Science.gov

Sample records for air pressure wind

  1. Vandenberg Air Force Base Pressure Gradient Wind Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Warning category winds can adversely impact day-to-day space lift operations at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. NASA's Launch Services Program and other programs at VAFB use wind forecasts issued by the 30 Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) to determine if they need to limit activities or protect property such as a launch vehicle. The 30 OSSWF tasked the AMU to develop an automated Excel graphical user interface that includes pressure gradient thresholds between specific observing stations under different synoptic regimes to aid forecasters when issuing wind warnings. This required the AMU to determine if relationships between the variables existed.

  2. An evaluation of Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) flight pressures - Comparisons with wind tunnel and theoretical predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, M. W.; Wolf, H.; Siemers, Paul M., III

    1988-01-01

    The SEADS pressure data obtained from the Shuttle flight 61-C are analyzed in conjunction with the preflight database. Based on wind tunnel data, the sensitivity of the Shuttle Orbiter stagnation region pressure distribution to angle of attack and Mach number is demonstrated. Comparisons are made between flight and wind tunnel SEADS orifice pressure distributions at several points throughout the re-entry. It is concluded that modified Newtonian theory provides a good tool for the design of a flush air data system, furnishing data for determining orifice locations and transducer sizing. Ground-based wind tunnel facilities are capable of providing the correction factors necessary for the derivation of accurate air data parameters from pressure data.

  3. Ionic wind generation by a wire-cylinder-plate corona discharge in air at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, Dorian F.; Ferret, Antoine; Pai, David Z.; Lacoste, Deanna A.; Laux, Christophe O.

    2010-11-01

    A wire-cylinder-plate electrode configuration is presented to generate ionic wind with a dc corona discharge in air at atmospheric pressure. The objective of the work is to maximize the power supplied to the flow in order to increase acceleration while avoiding breakdown. Thus, the proposed experimental setup addresses the problem of decoupling the mechanism of ion generation from that of ion acceleration. Using a wire-plate configuration as a reference, we have focused on improving the topography of the electric field to (1) separate the ionization and acceleration zones in space, and (2) guide the trajectory of charged particles as parallel to the median axis as possible. In the proposed wire-cylinder-plate setup, a dc corona discharge is generated in the space between a wire and two cylinders. The ions produced by the corona then drift past the cylinders and into a channel between two plates, where they undergo acceleration. To maximize the ionic wind it is found that the geometric configuration must be as compact as possible and that the voltage applied must be right below breakdown. Experimentally, the optimized wire-plate reference setup provides a maximum flow velocity of 8 m s-1, a flow rate per unit electrode length of 0.034 m2 s-1, and a thrust per unit electrode length of 0.24 N m-1. The wire-cylinder-plate configuration provides a maximum flow velocity of 10 m s-1, a flow rate per unit electrode length of 0.041 m2 s-1, and a thrust per unit electrode length of 0.35 N m-1. This 46% increase in thrust is obtained by increasing the electric power per unit electrode length by only 16% (from 175 to 210 W m-1), which confirms the gain in efficiency obtained with the decoupled system. In comparison with a simple wire-wire corona configuration, the wire-cylinder-plate configuration increases the ionic wind velocity by up to a factor of 3, and the thrust by an order of magnitude.

  4. Wind tunnel investigation of an all flush orifice air data system for a large subsonic aircraft. [conducted in a Langley 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, T. J.; Flechner, S. G.; Siemers, P. M., III

    1980-01-01

    The results of a wind tunnel investigation on an all flush orifice air data system for use on a KC-135A aircraft are presented. The investigation was performed to determine the applicability of fixed all flush orifice air data systems that use only aircraft surfaces for orifices on the nose of the model (in a configuration similar to that of the shuttle entry air data system) provided the measurements required for the determination of stagnation pressure, angle of attack, and angle of sideslip. For the measurement of static pressure, additional flush orifices in positions on the sides of the fuselage corresponding to those in a standard pitot-static system were required. An acceptable but less accurate system, consisting of orifices only on the nose of the model, is defined and discussed.

  5. Investigation on wind energy-compressed air power system.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guang-Zheng; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Wu, Gen-Mao

    2004-03-01

    Wind energy is a pollution free and renewable resource widely distributed over China. Aimed at protecting the environment and enlarging application of wind energy, a new approach to application of wind energy by using compressed air power to some extent instead of electricity put forward. This includes: explaining the working principles and characteristics of the wind energy-compressed air power system; discussing the compatibility of wind energy and compressor capacity; presenting the theoretical model and computational simulation of the system. The obtained compressor capacity vs wind power relationship in certain wind velocity range can be helpful in the designing of the wind power-compressed air system. Results of investigations on the application of high-pressure compressed air for pressure reduction led to conclusion that pressure reduction with expander is better than the throttle regulator in energy saving. PMID:14727304

  6. Influence of air pressure, humidity, solar radiation, temperature, and wind speed on ambulatory visits due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Bavaria, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Uta; Exner, Teresa; Wanka, Eva R.; Bergemann, Christoph; Meyer-Arnek, Julian; Hildenbrand, Beate; Tufman, Amanda; Heumann, Christian; Huber, Rudolf M.; Bittner, Michael; Fischer, Rainald

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. The disease is often aggravated by periods of increased symptoms requiring medical attention. Among the possible triggers for these exacerbations, meteorological factors are under consideration. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of various meteorological factors on the health status of patients with COPD. For this purpose, the daily number of ambulatory care visits due to COPD was analysed in Bavaria, Germany, for the years 2006 and 2007. The meteorological factors were provided by the model at the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). For the multivariate analysis, a generalised linear model was used. In Bavaria, an increase of 1% of daily consultations (about 103 visits per day) was found to be associated with a change of 0.72 K temperature, 209.55 of log air surface pressure in Pa, and a decrease of 1% of daily consultations with 1,453,763 Ws m2 of solar radiation. There also seem to be regional differences between north and south Bavaria; for instance, the effect of wind speed and specific humidity with a lag of 1 day were only significant in the north. This study could contribute to a tool for the prevention of exacerbations. It also serves as a model for the further evaluation of the impact of meteorological factors on health, and could easily be applied to other diseases or other regions.

  7. Influence of air pressure, humidity, solar radiation, temperature, and wind speed on ambulatory visits due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Bavaria, Germany.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Uta; Exner, Teresa; Wanka, Eva R; Bergemann, Christoph; Meyer-Arnek, Julian; Hildenbrand, Beate; Tufman, Amanda; Heumann, Christian; Huber, Rudolf M; Bittner, Michael; Fischer, Rainald

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. The disease is often aggravated by periods of increased symptoms requiring medical attention. Among the possible triggers for these exacerbations, meteorological factors are under consideration. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of various meteorological factors on the health status of patients with COPD. For this purpose, the daily number of ambulatory care visits due to COPD was analysed in Bavaria, Germany, for the years 2006 and 2007. The meteorological factors were provided by the model at the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). For the multivariate analysis, a generalised linear model was used. In Bavaria, an increase of 1% of daily consultations (about 103 visits per day) was found to be associated with a change of 0.72 K temperature, 209.55 of log air surface pressure in Pa, and a decrease of 1% of daily consultations with 1,453,763 Ws m(2) of solar radiation. There also seem to be regional differences between north and south Bavaria; for instance, the effect of wind speed and specific humidity with a lag of 1 day were only significant in the north. This study could contribute to a tool for the prevention of exacerbations. It also serves as a model for the further evaluation of the impact of meteorological factors on health, and could easily be applied to other diseases or other regions. PMID:21301889

  8. Improving Regional Air Quality with Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-05-01

    This model documentation is designed to assist State and local governments in pursuing wind energy purchases as a control measure under regional air quality plans. It is intended to support efforts to draft State Implementation Plans (SIPs), including wind energy purchases, to ensure compliance with the standard for ground-level ozone established under the Clean Air Act.

  9. Tests of models equipped with TPS in low speed ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leynaert, J.

    1992-09-01

    The particular conditions of tests of models equipped with a turbofan powered simulator (TPS) at high Reynolds numbers in a pressurized wind tunnel are presented. The high-pressure air supply system of the wind tunnel, the equipment of the balance with the high-pressure traversing flow and its calibration, and the thrust calibration method of the TPS and its verification in the wind tunnel are described.

  10. Wind tunnel pressurization and recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pejack, Edwin R.; Meick, Joseph; Ahmad, Adnan; Lateh, Nordin; Sadeq, Omar

    1988-01-01

    The high density, low toxicity characteristics of refrigerant-12 (dichlorofluoromethane) make it an ideal gas for wind tunnel testing. Present limitations on R-12 emissions, set to slow the rate of ozone deterioration, pose a difficult problem in recovery and handling of large quantities of R-12. This preliminary design is a possible solution to the problem of R-12 handling in wind tunnel testing. The design incorporates cold temperature condensation with secondary purification of the R-12/air mixture by adsorption. Also discussed is the use of Freon-22 as a suitable refrigerant for the 12 foot wind tunnel.

  11. Quantifying wind and pressure effects on trace gas fluxes across the soil-atmosphere interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redeker, K. R.; Baird, A. J.; Teh, Y. A.

    2015-12-01

    Large uncertainties persist in estimates of soil-atmosphere exchange of important trace gases. One significant source of uncertainty is the combined effect of wind and pressure on these fluxes. Wind and pressure effects are mediated by surface topography: few surfaces are uniform and over scales of tenths of a metre to tens of metres, air pressure and wind speed at the ground surface may be very variable. In this paper we consider how such spatial variability in air pressure and wind speed affects fluxes of trace gases. We used a novel nested wind tunnel design comprising a toroidial wind tunnel, in which wind speed and pressure may be controlled, set within a larger, linear wind tunnel. The effects of both wind speed and pressure differentials on fluxes of CO2 and CH4 within three different ecosystems (forest, grassland, peat bog) were quantified. We find that trace gas fluxes are positively correlated with both wind speed and pressure differential near the surface boundary. We argue that wind speed is the better proxy for trace gas fluxes because of its stronger correlation and because wind speed is more easily measured and wind speed measurement methodology more easily standardized. Trace gas fluxes, whether into or out of the soil, increase with wind speed within the toroidal tunnel (+55 % flux per m s-1), while faster, localized surface winds that are external to the toroidal wind tunnel reduce trace gas fluxes (-13 % flux per m s-1). These results are consistent for both trace gases over all ecosystem soil types studied. Our findings support the need for a revised conceptualization of soil-atmosphere gas exchange. We propose a conceptual model of the soil profile that has a "mixed layer", with fluxes controlled by wind speed, wind duration, porosity, water table, and gas production and consumption.

  12. 6. VIEW OF FIVEFOOT WIND TUNNEL WITH AIR STRAIGHTENER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF FIVE-FOOT WIND TUNNEL WITH AIR STRAIGHTENER AND OPERATOR STATION IN FOREGROUND (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building No. 19, Five-Foot Wind Tunnel, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  13. Air separation with temperature and pressure swing

    DOEpatents

    Cassano, Anthony A.

    1986-01-01

    A chemical absorbent air separation process is set forth which uses a temperature swing absorption-desorption cycle in combination with a pressure swing wherein the pressure is elevated in the desorption stage of the process.

  14. Laser plasma at low air pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vas'kovskii, Iu. M.; Moiseev, V. N.; Rovinskii, R. E.; Tsenina, I. S.

    1993-01-01

    The ambient-pressure dependences of the dynamic and optical characteristics of a laser plasma generated by CO2-laser irradiation of an obstacle are investigated experimentally. The change of the sample's surface roughness after irradiation is investigated as a function of air pressure. It is concluded that the transition from the air plasma to the erosion plasma takes place at an air pressure of about 1 mm Hg. The results confirm the existing theory of plasma formation near the surface of an obstacle under the CO2-laser pulse effect in air.

  15. Wind tunnel force and pressure tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Force and surface pressure distributions were measured for a 13% medium speed (NASA MS(1)-0313) airfoil fitted with 20% aileron, 25% slotted flap and 10% slot lip spoiler. All tests were conducted in the Walter Beech Memorial Wind Tunnel at a Reynolds number of 2.2 million and a Mach number of 0.13. Results include lift, drag, pitching moments, control surface normal force and hinge moments, and surface pressure distributions. The basic airfoil exhibits low speed characteristics similar to the GA(W)-2 airfoil. Incremental aileron and spoiler performance are quite comparable to that obtained on the GA(W)-2 airfoil. Slotted flap performance on this section is reduced compared to the GA(W)-2, resulting in a highest c sub l max of 3.00 compared to 3.35 for the GA(W)-2.

  16. Pressure Drop in Radiator Air Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, S R

    1921-01-01

    This report describes a method for measuring the drop in static pressure of air flowing through a radiator and shows (1) a reason for the discrepancy noted by various observers between head resistance and drop in pressure; (2) a difference in degree of contraction of the jet in entering a circular cell and a square cell; (3) the ratio of internal frictional resistance to total head resistance for two representative types; (4) the effect of smoothness of surface on pressure gradient; and (5) the effects of supplying heat to the radiator on pressure gradient. The fact that the pressure gradients are found to be approximately proportional to the square of the rate of flow of air appears to indicate turbulent flow, even in the short tubes of the radiator. It was found that the drop in the static pressure in the air stream through a cellular radiator and the pressure gradient in the air tubes are practically proportional to the square of the air flow in a given air density; that the difference between the head resistance per unit area and the fall of static pressure through the air tubes in radiators is apparent rather than real; and that radiators of different types differ widely in the amount of contraction of the jet at entrance. The frictional resistance was found to vary considerably, and in one case to be two-thirds of the head resistance in the type using circular cells and one-half of the head resistance of the radiator type using square cells of approximately the same dimensions.

  17. A large volume 2000 MPA air source for the radiatively driven hypersonic wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Constantino, M

    1999-07-14

    An ultra-high pressure air source for a hypersonic wind tunnel for fluid dynamics and combustion physics and chemistry research and development must provide a 10 kg/s pure air flow for more than 1 s at a specific enthalpy of more than 3000 kJ/kg. The nominal operating pressure and temperature condition for the air source is 2000 MPa and 900 K. A radial array of variable radial support intensifiers connected to an axial manifold provides an arbitrarily large total high pressure volume. This configuration also provides solutions to cross bore stress concentrations and the decrease in material strength with temperature. [hypersonic, high pressure, air, wind tunnel, ground testing

  18. Air Pressure Controlled Mass Measurement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Ruilin; Wang, Jian; Cai, Changqing; Yao, Hong; Ding, Jin'an; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Xiaolei

    Mass measurement is influenced by air pressure, temperature, humidity and other facts. In order to reduce the influence, mass laboratory of National Institute of Metrology, China has developed an air pressure controlled mass measurement system. In this system, an automatic mass comparator is installed in an airtight chamber. The Chamber is equipped with a pressure controller and associate valves, thus the air pressure can be changed and stabilized to the pre-set value, the preferred pressure range is from 200 hPa to 1100 hPa. In order to keep the environment inside the chamber stable, the display and control part of the mass comparator are moved outside the chamber, and connected to the mass comparator by feed-throughs. Also a lifting device is designed for this system which can easily lift up the upper part of the chamber, thus weights can be easily put inside the mass comparator. The whole system is put on a marble platform, and the temperature and humidity of the laboratory is very stable. The temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide content inside the chamber are measured in real time and can be used to get air density. Mass measurement cycle from 1100 hPa to 200 hPa and back to 1100 hPa shows the effective of the system.

  19. Building pressurization control with rooftop air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, S.

    1982-10-01

    The modulated exhaust fan appears to be the most cost effective positive means to maintain close building pressure control with rooftop air conditioning, but because building construction and applications vary, every building's pressure control needs must be analyzed. Requirements will vary from no relief to barometric dampers to return fans to modulated exhaust fans. As heating and cooling costs continue to rise and tighter building codes prevail, proper selection of building pressure control is one area that must be monitored more carefully by the HVAC system designer.

  20. A 2-Liter, 2000 MPa Air Source for the Radiatively Driven Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Costantino, M; Lofftus, D

    2002-05-30

    The A2 LITE is a 2 liter, 2000 MPa, 750 K ultra-high pressure (UHP) vessel used to demonstrate UHP technology and to provide an air flow for wind tunnel nozzle development. It is the largest volume UHP vessel in the world. The design is based on a 100:1 pressure intensification using a hydraulic ram as a low pressure driver and a three-layer compound cylinder UHP section. Active control of the 900 mm piston stroke in the 63.5 mm bore permits pressure-time profiles ranging from static to constant pressure during flow through a 1 mm throat diameter nozzle for 1 second.

  1. Impacts of wind farms on surface air temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Baidya Roy, Somnath; Traiteur, Justin J.

    2010-01-01

    Utility-scale large wind farms are rapidly growing in size and numbers all over the world. Data from a meteorological field campaign show that such wind farms can significantly affect near-surface air temperatures. These effects result from enhanced vertical mixing due to turbulence generated by wind turbine rotors. The impacts of wind farms on local weather can be minimized by changing rotor design or by siting wind farms in regions with high natural turbulence. Using a 25-y-long climate dataset, we identified such regions in the world. Many of these regions, such as the Midwest and Great Plains in the United States, are also rich in wind resources, making them ideal candidates for low-impact wind farms. PMID:20921371

  2. Three Modes of Air Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Abdel-Aleam H.

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jet operating in air have gained a high interest due to its various applications in industry and biomedical. The presented air plasma jet system is consisted of stainless steel hollow needle electrode of 1 mm inner diameter which is covered with a quartz tube with a 1 mm diameter side hole. The hole is above the tube nozzle by 5 mm and it is covered by a copper ring which is connected to the ground. The needle is connected to sinusoidal 27 kHz high voltage power supply (25 kV) though a current limiting resistor of 50 k Ω. The tested distance between the needle tip and the side hole was 1 mm or 2.1 mm gape. The electric and plasma jet formation characteristics show three modes of operations. Through these modes the plasma length changes with air flow rate to increase in the first mode and to confine inside the quartz tube in the second mode, then it start to eject from the nozzle again and increase with flow rate to reach a maximum length of 7 mm at 4.5 SLM air flow rate in the third mode. The measured gas temperature of the plasma jet can approach room temperature (300 K). Moreover, the plasma jet emission spectra shows the presence of reactive O and OH radical in the plasma jet. These results indicate that the generated air plasma jet can be used a plasma sterilization.

  3. Aerodynamic pressure measurements on a rotating wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, C.P.; Jenks, M.D.; Simms, D.A.; Musial, W.P.

    1990-05-01

    A microprocessor-controlled measurement system has been designed and built to make accurate measurements of low pressures on a rotating wind turbine blade. This Pressure System Controller (PSC) is capable of simultaneously operating four pressure scanners (128 channels total) while rotating on a wind turbine blade. Calibrations and purge sequences are performed automatically on all 128 channels while the turbine is rotating. Data are fed to a Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) data-acquisition system and recorded on magnetic tape for later processing. Accurate measurements have been made down to pressures of 11 microbars (0.00018 psi) for low Reynolds Number tests. These rotating-blade pressure measurements are used to compare with wind tunnel data to see how blade rotation alters airfoil performance. A description of the test setup and instrumentation design is given along with examples results. Recommendations for future work and changes in the design approach are also discussed. 7 refs., 13 figs.

  4. 21 CFR 880.5550 - Alternating pressure air flotation mattress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5550 Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. (a) Identification. An alternating pressure air flotation mattress is a device intended for medical purposes...

  5. 21 CFR 880.5550 - Alternating pressure air flotation mattress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5550 Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. (a) Identification. An alternating pressure air flotation mattress is a device intended for medical purposes...

  6. 21 CFR 880.5550 - Alternating pressure air flotation mattress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5550 Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. (a) Identification. An alternating pressure air flotation mattress is a device intended for medical purposes...

  7. 21 CFR 880.5550 - Alternating pressure air flotation mattress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5550 Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. (a) Identification. An alternating pressure air flotation mattress is a device intended for medical purposes...

  8. 21 CFR 880.5550 - Alternating pressure air flotation mattress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5550 Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. (a) Identification. An alternating pressure air flotation mattress is a device intended for medical purposes...

  9. Solar wind control of magnetospheric pressure (CDAW 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairfield, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    The CDAW 6 data base is used to compare solar wind and magnetospheric pressures. The flaring angle of the tail magnetopause is determined by assuming that the component of solar wind pressure normal to the tail boundary is equal to the total pressure within the tail. Results indicate an increase in the tail flaring angle from 18 deg to 32 deg prior to the 1055 substorm onset and a decrease to 25 deg after the onset. This behavior supports the concept of tail energy storage before the substorm and subsequent release after the onset.

  10. Comparisons of peak ionosphere pressures at Mars and Venus with incident solar wind dynamic pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, M. H. G.; Luhmann, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Radio occultation measurements of electron density profiles from Mariner 6 and 7, the Mariner 9 extended mission, and the U.S. Viking orbiters, together with model ion and electron temperature profiles, are used to derive thermal pressure profiles in the Mars ionosphere. The comparison of the Mars peak ionosphere pressure with the incident solar and dynamic pressure suggests that at solar maximum the Mars ionosphere, like that of Venus, should generally be sufficient to balance the incident solar wind pressure. At solar minimum, when the ionosphere is weakest and the solar wind dynamic pressure is highest, only the peak pressures at high solar zenith angles (SZAs) at Mars appear to be strong enough to balance the incident solar wind pressure. This is similar to the situation at Venus at solar minimum.

  11. Influences of wind on the uptake of XAD passive air sampler in the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiande

    2016-04-01

    The passive air sampler based on XAD-2 resin (XAD-PAS) is a useful tool for studying the long-range atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the remote or high-altitude regions. Due to its opening bottom, the sampling processes of XAD-PAS was influenced by wind or air turbulence. By now, there were no studies focusing on the wind impact on the sampling rates (R values) in field. In this study, three sampling sites in the Tibetan Plateau, a high-altitude region with large range of wind speed (v), were chosen to calibrate XAD-PAS. In the low-wind regions, the R values fitted for the predicted values by ambient tempratrue (T) and air pressure (P). In the windy regions, not only T and P but also v impacted the R values, and an equation for estimating the R values was developed in the windy regions. Air turbulence may introduce the uncertainties of the R values, therefore, the improved type with spoilers on the bottom of XAD-PAS were designed to decrease the uncertainties. The observed R values of the improved XAD-PAS in field were good agreement with the predicted R values only by T^1.75/P, indicating that the improved XAD-PAS can decrease the influence of wind.

  12. Wind turbine sound pressure level calculations at dwellings.

    PubMed

    Keith, Stephen E; Feder, Katya; Voicescu, Sonia A; Soukhovtsev, Victor; Denning, Allison; Tsang, Jason; Broner, Norm; Leroux, Tony; Richarz, Werner; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides calculations of outdoor sound pressure levels (SPLs) at dwellings for 10 wind turbine models, to support Health Canada's Community Noise and Health Study. Manufacturer supplied and measured wind turbine sound power levels were used to calculate outdoor SPL at 1238 dwellings using ISO [(1996). ISO 9613-2-Acoustics] and a Swedish noise propagation method. Both methods yielded statistically equivalent results. The A- and C-weighted results were highly correlated over the 1238 dwellings (Pearson's linear correlation coefficient r > 0.8). Calculated wind turbine SPLs were compared to ambient SPLs from other sources, estimated using guidance documents from the United States and Alberta, Canada. PMID:27036282

  13. Temperature, Humidity, Wind and Pressure Sensors (THWAPS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-01-17

    The temperature, humidity, wind, and pressure system (THWAPS) provide surface reference values of these measurements for balloon-borne sounding system (SONDE) launches. The THWAPS is located adjacent to the SONDE launch site at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility. The THWAPS system is a combination of calibration-quality instruments intended to provide accurate measurements of meteorological conditions near the surface. Although the primary use of the system is to provide accurate surface reference values of temperature, pressure, relative humidity (RH), and wind velocity for comparison with radiosonde readings, the system includes a data logger to record time series of the measured variables.

  14. Tangential stress beneath wind-driven air water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banner, Michael L.; Peirson, William L.

    1998-06-01

    The detailed structure of the aqueous surface sublayer flow immediately adjacent to the wind-driven air water interface is investigated in a laboratory wind-wave flume using particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. The goal is to investigate quantitatively the character of the flow in this crucial, very thin region which is often disrupted by microscale breaking events. In this study, we also examine critically the conclusions of Okuda, Kawai & Toba (1977), who argued that for very short, strongly forced wind-wave conditions, shear stress is the dominant mechanism for transmitting the atmospheric wind stress into the water motion waves and surface drift currents. In strong contrast, other authors have more recently observed very substantial normal stress contributions on the air side. The availability of PIV and associated image technology now permits a timely re-examination of the results of Okuda et al., which have been influential in shaping present perceptions of the physics of this dynamically important region. The PIV technique used in the present study overcomes many of the inherent shortcomings of the hydrogen bubble measurements, and allows reliable determination of the fluid velocity and shear within 200 [mu]m of the instantaneous wind-driven air water interface.

  15. An electronic scanner of pressure for wind tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffman, Ronald C.; Coe, Charles F.

    1986-01-01

    An electronic scanner of pressure (ESOP) has been developed by NASA Ames Research Center for installation in wind tunnel models. An ESOP system consists of up to 20 pressure modules (PMs), each with 48 pressure transducers and a heater, an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter module, a microprocessor, a data controller, a monitor unit, a control and processing unit, and a heater controller. The PMs and the A/D converter module are sized to be installed in the models tested in the Ames Aerodynamics Division wind tunnels. A unique feature of the pressure module is the lack of moving parts such as a pneumatic switch used in other systems for in situ calibrations. This paper describes the ESOP system and the results of the initial testing of the system. The initial results indicate the system meets the original design goal of 0.15 percent accuracy.

  16. Wind Direction Bias in Generating Wind Roses and Conducting Sector-Based Air-Dispersion Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, James G.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2008-07-01

    Certain widely used wind rose programs and air dispersion models use an overly-simple data-transfer algorithm that induces a directional bias in their output products. The purpose of this paper is to provide a revised algorithm that corrects the aliasing bias that occurs when the internals in reported wind direction data are on the same order of magnitude, but not equal to the intervals used in the wind direction summaries. The directional bias issue arises when output products in 22.5-degree sectors are produced from 10-degree wind direction data, which affects the results of simulations of air and surface concentrations using widely applied air-dispersion models. Datasets or models with the bias discussed here give consistent positive biases (approximately 30%) for cardinal direction sectors (north, south, east, and west) and consistent negative biases for all the other sectors (approximately -10%). Data summary and air dispersion programs providing outputs in directions sectors that do not match the observational sectors need to be checked for this bias. A revised data-transfer algorithm is provided that corrects the aliasing bias that can occur in transferring wind direction data between different sectors widths.

  17. Differential air sac pressures in diving tufted ducks Aythya fuligula.

    PubMed

    Boggs, D F; Butler, P J; Wallace, S E

    1998-09-01

    The air in the respiratory system of diving birds contains a large proportion of the body oxygen stores, but it must be in the lungs for gas exchange with blood to occur. To test the hypothesis that locomotion induces mixing of air sac air with lung air during dives, we measured differential pressures between the interclavicular and posterior thoracic air sacs in five diving tufted ducks Aythya fuligula. The peak differential pressure between posterior thoracic and interclavicular air sacs, 0.49+/-0.13 kPa (mean +/- s.d.), varied substantially during underwater paddling as indicated by gastrocnemius muscle activity. These data support the hypothesis that locomotion, perhaps through associated abdominal muscle activity, intermittently compresses the posterior air sacs more than the anterior ones. The result is differential pressure fluctuations that might induce the movement of air between air sacs and through the lungs during dives. PMID:9716518

  18. Wind Energy and Air Emission Reduction Benefits: A Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.; High, C.

    2008-02-01

    This document provides a summary of the impact of wind energy development on various air pollutants for a general audience. The core document addresses the key facts relating to the analysis of emission reductions from wind energy development. It is intended for use by a wide variety of parties with an interest in this issue, ranging from state environmental officials to renewable energy stakeholders. The appendices provide basic background information for the general reader, as well as detailed information for those seeking a more in-depth discussion of various topics.

  19. Method for Standardizing Sonic-Boom Model Pressure Signatures Measured at Several Wind-Tunnel Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Low-boom model pressure signatures are often measured at two or more wind-tunnel facilities. Preliminary measurements are made at small separation distances in a wind tunnel close at hand, and a second set of pressure signatures is measured at larger separation distances in a wind-tunnel facility with a larger test section. In this report, a method for correcting and standardizing the wind-tunnel-measured pressure signatures obtained in different wind tunnel facilities is presented and discussed.

