pressure that bounded its growth. Feasibility experiments with mixed populations of bacteria from water samples from a shallow depth of the sea showed that the instrument may be useful in identifying the extent to which a natural population is adapted to the temperatures and pressures at the locale of origin of the sample. Additional conceived uses of the instrument included synoptic determinations of cell functions other than reproduction and of biochemical activities. Images PMID:6391378

  5. A method enabling simultaneous pressure and temperature measurement using a single piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantlović, Miloš; Jokić, Ivana; Lazić, Žarko; Smiljanić, Milče; Obradov, Marko; Vukelić, Branko; Jakšić, Zoran; Stanković, Srđan

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we present a high-performance, simple and low-cost method for simultaneous measurement of pressure and temperature using a single piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor. The proposed measurement method utilizes the parasitic temperature sensitivity of the sensing element for both pressure measurement correction and temperature measurement. A parametric mathematical model of the sensor was established and its parameters were calculated using the obtained characterization data. Based on the model, a real-time sensor correction for both pressure and temperature measurements was implemented in a target measurement system. The proposed method was verified experimentally on a group of typical industrial-grade piezoresistive sensors. The obtained results indicate that the method enables the pressure measurement performance to exceed that of typical digital industrial pressure transmitters, achieving at the same time the temperature measurement performance comparable to industrial-grade platinum resistance temperature sensors. The presented work is directly applicable in industrial instrumentation, where it can add temperature measurement capability to the existing pressure measurement instruments, requiring little or no additional hardware, and without adverse effects on pressure measurement performance.

  6. Breakdown of air pockets in downwardly inclined sewerage pressure mains.

    PubMed

    Lubbers, C L; Clemens, F H L R

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands, wastewater is collected in municipal areas and transported to centralised WWTPs by an extensive system of pressure mains. Over the last decades these pressure mains did not receive much attention in terms of monitoring of performance or maintenance. A recent inventory showed that half of the pressure mains show an increased pressure loss for no directly obvious reason. One of the many causes that account for the reduction of the flow capacity is the occurrence of free gas in the pipeline. During dry weather periods with low flow velocities, gas may accumulate at high points in the system. Once the velocity increases during storm weather flow, the air pockets may be broken down and transported to the end of the system. A research study is started focussing on the description of the gas-water phenomena in wastewater pressure mains with respect to transportation of gas. An experimental facility is constructed for the study of multi-phase flow. This paper describes the preliminary results of experiments on breakdown rates of gas pockets as a function of inclination angle and water flow rate. The results show an increasing breakdown rate with increasing inclination angle.

  7. Air Flow and Pressure Drop Measurements Across Porous Oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Dennis S.; Cuy, Michael D.; Werner, Roger A.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of air flow tests across eight porous, open cell ceramic oxide samples. During ceramic specimen processing, the porosity was formed using the sacrificial template technique, with two different sizes of polystyrene beads used for the template. The samples were initially supplied with thicknesses ranging from 0.14 to 0.20 in. (0.35 to 0.50 cm) and nonuniform backside morphology (some areas dense, some porous). Samples were therefore ground to a thickness of 0.12 to 0.14 in. (0.30 to 0.35 cm) using dry 120 grit SiC paper. Pressure drop versus air flow is reported. Comparisons of samples with thickness variations are made, as are pressure drop estimates. As the density of the ceramic material increases the maximum corrected flow decreases rapidly. Future sample sets should be supplied with samples of similar thickness and having uniform surface morphology. This would allow a more consistent determination of air flow versus processing parameters and the resulting porosity size and distribution.

  8. Testing of heat exchangers in membrane oxygenators using air pressure.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Carole; Stein, Jutta; Seidler, Rainer; Kind, Robert; Beck, Karin; Tosok, Jürgen; Upterfofel, Jörg

    2006-03-01

    All heat exchangers (HE) in membrane oxygenators are tested by the manufacturer for water leaks during the production phase. However, for safety reasons, it is highly recommended that HEs be tested again before clinical use. The most common method is to attach the heater-cooler to the HE and allow the water to recirculate for at least 10 min, during which time a water leak should be evident. To improve the detection of water leaks, a test was devised using a pressure manometer with an integrated bulb used to pressurize the HE with air. The cardiopulmonary bypass system is set up as per protocol. A pressure manometer adapted to a 1/2" tubing is connected to the water inlet side of the oxygenator. The water outlet side is blocked with a short piece of 1/2" deadend tubing. The HE is pressurized with 250 mmHg for at least 30 sec and observed for any drop. Over the last 2 years, only one oxygenator has been detected with a water leak in which the air-method leaktest was performed. This unit was sent back to the manufacturer who confirmed the failure. Even though the incidence of water leaks is very low, it does occur and it is, therefore, important that all HEs are tested before they are used clinically. This method of using a pressure manometer offers many advantages, as the HE can be tested outside of the operating room (OR), allowing earlier testing of the oxygenator, no water contact is necessary, and it is simple, easy and quick to perform.

  9. Heat transfer and pressure drop for air flow through enhanced passages. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Obot, N.T.; Esen, E.B.

    1992-06-01

    An extensive experimental investigation was carried out to determine the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics for laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of air through a smooth passage and twenty-three enhanced passages. The internal surfaces of all enhanced passages had spirally shaped geometries; these included fluted, finned/ribbed and indented surfaces. The Reynolds number (Re) was varied between 400 and 50000. The effect of heat transfer (wall cooling or fluid heating) on pressure drop is most significant within the transition region; the recorded pressure drop with heat transfer is much higher than that without heat transfer. The magnitude of this effect depends markedly on the average surface temperature and, to a lesser extent, on the geometric characteristics of the enhanced surfaces. When the pressure drop data are reduced as values of the Fanning friction factor(f), the results are about the same with and without heat transfer for turbulent flow, with moderate differences in the laminar and transition regions.

  10. Heat transfer and pressure drop for air flow through enhanced passages

    SciTech Connect

    Obot, N.T.; Esen, E.B.

    1992-06-01

    An extensive experimental investigation was carried out to determine the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics for laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of air through a smooth passage and twenty-three enhanced passages. The internal surfaces of all enhanced passages had spirally shaped geometries; these included fluted, finned/ribbed and indented surfaces. The Reynolds number (Re) was varied between 400 and 50000. The effect of heat transfer (wall cooling or fluid heating) on pressure drop is most significant within the transition region; the recorded pressure drop with heat transfer is much higher than that without heat transfer. The magnitude of this effect depends markedly on the average surface temperature and, to a lesser extent, on the geometric characteristics of the enhanced surfaces. When the pressure drop data are reduced as values of the Fanning friction factor(f), the results are about the same with and without heat transfer for turbulent flow, with moderate differences in the laminar and transition regions.

  11. Temperature effects for high pressure processing of Picornaviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Investigation of the effects of pre-pressurization temperature on the high pressure inactivation for single strains of aichivirus (AiV), coxsackievirus A9 (CAV9) and B5 (CBV5) viruses, as well as human parechovirus -1 (HPeV), was performed. For CAV9, an average 1.99 log10 greater inactivation was ...

  12. Pressure and Temperature Sensitive Paint Measurements on Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, John

    1999-01-01

    Luminescent molecular probes imbedded in a polymer binder form a temperature or pressure paint. On excitation by light of the proper wavelength, the luminescence, which is quenched either thermally or by oxygen, is detected by a camera or photodetector. From the detected luminescent intensity, temperature and pressure can be determined. The basic photophysics, calibration, accuracy and time response of luminescent paints is described followed by applications in wind tunnels and in rotating machinery.

  13. Engineering a laser remote sensor for atmospheric pressure and temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalshoven, J. E., Jr.; Korb, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    A system for the remote sensing of atmospheric pressure and temperature is described. Resonant lines in the 7600 Angstrom oxygen A band region are used and an organic dye laser beam is tuned to measure line absorption changes with temperature or pressure. A reference beam outside this band is also transmitted for calibration. Using lidar techniques, profiling of these parameters with altitude can be accomplished.

  14. Apparatus for high-pressure and low-temperature experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golopentia, D. A.; Ruoff, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    A new type of apparatus for high-pressure experiments at low temperature (1.5 K) is presented. It uses a flat diamond anvil with a spherical indentor. It utilizes a load ring placed under the sample, so that the load (and hence pressure) can be measured in situ at low temperature. The apparatus was successfully used to investigate the high-conductivity state of sulphur. It can be used to investigate other thin film samples.

  15. Comparison of MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Air Temperature over the Continental USA Meteorological Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ping; Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Thome, Kurtis

    2014-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Impervious Surface Area (ISA) and MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the surface-temperature-based urban heat island's (UHIS) signature on LST amplitude over the continental USA and to make comparisons to local air temperatures. Air-temperature-based UHIs (UHIA), calculated using the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) daily air temperatures, are compared with UHIS for urban areas in different biomes during different seasons. NLCD ISA is used to define urban and rural temperatures and to stratify the sampling for LST and air temperatures. We find that the MODIS LST agrees well with observed air temperature during the nighttime, but tends to overestimate it during the daytime, especially during summer and in nonforested areas. The minimum air temperature analyses show that UHIs in forests have an average UHIA of 1 C during the summer. The UHIS, calculated from nighttime LST, has similar magnitude of 1-2 C. By contrast, the LSTs show a midday summer UHIS of 3-4 C for cities in forests, whereas the average summer UHIA calculated from maximum air temperature is close to 0 C. In addition, the LSTs and air temperatures difference between 2006 and 2011 are in agreement, albeit with different magnitude.

  16. Experimental investigation of air pressure affecting filtration performance of fibrous filter sheet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Yu, Xiao; Wu, Ya; Lin, Zhongping

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the effect of air pressure on their filtration performance is important for assessing the effectiveness of fibrous filters under different practical circumstances. The effectiveness of three classes of air filter sheets were investigated in laboratory-based measurements at a wide range of air pressures (60-130 KPa). The filtration efficiency was found most sensitive to the air pressure change at smaller particle sizes. As the air pressure increased from 60 to 130 KPa, significant decrease in filtration efficiency (up to 15%) and increase in pressure drop (up to 90 Pa) were observed. The filtration efficiency of the filter sheet with largest fiber diameter and smallest solid volume fraction was affected most, while the pressure drop of the filter sheet with smallest fiber diameter and largest solid volume fraction was affected most. The effect of air pressure on the filtration efficiency was slightly larger at greater filter face air velocity. However, the effect of air pressure on the pressure drop was negligible. The filtration efficiency and pressure drop were explicitly expressed as functions of the air pressure. Two coefficients were empirically derived and successfully accounted for the effects of air pressure on filtration efficiency and pressure drop.

  17. Differential-pressure-based fiber-optic temperature sensor using Fabry-Perot interferometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiegen; Yin, Jinde; Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Kun; Wang, Shuang; Zou, Shengliang

    2015-03-15

    We propose a novel fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric (FFPI) temperature sensor based on differential pressure resulting from thermal expansion of sealed air. A thin silicon diaphragm is sandwiched between two micro-circular cavity-structured Pyrex plates to construct a FP and an air cavity. The thermal expansion of sealed air induces differential pressure variation between cavities and thus the deformation of thin diaphragm, which transfers temperature change into cavity length shift of FP interferometer. Theory analysis results indicate that the temperature-sensitivity can be designed flexibly by choosing the parameters of radius and thickness of silicon diaphragm, and the differential pressure between two cavities. Experimental results demonstrate that the temperature sensitivity of 6.07 nm/°C is achieved with the resolution of 0.10°C under the range of -50°C to 100°C, and the response time is around 1.3 s with temperature change from 28°C to 100°C.

  18. Dynamic response of CTD pressure sensors to temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiswell, S. M.

    1991-10-01

    Pressure sensors used in CTDs (conductivity temperature depth) respond to transients in temperature. It is often assumed that these transients have a negligible effect on pressure. However, in a CTD used in Hawaiian waters, these transients lead to pressure errors as high as 8 db. A method is presented for correcting these errors using linear system theory by computing the response function of the pressure sensor to temperature transients. The CTD housing insulates the pressure sensor from the water to some extent, so that the effective response function is a combination of the intrinsic response of the pressure transducer convolved with a response function due to transfer of heat through the housing. Using this method, pressure is corrected to within 1 db. The impulse response functions for two similar pressure transducers are quite different, probably due to small manufacturing variations. Thermal insulation of pressure sensors also varies from CTD to CTD. The net effect is that the response functions vary considerably from CTD to CTD. .

  19. Retrieval of air temperatures from crowd-sourced battery temperatures of cell phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.

    2013-04-01

    Accurate air temperature observations are important for urban meteorology, for example to study the urban heat island and adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. The number of available temperature observations is often relatively limited. A new development is presented to derive temperature information for the urban canopy from an alternative source: cell phones. Battery temperature data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery temperature data to a server for storage. In this study, battery temperatures are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery temperatures for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily air temperatures from battery temperatures. The model is calibrated with observed air temperatures from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of air temperatures are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. Results are presented for Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved air temperatures often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily air temperatures is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree Celsius. This shows that monitoring air temperatures employing an Android application holds great promise. Since 75% of the world's population has a cell phone, 20% of the land surface of the earth has cellular telephone coverage, and 500 million devices use the Android operating system, there is a huge potential for measuring air temperatures employing cell phones. This could eventually lead to real-time world-wide temperature maps.

  20. Phonons in Si24 at simultaneously elevated temperature and pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xiao; Xu, Xiaolin; Fultz, B.; Zhang, Haidong; Strobel, Timothy A.; Kim, Duck Young

    2017-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to measure the frequencies of phonons in Si24 with an open clathrate structure at temperatures from 80 to 400 K with simultaneous pressures of 0 to 8 GPa. The frequency shifts of the different phonons were substantially different under either temperature or pressure. The quasiharmonic behavior was isolated by varying pressure at low temperatures, and the anharmonic behavior was isolated by varying temperature at low pressures. Phonon modes dominated by bond bending were anomalous, showing stiffening with temperature and softening with pressure. Both the quasiharmonic behavior and the anharmonic behavior changed markedly with simultaneous changes in temperature Δ T and pressure Δ P . With Δ T =320 K and Δ P =8 GPa , some frequency shifts that scaled with the product Δ T Δ P were as large as the shifts from Δ T and Δ P alone. The thermodynamic entropy of this material likely has a dependence on Δ T and Δ P that cannot be obtained by adding effects from quasiharmonicity and phonon-phonon anharmonicity.

  1. Vandenberg Air Force Base Pressure Gradient Wind Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Warning category winds can adversely impact day-to-day space lift operations at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. NASA's Launch Services Program and other programs at VAFB use wind forecasts issued by the 30 Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) to determine if they need to limit activities or protect property such as a launch vehicle. The 30 OSSWF tasked the AMU to develop an automated Excel graphical user interface that includes pressure gradient thresholds between specific observing stations under different synoptic regimes to aid forecasters when issuing wind warnings. This required the AMU to determine if relationships between the variables existed.

  2. Temperature effect compensation for fast differential pressure decay testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yan; Tong, Xiaomeng; Cai, Maolin

    2014-06-01

    To avoid the long temperature recovery period with differential pressure decay for leak detection, a novel method with temperature effect compensation is proposed to improve the testing efficiency without full stabilization of temperature. The mathematical model of conventional differential pressure decay testing is established to analyze the changes of temperature and pressure during the measuring period. Then the differential pressure is divided into two parts: the exponential part caused by temperature recovery and the linear part caused by leak. With prior information obtained from samples, parameters of the exponential part can be identified precisely, and the temperature effect will be compensated before it fully recovers. To verify the effect of the temperature compensated method, chambers with different volumes are tested under various pressures and the experiments show that the improved method is faster with satisfactory precision, and an accuracy less than 0.25 cc min-1 can be achieved when the compensation time is proportional to four times the theoretical thermal-time constant.

  3. Formaldehyde preparation methods for pressure and temperature dependent laser-induced fluorescence measurements.

    PubMed

    Burkert, A; Müller, D; Rieger, S; Schmidl, G; Triebel, W; Paa, W

    2015-12-01

    Formaldehyde is an excellent tracer for the early phase of ignition of hydrocarbon fuels and can be used, e.g., for characterization of single droplet ignition. However, due to its fast thermal decomposition at elevated temperatures and pressures, the determination of concentration fields from laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements is difficult. In this paper, we address LIF measurements of this important combustion intermediate using a calibration cell. Here, formaldehyde is created from evaporation of paraformaldehyde. We discuss three setups for preparation of formaldehyde/air mixtures with respect to their usability for well-defined heating of formaldehyde/air mixtures. The "basic setup" uses a resist heater around the measurement cell for investigation of formaldehyde near vacuum conditions or formaldehyde/air samples after sequential admixing of air. The second setup, described for the first time in detail here, takes advantage of a constant flow formaldehyde/air regime which uses preheated air to reduce the necessary time for gas heating. We used the constant flow system to measure new pressure dependent LIF excitation spectra in the 343 nm spectral region (41 (4) absorption band of formaldehyde). The third setup, based on a novel concept for fast gas heating via excitation of SF6 (chemically inert gas) using a TEA (transverse excitation at atmospheric pressure) CO2 laser, allows to further minimize both gas heating time and thermal decomposition. Here, an admixture of CO2 is served for real time temperature measurement based on Raman scattering. The applicability of the fast laser heating system has been demonstrated with gas mixtures of SF6 + air, SF6 + N2, as well as SF6 + N2 + CO2 at 1 bar total pressure.

  4. Formaldehyde preparation methods for pressure and temperature dependent laser-induced fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkert, A.; Müller, D.; Rieger, S.; Schmidl, G.; Triebel, W.; Paa, W.

    2015-12-01

    Formaldehyde is an excellent tracer for the early phase of ignition of hydrocarbon fuels and can be used, e.g., for characterization of single droplet ignition. However, due to its fast thermal decomposition at elevated temperatures and pressures, the determination of concentration fields from laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements is difficult. In this paper, we address LIF measurements of this important combustion intermediate using a calibration cell. Here, formaldehyde is created from evaporation of paraformaldehyde. We discuss three setups for preparation of formaldehyde/air mixtures with respect to their usability for well-defined heating of formaldehyde/air mixtures. The "basic setup" uses a resist heater around the measurement cell for investigation of formaldehyde near vacuum conditions or formaldehyde/air samples after sequential admixing of air. The second setup, described for the first time in detail here, takes advantage of a constant flow formaldehyde/air regime which uses preheated air to reduce the necessary time for gas heating. We used the constant flow system to measure new pressure dependent LIF excitation spectra in the 343 nm spectral region (414 absorption band of formaldehyde). The third setup, based on a novel concept for fast gas heating via excitation of SF6 (chemically inert gas) using a TEA (transverse excitation at atmospheric pressure) CO2 laser, allows to further minimize both gas heating time and thermal decomposition. Here, an admixture of CO2 is served for real time temperature measurement based on Raman scattering. The applicability of the fast laser heating system has been demonstrated with gas mixtures of SF6 + air, SF6 + N2, as well as SF6 + N2 + CO2 at 1 bar total pressure.

  5. Solar Eclipse Effect on Shelter Air Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Turner, R. W.; Prusa, J.; Bitzer, R. J.; Finley, S. V.

    1996-01-01

    Decreases in shelter temperature during eclipse events were quantified on the basis of observations, numerical model simulations, and complementary conceptual evaluations. Observations for the annular eclipse on 10 May 1994 over the United States are presented, and these provide insights into the temporal and spatial changes in the shelter temperature. The observations indicated near-surface temperature drops of as much as 6 C. Numerical model simulations for this eclipse event, which provide a complementary evaluation of the spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature drops, predict similar decreases. Interrelationships between the temperature drop, degree of solar irradiance reduction, and timing of the peak eclipse are also evaluated for late spring, summer, and winter sun conditions. These simulations suggest that for total eclipses the drops in shelter temperature in midlatitudes can be as high as 7 C for a spring morning eclipse.

  6. Luminescence imaging for aerodynamic temperature and pressure measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gallery, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    A luminescent temperature sensitive paint containing the molecule rhodamine B base (rhBb) is described whose emission intensity can be monitored by video camera to produce qualitative and quantitative two dimensional surface temperature maps. This paint was designed for use with the pressure sensitive paint containing platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP), but is also a useful tool when used alone in the measurement of heat flow, boundary layer transition, and quantitative surface temperature during wind tunnel studies. The ability of the rhBb paint to produce a continuous temperature map makes it possible to locate structures in the temperature field on an airfoil that are otherwise undetected by surface mounted thermocouples spaced a finite distance apart. A dual temperature/pressure sensitive paint was investigated with both the rhBb and PtOEP dyes incorporated into the silicone polymer paint base of the pressure sensor. Photodegradation and batch variations in the polymer were found to compromise the calibration parameters of the PtOEP paint and therefore the accuracy of pressure predictions. Suggestions are made for improving the prediction ability of the paint. The molecule europium(III) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate (EuTTA) is also discussed as a temperature sensor for a two layer temperature/pressure paint. EuTTA can not be directly incorporated into the silicone paint base of the PtOEP paint (as the rhBp paint can), but performs well in non-oxygenpermeable coatings. Benefits of the EuTTA temperature paint include: (1) decreased photodegradation, (2) very bright luminescence intensity, and (3) long luminescent lifetime (several hundred microseconds). The long lifetime facilitates lifetime imaging, a technique currently under development as an alternative detection method where luminescent lifetimes rather than emission intensity are related to temperature and pressure.

  7. Monitored summer peak attic air temperatures in Florida residences

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.S.; Sherwin, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) has analyzed measured summer attic air temperature data taken for some 21 houses (three with two different roof configurations) over the last several years. The analysis is in support of the calculation within ASHRAE Special Project 152P, which will be used to estimate duct system conductance gains that are exposed to the attic space. Knowledge of prevailing attic thermal conditions are critical to the duct heat transfer calculations for estimation of impacts on residential cooling system sizing. The field data were from a variety of residential monitoring projects that were classified according to intrinsic differences in roofing configurations and characteristics. The sites were occupied homes spread around the state of Florida. There were a variety of different roofing construction types, roof colors, and ventilation configurations. Data at each site were obtained from June 1 to September 30 according to the ASHRAE definition of summer. The attic air temperature and ambient air temperature were used for the data analysis. The attic air temperature was measured with a shielded type-T thermocouple at mid-attic height, halfway between the decking and insulation surface. The ambient air temperature was obtained at each site by thermocouples located inside a shielded exterior enclosure at a 3 to 4 m (10--12 ft) height. The summer 15-minute data from each site were sorted by the average ambient air temperature into the top 2.5% of the observations of the highest temperature. Within this limited group of observations, the average outside air temperature, attic air temperature, and coincident difference were reported.

  8. Plastic Foam Withstands Greater Temperatures And Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranston, John A.; Macarthur, Doug

    1993-01-01

    Improved plastic foam suitable for use in foam-core laminated composite parts and in tooling for making fiber/matrix-composite parts. Stronger at high temperatures, more thermally and dimensionally stable, machinable, resistant to chemical degradation, and less expensive. Compatible with variety of matrix resins. Made of polyisocyanurate blown with carbon dioxide and has density of 12 to 15 pounds per cubic feet. Does not contibute to depletion of ozone from atmosphere. Improved foam used in cores of composite panels in such diverse products as aircraft, automobiles, railroad cars, boats, and sporting equipment like surfboards, skis, and skateboards. Also used in thermally stable flotation devices in submersible vehicles. Machined into mandrels upon which filaments wound to make shells.

  9. Digital pressure transducer for use at high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Karplus, H.H.B.

    A digital pressure sensor for measuring fluid pressures at relatively high temperatures includes an electrically conducting fiber coupled to the fluid by a force disc that causes tension in the fiber to be a function of fluid pressure. The tension causes changes in the mechanical resonant frequency of the fiber, which is caused to vibrate in a magnetic field to produce an electrical signal from a positive-feedback amplifier at the resonant frequency. A count of this frequency provides a measure of the fluid pressure.

  10. Digital pressure transducer for use at high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Karplus, Henry H. B.

    1981-01-01

    A digital pressure sensor for measuring fluid pressures at relatively high temperatures includes an electrically conducting fiber coupled to the fluid by a force disc that causes tension in the fiber to be a function of fluid pressure. The tension causes changes in the mechanical resonant frequency of the fiber, which is caused to vibrate in a magnetic field to produce an electrical signal from a positive-feedback amplifier at the resonant frequency. A count of this frequency provides a measure of the fluid pressure.

  11. Associations of endothelial function and air temperature in diabetic subjects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Objective: Epidemiological studies consistently show that air temperature is associated with changes in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the biological mechanisms underlying the association remain largely unknown. As one index of endothelial functio...

  12. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... must be made within 100 cm of the air-intake of the engine. The measurement location must be either in... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test...

  13. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must be made within 100 cm of the air-intake of the engine. The measurement location must be either in... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test...

  14. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... location must be within 10 cm of the engine intake system (i.e., the air cleaner, for most engines.) (b... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19...

  15. Experimental investigation on pressurization performance of cryogenic tank during high-temperature helium pressurization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wang; Yanzhong, Li; Yonghua, Jin; Yuan, Ma

    2015-03-01

    Sufficient knowledge of thermal performance and pressurization behaviors in cryogenic tanks during rocket launching period is of importance to the design and optimization of a pressurization system. In this paper, ground experiments with liquid oxygen (LO2) as the cryogenic propellant, high-temperature helium exceeding 600 K as the pressurant gas, and radial diffuser and anti-cone diffuser respectively at the tank inlet were performed. The pressurant gas requirements, axial and radial temperature distributions, and energy distributions inside the propellant tank were obtained and analyzed to evaluate the comprehensive performance of the pressurization system. It was found that the pressurization system with high-temperature helium as the pressurant gas could work well that the tank pressure was controlled within a specified range and a stable discharging liquid rate was achieved. For the radial diffuser case, the injected gas had a direct impact on the tank inner wall. The severe gas-wall heat transfer resulted in about 59% of the total input energy absorbed by the tank wall. For the pressurization case with anti-cone diffuser, the direct impact of high-temperature gas flowing toward the liquid surface resulted in a greater deal of energy transferred to the liquid propellant, and the percentage even reached up to 38%. Moreover, both of the two cases showed that the proportion of energy left in ullage to the total input energy was quite small, and the percentage was only about 22-24%. This may indicate that a more efficient diffuser should be developed to improve the pressurization effect. Generally, the present experimental results are beneficial to the design and optimization of the pressurization system with high-temperature gas supplying the pressurization effect.

  16. LX-17 Deflagration at High Pressures and Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Koerner, J; Maienschein, J; Black, K; DeHaven, M; Wardell, J

    2006-10-23

    We measure the laminar deflagration rate of LX-17 (92.5 wt% TATB, 7.5 wt% Kel-F 800) at high pressure and temperature in a strand burner, thereby obtaining reaction rate data for prediction of thermal explosion violence. Simultaneous measurements of flame front time-of-arrival and temporal pressure history allow for the direct calculation of deflagration rate as a function of pressure. Additionally, deflagrating surface areas are calculated in order to provide quantitative insight into the dynamic surface structure during deflagration and its relationship to explosion violence. Deflagration rate data show that LX-17 burns in a smooth fashion at ambient temperature and is represented by the burn rate equation B = 0.2P{sup 0.9}. At 225 C, deflagration is more rapid and erratic. Dynamic deflagrating surface area calculations show that ambient temperature LX-17 deflagrating surface areas remain near unity over the pressure range studied.

  17. Validation of UARS Microwave Limb Sounder Temperature and Pressure Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbein, E. F.; Cofield, R. E.; Froidevaux, L.; Jarnot, R. F.; Lungu, T.; Read, W. G.; Shippony, Z.; Waters, J. W.; McDermid, I. S.; McGee, T. J.; Singh, U.; Gross, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Keckhut, P.; Gelman, M. E.; Nagatani, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    The accuracy and precision of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) atmospheric temperature and tangent-point pressure measurements are described. Temperatures and tangent- point pressure (atmospheric pressure at the tangent height of the field of view boresight) are retrieved from a 15-channel 63-GHz radiometer measuring O2 microwave emissions from the stratosphere and mesosphere. The Version 3 data (first public release) contains scientifically useful temperatures from 22 to 0.46 hPa. Accuracy estimates are based on instrument performance, spectroscopic uncertainty and retrieval numerics, and range from 2.1 K at 22 hPa to 4.8 K at 0.46 hPa for temperature and from 200 m (equivalent log pressure) at 10 hPa to 300 m at 0.1 hPa. Temperature accuracy is limited mainly by uncertainty in instrument characterization, and tangent-point pressure accuracy is limited mainly by the accuracy of spectroscopic parameters. Precisions are around 1 K and 100 m. Comparisons are presented among temperatures from MLS, the National Meteorological Center (NMC) stratospheric analysis and lidar stations at Table Mountain, California, Observatory of Haute Provence (OHP), France, and Goddard Spaceflight Center, Maryland. MLS temperatures tend to be 1-2 K lower than NMC and lidar, but MLS is often 5 - 10 K lower than NMC in the winter at high latitudes, especially within the northern hemisphere vortex. Winter MLS and OHP (44 deg N) lidar temperatures generally agree and tend to be lower than NMC. Problems with Version 3 MLS temperatures and tangent-point pressures are identified, but the high precision of MLS radiances will allow improvements with better algorithms planned for the future.

  18. Heart-rate monitoring by air pressure and causal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Naoki; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hata, Yutaka

    2011-06-01

    Among lots of vital signals, heart-rate (HR) is an important index for diagnose human's health condition. For instance, HR provides an early stage of cardiac disease, autonomic nerve behavior, and so forth. However, currently, HR is measured only in medical checkups and clinical diagnosis during the rested state by using electrocardiograph (ECG). Thus, some serious cardiac events in daily life could be lost. Therefore, a continuous HR monitoring during 24 hours is desired. Considering the use in daily life, the monitoring should be noninvasive and low intrusive. Thus, in this paper, an HR monitoring in sleep by using air pressure sensors is proposed. The HR monitoring is realized by employing the causal analysis among air pressure and HR. The causality is described by employing fuzzy logic. According to the experiment on 7 males at age 22-25 (23 on average), the correlation coefficient against ECG is 0.73-0.97 (0.85 on average). In addition, the cause-effect structure for HR monitoring is arranged by employing causal decomposition, and the arranged causality is applied to HR monitoring in a setting posture. According to the additional experiment on 6 males, the correlation coefficient is 0.66-0.86 (0.76 on average). Therefore, the proposed method is suggested to have enough accuracy and robustness for some daily use cases.