  20. Solar wind dynamic pressure control of the dayside magnetopause location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simunek, Jiri; Nemecek, Zdenek; Safrankova, Jana; Prech, Lubomir; Shue, Jih-Hong

    2016-07-01

    The solar wind dynamic pressure is the principal factor controlling the magnetopause location. Their mutual relation is usually written in a power-law form and suggested indices vary from -1/4.8 to -1/6.6 according to a particular magnetopause model. The paper analyzes about six thousands of THEMIS dayside magnetopause crossings observed in a broad range of upstream pressures (0.2-20 nPa). We found that (1) the power-law form provides the best description of variations of the magnetopause stand-off distance with upstream pressures; (2) the most appropriate value of the power index resulting from the present study is -1/4.4 if only solar wind dynamic pressure is considered; (3) the value of the power index varies slightly with other investigated parameters like the orientation of interplanetary magnetic field or solar wind speed; and (4) the value of the power index increases to or above -1/6 if the orbital limitations are not handled properly.

  1. Noncontact Monitoring of Respiration by Dynamic Air-Pressure Sensor.

    PubMed

    Takarada, Tohru; Asada, Tetsunosuke; Sumi, Yoshihisa; Higuchi, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that a dynamic air-pressure sensor system allows respiratory status to be visually monitored for patients in minimally clothed condition. The dynamic air-pressure sensor measures vital information using changes in air pressure. To utilize this device in the field, we must clarify the influence of clothing conditions on measurement. The present study evaluated use of the dynamic air-pressure sensor system as a respiratory monitor that can reliably detect change in breathing patterns irrespective of clothing. Twelve healthy volunteers reclined on a dental chair positioned horizontally with the sensor pad for measuring air-pressure signals corresponding to respiration placed on the seat back of the dental chair in the central lumbar region. Respiratory measurements were taken under 2 conditions: (a) thinly clothed (subject lying directly on the sensor pad); and (b) thickly clothed (subject lying on the sensor pad covered with a pressure-reducing sheet). Air-pressure signals were recorded and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration were calculated. This information was compared with expiratory tidal volume measured simultaneously by a respirometer connected to the subject via face mask. The dynamic air-pressure sensor was able to receive the signal corresponding to respiration regardless of clothing conditions. A strong correlation was identified between expiratory tidal volume and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration for all subjects under both clothing conditions (0.840-0.988 for the thinly clothed condition and 0.867-0.992 for the thickly clothed condition). These results show that the dynamic air-pressure sensor is useful for monitoring respiratory physiology irrespective of clothing. PMID:26398125

  2. Interpretation of prematurely terminated air-pressurized slug tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, Allen M.; Greene, Earl A.

    1995-01-01

    An air-pressurized slug test consists of applying a constant pressure to the column of air in a well, monitoring the declining water level, and then releasing the air pressure and monitoring the recovering water level. Such tests offer a means of estimating formation transmissivity and storativity without extensive downhole equipment and the associated safety risks. This paper analyzes data from prematurely terminated tests. A solution to the boundary-value problem for the declining and recovering water level during an air-pressurized slug test is developed for an arbitrary time-dependent air pressure applied to the well. Type curves are generated to estimate formation transmissivity and storativity from the recovering water level associated with prematurely, terminated tests. The application of the type curves is illustrated in a series of actual tests.

  3. Air-flow separation over unsteady breaking wind waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Gaurav

    2005-11-01

    In air-sea interaction processes, when considering wind stress over small-scale breaking waves, there are few direct quantitative experimental investigations into the role of air-flow separation on the interfacial momentum flux. Reul et. al, (1999), found multiple coherent patches of vorticity downwind of the crest that were strongly influenced by the geometric characteristics of the breaker. However, their breakers were generated by dispersive focusing techniques and, therefore, independent of the wind stress. We present experimental results obtained with particle image velocimetry (PIV) where moderate to strong winds directly generate unsteady small-scale breaking waves, a scenario commonly found in the open ocean. Particular attention has been devoted to capturing the spatio-temporal evolution of the air-water interface. Specifically, texture segmentation algorithms typically used for face recognition (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and the Cross-Diagonal Texture Matrix (CDTM)) have been combined to yield robust and accurate estimates of the instantaneous breaker geometry.

  4. Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell integral air accumular containment

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Basel, Richard A.

    2004-02-10

    A fuel cell generator apparatus contains at least one fuel cell subassembly module in a module housing, where the housing is surrounded by a pressure vessel such that there is an air accumulator space, where the apparatus is associated with an air compressor of a turbine/generator/air compressor system, where pressurized air from the compressor passes into the space and occupies the space and then flows to the fuel cells in the subassembly module, where the air accumulation space provides an accumulator to control any unreacted fuel gas that might flow from the module.

  5. Inspection of prestressing windings in concrete pressure pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Mergelas, B.J.; Atherton, D.L.; Morton, K.

    1999-07-01

    A new method capable of inspecting the prestressing windings in concrete embedded-cylinder pressure pipe for breaks is described and results from field tests presented. The method exploits aspects of the remote field eddy current (RFEC) through-wall transmission technique, used for conducting tubulars and an additional transformer coupling effect. Laboratory tests have been conducted in 400 and 600 mm pipe and field tests in 1.2 and 2.4 m concrete embedded cylinder pressure pipes. Signal logs are analyzed using the standard RFEC voltage plane polar plot. Detection of even single breaks in the prestressing winding has been demonstrated. The relatively small tool can access large diameter pipes through standard 500 mm manhole. Scanning speeds of 35 m/min have been used.

  6. Integration of Wind Turbines with Compressed Air Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsie, I.; Marano, V.; Rizzo, G.; Moran, M.

    2009-08-01

    Some of the major limitations of renewable energy sources are represented by their low power density and intermittent nature, largely depending upon local site and unpredictable weather conditions. These problems concur to increase the unit costs of wind power, so limiting their diffusion. By coupling storage systems with a wind farm, some of the major limitations of wind power, such as a low power density and an unpredictable nature, can be overcome. After an overview on storage systems, the Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is analyzed, and the state of art on such systems is discussed. A Matlab/Simulink model of a hybrid power plant consisting of a wind farm coupled with CAES is then presented. The model has been successfully validated starting from the operating data of the McIntosh CAES Plant in Alabama. Time-series neural network-based wind speed forecasting are employed to determine the optimal daily operation strategy for the storage system. A detailed economic analysis has been carried out: investment and maintenance costs are estimated based on literature data, while operational costs and revenues are calculated according to energy market prices. As shown in the paper, the knowledge of the expected available energy is a key factor to optimize the management strategies of the proposed hybrid power plant, allowing to obtain environmental and economic benefits.

  7. Limitations on wind-tunnel pressure signature extrapolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.; Darden, Christine M.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of some recent experimental sonic boom data has revived the hypothesis that there is a closeness limit to the near-field separation distance from which measured wind tunnel pressure signatures can be extrapolated to the ground as though generated by a supersonic-cruise aircraft. Geometric acoustic theory is used to derive an estimate of this distance and the sample data is used to provide a preliminary indication of practical separation distance values.

  8. Composite Pressure Vessel Variability in Geometry and Filament Winding Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven J.; Greene, Nathanael J.

    2012-01-01

    Composite pressure vessels (CPVs) are used in a variety of applications ranging from carbon dioxide canisters for paintball guns to life support and pressurant storage on the International Space Station. With widespread use, it is important to be able to evaluate the effect of variability on structural performance. Data analysis was completed on CPVs to determine the amount of variation that occurs among the same type of CPV, and a filament winding routine was developed to facilitate study of the effect of manufacturing variation on structural response.

  9. Corotating pressure waves without streams in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.

    1983-01-01

    Voyager 1 and 2 magnetic field and plasma data are presented which demonstrate the existence of large scale, corotating, non-linear pressure waves between 2 AU and 4 AU that are not accompanied by fast streams. The pressure waves are presumed to be generated by corotating streams near the Sun. For two of the three pressure waves that are discussed, the absence of a stream is probably a real, physical effect, viz., a consequence of deceleration of the stream by the associated compression wave. For the third pressure wave, the apparent absence of a stream may be a geometrical effect; it is likely that the stream was at latitudes just above those of the spacecraft, while the associated shocks and compression wave extended over a broader range of latitudes so that they could be observed by the spacecraft. It is suggested that the development of large-scale non-linear pressure waves at the expense of the kinetic energy of streams produces a qualitative change in the solar wind in the outer heliosphere. Within a few AU the quasi-stationary solar wind structure is determined by corotating streams whose structure is determined by the boundary conditions near the Sun.

  10. Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel primary air injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brooke Edward

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements, design, and prototype testing of the flex-section and hinge seals for the Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel Primary Injector. The supersonic atmospheric primary injector operates between Mach 1.8 and Mach 2.2 with mass-flow rates of 62 to 128 lbm/s providing the necessary pressure reduction to operate the tunnel in the desired Reynolds number (Re) range.

  11. High pressure hypervelocity electrothermal wind tunnel performance study and subscale tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizkalla, Oussama F.; Chinitz, Wallace; Witherspoon, F. D.; Burton, Rodney L.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of a Mach 10 to 20, high pressure electrothermal wind tunnel was assessed. A heater based on a continuous high power electric arc discharge capable of heating air to temperatures above 10,000 K and pressures of 15,000 atm is the key element of this wind tunnel. Results of analytical study indicate that the facility is capable of simulation conditions suitable for hypervelocity airbreathing propulsion testing up to Mach 16. In this case simulation was limited by pressure containment, high nozzle throat heat flux rates, and chemical freezing in the nozzle. The high total pressure capability improved the recombination chemistry in the facility nozzle as chemical equilibrium prevailed to the freezing point. Steady arc discharges were observed with liquid nitrogen flowing into the arc chamber during tests based on the two millisecond test facility. The measured steady pressure in the arc chamber was 4559 psi, which is two times greater than maximum total pressure obtainable in conventional arc heaters.

  12. Wind Prediction Accuracy for Air Traffic Management Decision Support Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Rod; Green, Steve; Jardin, Matt; Schwartz, Barry; Benjamin, Stan

    2000-01-01

    The performance of Air Traffic Management and flight deck decision support tools depends in large part on the accuracy of the supporting 4D trajectory predictions. This is particularly relevant to conflict prediction and active advisories for the resolution of conflicts and the conformance with of traffic-flow management flow-rate constraints (e.g., arrival metering / required time of arrival). Flight test results have indicated that wind prediction errors may represent the largest source of trajectory prediction error. The tests also discovered relatively large errors (e.g., greater than 20 knots), existing in pockets of space and time critical to ATM DST performance (one or more sectors, greater than 20 minutes), are inadequately represented by the classic RMS aggregate prediction-accuracy studies of the past. To facilitate the identification and reduction of DST-critical wind-prediction errors, NASA has lead a collaborative research and development activity with MIT Lincoln Laboratories and the Forecast Systems Lab of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This activity, begun in 1996, has focussed on the development of key metrics for ATM DST performance, assessment of wind-prediction skill for state of the art systems, and development/validation of system enhancements to improve skill. A 13 month study was conducted for the Denver Center airspace in 1997. Two complementary wind-prediction systems were analyzed and compared to the forecast performance of the then standard 60 km Rapid Update Cycle - version 1 (RUC-1). One system, developed by NOAA, was the prototype 40-km RUC-2 that became operational at NCEP in 1999. RUC-2 introduced a faster cycle (1 hr vs. 3 hr) and improved mesoscale physics. The second system, Augmented Winds (AW), is a prototype en route wind application developed by MITLL based on the Integrated Terminal Wind System (ITWS). AW is run at a local facility (Center) level, and updates RUC predictions based on an

  13. Vandenberg Air Force Base Upper Level Wind Launch Weather Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2012-01-01

    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman III ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to analyze VAFB sounding data with the goal of determining the probability of violating (PoV) their upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a tool that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. In order to calculate the probability of exceeding each constraint, the AMU collected and analyzed historical data from VAFB. The historical sounding data were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory archive for the years 1994-2011 and then stratified into four sub-seasons: January-March, April-June, July-September, and October-December. The maximum wind speed and 1000-ft shear values for each sounding in each subseason were determined. To accurately calculate the PoV, the AMU determined the theoretical distributions that best fit the maximum wind speed and maximum shear datasets. Ultimately it was discovered that the maximum wind speeds follow a Gaussian distribution while the maximum shear values follow a lognormal distribution. These results were applied when calculating the averages and standard deviations needed for the historical and real-time PoV calculations. In addition to the requirements outlined in the original task plan, the AMU also included forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh model. This information provides further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours on day of launch. The interactive graphical user interface (GUI) for this project was developed in

  14. Air Density And Wind Retrieval Using GOCE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doornbos, E.; Bruinsma, S.; Fritsche, B.; Visser, P.; Van Den IJssel, J.; Encarnacao, J. Teixeira; Kern, M.

    2013-12-01

    In the GOCE+ Theme 3 project, ion thruster activation data from GOCE telemetry has been combined with the accelerometer and star camera data products, to derive a new set of data products on thermosphere neutral density and wind speed. These products can be seen as an ex- tension of the successful accelerometer-derived thermosphere density data sets from CHAMP and GRACE. It is the first time that such data, spanning multiple years, is available at a fixed and very low altitude and at a near constant orientation of the orbit plane with respect to the Sun. The data processing is based on an analysis of the aerodynamic accelerations acting on the satellite, and makes use of data from all instruments onboard the satellite. The following steps are involved: 1) estimation of the bias in the gradiometer common-mode accelerations using GPS tracking data, 2) conversion of ion thruster activation data to accelerations, 3) modelling of radiation pressure accelerations based on orbit and attitude information, 4) removal of radiation pressure and ion thruster accelerations from the common-mode acceleration data, to arrive at the observed aerodynamic accelerations, 5) iterative adjustment of wind direction and density inputs of an aerodynamic model of the satellite, until the modelled aerodynamic accelerations match the observations. The resulting density and wind observations are made available in the form of time series and grids. These data can be applied in investigations of solar-terrestrial physics, as well as for the improvement and validation of models used in space operations.

  15. Air emissions due to wind and solar power.

    PubMed

    Katzenstein, Warren; Apt, Jay

    2009-01-15

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) encourage large-scale deployment of wind and solar electric power. Their power output varies rapidly, even when several sites are added together. In many locations, natural gas generators are the lowest cost resource available to compensate for this variability, and must ramp up and down quickly to keep the grid stable, affecting their emissions of NOx and CO2. We model a wind or solar photovoltaic plus gas system using measured 1-min time-resolved emissions and heat rate data from two types of natural gas generators, and power data from four wind plants and one solar plant. Over a wide range of renewable penetration, we find CO2 emissions achieve approximately 80% of the emissions reductions expected if the power fluctuations caused no additional emissions. Using steam injection, gas generators achieve only 30-50% of expected NOx emissions reductions, and with dry control NOx emissions increase substantially. We quantify the interaction between state RPSs and NOx constraints, finding that states with substantial RPSs could see significant upward pressure on NOx permit prices, if the gas turbines we modeled are representative of the plants used to mitigate wind and solar power variability. PMID:19238948

  16. Application of Pressure-Sensitive Paint to Ice-Accreted Wind Tunnel Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencic, Timothy J.

    2000-01-01

    Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) has been successfully used to measure global surface pressures on an ice-accreted model in an icing wind tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center. Until now, the PSP technique has been limited to use in normal wind tunnels and clear flight environments. This is the first known application of PSP directly to ice in subfreezing conditions. Several major objectives were achieved in these tests. The procedure for applying the coating in the subfreezing tunnel environment was verified. Inspection of the painted ice surface revealed that the paint did not alter the original ice shape and adhered well over the entire coated area. Several procedures were used to show that the paint responded to changes in air pressure and that a repeatable pressure-dependent calibration could be achieved on the PSP-coated surfaces. Differences in pressure measurements made simultaneously on the ice and the metal test model are not yet fully understood, and techniques to minimize or correct them are being investigated.

  17. Relativistic Pulsar Winds with Pressure Anisotropy and Heat Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenbarge, Jason; Hazeltine, Richard; Mahajan, Swadesh

    2008-11-01

    A newly developed covariant fluid model for magnetized plasmas, incorporating anisotropy in both temperature and heat flow, is used to study equatorial radial profiles of density, velocity, magnetic field, pressure, and heat flow in the hot, strongly magnetized wind region beyond the light cylinder of pulsar magnetospheres. Radiative losses are assumed to have isotropized the wind region plasma so that PP. Fluid velocities are taken as mildly relativistic, while temperatures are ultra-relativistic. This study of pulsar magnetospheres extends the work by Tsikarishvili et al. to a more general fluid closure including heat flow. The general covariant fluid model in spherical geometry and equations of state for arbitrary temperature will also be presented for more general applicability. J. M. TenBarge, R. D. Hazeltine, and S. M. Mahajan, Phys. Plasmas 15, 062112 (2008)., E. G. Tsikarishvili, A. D. Rogava, and D. G. Tsiklauri, Ap. J. 439, 822 (1995).

  18. Understanding the relation between wind- and pressure-driven sea level variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponte, Rui M.

    1994-01-01

    Sea surface adjustment to combined wind and pressure forcing is examined using numerical solutions to the shallow water equations. The experiments use coastal geometry and bottom topography representative of the North Atlantic and are forced by realistic barometric pressure and wind stress fields. The repsonse to pressure is essentially static or close to the inverted barometer solution at periods longer than a few days and dominates the sea level variability, with wind-driven sea level signals being relatively small. With regard to the dynamic signals, wind-driven fluctuations dominate at long periods, as expected from quasi-geostrophic theory. Pressure becomes more important than wind stress as a source of dynamic signals only at periods shorter than approximately three days. Wind- and pressure-driven sea level fluctuations are anticorrelated over most regions. Hence, regressions of sea level on barometric pressure yield coefficients generally smaller than expected for the inverted barometer response known to be the case in the model. In the regions of significant wind-pressure correlation effects, to infer the correct pressure reponse using statistical methods, input fields must include winds as well as pressure. Because of the nonlocal character of the wind response, multivariate statistical models with local wind driving as input are not very successful. Inclusion of nonlocal wind variability over extensive regions is necessary to extract the correct pressure response. Implications of these results to the interpretation of sea level observations are discussed.

  19. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Surface Air Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing (Inventor); Hu, Yongxiang (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for remotely measuring surface air pressure. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention utilizes the steps of transmitting a signal having multiple frequencies into the atmosphere, measuring the transmitted/reflected signal to determine the relative received power level of each frequency and then determining the surface air pressure based upon the attenuation of the transmitted frequencies.

  20. Effect of wind tunnel air velocity on VOC flux rates from CAFO manure and wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind tunnels and flux chambers are often used to estimate volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from animal feeding operations (AFOs) without regard to air velocity or sweep air flow rates. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of wind tunnel air velocity on VOC emission ...

  1. Underground storage systems for high-pressure air and gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beam, B. H.; Giovannetti, A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the safety and cost of underground high-pressure air and gas storage systems based on recent experience with a high-pressure air system installed at Moffett Field, California. The system described used threaded and coupled oil well casings installed vertically to a depth of 1200 ft. Maximum pressure was 3000 psi and capacity was 500,000 lb of air. A failure mode analysis is presented, and it is shown that underground storage offers advantages in avoiding catastrophic consequences from pressure vessel failure. Certain problems such as corrosion, fatigue, and electrolysis are discussed in terms of the economic life of such vessels. A cost analysis shows that where favorable drilling conditions exist, the cost of underground high-pressure storage is approximately one-quarter that of equivalent aboveground storage.

  2. [A new approach to improving air in habitable pressurized modules].

    PubMed

    Argunova, A M; Odelevskiĭ, V K; Strogonova, L B

    2009-01-01

    Habitable pressurized modules, including space cabin, should provide ecologically efficient and physiologically auspicious conditions. The regenerated air should be comparable with fresh air of the natural environment humans belonged with over thousand years of evolution. Air scrubbing system GALOINHALATOR IGK-02 (MAI, patent No. 2209093) comprises eco-pure minerals from the salt rocks in Verkhnekamsk (the Urals). The portable automatic system controls air saturation with negative light aeroions and fine salt aerosols at preset levels. The laboratory, clinical and model tests demonstrated bactericide and bacteriostatic effects of air produced by GALOINHALATOR and the mineral ability to adsorb harmful volatile admixtures. Breathing decontaminated and ionized air during long stay in a pressurized module is beneficial to human performance, immunity, and chronic diseases prevention. PMID:19621806

  3. Teaching Science: Air Pressure "Eggs-periments."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how teachers can introduce students to various scientific concept concerning motion, air composition, and heat by conducting an experiment: A peeled, hard-boiled egg is sucked into a bottle neck slightly smaller than the egg, after the bottle has been filled and emptied of hot water. Also discusses how students' understanding of the…

  4. The Resistance of Spheres in Wind Tunnels and In Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, D L; Reid, E G

    1924-01-01

    To supplement the standardization tests now in progress at several laboratories, a broad investigation of the resistance of spheres in wind tunnels and free air has been carried out by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The subject has been classed in aerodynamic research, and in consequence there is available a great mass of data from previous investigations. This material was given careful consideration in laying out the research, and explanation of practically all the disagreement between former experiments has resulted. A satisfactory confirmation of Reynolds law has been accomplished, the effect of means of support determined, the range of experiment greatly extended by work in the new variable density wind tunnel, and the effects of turbulence investigated by work in the tunnels and by towing and dropping tests in free air. It is concluded that the erratic nature of most of the previous work is due to support interference and differing turbulence conditions. While the question of support has been investigated thoroughly, a systematic and comprehensive study of the effects of scale and quality of turbulence will be necessary to complete the problem, as this phase was given only general treatment.

  5. Nocturnal drainage wind characteristics in two converging air sheds

    SciTech Connect

    Gedayloo, T.; Clements, W.E.; Barr, S.; Archuleta, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    During the short experimental period in the Grants Basin of Northeastern New Mexico a survey was conducted on the complex meteorology of this area. Emphasis was placed on the nocturnal drainage flow because of the potential hazards to the populated areas of Milan and Grants from the effluents of the uranium mining and milling operation in this area. This investigation has shown that the nocturnal drainage flow patterns agree with the winds predicted on the basis of the complex terrain of the area. Because of the surface cooling at night (over 25/sup 0/C during summer and about 20/sup 0/C during winter), air from elevated surrounding areas flows to the low lying regions consequently setting up a nocturnal drainage flow. This regime exists over 60% of the time during summer months and over 65% of the time during winter months with a depth generally less than 200 m. In the San Mateo air shed the drainage flow is east northeast, and in the Ambrosia Lake air shed it is from northwest. The confluence of these two air flows contributes mainly to the drainage flow through the channel formed by La Ja Mesa and Mesa Montanosa. The analysis of data collected by the recording Flats Station confirms the prediction that although the area south of the channel region broadens considerably causing a reduction in flow speed, contributions from the southside of La Jara Mesa and Mesa Montanosa partly compensate for this reduction. The position of this recording station is 15 to 20 km from the populated towns of Milan and Grants. A drainage flow speed of approximately 2.2 m s/sup -1/ and the duration of over 11 hours as recorded by this station indicates that air from the San Mateo and Ambrosia Lake regions may be transported southwards to these population centers during a nocturnal period. In order to test this prediction, a series of multi-atmospheric tracer experiments were conducted in the Grants Basin.

  6. SMALL OIL BURNER CONCEPTS BASED ON LOW PRESSURE AIR ATOMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    BUTCHER,T.; CELEBI,Y.; WEI,G.; KAMATH,B.

    2000-03-16

    The development of several novel oil burner applications based on low pressure air atomization is described. The atomizer used is a prefilming, airblast nozzle of the type commonly used in gas turbine combustion. The air pressure used can be as low as 1,300 Pa and such pressure can be easily achieved with a fan. Advantages over conventional, pressure-atomized nozzles include ability to operate at low input rates without very small passages and much lower fuel pressure requirements. The development of three specific applications is presented. The first two are domestic heating burners covering a capacity range 10 to 26 kW. The third application presented involves the use of this burner in an oil-fired thermophotovoltaic power generator system. Here the design firing rate is 2.9 kW and the system produces 500 watts of electric power.

  7. Mercury's Plasma Mantle during Solar Wind Dynamical Pressure Enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcourt, D.; Seki, K.; Terada, N.; Moore, T. E.

    2014-12-01

    Because of the weak planetary magnetic field as well as proximity to the Sun, the magnetosphere of Mercury is very dynamical and at times subjected to prominent compression. Recent observations from MESSENGER reveal that during events of enhanced solar wind dynamical pressure, the subsolar magnetopause may actually be pushed until the immediate vicinity of the planet surface. Using three-dimensional single-particle simulations, we examine the dynamics of solar wind originating protons during such events. We show that these impulsive events can lead to substantial (several hundreds of eVs or a few keVs) H+ energization in the plasma mantle. Unlike ions with large mass-to-charge ratios (e.g., Na+ of planetary origin), H+ are transported adiabatically during these events, their energization being due to the ExB convection surge. MESSENGER observations of the plasma mantle show repeated evidences of such a transient H+ energization which may follow from the variable character of Mercury's magnetosphere.

  8. Fuel Cells Utilizing Oxygen From Air at Low Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisar, Alan; Boyer, Chris; Greenwald, Charles

    2006-01-01

    A fuel cell stack has been developed to supply power for a high-altitude aircraft with a minimum of air handling. The fuel cell is capable of utilizing oxygen from ambient air at low pressure with no need for compression. For such an application, it is advantageous to take oxygen from the air (in contradistinction to carrying a supply of oxygen onboard), but it is a challenging problem to design a fuel-cell stack of reasonable weight that can generate sufficient power while operating at reduced pressures. The present fuel-cell design is a response to this challenge. The design features a novel bipolar plate structure in combination with a gas-diffusion structure based on a conductive metal core and a carbon gas-diffusion matrix. This combination makes it possible for the flow fields in the stack to have a large open fraction (ratio between open volume and total volume) to permit large volumes of air to flow through with exceptionally low backpressure. Operations at reduced pressure require a corresponding increase in the volume of air that must be handled to deliver the same number of moles of oxygen to the anodes. Moreover, the increase in the open fraction, relative to that of a comparable prior fuel-cell design, reduces the mass of the stack. The fuel cell has been demonstrated to operate at a power density as high as 105 W/cm2 at an air pressure as low as 2 psia (absolute pressure 14 kPa), which is the atmospheric pressure at an altitude of about 50,000 ft ( 15.2 km). The improvements in the design of this fuel cell could be incorporated into designs of other fuel cells to make them lighter in weight and effective at altitudes higher than those of prior designs. Potential commercial applications for these improvements include most applications now under consideration for fuel cells.

  9. Turbulent Wind Temperature and Pressure in a Mature Hardwood Canopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, Paul Sheldon

    An understanding of the mechanisms controlling turbulent exchange in plant canopies is necessary for a variety of ecological, meteorological and agricultural problems. Previous studies have shown that most of the exchange is caused by intermittent, coherent, turbulence structures. This study describes these structures in a mature hardwood forest, with special attention to the role of static pressure fluctuations within and above the canopy. The study was conducted from an instrument tower in a 31 m tall forest in the piedmont region of North Carolina, USA. Measurements were made at two levels: above the forest at 1.2 times the canopy height (h), and either just below the forest canopy at 0.6 h or in the middle of the lower third of the canopy at 0.7 h. A static pressure probe consisting of two parallel, flat disks was fabricated and tested in a wind tunnel. Each measurement level included the pressure probe (p), a sonic anemometer (u v w) and a fine wire thermocouple (T). A third pressure probe was installed at the surface. Measurements from all instruments were made at five Hz and block averaged to one Hz for analysis. 22 hrs of data were analyzed. Integral time scales were calculated for each of the above variables. The relative duration of coherent signals was p > T = u > w. Lagged correlations between the measurements made above and below the canopy show that the variables were well correlated between the levels, with the order of correlation being p > w > T = u. p and w measurements were synchronous at all measurement heights, while T below the canopy lagged T above, and u showed both lags and leads. The segments of the data showing turbulent structures were ensemble averaged for a variety of atmospheric stability conditions. These averages show that a vertically synchronous pressure pulse accompanies each turbulent structure. Two flow regimes are demonstrated for u, one driven by advected momentum and one driven by pressure gradients. Vertical velocity

  10. Radiation Belt Transport Driven by Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, B. T.; Hudson, M. K.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Mueller, H.