  19. Incompressibility of osmium metal at ultrahigh pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Armentrout, Matt M.; Kavner, Abby

    2010-07-23

    Osmium is one of the most incompressible elemental metals, and is used as a matrix material for synthesis of ultrahard materials. To examine the behavior of osmium metal under extreme conditions of high pressure and temperature, we measured the thermal equation of state of osmium metal at pressures up to 50 GPa and temperatures up to 3000 K. X-ray diffraction measurements were conducted in the laser heated diamond anvil cell at GeoSoilEnviroCARS and the High Pressure at the Advanced Photon Source and beamline 12.2.2 at the advanced light source. Ambient temperature data give a zero pressure bulk modulus of 421 (3) GPa with a first pressure derivative fixed at 4. Fitting to a high temperature Birch-Murnaghan equation of state gives a room pressure thermal expansion of 1.51(0.06) x 10{sup -5} K{sup -1} with a first temperature derivative of 4.9(0.7) x 10{sup -9} K{sup -2} and the first temperature derivative of bulk modulus of be dK{sub 0}/dT = -0.055 (0.004). Fitting to a Mie-Grueneisen-Debye equation of state gives a Grueneisen parameter of 2.32 (0.08) with a q of 7.2 (1.4). A comparison of the high pressure, temperature behavior among Re, Pt, Os, shows that Os has the highest bulk modulus and lowest thermal expansion of the three, suggesting that Os-based ultrahard materials may be especially mechanically stable under extreme conditions.

  20. High Lapse Rates in AIRS Retrieved Temperatures in Cold Air Outbreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric J.; Kahn, Brian; Olsen, Edward T.; Fishbein, Evan

    2004-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) experiment, on NASA's Aqua spacecraft, uses a combination of infrared and microwave observations to retrieve cloud and surface properties, plus temperature and water vapor profiles comparable to radiosondes throughout the troposphere, for cloud cover up to 70%. The high spectral resolution of AIRS provides sensitivity to important information about the near-surface atmosphere and underlying surface. A preliminary analysis of AIRS temperature retrievals taken during January 2003 reveals extensive areas of superadiabatic lapse rates in the lowest kilometer of the atmosphere. These areas are found predominantly east of North America over the Gulf Stream, and, off East Asia over the Kuroshio Current. Accompanying the high lapse rates are low air temperatures, large sea-air temperature differences, and low relative humidities. Imagery from a Visible / Near Infrared instrument on the AIRS experiment shows accompanying clouds. These lines of evidence all point to shallow convection in the bottom layer of a cold air mass overlying warm water, with overturning driven by heat flow from ocean to atmosphere. An examination of operational radiosondes at six coastal stations in Japan shows AIRS to be oversensitive to lower tropospheric lapse rates due to systematically warm near-surface air temperatures. The bias in near-surface air temperature is seen to be independent of sea surface temperature, however. AIRS is therefore sensitive to air-sea temperature difference, but with a warm atmospheric bias. A regression fit to radiosondes is used to correct AIRS near-surface retrieved temperatures, and thereby obtain an estimate of the true atmosphere-ocean thermal contrast in five subtropical regions across the north Pacific. Moving eastward, we show a systematic shift in this air-sea temperature differences toward more isothermal conditions. These results, while preliminary, have implications for our understanding of heat flow from ocean to

  1. Thermal separation of soil particles from thermal conductivity measurement under various air pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Sen; Ren, Tusheng; Lu, Yili; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jinsong

    2017-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of dry soils is related closely to air pressure and the contact areas between solid particles. In this study, the thermal conductivity of two-phase soil systems was determined under reduced and increased air pressures. The thermal separation of soil particles, i.e., the characteristic dimension of the pore space (d), was then estimated based on the relationship between soil thermal conductivity and air pressure. Results showed that under both reduced and increased air pressures, d estimations were significantly larger than the geometrical mean separation of solid particles (D), which suggested that conductive heat transfer through solid particles dominated heat transfer in dry soils. The increased air pressure approach gave d values lower than that of the reduced air pressure method. With increasing air pressure, more collisions between gas molecules and solid surface occurred in micro-pores and intra-aggregate pores due to the reduction of mean free path of air molecules. Compared to the reduced air pressure approach, the increased air pressure approach expressed more micro-pore structure attributes in heat transfer. We concluded that measuring thermal conductivity under increased air pressure procedures gave better-quality d values, and improved soil micro-pore structure estimation.

  2. Thermal separation of soil particles from thermal conductivity measurement under various air pressures.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sen; Ren, Tusheng; Lu, Yili; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jinsong

    2017-01-05

    The thermal conductivity of dry soils is related closely to air pressure and the contact areas between solid particles. In this study, the thermal conductivity of two-phase soil systems was determined under reduced and increased air pressures. The thermal separation of soil particles, i.e., the characteristic dimension of the pore space (d), was then estimated based on the relationship between soil thermal conductivity and air pressure. Results showed that under both reduced and increased air pressures, d estimations were significantly larger than the geometrical mean separation of solid particles (D), which suggested that conductive heat transfer through solid particles dominated heat transfer in dry soils. The increased air pressure approach gave d values lower than that of the reduced air pressure method. With increasing air pressure, more collisions between gas molecules and solid surface occurred in micro-pores and intra-aggregate pores due to the reduction of mean free path of air molecules. Compared to the reduced air pressure approach, the increased air pressure approach expressed more micro-pore structure attributes in heat transfer. We concluded that measuring thermal conductivity under increased air pressure procedures gave better-quality d values, and improved soil micro-pore structure estimation.

  3. Thermal separation of soil particles from thermal conductivity measurement under various air pressures

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Sen; Ren, Tusheng; Lu, Yili; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jinsong

    2017-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of dry soils is related closely to air pressure and the contact areas between solid particles. In this study, the thermal conductivity of two-phase soil systems was determined under reduced and increased air pressures. The thermal separation of soil particles, i.e., the characteristic dimension of the pore space (d), was then estimated based on the relationship between soil thermal conductivity and air pressure. Results showed that under both reduced and increased air pressures, d estimations were significantly larger than the geometrical mean separation of solid particles (D), which suggested that conductive heat transfer through solid particles dominated heat transfer in dry soils. The increased air pressure approach gave d values lower than that of the reduced air pressure method. With increasing air pressure, more collisions between gas molecules and solid surface occurred in micro-pores and intra-aggregate pores due to the reduction of mean free path of air molecules. Compared to the reduced air pressure approach, the increased air pressure approach expressed more micro-pore structure attributes in heat transfer. We concluded that measuring thermal conductivity under increased air pressure procedures gave better-quality d values, and improved soil micro-pore structure estimation. PMID:28054663

  4. Method transfer from high-pressure liquid chromatography to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography. II. Temperature and pressure effects.

    PubMed

    Åsberg, Dennis; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Leśko, Marek; Cavazzini, Alberto; Kaczmarski, Krzysztof; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2015-07-03

    The importance of the generated temperature and pressure gradients in ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) are investigated and compared to high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The drug Omeprazole, together with three other model compounds (with different chemical characteristics, namely uncharged, positively and negatively charged) were used. Calculations of the complete temperature profile in the column at UHPLC conditions showed, in our experiments, a temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of 16 °C and a difference of 2 °C between the column center and the wall. Through van't Hoff plots, this information was used to single out the decrease in retention factor (k) solely due to the temperature gradient. The uncharged solute was least affected by temperature with a decrease in k of about 5% while for charged solutes the effect was more pronounced, with k decreases up to 14%. A pressure increase of 500 bar gave roughly 5% increase in k for the uncharged solute, while omeprazole and the other two charged solutes gave about 25, 20 and 15% increases in k, respectively. The stochastic model of chromatography was applied to estimate the dependence of the average number of adsorption/desorption events (n) and the average time spent by a molecule in the stationary phase (τs) on temperature and pressure on peak shape for the tailing, basic solute. Increasing the temperature yielded an increase in n and decrease in τs which resulted in less skew at high temperatures. With increasing pressure, the stochastic modeling gave interesting results for the basic solute showing that the skew of the peak increased with pressure. The conclusion is that pressure effects are more pronounced for both retention and peak shape than the temperature effects for the polar or charged compounds in our study.

  5. Seasonal emanation of radon at Ghuttu, northwest Himalaya: Differentiation of atmospheric temperature and pressure influences.

    PubMed

    Kamra, Leena

    2015-11-01

    Continuous monitoring of radon along with meteorological parameters has been carried out in a seismically active area of Garhwal region, northwest Himalaya, within the frame work of earthquake precursory research. Radon measurements are carried out by using a gamma ray detector installed in the air column at a depth of 10m in a 68m deep borehole. The analysis of long time series for 2006-2012 shows strong seasonal variability masked by diurnal and multi-day variations. Isolation of a seasonal cycle by minimising short-time by 31 day running average shows a strong seasonal variation with unambiguous dependence on atmospheric temperature and pressure. The seasonal characteristics of radon concentrations are positively correlated to atmospheric temperature (R=0.95) and negatively correlated to atmospheric pressure (R=-0.82). The temperature and pressure variation in their annual progressions are negatively correlated. The calculations of partial correlation coefficient permit us to conclude that atmospheric temperature plays a dominant role in controlling the variability of radon in borehole, 71% of the variability in radon arises from the variation in atmospheric temperature and about 6% of the variability is contributed by atmospheric pressure. The influence of pressure variations in an annual cycle appears to be a pseudo-effect, resulting from the negative correlation between temperature and pressure variations. Incorporation of these results explains the varying and even contradictory claims regarding the influence of the pressure variability on radon changes in the published literature. Temperature dependence, facilitated by the temperature gradient in the borehole, controls the transportation of radon from the deep interior to the surface.

  6. Complete temperature profiles in ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography columns.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2008-07-01

    The temperature profiles were calculated along and across seven packed columns (lengths 30, 50, 100, and 150 mm, i.d., 1 and 2.1 mm, all packed with Acquity UPLC, BEH-C 18 particles, average d(p) approximately 1.7 microm) and their stainless steel tubes (o.d. 4.53 and 6.35 mm). These columns were kept horizontal and sheltered from forced air convection (i.e., under still air conditions), at room temperature. They were all percolated with pure acetonitrile, either under the maximum pressure drop (1034 bar) or at the maximum flow rate (2 mL/min) permitted by the chromatograph. The heat balance equation of chromatographic columns was discretized and solved numerically with minimum approximation. Both the compressibility and the thermal expansion of the eluent were taken into account. The boundary conditions were determined from the experimental measurements of the column inlet pressure and of the temperature profile along the column wall, which were made with a precision better than +/-0.1 K. These calculation results provide the 3-D temperature profiles along and across the columns. The axial and radial temperature gradients are discussed in relationship with the experimental conditions used. The temperature map obtained permits a prediction of the chromatographic data obtained under a very high pressure gradient.

  7. Properties of planetary fluids at high pressure and temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nellis, W. J.; Hamilton, D. C.; Holmes, N. C.; Radousky, H. B.; Ree, F. H.; Ross, M.; Young, D. A.; Nicol, M.

    1987-01-01

    In order to derive models of the interiors of Uranus, Neptune, Jupiter and Saturn, researchers studied equations of state and electrical conductivities of molecules at high dynamic pressures and temperatures. Results are given for shock temperature measurements of N2 and CH4. Temperature data allowed demonstration of shock induced cooling in the the transition region and the existence of crossing isotherms in P-V space.

  8. Air pressure waves from Mount St. Helens eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.W.

    1987-10-20

    Weather station barograph records as well as infrasonic recordings of the pressure wave from the Mount St. Helens eruption of May 18, 1980, have been used to estimate an equivalent explosion airblast yield for this event. Pressure amplitude versus distance patterns in various directions compared with patterns from other large explosions, such as atmospheric nuclear tests, the Krakatoa eruption, and the Tunguska comet impact, indicate that the wave came from an explosion equivalent of a few megatons of TNT. The extent of tree blowdown is considerably greater than could be expected from such an explosion, and the observed forest damage is attributed to outflow of volcanic material. The pressure-time signature obtained at Toledo, Washington, showed a long, 13-min duration negative phase as well as a second, hour-long compression phase, both probably caused by ejacta dynamics rather than standard explosion wave phenomenology. The peculiar audibility pattern, with the blast being heard only at ranges beyond about 100 km, is explicable by finite amplitude propagation effects. Near the source, compression was slow, taking more than a second but probably less than 5 s, so that it went unnoticed by human ears and susceptible buildings were not damaged. There was no damage as Toledo (54 km), where the recorded amplitude would have broken windows with a fast compression. An explanation is that wave emissions at high elevation angles traveled to the upper stratosphere, where low ambient air pressures caused this energetic pressure oscillation to form a shock wave with rapid, nearly instantaneous compression. Atmospheric refraction then returned part of this wave to ground level at long ranges, where the fast compressions were clearly audible. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  9. Pressurized air cathodes for enhanced stability and power generation by microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Weihua; Yang, Wulin; Tian, Yushi; Zhu, Xiuping; Liu, Jia; Feng, Yujie; Logan, Bruce E.

    2016-11-01

    Large differences between the water and air pressure in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can deform and damage cathodes. To avoid deformation, the cathode air pressure was controlled to balance pressure differences between the air and water. Raising the air pressures from 0 to 10 kPa at a set cathode potential of -0.3 V (versus Ag/AgCl) enhanced cathode performance by 17%, but pressures ≥25 kPa decreased current and resulted in air leakage into the solution. Matching the air pressure with the water pressure avoided cathode deformation and improved performance. The maximum power density increased by 15%, from 1070 ± 20 to 1230 ± 70 mW m-2, with balanced air and water pressures of 10-25 kPa. Oxygen partial pressures ≥12.5 kPa in the cathode compartment maintained the oxygen reduction rate to be within 92 ± 1% of that in ambient air. The use of pressurized air flow through the cathode compartments can enable closer spacing of the cathodes compared to passive gas transfer systems, which could make the reactor design more compact. The energy cost of pressurizing the cathodes was estimated to be smaller than the increase in power that resulted from the use of pressurized cathodes.

  10. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 °C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 °C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 °C to 255 °C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor.

  11. Temperature Correction of Pressure-Sensitive Paints Simplified

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencic, Timothy J.

    2000-01-01

    Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) has become a useful tool to augment conventional pressure taps in measuring the surface pressure distribution of aerodynamic components in wind tunnel testing. Although PSP offers the advantage of nonintrusive global mapping of the surface pressure, one prominent drawback to the accuracy of this technique is the inherent temperature sensitivity of PSP's luminescent intensity. Typical aerodynamic surface PSP tests rely on the coated surface to be both spatially and temporally isothermal, along with conventional instrumentation, to yield the highest accuracy pressure mappings. In some tests, however, spatial and temporal thermal gradients are generated by the nature of the test, as in a blowing jet impinging on a surface. In these cases, high accuracy and reliable data cannot be obtained unless the temperature variations on the painted surface are accounted for. A new temperature-correction technique was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to collapse a "family" of PSP calibration curves to a single curve of intensity ratio versus pressure. This correction allows a streamlined procedure to be followed whether or not temperature information is used in the data reduction of the PSP.

  12. SiC-based optical interferometry at high pressures and temperatures for pressure and chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dakshinamurthy, Surendramohan; Quick, Nathaniel R.; Kar, Aravinda

    2006-05-01

    Crystalline silicon carbide is a chemically inert wide band gap semiconductor with good mechanical strength and oxidation-resistant properties at elevated temperatures, which make it a good sensor material for harsh environments such as combustion chambers and turbine systems. For such cases, optical sensors are generally superior to electrical sensors in many aspects such as responsivity, detectivity, and sensitivity. This paper presents a wireless technique for pressure and chemical sensing based on the pressure-and temperature-dependent refractive indices of silicon carbide. A helium-neon laser with a wavelength of 632.8 nm was used as a probe laser to obtain the complementary Airy pattern of the laser power reflected off a silicon carbide wafer segment at high temperatures (up to 300 °C) and pressures (up to 400 psi). The interference patterns revealed unique characteristics for nitrogen and argon test gases. This pattern is different at the same pressure and temperature for the two gases, indicating the chemical sensing selectivity capability of silicon carbide. Also the pattern changes with pressures for the same gas, indicating the pressure sensing capability. The refractive index of silicon carbide has been obtained for different pressures and temperatures using the interference pattern. A three-layer model has been employed to determine the refractive indices of the gases using the reflected power data.

  13. Effects of pressure on syngas/air turbulent nonpremixed flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bok Jik; Im, Hong G.; Ciottoli, Pietro Paolo; Valorani, Mauro

    2016-11-01

    Large eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent non-premixed jet flames were conducted to investigate the effects of pressure on the syngas/air flame behavior. The software to solve the reactive Navier-Stokes equations was developed based on the OpenFOAM framework, using the YSLFM library for the flamelet-based chemical closure. The flamelet tabulation is obtained by means of an in-house code designed to solve unsteady flamelets of both ideal and real fluid mixtures. The validation of the numerical setup is attained by comparison of the numerical results with the Sandia/ETH-Zurich experimental database of the CO/H2/N2 non-premixed, unconfined, turbulent jet flame, referred to as "Flame A". Two additional simulations, at pressure conditions of 2 and 5 atm, are compared and analyzed to unravel computational and scientific challenges in characterizing turbulent flames at high pressures. A set of flamelet solutions, representative of the jet flames under review, are analyzed following a CSP approach. In particular, the Tangential Stretching Rate (TSR), representing the reciprocal of the most energetic time scale associated with the chemical source term, and its extension to reaction-diffusion systems (extended TSR), are adopted.

  14. Effect of Temperature and Pressure on the Stability of Protein Microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Rovers, Tijs A M; Sala, Guido; van der Linden, Erik; Meinders, Marcel B J

    2016-01-13

    Protein microbubbles are air bubbles with a network of interacting proteins at the air-water interface. Protein microbubbles are commonly used in medical diagnostic and therapeutic research. They have also recently gained interest in the research area of food as they can be used as structural elements to control texture, allowing for the manufacture of healthier foods with increased consumer perception. For the application of microbubbles in the food industry, it is important to gain insights into their stability under food processing conditions. In this study, we tested the stability of protein microbubbles against heating and pressurization. Microbubbles could be heated to 50 °C for 2 min or pressurized to 100 kPa overpressure for 15 s without significantly affecting their stability. At higher pressures and temperatures, the microbubbles became unstable and buckled. Buckling was observed above a critical pressure and was influenced by the shell modulus. The addition of cross-linkers like glutaraldehyde and tannic acid resulted in microbubbles that were stable against all tested temperatures and overpressures, more specifically, up to 120 °C and 470 kPa, respectively. We found a relation between the storage temperatures of microbubble dispersions (4, 10, 15, and 21 °C) and a decrease in the number of microbubbles with the highest decrease at the highest storage temperature. The average rupture time of microbubbles stored at different storage temperatures followed an Arrhenius relation with an activation energy for rupture of the shell of approximately 27 kT. This strength ensures applicability of microbubbles in food processes only at moderate temperatures and storage for a moderate period of time. After the proteins in the shell are cross-linked, the microbubbles can withstand pressures and temperatures that are representative of food processes.

  15. High pressure phase transitions in lawsonite at simultaneous high pressure and temperature: A single crystal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Bannon, E. F., III; Vennari, C.; Beavers, C. C. G.; Williams, Q. C.

    2015-12-01

    Lawsonite (CaAl2Si2O7(OH)2.H2O) is a hydrous mineral with a high overall water content of ~11.5 wt.%. It is a significant carrier of water in subduction zones to depths greater than ~150 km. The structure of lawsonite has been extensively studied under room temperature, high-pressure conditions. However, simultaneous high-pressure and high-temperature experiments are scarce. We have conducted synchrotron-based simultaneous high-pressure and temperature single crystal experiments on lawsonite up to a maximum pressure of 8.4 GPa at ambient and high temperatures. We used a natural sample of lawsonite from Valley Ford, California (Sonoma County). At room pressure and temperature lawsonite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system with Cmcm symmetry. Room temperature compression indicates that lawsonite remains in the orthorhombic Cmcm space group up to ~9.0 GPa. Our 5.0 GPa crystal structure is similar to the room pressure structure, and shows almost isotropic compression of the crystallographic axes. Unit cell parameters at 5.0 GPa are a- 5.7835(10), b- 8.694(2), and c- 13.009(3). Single-crystal measurements at simultaneous high-pressure and temperature (e.g., >8.0 GPa and ~100 oC) can be indexed to a monoclinic P-centered unit cell. Interestingly, a modest temperature increase of ~100 oC appears to initiate the orthorhombic to monoclinic phase transition at ~0.6-2.4 GPa lower than room temperature compression studies have shown. There is no evidence of dehydration or H atom disorder under these conditions. This suggests that the orthorhombic to monoclinic transition could be kinetically impeded at 298 K, and that monoclinic lawsonite could be the dominant water carrier through much of the depth range of upper mantle subduction processes.

  16. High Pressure/Temperature Metal Silicate Partitioning of Tungsten

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shofner, G. A.; Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; Campbell, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of chemical elements during metal/silicate segregation and their resulting distribution in Earth's mantle and core provide insight into core formation processes. Experimental determination of partition coefficients allows calculations of element distributions that can be compared to accepted values of element abundances in the silicate (mantle) and metallic (core) portions of the Earth. Tungsten (W) is a moderately siderophile element and thus preferentially partitions into metal versus silicate under many planetary conditions. The partitioning behavior has been shown to vary with temperature, silicate composition, oxygen fugacity, and pressure. Most of the previous work on W partitioning has been conducted at 1-bar conditions or at relatively low pressures, i.e. <10 GPa, and in two cases at or near 20 GPa. According to those data, the stronger influences on the distribution coefficient of W are temperature, composition, and oxygen fugacity with a relatively slight influence in pressure. Predictions based on extrapolation of existing data and parameterizations suggest an increased pressured dependence on metal/ silicate partitioning of W at higher pressures 5. However, the dependence on pressure is not as well constrained as T, fO2, and silicate composition. This poses a problem because proposed equilibration pressures for core formation range from 27 to 50 GPa, falling well outside the experimental range, therefore requiring exptrapolation of a parametereized model. Higher pressure data are needed to improve our understanding of W partitioning at these more extreme conditions.

  17. Low temperature measurement of the vapor pressures of planetary molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, George F.

    1989-01-01

    Interpretation of planetary observations and proper modeling of planetary atmospheres are critically upon accurate laboratory data for the chemical and physical properties of the constitutes of the atmospheres. It is important that these data are taken over the appropriate range of parameters such as temperature, pressure, and composition. Availability of accurate, laboratory data for vapor pressures and equilibrium constants of condensed species at low temperatures is essential for photochemical and cloud models of the atmospheres of the outer planets. In the absence of such data, modelers have no choice but to assume values based on an educated guess. In those cases where higher temperature data are available, a standard procedure is to extrapolate these points to the lower temperatures using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Last summer the vapor pressures of acetylene (C2H2) hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and cyanoacetylene (HC3N) was measured using two different methods. At the higher temperatures 1 torr and 10 torr capacitance manometers were used. To measure very low pressures, a technique was used which is based on the infrared absorption of thin film (TFIR). This summer the vapor pressure of acetylene was measured the TFIR method. The vapor pressure of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was measured using capacitance manometers. Results for H2O agree with literature data over the common range of temperature. At the lower temperatures the data lie slightly below the values predicted by extrapolation of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Thin film infrared (TFIR) data for acetylene lie significantly below the values predicted by extrapolation. It is hoped to bridge the gap between the low end of the CM data and the upper end of the TFIR data in the future using a new spinning rotor gauge.

  18. Emission spectroscopy of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet operated with air at low frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, L.; Gallego, J. L.; Minotti, F.; Kelly, H.; Grondona, D.

    2015-03-01

    Low-temperature, high-pressure plasma jets have an extensive use in plasma biology and plasma medicine, such as pathogen deactivation, wound disinfection, stopping of bleeding without damage of healthy tissue, acceleration of wound healing, control of bio-film proliferation, etc. In this work, a spectroscopic characterization of a typical plasma jet, operated in air at atmospheric pressure, is reported. Within the spectrum of wavelengths from 200 to 450 nm all remarkable emissions of N2 were monitored. Spectra of the N2 2nd positive system (C3Πu-B3Πg) emitted in air are the most convenient for plasma diagnostics, since they enable to determine electronic Te, rotational Tr and vibrational Tv temperatures by fitting the experimental spectra with the simulated ones. We used SPECAIR software for spectral simulation and obtained the best fit with all these temperatures about 3500K. The conclusion that all temperatures are equal, and its relatively high value, is consistent with the results of a previous work, where it was found that the experimentally determined electrical characteristic was consistent with the model of a thermal arc discharge, together with a highly collisional cathode sheet.

  19. Ambient air temperature effects on the temperature of sewage sludge composting process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qi-fei; Chen, Tong-bin; Gao, Ding; Huang, Ze-chun

    2005-01-01

    Using data obtained with a full-scale sewage sludge composting facility, this paper studied the effects of ambient air temperature on the composting temperature with varying volume ratios of sewage sludge and recycled compost to bulking agent. Two volume ratios were examined experimentally, 1: 0: 1 and 3: 1: 2. The results show that composting temperature was influenced by ambient air temperature and the influence was more significant when composting was in the temperature rising process: composting temperature changed 2.4-6.5 degrees C when ambient air temperature changed 13 degrees C. On the other hand, the influence was not significant when composting was in the high-temperature and/or temperature falling process: composting temperature changed 0.75-1.3 degrees C when ambient air temperature changed 8-15 degrees C. Hysteresis effect was observed in composting temperature's responses to ambient air temperature. When the ventilation capability of pile was excellent (at a volume ratio of 1:0:1), the hysteresis time was short and ranging 1.1-1.2 h. On the contrary, when the proportion of added bulking agent was low, therefore less porosity in the substrate (at a volume ratio of 3:1:2), the hysteresis time was long and ranging 1.9-3.1 h.

  20. Effect of Initial Mixture Temperature on Flame Speed of Methane-Air, Propane-Air, and Ethylene-Air Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugger, Gordon L

    1952-01-01

    Flame speeds based on the outer edge of the shadow cast by the laminar Bunsen cone were determined as functions of composition for methane-air mixtures at initial mixture temperatures ranging from -132 degrees to 342 degrees c and for propane-air and ethylene-air mixtures at initial mixture temperatures ranging from -73 degrees to 344 degrees c. The data showed that maximum flame speed increased with temperature at an increasing rate. The percentage change in flame speed with change in initial temperature for the three fuels followed the decreasing order, methane, propane, and ethylene. Empirical equations were determined for maximum flame speed as a function of initial temperature over the temperature range covered for each fuel. The observed effect of temperature on flame speed for each of the fuels was reasonably well predicted by either the thermal theory as presented by Semenov or the square-root law of Tanford and Pease.

  1. Dual pressure-dual temperature isotope exchange process

    DOEpatents

    Babcock, D.F.

    1974-02-12

    A liquid and a gas stream, each containing a desired isotope, flow countercurrently through two liquid-gas contacting towers maintained at different temperatures and pressures. The liquid is enriched in the isotope in one tower while the gas is enriched within the other and a portion of at least one of the enriched streams is withdrawn from the system for use or further enrichment. The tower operated at the lower temperature is also maintained at the lower pressure to prevent formation of solid solvates. Gas flow between the towers passes through an expander-compressor apparatas to recover work from the expansion of gas to the lower pressure and thereby compress the gas returning to the tower of higher pressure. (Official Gazette)

  2. Modeling the chemical kinetics of high-pressure glow discharges in mixtures of helium with real air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalder, K. R.; Vidmar, R. J.; Nersisyan, G.; Graham, W. G.

    2006-05-01

    Atmospheric and near-atmospheric pressure glow discharges generated in both pure helium and helium-air mixtures have been studied using a plasma chemistry code originally developed for simulations of electron-beam-produced air plasmas. Comparisons are made with experimental data obtained from high-pressure glow discharges in helium-air mixtures developed by applying sinusoidal voltage wave forms between two parallel planar metallic electrodes covered by glass plates, with frequencies ranging from 10 to 50 kHz and electric field strengths up to 5 kV/cm. The code simulates the plasma chemistry following periodic pulsations of ionization in prescribed E/N environments. Many of the rate constants depend on gas temperature, electron temperature, and E/N. In helium plasmas with small amounts (~850 ppm) of air added, rapid conversion of atomic helium ions to molecular helium ions dominate the positive ion kinetics and these species are strongly modulated while the radical species are not. The charged and neutral species concentrations at atmospheric pressure with air impurity levels up to 10 000 ppm are predicted. The negative ion densities are very small but increase as the air impurity level is raised, which indicates that in helium-based systems operated in open air the concentration of negative ions would be significant. If water vapor at typical humidity levels is present as one of the impurities, hydrated cluster ions eventually comprise a significant fraction of the charged species.

  3. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made either... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES...

  4. Passive Resistor Temperature Compensation for a High-Temperature Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zong; Liang, Ting; Jia, Pinggang; Hong, Yingping; Qi, Lei; Lei, Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Li, Wangwang; Zhang, Diya; Xiong, Jijun

    2016-01-01

    The main limitation of high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensors is the variation of output voltage with operating temperature, which seriously reduces their measurement accuracy. This paper presents a passive resistor temperature compensation technique whose parameters are calculated using differential equations. Unlike traditional experiential arithmetic, the differential equations are independent of the parameter deviation among the piezoresistors of the microelectromechanical pressure sensor and the residual stress caused by the fabrication process or a mismatch in the thermal expansion coefficients. The differential equations are solved using calibration data from uncompensated high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensors. Tests conducted on the calibrated equipment at various temperatures and pressures show that the passive resistor temperature compensation produces a remarkable effect. Additionally, a high-temperature signal-conditioning circuit is used to improve the output sensitivity of the sensor, which can be reduced by the temperature compensation. Compared to traditional experiential arithmetic, the proposed passive resistor temperature compensation technique exhibits less temperature drift and is expected to be highly applicable for pressure measurements in harsh environments with large temperature variations. PMID:27455271

  5. An Air Temperature Cloud Height Precipitation Phase Determination Scheme for Surface Based Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiccabrino, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    C, and was within 0.2% of the wet-bulb temperature threshold 0.6°C. This supports the use of cloud base heights with surface air temperature thresholds for rain/snow determination, and gives a useful option to the use of wet-bulb temperatures, which are often not reported and may not be calculated if air pressure or relative humidity measurements are not available.

  6. Temperature of maximum density in water at negative pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, S.J.; Speedy, R.J.

    1987-05-21

    The locus of the temperature of maximum density in stretched water is reported to pressures below -200 bar for H/sub 2/O, D/sub 2/O, and an HDO mixture. The water samples were stretched in a fine helical capillary by the Berthelot tube principle. Pressure in the sample was measured by monitoring the unwinding of the helix, using the Bourdon tube principle.

  7. Rock Deformation at High Confining Pressure and Temperature.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    debugged, delivered and installed to the contracting agency. Clay specimens of illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite were deformed in tri-axial compression...at 25 and 3000C at a constant confining pressure of 2 kb and a constant strain rate of .0001 sec. The illite and kaolinite are stronger under these...conditions than montmorillonite . Cores from dolomite single crystals were deformed at a confining pressure of 7 kb and temperatures of 300 and 500C

  8. Pressure-Temperature Phase Diagram of Vanadium Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yabin; Zhang, Shuai; Ke, Feng; Ko, Changhyun; Lee, Sangwook; Liu, Kai; Chen, Bin; Ager, Joel W; Jeanloz, Raymond; Eyert, Volker; Wu, Junqiao

    2017-03-08

    The complexity of strongly correlated electron physics in vanadium dioxide is exemplified as its rich phase diagrams of all kinds, which in turn shed light on the mechanisms behind its various phase transitions. In this work, we map out the hydrostatic pressure-temperature phase diagram of vanadium dioxide nanobeams by independently varying pressure and temperature with a diamond anvil cell. In addition to the well-known insulating M1 (monoclinic) and metallic R (tetragonal) phases, the diagram identifies the existence at high pressures of the insulating M1' (monoclinic, more conductive than M1) phase and two metallic phases of X (monoclinic) and O (orthorhombic, at high temperature only). Systematic optical and electrical measurements combined with density functional calculations allow us to delineate their phase boundaries as well as reveal some basic features of the transitions.