    2012-12-01

    The creation of the Earth's outer zone radiation belts is attributed to earthward transport and adiabatic acceleration of electrons by drift-resonant interactions with electromagnetic fluctuations in the magnetosphere. Three types of radial transport driven by solar wind dynamic pressure fluctuations that have been identified are: (1) radial diffusion [Falthammer, 1965], (2) significant changes in the phase space density radial profile due to a single or few ULF drift-resonant interactions [Ukhorskiy et al., 2006; Degeling et al., 2008], and (3) shock associated injections of radiation belt electrons occurring in less than a drift period [Li et al., 1993]. A progress report will be given on work to fully characterize different forms of radial transport and their effect on the Earth's radiation belts. The work is being carried out by computing test-particle trajectories in electric and magnetic fields from a simple analytic ULF field model and from global MHD simulations of the magnetosphere. Degeling, A. W., L. G. Ozeke, R. Rankin, I. R. Mann, and K. Kabin (2008), Drift resonant generation of peaked relativistic electron distributions by Pc 5 ULF waves, textit{J. Geophys. Res., 113}, A02208, doi:10.1029/2007JA012411. Fälthammar, C.-G. (1965), Effects of Time-Dependent Electric Fields on Geomagnetically Trapped Radiation, J. Geophys. Res., 70(11), 2503-2516, doi:10.1029/JZ070i011p02503. Li, X., I. Roth, M. Temerin, J. R. Wygant, M. K. Hudson, and J. B. Blake (1993), Simulation of the prompt energization and transport of radiation belt particles during the March 24, 1991 SSC, textit{Geophys. Res. Lett., 20}(22), 2423-2426, doi:10.1029/93GL02701. Ukhorskiy, A. Y., B. J. Anderson, K. Takahashi, and N. A. Tsyganenko (2006), Impact of ULF oscillations in solar wind dynamic pressure on the outer radiation belt electrons, textit{Geophys. Res. Lett., 33}(6), L06111, doi:10.1029/2005GL024380.

  11. Pressure evolution of ethylene-air explosions in enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movileanu, C.; Razus, D.; Giurcan, V.; Gosa, V.

    2014-08-01

    The peak explosion pressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise are important safety parameters for assessing the hazard of a process and for design of vessels able to withstand an explosion or of their vents used as relief devices. Using ethylene-air with various fuel concentrations (4-10 vol% C2H4) as test mixture, the propagation of explosion in four closed vessels (a spherical vessel with central ignition and three cylindrical vessels with various L/D ratios, centrally or side ignited) has been studied at various initial pressures between 0.3-2.0 bar. In all cases, the peak pressures and the maximum rates of pressure rise were found to be linear functions on the total initial pressure, at constant fuel concentration. Examining several enclosures, the maximum values of explosion pressures and rates of pressure rise have been found for the spherical vessel. For the same initial conditions, the peak explosion pressure and maximum rates of pressure rise determined in cylindrical vessels decrease with the increase of L/D ratio. Asymmetric ignition, at vessel's bottom, induces important heat losses during flame propagation. This process is characterized by the lowest rates of pressure rise, as compared to propagation of flame ignited in the centre of the same vessel.

  12. The Elimination of spurious trends in marine wind data using pressure observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindau, Ralf

    2006-05-01

    The use of pressure reports from merchant ships provides a reasonable way to correct the trends in marine wind data. However, the appropriate method to derive pressure gradients from the ship data is controversial. Three principal proceedings are analysed: The method of using three simultaneous pressure observations, the method of deriving monthly mean pressure gradients, and the method presented by Lindau [(1995)]. For the first two, it is shown that they are unable to provide reliable reference values for wind speed; if observation triples are used, random errors in the raw data cause systematic errors in the derived pressure gradients. The problem concerning monthly mean pressure gradients is that they are only proportional to the vector wind, but not to the scalar wind. Therefore, these methods are inapplicable for calibration purposes. The method of Lindau [(1995)] is recommended for a proper elimination of spurious trends in marine wind observations.

  13. ANOMALOUSLY PRESSURED GAS DISTRIBUTION IN THE WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

    2003-03-31

    Anomalously pressured gas (APG) assets, typically called ''basin-center'' gas accumulations, represent either an underdeveloped or undeveloped energy resource in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB). Historically, the exploitation of these gas resources has proven to be very difficult and costly. In this topical report, an improved exploration strategy is outlined in conjunction with a more detailed description of new diagnostic techniques that more efficiently detect anomalously pressured, gas-charged domains. The ability to delineate gas-charged domains occurring below a regional velocity inversion surface allows operators to significantly reduce risk in the search for APG resources. The Wind River Basin was chosen for this demonstration because of the convergence of public data availability (i.e., thousands of mud logs and DSTs and 2400 mi of 2-D seismic lines); the evolution of new diagnostic techniques; a 175 digital sonic log suite; a regional stratigraphic framework; and corporate interest. In the exploration scheme discussed in this topical report, the basinwide gas distribution is determined in the following steps: (1) A detailed velocity model is established from sonic logs, 2-D seismic lines, and, if available, 3-D seismic data. In constructing the seismic interval velocity field, automatic picking technology using continuous, statistically-derived interval velocity selection, as well as conventional graphical interactive methodologies are utilized. (2) Next, the ideal regional velocity/depth function is removed from the observed sonic or seismic velocity/depth profile. The constructed ideal regional velocity/depth function is the velocity/depth trend resulting from the progressive burial of a rock/fluid system of constant rock/fluid composition, with all other factors remaining constant. (3) The removal of the ideal regional velocity/depth function isolates the anomalously slow velocities and allows the evaluation of (a) the regional velocity

  14. Tongue-Palate Contact Pressure, Oral Air Pressure, and Acoustics of Clear Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searl, Jeff; Evitts, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared articulatory contact pressure (ACP), oral air pressure (Po), and speech acoustics for conversational versus clear speech. They also assessed the relationship of these measures to listener perception. Method: Twelve adults with normal speech produced monosyllables in a phrase using conversational and clear speech.…

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW PRESSURE, AIR ATOMIZED OIL BURNER WITH HIGH ATOMIZER AIR FLOW

    SciTech Connect

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5--8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or FAB has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a torroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the tiring rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% 0{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

  16. Modulated corona nanosecond discharge in air under ambient pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepekhin, N. M.; Priseko, Yu. S.; Filippov, V. G.; Bulatov, M. U.; Sukharevskii, D. I.; Syssoev, V. S.

    2015-04-01

    A unique type of corona discharge-modulated corona nanosecond discharge-has been obtained, the parameters of which have been determined in a geometric system of electrodes with a sharply heterogeneous electric field in air under ambient pressure and natural humidity.

  17. The Jar Magic--Instructional Activities for Teaching Air Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Bing-Hong; Chen, Chyong-Sun

    2013-01-01

    There are a variety of impressive activities designed for teaching the concept of air pressure to junior high school students. Water, glasses, balloons, plastic bottles, and suction cups are some of the items commonly used in these experiments. For example, if we take a glass of water, cover it with a piece of cardboard, and invert the glass,…

  18. Experimental Air Pressure Tank Systems for Process Control Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Christopher E.; Holland, Charles E.; Gatzke, Edward P.

    2006-01-01

    In process control education, particularly in the field of chemical engineering, there is an inherent need for industrially relevant hands-on apparatuses that enable one to bridge the gap between the theoretical content of coursework and real-world applications. At the University of South Carolina, two experimental air-pressure tank systems have…

  19. Air Circulation and Heat Exchange under Reduced Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygalov, Vadim; Wheeler, Raymond; Dixon, Mike; Hillhouse, Len; Fowler, Philip

    Low pressure atmospheres were suggested for Space Greenhouses (SG) design to minimize sys-tem construction and re-supply materials, as well as system manufacturing and deployment costs. But rarified atmospheres modify heat exchange mechanisms what finally leads to alter-ations in thermal control for low pressure closed environments. Under low atmospheric pressures (e.g., lower than 25 kPa compare to 101.3 kPa for normal Earth atmosphere), convection is becoming replaced by diffusion and rate of heat exchange reduces significantly. During a period from 2001 to 2009, a series of hypobaric experiments were conducted at Space Life Sciences Lab (SLSLab) NASA's Kennedy Space Center and the Department of Space Studies, University of North Dakota. Findings from these experiments showed: -air circulation rate decreases non-linearly with lowering of total atmospheric pressure; -heat exchange slows down with pressure decrease creating risk of thermal stress (elevated leaf tem-peratures) for plants in closed environments; -low pressure-induced thermal stress could be reduced by either lowering system temperature set point or increasing forced convection rates (circulation fan power) within certain limits; Air circulation is an important constituent of controlled environments and plays crucial role in material and heat exchange. Theoretical schematics and mathematical models are developed from a series of observations. These models can be used to establish optimal control algorithms for low pressure environments, such as a space greenhouse, as well as assist in fundamental design concept developments for these or similar habitable structures.

  20. Cold Micro-Plasma Jets in Atmospheric Pressure Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, A. H.; Suddala, S.; Schoenbach, K. H.

    2003-10-01

    Direct current microhollow cathode discharges (MHCDs) have been operated in air, nitrogen and oxygen at pressures of one atmosphere. The electrodes are 250 μm thick molybdenum foils, separated by an alumina insulator of the same thickness. A cylindrical hole with a diameter in the 100 μm range is drilled through all layers. By flowing gases at high pressure through this hole, plasma jets with radial dimensions on the same order as the microhole dimensions, and with lengths of up to one centimeter are generated. The gas temperature in these jets was measured by means of a micro-thermocouple. The lowest temperatures of close to room temperature were measured when the flow changed from laminar to turbulent. The results of spectral emission and absorption studies indicate high concentrations of byproducts, such as ozone, when the discharge is operated in air or oxygen. This work is supported by the U.S Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR).

  1. Improved fireman's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. A.; Morris, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Prototype high pressure glass filament-wound, aluminum-lined pressurant vessels suitable for use in a fireman's compressed air breathing system were designed, fabricated, and acceptance tested in order to demonstrate the feasibility of producing such high performance, lightweight units. The 4000 psi tanks have a 60 standard cubic foot (SCF) air capacity, and have a 6.5 inch diamter, 19 inch length, 415 inch volume, weigh 13 pounds when empty, and contain 33 percent more air than the current 45 SCF (2250 psi) steel units. The current steel 60 SCF (3000 psi) tanks weigh approximately twice as much as the prototype when empty, and are 2 inches, or 10 percent shorter. The prototype units also have non-rusting aluminum interiors, which removes the hazard of corrosion, the need for internal coatings, and the possibility of rust particles clogging the breathing system.

  2. Dependence of Venus ionopause altitude and ionospheric magnetic field on solar wind dynamic pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, J. L.; Luhmann, J. G.; Russell, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    The shape of the dayside Venus ionopause, and its dependence on solar wind parameters, is examined using Pioneer Venus Orbiter field and particle data. The ionopause is defined here as the altitude of pressure equality between magnetosheath pressure and ionospheric thermal pressure; its typical altitudes range from about 300 km near the subsolar point to about 900 km near the terminator. A strong correlation between ionopause altitude and magnetosheath magnetic pressure is demonstrated; correlation between magnetic pressure and the normally incident component of solar wind dynamic pressure is also evident. The data support the hypothesis of control of the ionopause altitude by solar wind dynamic pressure, manifested in the sheath as magnetic pressure. The presence of large scale magnetic fields in the ionosphere is observed primarily when dynamic pressure is high and the ionopause is low.

  3. Flame structures in the pressurized methane-air combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Miyazaki, Tomonaga, Furuhata, Tomohiko; Arai, Norio

    1998-07-01

    This study has been carried out in order to investigate the applicability of a pressurized and fuel-rich burner at a first stage combustor for a newly proposed chemical gas turbine system. The flammability limits, exhaust gas composition and the NO{sub x} emission characteristics under the pressurized conditions of 1.1--4.1 MPa have been investigated in a model combustor. This paper focuses on the influence of pressure and F/A equivalence ratio on flame structures of pressurized combustion with methane and air to obtain detailed data for designing of fuel-rich combustor for gas turbine application. The flame under fuel-rich condition and pressure of 1 MPa showed underventilated structure like other atmospheric fuel-rich flames while the flame under pressure over 1.5 MPa had shapes as fuel-lean flame. The flame becomes longer as the pressure was increased under the fuel-lean conditions, which under fuel-rich condition the influence of pressure on flame length was smaller in comparison with the flame under fuel-lean conditions. These results give an opportunity for developing smaller combustor under fuel-rich and pressurized condition compared to fuel-lean one. Numerical simulation has been done for defining the temperature profile in the model combustor using the k-{var{underscore}epsilon} turbulence model and three-step reaction model. The comparison between theoretical results and experimental data showed fair agreements.

  4. Pressure sensitive paint systems for pressure distribution measurements in wind tunnels and turbomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engler, R. H.; Klein, Chr; Trinks, O.

    2000-07-01

    We have used the pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) intensity and lifetime methods for basic research and PSP measurements in wind tunnels and turbomachines, to investigate and understand the qualitative and quantitative aerodynamic measurements mainly in transonic flow. We performed a number of investigations in different speed ranges from transonic to low-speed flow and compared them with conventional techniques like pressure taps and light sheets. The influence of errors was checked and a comparison with numerical methods performed. Various models were investigated, from the basic configuration of a double-delta-wing up to a complex Airbus A340 half model and oscillating turbine blades. Finally, two excellent PSP systems are now available to perform precise measurements and support the theory using these techniques.

  5. Automatic Detection Algorithm of the Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Pulses with the Application to WIND High-resolution Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, P.; Feng, X. S.

    2014-12-01

    Solar wind dynamic pressure pulses (DPPs), i.e. the abrupt change in solar wind dynamic pressure, can affect the energy and momentum transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling system, and as a result, cause various types of disturbances. To detect the DPPs rapidly from the solar wind plasma data, an automated DPP-hunting computer code is developed. In order to meet the research requirements, it demands not only identify and isolate the special structure, but also automatically select appropriate preceding and succeeding reference data points, for which there are very small variations in solar wind dynamic pressure, to represent the plasma status before and after the pressure change, as well as determine the DPP fine ramp structure where the solar wind transits from one relatively quiet status to another. It indicates from the high-resolution measurements that the pressure changes can occur on time scale from a few seconds to many minutes. The code can be used to hunt DPPs of arbitrary ramp length and arbitrary pressure change amplitude by adjusting the criteria. It can be applied to variable data rates. The strong DPPs that have very large pressure change are most geoeffective so as to affect the near-Earth environment intensively. Thus the code also benefits the space weather warning or forecasting when applied to the real-time spacecraft data to hunt the large DPPs. Here we present the major algorithm to identify and define the upstream, downstream and the ramp region. The effectiveness of this code is tested on WIND high-resolution measurements covering the 23th solar cycle. We will show the test results during the interval of magnetic cloud (MC) and corotating interation region (CIR). The statistical results of DPPs in 23th solar cycle are also discussed.

  6. Chordwise pressure measurements on a blade of Mod-2 Wind Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyland, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    Pressure measurements covering a range of wind velocities were made at one span location on a blade of the Mod-2 Wind Turbine. The data show the existence of higher pressure coefficients than would be expected from wind tunnel data. These high pressure coefficients may be the result of three-dimensional flow over the blade that delays flow separations. Data is presented showing the repetitiveness and abrupt changes in the pressure distribution that occurs as the blade rotates. Calculated values of suction and flap coefficients are also presented.

  7. Turbulent Heating and Wave Pressure in Solar Wind Acceleration Modeling: New Insights to Empirical Forecasting of the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolsey, L. N.; Cranmer, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    The study of solar wind acceleration has made several important advances recently due to improvements in modeling techniques. Existing code and simulations test the competing theories for coronal heating, which include reconnection/loop-opening (RLO) models and wave/turbulence-driven (WTD) models. In order to compare and contrast the validity of these theories, we need flexible tools that predict the emergent solar wind properties from a wide range of coronal magnetic field structures such as coronal holes, pseudostreamers, and helmet streamers. ZEPHYR (Cranmer et al. 2007) is a one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics code that includes Alfven wave generation and reflection and the resulting turbulent heating to accelerate solar wind in open flux tubes. We present the ZEPHYR output for a wide range of magnetic field geometries to show the effect of the magnetic field profiles on wind properties. We also investigate the competing acceleration mechanisms found in ZEPHYR to determine the relative importance of increased gas pressure from turbulent heating and the separate pressure source from the Alfven waves. To do so, we developed a code that will become publicly available for solar wind prediction. This code, TEMPEST, provides an outflow solution based on only one input: the magnetic field strength as a function of height above the photosphere. It uses correlations found in ZEPHYR between the magnetic field strength at the source surface and the temperature profile of the outflow solution to compute the wind speed profile based on the increased gas pressure from turbulent heating. With this initial solution, TEMPEST then adds in the Alfven wave pressure term to the modified Parker equation and iterates to find a stable solution for the wind speed. This code, therefore, can make predictions of the wind speeds that will be observed at 1 AU based on extrapolations from magnetogram data, providing a useful tool for empirical forecasting of the sol! ar wind.

  8. Development and testing of a portable wind sensitive directional air sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyo, J.; Toma, J.; King, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    A portable wind sensitive directional air sampler was developed as part of an air pollution source identification system. The system is designed to identify sources of air pollution based on the directional collection of field air samples and their analysis for TSP and trace element characteristics. Sources can be identified by analyzing the data on the basis of pattern recognition concepts. The unit, designated Air Scout, receives wind direction signals from an associated wind vane. Air samples are collected on filter slides using a standard high volume air sampler drawing air through a porting arrangement which tracks the wind direction and permits collection of discrete samples. A preset timer controls the length of time each filter is in the sampling position. At the conclusion of the sampling period a new filter is automatically moved into sampling position displacing the previous filter to a storage compartment. Thus the Air Scout may be set up at a field location, loaded with up to 12 filter slides, and left to acquire air samples automatically, according to the wind, at any timer interval desired from 1 to 30 hours.

  9. Surface wind, pressure and temperature fields near tornadic and non-tornadic narrow cold-frontal rainbands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Matthew; Parker, Douglas

    2014-05-01

    Narrow cold frontal rainbands (NCFRs) occur frequently in the UK and other parts of northwest Europe. At the surface, the passage of an NCFR is often marked by a sharp wind veer, abrupt pressure increase and a rapid temperature decrease. Tornadoes and other instances of localised wind damage sometimes occur in association with meso-gamma-scale vortices (sometimes called misocyclones) that form along the zone of abrupt horizontal wind veer (and associated vertical vorticity) at the leading edge of the NCFR. Using one-minute-resolution data from a mesoscale network of automatic weather stations, surface pressure, wind and temperature fields in the vicinity of 12 NCFRs (five of which were tornadic) have been investigated. High-resolution surface analyses were obtained by mapping temporal variations in the observed parameters to equivalent spatial variations, using a system velocity determined by analysis of the radar-observed movement of NCFR precipitation segments. Substantial differences were found in the structure of surface wind and pressure fields close to tornadic and non-tornadic NCFRs. Tornadic NCFRs exhibited a large wind veer (near 90°) and strong pre- and post-frontal winds. These attributes were associated with large vertical vorticity and horizontal convergence across the front. Tornadoes typically occurred where vertical vorticity and horizontal convergence were increasing. Here, we present surface analyses from selected cases, and draw comparisons between the tornadic and non-tornadic NCFRs. Some Doppler radar observations will be presented, illustrating the development of misocyclones along parts of the NCFR that exhibit strong, and increasing, vertical vorticity stretching. The influence of the stability of the pre-frontal air on the likelihood of tornadoes will also be discussed.

  10. The hybrid pressurized air receiver (HPAR) in the SUNDISC cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, Lukas; Hoffmann, Jaap; Gauché, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Tubular metallic pressurized air solar receivers face challenges in terms of temperature distribution on the absorber tubes and the limited sustainable solar influx. The HPAR concept aims at mitigating these problems through a macro-volumetric design and a secondary non-pressurized air flow around the absorber elements. Here, a 360◦ manifestation of this concept for implementation in the dual-pressure SUNDISC cycle is presented. Computationally inexpensive models for the numerous heat flows were developed for use in parametric studies of a receiver's geometric layout. Initial findings are presented on the optical penetration of concentrated solar radiation into the absorber structure, blocking of thermal radiation from hot surfaces and the influence of the flow path through the heated tubes. In the basic design the heat transfer to the non-pressurized air stream is found to be insufficient and possible measures for its improvement are given. Their effect will be examined in more detailed models of external convection and thermal radiation to be able to provide performance estimates of the system.

  11. Ares I Upper Stage Pressure Tests in Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry 1/2% model is undergoing pressure measurements inside the wind tunnel testing facility at MSFC. (Highest resolution available)

  12. Solar wind pressure as a source of ring current development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalegaev, Vladimir; Vlasova, Natalia

    The ring current development during magnetic storms was studied on the basis of satellite data and theoretical modeling. Comparative analysis of magnetospheric particle fluxes (30-80 keV protons in the near-equatorial region and in the region of isotropic precipitations) measured by low-altitude polar sun-synchronous NOAA satellites (POES 15, 16, 17) during magnetic storms on 21-22.01.2005 and 14-15.12.2006 was carried out. It was obtained that regardless of the intensity of the geomagnetic disturbance, the proton fluxes as well as isotropic boundary and maximum precipitation locations were approximately the same during maximum of two storms. It was shown that ring current development during 21-22.01.2005 magnetic storm was provided by prolonged extremely strong solar wind influence on the Earth's magnetosphere. Extreme pressure pulse during SSC caused intensive trapped particle radial diffusion and subsequent ring current enhancement similar to that taking place due to particle injection from the tail. Ring current development during 14-15.12.2006 was due to IMF southward turning. Magnetospheric compression during SSC was not too strong to create storm-time ring current.

  13. Generation of subnanosecond electron beams in air at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyrya, I. D.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.; Rybka, D. V.

    2009-11-01

    Optimum conditions for the generation of runaway electron beams with maximum current amplitudes and densities in nanosecond pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure are determined. A supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) with a current amplitude of ˜30 A, a current density of ˜20 A/cm2, and a pulse full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ˜100 ps has been observed behind the output foil of an air-filled diode. It is shown that the position of the SAEB current maximum relative to the voltage pulse front exhibits a time shift that varies when the small-size collector is moved over the foil surface.

  14. Wind-induced Ground-surface Pressures Around a Single-Family House

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    1996-02-01

    Wind induces a ground-surface pressure field around a building that can substantially affect the flow of soil gas and thereby the entry of radon and other soil-gas contaminants into the building. To quantify the effect of the wind-induced groundsurface pressure field on contaminant entry rates, the mean ground-surface pressure field was experimentally measured in a wind tunnel for several incidence angles of the wind, two atmospheric boundary layers, and two house geometries. The experimentally measured ground-surface pressure fields are compared with those predicted by a k-e turbulence model. Despite the fundamental limitations in applying a k-e model to a system with flow separation, predictions from the numerical simulations were good for the two wind incidence angles tested.

  15. One-Component Pressure-Temperature Phase Diagrams in the Presence of Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade-Gamboa, Julio; Martire, Daniel O.; Donati, Edgardo R.

    2010-01-01

    One-component phase diagrams are good approximations to predict pressure-temperature ("P-T") behavior of a substance in the presence of air, provided air pressure is not much higher than the vapor pressure. However, at any air pressure, and from the conceptual point of view, the use of a traditional "P-T" phase diagram is not strictly correct. In…

  16. Compressed air energy storage system reservoir size for a wind energy baseload power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    Wind generated electricity can be transformed from an intermittent to a baseload resource using an oversized wind farm in conjunction with a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system. The size of the storage reservoir for the CAES system (solution mined salt cavern or porous media) as a function of the wind speed autocorrelation time (C) has been examined using a Monte Carlo simulation for a wind class 4 (wind power density 450 W m{sup -2} at 50 m hub height) wind regime with a Weibull k factor of 2.5. For values of C typically found for winds over the US Great Plains, the storage reservoir must have a 60 to 80 hour capacity. Since underground reservoirs account for only a small fraction of total system cost, this larger storage reservoir has a negligible effect on the cost of energy from the wind energy baseload system. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Evaluation of wind-induced internal pressure in low-rise buildings: A multi scale experimental and numerical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tecle, Amanuel Sebhatu

    Hurricane is one of the most destructive and costly natural hazard to the built environment and its impact on low-rise buildings, particularity, is beyond acceptable. The major objective of this research was to perform a parametric evaluation of internal pressure (IP) for wind-resistant design of low-rise buildings and wind-driven natural ventilation applications. For this purpose, a multi-scale experimental, i.e. full-scale at Wall of Wind (WoW) and small-scale at Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel (BLWT), and a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach was adopted. This provided new capability to assess wind pressures realistically on internal volumes ranging from small spaces formed between roof tiles and its deck to attic to room partitions. Effects of sudden breaching, existing dominant openings on building envelopes as well as compartmentalization of building interior on the IP were systematically investigated. Results of this research indicated: (i) for sudden breaching of dominant openings, the transient overshooting response was lower than the subsequent steady state peak IP and internal volume correction for low-wind-speed testing facilities was necessary. For example a building without volume correction experienced a response four times faster and exhibited 30--40% lower mean and peak IP; (ii) for existing openings, vent openings uniformly distributed along the roof alleviated, whereas one sided openings aggravated the IP; (iii) larger dominant openings exhibited a higher IP on the building envelope, and an off-center opening on the wall exhibited (30--40%) higher IP than center located openings; (iv) compartmentalization amplified the intensity of IP and; (v) significant underneath pressure was measured for field tiles, warranting its consideration during net pressure evaluations. The study aimed at wind driven natural ventilation indicated: (i) the IP due to cross ventilation was 1.5 to 2.5 times higher for Ainlet/Aoutlet>1 compared to cases where Ainlet

  18. An Investigation of the McDonnell XP-85 Airplane in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel: Pressure-Distribution Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunton, Lynn W.; James, Harry A.

    1948-01-01

    Pressure measurements were made during wind-tunnel tests of the McDonnell XP-85 parasite fighter. Static-pressure orifices were located over the fuselage nose, over the canopy, along the wing root, and along the upper and lower stabilizer roots. A total-pressure and static-pressure rake was located in the turbojet engine air-intake duct. It was installed at the station where the compressor face would be located. Pressure data were obtained for two airplane conditions, clean and with skyhook extended, through a range of angle of attack and a range of yaw.

  19. Microcontrolled air-mattress for ulcer by pressure prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasluosta, Cristian F.; Fontana, Juan M.; Beltramone, Diego A.; Taborda, Ricardo A. M.

    2007-11-01

    An ulcer by pressure is produced when a constant pressure is exerted over the skin. This generates the collapse of the blood vessels and, therefore, a lack in the contribution of the necessary nutrients for the affected zone. As a consequence, the skin deteriorates, eventually causing an ulcer. In order to prevent it, a protocol must be applied to the patient, which is reflected on time and cost of treatment. There are some air mattresses available for this purpose, but whose performance does not fulfill all requirements. The prototype designed in our laboratory is based on the principle of the air mattress. Its objective is to improve on existing technologies and, due to an increased automation, reduce time dedication for personnel in charge of the patient. A clinical experience was made in the local Emergencies Hospital and also in an institution dedicated to aged patients care. In both cases, the results obtained and the comments from the personnel involved were favorable.

  20. The Jar Magic -- Instructional Activities for Teaching Air Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Bing-Hong; Chen, Chyong-Sun

    2013-12-01

    There are a variety of impressive activities designed for teaching the concept of air pressure to junior high school students. Water, glasses, balloons, plastic bottles, and suction cups are some of the items commonly used in these experiments. For example, if we take a glass of water, cover it with a piece of cardboard, and invert the glass, amazingly, no water spills out. Further, one may also use balloons and plastic bottles as the components in another experiment. Place a balloon in a plastic bottle and spread the balloon's mouth over the bottle's rim. Inflate the balloon by blowing into it. Students will be astonished at the fact that the balloon remains inflated even though its mouth is open. Making suction cups "stick" to the wall is also an instance of proving how air pressure works.

  1. Ram-pressure balance surfaces for an outwardly accelerating stellar wind bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raga, A. C.; Cantó, J.; Koenigsberger, G.; Esquivel, A.