  9. Temperature distribution of air source heat pump barn with different air flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X.; Li, J. C.; Zhao, G. Q.

    2016-08-01

    There are two type of airflow form in tobacco barn, one is air rising, the other is air falling. They are different in the structure layout and working principle, which affect the tobacco barn in the distribution of temperature field and velocity distribution. In order to compare the temperature and air distribution of the two, thereby obtain a tobacco barn whose temperature field and velocity distribution are more uniform. Taking the air source heat pump tobacco barn as the investigated subject and establishing relevant mathematical model, the thermodynamics of the two type of curing barn was analysed and compared based on Fluent. Provide a reasonable evidence for chamber arrangement and selection of outlet for air source heat pump tobacco barn.

  10. Data Assimilation Experiments Using Quality Controlled AIRS Version 5 Temperature Soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm has been finalized and is now operational at the Goddard DAAC in the processing (and reprocessing) of all AIRS data. The AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm contains a number of significant improvements over Version 4. Two very significant improvements are described briefly below. 1) The AIRS Science Team Radiative Transfer Algorithm (RTA) has now been upgraded to accurately account for effects of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium on the AIRS observations. This allows for use of AIRS observations in the entire 4.3 micron CO2 absorption band in the retrieval algorithm during both day and night. Following theoretical considerations, tropospheric temperature profile information is obtained almost exclusively from clear column radiances in the 4.3 micron CO2 band in the AIRS Version 5 temperature profile retrieval step. These clear column radiances are a derived product that are indicative of radiances AIRS channels would have seen if the field of view were completely clear. Clear column radiances for all channels are determined using tropospheric sounding 15 micron CO2 observations. This approach allows for the generation of accurate values of clear column radiances and T(p) under most cloud conditions. 2) Another very significant improvement in Version 5 is the ability to generate accurate case-by-case, level-by-level error estimates for the atmospheric temperature profile, as well as for channel-by-channel clear column radiances. These error estimates are used for quality control of the retrieved products. Based on error estimate thresholds, each temperature profiles is assigned a characteristic pressure, pg, down to which the profile is characterized as good for use for data assimilation purposes. We have conducted forecast impact experiments assimilating AIRS quality controlled temperature profiles using the NASA GEOS-5 data assimilation system, consisting of the NCEP GSI analysis coupled with the

  11. Magnetically Orchestrated Formation of Diamond at Lower Temperatures and Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Reginald B.; Lochner, Eric; Goddard, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Man's curiosity and fascination with diamonds date back to ancient times. The knowledge of the many properties of diamond is recorded during Biblical times. Antoine Lavoisier determined the composition of diamond by burning in O2 to form CO2. With the then existing awareness of graphite as carbon, the race began to convert graphite to diamond. The selective chemical synthesis of diamond has been pursued by Cagniard, Hannay, Moisson and Parson. On the basis of the thermodynamically predicted equilibrium line of diamond and graphite, P W Bridgman attempted extraordinary conditions of high temperature (>2200°C) and pressure (>100,000 atm) for the allotropic conversion of graphite to diamond. H T Hall was the first to successfully form bulk diamond by realizing the kinetic restrictions to Bridgman's (thermodynamic) high pressure high temperature direct allotropic conversion. Moreover, Hall identified catalysts for the faster kinetics of diamond formation. H M Strong determined the import of the liquid catalyst during Hall's catalytic synthesis. W G Eversole discovered the slow metastable low pressure diamond formation by pyrolytic chemical vapor deposition with the molecular hydrogen etching of the rapidly forming stable graphitic carbon. J C Angus determined the import of atomic hydrogen for faster etching for faster diamond growth at low pressure. S Matsumoto has developed plasma and hot filament technology for faster hydrogen and carbon radical generations at low pressure for faster diamond formation. However the metastable low pressure chemical vapor depositions by plasma and hot filament are prone to polycrystalline films. From Bridgman to Hall to Eversole, Angus and Matsumoto, much knowledge has developed of the importance of pressure, temperature, transition metal catalyst, liquid state of metal (metal radicals atoms) and the carbon radical intermediates for diamond synthesis. Here we advance this understanding of diamond formation by demonstrating the external

  12. Method development for compensating temperature effects in pressure sensitive paint measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demandante, Carlo Greg N.

    1994-01-01

    Pressure sensitive luminescent paints (PSP) have recently emerged as a viable technique for aerodynamic pressure measurements. The technique uses a surface coating which contains probe molecules that luminesce when excited by light of an appropriate wavelength. The photoluminescence of these materials is known to be quenched by the presence of molecular oxygen. Since oxygen is a fixed mole fraction of the air, the coating's luminescence intensity varies inversely with air pressure. Digital imaging of the luminescence varying across a coated surface produces a pressure distribution map over that surface. One difficulty encountered with this technique is the temperature effect on the luminescence intensity. Present PSP formulations have significant sensitivity to temperature. At the moment, the most practical way of correcting for temperature effects is to calibrate the paint in place at the operating temperatures by using a few well-placed pressure taps. This study is looking at development of temperature indicating coatings that can be applied and measured concurrently with PSP, and use the temperature measurement to compute the correct pressure. Two methods for this dual paint formulation are proposed. One method will use a coating that consists of temperature sensitive phosphors in a polymer matrix. This is similar in construction to PSP, except that the probe molecules used are selected primarily for their temperature sensitivity. Both organic phosphors (e.g., europium thenoyltrifluoroacetonate, bioprobes) and inorganic phosphors (e.g., Mg4(F)GeO6:Mn, La2O2S:Eu, Radelin Type phosphors, Sylvania Type phosphors) will be evaluated for their temperature sensing potential. The next method will involve a novel coating composing of five membered heterocyclic conducting polymers which are known to show temperature dependent luminescence (e.g., poly(3-alkylthiopene), poly(3-alkylselenophene), poly(3-alkylfuran)). Both methods will involve applying a bottom layer of

  13. Inflation pressure effect on performance of air-filled wheelchair cushions.

    PubMed

    Krouskop, T A; Williams, R; Noble, P; Brown, J

    1986-02-01

    Air-filled wheelchair cushions are frequently used in the prevention of pressure sores. Their effectiveness in reducing interface pressures and in redistributing body weight (BW) appears dependent on their internal inflation pressure. This pilot study examines and defines this relationship. Interface pressures were measured with the TIPE (Texas Interface Pressure Evaluator) system for 14 subjects while sitting on each of three commercially available air-filled wheelchair cushions. This relationship between interface pressure and internal pressure was then determined for each of the three body-build categories. In each category the interface pressure displayed a higher degree of sensitivity to underinflation than to overinflation. A high correlation found between BW and internal air pressure (IAP), may be useful in the design of a customized pressure indicator system. The study documents the influence of IAP on seating pressure and supports the need for further research in the development of an indicator system that alerts users to under- or overinflation of the cushion.

  14. Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of AIRS Temperature Soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Reale, Oreste

    2010-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. The primary products of AIRS/AMSU-A are twice daily global fields of atmospheric temperature-humidity profiles, ozone profiles, sea/land surface skin temperature, and cloud related parameters including OLR. The AIRS Version 5 retrieval algorithm, is now being used operationally at the Goddard DISC in the routine generation of geophysical parameters derived from AIRS/AMSU data. A major innovation in Version 5 is the ability to generate case-by-case level-by-level error estimates delta T(p) for retrieved quantities and the use of these error estimates for Quality Control. We conducted a number of data assimilation experiments using the NASA GEOS-5 Data Assimilation System as a step toward finding an optimum balance of spatial coverage and sounding accuracy with regard to improving forecast skill. The model was run at a horizontal resolution of 0.5 deg. latitude X 0.67 deg longitude with 72 vertical levels. These experiments were run during four different seasons, each using a different year. The AIRS temperature profiles were presented to the GEOS-5 analysis as rawinsonde profiles, and the profile error estimates delta (p) were used as the uncertainty for each measurement in the data assimilation process. We compared forecasts analyses generated from the analyses done by assimilation of AIRS temperature profiles with three different sets of thresholds; Standard, Medium, and Tight. Assimilation of Quality Controlled AIRS temperature profiles significantly improve 5-7 day forecast skill compared to that obtained without the benefit of AIRS data in all of the cases studied. In addition, assimilation of Quality Controlled AIRS temperature soundings performs better than assimilation of AIRS observed radiances. Based on the experiments shown, Tight Quality Control of AIRS temperature profile performs best

  15. Anisotropy of the superconducting transition temperature under uniaxial pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. J.; Lin, H. Q.; Yin, W. G.; Gong, C. D.; Habermeier, H.-U.

    2001-12-01

    The superconducting transition temperature Tc is calculated as a function of uniaxial pressure along the a, b, c directions for optimally doped YBa2Cu3O7-δ on the basis of a hole dispersion of the anisotropic t-J model. There is a good qualitative agreement with experiments. We show that the uniaxial pressure effect on Tc in the ab plane is due to the anisotropies of the hole dispersion and the in-plane pairing interaction, whereas the reduction of Tc under uniaxial compression along the c axis mainly results from the pressure-induced increase of hole concentration of the CuO2 plane.

  16. Pressure variation of reentrant transition temperature in liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A.; Sa, D.; Singh, S.

    2007-02-01

    High pressure experimental studies show that in certain mesogenic materials, the nematic-smectic A (N-Sm A) transition temperature TAN exhibits nonlinear pressure dependence. As a consequence, the material shows reentrant phenomena that is a phase sequence nematic — smectic A — reentrant nematic appears. The characteristic features of this phenomenon have been addressed here within the framework of Landau-de-Gennes theory, where the coupling between nematic and smectic A order parameters (γ, λeff) plays an important role. The cubic coupling γ is chosen to be negative in order to form Sm A phase whereas the biquadratic coupling λeff is made large and positive to obtain reentrant behaviour. In the present work, we incorporate the pressure dependence in the theory through γ and λeff which justifies the experimental pressure dependence in the reentrant transition temperature tilde{T}REAN. The pressure dependence of γ and λeff are employed in the calculation of excess specific heat capacity near the reentrant transition. The computed heat capacity shows strong pressure dependence near the reentrant transition which can be confirmed from high pressure measurement.

  17. Soft Wire Seals For High Temperatures And Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Soft metal wires used to make O-ring and similar seals for vessels, flanges, and fittings subject to pressures equal to or greater than 1,000 psi and temperatures equal to or greater than 100 degrees C. Seals containing soft metal wires made inexpensively because fabricated to looser tolerances like those of lower-temperature, lower-pressure elastomeric-O-ring seals, which they resemble. Seals also made with noncircular grooves and with soft metals other than aluminum. For example, gold performs well, though expensive. For other applications, silver good choice.

  18. Peak pressures and temperatures within laser-ablated tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furzikov, Nickolay P.; Dmitriev, A. C.; Lekhtsier, Eugeny N.; Orlov, M. Y.; Semyenov, Alexander D.; Tyurin, Vladimir S.

    1991-06-01

    The time-of-flight probing of supersonic motion of ablation products or preceding shock wave was used to extract the maximum values of initial pressure and temperature. Measurements were accomplished at three laser- tissue combinations - the TEA CO2 laser plus artery wall, and the ArF excimer laser or the Q-switched Er:YSGG laser plus pig eye cornea and gave pressures from 1 to 40 MPa and temperatures from 450 to 700 K. These data favor the thermal ablation mechanism for all three cases.

  19. Pressure and Temperature Sensors Using Two Spin Crossover Materials

    PubMed Central

    Jureschi, Catalin-Maricel; Linares, Jorge; Boulmaali, Ayoub; Dahoo, Pierre Richard; Rotaru, Aurelian; Garcia, Yann

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of a new design concept for dual spin crossover based sensors for concomitant detection of both temperature and pressure is presented. It is conjectured from numerical results obtained by mean field approximation applied to a Ising-like model that using two different spin crossover compounds containing switching molecules with weak elastic interactions it is possible to simultaneously measure P and T. When the interaction parameters are optimized, the spin transition is gradual and for each spin crossover compounds, both temperature and pressure values being identified from their optical densities. This concept offers great perspectives for smart sensing devices. PMID:26848663

  20. Temperature Induced Voltage Offset Drifts in Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Lukco, Dorothy; Nguyen, Vu; Savrun, Ender

    2012-01-01

    We report the reduction of transient drifts in the zero pressure offset voltage in silicon carbide (SiC) pressure sensors when operating at 600 C. The previously observed maximum drift of +/- 10 mV of the reference offset voltage at 600 C was reduced to within +/- 5 mV. The offset voltage drifts and bridge resistance changes over time at test temperature are explained in terms of the microstructure and phase changes occurring within the contact metallization, as analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results have helped to identify the upper temperature reliable operational limit of this particular metallization scheme to be 605 C.

  1. Temperature, Humidity, Wind and Pressure Sensors (THWAPS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-01-17

    The temperature, humidity, wind, and pressure system (THWAPS) provide surface reference values of these measurements for balloon-borne sounding system (SONDE) launches. The THWAPS is located adjacent to the SONDE launch site at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility. The THWAPS system is a combination of calibration-quality instruments intended to provide accurate measurements of meteorological conditions near the surface. Although the primary use of the system is to provide accurate surface reference values of temperature, pressure, relative humidity (RH), and wind velocity for comparison with radiosonde readings, the system includes a data logger to record time series of the measured variables.

  2. LHDAC setup for high temperature and high pressure studies

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Nishant N. Meenakshi, S. Sharma, Surinder M.

    2014-04-24

    A ytterbium fibre laser (λ = 1.07 μm) based laser heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) facility has been recently set up at HP and SRPD, BARC for simultaneous high temperature and high pressure investigation of material properties. Synthesis of GaN was carried out at pressure of ∼9 GPa and temperature of ∼1925 K in a Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell (DAC) using the LHDAC facility. The retrieved sample has been characterized using our laboratory based micro Raman setup.

  3. Design of a two dimensional planer pressurized air labyrinth seal test rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konicki, Joseph S.

    1993-12-01

    A two-dimensional planer labyrinth seal test rig was designed to operate with air supplied at 45 psig and temperatures up to 150 F. The rig operates with a manually specified test section pressure up to 30 psig yielding Mach numbers to 0.9 and gap Reynolds numbers to 100,000. The air flow rate through the seal will be controlled by setting inlet pressure and adjusting an outlet control valve. The test section measurements are 18 inches wide by 1.5 inches depth by 6 inches in length and provides for 10:1 large scale geometry seals to be used to facilitate measurements. Design maximum seal gap size is 0.15 inches. The test section has a glass viewing port to allow flow field measurement by non-intrusive means such as Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) with seals containing up to 5 sealing knives. Measurements of pressure, temperature and flow fields can also be simultaneously measured by probes inserted in the seal itself, or mounted on the removable/replaceable top plate. Inlet flow is conditioned through the use of a dump diffuser incorporating screens, honeycombs, expansion and contraction portions. The inlet flow to the test section can be modified from uniform to various non-uniform conditions by employing profile generators such as screens and winglets. A detailed mechanical design has been conducted including stress analysis and seal flow rate predictions.

  4. Equipment for Measuring Air Flow, Air Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Carbon Dioxide in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bruce W.

    Information on equipment and techniques that school facility personnel may use to evaluate IAQ conditions are discussed. Focus is placed on the IAQ parameters of air flow, air temperature, relative humidity, as well as carbon dioxide and the equipment used to measure these factors. Reasons for measurement and for when the measurement of these…

  5. Temperature effect on titanium nitride nanometer thin film in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Z. H.; Xu, B. X.; Hu, J. F.; Ji, R.; Toh, Y. T.; Ye, K. D.; Hu, Y. F.

    2017-02-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) is a promising alternative plasmonic material to conventional novel metals. For practical plasmonic applications under the influence of air, the temperature-dependent optical properties of TiN thin films in air and its volume variation are essential. Ellipsometric characterizations on a TiN thin film at different increasing temperatures in ambient air were conducted, and optical constants along with film thickness were retrieved. Below 200 °C, the optical properties varied linearly with temperature, in good agreement with other temperature dependent studies of TiN films in vacuum. The thermal expansion coefficient of the TiN thin film was determined to be 10.27  ×  10‑6 °C‑1. At higher temperatures, the TiN thin film gradually loses its metallic characteristics and has weaker optical absorption, impairing its plasmonic performance. In addition, a sharp increase in film thickness was observed at the same time. Changes in the optical properties and film thickness with temperatures above 200 °C were revealed to result from TiN oxidation in air. For the stability of TiN-based plasmonic devices, operation temperatures of lower than 200 °C, or measures to prevent oxidation, are required. The present study is important to fundamental physics and technological applications of TiN thin films.

  6. Temperature measurements behind reflected shock waves in air. [radiometric measurement of gas temperature in self-absorbing gas flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bader, J. B.; Nerem, R. M.; Dann, J. B.; Culp, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    A radiometric method for the measurement of gas temperature in self-absorbing gases has been applied in the study of shock tube generated flows. This method involves making two absolute intensity measurements at identical wavelengths, but for two different pathlengths in the same gas sample. Experimental results are presented for reflected shock waves in air at conditions corresponding to incident shock velocities from 7 to 10 km/s and an initial driven tube pressure of 1 torr. These results indicate that, with this technique, temperature measurements with an accuracy of + or - 5 percent can be carried out. The results also suggest certain facility related problems.

  7. Focused excimer laser initiated, radio frequency sustained high pressure air plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Giar, Ryan; Scharer, John

    2011-11-15

    Measurements and analysis of air breakdown processes and plasma production by focusing 193 nm, 300 mJ, 15 MW high power laser radiation inside a 6 cm diameter helical radio frequency (RF) coil are presented. Quantum resonant multi-photon ionization (REMPI) and collisional cascade laser ionization processes are exploited that have been shown to produce high-density (n{sub e} {approx} 7 x 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 3}) cylindrical seed plasmas at 760 Torr. Air breakdown in lower pressures (from 7-22 Torr), where REMPI is the dominant laser ionization process, is investigated using an UV 18 cm focal length lens, resulting in a laser flux of 5.5 GW/cm{sup 2} at the focal spot. The focused laser power absorption and associated shock wave produce seed plasmas for sustainment by the RF (5 kW incident power, 1.5 s) pulse. Measurements of the helical RF antenna load impedance in the inductive and capacitive coupling regimes are obtained by measuring the loaded antenna reflection coefficient. A 105 GHz interferometer is used to measure the plasma electron density and collision frequency. Spectroscopic measurements of the plasma and comparison with the SPECAIR code are made to determine translational, rotational, and vibrational neutral temperatures and the associated neutral gas temperature. From this and the associated measurement of the gas pressure the electron temperature is obtained. Experiments show that the laser-formed seed plasma allows RF sustainment at higher initial air pressures (up to 22 Torr) than that obtained via RF-only initiation (<18 Torr) by means of a 0.3 J UV laser pulse.

  8. Soil temperature prediction from air temperature for alluvial soils in lower Indo-Gangetic plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, D.; Kundu, D. K.; Pal, Soumen; Pal, Susanto; Chakraborty, A. K.; Jha, A. K.; Mazumdar, S. P.; Saha, R.; Bhattacharyya, P.

    2017-01-01

    Soil temperature is an important factor in biogeochemical processes. On-site monitoring of soil temperature is limited in spatiotemporal scale as compared to air temperature data inventories due to various management difficulties. Therefore, empirical models were developed by taking 30-year long-term (1985-2014) air and soil temperature data for prediction of soil temperatures at three depths (5, 15, 30 cm) in morning (0636 Indian standard time) and afternoon (1336 Indian standard time) for alluvial soils in lower Indo-Gangetic plain. At 5 cm depth, power and exponential regression models were best fitted for daily data in morning and afternoon, respectively, but it was reverse at 15 cm. However, at 30 cm, exponential models were best fitted for both the times. Regression analysis revealed that in morning for all three depths and in afternoon for 30 cm depth, soil temperatures (daily, weekly, and monthly) could be predicted more efficiently with the help of corresponding mean air temperature than that of maximum and minimum. However, in afternoon, prediction of soil temperature at 5 and 15 cm depths were more precised for all the time intervals when maximum air temperature was used, except for weekly soil temperature at 15 cm, where the use of mean air temperature gave better prediction.

  9. Predictive dynamic model of a small pressure swing adsorption air separation unit

    SciTech Connect

    Teague, K.G. Jr.; Edgar, T.F.

    1999-10-01

    A predictive dynamic model of a small pressure swing adsorption (PSA) air separation process was developed for the purposes of evaluation, optimization, and control of oxygen generation systems on board military aircraft. A mathematical model of the adsorption beds was formulated by application of fundamental mass- and energy-transport modeling techniques. These equations were discretized using the Galerkin finite element technique. The resulting ODE systems were coupled with ODEs describing the rate of change of pressure in each bed and models of the feed and exhaust valves and purge orifice. The model was developed so that it is possible to predict the dynamic response of product oxygen composition and feed air consumption to step changes in feed pressure, product flow rate, and cycle time. A laboratory PSA unit similar in size to an on-board oxygen generation system (OBOGS) was constructed to validate the model. The laboratory unit was constructed so that step changes could be implemented and the responses observed for comparison with the model. All parameters in the model were estimated from literature sources with the exception of the feed/exhaust valve and purge orifice discharge coefficients. Excellent dynamic predictions of bed pressure, cycle-averaged feed flow rate, and cycle-averaged bed temperature vs time in response to step changes in all three input variables compared to the two-bed PSA data were achieved without additional parameter estimation from two-bed data.

  10. High pressure-low temperature processing of food proteins.

    PubMed

    Dumay, Eliane; Picart, Laetitia; Regnault, Stéphanie; Thiebaud, Maryse

    2006-03-01

    High pressure-low temperature (HP-LT) processing is of interest in the food field in view of: (i) obtaining a "cold" pasteurisation effect, the level of microbial inactivation being higher after pressurisation at low or sub-zero than at ambient temperature; (ii) limiting the negative impact of atmospheric pressure freezing on food structures. The specific effects of freezing by fast pressure release on the formation of ice I crystals have been investigated on oil in water emulsions stabilized by proteins, and protein gels, showing the formation of a high number of small ice nuclei compared to the long needle-shaped crystals obtained by conventional freezing at 0.1 MPa. It was therefore of interest to study the effects of HP-LT processing on unfolding or dissociation/aggregation phenomena in food proteins, in view of minimizing or controlling structural changes and aggregation reactions, and/or of improving protein functional properties. In the present studies, the effects of HP-LT have been investigated on protein models such as (i) beta-lactoglobulin, i.e., a whey protein with a well known 3-D structure, and (ii) casein micelles, i.e., the main milk protein components, the supramolecular structure of which is not fully elucidated. The effects of HP-LT processing was studied up to 300 MPa at low or sub-zero temperatures and after pressure release, or up to 200 MPa by UV spectroscopy under pressure, allowing to follow reversible structural changes. Pressurisation of approximately 2% beta-lactoglobulin solutions up to 300 MPa at low/subzero temperatures minimizes aggregation reactions, as measured after pressure release. In parallel, such low temperature treatments enhanced the size reduction of casein micelles.

  11. Determination of the SSME high pressure oxidizer turbopump bearing temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naerheim, Y.; Stocker, P. J.; Lumsden, J. B.

    1988-01-01

    The SSME high pressure liquid oxygen turbopump (HPOTP) bearings sometimes wear and experience heating and oxidation of the ball and raceway surfaces. So far it has been impossible to measure the temperature of the bearings directly during operation of the turbopumps. However, a method was developed for determining the surface temperature of the bearings from the composition of the oxides using oxidation samples for calibration and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) for chemical analysis.

  12. Pressure-Sensitive System for Gas-Temperature Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cesaro, Richard S; Matz, Norman

    1948-01-01

    A thermodynamic relation is derived and simplified for use as a temperature-limiting control equation involving measurement of gas temperature before combustion and gas pressures before and after combustion. For critical flow in the turbine nozzles of gas-turbine engines, the control equation is further simplified to require only measurements upstream of the burner. Hypothetical control systems are discussed to illustrate application of the control equations.

  13. Optical emission spectroscopy of nanosecond repetitively pulsed microplasmas generated in air at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orriere, Thomas; Moreau, Eric; Benard, Nicolas; Pai, David

    2015-09-01

    Nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) microplasmas are generated in room temperature air at atmospheric pressure, in order to investigate the enhanced control of discharge properties via the combined effects of spatial confinement and nanosecond repetitive pulsing. Discharges were generated using high-voltage pulses of 15-ns duration applied to a tungsten pin-to-pin reactor, with inter-electrode gap distances (d) from 2 mm down to 0.2 mm. Optical emission spectroscopy and electrical characterization performed on the discharge indicate that heat transfer and plasma chemistry are influenced by the microplasma geometry. Ultrafast gas heating is observed upon deducing the rotational temperature of N2 from the measured emission spectrum of the N2 (C -->B) (0, 2) and (1, 3) transition bands, but use of the microplasma geometry (d = 0.2 mm) results in lower gas temperatures than in larger discharge gaps (d = 2 mm), including at high pulse repetition frequency (30 kHz) where substantial steady-state gas heating can occur. The measured Stark broadening of the Hα transition is significantly greater than for previously studied NRP discharges in air at atmospheric pressure, indicating that the maximum electron number density may be correspondingly much greater, up to 1018 cm-3. Furthermore, for NRP microplasmas, the intensities of emission from excited atomic ions (O+ and N+) are much higher than those of excited neutral atoms (O and N), in contrast to NRP discharges generated in larger discharge gaps.

  14. Effect of temperature and pressure on the protonation of glycine

    PubMed Central

    Izatt, R. M.; Oscarson, J. L.; Gillespie, S. E.; Grimsrud, H.; Renuncio, J. A. R.; Pando, C.

    1992-01-01

    Flow calorimetry has been used to study the interaction of glycine with protons in water at temperatures of 298.15, 323.15, and 348.15 K and pressures up to 12.50 MPa. By combining the measured heat for glycine solutions titrated with NaOH with the heat of ionization for water, the enthalpy of protonation of glycine is obtained. The reaction is exothermic at all temperatures and pressures studied. The effect of pressure on the enthalpy of reaction is very small. The experimental heat data are analyzed to yield equilibrium constant (K), enthalpy change (ΔH), and entropy change (ΔS) values for the protonation reaction as a function of temperature. These values are compared with those reported previously at 298.15 K. The ΔH and ΔS values increase (become more positive), whereas log K values decrease, as temperature increases. The trends for ΔH and ΔS with temperature are opposite to those reported previously for the protonation of several alkanolamines. However, log K values for proton interaction with both glycine and the alkanolamines decrease with increasing temperature. The effect of the nitrogen atom substituent on log K for protonation of glycine and alkanolamines is discussed in terms of changes in long-range and short-range solvent effects. These effects are used to explain the difference in ΔH and ΔS trends between glycine protonation and those found earlier for alkanolamine protonation. PMID:19431832

  15. Effects of a ceramic coating on metal temperatures of an air-cooled turbine vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Liebert, C. H.

    1980-02-01

    The metal temperatures of air cooled turbine vanes both uncoated and coated with the NASA thermal barrier system were studied experimentally. Current and advanced gas turbine engine conditions were simulated at reduced temperatures and pressures. Airfoil metal temperatures were significantly reduced, both locally and on the average, by use of the the coating. However, at low gas Reynolds number, the ceramic coating tripped a laminar boundary layer on the suction surface, and the resulting higher heat flux increased the metal temperatures. Simulated coating loss was also investigated and shown to increase local metal temperatures. However, the metal temperatures in the leading edge region remained below those of the uncoated vane tested at similar conditions. Metal temperatures in the trailing edge region exceeded those of the uncoated vane.

  16. Effects of a ceramic coating on metal temperatures of an air-cooled turbine vane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Liebert, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The metal temperatures of air cooled turbine vanes both uncoated and coated with the NASA thermal barrier system were studied experimentally. Current and advanced gas turbine engine conditions were simulated at reduced temperatures and pressures. Airfoil metal temperatures were significantly reduced, both locally and on the average, by use of the the coating. However, at low gas Reynolds number, the ceramic coating tripped a laminar boundary layer on the suction surface, and the resulting higher heat flux increased the metal temperatures. Simulated coating loss was also investigated and shown to increase local metal temperatures. However, the metal temperatures in the leading edge region remained below those of the uncoated vane tested at similar conditions. Metal temperatures in the trailing edge region exceeded those of the uncoated vane.

  17. Correlation of air temperature above water-air sections with the forecasted low level clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huseynov, N. Sh.; Malikov, B. M.

    2009-04-01

    As a case study approach the development of low clouds forecasting methods in correlation with air temperature transformational variations on the sections "water-air" is surveyed. It was evident, that transformational variations of air temperature mainly depend on peculiarities and value of advective variations of temperature. DT is the differences of initial temperature on section water-air in started area, from contrast temperature of water surface along a trajectory of movement of air masses and from the temperature above water surface in a final point of a trajectory. Main values of transformational variations of air temperature at advection of a cold masses is 0.530C•h, and at advection of warm masses is -0.370C•h. There was dimensionless quantity K determined and implemented into practice which was characterized with difference of water temperature in forecasting point and air temperature in an initial point in the ratio of dew-points deficiency at the forecasting area. It follows, that the appropriate increasing or decreasing of K under conditions of cold and warm air masses advection, contributes decreasing of low clouds level. References: Abramovich K.G.: Conditions of development and forecasting of low level clouds. vol. #78, 124 pp., Hydrometcenter USSR 1973. Abramovich K.G.: Variations of low clouds level // Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. # 5, 30-41, Moscow, 1968. Budiko M.I.: Empirical assessment of climatic changes toward the end of XX century // Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. #12, 5-13, Moscow, 1999. Buykov M.V.: Computational modeling of daily evolutions of boundary layer of atmosphere at the presence of clouds and fog // Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. # 4, 35-44, Moscow, 1981. Huseynov N.Sh. Transformational variations of air temperature above Caspian Sea / Proceedings of Conference On Climate And Protection of Environment, 118-120, Baku, 1999. Huseynov N.Sh.: Consideration of advective and transformational variations of air temperature in

  18. HIGH TEMPERATURE HIGH PRESSURE THERMODYNAMIC MEASUREMENTS FOR COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    1999-02-20

    It is well known that the fluid phase equilibria can be represented by a number of {gamma}-models , but unfortunately most of them do not function well under high temperature. In this calculation, we mainly investigate the performance of UNIQUAC and NRTL models under high temperature, using temperature dependent parameters rather than using the original formulas. the other feature of this calculation is that we try to relate the excess Gibbs energy G{sup E}and enthalpy of mixing H{sup E}simultaneously. In other words, we will use the high temperature and pressure G{sup E} and H{sup E}data to regress the temperature dependant parameters to find out which model and what kind of temperature dependant parameters should be used.

  19. Thermal diffusivity of igneous rocks at elevated pressure and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, W.B.; Mirkovich, V.V.; Heard, H.C.

    1987-10-10

    Thermal diffusivity measurements of seven igneous rocks were made to temperatures of 400 /sup 0/C and pressures of 200 MPa. The measuring method was based on the concept of cylindrical symmetry and periodic heat pulses. The seven rocks measured were Westerly (Rhode Island) granite, Climax Stock (Nevada) quartz monzonite, Pomona (Washington) basalt, Atikokan (Ontario, Canada) granite, Creighton (Ontario, Canada) gabbro, East Bull Lake (Ontario, Canada) gabbro, and Stripa (Sweden) granite. The diffusivity of all the rocks showed a positive linear dependence on inverse temperature and, excluding the East Bull Lake gabbro, showed a linear dependence on quartz content. (Quartz content varied from 0 to 31% by volume.) Diffusivity in all cases rose or remained steady with increasing confining pressure. The pressure effect was strongest at lowest pressures and vanished by levels between 10 and 100 MPa, depending on rock type. The pressure effect (measured as a percentage change in diffusivity) is stronger in the four rocks of granite composition than in the three of basaltic composition. Our results agree well with existing thermal diffusivity measurements at atmospheric pressure.

  20. Sulfidation kinetics of dolomite at high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Misro, S.K.; Jadhav, R.; Gupta, H.; Agnihotri, R.; Chauk, S.; Fan, L.S.

    1999-07-01

    Kinetic studies of the dolomite sulfidation reaction are carried out at high pressure (15 atm) and high temperature (600--900 C) in a differential bed flow-through reactor. The dolomite particles are exposed to simulated coal gas environments and the extent of conversion determined. Experiments are carried out to determine the influence of total pressure, reaction temperature and partial pressure of H{sub 2}S on the extent of fully calcined dolomite (FCD) sulfidation. Based on the grain theory it is found that towards the later stages of the reaction the FCD sulfidation is product layer diffusion controlled. The reaction is found to be first order with respect to H{sub 2}S partial pressure. A low apparent activation energy of 4.6 kcal/gmol for the product layer diffusion controlled reaction is attributed to the presence of porous MgO along with the low porosity CaS product layer. A comparison of the performance of dolomite and limestone as sorbents for desulfurization shows that dolomite is a better sorbent with higher conversions even at higher CO{sub 2} partial pressures. The high pressure sulfidation kinetic data obtained in this study would be useful in understanding and optimizing the in-gasifier H{sub 2}S capture using dolomite sorbents.

  1. EFFECT OF LASER LIGHT ON LASER PLASMAS: Laser plasma at low air pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vas'kovskiĭ, Yu M.; Moiseev, V. N.; Rovinskiĭ, R. E.; Tsenina, I. S.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamic and optical characteristics of the laser plasma produced during the application of a CO2 laser pulse to a target have been studied as a function of the ambient air pressure. The changes in the surface roughness of the sample after bombardment were studied as a function of the air pressure. It is concluded from the results that a transition from an air plasma to an erosion plasma occurs at a residual air pressure on the order of 1 torr. The experiment data support the existing picture of the process by which a plasma is produced near the surface of a target in air by laser pulses.

  2. Heat tolerance of higher plants cenosis to damaging air temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakova, Sofya; Shklavtsova, Ekaterina

    Designing sustained biological-technical life support systems (BTLSS) including higher plants as a part of a photosynthesizing unit, it is important to foresee the multi species cenosis reaction on either stress-factors. Air temperature changing in BTLSS (because of failure of a thermoregulation system) up to the values leading to irreversible damages of photosynthetic processes is one of those factors. However, it is possible to increase, within the certain limits, the plant cenosis tolerance to the unfavorable temperatures’ effect due to the choice of the higher plants possessing resistance both to elevated and to lowered air temperatures. Besides, the plants heat tolerance can be increased when subjecting them during their growing to the hardening off temperatures’ effect. Thus, we have come to the conclusion that it is possible to increase heat tolerance of multi species cenosis under the damaging effect of air temperature of 45 (°) СC.

  3. AIRS Sea Surface Temperature and Pacific Decadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L. L.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) has been providing necessary measurements for long term atmospheric and surface processes aboard NASA' s Aqua polar orbiter since May 2002. Here, we use time series of AIRS sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies to show the time evolution of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in the Gulf of Alaska (lon:-144.5, lat:54.5) from 2003 to 2014. PDO is connected to the first mode of North Pacific SST variability and is tele-connected to ENSO in the tropics. Further analysis of AIRS data can provide clarification of Pacific climate variability.

  4. Properties of planetary fluids at high shock pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W.J.; Mitchell, A.C.; Holmes, N.C.; McCandless, P.C.

    1991-03-01

    Models of the interiors of Uranus and Neptune are discussed. Pressures and temperatures in the interiors can be achieved in representative constituent molecular fluids by shock compression. Experimental techniques are described and recent results for synthetic Uranus and hydrogen are discussed. 19 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. "Deflategate": Time, Temperature, and Moisture Effects on Football Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Jack; Beljak, Lauren; Macatangay, Dahlia-Marie; Helmuth-Malone, Lilly; McWilliams, Catharina; Raptis, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper in "The Physics Teacher (TPT)", DiLisi and Rarick used the National Football League "Deflategate" controversy to introduce to physics students the physics of a bouncing ball. In this paper, we measure and analyze the environmental effects of time, ambient temperature, and moisture on the internal pressure of…

  6. Mixture including hydrogen and hydrocarbon having pressure-temperature stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Wendy L. (Inventor); Mao, Ho-Kwang (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of storing hydrogen that employs a mixture of hydrogen and a hydrocarbon that can both be used as fuel. In one embodiment, the method involves maintaining a mixture including hydrogen and a hydrocarbon in the solid state at ambient pressure and a temperature in excess of about 10 K.

  7. Electrical resistivity of iron at high pressure and high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, L.; Seagle, C.; Fei, Y.; Shahar, A.

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of thermal conductivity of iron under high-pressure and temperature conditions is crucial to understand the heat transport and the thermal evolution of planetary interior. However, measurements of thermal conductivity at high pressure and temperature are challenging and experimental data are limited. In this study, we report the measured electrical resistivity of iron at high pressure and temperature. The data are then translated to thermal conductivity through Wiedemann-Franz law. A four-probe method was employed to measure the resistances of a cylindrical wire during heating cycles at high pressure. Experiments at 5, 7 and 13 GPa were performed on an iron wire sample by using a multi-anvil apparatus at the Geophysical Laboratory. At 5, 7 and 13 GPa, the measured electrical resistivity of iron at room temperature are 9.06 mΩ-cm (bcc phase), 8.85 mΩ-cm (bcc phase) and 12.72 mΩ-cm (hcp phase), respectively. The results are in a good agreement with reported room-temperature data. The kinks in electrical resistivity associated with the phase transitions of iron were clearly observed in each run. At 5 and 7 GPa, kinks in the electrical resistivity can be noticed at 677 oC and 652 oC, respectively, due to the bcc to fcc phase transition. At 5 GPa and 1687 oC, melting led to a discontinuous change in electrical resistivity. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity for bcc, fcc, and hcp iron are well constrained from these measurements. The hcp iron displays the strongest temperature dependence compared with that of the bcc and fcc phases. Our results provide critical thermodynamic parameters to constrain heat transport in the planetary cores.

  8. Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight.

    PubMed

    Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-11-27

    Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. Air conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a temperature below that of the ambient air. At night, passive cooling below ambient air temperature has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a temperature below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient air temperature under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient air temperature, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient air temperature. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day.

  9. Temperature measurement of cryogenic nitrogen jets at supercritical pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, H.; Teramoto, S.; Toki, T.; Yoshida, S.; Yamaguchi, K.; Okamoto, K.

    2016-07-01

    The temperatures of transcritical and supercritical nitrogen jets were measured to explore the influence of "pseudovaporization" upon cryogenic propellant mixing in high-pressure rocket chambers. Pseudovaporization is the large thermodynamic transition near the pseudocritical temperature under transcritical conditions, which can include a drastic density change and large peak of isobaric specific heat. A decline in the rise of temperature along the jet centerline of the transcritical jet was caused at the position where the local temperature reached nearpseudocritical temperature. This can be considered to be due to the large peak of isobaric specific heat. The density jump appeared near the pseudocritical temperature, which can be correlated to the sudden expansion due to pseudovaporization. The axial profiles of the temperature and density of the supercritical jet monotonically increased and decreased, respectively, in the downstream region of the end of the jet potential core. Similar to the axial profiles, the radial profiles of the temperature were influenced by the pseudovaporization - i. e., the temperature rise in the radial direction became very shallow in the region where the local temperature was still lower than the pseudocritical temperature. The full width at half maximum of the density profiles stayed almost constant further downstream of the end of the jet potential core, whereas that of the mass fraction profiles of the incompressible variable-density jet began to increase near the end of the potential core. Hence, the evolutions of jet mixing layers of transcritical jets and variable-density jets can be considered to differ due to pseudovaporization.

  10. [Aerodynamics study on pressure changes inside pressure-type whole-body plethysmograph produced by flowing air].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei-Hua; Shen, Hua-Hao

    2010-02-25

    When using pressure-type plethysmography to test lung function of rodents, calculation of lung volume is always based on Boyle's law. The precondition of Boyle's law is that perfect air is static. However, air in the chamber is flowing continuously when a rodent breathes inside the chamber. Therefore, Boyle's law, a principle of air statics, may not be appropriate for measuring pressure changes of flowing air. In this study, we deduced equations for pressure changes inside pressure-type plethysmograph and then designed three experiments to testify the theoretic deduction. The results of theoretic deduction indicated that increased pressure was generated from two sources: one was based on Boyle's law, and the other was based on the law of conservation of momentum. In the first experiment, after injecting 0.1 mL, 0.2 mL, 0.4 mL of air into the plethysmograph, the pressure inside the chamber increased sharply to a peak value, then promptly decreased to horizontal pressure. Peak values were significantly higher than the horizontal values (P<0.001). This observation revealed that flowing air made an extra effect on air pressure in the plethysmograph. In the second experiment, the same volume of air was injected into the plethysmograph at different frequencies (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 Hz) and pressure changes inside were measured. The results showed that, with increasing frequencies, the pressure changes in the chamber became significantly higher (P<0.001). In the third experiment, small animal ventilator and pipette were used to make two types of airflow with different functions of time. The pressure changes produced by the ventilator were significantly greater than those produced by the pipette (P<0.001). Based on the data obtained, we draw the conclusion that, the flow of air plays a role in pressure changes inside the plethysmograph, and the faster the airflow is, the higher the pressure changes reach. Furthermore, the type of airflow also influences the pressure changes.

  11. The comparative performance of an aviation engine at normal and high inlet air temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardiner, Arthur W; Schey, Oscar W

    1928-01-01

    This report presents some results obtained during an investigation to determine the effect of high inlet air temperature on the performance of a Liberty 12 aviation engine. The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain, for normal service carburetor adjustments and a fixed ignition advance, the relation between power and temperature for the range of carburetor air temperatures that may be encountered when supercharging to sea level pressure at altitudes of over 20,000 feet and without intercooling when using plain aviation gasoline and mixtures of benzol and gasoline. The results show that for the conditions of test, both the brake and indicated power decrease with increase in air temperature at a faster rate than given by the theoretical assumption that power varies inversely as the square root of the absolute temperature. On a brake basis, the order of the difference in power for a temperature difference of 120 degrees F. Is 3 to 5 per cent. The observed relation between power and temperature when using the 30-70 blend was found to be linear. But, although these differences are noted, the above theoretical assumption may be considered as generally applicable except where greater precision over a wide range of temperatures is desired, in which case it appears necessary to test the particular engine under the given conditions. (author)

  12. Laser-based measurements of OH in high pressure CH4/air flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battles, B. E.; Hanson, R. K.

    1991-01-01

    Narrow-linewidth laser absorption measurements are reported from which mole fraction and temperature of OH are determined in high-pressure (1-10 atm), lean CH4/air flames. These measurements were made in a new high pressure combustion facility which incorporates a traversable flat flame burner, providing spatially and temporally uniform combustion gases at pressures up to 10 am. A commercially avialable CW ring dye laser was used with an intracavity doubling crystal to provide near-UV single mode output at approximately 306 nm. The UV beam was rapidly scanned over 120 GHz (0.1 sec scan duration) to resolve the absorption lineshape of the A-X (0,0) R1(7)/R1(11) doublet of the OH radical. From the doublet's absorption lineshape, the temperature was determined; and from peak absorption, Beer's Law was employed to find the mole fraction of OH. These data were obtained as a function of height above the flame at various pressures.

  13. Unique, clean-air, continuous-flow, high-stagnation-temperature facility for supersonic combustion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauss, R. H.; Mcdaniel, J. C., Jr.; Scott, J. E., Jr.; Whitehurst, R. B., III; Segal, C.

    1988-01-01

    Accurate, spatially-resolved measurements can be conducted of a model supersonic combustor in a clean air/continuous flow supersonic combustion facility whose long run times will allow not only the point-by-point mapping of flow field variables with laser diagnostics but facilitate the simulation of steady-state combustor conditions. The facility will provide a Mach 2 freestream with static pressures in the 1 to 1/6 atm range, and stagnation temperatures of up to 2000 K.

  14. Pressure Effects on the Temperature Sensitivity of Fiber Bragg Gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Meng-Chou

    2012-01-01

    A 3-dimensional physical model was developed to relate the wavelength shifts resulting from temperature changes of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) to the thermal expansion coefficients, Young s moduli of optical fibers, and thicknesses of coating polymers. Using this model the Bragg wavelength shifts were calculated and compared with the measured wavelength shifts of FBGs with various coating thickness for a finite temperature range. There was a discrepancy between the calculated and measured wavelength shifts. This was attributed to the refractive index change of the fiber core by the thermally induced radial pressure. To further investigate the pressure effects, a small diametric load was applied to a FBG and Bragg wavelength shifts were measured over a temperature range of 4.2 to 300K.

  15. JT8D revised high-pressure turbine cooling and other outer air seal program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1979-01-01

    The JT8D high pressure turbine was revised to reduce leakage between the blade tip shrouds and the outer air seal, and engine testing was performed to determine the effect on performance. The addition of a second knife-edge on the blade tip shroud, the extension of the honeycomb seal land to cover the added knife-edge and an existing spoiler on the shroud, and a material substitution in the seal support ring to improve thermal growth characteristics are included. A relocation of the blade cooling air discharge to insure adequate cooling flow is required. Significant specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature improvements were demonstrated with the revised turbine in sea level and simulated altitude engine tests. Inspection of the revised seal hardware after these tests showed no unusual wear or degradation.

  16. Variability of Winter Air Temperature in Mid-Latitude Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, R.; Bungato, D.; Cierniewski, J.; Jusem, J. C.; Przybylak, R.; Schubert, S.; Starr, D.; Walczewski, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report extreme winter/early-spring air temperature (hereinafter temperature) anomalies in mid-latitude Europe, and to discuss the underlying forcing to these interannual fluctuations. Warm advection from the North Atlantic in late winter controls the surface-air temperature, as indicated by the substantial correlation between the speed of the surface southwesterlies over the eastern North Atlantic (quantified by a specific Index Ina) and the 2-meter level air temperatures (hereinafter Ts) over Europe, 45-60 deg N, in winter. In mid-March and subsequently, the correlation drops drastically (quite often it is negative). This change in the relationship between Ts and Ina marks a transition in the control of the surface-air temperature: absorption of insolation replaces the warm advection as the dominant control. This forcing by maritime-air advection in winter was demonstrated in a previous publication, and is re-examined here in conjunction with extreme fluctuations of temperatures in Europe. We analyze here the interannual variability at its extreme by comparing warm-winter/early-spring of 1989/90 with the opposite scenario in 1995/96. For these two December-to-March periods the differences in the monthly mean temperature in Warsaw and Torun, Poland, range above 10 C. Short-term (shorter than a month) fluctuations of the temperature are likewise very strong. We conduct pentad-by-pentad analysis of the surface-maximum air temperature (hereinafter Tmax), in a selected location, examining the dependence on Ina. The increased cloudiness and higher amounts of total precipitable water, corollary effects to the warm low-level advection. in the 1989/90 winter, enhance the positive temperature anomalies. The analysis of the ocean surface winds is based on the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) dataset; ascent rates, and over land wind data are from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF); maps of 2-m temperature, cloud

  17. High-pressure cell for neutron diffraction with in situ pressure control at cryogenic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Matthew K; Ridley, Christopher J; Bocian, Artur; Kirichek, Oleg; Manuel, Pascal; Khalyavin, Dmitry; Azuma, Masaki; Attfield, J Paul; Kamenev, Konstantin V

    2014-04-01

    Pressure generation at cryogenic temperatures presents a problem for a wide array of experimental techniques, particularly neutron studies due to the volume of sample required. We present a novel, compact pressure cell with a large sample volume in which load is generated by a bellow. Using a supply of helium gas up to a pressure of 350 bar, a load of up to 78 kN is generated with leak-free operation. In addition, special fiber ports added to the cryogenic center stick allow for in situ pressure determination using the ruby pressure standard. Mechanical stability was assessed using finite element analysis and the dimensions of the cell have been optimized for use with standard cryogenic equipment. Load testing and on-line experiments using NaCl and BiNiO3 have been done at the WISH instrument of the ISIS pulsed neutron source to verify performance.

  18. High-pressure cell for neutron diffraction with in situ pressure control at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, Matthew K.; Ridley, Christopher J.; Bocian, Artur; Kamenev, Konstantin V.; Kirichek, Oleg; Manuel, Pascal; Khalyavin, Dmitry; Azuma, Masaki; Attfield, J. Paul

    2014-04-15

    Pressure generation at cryogenic temperatures presents a problem for a wide array of experimental techniques, particularly neutron studies due to the volume of sample required. We present a novel, compact pressure cell with a large sample volume in which load is generated by a bellow. Using a supply of helium gas up to a pressure of 350 bar, a load of up to 78 kN is generated with leak-free operation. In addition, special fiber ports added to the cryogenic center stick allow for in situ pressure determination using the ruby pressure standard. Mechanical stability was assessed using finite element analysis and the dimensions of the cell have been optimized for use with standard cryogenic equipment. Load testing and on-line experiments using NaCl and BiNiO{sub 3} have been done at the WISH instrument of the ISIS pulsed neutron source to verify performance.

  19. Response of entrained air-void systems in cement paste to pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Scope and Method of Study: Determine the response of entrained air-void systems in fresh cement paste to applied pressures by utilizing micro-computed tomography. Compare results to those suggested by the ASTM C231 Type B pressure meter calibration equations. Findings and Conclusions: The results of this research suggest that although the Type B pressure meter assumptions are valid for the compression of individual voids, the volume of air-voids which dissolve under pressure is significant enough to register noticeable errors when using a synthetic air-entraining admixture with the Type B pressure meter test. Results currently suggest that air-void systems with a significant percentage of small voids present will have higher deviation from the Boyle's Law model used by the Type B pressure meter due to the dissolution of these air-voids.

  20. Study of short atmospheric pressure dc glow microdischarge in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Anatoly; Bogdanov, Eugene; Chirtsov, Alexander; Emelin, Sergey

    2011-10-01

    The results of experiments and simulations of short (without positive column) atmospheric pressure dc glow discharge in air are presented. We used metal steel electrodes with a gap of 5-100 microns. The experimental voltage-current characteristic's (VAC) have a constant or slightly increasing form at low gap. The most stable microdischarges were burning with a flat cathode and rounded anode, when the length of the discharge is automatically established near the minimum of the Paschen curve by changing their binding on the anode. In this case microdischarge was stable and it had growing VAC. For simulations we used 2D fluid model with kinetic description of electrons. We solved the balance equations for the vibrationally- and the electronically-excited states of a nitrogen and oxygen molecules; nitrogen and oxygen atoms; ozone molecule; and different nitrogen and oxygen ions with different plasmochemical reactions between them. Simulations predicted the main regions of the dc glow discharges including cathode and anode sheath and plasma of negative glow, Faraday dark space and transition region. Gas heating plays an important role in shaping the discharge profiles. The results of experiments and simulations of short (without positive column) atmospheric pressure dc glow discharge in air are presented. We used metal steel electrodes with a gap of 5-100 microns. The experimental voltage-current characteristic's (VAC) have a constant or slightly increasing form at low gap. The most stable microdischarges were burning with a flat cathode and rounded anode, when the length of the discharge is automatically established near the minimum of the Paschen curve by changing their binding on the anode. In this case microdischarge was stable and it had growing VAC. For simulations we used 2D fluid model with kinetic description of electrons. We solved the balance equations for the vibrationally- and the electronically-excited states of a nitrogen and oxygen molecules; nitrogen

  1. Effects of air flow directions on composting process temperature profile

    SciTech Connect

    Kulcu, Recep; Yaldiz, Osman

    2008-07-01

    In this study, chicken manure mixed with carnation wastes was composted by using three different air flow directions: R1-sucking (downward), R2-blowing (upward) and R3-mixed. The aim was to find out the most appropriate air flow direction type for composting to provide more homogenous temperature distribution in the reactors. The efficiency of each aeration method was evaluated by monitoring the evolution of parameters such as temperature, moisture content, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} ratio in the material and dry material losses. Aeration of the reactors was managed by radial fans. The results showed that R3 resulted in a more homogenous temperature distribution and high dry material loss throughout the composting process. The most heterogeneous temperature distribution and the lowest dry material loss were obtained in R2.

  2. Windowless ultrasound photoacoustic cell for in vivo mid-IR spectroscopy of human epidermis: low interference by changes of air pressure, temperature, and humidity caused by skin contact opens the possibility for a non-invasive monitoring of glucose in the interstitial fluid.

    PubMed

    Pleitez, Miguel A; Lieblein, Tobias; Bauer, Alexander; Hertzberg, Otto; von Lilienfeld-Toal, Hermann; Mäntele, Werner

    2013-08-01

    The application of a novel open, windowless cell for the photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy of human skin is described. This windowless cavity is tuned for optimum performance in the ultrasound range between 50 and 60 kHz. In combination with an external cavity tunable quantum cascade laser emitting in the range from ~1000 cm(-1) to 1245 cm(-1), this approach leads to high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) for mid-infrared spectra of human skin. This opens the possibility to measure in situ the absorption spectrum of human epidermis in the mid-infrared region at high SNR in a few (~5) seconds. Rapid measurement of skin spectra greatly reduces artifacts arising from movements. As compared to closed resonance cells, the windowless cell exhibits the advantage that the influence of air pressure variations, temperature changes, and air humidity buildup that are caused by the contact of the cell to the skin surface can be minimized. We demonstrate here that this approach can be used for continuous and non-invasive monitoring of the glucose level in human epidermis, and thus may form the basis for a non-invasive monitoring of the glucose level for diabetes patients.

  3. Windowless ultrasound photoacoustic cell for in vivo mid-IR spectroscopy of human epidermis: Low interference by changes of air pressure, temperature, and humidity caused by skin contact opens the possibility for a non-invasive monitoring of glucose in the interstitial fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleitez, Miguel A.; Lieblein, Tobias; Bauer, Alexander; Hertzberg, Otto; von Lilienfeld-Toal, Hermann; Mäntele, Werner

    2013-08-01

    The application of a novel open, windowless cell for the photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy of human skin is described. This windowless cavity is tuned for optimum performance in the ultrasound range between 50 and 60 kHz. In combination with an external cavity tunable quantum cascade laser emitting in the range from ˜1000 cm-1 to 1245 cm-1, this approach leads to high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) for mid-infrared spectra of human skin. This opens the possibility to measure in situ the absorption spectrum of human epidermis in the mid-infrared region at high SNR in a few (˜5) seconds. Rapid measurement of skin spectra greatly reduces artifacts arising from movements. As compared to closed resonance cells, the windowless cell exhibits the advantage that the influence of air pressure variations, temperature changes, and air humidity buildup that are caused by the contact of the cell to the skin surface can be minimized. We demonstrate here that this approach can be used for continuous and non-invasive monitoring of the glucose level in human epidermis, and thus may form the basis for a non-invasive monitoring of the glucose level for diabetes patients.

  4. Modeling daily average stream temperature from air temperature and watershed area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, N. L.; Hunt, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Habitat restoration efforts within watersheds require spatial and temporal estimates of water temperature for aquatic species especially species that migrate within watersheds at different life stages. Monitoring programs are not able to fully sample all aquatic environments within watersheds under the extreme conditions that determine long-term habitat viability. Under these circumstances a combination of selective monitoring and modeling are required for predicting future geospatial and temporal conditions. This study describes a model that is broadly applicable to different watersheds while using readily available regional air temperature data. Daily water temperature data from thirty-eight gauges with drainage areas from 2 km2 to 2000 km2 in the Sonoma Valley, Napa Valley, and Russian River Valley in California were used to develop, calibrate, and test a stream temperature model. Air temperature data from seven NOAA gauges provided the daily maximum and minimum air temperatures. The model was developed and calibrated using five years of data from the Sonoma Valley at ten water temperature gauges and a NOAA air temperature gauge. The daily average stream temperatures within this watershed were bounded by the preceding maximum and minimum air temperatures with smaller upstream watersheds being more dependent on the minimum air temperature than maximum air temperature. The model assumed a linear dependence on maximum and minimum air temperature with a weighting factor dependent on upstream area determined by error minimization using observed data. Fitted minimum air temperature weighting factors were consistent over all five years of data for each gauge, and they ranged from 0.75 for upstream drainage areas less than 2 km2 to 0.45 for upstream drainage areas greater than 100 km2. For the calibration data sets within the Sonoma Valley, the average error between the model estimated daily water temperature and the observed water temperature data ranged from 0.7

  5. Pressure and Temperature Spin Crossover Sensors with Optical Detection

    PubMed Central

    Linares, Jorge; Codjovi, Epiphane; Garcia, Yann

    2012-01-01

    Iron(II) spin crossover molecular materials are made of coordination centres switchable between two states by temperature, pressure or a visible light irradiation. The relevant macroscopic parameter which monitors the magnetic state of a given solid is the high-spin (HS) fraction denoted nHS, i.e., the relative population of HS molecules. Each spin crossover material is distinguished by a transition temperature T1/2 where 50% of active molecules have switched to the low-spin (LS) state. In strongly interacting systems, the thermal spin switching occurs abruptly at T1/2. Applying pressure induces a shift from HS to LS states, which is the direct consequence of the lower volume for the LS molecule. Each material has thus a well defined pressure value P1/2. In both cases the spin state change is easily detectable by optical means thanks to a thermo/piezochromic effect that is often encountered in these materials. In this contribution, we discuss potential use of spin crossover molecular materials as temperature and pressure sensors with optical detection. The ones presenting smooth transitions behaviour, which have not been seriously considered for any application, are spotlighted as potential sensors which should stimulate a large interest on this well investigated class of materials. PMID:22666041

  6. High Pressure Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV) Development Tests at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, David M.; Greene, Nathanael J.; Revilock, Duane; Sneddon, Kirk; Anselmo, Estelle

    2008-01-01

    Development tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of 2 COPV designs at cryogenic temperatures. This allows for risk reductions for critical components for a Gaseous Helium (GHe) Pressurization Subsystem for an Advanced Propulsion System (APS) which is being proposed for NASA s Constellation project and future exploration missions. It is considered an advanced system since it uses Liquid Methane (LCH4) as the fuel and Liquid Oxygen (LO2) as the oxidizer for the propellant combination mixture. To avoid heating of the propellants to prevent boil-off, the GHe will be stored at subcooled temperatures equivalent to the LO2 temperature. Another advantage of storing GHe at cryogenic temperatures is that more mass of the pressurized GHe can be charged in to a vessel with a smaller volume, hence a smaller COPV, and this creates a significant weight savings versus gases at ambient temperatures. The major challenge of this test plan is to verify that a COPV can safely be used for spacecraft applications to store GHe at a Maximum Operating Pressure (MOP) of 4,500 psig at 140R to 160R (-320 F to -300 F). The COPVs for these tests were provided by ARDE , Inc. who developed a resin system to use at cryogenic conditions and has the capabilities to perform high pressure testing with LN2.

  7. Gas hydrate dissociation in sediments: Pressure-temperature evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Tae-Hyuk; Cho, Gye-Chun; Santamarina, J. Carlos

    2008-03-01

    Hydrate-bearing sediments may destabilize spontaneously as part of geological processes, unavoidably during petroleum drilling/production operations or intentionally as part of gas extraction from the hydrate itself. In all cases, high pore fluid pressure generation is anticipated during hydrate dissociation. A comprehensive formulation is derived for the prediction of fluid pressure evolution in hydrate-bearing sediments subjected to thermal stimulation without mass transfer. The formulation considers pressure- and temperature-dependent volume changes in all phases, effective stress-controlled sediment compressibility, capillarity, and the relative solubilities of fluids. Salient implications are explored through parametric studies. The model properly reproduces experimental data, including the PT evolution along the phase boundary during dissociation and the effect of capillarity. Pore fluid pressure generation is proportional to the initial hydrate fraction and the sediment bulk stiffness; is inversely proportional to the initial gas fraction and gas solubility; and is limited by changes in effective stress that cause the failure of the sediment. When the sediment stiffness is high, the generated pore pressure reflects thermal and pressure changes in water, hydrate, and mineral densities. Comparative analyses for CO2 and CH4 highlight the role of gas solubility in excess pore fluid pressure generation. Dissociation in small pores experiences melting point depression due to changes in water activity, and lower pore fluid pressure generation due to the higher gas pressure in small gas bubbles. Capillarity effects may be disregarded in silts and sands, when hydrates are present in nodules and lenses and when the sediment experiences hydraulic fracture.

  8. Relation of Total and Cardiovascular Death Rates to Climate System, Temperature, Barometric Pressure, and Respiratory Infection.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Bryan G; Qualls, Clifford; Kloner, Robert A; Laskey, Warren K

    2015-10-15

    A distinct seasonal pattern in total and cardiovascular death rates has been reported. The factors contributing to this pattern have not been fully explored. Seven locations (average total population 71,354,000) were selected where data were available including relatively warm, cold, and moderate temperatures. Over the period 2004 to 2009, there were 2,526,123 all-cause deaths, 838,264 circulatory deaths, 255,273 coronary heart disease deaths, and 135,801 ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) deaths. We used time series and multivariate regression modeling to explore the association between death rates and climatic factors (temperature, dew point, precipitation, barometric pressure), influenza levels, air pollution levels, hours of daylight, and day of week. Average seasonal patterns for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths were very similar across the 7 locations despite differences in climate. After adjusting for multiple covariates and potential confounders, there was a 0.49% increase in all-cause death rate for every 1°C decrease. In general, all-cause, circulatory, coronary heart disease and STEMI death rates increased linearly with decreasing temperatures. The temperature effect varied by location, including temperature's linear slope, cubic fit, positional shift on the temperature axis, and the presence of circulatory death increases in locally hot temperatures. The variable effect of temperature by location suggests that people acclimatize to local temperature cycles. All-cause and circulatory death rates also demonstrated sizable associations with influenza levels, dew point temperature, and barometric pressure. A greater understanding of how climate, temperature, and barometric pressure influence cardiovascular responses would enhance our understanding of circulatory and STEMI deaths.