    2014-10-01

    We study the problem of a stellar wind bow shock (produced by an isotropic wind/plane flowing environment interaction) that lies within the wind acceleration region in the simple, ram-pressure balance approximation. We show that this problem has a simple, approximate analytic solution that produces reasonably accurate results when applied to wind velocity profiles appropriate for radiatively driven winds. These solutions should be useful for initializing numerical simulations and for evaluating whether or not the simulations are giving physically reasonable solutions. Also, our analytic solutions should be useful in the interpretation of observations without the necessity of having to perform complex numerical simulations.

  2. A new electronic scanner of pressure designed for installation in wind-tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, C. T.; Parra, G. T.; Kauffman, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    A new electronic scanner of pressure (ESOP) has been developed by NASA Ames Research Center for installation in wind-tunnel models. An ESOP system includes up to 20 pressure modules, each with 48 pressure transducers, an A/D converter, a microprocessor, a data controller, a monitor unit, and a heater controller. The system is sized so that the pressure modules and A/D converter module can be installed within an average-size model tested in the Ames Aerodynamics Division wind tunnels. This paper describes the ESOP system, emphasizing the main element of the system - the pressure module. The measured performance of the overall system is also presented.

  3. AIR SEPARATION BY PRESSURE SWING ADSORPTION USING SUPERIOR ADSORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph T. Yang

    2001-08-31

    Li-X zeolite (Si/Al = 1.0) is currently the best sorbent for use in the separation of air by adsorption processes. In particular, pressure swing adsorption (PSA) using zeolite sorbents is being increasingly used for air separation. Silver is also known to strongly affect the adsorptive properties of zeolites; and it is known that thermal vacuum dehydration of silver zeolites leads to the formation of silver clusters within the zeolite. In this work we have synthesized type X zeolites containing Ag and also varying mixtures of Li and Ag. In this project, we developed the Ag-containing zeolite as the best sorbent for air separation. We have also studied Co-ligand compounds as oxygen-selective sorbents. Syntheses, structural characterization and adsorption properties have been performed on all sorbents. The results are described in detail in 5 chapters.

  4. Internal gravity wave-atmospheric wind interaction - A cause of clear air turbulence.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekofske, K.; Liu, V. C.

    1972-01-01

    The interaction between an internal gravity wave (IGW) and a vertical wind shear is discussed as a possible cause in the production of clear air turbulence in the free atmosphere. It is shown that under certain typical condition the interaction of an IGW with a background wind shear near a critical level provides a mechanism for depositing sufficient momentum in certain regions of the atmosphere to significantly increase the local mean wind shear and to lead to the production of turbulence.

  5. Analysis of vector wind change with respect to time for Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelfang, S. I.

    1978-01-01

    A statistical analysis of the temporal variability of wind vectors at 1 km altitude intervals from 0 to 27 km altitude taken from a 10-year data sample of twice-daily rawinsode wind measurements over Vandenberg Air Force Base, California is presented.

  6. 10. INTERIOR VIEW OF WIND TUNNEL (1991). WrightPatterson Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR VIEW OF WIND TUNNEL (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  7. 11. INTERIOR VIEW OF WIND TUNNEL (1991). WrightPatterson Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW OF WIND TUNNEL (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  8. 9. INTERIOR VIEW OF WIND TUNNEL (1991). WrightPatterson Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR VIEW OF WIND TUNNEL (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  9. Low pressure high speed Stirling air engine. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.A.

    1980-06-16

    The purpose of this project was to design, construct and test a simple, appropriate technology low pressure, high speed, wood-fired Stirling air engine of 100 W output. The final design was a concentric piston/displacer engine of 454 in. bore and 1 in. stroke with a rhombic drive mechanism. The project engine was ultimately completed and tested, using a propane burner for all tests as a matter of convenience. The 100 W aim was exceeded, at atmospheric pressure, over a wide range of engine speed with the maximum power being 112 W at 1150 rpm. A pressure can was constructed to permit pressurization; however the grant funds were running out, and the only pressurized power test attempted was unsuccessful due to seal difficulties. This was a disappointment because numerous tests on the 4 cubic inch engine suggested power would be more than doubled with pressurization at 25 psig. A manifold was designed and constructed to permit operation of the engine over a standard No. 40 pot bellied stove. The engine was run successfully, but at reduced speed and power, over this stove. The project engine started out being rather noisy in operation, but modifications ultimately resulted in a very quiet engine. Various other difficulties and their solutions also are discussed. (LCL)

  10. A stagnation pressure probe for droplet-laden air flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, S. N. B.; Leonardo, M.; Ehresman, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    It is often of interest in a droplet-laden gas flow to obtain the stagnation pressure of both the gas phase and the mixture. A flow-decelerating probe (TPF), with separate, purged ports for the gas phase and the mixture and with a bleed for accumulating liquid at the closed end, has been developed. Measurements obtained utilizing the TPF in a nearly isothermal air-water droplet mixture flow in a smooth circular pipe under various conditions of flow velocity, pressure, liquid concentration and droplet size are presented and compared with data obtained under identical conditions with a conventional, gas phase stagnation pressure probe (CSP). The data obtained with the CSP and TPF probes are analyzed to determine the applicability of the two probes in relation to the multi-phase characteristics of the flow and the geometry of the probe.

  11. Brass plasmoid in external magnetic field at different air pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, D. N.; Thareja, Raj K.; Pandey, Pramod K.

    2013-10-15

    The behavior of expanding brass plasmoid generated by 266 nm wavelength of Nd:YAG laser in nonuniform magnetic field at different air pressures has been examined using optical emission spectroscopy and fast imaging of plasma plumes. The splitting of the plasma plumes and enhancement of intensity of Cu I at 510.5 nm in the presence of magnetic field at lower pressures are discussed. The threading and expulsion of the magnetic field lines through the plasmoid are correlated with the ambient pressure. The stoichiometry of the plasma plume is not significantly influenced by the magnetic field; however, the abundance of neutral to ionic species of Cu and Zn is greatly influenced by the magnetic field.

  12. The Use of Red Green Blue (RGB) Air Mass Imagery to Investigate the Role of Stratospheric Air in a Non-Convective Wind Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Emily; Zavodsky, Bradley; Molthan, Andrew; Jedlovec, Gary

    2013-01-01

    AIRS ozone and model PV analysis confirm the stratospheric air in RGB Air Mass imagery. Trajectories confirm winds south of the low were distinct from CCB driven winds. Cross sections connect the tropopause fold, downward motion, and high nearsurface winds. Comparison to conceptual models show Shapiro-Keyser features and sting jet characteristics were observed in a storm that impacted the U.S. East Coast. RGB Air Mass imagery can be used to identify stratospheric air and regions susceptible to tropopause folding and attendant non-convective winds.

  13. The influence of intraocular pressure and air jet pressure on corneal contactless tonometry tests.

    PubMed

    Simonini, Irene; Pandolfi, Anna

    2016-05-01

    The air puff is a dynamic contactless tonometer test used in ophthalmology clinical practice to assess the biomechanical properties of the human cornea and the intraocular pressure due to the filling fluids of the eye. The test is controversial, since the dynamic response of the cornea is governed by the interaction of several factors which cannot be discerned within a single measurement. In this study we describe a numerical model of the air puff tests, and perform a parametric analysis on the major action parameters (jet pressure and intraocular pressure) to assess their relevance on the mechanical response of a patient-specific cornea. The particular cornea considered here has been treated with laser reprofiling to correct myopia, and the parametric study has been conducted on both the preoperative and postoperative geometries. The material properties of the cornea have been obtained by means of an identification procedure that compares the static biomechanical response of preoperative and postoperative corneas under the physiological IOP. The parametric study on the intraocular pressure suggests that the displacement of the cornea׳s apex can be a reliable indicator for tonometry, and the one on the air jet pressure predicts the outcomes of two or more distinct measurements on the same cornea, which can be used in inverse procedures to estimate the material properties of the tissue. PMID:26282384

  14. Method and apparatus for wind turbine air gap control

    DOEpatents

    Grant, James Jonathan; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya; Qu, Ronghai

    2007-02-20

    Methods and apparatus for assembling a wind turbine generator are provided. The wind turbine generator includes a core and a plurality of stator windings circumferentially spaced about a generator longitudinal axis, a rotor rotatable about the generator longitudinal axis wherein the rotor includes a plurality of magnetic elements coupled to a radially outer periphery of the rotor such that an airgap is defined between the stator windings and the magnetic elements and the plurality of magnetic elements including a radially inner periphery having a first diameter. The wind turbine generator also includes a bearing including a first member in rotatable engagement with a radially inner second member, the first member including a radially outer periphery, a diameter of the radially outer periphery of the first member being substantially equal to the first diameter, the rotor coupled to the stator through the bearing such that a substantially uniform airgap is maintained.

  15. Estimating tropical cyclone central pressure and outer winds from satellite microwave data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidder, S. Q.; Gray, W. M.; Vonder Haar, T. H.

    1978-01-01

    A new technique is presented for estimating central pressure and surface winds outside of the radius of maximum winds from brightness temperatures measured by the SCAMS on Nimbus 6. The problem of estimating maximum surface winds is not treated because the spatial resolution of the radiometer is not high enough for this purpose. The technique is developed on the basis of measurements over eight typhoons and five hurricanes during 1975. It is shown that the warm 55.45-GHz brightness temperature anomaly previously observed over Typhoon June can be found over other tropical cyclones. Maximum brightness temperature anomaly correlates with central pressure with a correlation coefficient of -0.859. Outer surface wind speeds are calculated by assuming gradient balance and using the regression between brightness temperature anomaly and central pressure to estimate pressure gradients.

  16. Simulation of the Impact of New Air-Based Ocean Surface Wind Measurements on H*Wind Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy; Atlas, Robert; Black, Peter; Case, Jonathan; Chen, Shuyi; Hood, Robbie; Jones, Linwood; Ruff, Chris; Uhlhorn, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The H'Wind analysis, a product of the Hurricane Research Division of NOAA's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, brings together wind measurements from a variety of observation platforms into an objective analysis of the distribution of wind speeds in a tropical cyclone. This product is designed to improve understanding of the extent and strength of the wind field, and to improve the assessment of hurricane intensity. See http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/data sub/wind.html. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRad) is a new airborne microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, NOAA Hurricane Research Division, the University of Central Florida and the University of Michigan. HIRad is being designed to enhance the real-time airborne ocean surface winds observation capabilities of NOAA and USAF Weather Squadron hurricane hunter aircraft using the operational airborne Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). Unlike SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track directly beneath the aircraft, HIRad will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath (approx. 3 x the aircraft altitude). The instrument is described in a paper presented to the Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology Symposium. The present paper describes a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) in which measurements from the new instrument as well as those from existing instruments (air, surface, and space-based) are simulated from the output of a numerical model from the University of Miami and those results are used to construct H*Wind analyses. Evaluations will be presented on the impact of the HIRad instrument on H'Wind analyses, both in terms of adding it to the full suite of current measurements, as well as using it to replace instrument(s) that may not be functioning at the future tame the HIRad instrument is implemented.

  17. Air Flow and Pressure Drop Measurements Across Porous Oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Dennis S.; Cuy, Michael D.; Werner, Roger A.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of air flow tests across eight porous, open cell ceramic oxide samples. During ceramic specimen processing, the porosity was formed using the sacrificial template technique, with two different sizes of polystyrene beads used for the template. The samples were initially supplied with thicknesses ranging from 0.14 to 0.20 in. (0.35 to 0.50 cm) and nonuniform backside morphology (some areas dense, some porous). Samples were therefore ground to a thickness of 0.12 to 0.14 in. (0.30 to 0.35 cm) using dry 120 grit SiC paper. Pressure drop versus air flow is reported. Comparisons of samples with thickness variations are made, as are pressure drop estimates. As the density of the ceramic material increases the maximum corrected flow decreases rapidly. Future sample sets should be supplied with samples of similar thickness and having uniform surface morphology. This would allow a more consistent determination of air flow versus processing parameters and the resulting porosity size and distribution.

  18. An Analytical Explanation for the X-43A Flush Air Data Sensing System Pressure Mismatch Between Flight and Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellsworth, Joel C.

    2010-01-01

    Following the successful Mach 7 flight test of the X-43A, unexpectedly low pressures were measured by the aft set of the onboard Flush Air Data Sensing System s pressure ports. These in-flight aft port readings were significantly lower below Mach 3.5 than was predicted by theory. The same lower readings were also seen in the Mach 10 flight of the X-43A and in wind-tunnel data. The pre-flight predictions were developed based on 2-dimensional wedge flow, which fails to predict some of the significant 3-dimensional flow features in this geometry at lower Mach numbers. Using Volterra s solution to the wave equation as a starting point, a three-dimensional finite wedge approximation to flow over the X-43A forebody is presented. The surface pressures from this approximation compare favorably with the measured wind tunnel and flight data at speeds of Mach 2.5 and 3.

  19. Multivariate optimum interpolation of surface pressure and surface wind over oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, S. C.; Baker, W. E.; Nestler, M. S.

    1984-01-01

    The present multivariate analysis method for surface pressure and winds incorporates ship wind observations into the analysis of surface pressure. For the specific case of 0000 GMT, on February 3, 1979, the additional data resulted in a global rms difference of 0.6 mb; individual maxima as larse as 5 mb occurred over the North Atlantic and East Pacific Oceans. These differences are noted to be smaller than the analysis increments to the first-guess fields.

  20. Use of nose cap and fuselage pressure orifices for determination of air data for space shuttle orbiter below supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, T. J.; Siemers, P. M., III

    1980-01-01

    Wind tunnel pressure measurements were acquired from orifices on a 0.1 scale forebody model of the space shuttle orbiter that were arranged in a preliminary configuration of the shuttle entry air data system (SEADS). Pressures from those and auxiliary orifices were evaluated for their ability to provide air data at subsonic and transonic speeds. The orifices were on the vehicle's nose cap and on the sides of the forebody forward of the cabin. The investigation covered a Mach number range of 0.25 to 1.40 and an angle of attack range from 4 deg. to 18 deg. An air data system consisting of nose cap and forebody fuselage orifices constitutes a complete and accurate air data system at subsonic and transonic speeds. For Mach numbers less than 0.80 orifices confined to the nose cap can be used as a complete and accurate air data system. Air data systems that use only flush pressure orifices can be used to determine basic air data on other aircraft at subsonic and transonic speeds.

  1. Automation&Characterization of US Air Force Bench Top Wind Tunnels - Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.E.

    2006-03-23

    The United States Air Force Precision Measurement Equipment Laboratories (PMEL) calibrate over 1,000 anemometer probes per year. To facilitate a more efficient calibration process for probe-style anemometers, the Air Force Metrology and Calibration Program underwent an effort to modernize the existing PMEL bench top wind tunnels. Through a joint effort with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the performance of PMEL wind tunnels was improved. The improvement consisted of new high accuracy sensors, automatic data acquisition, and a software-driven calibration process. As part of the wind tunnel upgrades, an uncertainty analysis was completed, laser Doppler velocimeter profiling was conducted to characterize the velocities at probe locations in the wind tunnel, and pitot tube calibrations of the wind tunnel were verified. The bench top wind tunnel accuracy and repeatability has been measured for nine prototype wind tunnel systems and valuable field experience has been gained with these wind tunnels at the PMELs. This report describes the requirements for the wind tunnel improvements along with actual implementation strategies and details. Lessons-learned from the automation, the velocity profiling, and the software-driven calibration process will also be discussed.

  2. Cold atmospheric pressure air plasma jet for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, J. F.; Mohamed, A.-A. H.; Price, R. O.; Swanson, R. J.; Bowman, A.; Chiavarini, R. L.; Stacey, M.; Schoenbach, K. H.

    2008-06-01

    By flowing atmospheric pressure air through a direct current powered microhollow cathode discharge, we were able to generate a 2cm long plasma jet. With increasing flow rate, the flow becomes turbulent and temperatures of the jet are reduced to values close to room temperature. Utilizing the jet, yeast grown on agar can be eradicated with a treatment of only a few seconds. Conversely, animal studies show no skin damage even with exposures ten times longer than needed for pathogen extermination. This cold plasma jet provides an effective mode of treatment for yeast infections of the skin.

  3. Microwave generation of stable atmospheric-pressure fireballs in air.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Karl D

    2006-11-01

    The generation of stable buoyant fireballs in a microwave cavity in air at atmospheric pressure without the use of vaporized solids is described. These fireballs have some of the characteristics of ball lightning and resemble those reported by Dikhtyar and Jerby [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045002 (2006)], although of a different color, and do not require the presence of molten or vaporized material. Mechanisms of microwave plasma formation and fluid dynamics can account for the observed behavior of the fireballs, which do not appear to meet the accepted definition of dusty plasmas in this case. Relevance to models of ball lightning and industrial applications are discussed. PMID:17279961

  4. Microwave generation of stable atmospheric-pressure fireballs in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Karl D.

    2006-11-01

    The generation of stable buoyant fireballs in a microwave cavity in air at atmospheric pressure without the use of vaporized solids is described. These fireballs have some of the characteristics of ball lightning and resemble those reported by Dikhtyar and Jerby [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045002 (2006)], although of a different color, and do not require the presence of molten or vaporized material. Mechanisms of microwave plasma formation and fluid dynamics can account for the observed behavior of the fireballs, which do not appear to meet the accepted definition of dusty plasmas in this case. Relevance to models of ball lightning and industrial applications are discussed.

  5. Microwave generation of stable atmospheric-pressure fireballs in air

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Karl D.

    2006-11-15

    The generation of stable buoyant fireballs in a microwave cavity in air at atmospheric pressure without the use of vaporized solids is described. These fireballs have some of the characteristics of ball lightning and resemble those reported by Dikhtyar and Jerby [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045002 (2006)], although of a different color, and do not require the presence of molten or vaporized material. Mechanisms of microwave plasma formation and fluid dynamics can account for the observed behavior of the fireballs, which do not appear to meet the accepted definition of dusty plasmas in this case. Relevance to models of ball lightning and industrial applications are discussed.

  6. Responses of Venus Ionosphere and Induced Magnetosphere to Solar Wind Pressure Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yingjuan; Toth, Gabor; Nagy, Andrew F.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2016-04-01

    Often regarded as the Earth's 'sister planet', Venus has similar size and mass as Earth. But it is also remarkably different from Earth in many respects. Even though we have some basic knowledge of the solar wind interaction with Venus based on spacecraft observations, little is known about how the interaction and the resulting plasma escape rates vary in response to solar wind variations due to the lack of coordinated observations of both upstream solar wind conditions and simultaneous plasma properties in the Venus ionosphere. Furthermore, recent observations suggest that plasma escape rates are significantly enhanced during stormy space weather in response to solar wind pressure pulses (Edberg et al., 2011). Thus it is important to understand the plasma interaction under varying solar wind conditions. In this study, we use a sophisticated multi-species MHD model that has been recently developed for Venus (Ma et al., 2013) to characterize the responses of the ionosphere and the induced magnetosphere of Venus to a typical variation of the solar wind: dynamic pressure change. We will examine the response of the ionosphere and the induced magnetosphere to both pressure enhancements and decreases. We will quantify the total plasma escape-rate change in response to such variations and to identify the underlying driver for changes in escape rate. We will also quantify the time scale of the Venus ionosphere and induced magnetosphere in responding to the pressure change of the external solar wind driver.

  7. Simulation of air-droplet mixed phase flow in icing wind-tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengyao, Leng; Shinan, Chang; Menglong, Wu; Yunhang, Li

    2013-07-01

    Icing wind-tunnel is the main ground facility for the research of aircraft icing, which is different from normal wind-tunnel for its refrigeration system and spraying system. In stable section of icing wind-tunnel, the original parameters of droplets and air are different, for example, to keep the nozzles from freezing, the droplets are heated while the temperature of air is low. It means that complex mass and heat transfer as well as dynamic interactive force would happen between droplets and air, and the parameters of droplet will acutely change along the passageway. Therefore, the prediction of droplet-air mixed phase flow is necessary in the evaluation of icing researching wind-tunnel. In this paper, a simplified droplet-air mixed phase flow model based on Lagrangian method was built. The variation of temperature, diameter and velocity of droplet, as well as the air flow field, during the flow process were obtained under different condition. With calculating three-dimensional air flow field by FLUENT, the droplet could be traced and the droplet distribution could also be achieved. Furthermore, the patterns about how initial parameters affect the parameters in test section were achieved. The numerical simulation solving the flow and heat and mass transfer characteristics in the mixing process is valuable for the optimization of experimental parameters design and equipment adjustment.

  8. Springtime large-scale sea level pressure-wind gusts interactions over the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M. L.; Valero, F.; Pascual, A.; Morata, A.; Luna, M. Y.; Sebastian, L. I.

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the springtime relationships between the mean sea level pressure field over the North Atlantic and the regional wind gusts over the Iberian Peninsula. The Singular Value Decomposition analysis is used to identify the main atmospheric circulation patterns linked to gust wind speed anomaly configurations. After applied a Monte Carlo procedure, the statistical significance of the modes is investigated, obtaining two first leading modes. Iberian above-normal gust wind speeds is related in the first covariability mode to the Scandinavian pattern. Positive (negative) wind gust correlations over the northern (southern) Iberia are related to reinforced spring NAO pattern in the second covariability mode. True relationships between large-scale atmospheric field and gust wind speeds are studied by means of composite maps, giving average atmospheric circulation associated with coherent wind gust variability over Iberia.

  9. Heart-rate monitoring by air pressure and causal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Naoki; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hata, Yutaka

    2011-06-01

    Among lots of vital signals, heart-rate (HR) is an important index for diagnose human's health condition. For instance, HR provides an early stage of cardiac disease, autonomic nerve behavior, and so forth. However, currently, HR is measured only in medical checkups and clinical diagnosis during the rested state by using electrocardiograph (ECG). Thus, some serious cardiac events in daily life could be lost. Therefore, a continuous HR monitoring during 24 hours is desired. Considering the use in daily life, the monitoring should be noninvasive and low intrusive. Thus, in this paper, an HR monitoring in sleep by using air pressure sensors is proposed. The HR monitoring is realized by employing the causal analysis among air pressure and HR. The causality is described by employing fuzzy logic. According to the experiment on 7 males at age 22-25 (23 on average), the correlation coefficient against ECG is 0.73-0.97 (0.85 on average). In addition, the cause-effect structure for HR monitoring is arranged by employing causal decomposition, and the arranged causality is applied to HR monitoring in a setting posture. According to the additional experiment on 6 males, the correlation coefficient is 0.66-0.86 (0.76 on average). Therefore, the proposed method is suggested to have enough accuracy and robustness for some daily use cases.

  10. A noncontact intraocular pressure measurement device using a micro reflected air pressure sensor for the prediagnosis of glaucoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung Hwan; Kim, Byeong Hee; Seo, Young Ho

    2012-03-01

    This study investigates a novel, portable tonometer using a micro reflected air pressure sensor for the prediagnosis of glaucoma. Because glaucoma progresses slowly and is not painful, glaucoma patients require a portable prediagnosis system to periodically measure intraocular pressure at home. Conventionally, intraocular pressure is measured by an air-puff tonometer whereby the cornea is deformed by a short pulse of air pressure and the magnitude of the corneal deformation is measured by optic systems such as a combination of laser- and photodiodes. In this study, a micro reflected air pressure sensor was designed, fabricated, and tested in order to measure the magnitude of corneal deformation without optic systems. In an experimental study, artificial eyes with different internal pressures were fabricated and these pressures were measured by the aforementioned system.

  11. Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure and Newborn Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. Objective: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods: We studied 1,131 mother–infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts, area pre-birth cohort. We calculated average exposures by trimester and during the 2 to 90 days before birth for temporally resolved fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide measured at stationary monitoring sites, and for spatiotemporally resolved estimates of PM2.5 and BC at the residence level. We measured SBP at a mean age of 30 ± 18 hr with an automated device. We used mixed-effects models to examine associations between air pollutant exposures and SBP, taking into account measurement circumstances; child’s birth weight; mother’s age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic position, and third-trimester BP; and time trend. Estimates represent differences in SBP associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in each pollutant. Results: Higher mean PM2.5 and BC exposures during the third trimester were associated with higher SBP (e.g., 1.0 mmHg; 95% CI: 0.1, 1.8 for a 0.32-μg/m3 increase in mean 90-day residential BC). In contrast, O3 was negatively associated with SBP (e.g., –2.3 mmHg; 95% CI: –4.4, –0.2 for a 13.5-ppb increase during the 90 days before birth). Conclusions: Exposures to PM2.5 and BC in late pregnancy were positively associated with newborn SBP, whereas O3 was negatively associated with SBP. Longitudinal follow-up will enable us to assess the implications of these findings for health during later childhood and adulthood. Citation: van Rossem L, Rifas-Shiman SL, Melly SJ, Kloog I, Luttmann-Gibson H, Zanobetti A, Coull BA, Schwartz JD, Mittleman MA, Oken E, Gillman MW, Koutrakis P, Gold DR. 2015. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure

  12. Interpretation of combined wind profiler and aircraft-measured tropospheric winds and clear air turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, D. W.; Syrett, William J.; Fairall, C. W.

    1991-01-01

    In the first experiment, it was found that wind profilers are far better suited for the detailed examination of jet stream structure than are weather balloons. The combination of good vertical resolution with not previously obtained temporal resolution reveals structural details not seen before. Development of probability-derived shear values appears possible. A good correlation between pilot reports of turbulence and wind shear was found. In the second experiment, hourly measurements of wind speed and direction obtained using two wind profiling Doppler radars during two prolonged jet stream occurrences over western Pennsylvania were analyzed. In particular, the time-variant characteristics of derived shear profiles were examined. Profiler data dropouts were studied in an attempt to determine possible reasons for the apparently reduced performance of profiling radar operating beneath a jet stream. Richardson number and wind shear statistics were examined along with pilot reports of turbulence in the vicinity of the profiler.

  13. The lunar semidiurnal air pressure tide in in-situ data and ECMWF reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Dobslaw, Henryk

    2016-04-01

    A gridded empirical model of the lunar semidiurnal air pressure tide L2 is deduced through multiquadric interpolation of more than 2000 globally distributed tidal estimates from land barometers and moored buoys. The resulting climatology serves as an independent standard to validate the barometric L2 oscillations that are present in ECMWF's (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) global atmospheric reanalyses despite the omission of gravitational forcing mechanisms in the involved forecast routines. Inconsistencies between numerical and empirical L2 solutions are found to be small even though the reanalysis models typically underestimate equatorial peak pressures by 10-20% and produce slightly deficient tidal phases in latitudes south of 30°N. Through using a time-invariant reference surface over both land and water and assimilating marine pressure data without accounting for vertical sensor movements due to the M2 ocean tide, ECMWF-based tidal solutions are also prone to strong local artifacts. Additionally, the dependency of the lunar tidal oscillation in atmospheric analysis systems on the meteorological input data is demonstrated based on a recent ECMWF twentieth-century reanalysis (ERA-20C) which draws its all of its observational constraints from in-situ registrations of pressure and surface winds. The L2 signature prior to 1950 is particularly indicative of distinct observing system changes, such as the paucity of marine data during both World Wars or the opening of the Panama Canal in 1914 and the associated adjustment of commercial shipping routes.

  14. Air pressure waves from Mount St. Helens eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.W.

    1987-10-20

    Weather station barograph records as well as infrasonic recordings of the pressure wave from the Mount St. Helens eruption of May 18, 1980, have been used to estimate an equivalent explosion airblast yield for this event. Pressure amplitude versus distance patterns in various directions compared with patterns from other large explosions, such as atmospheric nuclear tests, the Krakatoa eruption, and the Tunguska comet impact, indicate that the wave came from an explosion equivalent of a few megatons of TNT. The extent of tree blowdown is considerably greater than could be expected from such an explosion, and the observed forest damage is attributed to outflow of volcanic material. The pressure-time signature obtained at Toledo, Washington, showed a long, 13-min duration negative phase as well as a second, hour-long compression phase, both probably caused by ejacta dynamics rather than standard explosion wave phenomenology. The peculiar audibility pattern, with the blast being heard only at ranges beyond about 100 km, is explicable by finite amplitude propagation effects. Near the source, compression was slow, taking more than a second but probably less than 5 s, so that it went unnoticed by human ears and susceptible buildings were not damaged. There was no damage as Toledo (54 km), where the recorded amplitude would have broken windows with a fast compression. An explanation is that wave emissions at high elevation angles traveled to the upper stratosphere, where low ambient air pressures caused this energetic pressure oscillation to form a shock wave with rapid, nearly instantaneous compression. Atmospheric refraction then returned part of this wave to ground level at long ranges, where the fast compressions were clearly audible. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  15. Weather and climate needs for Lidar observations from space and concepts for their realization. [wind, temperature, moisture, and pressure data needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, D.; Korb, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    The spectrum of weather and climate needs for Lidar observations from space is discussed with emphasis on the requirements for wind, temperature, moisture, and pressure data. It is shown that winds are required to realistically depict all atmospheric scales in the tropics and the smaller scales at higher latitudes, where both temperature and wind profiles are necessary. The need for means to estimate air-sea exchanges of sensible and latent heat also is noted. A concept for achieving this through a combination of Lidar cloud top heights and IR cloud top temperatures of cloud streets formed during cold air outbreaks over the warmer ocean is outlined. Recent theoretical feasibility studies concerning the profiling of temperatures, pressure, and humidity by differential absorption Lidar (DIAL) from space and expected accuracies are reviewed. An alternative approach to Doppler Lidar wind measurements also is presented. The concept involves the measurement of the displacement of the aerosol backscatter pattern, at constant heights, between two successive scans of the same area, one ahead of the spacecraft and the other behind it a few minutes later. Finally, an integrated space Lidar system capable of measuring temperature, pressure, humidity, and winds which combines the DIAL methods with the aerosol pattern displacement concept is described.

  16. Possible origins of time variability in Jupiter's outer magnetosphere. I - Variations in solar wind dynamic pressure. II - Variations in solar wind magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroniti, F. V.; Kennel, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    Attention is given to the effect of changes in the dynamic pressure of the solar wind on the structure of a centrifugally driven planetary wind from Jupiter. It is suggested that dynamic pressure variations can induce a transition between a super-Alfvenic wind and a sub-Alfvenic wind breeze on Jupiter's dayside. This could possibly account for the observed large-scale changes in the structure of Jupiter's outer magnetosphere. An attempt is then made to conceptually merge planetary wind models of Jupiter's outer magnetosphere with reconnection models of Jupiter's outer magnetosphere.

  17. Pore pressure in a wind-swept rippled bed below the suspension threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, R. A.; Takarrouht, S.; Louge, M. Y.; Xu, J.; Berberich, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Toward elucidating how a wavy porous sand bed perturbs a turbulent flow above its surface, we record pressure within a permeable material resembling the region just below desert ripples, contrasting these delicate measurements with earlier studies on similar impermeable surfaces. We run separate tests in a wind tunnel on two sinusoidal porous ripples with aspect ratio of half crest-to-trough amplitude to wavelength of 3% and 6%. For the smaller ratio, pore pressure is a function of streamwise distance with a single delayed harmonic decaying exponentially with depth and proportional to wind speed squared. The resulting pressure on the porous surface is nearly identical to that on a similar impermeable wave. Pore pressure variations at the larger aspect ratio are greater and more complicated. Consistent with the regime map of Kuzan et al., the flow separates, creating a depression at crests. Unlike flows on impermeable waves, the porous rippled bed diffuses the depression upstream, reduces surface pressure gradients, and gives rise to a slip velocity, thus affecting the turbulent boundary layer. Pressure gradients within the porous material also generate body forces rising with wind speed squared and ripple aspect ratio, partially counteracting gravity around crests, thereby facilitating the onset of erosion, particularly on ripples of high aspect ratio armored with large surface grains. By establishing how pore pressure gradients scale with ripple aspect ratio and wind speed, our measurements quantify the internal seepage flow that draws dust and humidity beneath the porous surface.

  18. Pattern recognition methods and air pollution source identification. [based on wind direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.; King, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Directional air samplers, used for resolving suspended particulate matter on the basis of time and wind direction were used to assess the feasibility of characterizing and identifying emission source types in urban multisource environments. Filters were evaluated for 16 elements and X-ray fluorescence methods yielded elemental concentrations for direction, day, and the interaction of direction and day. Large numbers of samples are necessary to compensate for large day-to-day variations caused by wind perturbations and/or source changes.

  19. Transition from downward to upward air-sea momentum transfer in swell-dominated light wind condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedman, Ann-Sofi; Högström, Ulf; Rutgersson, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric and surface wave data from two oceanic experiments carried out on FLIP and ASIS platforms are analysed in order to identify swell-related effects on the momentum exchange during low wind speed conditions. The RED experiment was carried out on board an R/P Floating Instrument Platform, FLIP, anchored north east of the Hawaiian island Oahu with sonic anemometers at four levels: 5.1 m, 6.9 m, 9.9 m and 13.8 m respectively. The meteorological conditions were characterized by north- easterly trade wind and with swell present during most of the time. During swell the momentum flux was directed downwards meaning a positive contribution to the stress. The FETCH experiment was carried out in the Gulf of Lion in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. On the ASIS (air-sea interaction spar) buoy a sonic anemometer was mounted at 7 m above the mean surface level. During strong swell conditions the momentum flux was directed upwards meaning a negative contribution to the stress in this case. The downward momentum flux is shown to be a function of the orbital circulation while the upward momentum flux is a function of wave height. The dividing wind speed is found to be 3.5 m/s Conclusion: Wind speed > 3.5 m/s creates waves (ripples) and thus roughness. Combination of orbital motion and asymmetric structure of ripples lead to flow perturbation and downward transport of negative momentum. With low wind speed (no ripples but viscosity) circulations will form above the crest and the trough with opposite direction which will cause a pressure drop in the vertical direction and an upward momentum transport from the water to the air.

  20. Aerodynamic pressure and flow-visualization measurement from a rotating wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, C P

    1988-11-01

    Aerodynamic, load, flow-visualization, and inflow measurements have been made on a 10-m, three-bladed, downwind, horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT). A video camera mounted on the rotor was used to record nighttime and daytime video images of tufts attached to the low-pressure side of a constant-chord, zero-twist blade. Load measurements were made using strain gages mounted at every 10% of the blade's span. Pressure measurements were made at 80% of the blade's span. Pressure taps were located at 32 chordwise positions, revealing pressure distributions comparable with wind tunnel data. Inflow was measured using a vertical-plane array of eight propvane and five triaxial (U-V-W) prop-type anemometers located 10 m upwind in the predominant wind direction. One objective of this comprehensive research program was to study the effects of blade rotation on aerodynamic behavior below, near, and beyond stall. To this end, flow patterns are presented here that reveal the dynamic and steady behavior of flow conditions on the blade. Pressure distributions are compared to flow patterns and two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Separation boundary locations are shown that change as a function of spanwise location, pitch angle, and wind speed. 6 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.

  1. A Peak Wind Probability Forecast Tool for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    This conference abstract describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in east-central Florida. The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violatioas.The tool will include climatologies of the 5-minute mean end peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  2. A Full-Envelope Air Data Calibration and Three-Dimensional Wind Estimation Method Using Global Output-Error Optimization and Flight-Test Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    A novel, efficient air data calibration method is proposed for aircraft with limited envelopes. This method uses output-error optimization on three-dimensional inertial velocities to estimate calibration and wind parameters. Calibration parameters are based on assumed calibration models for static pressure, angle of attack, and flank angle. Estimated wind parameters are the north, east, and down components. The only assumptions needed for this method are that the inertial velocities and Euler angles are accurate, the calibration models are correct, and that the steady-state component of wind is constant throughout the maneuver. A two-minute maneuver was designed to excite the aircraft over the range of air data calibration parameters and de-correlate the angle-of-attack bias from the vertical component of wind. Simulation of the X-48B (The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) aircraft was used to validate the method, ultimately using data derived from wind-tunnel testing to simulate the un-calibrated air data measurements. Results from the simulation were accurate and robust to turbulence levels comparable to those observed in flight. Future experiments are planned to evaluate the proposed air data calibration in a flight environment.

  3. Air/ground wind shear information integration: Flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1992-01-01

    An element of the NASA/FAA wind shear program is the integration of ground-based microburst information on the flight deck, to support airborne wind shear alerting and microburst avoidance. NASA conducted a wind shear flight test program in the summer of 1991 during which airborne processing of Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) data was used to derive microburst alerts. High level microburst products were extracted from TDWR, transmitted to a NASA Boeing 737 in flight via data link, and processed to estimate the wind shear hazard level (F-factor) that would be experienced by the aircraft in the core of each microburst. The microburst location and F-factor were used to derive a situation display and alerts. The situation display was successfully used to maneuver the aircraft for microburst penetrations, during which in situ 'truth' measurements were made. A total of 19 penetrations were made of TDWR-reported microburst locations, resulting in 18 airborne microburst alerts from the TDWR data and two microburst alerts from the airborne in situ measurements. The primary factors affecting alerting performance were spatial offset of the flight path from the region of strongest shear, differences in TDWR measurement altitude and airplane penetration altitude, and variations in microburst outflow profiles. Predicted and measured F-factors agreed well in penetrations near microburst cores. Although improvements in airborne and ground processing of the TDWR measurement would be required to support an airborne executive-level alerting protocol, the feasibility of airborne utilization of TDWR data link data has been demonstrated.

  4. Solar wind dynamic pressure and electric field as the main factors controlling Saturn's aurorae.

    PubMed

    Crary, F J; Clarke, J T; Dougherty, M K; Hanlon, P G; Hansen, K C; Steinberg, J T; Barraclough, B L; Coates, A J; Gérard, J-C; Grodent, D; Kurth, W S; Mitchell, D G; Rymer, A M; Young, D T

    2005-02-17

    The interaction of the solar wind with Earth's magnetosphere gives rise to the bright polar aurorae and to geomagnetic storms, but the relation between the solar wind and the dynamics of the outer planets' magnetospheres is poorly understood. Jupiter's magnetospheric dynamics and aurorae are dominated by processes internal to the jovian system, whereas Saturn's magnetosphere has generally been considered to have both internal and solar-wind-driven processes. This hypothesis, however, is tentative because of limited simultaneous solar wind and magnetospheric measurements. Here we report solar wind measurements, immediately upstream of Saturn, over a one-month period. When combined with simultaneous ultraviolet imaging we find that, unlike Jupiter, Saturn's aurorae respond strongly to solar wind conditions. But in contrast to Earth, the main controlling factor appears to be solar wind dynamic pressure and electric field, with the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field playing a much more limited role. Saturn's magnetosphere is, therefore, strongly driven by the solar wind, but the solar wind conditions that drive it differ from those that drive the Earth's magnetosphere. PMID:15716946

  5. Aeorodynamic characteristics of an air-exchanger system for the 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel at Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, V. J.; Schmidt, G. I.; Meyn, L. A.; Ortner, K. R.; Holmes, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    A 1/50-scale model of the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center was used to study various air-exchange configurations. System components were tested throughout a range of parameters, and approximate analytical relationships were derived to explain the observed characteristics. It is found that the efficiency of the air exchanger could be increased (1) by adding a shaped wall to smoothly turn the incoming air downstream, (2) by changing to a contoured door at the inlet to control the flow rate, and (3) by increasing the size of the exhaust opening. The static pressures inside the circuit then remain within the design limits at the higher tunnel speeds if the air-exchange rate is about 5% or more. Since the model is much smaller than the full-scale facility, it is not possible to completely duplicate the tunnel, and it will be necessary to measure such characteristics as flow rate and tunnel pressures during implementation of the remodeled facility. The aerodynamic loads estimated for the inlet door and for nearby walls are also presented.

  6. Forecasting Cool Season Daily Peak Winds at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe, III; Short, David; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed for the day is an important element in the daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) for planning operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The morning outlook for peak speeds also begins the warning decision process for gusts ^ 35 kt, ^ 50 kt, and ^ 60 kt from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated that peak wind speeds are a challenging parameter to forecast during the cool season (October-April). The 45 WS requested that the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a tool to help them forecast the speed and timing of the daily peak and average wind, from the surface to 300 ft on KSC/CCAFS during the cool season. The tool must only use data available by 1200 UTC to support the issue time of the Planning Forecasts. Based on observations from the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network, surface observations from the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), and CCAFS upper-air soundings from the cool season months of October 2002 to February 2007, the AMU created multiple linear regression equations to predict the timing and speed of the daily peak wind speed, as well as the background average wind speed. Several possible predictors were evaluated, including persistence, the temperature inversion depth, strength, and wind speed at the top of the inversion, wind gust factor (ratio of peak wind speed to average wind speed), synoptic weather pattern, occurrence of precipitation at the SLF, and strongest wind in the lowest 3000 ft, 4000 ft, or 5000 ft. Six synoptic patterns were identified: 1) surface high near or over FL, 2) surface high north or east of FL, 3) surface high south or west of FL, 4) surface front approaching FL, 5) surface front across central FL, and 6) surface front across south FL. The following six predictors were selected: 1) inversion depth, 2) inversion strength, 3) wind gust factor, 4) synoptic weather pattern, 5) occurrence of

  7. Ultra-High Pressure Driver and Nozzle Survivability in the RDHWT/MARIAH II Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Costantino, M.; Brown, G.; Raman, K.; Miles, R.; Felderman, J.

    2000-06-02

    An ultra-high pressure device provides a high enthalpy (> 2500 kJ/kg), low entropy (< 5 kJ/kg-K) air source for the RDHWT/MARIAH II Program Medium Scale Hypersonic Wind Tunnel. The design uses stagnation conditions of 2300 MPa (330,000 Psi) and 750 K (900 F) in a radial configuration of intensifiers around an axial manifold to deliver pure air at 100 kg/s mass flow rates for run times suitable for aerodynamic, combustion, and test and evaluation applications. Helium injection upstream of the nozzle throat reduces the throat wall recovery temperature to about 1200 K and reduces the oxygen concentration at the nozzle wall.

  8. A Unique RCM Application at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) 12-Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonagofski, James M.; Machala, Anthony C.; Smith, Anthony M.; Presley, Leroy L. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is known internationally as a center of excellence for its capabilities and achievements in the field of developmental aerodynamics. The Center has a variety of aerodynamic test facilities including the largest wind tunnel in the world (with 40 x 80 deg and 80 x 120 deg atmospheric test sections) and the 12-Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel which is the subject of this paper. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. High-R Walls for New Construction Structural Performance: Wind Pressure Testing

    SciTech Connect

    DeRenzis, A.; Kochkin, V.

    2013-01-01

    This technical report is focused primarily on laboratory testing that evaluates wind pressure performance characteristics for wall systems constructed with exterior insulating sheathing. This research and test activity will help to facilitate the ongoing use of non-structural sheathing options and provide a more in-depth understanding of how wall system layers perform in response to high wind perturbations normal to the surface.

  10. High-R Walls for New Construction Structural Performance. Wind Pressure Testing

    SciTech Connect

    DeRenzis, A.; Kochkin, V.

    2013-01-01

    This technical report is focused primarily on laboratory testing that evaluates wind pressure performance characteristics for wall systems constructed with exterior insulating sheathing. This research and test activity will help to facilitate the ongoing use of non-structural sheathing options and provide a more in-depth understanding of how wall system layers perform in response to high wind perturbations normal to the surface.

  11. Interhemispheric Geomagnetic Field Response to Sudden Change in Solar Wind Pressure and IMF Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Cai, X.; Clauer, C. R.; Stolle, C.; Matzka, J.

    2011-12-01

    Preliminary investigation of geomagnetic field response to sudden change in solar wind pressure and IMF orientation is presented using data from satellite and ground magnetometer array in both northern and southern hemispheres. Some data sets in this study have been provided by AGO (Automatic Geophysical Observatory) and AAL-PIP (Autonomous Adaptive Low-Power Instrument Platform) stations deployed in Antarctica along the 40° magnetic meridian. These stations facilitate high-latitude multi-point magnetic conjugate observation pairs to the Greenland West Coast magnetometer chain for interhemispheric investigations, which have been rarely made because of the difficulty in accessing the Antarctic regions. Geomagnetic field perturbations in response to solar wind pressure impulse events, in which the solar wind pressure changes are more than ˜5 nPa in less than ~16 minutes and the pressures are steady for ~1 hour before and ~20 minutes after the pressure changes, have been examined using the data sets obtained from 1998 to 2010 to show global local time distribution of the ground response, timing response between the two hemispheres and its seasonal variation, and the relationship between IMF orientation and the ground response accompanied by the solar wind sudden pressure change.

  12. Atmospheric Pressure Non-Thermal Air Plasma Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Abdel-Aleam; Al-Mashraqi, Ahmed; Benghanem, Mohamed; Al Shariff, Samir

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure air cold plasma jet is introduced in this work. It is AC (60 Hz to 20 kHz) cold plasma jet in air. The system is consisted of a cylindrical alumina insulator tube with outer diameter of 1.59 mm and 26 mm length and 0.80 mm inner diameter. AC sinusoidal high voltage was applied to the powered electrode which is a hollow needle inserted in the Alumina tube. The inner electrode is a hollow needle with 0.80 mm and 0.46 mm outer and inner diameters respectively. The outer electrode is grounded which is a copper ring surrounded the alumina tube locates at the nozzle end. Air is blowing through the inner electrode to form a plasma jet. The jet length increases with flow rate and applied voltage to reach 1.5 cm. The gas temperature decreases with distance from the end of the nozzle and with increasing the flow rate. The spectroscopic measurement between 200 nm and 900 nm indicates that the jet contains reactive species such as OH, O in addition to the UV emission. The peak to peak current values increased from 6 mA to 12 mA. The current voltage waveform indicates that the generated jet is homogenous plasma. The jet gas temperature measurements indicate that the jet has a room temperature. This work was supported by the National Science, Technology and Innovation Plan(NSTIP) through the Science and Technology Unit (STU) at Taibah University, Al Madinah Al Munawwarah, KSA, with the grant number 08-BIO24-5.

  13. Sensation of inspired volumes and pressures in professional wind instrument players.

    PubMed

    Smith, J; Kreisman, H; Colacone, A; Fox, J; Wolkove, N

    1990-06-01

    Previous studies have failed to show consistent differences in pulmonary function between wind instrument musicians and normal controls. In this study, respiratory sensation was assessed in 13 professional wind instrument players and 13 age-matched controls. Psychophysical techniques were used to assess magnitude estimation and reproduction of lung volumes and inspiratory pressures. The exponent for volume magnitude estimation was not different in musicians and controls (1.17 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.16 +/- 0.11), but volume reproduction was more accurate in musicians. The mean exponent for pressure magnitude estimation was 1.34 +/- 0.14 and 1.06 +/- 0.09 (P = 0.057) in musicians and controls, respectively. There was no difference between groups for absolute or constant error for pressure reproduction. Professional wind instrument players appear to have some inherent or acquired differences in respiratory perception and ventilatory neuromuscular control compared with other normal subjects. PMID:2384420

  14. Application of Pressure-Based Wall Correction Methods to Two NASA Langley Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, V.; Everhart, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a description and status report on the implementation and application of the WICS wall interference method to the National Transonic Facility (NTF) and the 14 x 22-ft subsonic wind tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center. The method calculates free-air corrections to the measured parameters and aerodynamic coefficients for full span and semispan models when the tunnels are in the solid-wall configuration. From a data quality point of view, these corrections remove predictable bias errors in the measurement due to the presence of the tunnel walls. At the NTF, the method is operational in the off-line and on-line modes, with three tests already computed for wall corrections. At the 14 x 22-ft tunnel, initial implementation has been done based on a test on a full span wing. This facility is currently scheduled for an upgrade to its wall pressure measurement system. With the addition of new wall orifices and other instrumentation upgrades, a significant improvement in the wall correction accuracy is expected.

  15. Pressure distributions obtained on a 0.10-scale model of the space shuttle Orbiter's forebody in the AEDC 16T propulsion wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. M., III; Henry, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Pressure distribution test data obtained on a 0.10-scale model of the forward fuselage of the Space Shuttle Orbiter are presented without analysis. The tests were completed in the AEDC 16T Propulsion Wind Tunnel. The 0.10-scale model was tested at angles of attack from -2 deg to 18 deg and angles of side slip from -6 to 6 deg at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 1/5 deg. The tests were conducted in support of the development of the Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS). In addition to modeling the 20 SEADS orifices, the wind-tunnel model was also instrumented with orifices to match Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI) port locations that existed on the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia (OV-102) during the Orbiter Flight Test program. This DFI simulation has provided a means of comparisons between reentry flight pressure data and wind-tunnel and computational data.

  16. The 12-foot pressure wind tunnel restoration project model support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasaki, Glen E.

    1992-01-01

    The 12 Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel is a variable density, low turbulence wind tunnel that operates at subsonic speeds, and up to six atmospheres total pressure. The restoration of this facility is of critical importance to the future of the U.S. aerospace industry. As part of this project, several state of the art model support systems are furnished to provide an optimal balance between aerodynamic and operational efficiency parameters. Two model support systems, the Rear Strut Model Support, and the High Angle of Attack Model Support are discussed. This paper covers design parameters, constraints, development, description, and component selection.

  17. Within-Tunnel Variations in Pressure Data for Three Transonic Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLoach, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the results of pressure measurements made on the same test article with the same test matrix in three transonic wind tunnels. A comparison is presented of the unexplained variance associated with polar replicates acquired in each tunnel. The impact of a significance component of systematic (not random) unexplained variance is reviewed, and the results of analyses of variance are presented to assess the degree of significant systematic error in these representative wind tunnel tests. Total uncertainty estimates are reported for 140 samples of pressure data, quantifying the effects of within-polar random errors and between-polar systematic bias errors.

  18. Hurricane Frances as Observed by NASA's Spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and SeaWinds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows Hurricane Frances as captured by instruments onboard two different satellites: the AIRS infrared instrument onboard Aqua, and the SeaWinds scatterometer onboard QuikSCAT. Both are JPL-managed instruments. AIRS data are used to create global three-dimensional maps of temperature, humidity and clouds, while scatterometers measure surface wind speed and direction over the ocean.

    The red vectors in the image show Frances' surface winds as measured by SeaWinds on QuikSCAT. The background colors show the temperature of clouds and surface as viewed in the infrared by AIRS, with cooler areas pushing to purple and warmer areas are pushing to red. The color scale on the right gives the temperatures in degrees Kelvin. (The top of the scale, 320 degrees Kelvin, corresponds to 117 degrees Fahrenheit, and the bottom, 180 degrees K is -135 degrees F.) The powerful circulation of this storm is evident from the combined data as well as the development of a clearly-defined central 'eye'. The infrared signal does not penetrate through clouds, so the light blue areas reveal the cold clouds tops associated with strong thunderstorms embedded within the storm. In cloud-free areas the infrared signal comes from Earth's surface, revealing warmer temperatures.

    The power of the SeaWinds scatterometer data set lies in its ability to generate global maps of wind speed and direction, giving us a snapshot of how the atmosphere is circulating. Weather prediction centers, including the Tropical Prediction Center - a branch of NOAA that monitors the creation of ocean-born storms, use scatterometer data to help it 'see' where these storms are brewing so that warnings can be issued and the storms, with often erratic motions, can be tracked.

    While the SeaWinds instrument isn't designed to gather hurricane data, having difficulty seeing the surface in heavy rain, it's data can be used in combination with other data sets to give us an insight into these storms. In

  19. Optimization research on the structure of horizontally-arranged indirect air-cooling tower under strong wind condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoyong; Gu, Hongfang; Wang, Haijun; Qin, Yongbo

    2013-07-01

    Strong wind has a significant impact on the heat radiation of the air-cooling system. In this research, a numerical calculation model of 2×1000MW horizontally arranged air-cooling tower is established to simulate the flow distribution and heat exchanging capability of three different structures-horizontally-arranged indirect air-cooling tower, tower with guide wall outside, and tower with a cross wall inside-under high-speed wind and extreme-speed wind conditions. The result reveals that the structure with the guide wall outside the tower only works under strong wind condition while the structure with cross wall inside shows the anti-wind capability under both high-speed wind and extreme-speed wind conditions.

  20. Hurricane Isabel, AIRS Infrared and SeaWinds Scatterometer Data Combined

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

    These two images show Hurricane Isabel as viewed by AIRS and each of the two SeaWinds scatterometers on the ADEOS-2 and QuikScat satellites, all JPL-managed experiments. AIRS data are used to create global three-dimensional maps of temperature, humidity and clouds, while scatterometers measure surface wind speed and direction.

    Figure 1 shows Isabel on September 13, 2003, when it was a Category 5 storm threatening the Caribbean and southern United States. At the time Isabel was the strongest Atlantic storm since hurricane Mitch killed thousands in central America in 1997. The red vectors in the image show Isabel's surface winds as measured by SeaWinds on ADEOS-2, and the background colors show the temperature of clouds and surface, as viewed in the infrared by AIRS. The hurricane's powerful swirling winds are apparent. These winds circle the hurricane's eye, seen as the red dot near the middle top of the image. Light blue areas shows adjacent cold clouds tops associated with strong thunderstorms embedded within the storm.

    Figure 2 shows Isabel as it approached landfall on the outer banks of North Carolina on September 18. The hurricane weakened in the five days since the earlier image was observed, as indicated by a less clearly defined eye. Nevertheless, it was still a powerful storm. The winds blowing onshore north of the eye knocked over trees, blew roofs off buildings, and drove large waves that breached the coastal barrier islands in many places. Water, transportation and power are still not fully restored to many of the areas in the image. The winds apparently blowing away from the eye of the storm are an artifact of one of the hurricane's other destructive phenomena: rain. The darkest blue clouds observed by AIRS show the most intense thunderstorms, and hence the heaviest rains. Hard rain fools the the SeaWinds on Quik

  1. EFFECT OF LASER LIGHT ON LASER PLASMAS: Laser plasma at low air pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vas'kovskiĭ, Yu M.; Moiseev, V. N.; Rovinskiĭ, R. E.; Tsenina, I. S.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamic and optical characteristics of the laser plasma produced during the application of a CO2 laser pulse to a target have been studied as a function of the ambient air pressure. The changes in the surface roughness of the sample after bombardment were studied as a function of the air pressure. It is concluded from the results that a transition from an air plasma to an erosion plasma occurs at a residual air pressure on the order of 1 torr. The experiment data support the existing picture of the process by which a plasma is produced near the surface of a target in air by laser pulses.

  2. A laser Doppler system for the remote sensing of boundary layer winds in clear air conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, T. R.; Krause, M. C.; Craven, C. E.; Morrison, L. K.; Thomson, J. A. L.; Cliff, W. C.; Huffaker, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    The system discussed uses a laser Doppler radar in combination with a velocity azimuth display mode of scanning to determine the three-dimensional wind field in the atmospheric boundary layer. An attractive feature of this CW monostatic system is that the ambient aerosol provides a 'sufficient' scattering target to permit operation under clear air conditions. Spatial resolution is achieved by focusing.

  3. Wind Tunnel Evaluation of Vegetative Buffer Effects on Air Flow near Swine Production Facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing concerns about generation and transport of swine odor constituents have substantiated wind tunnel simulation studies on air flow dynamics near swine production facilities. A possible odor mitigation strategy is a forest vegetative buffer as a windbreak barrier near swine facilities becaus...

  4. Pressure Probe Designs for Dynamic Pressure Measurements in a Supersonic Flow Field. [conducted in the Glenn Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porro, A. Robert

    2001-01-01

    A series of dynamic flow field pressure probes were developed for use in large-scale supersonic wind tunnels at NASA Glenn Research Center. These flow field probes include pitot, static, and five-hole conical pressure probes that are capable of capturing fast acting flow field pressure transients that occur on a millisecond time scale. The pitot and static probes can be used to determine local Mach number time histories during a transient event. The five-hole conical pressure probes are used primarily to determine local flow angularity, but can also determine local Mach number. These probes were designed, developed, and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center. They were also used in a NASA Glenn 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) test program where they successfully acquired flow field pressure data in the vicinity of a propulsion system during an engine compressor stall and inlet unstart transient event. Details of the design, development, and subsequent use of these probes are discussed in this report.