  9. Aqueous Geochemistry at High Pressures and High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, Jay D.

    2015-05-21

    This project is aimed at experimental characterization of the sound velocities, equations of state (EOS), and derived physical and chemical properties of aqueous solutions and carbon dioxide at extreme pressure and temperature conditions relevant to processes occurring in the interior of the Earth. Chemical transport, phase changes (including melting), fluid-solid reactions, and formation of magmatic liquids at convergent plat boundaries are a key motivation for this project. Research in this area has long been limited by the extreme experimental challenges and lack of data under the appropriate pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions. The vast majority of studies of aqueous geochemistry relevant to terrestrial problems of fluid-rock interactions have been conducted at 0.3 GPa or less, and the widely used Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equation of state for aqueous species is applicable only at ~ < 0.5 GPa. These limits are unfortunate because fluid flow and reactions plays a central role in many deeper environments. Recent efforts including our own, have resulted in new experimental techniques that now make it possible to investigate properties of homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria involving aqueous species and minerals over a much broader range of pressure and temperature appropriate for deep crustal and upper mantle processes involving water-rich fluids. We carried out 1) Brillouin scattering measurements of the equations of state and molar volume of water and carbon dioxide to over 10 GPa and 870K using precise resistance heating of samples under pressure in the diamond anvil cell, and 2) the phase diagrams of the water and CO2, and 3) Exploring new experimental approaches, including CO2 laser heating of samples in a diamond cell, to measurements of sound velocities, EOS, and phase relations by Brillouin scattering to far greater pressures and temperatures.

  10. An Optimization Approach to Analyzing the Effect of Supply Water and Air Temperatures in Planning an Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karino, Naoki; Shiba, Takashi; Yokoyama, Ryohei; Ito, Koichi

    In planning an air conditioning system, supply water and air temperatures are important factors from the viewpoint of cost reduction. For example, lower temperature supply water and air reduce the coefficient of performance of a refrigeration machine, and increase the thickness of heat insulation material. However, they enable larger temperature differences, and reduce equipment sizes and power demand. The purposes of this paper are to propose an optimal planning method for a cold air distribution system, and to analyze the effect of supply water and air temperatures on the long-term economics through a numerical study for an office building. As a result, it is shown that the proposed method effectively determines supply water and air temperatures for a cold air distribution system, and that the influence of supply air temperature is larger than that of supply water temperature on the long-term economics.

  11. Determining pressure-temperature phase diagrams of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldock, Robert J. N.; Pártay, Lívia B.; Bartók, Albert P.; Payne, Michael C.; Csányi, Gábor

    2016-05-01

    We extend the nested sampling algorithm to simulate materials under periodic boundary and constant pressure conditions, and show how it can be used to determine the complete equilibrium phase diagram for a given potential energy function, efficiently and in a highly automated fashion. The only inputs required are the composition and the desired pressure and temperature ranges, in particular, solid-solid phase transitions are recovered without any a priori knowledge about the structure of solid phases. We benchmark and showcase the algorithm on the periodic Lennard-Jones system, aluminum, and NiTi.

  12. Hydrogen in Iron at High Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirao, N.; Ohtani, E.; Kondo, T.; Takemura, K.; Kikegawa, T.; Isshiki, M.

    2002-12-01

    Seismic data indicate both the inner and outer core of the Earth is less dense than pure iron at core pressures and temperatures. The density deficit suggests that light elements as iron compounds are contained in the inner and outer core. The preferred candidates for the light element are hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, silicon, and carbon. The possibility that hydrogen was dissolved into the Earth's core was proposed 25 years ago [1] and experimental works show that H has many qualities that make it a good candidate for the light element in the core [i.e. 2, 3]. However, information on iron hydride is limited and the crystal structure and the stability of iron hydride, including the equilibrium solubility of hydrogen, is unknown at higher temperatures and higher pressures. We carried out in situ X-ray diffraction experiments using electrically heated diamond-anvil cells (DACs) in order to determine the phase relation and equation of state on iron hydride. A series of experiments was performed on samples of iron and hydrogen loaded into DACs. X-ray diffraction patterns of iron hydride were collected using monochromatic synchrotron x-ray radiation and the imaging plate at the BL-13A beamline at the Photon Factory, National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK). Pressure was determined by the ruby fluorescence method. As a preliminary result, we found that iron hydride which has a double hexagonal close-packed structure is stable the temperature between 300 K and 654 K at about 15 GPa. A second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state fitted to the pressure-volume data yields the isothermal bulk modulus of 129 (+/-2) GPa and zero-pressure volume of 56.0 (+/-0.3) Å3, assuming the pressure derivative of bulk modulus of 4. The results are in a good agreement with those reported by Badding et al. [1991]. The composition FeHx with x=0.88 (+/-0.03) at zero-pressure, which seems to be constant up to 25 GPa at room temperature, is obtained using the volume of iron hydride, hcp

  13. Assimilation of Quality Controlled AIRS Temperature Profiles using the NCEP GFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Reale, Oreste; Iredell, Lena; Rosenberg, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We have previously conducted a number of data assimilation experiments using AIRS Version-5 quality controlled temperature profiles as a step toward finding an optimum balance of spatial coverage and sounding accuracy with regard to improving forecast skill. The data assimilation and forecast system we used was the Goddard Earth Observing System Model , Version-5 (GEOS-5) Data Assimilation System (DAS), which represents a combination of the NASA GEOS-5 forecast model with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operational Grid Point Statistical Interpolation (GSI) global analysis scheme. All analyses and forecasts were run at a 0.5deg x 0.625deg spatial resolution. Data assimilation experiments were conducted in four different seasons, each in a different year. Three different sets of data assimilation experiments were run during each time period: Control; AIRS T(p); and AIRS Radiance. In the "Control" analysis, all the data used operationally by NCEP was assimilated, but no AIRS data was assimilated. Radiances from the Aqua AMSU-A instrument were also assimilated operationally by NCEP and are included in the "Control". The AIRS Radiance assimilation adds AIRS observed radiance observations for a select set of channels to the data set being assimilated, as done operationally by NCEP. In the AIRS T(p) assimilation, all information used in the Control was assimilated as well as Quality Controlled AIRS Version-5 temperature profiles, i.e., AIRS T(p) information was substituted for AIRS radiance information. The AIRS Version-5 temperature profiles were presented to the GSI analysis as rawinsonde profiles, assimilated down to a case-by-case appropriate pressure level p(sub best) determined using the Quality Control procedure. Version-5 also determines case-by-case, level-by-level error estimates of the temperature profiles, which were used as the uncertainty of each temperature measurement. These experiments using GEOS-5 have shown that forecasts

  14. Stability of hydrocarbons at deep Earth pressures and temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Spanu, Leonardo; Donadio, Davide; Hohl, Detlef; Schwegler, Eric; Galli, Giulia

    2011-01-01

    Determining the thermochemical properties of hydrocarbons (HCs) at high pressure and temperature is a key step toward understanding carbon reservoirs and fluxes in the deep Earth. The stability of carbon-hydrogen systems at depths greater than a few thousand meters is poorly understood and the extent of abiogenic HCs in the Earth mantle remains controversial. We report ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations aimed at investigating the formation of higher HCs from dissociation of pure methane, and in the presence of carbon surfaces and transition metals, for pressures of 2 to 30 GPa and temperatures of 800 to 4,000 K. We show that for T≥2,000 K and P≥4 GPa HCs higher than methane are energetically favored. Our results indicate that higher HCs become more stable between 1,000 and 2,000 K and P≥4 GPa. The interaction of methane with a transition metal facilitates the formation of these HCs in a range of temperature where otherwise pure methane would be metastable. Our results provide a unified interpretation of several recent experiments and a detailed microscopic model of methane dissociation and polymerization at high pressure and temperature.

  15. The measured temperature and pressure of EDC37 detonation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, J. W.; Richley, J. C.; Sutton, B. D.; Price, E.; Ota, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the experimentally determined temperature and pressure of the detonation products of EDC37; a HMX based conventional high explosive. These measurements were performed on a series of cylinder tests. The temperature measurements were undertaken at the end of the cylinder with optical fibres observing the bare explosive through a LiF window. The temperature of the products was measured for approximately 2 µs using single colour pyrometry, multicolour pyrometry and also using time integrated optical emission spectroscopy with the results from all three methods being broadly consistent. The peak temperature was found to be ≈ 3600 K dropping to ≈ 2400 K at the end of the measurement window. The spectroscopy was time integrated and showed that the emission spectra can be approximated using a grey body curve between 520 - 800 nm with no emission or absorption lines being observed. The pressure was obtained using an analytical method which requires the velocity of the expanding cylinder wall and the velocity of detonation. The pressure drops from an initial CJ value of ≈ 38 GPa to ≈ 4 GPa after 2 µs.

  16. Arctic air may become cleaner as temperatures rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-10-01

    The air in the Arctic is cleaner during summer than during winter. Previous studies have shown that for light-scattering pollutants, this seasonal cycle is due mainly to summer precipitation removing pollutants from the air during atmospheric transport from midlatitude industrial and agricultural sources. With new measurements from Barrow, Alaska, and Alert, Nunavut, Canada, Garrett et al. extended previous research to show that light-absorbing aerosols such as black carbon are also efficiently removed by seasonal precipitation. Precipitation removes these particles from the air most efficiently at high humidities and relatively warm temperatures, suggesting that as the Arctic gets warmer and wetter in the future, the air and snow might also become cleaner.

  17. Air Pressure Responses to Sudden Vocal Tract Pressure Bleeds during Production of Stop Consonants: New Evidence of Aeromechanical Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, David J.; Weissler, Mark C.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate short-latency vocal tract air pressure responses to sudden pressure bleeds during production of voiceless bilabial stop consonants. It was hypothesized that the occurrence of respiratory reflexes would be indicated by distinct patterns of responses as a function of bleed magnitude. In Study 1, 19 adults…

  18. Iterative Boltzmann plot method for temperature and pressure determination in a xenon high pressure discharge lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Zalach, J.; Franke, St.

    2013-01-28

    The Boltzmann plot method allows to calculate plasma temperatures and pressures if absolutely calibrated emission coefficients of spectral lines are available. However, xenon arcs are not very well suited to be analyzed this way, as there are only a limited number of lines with atomic data available. These lines have high excitation energies in a small interval between 9.8 and 11.5 eV. Uncertainties in the experimental method and in the atomic data further limit the accuracy of the evaluation procedure. This may result in implausible values of temperature and pressure with inadmissible uncertainty. To omit these shortcomings, an iterative scheme is proposed that is making use of additional information about the xenon fill pressure. This method is proved to be robust against noisy data and significantly reduces the uncertainties. Intentionally distorted synthetic data are used to illustrate the performance of the method, and measurements performed on a laboratory xenon high pressure discharge lamp are analyzed resulting in reasonable temperatures and pressures with significantly reduced uncertainties.

  19. Flame Speeds of Methane-Air, Propane-Air, and Ethylene-Air Mixtures at Low Initial Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugger, Gordon L; Heimel, Sheldon

    1952-01-01

    Flame speeds were determined for methane-air, propane-air, and ethylene-air mixtures at -73 C and for methane-air mixtures at -132 C. The data extend the curves of maximum flame speed against initial mixture temperature previously established for the range from room temperature to 344 C. Empirical equations for maximum flame speed u(cm/ sec) as a function of initial mixture temperature T(sub O) were determined to be as follows: for methane, for T(sub O) from 141 to 615 K, u = 8 + 0.000160 T(sub O)(exp 2.11); for propane, for T(sub O) from 200 to 616 K, u = 10 + 0.000342 T(sub O)(exp 2.00); for ethylene, for T(sub O) from 200 to 617 K, u = 10 + 0.00259 T(sub O)(exp 1.74). Relative flame speeds at low initial temperatures were predicted within approximately 20 percent by either the thermal theory as presented by Semenov or by the diffusion theory of Tanford and Pease. The same order was found previously for high initial temperatures. The low-temperature data were also found to extend the linear correlations between maximum flame speed and calculated equilibrium active-radical concentrations, which were established by the previously reported high-temperature data.

  20. Respiratory and Laryngeal Responses to an Oral Air Pressure Bleed during Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Jessica E.; Stathopoulos, Elaine T.

    2003-01-01

    Researchers have hypothesized that the respiratory and laryngeal speech subsystems would respond to an air pressure bleed, but these responses have not been empirically studied. The present study examined the nature of the responses of the respiratory and laryngeal subsystems to an air pressure bleed in order to provide information relevant to the…

  1. Advances in Fast Response Acoustically Derived Air Temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoev, Ivan; Jacobsen, Larry; Horst, Thomas; Conrad, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Fast-response accurate air-temperature measurements are required when estimating turbulent fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide by open-path eddy-covariance technique. In comparison with contact thermometers like thermocouples, ultra-sonic thermometers do not suffer from solar radiation loading, water vapor condensation and evaporative cooling effects. Consequently they have the potential to provide more accurate true air temperature measurements. The absolute accuracy of the ultrasonic thermometer is limited by the following parameters: the distance between the transducer pairs, transducer delays associated with the electrical-acoustic signal conversion that vary with temperature, components of the wind vector that are normal to the ultrasonic paths, and humidity. The distance between the transducer pairs is commonly obtained by coordinate measuring machine. Improved accuracy demonstrated in this study results from increased stiffness in the anemometer head to better maintain the ultrasonic path-length distances. To further improve accuracy and account for changes in transducer delays and distance as a function of temperature, these parameters are characterized in a zero-wind chamber over the entire operating temperature range. When the sonic anemometer is combined with a co-located fast-response water vapor analyzer, like in the IRGASON instrument, speed of sound can be compensated for humidity effects on a point-by-point basis resulting in a true fast-response air temperature measurement. Laboratory test results show that when the above steps are implemented in the calibration of the ultrasonic thermometer air-temperature accuracy better than ±0.5 degrees Celsius can be achieved over the entire operating range. The approach is also validated in a field inter-comparison with an aspirated thermistor probe mounted in a radiation shield.

  2. Deflagration Behavior of PBX 9501 at Elevated Temperature and Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Maienschein, J L; Koerner, J G

    2008-04-15

    We report the deflagration behavior of PBX 9501 at pressures up to 300 MPa and temperatures of 150-180 C where the sample has been held at the test temperature for several hours before ignition. The purpose is to determine the effect on the deflagration behavior of material damage caused by prolonged exposure to high temperature. This conditioning is similar to that experienced by an explosive while it being heated to eventual explosion. The results are made more complicated by the presence of a significant thermal gradient along the sample during the temperature ramp and soak. Three major conclusions are: the presence of nitroplasticizer makes PBX 9501 more thermally sensitive than LX-04 with an inert Viton binder; the deflagration behavior of PBX 9501 is more extreme and more inconsistent than that of LX-04; and something in PBX 9501 causes thermal damage to 'heal' as the deflagration proceeds, resulting in a decelerating deflagration front as it travels along the sample.

  3. MEMS Fabry-Perot sensor interrogated by optical system-on-a-chip for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing.

    PubMed

    Pang, Cheng; Bae, Hyungdae; Gupta, Ashwani; Bryden, Kenneth; Yu, Miao

    2013-09-23

    We present a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based Fabry-Perot (FP) sensor along with an optical system-on-a-chip (SOC) interrogator for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing. The sensor employs a simple structure with an air-backed silicon membrane cross-axially bonded to a 45° polished optical fiber. This structure renders two cascaded FP cavities, enabling simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing in close proximity along the optical axis. The optical SOC consists of a broadband source, a MEMS FP tunable filter, a photodetector, and the supporting circuitry, serving as a miniature spectrometer for retrieving the two FP cavity lengths. Within the measured pressure and temperature ranges, experimental results demonstrate that the sensor exhibits a good linear response to external pressure and temperature changes.

  4. Electrical conductivity of rocks at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkhomenko, E. I.; Bondarenko, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    The results of studies of the electrical conductivity in the most widely distributed types of igneous rocks, at temperatures of up to 1200 C, at atmospheric pressure, and also at temperatures of up to 700 C and at pressures of up to 20,000 kg/sq cm are described. The figures of electrical conductivity, of activaation energy and of the preexponential coefficient are presented and the dependence of these parameters on the petrochemical parameters of the rocks are reviewed. The possible electrical conductivities for the depository, granite and basalt layers of the Earth's crust and of the upper mantle are presented, as well as the electrical conductivity distribution to the depth of 200 to 240 km for different geological structures.

  5. Solid Nitrogen at Extreme Conditions of High Pressure and Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, A; Gregoryanz, E

    2004-04-05

    We review the phase diagram of nitrogen in a wide pressure and temperature range. Recent optical and x-ray diffraction studies at pressures up to 300 GPa and temperatures in excess of 1000 K have provided a wealth of information on the transformation of molecular nitrogen to a nonmolecular (polymeric) semiconducting and two new molecular phases. These newly found phases have very large stability (metastability) range. Moreover, two new molecular phases have considerably different orientational order from the previously known phases. In the iota phase (unlike most of other known molecular phases), N{sub 2} molecules are orientationally equivalent. The nitrogen molecules in the theta phase might be associated into larger aggregates, which is in line with theoretical predictions on polyatomic nitrogen.

  6. Microscopic structure of water at elevated pressures and temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Sahle, Christoph J.; Sternemann, Christian; Schmidt, Christian; Lehtola, Susi; Jahn, Sandro; Simonelli, Laura; Huotari, Simo; Hakala, Mikko; Pylkkänen, Tuomas; Nyrow, Alexander; Mende, Kolja; Tolan, Metin; Hämäläinen, Keijo; Wilke, Max

    2013-01-01

    We report on the microscopic structure of water at sub- and supercritical conditions studied using X-ray Raman spectroscopy, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, and density functional theory. Systematic changes in the X-ray Raman spectra with increasing pressure and temperature are observed. Throughout the studied thermodynamic range, the experimental spectra can be interpreted with a structural model obtained from the molecular dynamics simulations. A spatial statistical analysis using Ripley’s K-function shows that this model is homogeneous on the nanometer length scale. According to the simulations, distortions of the hydrogen-bond network increase dramatically when temperature and pressure increase to the supercritical regime. In particular, the average number of hydrogen bonds per molecule decreases to ≈0.6 at 600 °C and p = 134 MPa. PMID:23479639

  7. High Temperature High Pressure Thermodynamic Measurements for Coal Model Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Chen; Vinayak N. Kabadi

    1998-11-12

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a better thermodynamic model for predicting properties of high-boiling coal derived liquids, especially the phase equilibria of different fractions at elevated temperatures and pressures. The development of such a model requires data on vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), enthalpy, and heat capacity which would be experimentally determined for binary systems of coal model compounds and compiled into a database. The data will be used to refine existing models such as UNIQUAC and UNIFAC. The flow VLE apparatus designed and built for a previous project was upgraded and recalibrated for data measurements for thk project. The modifications include better and more accurate sampling technique and addition of a digital recorder to monitor temperature, pressure and liquid level inside the VLE cell. VLE data measurements for system benzene-ethylbenzene have been completed. The vapor and liquid samples were analysed using the Perkin-Elmer Autosystem gas chromatography.

  8. Laser-induced cooling of a Yb:YAG crystal in air at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Soares de Lima Filho, Elton; Nemova, Galina; Loranger, Sébastien; Kashyap, Raman

    2013-10-21

    We report for the first time the experimental demonstration of optical cooling of a bulk crystal at atmospheric pressure. The use of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor to measure laser-induced cooling in real time is also demonstrated for the first time. A temperature drop of 8.8 K from the chamber temperature was observed in a Yb:YAG crystal in air when pumped with 4.2 W at 1029 nm. A background absorption of 2.9 × 10⁻⁴ cm⁻¹ was estimated with a pump wavelength at 1550 nm. Simulations predict further cooling if the pump power is optimized for the sample's dimensions.

  9. Metal/Silicate Partitioning at High Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shofner, G.; Campbell, A.; Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; Rahman, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of siderophile elements during metal-silicate segregation, and their resulting distributions provide insight into core formation processes. Determination of partition coefficients allows the calculation of element distributions that can be compared to established values of element abundances in the silicate (mantle) and metallic (core) portions of the Earth. Moderately siderophile elements, including W, are particularly useful in constraining core formation conditions because they are sensitive to variations in T, P, oxygen fugacity (fO2), and silicate composition. To constrain the effect of pressure on W metal/silicate partitioning, we performed experiments at high pressures and temperatures using a multi anvil press (MAP) at NASA Johnson Space Center and laser-heated diamond anvil cells (LHDAC) at the University of Maryland. Starting materials consisted of natural peridotite mixed with Fe and W metals. Pressure conditions in the MAP experiments ranged from 10 to 16 GPa at 2400 K. Pressures in the LHDAC experiments ranged from 26 to 58 GPa, and peak temperatures ranged up to 5000 K. LHDAC experimental run products were sectioned by focused ion beam (FIB) at NASA JSC. Run products were analyzed by electron microprobe using wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. Liquid metal/liquid silicate partition coefficients for W were calculated from element abundances determined by microprobe analyses, and corrected to a common fO2 condition of IW-2 assuming +4 valence for W. Within analytical uncertainties, W partitioning shows a flat trend with increasing pressure from 10 to 16 GPa. At higher pressures, W becomes more siderophile, with an increase in partition coefficient of approximately 0.5 log units.

  10. The mass and speed dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O.; Wilson, Michael A.; Schaller, Emily L.

    2004-01-01

    The speed and mass dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures is perhaps the most important data needed to understand how small meteoroids chemically change the ambient atmosphere in their path and enrich the ablated meteoric organic matter with oxygen. Such chemistry can play an important role in creating prebiotic compounds. The excitation conditions in various air plasma emissions were measured from high-resolution optical spectra of Leonid storm meteors during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. This was the first time a sufficient number and range of temperature measurements were obtained to search for meteoroid mass and speed dependencies. We found slight increases in temperature with decreasing altitude, but otherwise nearly constant values for meteoroids with speeds between 35 and 72 km/s and masses between 10(-5) g and 1 g. We conclude that faster and more massive meteoroids produce a larger emission volume, but not a higher air plasma temperature. We speculate that the meteoric plasma may be in multiphase equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere, which could mean lower plasma temperatures in a CO(2)-rich early Earth atmosphere.

  11. Discovery about temperature fluctuations in turbulent air flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-02-01

    The law of spatial fluctuations of temperature in a turbulent flow in the atmosphere was studied. The turbulent movement of air in the atmosphere manifests itself in random changes in wind velocity and in the dispersal of smoke. If a miniature thermometer with sufficient sensitivity and speed of response were placed in a air flow, its readings would fluctuate chaotically against the background of average temperature. This is Characteristic of practically every point of the flow. The temperature field forms as a result of the mixing of the air. A method using the relation of the mean square of the difference in temperatures of two points to the distance between these points as the structural characteristic of this field was proposed. It was found that the dissipation of energy in a flow and the equalization of temperatures are connected with the breaking up of eddies in a turbulent flow into smaller ones. Their energy in turn is converted into heat due to the viscosity of the medium. The law that has been discovered makes for a much broader field of application of physical methods of analyzing atmospheric phenomena.

  12. Assessment of two-temperature kinetic model for ionizing air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Chul

    1987-01-01

    A two-temperature chemical-kinetic model for air is assessed by comparing theoretical results with existing experimental data obtained in shock-tubes, ballistic ranges, and flight experiments. In the model, named the TTv model, one temperature (T) is assumed to characterize the heavy-particle translational and molecular rotational energies, and another temperature (Tv) to characterize the molecular vibrational, electron translational, and electronic excitation energies. The theoretical results for nonequilibrium air flow in shock tubes are obtained using the computer code STRAP (Shock-Tube Radiation Program), and for flow along the stagnation streamline in the shock layer over spherical bodies using the newly developed code STRAP (Stagnation-Point Radiation Program). Substantial agreement is shown between the theoretical and experimental results for relaxation times and radiative heat fluxes. At very high temperatures the spectral calculations need further improvement. The present agreement provides strong evidence that the two-temperature model characterizes principal features of nonequilibrium air flow. New theoretical results using the model are presented for the radiative heat fluxes at the stagnation point of a 6-m-radius sphere, representing an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle, over a range of free-stream conditions. Assumptions, approximations, and limitations of the model are discussed.

  13. The mass and speed dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures.

    PubMed

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O; Wilson, Michael A; Schaller, Emily L

    2004-01-01

    The speed and mass dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures is perhaps the most important data needed to understand how small meteoroids chemically change the ambient atmosphere in their path and enrich the ablated meteoric organic matter with oxygen. Such chemistry can play an important role in creating prebiotic compounds. The excitation conditions in various air plasma emissions were measured from high-resolution optical spectra of Leonid storm meteors during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. This was the first time a sufficient number and range of temperature measurements were obtained to search for meteoroid mass and speed dependencies. We found slight increases in temperature with decreasing altitude, but otherwise nearly constant values for meteoroids with speeds between 35 and 72 km/s and masses between 10(-5) g and 1 g. We conclude that faster and more massive meteoroids produce a larger emission volume, but not a higher air plasma temperature. We speculate that the meteoric plasma may be in multiphase equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere, which could mean lower plasma temperatures in a CO(2)-rich early Earth atmosphere.

  14. Can air temperature be used to project influences of climate change on stream temperature?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arismendi, Ivan; Safeeq, Mohammad; Dunham, Jason B.; Johnson, Sherri L.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, lack of data on stream temperature has motivated the use of regression-based statistical models to predict stream temperatures based on more widely available data on air temperatures. Such models have been widely applied to project responses of stream temperatures under climate change, but the performance of these models has not been fully evaluated. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the performance of two widely used linear and nonlinear regression models that predict stream temperatures based on air temperatures. We evaluated model performance and temporal stability of model parameters in a suite of regulated and unregulated streams with 11–44 years of stream temperature data. Although such models may have validity when predicting stream temperatures within the span of time that corresponds to the data used to develop them, model predictions did not transfer well to other time periods. Validation of model predictions of most recent stream temperatures, based on air temperature–stream temperature relationships from previous time periods often showed poor performance when compared with observed stream temperatures. Overall, model predictions were less robust in regulated streams and they frequently failed in detecting the coldest and warmest temperatures within all sites. In many cases, the magnitude of errors in these predictions falls within a range that equals or exceeds the magnitude of future projections of climate-related changes in stream temperatures reported for the region we studied (between 0.5 and 3.0 °C by 2080). The limited ability of regression-based statistical models to accurately project stream temperatures over time likely stems from the fact that underlying processes at play, namely the heat budgets of air and water, are distinctive in each medium and vary among localities and through time.

  15. High pressure flame system for pollution studies with results for methane-air diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, I. M.; Maahs, H. G.

    1977-01-01

    A high pressure flame system was designed and constructed for studying nitrogen oxide formation in fuel air combustion. Its advantages and limitations were demonstrated by tests with a confined laminar methane air diffusion flame over the pressure range from 1 to 50 atm. The methane issued from a 3.06 mm diameter port concentrically into a stream of air contained within a 20.5 mm diameter chimney. As the combustion pressure is increased, the flame changes in shape from wide and convex to slender and concave, and there is a marked increase in the amount of luminous carbon. The height of the flame changes only moderately with pressure.

  16. Rheological assessment of nanofluids at high pressure high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjirakat, Anoop; Sadr, Reza

    2013-11-01

    High pressure high temperature (HPHT) fluids are commonly encountered in industry, for example in cooling and/or lubrications applications. Nanofluids, engineered suspensions of nano-sized particles dispersed in a base fluid, have shown prospective as industrial cooling fluids due to their enhanced rheological and heat transfer properties. Nanofluids can be potentially utilized in oil industry for drilling fluids and for high pressure water jet cooling/lubrication in machining. In present work rheological characteristics of oil based nanofluids are investigated at HPHT condition. Nanofluids used in this study are prepared by dispersing commercially available SiO2 nanoparticles (~20 nm) in a mineral oil. The basefluid and nanofluids with two concentrations, namely 1%, and 2%, by volume, are considered in this investigation. The rheological characteristics of base fluid and the nanofluids are measured using an industrial HPHT viscometer. Viscosity values of the nanofluids are measured at pressures of 100 kPa to 42 MPa and temperatures ranging from 25°C to 140°C. The viscosity values of both nanofluids as well as basefluid are observed to have increased with the increase in pressure. Funded by Qatar National Research Fund (NPRP 08-574-2-239).

  17. Microwave temperature profiler for clear air turbulence prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for determining Richardson Number, Ri, or its reciprocal, RRi, for clear air prediction using measured potential temperature and determining the vertical gradient of potential temperature, d(theta)/dz. Wind vector from the aircraft instrumentation versus potential temperature, dW/D(theta), is determined and multiplies by d(theta)/dz to obtain dW/dz. Richardson number or its reciprocal is then determined from the relationship Ri = K(d theta)/dz divided by (dW/dz squared) for use in detecting a trend toward a threshold value for the purpose of predicting clear air turbulence. Other equations for this basic relationship are disclosed together with the combination of other atmospheric observables using multiple regression techniques.

  18. CARS Temperature and Species Measurements For Air Vehicle Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Gord, James R.; Grisch, Frederic; Klimenko, Dmitry; Clauss, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) method has recently been used in the United States and Europe to probe several different types of propulsion systems for air vehicles. At NASA Langley Research Center in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure temperature and the mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in a supersonic combustor, representative of a scramjet engine. At Wright- Patterson Air Force Base in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure temperature and mole fractions of N2, O2 and CO2, in the exhaust stream of a liquid-fueled, gas-turbine combustor. At ONERA in France and the DLR in Germany researchers have used CARS to measure temperature and species concentrations in cryogenic LOX-H2 rocket combustion chambers. The primary aim of these measurements has been to provide detailed flowfield information for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation.

  19. Generation of high pressure and temperature by converging detonation waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, V. P.; Shukla, S. K.

    1987-07-01

    Generation of high pressure and temperature has various applications in defense. Several techniques, viz flying plate method, collapsing of linear, convergence of detonation waves in solid explosives, have been established in this connection. In this paper, converging detonation waves in solid explosives, where variable heat of detonation is being added to the front, are studied by using Whitham's characteristics rule. Results are compared with those reported elsewhere.

  20. High-pressure two temperature equations of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliezer, S.

    1989-01-01

    A phenomenological approach is suggested for calculating two temperature equations of state at high pressures. The Thomas-Fermi Dirac model and the SESAME equation of state are used to calculate the electron contribution while the solid gas interpolation method is used for ions. An algorithm to calculate the first and higher moments of the charge distribution within the framework of the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac model is proposed.

  1. Differentiation between the Effect of Temperature and Pressure on Radon Transport within the Subsurface Geological Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafrir, H.; Haquin, G.; Malik, U.; Barbosa, S. M.

    2012-04-01

    This work proposes a new method to differentiate between the impact of ambient temperature and pressure on radon transportation within porous media, by long-term radon monitoring based on simultaneous alpha and gamma measurement. If a monitoring site is a closed measuring space with undisturbed environmental conditions, as in the Amram mountain research tunnel situated 25 km NW of Elat, Israel, the radon in the air space will reach equilibrium with the radon in the rock. Then the radon time series as measured by both gamma and alpha detectors exhibit the same temporal variations. The results in this case indicate that the diurnal, intra-seasonal (multi-day) and seasonal variation in the radon concentration is clearly associated with the ambient temperature gradient outside the rock air interface, to 100m above the monitoring cell. If the monitoring site is a shallow borehole, as at the Gevanim valley in Makhtesh Ramon, Israel, no equilibrium between the radon within the porous media and the radon in the open borehole air is necessarily established and the results of radon monitoring are different. Gamma detectors measuring the changes in radon concentration in the porous rock indicate a clear correlation between radon concentrations and the daily variations of external surface temperature, from about 1m up to 85m. On the contrary, the alpha detectors measuring the changes in radon concentration in very shallow borehole air space (about few meters) revealed a clear anti-correlation with atmospheric pressure waves at semi-daily, daily, and intra-seasonal time scales. At depths of several tens of meters, outer pressure waves induce anti-correlated radon variations lasting the same time. The ordered radon daily periodicity in the measuring air space is destroyed but the daily radon variation within the surrounding porous media, as measured by the gamma ray detectors is not disturbed. The results show that the method to differentiate between the impact of ambient

  2. Impacts of Lowered Urban Air Temperatures on Precursor Emission and Ozone Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Taha, Haider; Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    1998-09-01

    Meteorological, photochemical, building-energy, and power plant simulations were performed to assess the possible precursor emission and ozone air quality impacts of decreased air temperatures that could result from implementing the "cool communities" concept in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Two pathways are considered. In the direct pathway, a reduction in cooling energy use translates into reduced demand for generation capacity and, thus, reduced precursor emissions from electric utility power plants. In the indirect pathway, reduced air temperatures can slow the atmospheric production of ozone as well as precursor emission from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. The simulations suggest small impacts on emissions following implementation of cool communities in the SoCAB. In summer, for example, there can be reductions of up to 3% in NOx emissions from in-basin power plants. The photochemical simulations suggest that the air quality impacts of these direct emission reductions are small. However, the indirect atmospheric effects of cool communities can be significant. For example, ozone peak concentrations can decrease by up to 11% in summer and population-weighted exceedance exposure to ozone above the California and National Ambient Air Quality Standards can decrease by up to 11 and 17%, respectively. The modeling suggests that if these strategies are combined with others, such as mobile-source emission control, the improvements in ozone air quality can be substantial.

  3. The Effects of Air Pollution and Temperature on COPD

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, Nadia N.; McCormack, Meredith C.; Kim, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects 12–16 million people in the United States and is the third-leading cause of death. In developed countries, smoking is the greatest risk factor for the development of COPD, but other exposures also contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Several studies suggest, though are not definitive, that outdoor air pollution exposure is linked to the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Among individuals with COPD, outdoor air pollutants are associated with loss of lung function and increased respiratory symptoms. In addition, outdoor air pollutants are also associated with COPD exacerbations and mortality. There is much less evidence for the impact of indoor air on COPD, especially in developed countries in residences without biomass exposure. The limited existing data suggests that indoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are linked to increased respiratory symptoms among patients with COPD. In addition, with the projected increases in temperature and extreme weather events in the context of climate change there has been increased attention to the effects of heat exposure. Extremes of temperature—both heat and cold—have been associated with increased respiratory morbidity in COPD. Some studies also suggest that temperature may modify the effect of pollution exposure and though results are not conclusive, understanding factors that may modify susceptibility to air pollution in patients with COPD is of utmost importance. PMID:26683097

  4. System design for buried high-pressure/high-temperature pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    A pipeline expands or contracts when temperatures or pressures vary from the conditions at the time the pipeline was installed. Buried pipelines operating at high temperatures and pressures experience extreme compressive loads. Because radial expansion is limited by soil restraint, buried pipelines expand axially. High axial forces combined with imperfections in the seabed may overstress the pipeline or result in upheaval buckling. Methods to control expansion and upheaval buckling were investigated for the design of a buried high-pressure/high temperature (HP/HT) sour-gas flowline in Mobile Bay, Alabama. After investigating conventional and unconventional methods, the decision was made to use expansion loops over the length of the pipeline to protect the risers and reduce axial force in the middle of the pipeline. Expansion loops and doglegs act as springs to absorb pipeline expansion. Methods were investigated to prevent soil from accumulating around the buried expansion loops. Commercially available concrete dog houses used to protect pipelines and expansion loops from dropped objects were not suitable for burial, and fabrication of custom concrete housing was expensive. Fabrication of a steel enclosure was the solution chosen. A mathematical model based on internal-design guidelines and ultimate soil friction was used to determine placement and size of the expansion loops.

  5. New chemical reactions in methane at high temperatures and pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Culler, T.S.; Schiferl, D. )

    1993-01-21

    The authors have used a Merrill-Bassett diamond anvil cell and Raman spectroscopy to study methane at high pressures (up to 13 GPa) and high temperatures (up to 912 K). At 2.5-5.0 GPa and 912 K, methane photoreacts with the laser light used for Raman spectroscopy and forms a graphitelike soot compound. At room temperature and pressure the Raman spectrum of the new material has an intense peak with a frequency of 1597 cm[sup [minus]1]. At higher pressures and temperatures (10-13 GPa and 948 K) a sample of [sup 13]CD[sub 4] methane photoreacted with the laser light and formed a hard, clear, solid film. At 0.34 GPa and 300 K, this film had Raman peaks at 541 and 1605 cm[sup [minus]1]. The 541-cm[sup [minus]1] peak may correspond to the 550-cm[sup [minus]1] peak found in some diamondlike carbon (DLC) films formed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), but the 1605-cm[sup [minus]1] peak does not appear to have any such counterpart. Other possible Raman peaks were masked by interference from the diamond anvils. Thus, while the hard, clear film has some similarities to CVD DLC films, some important differences and questions remain. 35 refs., 5 figs.

  6. HIGH TEMPERATURE HIGH PRESSURE THERMODYNAMIC MEASUREMENTS FOR COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    1999-02-24

    The enthalpy of a fluid measured with respect to some reference temperature and pressure (enthalpy increment or Cp) is required for many engineering designs. Different techniques for determining enthalpy increments include direct measurement, integration of heat capacity as a function of temperature at constant pressure, and calculation from accurate density measurements as a function of temperature and pressure with ideal-gas enthalpies. Techniques have been developed for measurement of heat capacities using differential scanning calorimeters, but routine measurements with a precision better than 3% are rare. For thermodynamic model development, excess enthalpies or enthalpies of mixing of binary and ternary systems are generally required. Although these data can be calculated from measured values of incremental enthalpies of mixtures and corresponding pure components, the method of calculation involves subtraction of large numbers, and it is impossible to obtain accurate results from relatively accurate incremental enthalpy data. Directly measured heats of mixing provide better data for model development. In what follows, we give a brief literature survey of experimental methods available for measurement of incremental enthalpies as well as heats of mixing.

  7. A falling-pressure method for measuring air permeability of asphalt in laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hailong; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Luk, Mario

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a simple analytical solution for estimating air permeability using the test data obtained by a falling-pressure method in laboratory. The perimeter of the column-shaped sample is fixed in a steel cylinder with the upper sample surface open to the atmosphere. The lower surface of the sample and the cylinder form an air chamber. A water manometer is connected to the air chamber to measure the air pressure inside after the chamber is pressurized. The data of pressure versus time in the air chamber are recorded and analyzed. An approximate analytical solution is derived to describe the pressure-time relationship in the air chamber. The air permeability can be easily estimated using the approximate analytical solution based on the linear least-squares fitting to the recorded pressure-time test data. This method is used to estimate the falling-pressure test data of 15 asphalt samples. The agreement between the test data and the analytical prediction is satisfactory for all the samples. To investigate the error caused by the approximate analytical solution, the air permeabilities are also estimated based on fully numerical solutions. The permeability values obtained from analytical and numerical solutions are very close. The maximum relative error is less than 6% for samples with more than five pressure-time records. A quantitative condition is given under which the analytical solution applies with negligible estimation error. Compared with the common, steady-state method for measuring air permeability, the falling-pressure method has its advantages such as simplicity and economy. The steady-state method has to measure the air flux through the sample, while the falling-pressure method does not.

  8. Dislocation Creep of Ice At Glaciological Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, C.; Goldsby, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Glen law, a power law between effective strain rate ɛdot and effective stress τ of the form ɛdot=Aτn, where A is a temperature-dependent parameter, and n is the stress exponent of value 3, attributed to dislocation creep, has underpinned models and calculations of glacier flow for over six decades. Compilations of ice creep data from tests at ambient and elevated confining pressures, however, suggest that dislocation creep of ice is characterized by a value of n=4, not 3. While high-pressure experiments on ice provide the best constraints on the dislocation creep regime and have consistently yielded a stress exponent of ~4, most of these tests have been conducted at much-lower-than-glaciological temperatures (Durham et al., 1992). To investigate dislocation creep of ice at glaciological conditions, we deformed samples at temperatures ≥264 K and elevated confining pressures up to ~30 MPa, the maximum cryostatic pressure in the ice sheets. Samples were formed by flooding evacuated cylindrical compacts of distilled-water seed ice of particle sizes 0.18-0.25 mm or 1-1.6 mm at 273 K, followed by freezing at 243 K. Each indium-jacketed specimen was deformed in compression in a gas-medium apparatus at a single constant displacement rate to ~20% strain, at nominally constant strain rates of from 10-6 to 10-3 s-1. In each test, we obtain the peak stress after ~2-3% strain and the steady-state flow stress at larger strains. Plots of strain rate vs. both peak stress and flow stress yield a value of n=4, consistent with previous data from higher-pressure, lower-temperature tests (Durham et al., 1992) and from some ambient pressure experiments (Goldsby and Kohlstedt, 2001), and with models of climb-limited dislocation creep (Weertman, 1968). At stresses <3 MPa, tests on the finer-grained samples show a slight decrease in n to a value <4, while data for the coarser-grained samples show no such transition, consistent with the onset of dislocation-accommodated grain

  9. Climate change and river temperature sensitivity to warmer nighttime vs. warmer daytime air temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diabat, M.; Haggerty, R.; Wondzell, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the July river temperature response to atmospheric warming over the diurnal cycle in a 36 km reach of the upper Middle Fork John Day River of Oregon, USA. The physical model Heat Source was calibrated and used to run 3 different cases of increased air temperature during July: 1) uniform increase over the whole day ("delta method"), 2) warmer daytime, and 3) warmer nighttime. All 3 cases had the same mean daily air temperatures - a 4 °C increase relative to 2002. Results show that the timing of air temperature increases has a significant effect on the magnitude, timing and duration of changes in water temperatures relative to current conditions. In all cases, river temperatures in the lower reach increased by at least 1.1 °C . For the delta case, water temperature increases never exceeded 2.3 °C. In contrast, under the warmer daytime case, water temperature increases exceeded 2.3 °C for 6.6 hours/day on average, with the largest increases occurring during mid-day. In the warmer night case the river temperature increases exceeded 2.3 °C for 4.3 hours/day on average with the largest increases occurring around midnight. In addition, an average increase of 4 °C in air temperature under the delta case increased the water temperature by an average of 1.9 °C uniformly during daytime and nighttime. Still, an average increase of 4 °C in air temperature under the warmer daytime case increased water temperature by an average of at least 1.6 °C during the daytime and by an average of up to 2.5 °C during the nighttime, while an average increase of 4 °C in air temperature under the warmer nighttime case increased the water temperature by an average of at least 1.4 °C during the nighttime and by an average of up to 2.4 °C during the daytime. The spatial response of temperature was different for each case. The lower 13 rkm warmed by at least 1.1 °C with the delta case, while only the lower 6 rkm warmed by at least 1.1 °C with the warmer daytime case

  10. New pressure and temperature effects on bacterial spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathys, A.; Heinz, V.; Knorr, D.

    2008-07-01

    The mechanism of inactivation of bacterial spores by heat and pressure is still a matter of discussion. Obviously, the change of the dissociation equilibrium under pressure and temperature plays a dominant role in inactivation of microorganisms. Heat and pressure inactivation of Geobacillus. stearothermophilus spores at different initial pH-values in ACES and phosphate buffer confirmed this view. Thermal inactivation in ACES buffer at 122°C resulted in higher logarithmic reductions. Contrary, after pressure treatment at 900 MPa with 80°C phosphate buffer showed higher inactivation. These results indicated the different dissociation equilibrium shifts in buffer systems by heat and pressure. Due to preparation, storage and handling of highly concentrated spore suspensions the clumping and the formation of aggregates can hardly be avoided. Consequently, the impact of the agglomeration size distribution on the quantitative assessment of G. stearothermophilus spore inactivation was determined by using a three-fold dynamic optical backreflexion measurement. Two limiting cases have been discriminated in mathematical modelling: three dimensional, spherical packing for maximum spore count and two dimensional, circular packing for minimum spore count of a particular agglomerate. Thermal inactivation studies have been carried out in thin glass capillaries, where by using numerical simulations the non isothermal conditions were modelled and taken into account. It is shown that the shoulder formation often found in thermal spore inactivation can sufficiently be described by first-order inactivation kinetics when the agglomeration size is considered. In case of high pressure inactivation agglomerations could be strongly changed by high forces at compression and especially decompression phase. The physiological response of Bacillus licheniformis spores to high pressure was investigated using multiparameter flow cytometry. Spores were treated by high pressure at 150 MPa with 37

  11. An investigation of temperature measurement methods in nuclear power plant reactor pressure vessel annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Acton, R.U.; Gill, W.; Sais, D.J.; Schulze, D.H.; Nakos, J.T.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this project was to provide an assessment of several methods by which the temperature of a commercial nuclear power plant reactor pressure vessel (RPV) could be measured during an annealing process. This project was a coordinated effort between DOE`s Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology; DOE`s Light Water Reactor Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories; and the Electric Power Research Institute`s Non- Destructive Evaluation Center. Ball- thermocouple probes similar to those described in NUREG/CR-5760, spring-loaded, metal- sheathed thermocouple probes, and 1778 air- suspended thermocouples were investigated in experiments that heated a section of an RPV wall to simulate a thermal annealing treatment. A parametric study of ball material, emissivity, thermal conductivity, and thermocouple function locations was conducted. Also investigated was a sheathed thermocouple failure mode known as shunting (electrical breakdown of insulation separating the thermocouple wires). Large errors were found between the temperature as measured by the probes and the true RPV wall temperature during heat-up and cool-down. At the annealing soak temperature, in this case 454{degrees}C [850`F], all sensors measured the same temperature within about {plus_minus}5% (23.6{degrees}C [42.5{degrees}F]). Because of these errors, actual RPV wall heating and cooling rates differed from those prescribed (by up to 29%). Shunting does not appear to be a problem under these conditions. The large temperature measurement errors led to the development of a thermal model that predicts the RPV wall temperature from the temperature of a ball- probe. Comparisons between the model and the experimental data for ball-probes indicate that the model could be a useful tool in predicting the actual RPV temperature based on the indicated ball- probe temperature. The model does not predict the temperature as well for the spring-loaded and air suspended probes.

  12. Superconductivity above the lowest Earth temperature in pressurized sulfur hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianconi, Antonio; Jarlborg, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    A recent experiment has shown a macroscopic quantum coherent condensate at 203 K, about 19 degrees above the coldest temperature recorded on the Earth surface, 184 K (-89.2 ^\\circ \\text{C}, -128.6 ^\\circ \\text{F}) in pressurized sulfur hydride. This discovery is relevant not only in material science and condensed matter but also in other fields ranging from quantum computing to quantum physics of living matter. It has given the start to a gold rush looking for other macroscopic quantum coherent condensates in hydrides at the temperature range of living matter 200c <400 \\text{K} . We present here a review of the experimental results and the theoretical works and we discuss the Fermiology of \\text{H}3\\text{S} focusing on Lifshitz transitions as a function of pressure. We discuss the possible role of the shape resonance near a neck disrupting Lifshitz transition, in the Bianconi-Perali-Valletta (BPV) theory, for rising the critical temperature in a multigap superconductor, as the Feshbach resonance rises the critical temperature in Fermionic ultracold gases.

  13. Rotating disk electrode system for elevated pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Fleige, M. J.; Wiberg, G. K. H.; Arenz, M.

    2015-06-15

    We describe the development and test of an elevated pressure and temperature rotating disk electrode (RDE) system that allows measurements under well-defined mass transport conditions. As demonstrated for the oxygen reduction reaction on polycrystalline platinum (Pt) in 0.5M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, the setup can easily be operated in a pressure range of 1–101 bar oxygen, and temperature of 140 °C. Under such conditions, diffusion limited current densities increase by almost two orders of magnitude as compared to conventional RDE setups allowing, for example, fuel cell catalyst studies under more realistic conditions. Levich plots demonstrate that the mass transport is indeed well-defined, i.e., at low electrode potentials, the measured current densities are fully diffusion controlled, while at higher potentials, a mixed kinetic-diffusion controlled regime is observed. Therefore, the setup opens up a new field for RDE investigations under temperature and current density conditions relevant for low and high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  14. Evaluating CMIP5 models using AIRS tropospheric air temperature and specific humidity climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Baijun; Fetzer, Eric J.; Kahn, Brian H.; Teixeira, Joao; Manning, Evan; Hearty, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper documents the climatological mean features of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) monthly mean tropospheric air temperature (ta, K) and specific humidity (hus, kg/kg) products as part of the Obs4MIPs project and compares them to those from NASA's Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) for validation and 16 models from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) for CMIP5 model evaluation. MERRA is warmer than AIRS in the free troposphere but colder in the boundary layer with differences typically less than 1 K. MERRA is also drier (~10%) than AIRS in the tropical boundary layer but wetter (~30%) in the tropical free troposphere and the extratropical troposphere. In particular, the large MERRA-AIRS specific humidity differences are mainly located in the deep convective cloudy regions indicating that the low sampling of AIRS in the cloudy regions may be the main reason for these differences. In comparison to AIRS and MERRA, the sixteen CMIP5 models can generally reproduce the climatological features of tropospheric air temperature and specific humidity well, but several noticeable biases exist. The models have a tropospheric cold bias (around 2 K), especially in the extratropical upper troposphere, and a double-ITCZ problem in the troposphere from 1000 hPa to 300 hPa, especially in the tropical Pacific. The upper-tropospheric cold bias exists in the most (13 of 16) models, and the double-ITCZ bias is found in all 16 CMIP5 models. Both biases are independent of the reference dataset used (AIRS or MERRA).

  15. Record low surface air temperature at Vostok station, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, John; Anderson, Phil; Lachlan-Cope, Tom; Colwell, Steve; Phillips, Tony; Kirchgaessner, AméLie; Marshall, Gareth J.; King, John C.; Bracegirdle, Tom; Vaughan, David G.; Lagun, Victor; Orr, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    The lowest recorded air temperature at the surface of the Earth was a measurement of -89.2°C made at Vostok station, Antarctica, at 0245 UT on 21 July 1983. Here we present the first detailed analysis of this event using meteorological reanalysis fields, in situ observations and satellite imagery. Surface temperatures at Vostok station in winter are highly variable on daily to interannual timescales as a result of the great sensitivity to intrusions of maritime air masses as Rossby wave activity changes around the continent. The record low temperature was measured following a near-linear cooling of over 30 K over a 10 day period from close to mean July temperatures. The event occurred because of five specific conditions that arose: (1) the temperature at the core of the midtropospheric vortex was at a near-record low value; (2) the center of the vortex moved close to the station; (3) an almost circular flow regime persisted around the station for a week resulting in very little warm air advection from lower latitudes; (4) surface wind speeds were low for the location; and (5) no cloud or diamond dust was reported above the station for a week, promoting the loss of heat to space via the emission of longwave radiation. We estimate that should a longer period of isolation occur the surface temperature at Vostok could drop to around -96°C. The higher site of Dome Argus is typically 5-6 K colder than Vostok so has the potential to record an even lower temperature.

  16. Low-temperature ignition delay for hydrogen-air mixtures in light of a reaction mechanism with quantum correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, S. P.; Agafonov, G. L.; Khomik, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    A reaction mechanism with quantum correction is used to model low-temperature/high-pressure autoignition of lean hydrogen-air mixtures. This approach provides a good approximation for experimental data on autoignition delay and the low activation energy observed in experiments. Calculated results demonstrate that ignition delay time is inversely proportional to pressure, squared. The proposed scaling reduces spread in experimental data. The application of a quantum correction to hydrogen oxidation provides a basis for developing a general reaction mechanism that can be used to predict the autoignition behavior of hydrogen over an entire temperature/pressure range relevant to rocket engine conditions.

  17. 29 CFR 1915.172 - Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 1963. They shall be subjected to a hydrostatic pressure test of one and one-half times the working... quarterly by a competent person. They shall be subjected yearly to a hydrostatic pressure test of one and... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.172 - Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 1963. They shall be subjected to a hydrostatic pressure test of one and one-half times the working... quarterly by a competent person. They shall be subjected yearly to a hydrostatic pressure test of one and... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.172 - Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 1963. They shall be subjected to a hydrostatic pressure test of one and one-half times the working... quarterly by a competent person. They shall be subjected yearly to a hydrostatic pressure test of one and... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.172 - Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 1963. They shall be subjected to a hydrostatic pressure test of one and one-half times the working... quarterly by a competent person. They shall be subjected yearly to a hydrostatic pressure test of one and... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure...

  1. The dissociation of liquid silica at high pressure and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, D; Boehly, T; Eggert, J; Miller, J; Celliers, P; Collins, G

    2005-11-17

    Liquid silica at high pressure and temperature is shown to undergo significant structural modifications and profound changes in its electronic properties. Temperature measurements on shock waves in silica at 70-1000 GPa indicate that the specific heat of liquid SiO{sub 2} rises well above the Dulong-Petit limit, exhibiting a broad peak with temperature that is attributable to the growing structural disorder caused by bond-breaking in the melt. The simultaneous sharp rise in optical reflectivity of liquid SiO{sub 2} indicates that dissociation causes the electrical and therefore thermal conductivities of silica to attain metallic-like values of 1-5 x 10{sup 5} S/m and 24-600 W/m.K respectively.

  2. The association of annual air pollution exposure with blood pressure among patients with sleep-disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Te; Lee, Kang-Yun; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Wu, Dean; Juang, Jer-Nan; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2016-02-01

    While sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), high blood pressure (BP) and air pollution exposure have separately been associated with increased risk of cardiopulmonary mortality, the association linking air pollution exposure to BP among patients with sleep-disordered breathing is still unclear. We collected 3762 participants' data from the Taipei Medical University Hospital's Sleep Center and air pollution data from the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. Associations of 1-year mean criteria air pollutants [particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤10 μm (PM10), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3)] with systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were investigated by generalized additive models. After controlling for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), temperature and relative humidity, we observed that increases in air pollution levels were associated with decreased SBP and increased DBP. We also found that patients with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥30 showed a stronger BP response to increased levels of air pollution exposure than those with AHI<30. Stronger effects of air pollution exposure on BP were found in overweight participants than in participants with normal BMI. We concluded that annual exposure to air pollution was associated with change of BP among patients with sleep-disordered breathing. The association between annual air pollution exposure and BP could be modified by AHI and BMI.

  3. Measurements of Rotational Temperatures in Atmospheric-Pressure Capillary Plasma Electrode (CPE) Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figus, Margaret; Abramzon, Nina; Becker, Kurt

    2003-10-01

    We report the results of rotational temperature measurements in atmospheric-pressure capillary plasma electrode (CPE) discharges in ambient air using the unresolved N2 second positive band. Assuming that the emitting N2 molecules can be described by a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution characterized by a single rotational temperature, this temperature is determined from a fit of the measured emission spectrum to a calculated spectrum. If the emitting species are in equilibrium with the bulk gas in the plasma, then this temperature can be interpreted as the gas kinetic temperature in the plasma. We determined rotational temperatures for three different plasma regions: inside the capillary by analyzing radiation emitted along the axis of the capillary, between the capillaries, and perpendicular to the axis of the capillary. Each region has a different plasma density and, therefore, a different gas temperature with the plasma inside the capillary being the hottest. We also measured the rotational temperatures in each region as a function of the plasma power. As expected, the rotational temperatures increase with increasing discharge power. Work supported by the NSF and by ARO through a DURIP award.

  4. High fidelity radiative heat transfer models for high-pressure laminar hydrogen-air diffusion flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jian; Lei, Shenghui; Dasgupta, Adhiraj; Modest, Michael F.; Haworth, Daniel C.

    2014-11-01

    Radiative heat transfer is studied numerically for high-pressure laminar H2-air jet diffusion flames, with pressure ranging from 1 to 30 bar. Water vapour is assumed to be the only radiatively participating species. Two different radiation models are employed, the first being the full spectrum k-distribution model together with conventional Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) solvers. Narrowband k-distributions of water vapour are calculated and databased from the HITEMP 2010 database, which claims to retain accuracy up to 4000 K. The full-spectrum k-distributions are assembled from their narrowband counterparts to yield high accuracy with little additional computational cost. The RTE is solved using various spherical harmonics methods, such as P1, simplified P3 (SP3) and simplified P5 (SP5). The resulting partial differential equations as well as other transport equations in the laminar diffusion flames are discretized with the finite-volume method in OpenFOAM®. The second radiation model is a Photon Monte Carlo (PMC) method coupled with a line-by-line spectral model. The PMC absorption coefficient database is derived from the same spectroscopy database as the k-distribution methods. A time blending scheme is used to reduce PMC calculations at each time step. Differential diffusion effects, which are important in laminar hydrogen flames, are also included in the scalar transport equations. It was found that the optically thin approximation overpredicts radiative heat loss at elevated pressures. Peak flame temperature is less affected by radiation because of faster chemical reactions at high pressures. Significant cooling effects are observed at downstream locations. As pressure increases, the performance of RTE models starts to deviate due to increased optical thickness. SPN models perform only marginally better than P1 because P1 is adequate except at very high pressure.

  5. Tantalum strength model incorporating temperature, strain rate and pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett; Brown, Justin; Lane, Matt

    Tantalum is a body-centered-cubic (BCC) refractory metal that is widely used in many applications in high temperature, strain rate and pressure environments. In this work, we propose a physically-based strength model for tantalum that incorporates effects of temperature, strain rate and pressure. A constitutive model for single crystal tantalum is developed based on dislocation kink-pair theory, and calibrated to measurements on single crystal specimens. The model is then used to predict deformations of single- and polycrystalline tantalum. In addition, the proposed strength model is implemented into Sandia's ALEGRA solid dynamics code to predict plastic deformations of tantalum in engineering-scale applications at extreme conditions, e.g. Taylor impact tests and Z machine's high pressure ramp compression tests, and the results are compared with available experimental data. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Synthesis and microdiffraction at extreme pressures and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Lavina, Barbara; Dera, Przemyslaw; Meng, Yue

    2013-10-07

    High pressure compounds and polymorphs are investigated for a broad range of purposes such as determine structures and processes of deep planetary interiors, design materials with novel properties, understand the mechanical behavior of materials exposed to very high stresses as in explosions or impacts. Synthesis and structural analysis of materials at extreme conditions of pressure and temperature entails remarkable technical challenges. In the laser heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC), very high pressure is generated between the tips of two opposing diamond anvils forced against each other; focused infrared laser beams, shined through the diamonds, allow to reach very high temperatures on samples absorbing the laser radiation. When the LH-DAC is installed in a synchrotron beamline that provides extremely brilliant x-ray radiation, the structure of materials under extreme conditions can be probed in situ. LH-DAC samples, although very small, can show highly variable grain size, phase and chemical composition. In order to obtain the high resolution structural analysis and the most comprehensive characterization of a sample, we collect diffraction data in 2D grids and combine powder, single crystal and multigrain diffraction techniques. Representative results obtained in the synthesis of a new iron oxide, Fe4O5 (1) will be shown.

  7. Temperature Variations Recorded During Interinstitutional Air Shipments of Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Syversen, Eric; Pineda, Fernando J; Watson, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Despite extensive guidelines and regulations that govern most aspects of rodent shipping, few data are available on the physical environment experienced by rodents during shipment. To document the thermal environment experienced by mice during air shipments, we recorded temperatures at 1-min intervals throughout 103 routine interinstitutional shipments originating at our institution. We found that 49.5% of shipments were exposed to high temperatures (greater than 29.4 °C), 14.6% to low temperatures (less than 7.2 °C), and 61% to temperature variations of 11 °C or more. International shipments were more likely than domestic shipments to experience temperature extremes and large variations in temperature. Freight forwarders using passenger airlines rather than their own airplanes were more likely to have shipments that experienced temperature extremes or variations. Temperature variations were most common during stopovers. Some airlines were more likely than others to experience inflight temperature extremes or swings. Most domestic shipments lasted at least 24 h, whereas international shipments lasted 48 to 72 h. Despite exposure to high and low temperatures, animals in all but 1 shipment arrived alive. We suggest that simple measures, such as shipping at night during hot weather, provision of nesting material in shipping crates, and specifying aircraft cargo-hold temperatures that are suitable for rodents, could reduce temperature-induced stress. Measures such as additional training for airport ground crews, as previously recommended by the American Veterinary Medical Association, could further reduce exposure of rodents to extreme ambient temperatures during airport stopovers. PMID:18210996

  8. Global surface air temperature variations: 1851-1984

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.; Raper, S.C.B.; Kelly, P.M.

    1986-11-01

    Many attempts have been made to combine station surface air temperature data into an average for the Northern Hemisphere. Fewer attempts have been made for the Southern Hemisphere because of the unavailability of data from the Antarctic mainland before the 1950s and the uncertainty of making a hemispheric estimate based solely on land-based analyses for a hemisphere that is 80% ocean. Past estimates have been based largely on data from the World Weather Records (Smithsonian Institution, 1927, 1935, 1947, and U.S. Weather Bureau, 1959-82) and have been made without considerable effort to detect and correct station inhomogeneities. Better estimates for the Southern Hemisphere are now possible because of the availability of 30 years of climatological data from Antarctica. The mean monthly surface air temperature anomalies presented in this package for the than those previously published because of the incorporation of data previously hidden away in archives and the analysis of station homogeneity before estimation.

  9. Insect hygroreceptor responses to continuous changes in humidity and air pressure

    PubMed Central

    Tichy, H.; Kallina, W.