  5. Study of short atmospheric pressure dc glow microdischarge in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Anatoly; Bogdanov, Eugene; Chirtsov, Alexander; Emelin, Sergey

    2011-10-01

    The results of experiments and simulations of short (without positive column) atmospheric pressure dc glow discharge in air are presented. We used metal steel electrodes with a gap of 5-100 microns. The experimental voltage-current characteristic's (VAC) have a constant or slightly increasing form at low gap. The most stable microdischarges were burning with a flat cathode and rounded anode, when the length of the discharge is automatically established near the minimum of the Paschen curve by changing their binding on the anode. In this case microdischarge was stable and it had growing VAC. For simulations we used 2D fluid model with kinetic description of electrons. We solved the balance equations for the vibrationally- and the electronically-excited states of a nitrogen and oxygen molecules; nitrogen and oxygen atoms; ozone molecule; and different nitrogen and oxygen ions with different plasmochemical reactions between them. Simulations predicted the main regions of the dc glow discharges including cathode and anode sheath and plasma of negative glow, Faraday dark space and transition region. Gas heating plays an important role in shaping the discharge profiles. The results of experiments and simulations of short (without positive column) atmospheric pressure dc glow discharge in air are presented. We used metal steel electrodes with a gap of 5-100 microns. The experimental voltage-current characteristic's (VAC) have a constant or slightly increasing form at low gap. The most stable microdischarges were burning with a flat cathode and rounded anode, when the length of the discharge is automatically established near the minimum of the Paschen curve by changing their binding on the anode. In this case microdischarge was stable and it had growing VAC. For simulations we used 2D fluid model with kinetic description of electrons. We solved the balance equations for the vibrationally- and the electronically-excited states of a nitrogen and oxygen molecules; nitrogen

  6. 30 CFR 56.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... other unfired pressure vessels. 56.13015 Section 56.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels... applicable chapters of the National Board Inspection Code, a Manual for Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.172 - Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Rules for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessels... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels... SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Portable, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other Than Ship's...

  8. 29 CFR 1915.172 - Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Rules for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessels... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels... SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Portable, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other Than Ship's...

  9. 30 CFR 56.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... other unfired pressure vessels. 56.13015 Section 56.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels... applicable chapters of the National Board Inspection Code, a Manual for Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

  10. Combination Of Thermography And Pressure Tests To Combat Air Leakage Problems In Building Enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruin, W. G.

    1987-05-01

    Uncontrolled air leakage in a building enclosure is the main component of space heating and cooling costs. In Atlantic Canada, Public Works Canada has combined thermography and pressure testing to identify design and construction problems in new construction and to identify specific areas of air leakage in existing housing stock. A study case shows how thermography and pressure testing has been utilized to locate and compare specific areas of air leakage in a residence before and after air sealing. The study provides both quantitative and qualitative evidence of how air sealing increases the air tightness in building enclosures.

  11. Statistical Short-Range Guidance for Peak Wind Speed Forecasts at Edwards Air Force Base, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreher, Joseph G.; Crawford, Winifred; Lafosse, Richard; Hoeth, Brian; Burns, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    The peak winds near the surface are an important forecast element for space shuttle landings. As defined in the Flight Rules (FR), there are peak wind thresholds that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the shuttle during landing operations. The National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) is responsible for weather forecasts for all shuttle landings, and is required to issue surface average and 10-minute peak wind speed forecasts. They indicate peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast. To alleviate the difficulty in making such wind forecasts, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a PC-based graphical user interface (GUI) for displaying peak wind climatology and probabilities of exceeding peak wind thresholds for the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC; Lambert 2003). However, the shuttle occasionally may land at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) in southern California when weather conditions at KSC in Florida are not acceptable, so SMG forecasters requested a similar tool be developed for EAFB.

  12. Data Fusion in Wind Tunnel Testing; Combined Pressure Paint and Model Deformation Measurements (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James H.; Burner, Alpheus W.

    2004-01-01

    As the benefit-to-cost ratio of advanced optical techniques for wind tunnel measurements such as Video Model Deformation (VMD), Pressure-Sensitive Paint (PSP), and others increases, these techniques are being used more and more often in large-scale production type facilities. Further benefits might be achieved if multiple optical techniques could be deployed in a wind tunnel test simultaneously. The present study discusses the problems and benefits of combining VMD and PSP systems. The desirable attributes of useful optical techniques for wind tunnels, including the ability to accommodate the myriad optical techniques available today, are discussed. The VMD and PSP techniques are briefly reviewed. Commonalties and differences between the two techniques are discussed. Recent wind tunnel experiences and problems when combining PSP and VMD are presented, as are suggestions for future developments in combined PSP and deformation measurements.

  13. Monthly mean global climatology of temperature, wind, geopotential height, and pressure for 0 - 120 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Eric L.; Chandra, Sushil; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Barnett, John J.

    1988-01-01

    A monthly mean climatology is presented of temperature, wind, and geopotential height with nearly pole-to-pole coverage (80 S to 80 N) for 0 to 210 km, which can be used as a function of altitude and pressure. The purpose is to provide a reference for various atmospheric research and analysis activities. Data sources and methods of computation are described; in general, hydrostatic and thermal wind balance are maintained at all levels and latitudes. As observed in a series of cross-sectional plots, this climatology accurately reproduces most of the characteristic features of the atmosphere such as equatorial wind and the general structure of the tropopause, stratopause, and mesopause. A series of zonal wind profiles is also represented comparing this climatological wind with monthly mean climatological direct wind measurements in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The temperature and zonal wind climatology at stratospheric levels is compared with corresponding data from the National Meteorological Center, and general agreement is observed between the two data sets. Tables of the climatological values as a function of latitude and height for each month are contained in Appendix B, and are also available in floppy disk.

  14. Compression-ignition Engine Performance at Altitudes and at Various Air Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Charles S; Collins, John H

    1937-01-01

    Engine test results are presented for simulated altitude conditions. A displaced-piston combustion chamber on a 5- by 7-inch single cylinder compression-ignition engine operating at 2,000 r.p.m. was used. Inlet air temperature equivalent to standard altitudes up to 14,000 feet were obtained. Comparison between performance at altitude of the unsupercharged compression-ignition engine compared favorably with the carburetor engine. Analysis of the results for which the inlet air temperature, inlet air pressure, and inlet and exhaust pressure were varied indicates that engine performance cannot be reliably corrected on the basis of inlet air density or weight of air charge. Engine power increases with inlet air pressure and decreases with inlet air temperatures very nearly as straight line relations over a wide range of air-fuel ratios. Correction factors are given.

  15. The solar wind pressure pulse as a ring current source in the disturbed magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalegaev, Vladimir; Vlasova, Natalia; Nazarkov, Ilya

    2016-07-01

    The solar wind pressure and IMF are the most important factors of interplanetary medium disturbing the Earth's magnetosphere. They determine the momentum/energy transfer inside the magnetopause. The relative dynamics of solar wind pressure and IMF controls the development of the different storm-time magnetospheric currents during disturbances. While the southward turning of IMF is well-known magnetic storm source, the role of the strong pressure pulse under northward IMF is not enough studied. We present the results of studying the solar wind pressure influence on the magnetospheric structure during events on 21-22 January 2005 and 22-23 June 2015 when the main phase of geomagnetic storms developed under IMF Bz>0. Joint analysis of experimental and modeling data was carried out. Equatorial ion fluxes of 30-80 keV protons of the storm time equatorial belt (STEB) measured by low-altitude polar sun-synchronous NOAA POES satellites were used to estimate the ring current evolution. The magnetic field of the large-scale magnetospheric currents was calculated in terms of the paraboloid model of the magnetospheric geomagnetic field A2000. It was found that ring current development during the early main phase of the magnetic storms was provided not only large-scale magnetospheric convection but also by extremely strong solar wind dynamical impact. Interplanetary shock caused intensive trapped particle non-adiabatic radial motion to the lover L-shells during SSC and subsequent ring current enhancement similar to that taking place due to particle injection from the tail. The extreme solar wind pressure pulse can produce the ring current enhancement even under the northward orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field.

  16. Ocean Winds and Turbulent Air-Sea Fluxes Inferred From Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, Mark A.; Gille, Sarah T.; Jackson, Daren L.; Roberts, J. Brent; Wick, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Air-sea turbulent fluxes determine the exchange of momentum, heat, freshwater, and gas between the atmosphere and ocean. These exchange processes are critical to a broad range of research questions spanning length scales from meters to thousands of kilometers and time scales from hours to decades. Examples are discussed (section 2). The estimation of surface turbulent fluxes from satellite is challenging and fraught with considerable errors (section 3); however, recent developments in retrievals (section 3) will greatly reduce these errors. Goals for the future observing system are summarized in section 4. Surface fluxes are defined as the rate per unit area at which something (e.g., momentum, energy, moisture, or CO Z ) is transferred across the air/sea interface. Wind- and buoyancy-driven surface fluxes are called surface turbulent fluxes because the mixing and transport are due to turbulence. Examples of nonturbulent processes are radiative fluxes (e.g., solar radiation) and precipitation (Schmitt et al., 2010). Turbulent fluxes are strongly dependent on wind speed; therefore, observations of wind speed are critical for the calculation of all turbulent surface fluxes. Wind stress, the vertical transport of horizontal momentum, also depends on wind direction. Stress is very important for many ocean processes, including upper ocean currents (Dohan and Maximenko, 2010) and deep ocean currents (Lee et al., 2010). On short time scales, this horizontal transport is usually small compared to surface fluxes. For long-term processes, transport can be very important but again is usually small compared to surface fluxes.

  17. Large fog collectors: New strategies for collection efficiency and structural response to wind pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Robert; Rivera, Juan de Dios; de la Jara, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Most studies of large fog collectors (LFC) have focused on the collection efficiency, the amount of water collected, or economic and social aspects, but have not addressed the effects of strong winds on the system. Wind pressure is directly related to fog water collection efficiency but on the other hand may cause serious damage on the structure of LFCs. This study focuses in the effects of wind pressure on the components of the LFC as an integral system, and the ways to face strong winds with no significant damage. For this purpose we analysed cases of mechanical failure of LFCs both in our experimental station at Peña Blanca in Chile and elsewhere. The effects of wind pressure can be described as a sequence of physical processes, starting with the mesh deformation as a way of adapting to the induced stresses. For a big enough pressure, local stress concentrations generate a progressive rupture of the mesh. In cases where the mesh is sufficiently strong the wind force causes the partial or total collapse of the structure. Usually the weakest part is the mesh, especially close to where it is attached to the structure. The way the mesh is attached to the frame or cable of the structure is particularly important since it can induce significant stress concentrations. Mesh failure before the structure failure may be considered as a mechanical fuse, since it is cheaper to repair. However, more practical mechanical fuses can be conceived. In relation to structural performance and water collection efficiency, we propose a new design strategy that considers a three-dimensional spatial display of the collection screen, oblique incidence angle of wind on mesh and small mesh area between the supporting frame. The proposed design strategies consider both the wind pressure on mesh and structure and the collection efficiency as an integral solution for the LFC. These new design strategies are the final output of this research. Applying these strategies a multi-funnel LFC is

  18. Air temperature, wind speed, and wind direction in the National Petroleum Reserve—Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1998–2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides air temperature, wind speed, and wind direction data collected on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2011 by the U.S. Department of the Interior's climate monitoring array, part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost. In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality control methodology. This array of 16 monitoring stations spans 68.5°N to 70.5°N and 142.5°W to 161°W, an area of roughly 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with provisional quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes several additional climate variables to be released in subsequent reports, including ground temperature and soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  19. Statistical Short-Range Guidance for Peak Wind Speed Forecasts at Edwards Air Force Base, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreher, Joseph; Crawford, Winifred; Lafosse, Richard; Hoeth, Brian; Burns, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    The peak winds near the surface are an important forecast element for Space Shuttle landings. As defined in the Shuttle Flight Rules (FRs), there are peak wind thresholds that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the shuttle during landing operations. The National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) is responsible for weather forecasts for all shuttle landings. They indicate peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast. To alleviate the difficulty in making such wind forecasts, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMTJ) developed a personal computer based graphical user interface (GUI) for displaying peak wind climatology and probabilities of exceeding peak-wind thresholds for the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) at Kennedy Space Center. However, the shuttle must land at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) in southern California when weather conditions at Kennedy Space Center in Florida are not acceptable, so SMG forecasters requested that a similar tool be developed for EAFB. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) personnel archived and performed quality control of 2-minute average and 10-minute peak wind speeds at each tower adjacent to the main runway at EAFB from 1997- 2004. They calculated wind climatologies and probabilities of average peak wind occurrence based on the average speed. The climatologies were calculated for each tower and month, and were stratified by hour, direction, and direction/hour. For the probabilities of peak wind occurrence, MSFC calculated empirical and modeled probabilities of meeting or exceeding specific 10-minute peak wind speeds using probability density functions. The AMU obtained and reformatted the data into Microsoft Excel PivotTables, which allows users to display different values with point-click-drag techniques. The GUT was then created from the PivotTables using Visual Basic for Applications code. The GUI is run through a macro within Microsoft Excel and allows forecasters to quickly display and

  20. 78 FR 1735 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. Air Data Pressure Transducers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Executive Order 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... International Inc. Air Data Pressure Transducers AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... certain Honeywell International Inc. air data pressure transducers as installed on various aircraft....

  1. Respiratory and Laryngeal Responses to an Oral Air Pressure Bleed during Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Jessica E.; Stathopoulos, Elaine T.

    2003-01-01

    Researchers have hypothesized that the respiratory and laryngeal speech subsystems would respond to an air pressure bleed, but these responses have not been empirically studied. The present study examined the nature of the responses of the respiratory and laryngeal subsystems to an air pressure bleed in order to provide information relevant to the…

  2. Air Pressure Responses to Sudden Vocal Tract Pressure Bleeds during Production of Stop Consonants: New Evidence of Aeromechanical Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, David J.; Weissler, Mark C.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate short-latency vocal tract air pressure responses to sudden pressure bleeds during production of voiceless bilabial stop consonants. It was hypothesized that the occurrence of respiratory reflexes would be indicated by distinct patterns of responses as a function of bleed magnitude. In Study 1, 19 adults…

  3. Development of a Low Pressure, Air Atomized Oil Burner with High Atomizer Air Flow: Progress Report FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5-8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or ''FAB'' has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a toroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the firing rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% O{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

  4. What is the role of wind pumping on heat and mass transfer rates at the air-snow interface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgason, W.; Pomeroy, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate prediction of the turbulent exchange of sensible heat and water vapour between the atmosphere and snowpack remains a challenging task under all but the most ideal conditions. Heat and mass transfer coefficients that recognize the unique properties of the snow surface are warranted. A particular area requiring improvement concerns the role of the porous nature of snow which provides a large surface area for heat and mass exchange with the atmosphere. Wind-pumping has long been considered as a viable mechanism for incorporating aerosols into snowpacks; however these processes are not considered in parameterization schemes for heat and mass transfer near the surface. This study attempts to determine the degree to which wind pumping can increase the rates of heat and mass transfer to snow, and to ascertain which structural properties of the snowpack are needed for inclusion in heat and mass transfer coefficients that reflect wind pumping processes. Based upon a review of recent geophysical and engineering literature where porous surfaces are exploited for their ability to augment heat and mass transfer rates, a technical analysis was conducted. Numerous conceptual mechanisms of wind pumping were considered: topographically-induced flow; barometric pressure changes; high frequency pressure fluctuations at the surface; and steady flow in the interfacial region. A sensitivity analysis was performed, subjecting each conceptual model to varying thermal and hydraulic conditions at the air-snow interface, as well as variable micro-structural properties of snow. It is shown that the rate of heat and mass exchange is most sensitive to the interfacial thermal conditions and factors controlling the energy balance of the uppermost snow grains. The effect upon the thermal regime of the snowpack was found to be most significant for mechanisms of wind pumping that result in shorter flow paths near the surface, rather than those caused by low frequency pressure changes. In

  5. Evaluation of Vertically Resolved Water Winds from AIRS using Hurricane Katrina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Dobkowski, Edwin C.; Gregorich, David T.

    2005-01-01

    The knowledge of wind velocity as a function of altitude is key to weather forecast improvements. The ability of hyperspectral sounders in principle to measure vertically resolved water winds, which has long been recognized, has been tested with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data. AIRS retrievals of total column water above 300 mb have been correlated with the radiosonde upper-tropospheric wind velocity and moisture data. The excellent correlation is illustrated with results obtained from hurricane Katrina and from the western United States. AIRS is a hyperspectral infrared sounder in low Earth orbit. It was launched in May 2002. We illustrate the use of AIRS data for the measurement of upper tropospheric water by using the 2387/cm CO2 R-branch channel and the 1551/cm water vapor channel. The 2387/cm channel measures the temperature at 300 mb totally independent of water vapor. The weighting function of the 1551/cm channel peaks at 300 mb only under moist conditions; the peak shifts downward (higher temperature) for less water and upward (lower temperature) for more water. The difference between the brightness temperatures bt2387 and bt1551 cancels the local several degree weather related variability of the temperature and measures the component due to the water vapor at 300 mb.

  6. Surface pressure measurements on the blade of an operating Mod-2 wind turbine with and without vortex generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyland, Ted W.

    1987-01-01

    Pressure measurements covering a range of wind velocities were made at one span location on the surface of an operating Mod-2, 2500 kW, wind turbine blade. The data, which were taken with and without vortex generators installed on the leading edge, show the existence of higher pressure coefficients than would be expected from two-dimensional wind tunnel data. These high pressure ratios may be the result of three-dimensional flow over the blade, which delays flow separation. Data are presented showing the repetitiveness of abrupt changes in the pressure distribution that occur as the blade rotates. Calculated values of suction and flap coefficients are also presented.

  7. Weather Research and Forecasting Model Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Bauman, William H., III

    2008-01-01

    NASA prefers to land the space shuttle at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). When weather conditions violate Flight Rules at KSC, NASA will usually divert the shuttle landing to Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) in Southern California. But forecasting surface winds at EAFB is a challenge for the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) forecasters due to the complex terrain that surrounds EAFB, One particular phenomena identified by SMG is that makes it difficult to forecast the EAFB surface winds is called "wind cycling". This occurs when wind speeds and directions oscillate among towers near the EAFB runway leading to a challenging deorbit bum forecast for shuttle landings. The large-scale numerical weather prediction models cannot properly resolve the wind field due to their coarse horizontal resolutions, so a properly tuned high-resolution mesoscale model is needed. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model meets this requirement. The AMU assessed the different WRF model options to determine which configuration best predicted surface wind speed and direction at EAFB, To do so, the AMU compared the WRF model performance using two hot start initializations with the Advanced Research WRF and Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model dynamical cores and compared model performance while varying the physics options.

  8. Wind estimation using air data probe measurements to evaluate meteorological measurements made during Space Shuttle entries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, G. M.; Findlay, J. T.; Compton, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    Deterministic and weighted least squares methods for obtaining estimates of the horizontal winds encountered during the Shuttle entry phase are described. The estimates are based on in situ Air Data System (ADS) measurements of angle-of-attack, side-slip angle and true airspeed, in conjunction with inertial trajectory parameters obtained from the post flight trajectory reconstruction. Accuracies in the wind estimates obtained from each method are assessed using both theoretical arguments and flight results. Comparisons of derived winds with meteorological measurements taken during the first three Shuttle entries have demonstrated: (1) the usefulness of the wind estimators for evaluating meteorological measurements below 50 kft, and (2) the potential for adequate wind determinations in the absence of independent wind measurements. Comparisons of STS-3 flight-derived L/D versus predicted values from the LaRC aerodynamic data base are presented from 50 kft to touchdown. These results exemplify the importance of such determinations to enhance the ongoing Shuttle aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic research.

  9. High pressure flame system for pollution studies with results for methane-air diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, I. M.; Maahs, H. G.

    1977-01-01

    A high pressure flame system was designed and constructed for studying nitrogen oxide formation in fuel air combustion. Its advantages and limitations were demonstrated by tests with a confined laminar methane air diffusion flame over the pressure range from 1 to 50 atm. The methane issued from a 3.06 mm diameter port concentrically into a stream of air contained within a 20.5 mm diameter chimney. As the combustion pressure is increased, the flame changes in shape from wide and convex to slender and concave, and there is a marked increase in the amount of luminous carbon. The height of the flame changes only moderately with pressure.

  10. Analysis of pressure distributions on combinations of cylinders due to the effect of wind loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Kapil; Saha, Anup; Islam, Md. Quamrul; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid growth of population, design and construction of taller buildings are being emphasized now-a-days. Especially the design of the group of tall buildings is economic to take care of the housing problem of the huge population. As buildings become taller, effect of wind on them also increases. In this research work, experiments have been conducted to investigate the wind effect on a combination of pentagonal and hexagonal cylinders. The test was conducted in an open circuit wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of Re = 4.22 × 104 based on the face width of the cylinder across the flow direction in a uniform flow velocity of 13.5 m/s. A pentagonal cylinder was placed in the upstream and another two hexagonal cylinders were in the downstream. The transverse and longitudinal spacing between the cylinders were varied and the surface static pressures at the different locations of the cylinders were measured with the help of inclined multi-manometers. From the measured values of surface static pressures, pressure coefficients were calculated. Due to the non-dimensional analysis, the results may be applied directly for engineering problems regarding wind loads around a group of skyscrapers, chimneys, towers, oil rigs or marine structures.

  11. High-pressure combustor exhaust emissions with improved air-atomizing and conventional pressure-atomizing fuel nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    A high-pressure combustor segment 0.456 meter (18 in.) long with a maximum cross section of 0.153 by 0.305 meter (6 by 12 in.) was tested with specially designed air-atomizing and conventional pressure-atomizing fuel nozzles at inlet-air temperatures of 340 to 755 k (610 deg to 1360 R), reference velocities of 12.4 to 26.1 meters per second (41 to 86 ft/sec), and fuel-air ratios of 0.008 to 0.020. Increasing inlet-air pressure from 4 to 20 atmospheres generally increased smoke number and nitric oxide, but decreased carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon concentrations with air-atomizing and pressure-atomizing nozzles. Emission indexes for carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were lower at 4, 10, and 20 atmospheres, and nitric oxide emission indexes were lower at 10 and 20 atmospheres with air-atomizing than with pressure-atomizing nozzles.

  12. Analysis of Fluctuating Static Pressure Measurements in a Large High Reynolds Number Transonic Cryogenic Wind Tunnel. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Igoe, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Dynamic measurements of fluctuating static pressure levels were made using flush mounted high frequency response pressure transducers at eleven locations in the circuit of the National Transonic Facility (NTF) over the complete operating range of this wind tunnel. Measurements were made at test section Mach numbers from 0.2 to 1.2, at pressure from 1 to 8.6 atmospheres and at temperatures from ambient to -250 F, resulting in dynamic flow disturbance measurements at the highest Reynolds numbers available in a transonic ground test facility. Tests were also made independently at variable Mach number, variable Reynolds number, and variable drivepower, each time keeping the other two variables constant thus allowing for the first time, a distinct separation of these three important variables. A description of the NTF emphasizing its flow quality features, details on the calibration of the instrumentation, results of measurements with the test section slots covered, downstream choke, effects of liquid nitrogen injection and gaseous nitrogen venting, comparisons between air and nitrogen, isolation of the effects of Mach number, Reynolds number, and fan drive power, and identification of the sources of significant flow disturbances is included. The results indicate that primary sources of flow disturbance in the NTF may be edge-tones generated by test section sidewall re-entry flaps and the venting of nitrogen gas from the return leg of the tunnel circuit between turns 3 and 4 in the cryogenic mode of operation. The tests to isolate the effects of Mach number, Reynolds number, and drive power indicate that Mach number effects predominate. A comparison with other transonic wind tunnels shows that the NTF has low levels of test section fluctuating static pressure especially in the high subsonic Mach number range from 0.7 to 0.9.

  13. Is the Stratospheric QBO affected by Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure via an Annual Cycle Modulation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H.; Jarvis, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    This study explores possible solar wind dynamic pressure effects on equatorial temperature and wind with an emphasis on the stratospheric Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO). The QBO phase occurrence and transition are closely linked to an annual cycle of tropical lower stratospheric temperature. The statistical response of the tropical temperature to solar wind dynamic pressure is characterized by ~1.25 K warming near the tropopause during the Boreal winter and spring and ~ 0.5 K cooling in the troposphere during the Austral winter and spring. The combined effect of this is a reduction of the amplitude of the annual cycle in temperature in the tropical tropopause region. The weakening of the annual cycle causes systematic and significant change in the tropical upwelling and therefore the strength and phase distribution of the QBO in the lower stratosphere. In the lower stratosphere, significantly stronger and more frequency easterly anomalies are found to be associated with high solar wind dynamic pressure during August to October. In addition to the seasonal response, there is a small but seasonally invariant response that is characterized by a vertical three-cell anomaly pattern with westerly anomalies in the troposphere and at 3-10 hPa and easterly anomalies in the lower stratosphere. We propose that significantly stronger easterly anomalies in the tropical lower stratosphere under high solar wind dynamic pressure during the Austral winter and spring are a consequence both of the initializing effect of this three-cell structure and of an amplification effect due to the seasonal modulation of the annual cycle.

  14. Study of dust re-suspension at low pressure in a dedicated wind-tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondeau, Anthony; Sabroux, Jean-Christophe; Chassefière, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The atmosphere of several telluric planets or satellites are dusty. Such is the case of Earth, Venus, Mars and Titan, each bearing different aeolian processes linked principally to the kinematic viscosity of the near-surface atmosphere. Studies of the Martian atmosphere are particularly relevant for the understanding of the dust re-suspension phenomena at low pressure (7 mbar). It turns out that operation of fusion reactors of the tokamak design produces significant amount of dust through the erosion of plasma-facing components. Such dust is a key issue, both regarding the performance and the safety of a fusion reactor such as ITER, under construction in Cadarache, France. Indeed, to evaluate the explosion risk in the ITER fusion reactor, it is essential to quantify the re-suspended dust fraction as a function of the dust inventory that can be potentially mobilized during a loss of vacuum accident (LOVA), with air or water vapour ingress. A complete accident sequence will encompass dust re-suspension from near-vacuum up to atmospheric pressure. Here, we present experimental results of particles re-suspension fractions measured at 1000, 600 and 300 mbar in the IRSN BISE (BlowIng facility for airborne releaSE) wind tunnel. Both dust monolayer deposits and multilayer deposits were investigated. In order to obtain experimental re-suspension data of dust monolayer deposits, we used an optical microscope allowing to measure the re-suspended particles fraction by size intervals of 1 µm. The deposits were made up of tungsten particles on a tungsten surface (an ubiquitous plasma facing component) and alumina particles on a glass plate, as a surrogate. A comparison of the results with the so-called Rock'nRoll dust re-suspension model (Reeks and Hall, 2001) is presented and discussed. The multilayer deposits were made in a vacuum sedimentation chamber allowing to obtain uniform deposits in terms of thickness. The re-suspension experimental data of such deposits were obtained

  15. Tide and Wind Forcing of Estuarine Air-Water Gas Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, P. M.; Zappa, C. J.; McGillis, W. R.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that while gas transfer is primarily driven by wind, tidal currents can drive gas exchange in estuaries. Studies have also shown that the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation just below the sea surface is a good proxy for the gas exchange velocity (k) for a wide range of forcing processes (e.g. wind, currents, rain). However, the connection between tidally-driven turbulence and gas exchange has not been investigated in detail. In this study, an autonomous instrumented surface platform deployment and one-dimensional numerical modeling are used to examine the influence of wind, tidal current shear, and water column bottom boundary layer (BBL) growth on gas transfer in an estuary. An autonomous instrumented surface platform was deployed for one month at a shallow site in the Hudson River estuary, measuring wind velocity, water velocity, TKE dissipation, air-water CO2 gradient and flux, and gas transfer velocity. Currents were 0-0.8 m s-1, winds 0-14 m s-1, depths 4.7-6.2 m, significant wave heights 0-0.8 m, and water pCO2 700-1600 μatm during the study. Surveys spanning the entire estuary from 2002 to the present broaden our understanding of tidal currents, stratification and turbulence to the entire estuary, with over a billion acoustic velocity measurements, millions of turbulence measurements, and 50 CTD surveys up the entire length of the estuary. The estuarine observations show a strong relationship between wind and k, but several recent parameterizations of k as a function of wind speed under-predict k for low-to-moderate winds (1-6 m s- 1). Upper water-column TKE dissipation and k are correlated, consistent with a recent parameterization. Both processes show enhancement when the turbulent BBL nears the sea surface. One-dimensional turbulence modeling is used to expand these results to a broad range of estuaries.