    2011-01-01

    The most favored model of humidity transduction views the cuticular wall of insect hygroreceptive sensilla as a hygromechanical transducer. Hygroscopic swelling or shrinking alters the geometry of the wall, deforming the dendritic membranes of the moist and dry cells. The small size the sensilla and their position surrounded by elevated structures creates technical difficulties to mechanically stimulate them by direct contact. The present study investigated hygroreceptors on the antennae of the cockroach and the stick insect. Accurately controlled, homogeneous mechanical input was delivered by modulating air pressure. Both the moist and dry cells responded not only to changes in air pressure, but also in the opposite direction, as observed during changes in air humidity. The moist-cell’s excitatory response to increasing humidity and increasing air pressure implies that swelling of the hygroscopic cuticle compresses the dendrites, and the dry-cell’s excitatory response to decreasing humidity and decreasing air pressure implies that shrinking of the hygroscopic cuticle expands the dendrites. The moist and dry cells of the stick insect are more sensitive to pressure changes than those of the cockroach, but the responses to air pressure are generally weaker than to humidity. Therefore, the hygroreceptive sensilla differ in their physical properties and constitutions. Furthermore, the mechanical parameters associated with homogeneous changes in air pressure on the sensillum surface can only partially account for the responses of the moist and dry cells of both species to humidity stimulation. PMID:20375249

  10. Pressure variation of melting temperatures of alkali halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arafin, Sayyadul; Singh, Ram N.

    2017-02-01

    The melting temperatures of alkali halides (LiCl, LiF, NaBr, NaCl, NaF, NaI, KBr, KCl, KF, KI, RbBr, RbCl, RbI and CsI) have been evaluated over a wide range of pressures. The solid-liquid transition of alkali halides is of considerable significance due to their huge industrial applications. Our formalism requires a priori knowledge of the bulk modulus and the Grüneisen parameter at ambient conditions to compute Tm at high pressures. The computed values are in very good agreement with the available experimental results. The formalism can satisfactorily be used to compute Tm at high pressures where the experimental data are scanty. Most of the melting curves (Tm versus P) exhibit nonlinear variation with increasing pressure having curvatures downward and exhibit a maximum in some cases like NaCl, RbBr, RbCl and RbI. The values of Tmmax and Pmax corresponding to the maxima of the curves are given.

  11. 30 CFR 35.21 - Temperature-pressure spray-ignition tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temperature-pressure spray-ignition tests. 35... Temperature-pressure spray-ignition tests. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this test shall be to determine the... the pressure vessel and heated to a temperature of 150 °F. The temperature shall be maintained at...

  12. 30 CFR 35.21 - Temperature-pressure spray-ignition tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temperature-pressure spray-ignition tests. 35... Temperature-pressure spray-ignition tests. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this test shall be to determine the... the pressure vessel and heated to a temperature of 150 °F. The temperature shall be maintained at...

  13. Pressure and Temperature effects on the High Pressure Phase Transformation in Zirconium

    SciTech Connect

    Escobedo-Diaz, Juan P.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Brown, Donald W.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Rigg, Paulo A.; Bronkhorst, Curt A.; Addessio, Francis L.; Lookman, Turab

    2012-06-20

    At high pressure zirconium is known to undergo a phase transformation from the hexagonal close packed (HCP) alpha phase ({alpha}) to the simple hexagonal omega phase ({omega}). Under conditions of shock loading, the high-pressure omega phase is retained upon release. However, the hysteresis in this transformation is not well represented by equilibrium phase diagrams. For this reason, the influence of peak shock pressure and temperature on the retention of omega phase in Zr is explored in this study. In situ VISAR measurements along with post-mortem metallographic and neutron diffraction characterization of soft recovered specimens have been utilized to quantify the volume fraction of retained omega phase, morphology of the shocked alpha and omega phases, and qualitatively understand the kinetics of this transformation. This understanding of the role of peak shock stress will be utilized to address physics to be encoded in our present macro-scale models.

  14. Evidence of Lunar Phase Influence on Global Surface Air Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anyamba, Ebby; Susskind, Joel

    2000-01-01

    Intraseasonal oscillations appearing in a newly available 20-year record of satellite-derived surface air temperature are composited with respect to the lunar phase. Polar regions exhibit strong lunar phase modulation with higher temperatures occurs near full moon and lower temperatures at new moon, in agreement with previous studies. The polar response to the apparent lunar forcing is shown to be most robust in the winter months when solar influence is minimum. In addition, the response appears to be influenced by ENSO events. The highest mean temperature range between full moon and new moon in the polar region between 60 deg and 90 deg latitude was recorded in 1983, 1986/87, and 1990/91. Although the largest lunar phase signal is in the polar regions, there is a tendency for meridional equatorward progression of anomalies in both hemispheres so that the warning in the tropics occurs at the time of the new moon.

  15. Heat transfer and pressure drop measurements in an air/molten salt direct-contact heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, M.S.

    1988-11-01

    This paper presents a comparison of experimental data with a recently published model of heat exchange in irrigated packed beds. Heat transfer and pressure drop were measured in a 150 mm (ID) column with a 610-mm bed of metal Pall rings. Molten nitrate salt and preheated air were the working fluids with a salt inlet temperature of approximately 440{degree}C and air inlet temperatures of approximately 230{degree}C. A comparison between the experimental data and the heat transfer model is made on the basis of heat transfer from the salt. For the range of air and salt flow rates tested, 0.3 to 1.2 kg/m{sup 2} s air flow and 6 to 18 kg/m{sup 2} s salt flow, the data agree with the model within 22% standard deviation. In addition, a model for the column pressure drop was validated, agreeing with the experimental data within 18% standard deviation over the range of column pressure drop from 40 to 1250 Pa/m. 25 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Cryogenic Pressure Calibrator for Wide Temperature Electronically Scanned (ESP) Pressure Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulcon, Nettie D.

    2001-01-01

    Electronically scanned pressure (ESP) modules have been developed that can operate in ambient and in cryogenic environments, particularly Langley's National Transonic Facility (NTF). Because they can operate directly in a cryogenic environment, their use eliminates many of the operational problems associated with using conventional modules at low temperatures. To ensure the accuracy of these new instruments, calibration was conducted in a laboratory simulating the environmental conditions of NTF. This paper discusses the calibration process by means of the simulation laboratory, the system inputs and outputs and the analysis of the calibration data. Calibration results of module M4, a wide temperature ESP module with 16 ports and a pressure range of +/- 4 psid are given.

  17. Development of a Pressure Sensitive Paint System with Correction for Temperature Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Kantis A.

    1995-01-01

    Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) is known to provide a global image of pressure over a model surface. However, improvements in its accuracy and reliability are needed. Several factors contribute to the inaccuracy of PSP. One major factor is that luminescence is temperature dependent. To correct the luminescence of the pressure sensing component for changes in temperature, a temperature sensitive luminophore incorporated in the paint allows the user to measure both pressure and temperature simultaneously on the surface of a model. Magnesium Octaethylporphine (MgOEP) was used as a temperature sensing luminophore, with the pressure sensing luminophore, Platinum Octaethylporphine (PtOEP), to correct for temperature variations in model surface pressure measurements.

  18. Stability of coronene at high temperature and pressure.

    PubMed

    Jennings, E; Montgomery, W; Lerch, Ph

    2010-12-09

    The infrared response of coronene (C(24)H(12)) under pressure and temperature conditions up to 10 GPa and 300 °C is examined in situ using a diamond anvil cell and synchrotron-source Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Coronene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is present in the interstellar medium and meteorites which may have contributed to the Earth's primordial carbon budget. It appears to undergo a reversible phase transition between 2 and 3.2 GPa at ambient temperature; new intramolecular bonds in the region 840-880 cm(-1) result from compression. We document the shift of spectral features to higher wavenumbers with increasing pressure but find this change suppressed by increased temperature. By investigating the stability of coronene over a range of naturally occurring conditions found in a range of environments, we assess the survival of the molecule through various terrestrial and extraterrestrial processes. Coronene has previously been shown to survive atmospheric entry during Earth accretion; this can now be extended to include survival through geological processes such as subduction and silicate melting of the rock cycle, opening the possibility of extraterrestrial coronene predating terrestrial accretion existing on Earth.

  19. Photoelectron Spectroscopy under Ambient Pressure and Temperature Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ogletree, D. Frank; Bluhm, Hendrik; Hebenstreit, Eleonore B.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-02-27

    We describe the development and applications of novel instrumentation for photoemission spectroscopy of solid or liquid surfaces in the presence of gases under ambient conditions or pressure and temperature. The new instrument overcomes the strong scattering of electrons in gases by the use of an aperture close to the surface followed by a differentially-pumped electrostatic lens system. In addition to the scattering problem, experiments in the presence of condensed water or other liquids require the development of special sample holders to provide localized cooling. We discuss the first two generations of Ambient Pressure PhotoEmission Spectroscopy (APPES) instruments developed at synchrotron light sources (ALS in Berkeley and BESSY in Berlin), with special focus on the Berkeley instruments. Applications to environmental science and catalytic chemical research are illustrated in two examples.

  20. Pressure and temperature effects on human red cell cation transport.

    PubMed

    Hall, A C; Ellory, J C; Klein, R A

    1982-01-01

    The effects of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on the three components of K+ uptake in human red cells have been investigated, using ouabain and bumetanide to distinguish between the pump, passive diffusion and cotransport. The pressure sensitivity for passive diffusion has been shown to depend on the counter-ion present. The order of this effect, Cl- greater than Br- greater than NO3- greater than I-, is the same as for the ionic partial molal volumes and the Hofmeister series. We have analyzed our experimental results thermodynamically, and propose a model for the activated transition-state complex of the potassium ion which involves the loss of water molecules from the secondary hydration shell, cosphere II.

  1. Air humidity and water pressure effects on the performance of air-cathode microbial fuel cell cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Yongtae; Zhang, Fang; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-02-01

    To better understand how air cathode performance is affected by air humidification, microbial fuel cells were operated under different humidity conditions or water pressure conditions. Maximum power density decreased from 1130 ± 30 mW m-2 with dry air to 980 ± 80 mW m-2 with water-saturated air. When the cathode was exposed to higher water pressures by placing the cathode in a horizontal position, with the cathode oriented so it was on the reactor bottom, power was reduced for both with dry (1030 ± 130 mW m-2) and water-saturated (390 ± 190 mW m-2) air. Decreased performance was partly due to water flooding of the catalyst, which would hinder oxygen diffusion to the catalyst. However, drying used cathodes did not improve performance in electrochemical tests. Soaking the cathode in a weak acid solution, but not deionized water, mostly restored performance (960 ± 60 mW m-2), suggesting that there was salt precipitation in the cathode that was enhanced by higher relative humidity or water pressure. These results showed that cathode performance could be adversely affected by both flooding and the subsequent salt precipitation, and therefore control of air humidity and water pressure may need to be considered for long-term MFC operation.

  2. Antarctic Sea ice variations and seasonal air temperature relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weatherly, John W.; Walsh, John E.; Zwally, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Data through 1987 are used to determine the regional and seasonal dependencies of recent trends of Antarctic temperature and sea ice. Lead-lag relationships involving regional sea ice and air temperature are systematically evaluated, with an eye toward the ice-temperature feedbacks that may influence climatic change. Over the 1958-1087 period the temperature trends are positive in all seasons. For the 15 years (l973-l987) for which ice data are available, the trends are predominantly positive only in winter and summer, and are most strongly positive over the Antarctic Peninsula. The spatially aggregated trend of temperature for this latter period is small but positive, while the corresponding trend of ice coverage is small but negative. Lag correlations between seasonal anomalies of the two variables are generally stronger with ice lagging the summer temperatures and with ice leading the winter temperatures. The implication is that summer temperatures predispose the near-surface waters to above-or below-normal ice coverage in the following fall and winter.

  3. The Effect of Operating Temperature on De-pressurized Conduction Cooldown for a High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, Brian E.; Woaye-Hune, Antony; Simoneau, Jan-Patrice; Gabeloteau, Thierry; Lefort, Frederic; Haque, Hamidul; Lommers, Lewis

    2004-07-01

    Passive decay heat removal through conduction and radiation (i.e., conduction cooldown) is a key feature of the high temperature reactor (HTR) designs currently being developed. Several evaluations of conduction cooldown performance have been performed previously for current HTR designs with core outlet temperatures of around 850 degrees Celsius. However, additional work is required to assess the impact of adopting alternate operating conditions, such as those of the Generation IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) concept (e.g., 1000 degrees Celsius outlet temperature). This study examines the effect of reactor operating temperature on de-pressurized conduction cooldown results. Numerical simulations of a de-pressurized conduction cooldown event for a prismatic block HTR are performed using STAR-CD{sup R}, a commercially available computational-fluid dynamics/ heat-transfer code. In parallel, calculations are performed using THERMIX, a code used in the German HTR program. These calculations first are performed for a design based on the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) configuration with an outlet temperature of 850 degrees Celsius. The calculations then are extended to VHTR operating conditions to assess the thermal consequences of higher outlet temperatures, and potentially lower inlet temperatures, on the fuel and reactor vessel. Increasing the outlet temperature to VHTR conditions (approximately 1000 degrees Celsius) results in a relatively small increase in the peak fuel temperature. A more significant effect results from changing the inlet temperature, since this change affects a much larger volume of graphite in the reactor. In all cases, changes in the operating temperature primarily influence only the early phases of the transient. The long-term behavior-governed by the quasi-steady-state balance of the decay heat power, the geometry, and the heat transport properties of the system-is less sensitive to such changes. Therefore, the significance

  4. Molecular dynamics of water at high temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodholt, John; Wood, Bernard

    1990-09-01

    There are currently no precise P-V-T data for water at pressures above 8.9 kbars and temperatures above 900°C. Many petrological processes in the lower crust and upper mantle take place under more extreme conditions, however and petrologists commonly rely on empirical equations of state such as the modified Redlich-Kwong equation (MRK) to extrapolate the low pressure data. In this study we have taken an alternative approach and attempted to simulate the P-V-T properties of water using molecular dynamics. The TIP4P intermolecular potential for H 2O ( JORGENSEN et al., 1983) has had considerable success predicting the properties of water at low temperatures and pressures up to 10 kbar ( MADURA et al., 1988). We have extended its application by making molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at a density of 1.0 g/cc from 300 to 2300 K and 0.5 to 40 kbars. The results agree with the P-V-T data of BURNHAM et al. (1969) (up to 10 kbars) with an average error of under 2%. This is a much better concordance than is obtained with any of the currently used versions of MRK. At 300 kbars and 2000 K the MD simulations predict densities within 8% of those obtained in the shock wave experiments of KORMER (1968). This is a very good agreement given the fact that water ionizes to some extent at high pressures ( MITCHELL and NELLIS, 1982) and we have made no provisions for this effect. We conclude that molecular dynamics simulations provide the possibility of estimating P-V-T properties in the upper mantle P-T regime with very good accuracy.

  5. Method and apparatus for monitoring oxygen partial pressure in air masks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Mark E. (Inventor); Pettit, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for monitoring an oxygen partial pressure in an air mask and providing a tactile warning to the user. The oxygen partial pressure in the air mask is detected using an electrochemical sensor, the output signal from which is provided to a comparator. The comparator compares the output signal with a preset reference value or range of values representing acceptable oxygen partial pressures. If the output signal is different than the reference value or outside the range of values, the air mask is vibrated by a vibrating motor to alert the user to a potentially hypoxic condition.

  6. An objective definition of air mass types affecting Athens, Greece; the corresponding atmospheric pressure patterns and air pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Sindosi, O A; Katsoulis, B D; Bartzokas, A

    2003-08-01

    This work aims at defining characteristic air mass types that dominate in the region of Athens, Greece during the cold (November-March) and the warm (May-September) period of the year and also at evaluating the corresponding concentration levels of the main air pollutants. For each air mass type, the mean atmospheric pressure distribution (composite maps) over Europe and the Mediterranean is estimated in order to reveal the association of atmospheric circulation with air pollution levels in Athens. The data basis for this work consists of daily values of thirteen meteorological and six pollutant parameters covering the period 1993-97. The definition of the characteristic air mass types is attempted objectively by using the methods of Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis. The results show that during the cold period of the year there are six prevailing air mass types (at least 3% of the total number of days) and six infrequent ones. The examination of the corresponding air pollution concentration levels shows that the primary air pollutants appear with increased concentrations when light or southerly winds prevail. This is usually the case when a high pressure system is located over the central Mediterranean or a low pressure system lays over south Italy, respectively. Low levels of the primary pollutants are recorded under northeasterly winds, mainly caused by a high pressure system over Ukraine. During the warm period of the year, the southwestern Asia thermal low and the subtropical anticyclone of the Atlantic Ocean affect Greece. Though these synoptic systems cause almost stagnant conditions, four main air mass types are dominant and ten others, associated with extreme weather, are infrequent. Despite the large amounts of total solar radiation characterizing this period, ozone concentrations remain at low levels in central Athens because of its destruction by nitric oxide.

  7. Parameterization of Finite-Element Cryo-Hydrologic Sand Dune Model to Constrain Debris-Flow-Initiating Subsurface Temperatures and Pore-Water Pressures, Great Kobuk Sand Dunes, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinwiddie, C. L.; Hooper, D. M.

    2015-05-01

    To explain how debris flows form at subfreezing air temperatures, we present meteorology-driven, numerical simulation-derived subsurface temperature and pore-water pressure profiles in the Great Kobuk Sand Dunes of Alaska, for incipient flow events.

  8. Meristem temperature substantially deviates from air temperature even in moderate environments: is the magnitude of this deviation species-specific?

    PubMed

    Savvides, Andreas; van Ieperen, Wim; Dieleman, Janneke A; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2013-11-01

    Meristem temperature (Tmeristem ) drives plant development but is hardly ever quantified. Instead, air temperature (Tair ) is usually used as its approximation. Meristems are enclosed within apical buds. Bud structure and function may differ across species. Therefore, Tmeristem may deviate from Tair in a species-specific way. Environmental variables (air temperature, vapour pressure deficit, radiation, and wind speed) were systematically varied to quantify the response of Tmeristem . This response was related to observations of bud structure and transpiration. Tomato and cucumber plants were used as model plants as they are morphologically distinct and usually growing in similar environments. Tmeristem substantially deviated from Tair in a species-specific manner under moderate environments. This deviation ranged between -2.6 and 3.8 °C in tomato and between -4.1 and 3.0 °C in cucumber. The lower Tmeristem observed in cucumber was linked with the higher transpiration of the bud foliage sheltering the meristem when compared with tomato plants. We here indicate that for properly linking growth and development of plants to temperature in future applications, for instance in climate change scenarios studies, Tmeristem should be used instead of Tair , as a species-specific trait highly reliant on various environmental factors.

  9. Velocity and pressure distribution behind bodies in an air current

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A

    1924-01-01

    The following experiments on the air flow behind bodies were made for the purpose of assisting in the explanation of the phenomena connected with air resistance. The first two series of experiments dealt with the phenomena behind a cylinder. The third series of experiments was carried out behind a streamlined strut.

  10. A lidar system for measuring atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Dombrowski, Mark; Korb, C. Laurence; Milrod, Jeffry; Walden, Harvey

    1987-01-01

    The design and operation of a differential absorption lidar system capable of remotely measuring the vertical structure of tropospheric pressure and temperature are described. The measurements are based on the absorption by atmospheric oxygen of the spectrally narrowband output of two pulsed alexandrite lasers. Detailed laser output spectral characteristics, which are critical to successful lidar measurements, are presented. Spectral linewidths of 0.026 and 0.018 per cm for the lasers were measured with over 99.99 percent of the energy contained in three longitudinal modes.

  11. HIGH TEMPERATURE PRESSURE PROCESSING OF MIXED ALANATE COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    Berseth, P; Ragaiy Zidan, R; Donald Anton, D; Kirk Shanahan, K; Ashley Stowe, A

    2007-06-07

    Mixtures of light-weight elements and hydrides were investigated to increase the understanding of the chemical reactions that take place between various materials. This report details investigations we have made into mixtures that include NaAlH{sub 4}, LiAlH{sub 4}, MgH{sub 2}, Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4}, alkali(ne) hydrides, and early third row transition metals (V, Cr, Mn). Experimental parameters such as stoichiometry, heat from ball milling versus hand milling, and varying the temperature of high pressure molten state processing were studied to examine the effects of these parameters on the reactions of the complex metal hydrides.

  12. High pressure, high-temperature vessel, especially for nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mitterbacher, P.; Schoning, J.; Schwiers, H.G.

    1980-09-23

    A pressure vessel susceptible to high temperatures, especially for containment of a nuclear-reactor core, is constituted of a cylindrical shell from a cast material such as cast steel, cast iron or concrete, and is prestressed by vertical cables which extend parallel to generatrices of the shell. Peripheral (Circumferential) prestressing cables are provided around the shell which can be externally insulated. The peripheral tensioning cables are exposed externally of the insulation material and bear upon the shell of the vessel with heatresistant elements of high compressive strength which extend through the external insulation.

  13. Daily Air Temperature and Electricity Load in Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valor, Enric; Meneu, Vicente; Caselles, Vicente

    2001-08-01

    Weather has a significant impact on different sectors of the economy. One of the most sensitive is the electricity market, because power demand is linked to several weather variables, mainly the air temperature. This work analyzes the relationship between electricity load and daily air temperature in Spain, using a population-weighted temperature index. The electricity demand shows a significant trend due to socioeconomic factors, in addition to daily and monthly seasonal effects that have been taken into account to isolate the weather influence on electricity load. The results indicate that the relationship is nonlinear, showing a `comfort interval' of ±3°C around 18°C and two saturation points beyond which the electricity load no longer increases. The analysis has also revealed that the sensitivity of electricity load to daily air temperature has increased along time, in a higher degree for summer than for winter, although the sensitivity in the cold season is always more significant than in the warm season. Two different temperature-derived variables that allow a better characterization of the observed relationship have been used: the heating and cooling degree-days. The regression of electricity data on them defines the heating and cooling demand functions, which show correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.87, and predicts electricity load with standard errors of estimate of ±4% and ±2%, respectively. The maximum elasticity of electricity demand is observed at 7 cooling degree-days and 9 heating degree-days, and the saturation points are reached at 11 cooling degree-days and 13 heating degree-days, respectively. These results are helpful in modeling electricity load behavior for predictive purposes.

  14. Sensitivity of New England Stream Temperatures to Air Temperature and Precipitation Under Projected Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Samal, N. R.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.; Zuidema, S.; Prousevitch, A.; Glidden, S.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal response of streams and rivers to changing climate will influence aquatic habitat. This study examines the impact that changing climate has on stream temperatures in the Merrimack River, NH/MA USA using the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System (FrAMES), a spatially distributed river network model driven by air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, precipitation, and solar radiation. Streamflow and water temperatures are simulated at a 45-second (latitude x longitude) river grid resolution for 135 years under historical and projected climate variability. Contemporary streamflow (Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient = 0.77) and river temperatures (Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient = 0.89) matched at downstream USGS gauge data well. A suite of model runs were made in combination with uniformly increased daily summer air temperatures by 2oC, 4 oC and 6 oC as well as adjusted precipitation by -40%, -30%, -20%, -10% and +10% as a sensitivity analysis to explore a broad range of potential future climates. We analyzed the summer stream temperatures and the percent of river length unsuitable for cold to warm water fish habitats. Impacts are greatest in large rivers due to the accumulation of river temperature warming throughout the entire river network. Cold water fish (i.e. brook trout) are most strongly affected while, warm water fish (i.e. largemouth bass) aren't expected to be impacted. The changes in stream temperatures under various potential climate scenarios will provide a better understanding of the specific impact that air temperature and precipitation have on aquatic thermal regimes and habitat.

  15. Dual shell reactor vessel: A pressure-balanced system for high pressure and temperature reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Robertus, R.J.; Fassbender, A.G.; Deverman, G.S.

    1995-03-01

    The main purpose of this work was to demonstrate the Dual Shell Pressure Balanced Vessel (DSPBV) as a safe and economical reactor for the hydrothermal water oxidation of hazardous wastes. Experimental tests proved that the pressure balancing piston and the leak detection concept designed for this project will work. The DSPBV was sized to process 10 gal/hr of hazardous waste at up to 399{degree}C (750{degree}F) and 5000 psia (34.5 MPa) with a residence time of 10 min. The first prototype reactor is a certified ASME pressure vessel. It was purchased by Innotek Corporation (licensee) and shipped to Pacific Northwest Laboratory for testing. Supporting equipment and instrumentation were, to a large extent, transported here from Battelle Columbus Division. A special air feed system and liquid pump were purchased to complete the package. The entire integrated demonstration system was assembled at PNL. During the activities conducted for this report, the leak detector design was tested on bench top equipment. Response to low levels of water in oil was considered adequate to ensure safety of the pressure vessel. Shakedown tests with water only were completed to prove the system could operate at 350{degree}C at pressures up to 3300 psia. Two demonstration tests with industrial waste streams were conducted, which showed that the DSPBV could be used for hydrothermal oxidation. In the first test with a metal plating waste, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and cyanide concentrations were reduced over 90%. In the second test with a munitions waste, the organics were reduced over 90% using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as the oxidant.

  16. Low Temperature Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John

    2015-08-01

    The embrittlement trend curve development project for HFIR reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels was carried out with three major tasks. Which are (1) data collection to match that used in HFIR steel embrittlement trend published in 1994 Journal Nuclear Material by Remec et. al, (2) new embrittlement data of A212B steel that are not included in earlier HFIR RPV trend curve, and (3) the adjustment of nil-ductility-transition temperature (NDTT) shift data with the consideration of the irradiation temperature effect. An updated HFIR RPV steel embrittlement trend curve was developed, as described below. NDTT( C) = 23.85 log(x) + 203.3 log (x) + 434.7, with 2- uncertainty of 34.6 C, where parameter x is referred to total dpa. The developed update HFIR RPV embrittlement trend curve has higher embrittlement rate compared to that of the trend curve developed in 1994.

  17. Soot formation and temperature structure in small methane-oxygen diffusion flames at subcritical and supercritical pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Hyun I.; Guelder, Oemer L.

    2010-06-15

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the characteristics of laminar methane-oxygen diffusion flames up to 100 atmospheres. The influence of pressure on soot formation and on the structure of the temperature field was investigated over the pressure range of 10-90 atmospheres in a high-pressure combustion chamber using a non-intrusive, line-of-sight spectral soot emission diagnostic technique. Two distinct zones characterized the appearance of a methane and pure oxygen diffusion flame: an inner luminous zone similar to the methane-air diffusion flames, and an outer diffusion flame zone which is mostly blue. The flame height, marked by the visible soot radiation emission, was reduced by over 50% over the pressure range of 10-100 atmospheres. Between 10 and 40 atmospheres, the soot levels increased with increasing pressure; however, above 40 atmospheres the soot concentrations decreased with increasing pressure. (author)

  18. Cloud-induced uncertainties in AIRS and ECMWF temperature and specific humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Sun; Fetzer, Eric J.; Schreier, Mathias; Manipon, Gerald; Fishbein, Evan F.; Kahn, Brian H.; Yue, Qing; Irion, Fredrick W.

    2015-03-01

    The uncertainties of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Level 2 version 6 specific humidity (q) and temperature (T) retrievals are quantified as functions of cloud types by comparison against Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive radiosonde measurements. The cloud types contained in an AIRS/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit footprint are identified by collocated Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer retrieved cloud optical depth (COD) and cloud top pressure. We also report results of similar validation of q and T from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) forecasts (EC) and retrievals from the AIRS Neural Network (NNW), which are used as the initial state for AIRS V6 physical retrievals. Differences caused by the variation in the measurement locations and times are estimated using EC, and all the comparisons of data sets against radiosonde measurements are corrected by these estimated differences. We report in detail the validation results for AIRS GOOD quality control, which is used for the AIRS Level 3 climate products. AIRS GOOD quality q reduces the dry biases inherited from the NNW in the middle troposphere under thin clouds but enhances dry biases in thick clouds throughout the troposphere (reaching -30% at 850 hPa near deep convective clouds), likely because the information contained in AIRS retrievals is obtained in cloud-cleared areas or above clouds within the field of regard. EC has small moist biases (~5-10%), which are within the uncertainty of radiosonde measurements, in thin and high clouds. Temperature biases of all data are within ±1 K at altitudes above the 700 hPa level but increase with decreasing altitude. Cloud-cleared retrievals lead to large AIRS cold biases (reaching about -2 K) in the lower troposphere for large COD, enhancing the cold biases inherited from the NNW. Consequently, AIRS GOOD quality T root-mean-squared errors (RMSEs) are slightly smaller than the NNW errors in thin clouds (1.5-2.5 K) but

  19. High pressure/high temperature thermogravimetric apparatus. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Calo, J.M.; Suuberg, E.M.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this instrumentation grant was to acquire a state-of-the-art, high pressure, high temperature thermogravimetric apparatus (HP/HT TGA) system for the study of the interactions between gases and carbonaceous solids for the purpose of solving problems related to coal utilization and applications of carbon materials. The instrument that we identified for this purpose was manufactured by DMT (Deutsche Montan Technologies)--Institute of Cokemaking and Coal Chemistry of Essen, Germany. Particular features of note include: Two reactors: a standard TGA reactor, capable of 1100 C at 100 bar; and a high temperature (HT) reactor, capable of operation at 1600 C and 100 bar; A steam generator capable of generating steam to 100 bar; Flow controllers and gas mixing system for up to three reaction gases, plus a separate circuit for steam, and another for purge gas; and An automated software system for data acquisition and control. The HP/TP DMT-TGA apparatus was purchased in 1996 and installed and commissioned during the summer of 1996. The apparatus was located in Room 128 of the Prince Engineering Building at Brown University. A hydrogen alarm and vent system were added for safety considerations. The system has been interfaced to an Ametek quadruple mass spectrometer (MA 100), pumped by a Varian V250 turbomolecular pump, as provided for in the original proposed. With this capability, a number of gas phase species of interest can be monitored in a near-simultaneous fashion. The MS can be used in a few different modes. During high pressure, steady-state gasification experiments, it is used to sample, measure, and monitor the reactant/product gases. It can also be used to monitor gas phase species during nonisothermal temperature programmed reaction (TPR) or temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments.

  20. Detonation cell size measurements in high-temperature hydrogen-air-steam mixtures at the BNL high-temperature combustion facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsberg, T.; Boccio, J.L.

    1997-11-01

    The High-Temperature Combustion Facility (HTCF) was designed and constructed with the objective of studying detonation phenomena in mixtures of hydrogen-air-steam at initially high temperatures. The central element of the HTCF is a 27-cm inner-diameter, 21.3-m long cylindrical test vessel capable of being heating to 700K {+-} 14K. A unique feature of the HTCF is the {open_quotes}diaphragmless{close_quotes} acetylene-oxygen gas driver which is used to initiate the detonation in the test gas. Cell size measurements have shown that for any hydrogen-air-steam mixture, increasing the initial mixture temperature, in the range of 300K to 650K, while maintaining the initial pressure of 0.1 MPa, decreases the cell size and thus makes the mixture more detonable. The effect of steam dilution on cell size was tested in stoichiometric and off-stoichiometric (e.g., equivalence ratio of 0.5) hydrogen-air mixtures. Increasing the steam dilution in hydrogen-air mixtures at 0.1 MPa initial pressure increases the cell size, irrespective of initial temperature. It is also observed that the desensitizing effect of steam diminished with increased initial temperature. A 1-dimensional, steady-state Zel`dovich, von Neumann, Doring (ZND) model, with full chemical kinetics, has been used to predict cell size for hydrogen-air-steam mixtures at different initial conditions. Qualitatively the model predicts the overall trends observed in the measured cell size versus mixture composition and initial temperature and pressure. It was found that the proportionality constant used to predict detonation cell size from the calculated ZND model reaction zone varies between 10 and 100 depending on the mixture composition and initial temperature. 32 refs., 35 figs.

  1. Magnetic transition temperatures follow crystallographic symmetry in samarium under high-pressures and low-temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Craig R.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal samarium (Sm) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to high-pressure up to 47 GPa and low-temperature to 10 K. The two magnetic transitions at 106 K and 14 K in the α-Sm phase, attributed to antiferromagnetic ordering on hexagonal and cubic layers respectively, collapse in to one magnetic transition near 10 GPa when Sm assumes a double hexagonal close packed (dhcp) phase. On further increase in pressure above 34 GPa, the magnetic transitions split again as Sm adopts a hexagonal-hP3 structure indicating different magnetic transition temperatures for different crystallographic sites. A model for magnetic ordering for the hexagonal-hP3 phase in samarium has been proposed based on the experimental data. The magnetic transition temperatures closely follow the crystallographic symmetry during α-Sm  →  dhcp  →  fcc/dist.fcc  →  hP3 structure sequence at high-pressures and low-temperatures.

  2. Magnetic transition temperatures follow crystallographic symmetry in Samarium under high-pressures and low-temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Vohra, Yogesh K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Johnson, Craig R.

    2016-12-21

    Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal samarium (Sm) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to high-pressure up to 47 GPa and low-temperature to 10 K. The two magnetic transitions at 106 K and 14 K in the α-Sm phase, attributed to antiferromagnetic ordering on hexagonal and cubic layers respectively, collapse in to one magnetic transition near 10 GPa when Sm assumes a double hexagonal close packed (dhcp) phase. On further increase in pressure above 34 GPa, the magnetic transitions split again as Sm adopts a hexagonal-hP3 structure indicating differentmore » magnetic transition temperatures for different crystallographic sites. A model for magnetic ordering for the hexagonal-hP3 phase in samarium has been proposed based on the experimental data. The magnetic transition temperatures closely follow the crystallographic symmetry during α-Sm → dhcp → fcc/dist.fcc → hP3 structure sequence at high-pressures and low-temperatures.« less

  3. Magnetic transition temperatures follow crystallographic symmetry in Samarium under high-pressures and low-temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, Yogesh K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Johnson, Craig R.

    2016-12-21

    Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal samarium (Sm) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to high-pressure up to 47 GPa and low-temperature to 10 K. The two magnetic transitions at 106 K and 14 K in the α-Sm phase, attributed to antiferromagnetic ordering on hexagonal and cubic layers respectively, collapse in to one magnetic transition near 10 GPa when Sm assumes a double hexagonal close packed (dhcp) phase. On further increase in pressure above 34 GPa, the magnetic transitions split again as Sm adopts a hexagonal-hP3 structure indicating different magnetic transition temperatures for different crystallographic sites. A model for magnetic ordering for the hexagonal-hP3 phase in samarium has been proposed based on the experimental data. The magnetic transition temperatures closely follow the crystallographic symmetry during α-Sm → dhcp → fcc/dist.fcc → hP3 structure sequence at high-pressures and low-temperatures.

  4. Seasonal changes in ambulatory blood pressure in employees under different indoor temperatures.

    PubMed Central

    Kristal-Boneh, E; Harari, G; Green, M S; Ribak, J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The effect of indoor temperature control on summer and winter ambulatory blood pressure levels at work was studied. METHOD--Ambulatory systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were monitored once in summer and once in winter in 101 healthy normotensive subjects aged 28-63 years, engaged in similar physical work, from two plants with and three without air conditioning. Subjects were interviewed about health related habits, and measurements of environmental and occupational conditions were obtained. RESULTS--After controlling for possible confounders, mean SBP and DBP during work were significantly higher in winter than in summer (delta SBP = 3.4 mm Hg, P = 0.035; delta DBP = 3.3 mm Hg, P < 0.003). The seasonal change in SBP and DBP showed an independent association with the presence or absence of air conditioning of the industrial plants (SBP: beta = 0.194, P < 0.0001; DBP: beta = 0.054, P = 0.038). The percentage of subjects with increases of more than 10 mm Hg from summer to winter was higher in plants without than with air conditioning. CONCLUSIONS--(1) In normotensive subjects ambulatory working BP varies by season, with higher values in winter. If validated for hypertensive subjects, it may be necessary to tailor drug treatment to these variations. (2) The findings make it clear that drawing valid conclusions from comparisons of BPs between groups requires controlling for several factors, particularly season of the year. (3) Climatic conditions in the industrial plant influence the magnitude of seasonal variations in BP. Work in plants without air conditioning places a considerable added load on the employee's cardiovascular system. PMID:8535490

  5. HIGH TEMPERATURE HIGH PRESSURE THERMODYNAMIC MEASUREMENTS FOR COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2000-05-01

    The flow VLE apparatus designed and built for a previous project was upgraded and recalibrated for data measurements for this project. The modifications include better and more accurate sampling technique, addition of a digital recorder to monitor temperature and pressure inside the VLE cell, and a new technique for remote sensing of the liquid level in the cell. VLE data measurements for three binary systems, tetralin-quinoline, benzene--ethylbenzene and ethylbenzene--quinoline, have been completed. The temperature ranges of data measurements were 325 C to 370 C for the first system, 180 C to 300 C for the second system, and 225 C to 380 C for the third system. The smoothed data were found to be fairly well behaved when subjected to thermodynamic consistency tests. SETARAM C-80 calorimeter was used for incremental enthalpy and heat capacity measurements for benzene--ethylbenzene binary liquid mixtures. Data were measured from 30 C to 285 C for liquid mixtures covering the entire composition range. An apparatus has been designed for simultaneous measurement of excess volume and incremental enthalpy of liquid mixtures at temperatures from 30 C to 300 C. The apparatus has been tested and is ready for data measurements. A flow apparatus for measurement of heat of mixing of liquid mixtures at high temperatures has also been designed, and is currently being tested and calibrated.

  6. Influence of air pressure on the performance of plasma synthetic jet actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Jia, Min; Wu, Yun; Li, Ying-hong; Zong, Hao-hua; Song, Hui-min; Liang, Hua

    2016-09-01

    Plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA) has a wide application prospect in the high-speed flow control field for its high jet velocity. In this paper, the influence of the air pressure on the performance of a two-electrode PSJA is investigated by the schlieren method in a large range from 7 kPa to 100 kPa. The energy consumed by the PSJA is roughly the same for all the pressure levels. Traces of the precursor shock wave velocity and the jet front velocity vary a lot for different pressures. The precursor shock wave velocity first decreases gradually and then remains at 345 m/s as the air pressure increases. The peak jet front velocity always appears at the first appearance of a jet, and it decreases gradually with the increase of the air pressure. A maximum precursor shock wave velocity of 520 m/s and a maximum jet front velocity of 440 m/s are observed at the pressure of 7 kPa. The averaged jet velocity in one period ranges from 44 m/s to 54 m/s for all air pressures, and it drops with the rising of the air pressure. High velocities of the precursor shock wave and the jet front indicate that this type of PSJA can still be used to influence the high-speed flow field at 7 kPa. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51407197, 51522606, 51336011, 91541120, and 11472306).

  7. Effect of posture on body temperature of young men in cold air.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, G C; Scarborough, M; Mridha, K; Whelan, L; Caunce, M; Keatinge, W R

    1996-01-01

    We studied eight young adult men to see whether a supine posture caused a fall in body core temperature in the cold, as it does in thermoneutral conditions. In air at 31 degrees C (thermoneutral), a supine posture for 3 h reduced mean aural, gastric, oesophageal and rectal temperatures by 0.2-0.4 degree C, compared to upright and increased femoral artery blood flow from 278 (SEM 42)ml.min-1 whilst upright to 437 (SEM 42) ml.min-1 whilst supine. In cold air (8 degrees C) the supine posture failed to reduce these temperatures [corrected] significantly, or to increase femoral blood flow: it reduced heart rate, and increased arterial systolic and pulse pressures adjusted to carotid sinus level, less than in thermoneutral conditions. However, the behaviour of core temperature at the four sites was significantly nonuniform between the two postures in the cold, mainly because the supine posture tended to reduce rectal temperature. It may have done so by reducing heat production in the muscles of the pelvis, since it reduced overall metabolic rate from 105 (SEM 8) to 87 (SEM 4) W.m-2 in the cold. In other respects the results indicated that posture ceased to have an important effect on body core temperatures during cold stress.

  8. HINDERED DIFFUSION OF ASPHALTENES AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Guin; Ganesh Ramakrishnan

    1999-10-07

    During this time period, experiments were performed to study the diffusion controlled uptake of quinoline and a coal asphaltene into porous carbon catalyst pellets. Cyclohexane and toluene were used as solvents for quinoline and the coal asphaltene respectively. The experiments were performed at 27 C and 75 C, at a pressure of 250 psi (inert gas) for the quinoline/cyclohexane system. For the coal asphaltene/toluene system, experiments were performed at 27 C, also at a pressure of 250 psi. These experiments were performed in a 20 cm{sup 3} microautoclave, the use of which is advantageous since it is economical from both a chemical procurement and waste disposal standpoint due to the small quantities of solvents and catalysts used. A C++ program was written to simulate data using a mathematical model which incorporated both diffusional and adsorption mechanisms. The simulation results showed that the mathematical model satisfactorily fitted the adsorptive diffusion of quinoline and the coal asphaltene onto a porous activated carbon. For the quinoline/cyclohexane system, the adsorption constant decreased with an increase in temperature. The adsorption constant for the coal asphaltene/toluene system at 27 C was found to be much higher than that of the quinoline/cyclohexane system at the same temperature. Apparently the coal asphaltenes have a much greater affinity for the surface of the carbon catalyst than is evidenced by the quinoline molecule.

  9. HIGH TEMPERATURE HIGH PRESSURE THERMODYNAMIC MEASUREMENTS FOR COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2000-05-01

    The Vapor Liquid Equilibrium measurement setup of this work was first established several years ago. It is a flow type high temperature high pressure apparatus which was designed to operate below 500 C temperature and 2000 psia pressure. Compared with the static method, this method has three major advantages: the first is that large quantity of sample can be obtained from the system without disturbing the equilibrium state which was established before; the second is that the residence time of the sample in the equilibrium cell is greatly reduced, thus decomposition or contamination of the sample can be effectively prevented; the third is that the flow system allows the sample to degas as it heats up since any non condensable gas will exit in the vapor stream, accumulate in the vapor condenser, and not be recirculated. The first few runs were made with Quinoline-Tetralin system, the results were fairly in agreement with the literature data . The former graduate student Amad used the same apparatus acquired the Benzene-Ethylbenzene system VLE data. This work used basically the same setup (several modifications had been made) to get the VLE data of Ethylbenzene-Quinoline system.

  10. High temperature pressurized high frequency testing rig and test method

    DOEpatents

    De La Cruz, Jose; Lacey, Paul

    2003-04-15

    An apparatus is described which permits the lubricity of fuel compositions at or near temperatures and pressures experienced by compression ignition fuel injector components during operation in a running engine. The apparatus consists of means to apply a measured force between two surfaces and oscillate them at high frequency while wetted with a sample of the fuel composition heated to an operator selected temperature. Provision is made to permit operation at or near the flash point of the fuel compositions. Additionally a method of using the subject apparatus to simulate ASTM Testing Method D6079 is disclosed, said method involving using the disclosed apparatus to contact the faces of prepared workpieces under a measured load, sealing the workface contact point into the disclosed apparatus while immersing said contact point between said workfaces in a lubricating media to be tested, pressurizing and heating the chamber and thereby the fluid and workfaces therewithin, using the disclosed apparatus to impart a differential linear motion between the workpieces at their contact point until a measurable scar is imparted to at least one workpiece workface, and then evaluating the workface scar.

  11. Nb-H system at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guangtao; Besedin, Stanislav; Irodova, Alla; Liu, Hanyu; Gao, Guoying; Eremets, Mikhail; Wang, Xin; Ma, Yanming

    2017-03-01

    We studied the Nb-H system over extended pressure and temperature ranges to establish the highest level of hydrogen abundance we could achieve from the resulting alloy. We probed the Nb-H system with laser heating and x-ray diffraction complemented by numerical density functional theory-based simulations. New quenched double hexagonal close-packed (hcp) Nb H2.5 appears under 46 GPa, and above 56 GPa cubic Nb H3 is formed as theoretically predicted. Nb atoms are arranged in close-packed lattices which are martensitically transformed in the sequence: face-centered cubic (fcc) → hcp → double hcp (dhcp) → distorted body-centered cubic (bcc) as pressure increases. The appearance of fcc Nb H2.5 -3 and dhcp Nb H2.5 cannot be understood in terms of enthalpic stability, but can be rationalized when finite temperatures are taken into account. The structural and compressional behavior of Nb Hx >2 is similar to that of NbH. Nevertheless, a direct H-H interaction emerges with hydrogen concentration increases, which manifests itself via a reduction in the lattice expansion induced by hydrogen dissolution.

  12. On extreme rainfall intensity increases with air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Peter; Fatichi, Simone; Paschalis, Athanasios; Gaal, Ladislav; Szolgay, Jan; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The water vapour holding capacity of air increases at about 7% per degree C according to the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relation. This is one of the arguments why a warmer future atmosphere, being able to hold more moisture, will generate higher extreme precipitation intensities. However, several empirical studies have recently demonstrated an increase in extreme rain intensities with air temperature above CC rates, in the range 7-14% per degree C worldwide (called super-CC rates). This was observed especially for shorter duration rainfall, i.e. in hourly and finer resolution data (e.g. review in Westra et al., 2014). The super-CC rate was attributed to positive feedbacks between water vapour and the updraft dynamics in convective clouds and lateral supply (convergence) of moisture. In addition, mixing of storm types was shown to be potentially responsible for super-CC rates in empirical studies. Assuming that convective events are accompanied by lightning, we will show on a large rainfall dataset in Switzerland (30 year records of 10-min and 1-hr data from 59 stations) that while the average rate of increase in extreme rainfall intensity (95th percentile) is 6-7% in no-lightning events and 8-9% in lightning events, it is 11-13% per degree C when all events are combined (Molnar et al., 2015). These results are relevant for climate change studies which predict shifts in storm types in a warmer climate in some parts of the world. The observation that extreme rain intensity and air temperature are positively correlated has consequences for the stochastic modelling of rainfall. Most current stochastic models do not explicitly include a direct rain intensity-air temperature dependency beyond applying factors of change predicted by climate models to basic statistics of precipitation. Including this dependency explicitly in stochastic models will allow, for example in the nested modelling approach of Paschalis et al. (2014), the random cascade disaggregation routine to be

  13. Air-sea interactions in sea surface temperature frontal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianezze, Joris; Redelsperger, Jean-Luc; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Reynaud, Thierry; Marié, Louis; Bouin, Marie-Noelle; Garnier, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    Representation of air-sea exchanges in coastal, regional and global models represent a challenge firstly due to the small scale of acting turbulent processes comparatively to the resolved scales of these models. Beyond this subgrid parameterization issue, a comprehensive understanding of air-sea interactions at the turbulent process scales is still lacking. Many successful efforts are dedicated to measure the energy and mass exchanges between atmosphere and ocean, including the effect of surface waves. In comparison less efforts are brought to understand the interactions between the atmospheric boundary layer and the oceanic mixing layer. In this regard, we are developing research mainly based on ideal and realistic numerical simulations which resolve very small scales (horizontal resolutions from 1 to 100 meters) in using grid nesting technics and coupled ocean-wave-atmosphere models. As a first step, the impact of marked gradients in sea surface temperatures (SST) on air-sea exchanges has been explored through realistic numerical simulations at 100m horizontal resolution. Results from simulations of a case observed during the FROMVAR experiment will be shown. The talk will mainly focus on the marked impact of SST front on the atmospheric boundary layer (stability and winds), the air-sea exchanges and surface parameters (rugosity, drag coefficient) Results will be also shown on the strong impact on the simulated atmosphere of small scale variability of SST field.

  14. Firefighter's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    The research to design, fabricate, test, and deliver a pressure vessel for the main component in an improved high-performance firefighter's breathing system is reported. The principal physical and performance characteristics of the vessel which were required are: (1) maximum weight of 9.0 lb; (2) maximum operating pressure of 4500 psig (charge pressure of 4000 psig); (3) minimum contained volume of 280 in. 3; (4) proof pressure of 6750 psig; (5) minimum burst pressure of 9000 psig following operational and service life; and (6) a minimum service life of 15 years. The vessel developed to fulfill the requirements described was completely sucessful, i.e., every category of performence was satisfied. The average weight of the vessel was found to be about 8.3 lb, well below the 9.0 lb specification requirement.

  15. Changes in Osmotic Pressure and Mucilage during Low-Temperature Acclimation of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, G; Nobel, P S

    1991-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica, a Crassulacean acid metabolism plant cultivated for its fruits and cladodes, was used to examine chemical and physiological events accompanying low-temperature acclimation. Changes in osmotic pressure, water content, low molecular weight solutes, and extracellular mucilage were monitored in the photosynthetic chlorenchyma and the water-storage parenchyma when plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30/20 degrees C were shifted to 10/0 degrees C. An increase in osmotic pressure of 0.13 megapascal occurred after 13 days at 10/0 degrees C. Synthesis of glucose, fructose, and glycerol accounted for most of the observed increase in osmotic pressure during the low-temperature acclimation. Extracellular mucilage and the relative apoplastic water content increased by 24 and 10%, respectively, during exposure to low temperatures. These increases apparently favor the extracellular nucleation of ice closer to the equilibrium freezing temperature for plants at 10/0 degrees C, which could make the cellular dehydration more gradual and less damaging. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies helped elucidate the cellular processes during ice formation, such as those revealed by changes in the relaxation times of two water fractions in the chlorenchyma. The latter results suggested a restricted mobility of intracellular water and an increased mobility of extracellular water for plants at 10/0 degrees C compared with those at 30/20 degrees C. Increased mobility of extracellular water could facilitate extracellular ice growth and thus delay the potentially lethal intracellular freezing during low-temperature acclimation.

  16. Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) Gauging of an Isothermal Cryogenic Propellant Tank Pressurized with Gaseous Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDresar, Neil T.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented for pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) gauging of a liquid oxygen/liquid nitrogen tank pressurized with gaseous helium that was supplied by a high-pressure cryogenic tank simulating a cold helium supply bottle on a spacecraft. The fluid inside the test tank was kept isothermal by frequent operation of a liquid circulation pump and spray system, and the propellant tank was suspended from load cells to obtain a high-accuracy reference standard for the gauging measurements. Liquid quantity gauging errors of less than 2 percent of the tank volume were obtained when quasi-steady-state conditions existed in the propellant and helium supply tanks. Accurate gauging required careful attention to, and corrections for, second-order effects of helium solubility in the liquid propellant plus differences in the propellant/helium composition and temperature in the various plumbing lines attached to the tanks. On the basis of results from a helium solubility test, a model was developed to predict the amount of helium dissolved in the liquid as a function of cumulative pump operation time. Use of this model allowed correction of the basic PVT gauging calculations and attainment of the reported gauging accuracy. This helium solubility model is system specific, but it may be adaptable to other hardware systems.

  17. Atomic oxygen recombination on the ODS PM 1000 at high temperature under air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balat-Pichelin, M.; Bêche, E.

    2010-06-01

    High temperature materials are necessary for the design of primary heat shields for future reusable space vehicles re-entering atmospheric planet at hypersonic velocity. During the re-entry phase on earth, one of the most important phenomena occurring on the heat shield is the recombination of atomic oxygen and this phenomenon is more or less catalyzed by the material of the heat shield. PM 1000 is planned to be use on the EXPERT capsule to study in real conditions its catalycity. Before the flight, it is necessary to perform measurements on ground test facility. Experimental data of the recombination coefficient of atomic oxygen under air plasma flow were obtained in the diffusion reactor MESOX on pre-oxidized PM 1000, for two total pressures 300 and 1000 Pa in the temperature range (850-1650 K) using actinometry and optical emission spectroscopy. In this investigation, the evolution of the recombination coefficient is dependent of temperature, pressure level and also of the chemical composition of the surface leading to one order of magnitude for a given temperature. The recombination coefficient is increasing with temperature and also dependent on the static pressure. The surface change due to the plasma exposure is inspected with SEM, XRD and XPS. As chromium oxide is the main part of the oxide layer formed during the oxidation in air plasma conditions, a sintered Cr 2O 3 sample was elaborated from powders to compare the data of the recombination coefficient obtained on PM 1000. Pre- and post-test analyses on the several materials were carried out using SEM, WDS, XRD and XPS.

  18. 40 CFR 1065.215 - Pressure transducers, temperature sensors, and dewpoint sensors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... For atmospheric pressure or other precision pressure measurements, we recommend either capacitance... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pressure transducers, temperature... Measurement of Engine Parameters and Ambient Conditions § 1065.215 Pressure transducers, temperature...

  19. 40 CFR 1065.215 - Pressure transducers, temperature sensors, and dewpoint sensors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... For atmospheric pressure or other precision pressure measurements, we recommend either capacitance... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pressure transducers, temperature... Measurement of Engine Parameters and Ambient Conditions § 1065.215 Pressure transducers, temperature...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.215 - Pressure transducers, temperature sensors, and dewpoint sensors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... For atmospheric pressure or other precision pressure measurements, we recommend either capacitance... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pressure transducers, temperature... Measurement of Engine Parameters and Ambient Conditions § 1065.215 Pressure transducers, temperature...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.215 - Pressure transducers, temperature sensors, and dewpoint sensors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... For atmospheric pressure or other precision pressure measurements, we recommend either capacitance... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pressure transducers, temperature... Measurement of Engine Parameters and Ambient Conditions § 1065.215 Pressure transducers, temperature...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.215 - Pressure transducers, temperature sensors, and dewpoint sensors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... For atmospheric pressure or other precision pressure measurements, we recommend either capacitance... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pressure transducers, temperature... Measurement of Engine Parameters and Ambient Conditions § 1065.215 Pressure transducers, temperature...

  3. Qualitative gas temperature distribution in positive DC glow corona using spectral image processing in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Takao; Inada, Yoichi; Shimizu, Daisuke; Izawa, Yasuji; Nishijima, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    An experimental method of determining a qualitative two-dimensional image of the gas temperature in stationary atmospheric nonthermal plasma by spectral image processing was presented. In the experiment, a steady-state glow corona discharge was generated by applying a positive DC voltage to a rod-plane electrode in synthetic air. The changes in the gas temperature distribution due to the amplitude of applied voltage and the ambient gas pressure were investigated. Spectral images of a positive DC glow corona were taken using a gated ICCD camera with ultranarrow band-pass filters, corresponding to the head and tail of a N2 second positive system band (0-2). The qualitative gas temperature was obtained from the emission intensity ratio between the head and tail of the N2 second positive system band (0-2). From the results, we confirmed that the gas temperature and its distribution of a positive DC glow corona increased with increasing applied voltage. In particular, just before the sparkover voltage, a distinctly high temperature region was formed in the positive DC glow at the tip of the rod electrode. In addition, the gas temperature decreased and its distribution spread diffusely with decreasing ambient gas pressure.

  4. Planar Imaging of Hydroxyl in a High Temperature, High Pressure Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Locke, Randy J.; Anderson, Robert C.; Ockunzzi, Kelly A.

    1995-01-01

    An optically accessible flame tube combustor is described which has high temperature, pressure, and air flow capabilities. The windows in the combustor measure 3.8 cm axially by 5.1 cm radially, providing 67 percent optical access to the square cross section flow chamber. The instrumentation allows one to examine combusting flows and combustor subcomponents, such as fuel injectors and air swirlers. These internal combustor subcomponents have previously been studied only with physical probes, such as temperature and species rakes. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) images of OH have been obtained from this lean burning combustor burning Jet-A fuel. These images were obtained using various laser excitation lines of the OH A yields X (1,0) band for two fuel injector configurations with pressures ranging from 1013 kPa (10 atm) to 1419 kPa (14 atm), and equivalence ratios from 0.41 to 0. 59. Non-uniformities in the combusting flow, attributed to differences in fuel injector configuration, are revealed by these images.

  5. Atmospheric pressure resistive barrier air plasma jet induced bacterial inactivation in aqueous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiyagarajan, Magesh; Sarani, Abdollah; Gonzales, Xavier

    2013-03-01

    An atmospheric pressure resistive barrier air plasma jet is designed to inactivate bacteria in aqueous media in direct and indirect exposure modes of treatment. The resistive barrier plasma jet is designed to operate at both dc and standard 50-60 Hz low frequency ac power input and the ambient air at 50% humidity level was used as the operating gas. The voltage-current characteristics of the plasma jet were analyzed and the operating frequency of the discharge was measured to be 20 kHz and the plasma power was measured to be 26 W. The plasma jet rotational temperatures (Trot) are obtained from the optical emission spectra, from the N2C-B(2+) transitions by matching the experimental spectrum results with the Spectra Air (SPECAIR) simulation spectra. The reactive oxygen and nitrogen species were measured using optical emission spectroscopy and gas analyzers, for direct and indirect treatment modes. The nitric oxides (NO) were observed to be the predominant long lived reactive nitrogen species produced by the plasma. Three different bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative), and Neisseria meningitidis (Gram-negative) were suspended in an aqueous media and treated by the resistive barrier air plasma jet in direct and indirect exposure modes. The results show that a near complete bacterial inactivation was achieved within 120 s for both direct and indirect plasma treatment of S. aureus and E. coli bacteria. Conversely, a partial inactivation of N. meningitidis was observed by 120 s direct plasma exposure and insignificant inactivation was observed for the indirect plasma exposure treatment. Plasma induced shifts in N. meningitidis gene expression was analyzed using pilC gene expression as a representative gene and the results showed a reduction in the expression of the pilC gene compared to untreated samples suggesting that the observed protection against NO may be regulated by other genes.

  6. Explosion bomb measurements of ethanol-air laminar gaseous flame characteristics at pressures up to 1.4 MPa

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.; Lawes, M.; Mansour, M.S.

    2009-07-15

    The principal burning characteristics of a laminar flame comprise the fuel vapour pressure, the laminar burning velocity, ignition delay times, Markstein numbers for strain rate and curvature, the stretch rates for the onset of flame instabilities and of flame extinction for different mixtures. With the exception of ignition delay times, measurements of these are reported and discussed for ethanol-air mixtures. The measurements were in a spherical explosion bomb, with central ignition, in the regime of a developed stable, flame between that of an under or over-driven ignition and that of an unstable flame. Pressures ranged from 0.1 to 1.4 MPa, temperatures from 300 to 393 K, and equivalence ratios were between 0.7 and 1.5. It was important to ensure the relatively large volume of ethanol in rich mixtures at high pressures was fully evaporated. The maximum pressure for the measurements was the highest compatible with the maximum safe working pressure of the bomb. Many of the flames soon became unstable, due to Darrieus-Landau and thermo-diffusive instabilities. This effect increased with pressure and the flame wrinkling arising from the instabilities enhanced the flame speed. Both the critical Peclet number and the, more rational, associated critical Karlovitz stretch factor were evaluated at the onset of the instability. With increasing pressure, the onset of flame instability occurred earlier. The measured values of burning velocity are expressed in terms of their variations with temperature and pressure, and these are compared with those obtained by other researchers. Some comparisons are made with the corresponding properties for iso-octane-air mixtures. (author)

  7. 46 CFR 154.701 - Cargo pressure and temperature control: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo pressure and temperature control: General. 154.701 Section 154.701 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.701 Cargo pressure and temperature control:...

  8. 46 CFR 154.701 - Cargo pressure and temperature control: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure and temperature control: General. 154.701 Section 154.701 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.701 Cargo pressure and temperature control:...

  9. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's...

  10. 46 CFR 154.701 - Cargo pressure and temperature control: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo pressure and temperature control: General. 154.701 Section 154.701 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.701 Cargo pressure and temperature control:...

  11. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's...

  12. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's...

  13. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's...

  14. 46 CFR 154.701 - Cargo pressure and temperature control: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo pressure and temperature control: General. 154.701 Section 154.701 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.701 Cargo pressure and temperature control:...

  15. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's...

  16. 46 CFR 154.701 - Cargo pressure and temperature control: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo pressure and temperature control: General. 154.701 Section 154.701 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.701 Cargo pressure and temperature control:...

  17. Heater effects on cyclone performance for the separation of solids from high temperature and pressure effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Laspidou, C.S.; Lawler, D.F.; Gloyna, E.F.; Rittmann, B.E.

    1999-11-01

    A 25.4-mm diameter hydrocyclone with an underflow receiver was evaluated for its ability to achieve separation of fine particles from water at elevated temperatures and pressures relevant to supercritical oxidation. Temperature was varied from 25 C to 340 C, while pressure was maintained at 27.6 MPa. The particles studied were {alpha}-alumina. Particle-removal efficiency was affected by the separation capabilities of the hydrocyclone, deposition on the heater surface, and flocculation of the particles. Particle-size distributions and suspended solids analyses confirmed that cyclone, separation efficiency was controlled by the (density{sub particle}--density{sub water})/viscosity{sub water} ratio. Because this ratio is sensitive to temperature, especially in the neighborhood of the supercritical point, separation efficiencies sharply increased with temperature. Contrary to traditional air cyclone theory, removal efficiency was inversely correlated to flow rate. This result was caused by particle deposition and particle flocculation in the heater. Low flow rates increased heater detention times and, thus, opportunities for flocculation and particle deposition. Therefore, the performance of a hydrocyclone used in conjunction with supercritical oxidation depends on phenomena occurring in the heater and the hydrocyclone.

  18. Nitrous Oxide at High Pressure and Temperature: any Silica-like Polymorphs at High Pressure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iota, V.; Yoo, C.; Cynn, H.

    2001-12-01

    The crystal structures and phase stabilities of both four and six-fold silicon dioxide (SiO2) polymorphs are fundamental to the Earth's mineral physics and chemistry. The recent discovery of extended-solid phases of carbon dioxide (structurally similar to SiO2 polymorphs), offer a tantalizing new concept of mineral and geo-chemistry, considering the richness of oxygen, carbon, and silicon in the Earth's mantle and crust. In this study, we ask if nitrous oxide (N2O), an isoelectronic molecular analog to CO2, forms similar SiO2-like polymorphs at high pressures and temperatures. Our results based on in-situ and ex-situ Raman and X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that N2O indeed behaves similarly to CO2 at relatively low temperatures below 1000 K at high pressures up to 100 GPa. However, at higher temperatures, we find no transition to a polymeric phase of N2O. Instead, it disproportionates into a novel ionic phase of NO2 dimer (NO+NO3-) and N2. In this paper, we will discuss about the systematic of the phase diagrams of these triatomics, CO2 and N2O, in comparison with the polymorphs of SiO2, the Earth most abundant mineral.

  19. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...