  16. Free-stream static pressure measurements in the Longshot hypersonic wind tunnel and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossir, Guillaume; Van Hove, Bart; Paris, Sébastien; Rambaud, Patrick; Chazot, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    The performance of fast-response slender static pressure probes is evaluated in the short-duration, cold-gas, VKI Longshot hypersonic wind tunnel. Free-stream Mach numbers range between 9.5 and 12, and unit Reynolds numbers are within 3-10 × 106/m. Absolute pressure sensors are fitted within the probes, and an inexpensive calibration method, suited to low static pressure environments (200-1000 Pa), is described. Transfer functions relating the probe measurements p w to the free-stream static pressure p ∞ are established for the Longshot flow conditions based on numerical simulations. The pressure ratios p w / p ∞ are found to be close to unity for both laminar and turbulent boundary layers. Weak viscous effects characterized by small viscous interaction parameters {bar{χ }}<1.5 are confirmed experimentally for probe aspect ratios of L/ D > 16.5 by installing multiple pressure sensors in a single probe. The effect of pressure orifice geometry is also evaluated experimentally and found to be negligible for either straight or chamfered holes, 0.6-1 mm in diameter. No sensitivity to probe angle of attack could be evidenced for α < 0.33°. Pressure measurements are compared to theoretical predictions assuming an isentropic nozzle flow expansion. Significant deviations from this ideal case and the Mach 14 contoured nozzle design are uncovered. Validation of the static pressure measurements is obtained by comparing shock wave locations on Schlieren photographs to numerical predictions using free-stream properties derived from the static pressure probes. While these results apply to the Longshot wind tunnel, the present methodology and sensitivity analysis can guide similar investigations for other hypersonic test facilities.

  17. Air supply using an ionic wind generator in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Kilsung; Li, Longnan; Park, Byung Ho; Lee, Seung Jun; Kim, Daejoong

    2015-06-01

    A new air supply is demonstrated for a portable polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The air supply is an ionic wind generator (IWG) with a needle-to-cylinder configuration. The IWG supplies air to the portable PEMFC owing to momentum transfer to the air by charged molecules generated by the corona discharge from a high applied potential. There is no difference in the performance of the PEMFC when compressed air and the IWG are used as the air supply. For the varying interelectrode distance, IWG performance is varied and measured in terms of the flow rate and current. At the interelectrode distance of 9.0 mm, the air flow rate is a suitable for the portable PEMFC with low power consumption. When the IWG is used to supply air to the portable PEMFC, it is found that the flow rate per unit power consumed decreases with the applied voltage, the gross power generation monotonously increases with the applied voltage, and the highest net power (268 mW) is obtained at the applied voltage of 8.5 kV. The parasitic power ratio reaches a minimum value of ∼0.06 with the applied IWG voltage of 5.5 kV.

  18. Determination of wind tunnel constraint effects by a unified pressure signature method. Part 1: Applications to winged configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackett, J. E.; Sampath, S.; Phillips, C. G.

    1981-01-01

    A new, fast, non-iterative version of the "Wall Pressure Signature Method" is described and used to determine blockage and angle-of-attack wind tunnel corrections for highly-powered jet-flap models. The correction method is complemented by the application of tangential blowing at the tunnel floor to suppress flow breakdown there, using feedback from measured floor pressures. This tangential blowing technique was substantiated by subsequent flow investigations using an LV. The basic tests on an unswept, knee-blown, jet flapped wing were supplemented to include the effects of slat-removal, sweep and the addition of unflapped tips. C sub mu values were varied from 0 to 10 free-air C sub l's in excess of 18 were measured in some cases. Application of the new methods yielded corrected data which agreed with corresponding large tunnel "free air" resuls to within the limits of experimental accuracy in almost all cases. A program listing is provided, with sample cases.

  19. Background Pressure Profiles for Sonic Boom Vehicle Testing in the NASA Glenn 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond; Shaw, Stephen; Adamson, Eric; Simerly, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to identify test facilities that offer sonic boom measurement capabilities, an exploratory test program was initiated using wind tunnels at NASA research centers. The subject of this report is the sonic boom pressure rail data collected in the Glenn Research Center 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The purpose is to summarize the lessons learned based on the test activity, specifically relating to collecting sonic boom data which has a large amount of spatial pressure variation. The wind tunnel background pressure profiles are presented as well as data which demonstrated how both wind tunnel Mach number and model support-strut position affected the wind tunnel background pressure profile. Techniques were developed to mitigate these effects and are presented.

  20. Vertical air circulation in a low-speed lateral flow wind turbine with rotary blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheboxarov, Vik. V.; Cheboxarov, Val. V.

    2008-01-01

    The model of a large-scale lateral flow wind turbine with rotary blades is presented and the conditions of numerical aerodynamic investigation of this turbine are described. The results of numerical experiments show that air flowing past the turbine exhibits a considerable vertical (axial) circulation, which increases the power coefficient of the turbine. In the inner space of the turbine, two stable vortices are formed through which retarded streams partly leave the turbine upon flowing past the windward side, to be replaced by faster streams from adjacent layers of air.

  1. 30 CFR 57.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... other unfired pressure vessels. 57.13015 Section 57.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels shall be inspected by inspectors holding a valid National Board Commission and in accordance...

  2. 30 CFR 57.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... other unfired pressure vessels. 57.13015 Section 57.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels shall be inspected by inspectors holding a valid National Board Commission and in accordance...

  3. Air Circulation and Heat Exchange Under Reduced Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rygalov, V.; Wheeler, R.; Dixon, M.; Fowler, P.; Hillhouse, L.

    2010-01-01

    Heat exchange rates decrease non-linearly with reductions in atmospheric pressure. This decrease creates risk of thermal stress (elevated leaf temperatures) for plants under reduced pressures. Forced convection (fans) significantly increases heat exchange rate under almost all pressures except below 10 kPa. Plant cultivation techniques under reduced pressures will require forced convection. The cooling curve technique is a reliable means of assessing the influence of environmental variables like pressure and gravity on gas exchange of plant. These results represent the extremes of gas exchange conditions for simple systems under variable pressures. In reality, dense plant canopies will exhibit responses in between these extremes. More research is needed to understand the dependence of forced convection on atmospheric pressure. The overall thermal balance model should include latent and radiative exchange components.

  4. Piezoelectric transformers for low-voltage generation of gas discharges and ionic winds in atmospheric air

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Michael J.; Go, David B.

    2015-12-28

    To generate a gas discharge (plasma) in atmospheric air requires an electric field that exceeds the breakdown threshold of ∼30 kV/cm. Because of safety, size, or cost constraints, the large applied voltages required to generate such fields are often prohibitive for portable applications. In this work, piezoelectric transformers are used to amplify a low input applied voltage (<30 V) to generate breakdown in air without the need for conventional high-voltage electrical equipment. Piezoelectric transformers (PTs) use their inherent electromechanical resonance to produce a voltage amplification, such that the surface of the piezoelectric exhibits a large surface voltage that can generate corona-like discharges on its corners or on adjacent electrodes. In the proper configuration, these discharges can be used to generate a bulk air flow called an ionic wind. In this work, PT-driven discharges are characterized by measuring the discharge current and the velocity of the induced ionic wind with ionic winds generated using input voltages as low as 7 V. The characteristics of the discharge change as the input voltage increases; this modifies the resonance of the system and subsequent required operating parameters.

  5. Piezoelectric transformers for low-voltage generation of gas discharges and ionic winds in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Michael J.; Go, David B.

    2015-12-01

    To generate a gas discharge (plasma) in atmospheric air requires an electric field that exceeds the breakdown threshold of ˜30 kV/cm. Because of safety, size, or cost constraints, the large applied voltages required to generate such fields are often prohibitive for portable applications. In this work, piezoelectric transformers are used to amplify a low input applied voltage (<30 V) to generate breakdown in air without the need for conventional high-voltage electrical equipment. Piezoelectric transformers (PTs) use their inherent electromechanical resonance to produce a voltage amplification, such that the surface of the piezoelectric exhibits a large surface voltage that can generate corona-like discharges on its corners or on adjacent electrodes. In the proper configuration, these discharges can be used to generate a bulk air flow called an ionic wind. In this work, PT-driven discharges are characterized by measuring the discharge current and the velocity of the induced ionic wind with ionic winds generated using input voltages as low as 7 V. The characteristics of the discharge change as the input voltage increases; this modifies the resonance of the system and subsequent required operating parameters.

  6. Wind tunnel experiments: cold-air pooling and atmospheric decoupling above a melting snow patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mott, R.; Paterna, E.; Horender, S.; Crivelli, P.; Lehning, M.

    2015-10-01

    The longevity of perennial snow fields is not fully understood but it is known that strong atmospheric stability and thus boundary layer decoupling limits the amount of (sensible and latent) heat that can be transmitted to the snow surface. The strong stability is typically caused by two factors, (i) the temperature difference between the (melting) snow surface and the near-surface atmosphere and (ii) cold-air pooling in topographic depressions. These factors are almost always a prerequisite for perennial snow fields to exist. For the first time, this contribution investigates the relative importance of the two factors in a controlled wind tunnel environment. Vertical profiles of sensible heat fluxes are measured using two-component hot wire and one-component cold-wire anemometry directly over the melting snow patch. The comparison between a flat snow surface and one that has a depression shows that atmospheric decoupling is strongly increased in the case of topographic sheltering but only for low to moderate wind speeds. For those conditions, the near-surface suppression of turbulent mixing was observed to be strongest and drainage flows were decoupled from the surface enhancing atmospheric stability and promoting the cold-air pooling over the single snow patch. Further work is required to systematically and quantitatively describe the flux distribution for varying terrain geometry, wind speeds and air temperatures.

  7. Wind driven vertical transport in a vegetated, wetland water column with air-water gas exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindexter, C.; Variano, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Flow around arrays of cylinders at low and intermediate Reynolds numbers has been studied numerically, analytically and experimentally. Early results demonstrated that at flow around randomly oriented cylinders exhibits reduced turbulent length scales and reduced diffusivity when compared to similarly forced, unimpeded flows (Nepf 1999). While horizontal dispersion in flows through cylinder arrays has received considerable research attention, the case of vertical dispersion of reactive constituents has not. This case is relevant to the vertical transfer of dissolved gases in wetlands with emergent vegetation. We present results showing that the presence of vegetation can significantly enhance vertical transport, including gas transfer across the air-water interface. Specifically, we study a wind-sheared air-water interface in which randomly arrayed cylinders represent emergent vegetation. Wind is one of several processes that may govern physical dispersion of dissolved gases in wetlands. Wind represents the dominant force for gas transfer across the air-water interface in the ocean. Empirical relationships between wind and the gas transfer coefficient, k, have been used to estimate spatial variability of CO2 exchange across the worlds’ oceans. Because wetlands with emergent vegetation are different from oceans, different model of wind effects is needed. We investigated the vertical transport of dissolved oxygen in a scaled wetland model built inside a laboratory tank equipped with an open-ended wind tunnel. Plastic tubing immersed in water to a depth of approximately 40 cm represented emergent vegetation of cylindrical form such as hard-stem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus). After partially removing the oxygen from the tank water via reaction with sodium sulfite, we used an optical probe to measure dissolved oxygen at mid-depth as the tank water re-equilibrated with the air above. We used dissolved oxygen time-series for a range of mean wind speeds to estimate the

  8. Impacts of air pressure on the evolution of nanosecond pulse discharge products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jin-Lu; He, Li-Ming; Ding, Wei; Wang, Yu-Qian; Du, Chun

    2013-05-01

    Based on the nonequilibrium plasma dynamics of air discharge, a dynamic model of zero-dimensional plasma is established by combining the component density equation, the Boltzmann equation, and the energy transfer equation. The evolution properties of nanosecond pulse discharge (NPD) plasma under different air pressures are calculated. The results show that the air pressure has significant impacts on the NPD products and the peak values of particle number density for particles such as O atoms, O3 molecules, N2(A3) molecules in excited states, and NO molecules. It increases at first and then decreases with the increase of air pressure. On the other hand, the peak values of particle number density for N2(B3) and N2(C3) molecules in excited states are only slightly affected by the air pressure.

  9. Insect hygroreceptor responses to continuous changes in humidity and air pressure

    PubMed Central

    Tichy, H.; Kallina, W.

    2011-01-01

    The most favored model of humidity transduction views the cuticular wall of insect hygroreceptive sensilla as a hygromechanical transducer. Hygroscopic swelling or shrinking alters the geometry of the wall, deforming the dendritic membranes of the moist and dry cells. The small size the sensilla and their position surrounded by elevated structures creates technical difficulties to mechanically stimulate them by direct contact. The present study investigated hygroreceptors on the antennae of the cockroach and the stick insect. Accurately controlled, homogeneous mechanical input was delivered by modulating air pressure. Both the moist and dry cells responded not only to changes in air pressure, but also in the opposite direction, as observed during changes in air humidity. The moist-cell’s excitatory response to increasing humidity and increasing air pressure implies that swelling of the hygroscopic cuticle compresses the dendrites, and the dry-cell’s excitatory response to decreasing humidity and decreasing air pressure implies that shrinking of the hygroscopic cuticle expands the dendrites. The moist and dry cells of the stick insect are more sensitive to pressure changes than those of the cockroach, but the responses to air pressure are generally weaker than to humidity. Therefore, the hygroreceptive sensilla differ in their physical properties and constitutions. Furthermore, the mechanical parameters associated with homogeneous changes in air pressure on the sensillum surface can only partially account for the responses of the moist and dry cells of both species to humidity stimulation. PMID:20375249

  10. Insect hygroreceptor responses to continuous changes in humidity and air pressure.

    PubMed

    Tichy, H; Kallina, W

    2010-06-01

    The most favored model of humidity transduction views the cuticular wall of insect hygroreceptive sensilla as a hygromechanical transducer. Hygroscopic swelling or shrinking alters the geometry of the wall, deforming the dendritic membranes of the moist and dry cells. The small size the sensilla and their position surrounded by elevated structures creates technical difficulties to mechanically stimulate them by direct contact. The present study investigated hygroreceptors on the antennae of the cockroach and the stick insect. Accurately controlled, homogeneous mechanical input was delivered by modulating air pressure. Both the moist and dry cells responded not only to changes in air pressure but also in the opposite direction, as observed during changes in air humidity. The moist cell's excitatory response to increasing humidity and increasing air pressure implies that swelling of the hygroscopic cuticle compresses the dendrites, and the dry cell's excitatory response to decreasing humidity and decreasing air pressure implies that shrinking of the hygroscopic cuticle expands the dendrites. The moist and dry cells of the stick insect are more sensitive to pressure changes than those of the cockroach, but the responses to air pressure are generally weaker than to humidity. Therefore the hygroreceptive sensilla differ in their physical properties and constitutions. Furthermore, the mechanical parameters associated with homogeneous changes in air pressure on the sensillum surface can only partially account for the responses of the moist and dry cells of both species to humidity stimulation. PMID:20375249

  11. Velocity and pressure distribution behind bodies in an air current

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A

    1924-01-01

    The following experiments on the air flow behind bodies were made for the purpose of assisting in the explanation of the phenomena connected with air resistance. The first two series of experiments dealt with the phenomena behind a cylinder. The third series of experiments was carried out behind a streamlined strut.

  12. An analysis of winds affecting air pollution concentrations in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shouquan; Lam, Kin-Che

    A study of concentrations of SO 2 and TSP has been performed in Hong Kong. The results were discussed from the standpoint of seasonal, monthly, and weekly variations and wind effects. The monthly mean SO 2 concentrations were in the range of 16.6-43.7 μg m -3 and showed regular seasonal variations with the highest concentrations in summer and the lowest in autumn. On the other hand, the monthly TSP concentrations reached the highest (117.7 μg m -3) in December and the lowest (72.9 μg m -3) in June. The procedure was able to identify that the high SO 2 concentrations were generally associated with the southwesterly and westerly winds, while the high TSP concentrations were usually related to the northerly and westerly winds. From 1983 to 1992, 85% of the total high and severe SO 2 concentration days were observed when there were the SSW-WNW winds over Hong Kong; and 70% of the total severe TSP concentration days occurred in the days with the W-ENE winds. Finally, the proportion of the total SO 2 concentrations contributed by each of the source regions was quantitatively estimated. On an average the power stations, industry, and automobiles, etc., are responsible for 40, 35, and 25% of the total SO 2 concentrations in the urban air of Hong Kong, respectively.

  13. Magnetospheric vortices and their global effect after a solar wind dynamic pressure decrease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Shen, X. C.; Tang, B. B.; Tian, A. M.; Shi, Q. Q.; Weygand, J. M.; Yao, Z. H.; Zong, Q.-G.; Fu, S. Y.; Yao, S. T.; Xiao, T.; Pu, Z. Y.

    2016-02-01

    Using multipoint data from three Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) satellites, we report a magnetospheric flow vortex driven by a negative solar wind dynamic pressure pulse. The observed vortex rotated in a direction opposite to that associated with positive solar wind dynamic pressure pulses. The vortex was moving tailward, as confirmed by a global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation. In addition, the equivalent ionospheric currents (EICs) deduced from ground magnetometer station data reveal that a current vortex in the ionosphere near the foot point of the satellites has a rotation sense consistent with that observed in the magnetosphere. The field-aligned current (FAC) density estimated from three THEMIS satellites is about 0.15 nA/m2, and the total FAC of the vortex is about 1.5-3 × 105 A, on the order of the total FAC in a pseudobreakup, but less than the total FAC in most moderate substorms, 106 A.

  14. Measurements of temperature and pressure fluctuations in the T prime 2 cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, A.; Dor, J. B.; Breil, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    Cold wire measurement of temperature fluctuations were made in a DERAT T'2 induction powered cryogenic wind tunnel for 2 types of liquid nitrogen injectors. Thermal turbulence measured in the tranquilization chamber depends to a great extent on the injector used; for fine spray of nitrogen drops, this level of turbulence seemed completely acceptable. Fluctuations in static pressure taken from the walls of the vein by Kulite sensors showed that there was no increase in aerodynamic noise during cryogenic gusts.

  15. Development of tunable high pressure CO2 laser for lidar measurements of pollutants and wind velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, J. S.; Guerra, M.; Javan, A.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of laser energy extraction at a tunable monochromatic frequency from an energetic high pressure CO2 pulsed laser plasma, for application to remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants by Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) and of wind velocities by Doppler Lidar, was investigated. The energy extraction principle analyzed is based on transient injection locking (TIL) at a tunable frequency. Several critical experiments for high gain power amplification by TIL are presented.

  16. Comparison of measured and calculated sound pressure levels around a large horizontal axis wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Willshire, William L., Jr.; Hubbard, Harvey H.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from a large number of simultaneous acoustic measurements around a large horizontal axis downwind configuration wind turbine generator. In addition, comparisons are made between measurements and calculations of both the discrete frequency rotational harmonics and the broad band noise components. Sound pressure time histories and noise radiation patterns as well as narrow band and broadband noise spectra are presented for a range of operating conditions. The data are useful for purposes of environmental impact assessment.

  17. Simulation of pressure and temperature responses for the 20 Inch Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    A simulation of the pressure and temperature responses of the 20 inch Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) is developed. The simulation models the tunnel system as a set of lumped parameter volumes connected by flow regulating elements such as valves and nozzles. Simulated transient responses of temperature and pressure for the five boundary points of the 20 inch SWT operating map are produced from their respective initial conditions, tunnel operating conditions, heater input power, and valve positions. Upon reaching steady state, a linearized model for each operating point is determined. Both simulated and actual tunnel responses are presented for comparison.

  18. Atmospheric pressure, density, temperature and wind variations between 50 and 200 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Woodrum, A.

    1972-01-01

    Data on atmospheric pressure, density, temperature and winds between 50 and 200 km were collected from sources including Meteorological Rocket Network data, ROBIN falling sphere data, grenade release and pitot tube data, meteor winds, chemical release winds, satellite data, and others. These data were analyzed by a daily difference method and results on the distribution statistics, magnitude, and spatial structure of the irregular atmospheric variations are presented. Time structures of the irregular variations were determined by the analysis of residuals from harmonic analysis of time series data. The observed height variations of irregular winds and densities are found to be in accord with a theoretical relation between these two quantities. The latitude variations (at 50 - 60 km height) show an increasing trend with latitude. A possible explanation of the unusually large irregular wind magnitudes of the White Sands MRN data is given in terms of mountain wave generation by the Sierra Nevada range about 1000 km west of White Sands. An analytical method is developed which, based on an analogy of the irregular motion field with axisymmetric turbulence, allows measured or model correlation or structure functions to be used to evaluate the effective frequency spectra of scalar and vector quantities of a spacecraft moving at any speed and at any trajectory elevation angle.

  19. Development of Dynamic Flow Field Pressure Probes Suitable for Use in Large Scale Supersonic Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porro, A. Robert

    2000-01-01

    A series of dynamic flow field pressure probes were developed for use in large-scale supersonic wind tunnels at NASA Glenn Research Center. These flow field probes include pitot, static, and five-hole conical pressure probes that are capable of capturing fast acting flow field pressure transients that occur on a millisecond time scale. The pitot and static probes can be used to determine local Mach number time histories during a transient event. The five-hole conical pressure probes are used primarily to determine local flow angularity, but can also determine local Mach number. These probes were designed, developed, and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center. They were also used in a NASA Glenn 10-by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) test program where they successfully acquired flow field pressure data in the vicinity of a propulsion system during an engine compressor staff and inlet unstart transient event. Details of the design, development, and subsequent use of these probes are discussed in this report.

  20. Method and apparatus for monitoring oxygen partial pressure in air masks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Mark E. (Inventor); Pettit, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for monitoring an oxygen partial pressure in an air mask and providing a tactile warning to the user. The oxygen partial pressure in the air mask is detected using an electrochemical sensor, the output signal from which is provided to a comparator. The comparator compares the output signal with a preset reference value or range of values representing acceptable oxygen partial pressures. If the output signal is different than the reference value or outside the range of values, the air mask is vibrated by a vibrating motor to alert the user to a potentially hypoxic condition.

  1. Time-Accurate Unsteady Pressure Loads Simulated for the Space Launch System at Wind Tunnel Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Kleb, William L.; Glass, Christopher E.; Streett, Craig L.; Schuster, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A transonic flow field about a Space Launch System (SLS) configuration was simulated with the Fully Unstructured Three-Dimensional (FUN3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code at wind tunnel conditions. Unsteady, time-accurate computations were performed using second-order Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) for up to 1.5 physical seconds. The surface pressure time history was collected at 619 locations, 169 of which matched locations on a 2.5 percent wind tunnel model that was tested in the 11 ft. x 11 ft. test section of the NASA Ames Research Center's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Comparisons between computation and experiment showed that the peak surface pressure RMS level occurs behind the forward attach hardware, and good agreement for frequency and power was obtained in this region. Computational domain, grid resolution, and time step sensitivity studies were performed. These included an investigation of pseudo-time sub-iteration convergence. Using these sensitivity studies and experimental data comparisons, a set of best practices to date have been established for FUN3D simulations for SLS launch vehicle analysis. To the author's knowledge, this is the first time DDES has been used in a systematic approach and establish simulation time needed, to analyze unsteady pressure loads on a space launch vehicle such as the NASA SLS.

  2. Influence of increased static pressure in MHD-channel of hypervelocity wind tunnel on its characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Alfyorov, V.I.; Rudakova, A.P.; Rukavets, V.P.; Shcherbakov, G.I.

    1995-12-31

    One of the main weaknesses of available MHD gas acceleration wind tunnels which restricts their application for simulating vehicle re-entry flights and reproducing scramjet combustion chamber conditions is a relatively low static pressure in the channel (P{approximately}0.1 to 0.2 Atm). The possibility of increasing this pressure and the influence of the increased pressure on the MHD-accelerator characteristics are the subject of the present paper. It is shown that the main challenge is the necessity of increasing the total Lorentz force proportionally to the channel gas density at electrode current density not resulting in heat and electrical breakdown and the development of the side walls and interelectrode insulators designed for higher heat fluxes, q {approximately} 5 to 10 kw/cm{sup 2}. Some possible wall design versions are suggested. The influence of increased pressure is investigated using the Faraday - type MED channel at static pressures in the MHD channel from 0.2 to 1.0 Atm and total accelerating current I = 300 to 1,100 Amps when B=2.5T. Forty five electrodes are used in the MHD channel at maximum current density of 50 A/cm{sup 2}. The channel flow is calculated by applying the model of a gas in thermodynamic equilibrium. The influence of the increased pressure on electrodynamic (accelerator electrode voltages and currents, Hall voltage and current) and gasdynamic (distributions of static pressure, temperature, velocity, Mach numbers, etc., along the channel length) characteristics is evaluated. Some recommendations on the development of MHD channels for hypersonic wind tunnels designed for high pressure are suggested.

  3. A Wind Tunnel Study on the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) Lander Descent Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soriano, J. Francisco; Coquilla, Rachael V.; Wilson, Gregory R.; Seiff, Alvin; Rivell, Tomas

    2001-01-01

    The primary focus of this study was to determine the accuracy of the Mars Pathfinder lander local pressure readings in accordance with the actual ambient atmospheric pressures of Mars during parachute descent. In order to obtain good measurements, the plane of the lander pressure sensor opening should ideally be situated so that it is parallel to the freestream. However, due to two unfavorable conditions, the sensor was positioned in locations where correction factors are required. One of these disadvantages is due to the fact that the parachute attachment point rotated the lander's center of gravity forcing the location of the pressure sensor opening to be off tangent to the freestream. The second and most troublesome factor was that the lander descends with slight oscillations that could vary the amplitude of the sensor readings. In order to accurately map the correction factors required at each sensor position, an experiment simulating the lander descent was conducted in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. Using a 115 scale model at Earth ambient pressures, the test settings provided the necessary Reynolds number conditions in which the actual lander was possibly subjected to during the descent. In the analysis and results of this experiment, the readings from the lander sensor were converted to the form of pressure coefficients. With a contour map of pressure coefficients at each lander oscillatory position, this report will provide a guideline to determine the correction factors required for the Mars Pathfinder lander descent pressure sensor readings.

  4. LOCATING NEARBY SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION BY NONPARAMETRIC REGRESSION OF ATMOSPHERIC CONCENTRATIONS ON WIND DIRECTION. (R826238)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship of the concentration of air pollutants to wind direction has been determined by nonparametric regression using a Gaussian kernel. The results are smooth curves with error bars that allow for the accurate determination of the wind direction where the concentrat...

  5. Endotracheal tube cuff pressure before, during, and after fixed-wing air medical retrieval.

    PubMed

    Brendt, Peter; Schnekenburger, Marc; Paxton, Karen; Brown, Anthony; Mendis, Kumara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background. Increased endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff pressure is associated with compromised tracheal mucosal perfusion and injuries. No published data are available for Australia on pressures in the fixed-wing air medical retrieval setting. Objective. After introduction of a cuff pressure manometer (Mallinckrodt, Hennef, Germany) at the Royal Flying Doctor Service (RFDS) Base in Dubbo, New South Wales (NSW), Australia, we assessed the prevalence of increased cuff pressures before, during, and after air medical retrieval. Methods. This was a retrospective audit in 35 ventilated patients during fixed-wing retrievals by the RFDS in NSW, Australia. Explicit chart review of ventilated patients was performed for cuff pressures and changes during medical retrievals with pressurized aircrafts. Pearson correlation was calculated to determine the relation of ascent and ETT cuff pressure change from ground to flight level. Results. The mean (± standard deviation) of the first ETT cuff pressure measurement on the ground was 44 ± 20 cmH2O. Prior to retrieval in 11 patients, the ETT cuff pressure was >30 cmH2O and in 11 patients >50 cmH2O. After ascent to cruising altitude, the cuff pressure was >30 cmH2O in 22 patients and >50 cmH2O in eight patients. The cuff pressure was reduced 1) in 72% of cases prior to take off and 2) in 85% of cases during flight, and 3) after landing, the cuff pressure increased in 85% of cases. The correlation between ascent in cabin altitude and ETT cuff pressure was r = 0.3901, p = 0.0205. Conclusions. The high prevalence of excessive cuff pressures during air medical retrieval can be avoided by the use of cuff pressure manometers. Key words: cuff pressure; air medical retrieval; prehospital. PMID:23252881

  6. Investigation of space shuttle vehicle 140C configuration orbiter (model 16-0) wheel well pressure loads in the Rockwell International 7.75 x 11 foot wind tunnel (OA143)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennell, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a sting mounted .0405-scale representation of the 140C outer mold line space shuttle orbiter configuration in the Rockwell International 7.75 x 11.00 foot low speed wind tunnel. The primary test objectives were to define the orbiter wheel well pressure loading and its effects on landing gear thermal insulation and to investigate the pressure environment experienced by both the horizontal flight nose probe and air vent door probes. Steady state and dynamic pressure values were recorded in the orbiter nose gear well, left main landing gear well, horizontal flight nose probe, and both left and right air vent door probe. All steady state pressure levels were measured by Statham differential pressure transducers while dynamic pressure levels were recorded by Kulite high frequency response pressure sensors.

  7. Air/sea DMS gas transfer in the North Atlantic: evidence for limited interfacial gas exchange at high wind speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, T. G.; De Bruyn, W.; Miller, S. D.; Ward, B.; Christensen, K.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2013-05-01

    Shipboard measurements of eddy covariance DMS air/sea fluxes and seawater concentration were carried out in the North Atlantic bloom region in June/July 2011. Gas transfer coefficients (k660) show a linear dependence on mean horizontal wind speed at wind speeds up to 11 m s-1. At higher wind speeds the relationship between k660 and wind speed weakens. At high winds, measured DMS fluxes were lower than predicted based on the linear relationship between wind speed and interfacial stress extrapolated from low to intermediate wind speeds. In contrast, the transfer coefficient for sensible heat did not exhibit this effect. The apparent suppression of air/sea gas flux at higher wind speeds appears to be related to sea state, as determined from shipboard wave measurements. These observations are consistent with the idea that long waves suppress near surface water side turbulence, and decrease interfacial gas transfer. This effect may be more easily observed for DMS than for less soluble gases, such as CO2, because the air/sea exchange of DMS is controlled by interfacial rather than bubble-mediated gas transfer under high wind speed conditions.

  8. Firefighter's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    The research to design, fabricate, test, and deliver a pressure vessel for the main component in an improved high-performance firefighter's breathing system is reported. The principal physical and performance characteristics of the vessel which were required are: (1) maximum weight of 9.0 lb; (2) maximum operating pressure of 4500 psig (charge pressure of 4000 psig); (3) minimum contained volume of 280 in. 3; (4) proof pressure of 6750 psig; (5) minimum burst pressure of 9000 psig following operational and service life; and (6) a minimum service life of 15 years. The vessel developed to fulfill the requirements described was completely sucessful, i.e., every category of performence was satisfied. The average weight of the vessel was found to be about 8.3 lb, well below the 9.0 lb specification requirement.

  9. Pressure Regulators as Valves for Saving Compressed Air and their Influence on System Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, Lukáš; Fojtášek, Kamil

    2015-05-01

    Pressure regulators in the field of pneumatic mechanisms can be used as valves for saving compressed air. For example it can be used to reduce the pressure when the piston rod is retracting unloaded and thus it is possible to save some energy. However the problem is that saving valve can significantly affect the dynamics of the pneumatic system. The lower pressure in the piston rod chamber causes extension of time for retraction of the piston rod. This article compare the air consumption experimentally determined and calculated, measured curves of pressure in cylinder chambers and piston speed when saving valve is set up differently.

  10. Multidecadal variability of atmospheric pressure and wind contribution to storm surges in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raicich, Fabio

    2010-05-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea is very sensitive to sea level changes since most of the coastal areas is low and subject to floods. In addition to natural subsidence, the northwestern Adriatic coast, including the Venice Lagoon and the area around Marina di Ravenna, has been affected by anthropogenic subsidence due to the extraction of underground water and gas, particularly during the 1930-1970 period. In this work we will study the time variability of Adriatic sea level using daily means, trying to identify the different contributions of atmospheric pressure and wind to storm surges in the northern basin. A storm surge event corresponds to a positive peak in the time series of daily mean sea level; secondary peaks within ±2 days from the main peak are discarded since they are attributed to the same storm. Daily sea level variability is studied using Empirical Orthogonal Functions and is connected with atmospheric pressure from NCEP reanalyses and wind stress from NCEP reanalyses and scatterometer data. Different sea level data sets are analysed, varying the number of sea level stations and/or the time series span, since the data coverage is uneven in space and time. The EOF analysis of the various data sets provides coherent results with regard to the two main modes, that together explain between 70 and 85% of total variance. The first mode explains 55-69% of total variance and consists of uniform sea level variability all over the basin, correlated with atmospheric pressure through the inverted barometer effect. The second mode explains 14-16% of variance and accounts for an along-basin sea level gradient, which is correlated with the meridional wind stress component. The first two Principal Components are used as proxies to pressure- and wind-induced components of storm surges in the northern Adriatic. The frequency of the most remarkable events is analysed, choosing the 1%, 5% and 10% highest daily mean sea level to represent events of decreasing strength (on

  11. Instrumentation in wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takashima, K.

    1986-01-01

    Requirements in designing instrumentation systems and measurements of various physical quantities in wind tunnels are surveyed. Emphasis is given to sensors used for measuring pressure, temperature, and angle, and the measurements of air turbulence and boundary layers. Instrumentation in wind tunnels require accuracy, fast response, diversity and operational simplicity. Measurements of force, pressure, attitude angle, free flow, pressure distribution, and temperature are illustrated by a table, and a block diagram. The LDV (laser Doppler velocimeter) method for measuring air turbulence and flow velocity and measurement of skin friction and flow fields using laser holograms are discussed. The future potential of these techniques is studied.

  12. Calibration of a system for measuring low air flow velocity in a wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krach, Andrzej; Kruczkowski, Janusz

    2016-08-01

    This article presents the calibration of a system for measuring air flow velocity in a wind tunnel with a multiple-hole orifice. The comparative method was applied for the calibration. The method consists in equalising the air flow velocity in a test section of the tunnel with that of the hot-wire anemometer probe which should then read zero value. The hot-wire anemometer probe moves reciprocally in the tunnel test section with a constant velocity, aligned and opposite to the air velocity. Air velocity in the tunnel test section is adjusted so that the minimum values of a periodic hot-wire anemometer signal displayed on an oscilloscope screen reach the lowest position (the minimum method). A sinusoidal component can be superimposed to the probe constant velocity. Then, the air flow velocity in the tunnel test section is adjusted so that, when the probe moves in the direction of air flow, only the second harmonic of the periodically variable velocity superimposed on the constant velocity (second harmonic method) remains at the output of the low-pass filter to which the hot-wire anemometer signal, displayed on the oscilloscope screen, is supplied. The velocity of the uniform motion of the hot-wire anemometer probe is measured with a magnetic linear encoder. The calibration of the system for the measurement of low air velocities in the wind tunnel was performed in the following steps: 1. Calibration of the linear encoder for the measurement of the uniform motion velocity of the hot-wire anemometer probe in the test section of the tunnel. 2. Calibration of the system for measurement of low air velocities with a multiple-hole orifice for the velocities of 0.1 and 0.25 m s‑1: - (a) measurement of the probe movement velocity setting; - (b) measurement of air velocity in the tunnel test section with comparison according to the second harmonic method; - (c) measurement of air velocity in the tunnel with comparison according to the minimum method. The calibration

  13. Define and Quantify the Physics of Air Flow, Pressure Drop and Aerosol Collection in Nuclear Grade HEPA Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Murray E.

    2015-02-23

    Objective: Develop a set of peer-review and verified analytical methods to adjust HEPA filter performance to different flow rates, temperatures and altitudes. Experimental testing will measure HEPA filter flow rate, pressure drop and efficiency to verify the analytical approach. Nuclear facilities utilize HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filters to purify air flow for workspace ventilation. However, the ASME AG-1 technical standard (Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment) does not adequately describe air flow measurement units for HEPA filter systems. Specifically, the AG-1 standard does not differentiate between volumetric air flow in ACFM (actual cubic feet per minute)compared to mass flow measured in SCFM (standard cubic feet per minute). More importantly, the AG-1 standard has an overall deficiency for using HEPA filter devices at different air flow rates, temperatures, and altitudes. Technical Approach: The collection efficiency and pressure drops of 18 different HEPA filters will be measured over a range of flow rates, temperatures and altitudes. The experimental results will be compared to analytical scoping calculations. Three manufacturers have allocated six HEPA filters each for this effort. The 18 filters will be tested at two different flow rates, two different temperatures and two different altitudes. The 36 total tests will be conducted at two different facilities: the ATI Test facilities (Baltimore MD) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos NM). The Radiation Protection RP-SVS group at Los Alamos has an aerosol wind tunnel that was originally designed to evaluate small air samplers. In 2010, modifications were started to convert the wind tunnel for HEPA filter testing. (Extensive changes were necessary for the required aerosol generators, HEPA test fixtures, temperature control devices and measurement capabilities.) To this date, none of these modification activities have been funded through a specific DOE or NNSA program. This is

  14. Peak Wind Forecasts for the Launch-Critical Wind Towers on Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Phase IV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Winifred

    2011-01-01

    This final report describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The peak winds arc an important forecast clement for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to update the statistics in the current peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violations. The tool includes onshore and offshore flow climatologies of the 5-minute mean and peak winds and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  15. A new DBD-driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet source on air or nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnin, Eduard A.; Panarin, Victir A.; Skakun, Victor S.; Tarasenko, Victor F.; Pechenitsin, Dmitrii S.; Kuznetsov, Vladimir S.

    2015-12-01

    The paper proposes a new atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) source for operation in air and nitrogen. The conditions for the formation of stable plasma jets 4 cm long are determined. Energy and spectral measurement data are presented.

  16. The Use of Red Green Blue Air Mass Imagery to Investigate the Role of Stratospheric Air in a Non-Convective Wind Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, E. B.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Moltham, A. L.; Folmer, M. J.; Jedlovec, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of non-convective winds associated with passing extratropical cyclones and the formation of the sting jet in North Atlantic cyclones that impact Europe has been gaining interest. Sting jet research has been limited to North Atlantic cyclones that impact Europe because it is known to occur in Shapiro-Keyser cyclones and theory suggests it does not occur in Norwegian type cyclones. The global distribution of sting jet cyclones is unknown and questions remain as to whether cyclones with Shapiro-Keyser characteristics that impact the United States develop features similar to the sting jet. Therefore unique National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) products were used to analyze an event that impacted the Northeast United States on 09 February 2013. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Red Green Blue (RGB) Air Mass imagery and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) ozone data were used in conjunction with NASA's global Modern Era-Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis and higher-resolution regional 13-km Rapid Refresh (RAP) data to analyze the role of stratospheric air in producing high winds. The RGB Air Mass imagery and a new AIRS ozone anomaly product were used to confirm the presence of stratospheric air. Plan view and cross sectional plots of wind, potential vorticity, relative humidity, omega, and frontogenesis were used to analyze the relationship between stratospheric air and high surface winds during the event. Additionally, the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to plot trajectories to determine the role of the conveyor belts in producing the high winds. Analyses of new satellite products, such as the RGB Air Mass imagery, show the utility of future GOES-R products in forecasting non-convective wind events.

  17. An Evaluation of Measured Pressure Signatures From Wind-Tunnel Models of Three Low-Boom Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Revised 1990-1991 sonic-boom design and analysis methodology was assessed by applying it to the design of three low-boom concepts. Models of these concepts were built and used to measure pressure signatures in the wind tunnel. An analysis of wind-tunnel data showed unexpected nacelle-inlet and the nacelle-wing interference-lift shocks in the pressure signatures from the two engine-under-the-wing models, but not in the measured pressure signatures from the wind-tunnel model with the engine nacelles mounted on the aft fuselage. However, additional lift-induced shocks were found in the pressure signature data from all three wind-tunnel models indicating that other flow-field disturbance effects were present.

  18. Radiation Pressure-Driven Magnetic Disk Winds in Broad Absorption Line Quasi-Stellar Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeKool, Martin; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1995-01-01

    We explore a model in which QSO broad absorption lines (BALS) are formed in a radiation pressure-driven wind emerging from a magnetized accretion disk. The magnetic field threading the disk material is dragged by the flow and is compressed by the radiation pressure until it is dynamically important and strong enough to contribute to the confinement of the BAL clouds. We construct a simple self-similar model for such radiatively driven magnetized disk winds, in order to explore their properties. It is found that solutions exist for which the entire magnetized flow is confined to a thin wedge over the surface of the disk. For reasonable values of the mass-loss rate, a typical magnetic field strength such that the magnetic pressure is comparable to the inferred gas pressure in BAL clouds, and a moderate amount of internal soft X-ray absorption, we find that the opening angle of the flow is approximately 0.1 rad, in good agreement with the observed covering factor of the broad absorption line region.

  19. Prosthetics socket that incorporates an air splint system focusing on dynamic interface pressure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The interface pressure between the residual limb and prosthetic socket has a significant effect on an amputee’s satisfaction and comfort. This paper presents the design and performance of a new prosthetic socket that uses an air splint system. Methods The air splint prosthetic socket system was implemented by combining the air splint with a pressure sensor that the transhumeral user controls through the use of a microcontroller. The modular construction of the system developed allows the FSR pressure sensors that are placed inside the air splint socket to determine the required size and fitting for the socket used. Fifteen transhumeral amputees participated in the study. Results The subject’s dynamic pressure on the socket that’s applied while wearing the air splint systems was recorded using F-socket transducers and microcontroller analysis. The values collected by the F-socket sensor for the air splint prosthetic socket system were determined accordingly by comparing the dynamic pressure applied using statically socket. The pressure volume of the air splint fluctuated and was recorded at an average of 38 kPa (2.5) to 41 kPa (1.3) over three hours. Conclusion The air splint socket might reduce the pressure within the interface of residual limb. This is particularly important during the daily life activities and may reduce the pain and discomfort at the residual limb in comparison to the static socket. The potential development of an auto-adjusted socket that uses an air splint system as the prosthetic socket will be of interest to researchers involved in rehabilitation engineering, prosthetics and orthotics. PMID:25085005

  20. The Research of Membrane-sorption System with Increased Pressure Stream for Enriching Air with Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, M. V.; Laguntsov, N. I.; Kurchatov, I. M.

    Numerical study of single-hybrid membrane-sorption air separation system for enriching the air with oxygen were conducted. The effectiveness of such a system was analyzed, depending on selective sorbents and membranes under specified pressure ratio. A comparison of various modes membrane sorption system was done. The conclusion regarding the choice of the membrane and a sorbent for the system with a pressurized product stream was drawn.

  1. The upper explosion limit of lower alkanes and alkenes in air at elevated pressures and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Van den Schoor, F; Verplaetsen, F

    2006-01-16

    The upper explosion limit (UEL) of ethane-air, propane-air, n-butane-air, ethylene-air and propylene-air mixtures is determined experimentally at initial pressures up to 30 bar and temperatures up to 250 degrees C. The experiments are performed in a closed spherical vessel with an internal diameter of 200 mm. The mixtures are ignited by fusing a coiled tungsten wire, placed at the centre of the vessel, by electric current. Flame propagation is said to have taken place if there is a pressure rise of at least 1% of the initial pressure after ignition of the mixture. In the pressure-temperature range investigated, a linear dependence of UEL on temperature and a bilinear dependence on pressure are found except in the vicinity of the auto-ignition range. A comparison of the UEL data of the lower alkanes shows that the UEL expressed as equivalence ratio (the actual fuel/air ratio divided by the stoichiometric fuel/air ratio) increases with increasing carbon number in the homologous series of alkanes. PMID:16154265

  2. The ionospheric signatures of flux transfer events and solar wind dynamic pressure changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, M.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Sandholt, P. E.; Lepping, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    Recent observations of vortical flow patterns in the dayside auroral ionosphere are discussed in terms of two alternative mechanisms: (1) the time-dependent magnetic reconnection in 'flux transfer events' (FTEs); and (2) the action of solar wind dynamic pressure changes at the magnetopause. It is argued that the ionospheric flow signature of an FTE should be a twin vortex, with the mean flow velocity in the central region of the pattern being equal to the velocity of the pattern as a whole. On the other hand, the pulse of enhanced or reduced dynamic pressure is also expected to produce a twin vortex, but with the central plasma flow being generally different in speed from (and almost orthogonal to) the motion of the whole pattern. It is found that, while none of the events discussed here are consistent with the theories of the effects of the dynamic pressure changes, all are well explained in terms of the ionospheric signatures of FTEs.

  3. Time Accurate Unsteady Pressure Loads Simulated for the Space Launch System at a Wind Tunnel Condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Kleb, Bil; Streett, Craig L; Glass, Christopher E.; Schuster, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Using the Fully Unstructured Three-Dimensional (FUN3D) computational fluid dynamics code, an unsteady, time-accurate flow field about a Space Launch System configuration was simulated at a transonic wind tunnel condition (Mach = 0.9). Delayed detached eddy simulation combined with Reynolds Averaged Naiver-Stokes and a Spallart-Almaras turbulence model were employed for the simulation. Second order accurate time evolution scheme was used to simulate the flow field, with a minimum of 0.2 seconds of simulated time to as much as 1.4 seconds. Data was collected at 480 pressure taps at locations, 139 of which matched a 3% wind tunnel model, tested in the Transonic Dynamic Tunnel (TDT) facility at NASA Langley Research Center. Comparisons between computation and experiment showed agreement within 5% in terms of location for peak RMS levels, and 20% for frequency and magnitude of power spectral densities. Grid resolution and time step sensitivity studies were performed to identify methods for improved accuracy comparisons to wind tunnel data. With limited computational resources, accurate trends for reduced vibratory loads on the vehicle were observed. Exploratory methods such as determining minimized computed errors based on CFL number and sub-iterations, as well as evaluating frequency content of the unsteady pressures and evaluation of oscillatory shock structures were used in this study to enhance computational efficiency and solution accuracy. These techniques enabled development of a set of best practices, for the evaluation of future flight vehicle designs in terms of vibratory loads.

  4. Strong Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Pulses: Interplanetary Sources and Their Impacts on Geosynchronous Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Pingbing; Feng, Xueshang; Xie, Yanqiong; Wang, Yi; Xu, Xiaojun

    2015-10-01

    In this investigation, we first present a statistical result of the interplanetary sources of very strong solar wind dynamic pressure pulses (DPPs) detected by WIND during solar cycle 23. It is found that the vast majority of strong DPPs reside within solar wind disturbances. Although the variabilities of geosynchronous magnetic fields (GMFs) due to the impact of positive DPPs have been well established, there appears to be no systematic investigations on the response of GMFs to negative DPPs. Here, we study both the decompression effects of very strong negative DPPs and the compression from strong positive DPPs on GMFs at different magnetic local time sectors. In response to the decompression of strong negative DPPs, GMFs on the dayside near dawn and near dusk on the nightside, are generally depressed. But near the midnight region, the responses of GMF are very diverse, being either positive or negative. For part of the events when GOES is located at the midnight sector, the GMF is found to abnormally increase as the result of magnetospheric decompression caused by negative DPPs. It is known that under certain conditions magnetic depression of nightside GMFs can be caused by the impact of positive DPPs. Here, we find that a stronger pressure enhancement may have a higher probability of producing the exceptional depression of GMF at the midnight region. Statistically, both the decompression effect of strong negative DPPs and the compression effect of strong positive DPPs depend on the magnetic local time, which are stronger at the noon sector.

  5. Earthward Flow Bursts in the Magnetotail Driven by Solar Wind Pressure Impulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Khan-Hyuk; Kwak, Young-Sil; Lee, Jae-Jin; Hwang, Junga

    2008-12-01

    On August 31, 2001, ˜1705-1718 UT, Cluster was located near the midnight magnetotail, GSE (x, y, z) ˜ (-19, -2, 2) RE, and observed fast earthward flow bursts in the vicinity of the neutral sheet. They occurred while the tail magnetic field suddenly increased. Using simultaneous measurements in the solar wind, at geosynchronous orbit, and on the ground, it is confirmed that tail magnetic field enhancement is due to an increased solar wind pressure. In the neutral sheet region, strongly enhanced earthward flow bursts perpendicular to the local magnetic field (V_{bot x}) were observed. Auroral brightenings localized in the pre-midnight sector (˜2200-2400 MLT) occurred during the interval of the V_{bot x} enhancements. The V_{bot x} bursts started ˜2 minutes before the onset of auroral brightenings. Our observations suggest that the earthward flow bursts are associated with tail reconnection directly driven by a solar wind pressure impulse and that V_{bot x} caused localized auroral brightenings.

  6. 49 CFR 393.51 - Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges. 393.51 Section 393.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.51 Warning signals, air...

  7. UAS Air Traffic Controller Acceptability Study-2: Effects of Communications Delays and Winds in Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Communications Delays and Winds on Air Traffic Controller ratings of acceptability of horizontal miss distances (HMDs) for encounters between UAS and manned aircraft in a simulation of the Dallas-Ft. Worth East-side airspace. Fourteen encounters per hour were staged in the presence of moderate background traffic. Seven recently retired controllers with experience at DFW served as subjects. Guidance provided to the UAS pilots for maintaining a given HMD was provided by information from self-separation algorithms displayed on the Multi-Aircraft Simulation System. Winds tested did not affect the acceptability ratings. Communications delays tested included 0, 400, 1200, and 1800 msec. For longer communications delays, there were changes in strategy and communications flow that were observed and reported by the controllers. The aim of this work is to provide useful information for guiding future rules and regulations applicable to flying UAS in the NAS.

  8. Simulating smoke transport from wildland fires with a regional-scale air quality model: Sensitivity to uncertain wind fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Menendez, Fernando; Hu, Yongtao; Odman, Mehmet Talat

    2013-06-01

    Uncertainties associated with meteorological inputs which are propagated through atmospheric chemical transport models may constrain their ability to replicate the effects of wildland fires on air quality. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of predicted fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels to uncertain wind fields by simulating the air quality impacts of two fires on an urban area with the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ). Brute-force sensitivity analyses show that modeled concentrations at receptors downwind from the fires are highly sensitive to variations in wind speed and direction. Additionally, uncertainty in wind fields produced with the Weather Research and Forecasting model was assessed by evaluating meteorological predictions against surface and upper air observations. Significant differences between predicted and observed wind fields were identified. Simulated PM2.5 concentrations at urban sites displayed large sensitivities to wind perturbations within the error range of meteorological inputs. The analyses demonstrate that normalized errors in CMAQ predictions attempting to model the regional impacts of fires on PM2.5 levels could be as high as 100% due to inaccuracies in wind data. Meteorological drivers may largely account for the considerable discrepancies between monitoring site observations and predicted concentrations. The results of this study demonstrate that limitations in fire-related air quality simulations cannot be overcome by solely improving emission rates.

  9. Effect of Wind Tunnel Air Velocity on VOC Flux from Standard Solutions and CAFO Manure/Wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers and practitioners have used wind tunnels and flux chambers to quantify the flux of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide and estimate emission factors from animal feeding operations (AFOs) without accounting for effects of air velocity or sweep air flow rate. L...

  10. Brain Pressure Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A transducer originally used to measure air pressure in aircraft wind tunnel tests is the basis for a development important in diagnosis and treatment of certain types of brain damage. A totally implantable device, tbe intracranial pressure monitor measures and reports brain pressure by telemetry.

  11. Acute Air Pollution Exposure and Blood Pressure at Delivery Among Women With and Without Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Männistö, Tuija; Liu, Danping; Leishear, Kira; Sherman, Seth; Laughon, S. Katherine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic air pollution exposure increases risk for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, but the effect of acute air pollution exposure on blood pressure during pregnancy is less well known. METHODS We studied 151,276 singleton term deliveries from the Consortium on Safe Labor (2002–2008) with clinical blood pressure measured at admission to labor/delivery and diagnoses of hypertensive disorders collected from electronic medical records and hospital discharge summaries. Air pollution exposures were estimated for the admission hour and the 4 hours preceding admission using a modified version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality models and observed air monitoring data. Blood pressure was categorized as normal; high normal; and mild, moderate, or severe hypertension based on pregnancy cut points. Adjusted ordinal logistic regression estimated the odds of women having a higher admission blood pressure category as a function of air pollutant, hypertensive disorders, and their interaction effect. RESULTS Odds of high blood pressure at admission to labor/delivery were increased in normotensive women after exposure to nitrogen oxides (by 0.2%/5 units), sulfur dioxide (by 0.3%/1 unit), carbon monoxide and several air toxics (by 3%–4%/high exposure). The effects were often similar or stronger among women with gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Exposure to particulate matter <10 μm increased odds of high blood pressure in women with preeclampsia by 3%/5 units. CONCLUSIONS Air pollution can influence admission blood pressure in term deliveries and may increase likelihood of preeclampsia screening at delivery admission. PMID:24795401

  12. Determination of wind tunnel constraint effects by a unified pressure signature method. Part 2: Application to jet-in-crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackett, J. E.; Sampath, S.; Phillips, C. G.

    1981-01-01

    The development of an improved jet-in-crossflow model for estimating wind tunnel blockage and angle-of-attack interference is described. Experiments showed that the simpler existing models fall seriously short of representing far-field flows properly. A new, vortex-source-doublet (VSD) model was therefore developed which employs curved trajectories and experimentally-based singularity strengths. The new model is consistent with existing and new experimental data and it predicts tunnel wall (i.e. far-field) pressures properly. It is implemented as a preprocessor to the wall-pressure-signature-based tunnel interference predictor. The supporting experiments and theoretical studies revealed some new results. Comparative flow field measurements with 1-inch "free-air" and 3-inch impinging jets showed that vortex penetration into the flow, in diameters, was almost unaltered until 'hard' impingement occurred. In modeling impinging cases, a 'plume redirection' term was introduced which is apparently absent in previous models. The effects of this term were found to be very significant.

  13. 20th Century Reanalysis Project Ensemble Gateway: 56 Estimates of World Temperature, Pressure, Humidity, and Wind, 1871-2010

    DOE Data Explorer

    This site provides data from the 20th Century Reanalysis Project, offering temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind predictions in 200 km sections all around the earth from 1871 to 2010, every 6 hours, based on historical data. The ensemble mean and standard deviation for each value were calculated over a set of 56 simulations. Data for each of the 56 ensemble members are included here. The dataset consists of files in netCDF 4 format that are available for download from the National Energy Research. The goal of the 20th Century Reanalysis Project is to use a Kalman filter-based technique to produce a global trophospheric circulation dataset at four-times-daily resolution back to 1871. The only dataset available for the early 20th century consists of error-ridden hand-drawn analyses of the mean sea level pressure field over the Northern Hemisphere. Modern data assimilation systems have the potential to improve upon these maps, but prior to 1948, few digitized upper-air sounding observations are available for such a reanalysis. The global tropospheric circulation dataset will provide an important validation check on the climate models used to make 21st century climate projections....[copied from http://portal.nersc.gov/project/20C_Reanalysis/

  14. Pressure distributions on a 0.04-scale model of the Space Shuttle Orbiter's forward fuselage in the Langley unitary plan wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, P. F.; Siemers, P. M., III; Flanagan, P. F.; Henry, M. W.

    1983-01-01

    Pressure distribution tests on a 0.04-scale model of the forward fuselage of the Space Shuttle Orbiter are presented without analysis. The tests were completed in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). The UPWT has two different test sections operating in the continuous mode. Each test section has its own Mach number range. The model was tested at angles of attack from -2.5 deg to 30 deg and angles of sideslip from -5 deg to 5 deg in both test sections. The test Reynolds number was 6.6 x 10 to the 6th power per meter. The tests were conducted in support of the development of the Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS). In addition to modeling the 20 SEADS pressure orifices, the wind-tunnel model was also instrumented with orifices to match Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI) port locations currently existing on the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). This DFI simulation has provided a means for comparisons between reentry flight pressure data and wind-tunnel data.

  15. The impact of upstream blocking, drainage flow and the geostrophic pressure gradient on the persistence of cold-air pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zängl, G.

    2003-01-01

    Idealized numerical simulations are performed to investigate dynamical mechanisms affecting the persistence of cold-air pools in basins and valleys. The first orography type considered is a shallow elongated basin located upstream of a mountain ridge. For sensitivity tests, the mountain ridge is removed. The second type is a basin embedded in a plateau-like mountain ridge. In part of the simulations, this basin has an outflow towards the lee-side plain so as to assess the impact of the drainage flow.The large-scale flow is taken to be in geostrophic balance. In the standard setting, it is perpendicular to the basin and the ridge. The main effect of a large-scale pressure gradient is to induce a circulation within a cold-air pool until the upper boundary of the cold pool is inclined such as to compensate for the ambient pressure gradient. The cold air accumulates where the ambient pressure is lowest. For a shallow basin, this means that part of the cold air may be lost due to advection out of the basin. The upstream influence of a mountain ridge in the lee of a shallow basin is found to be twofold. It tends to deflect the low-level flow towards the lower pressure, leading to an additional ridge-parallel force on the cold-air pool. On the other hand, the absolute wind speed is reduced, diminishing the turbulent mixing near the top of the cold pool. The simulations show that the first effect prevails for ridge-normal flow while second effect may dominate for other flow directions. Drainage flow out of a valley is found to be very important as it promotes the penetration of warm air into valleys very effectively. It may cause a cold pool in a deep valley to disappear more quickly than a cold pool in a shallow basin. Sensitivity tests show that the persistence of a cold pool depends on its depth, on its vertically integrated heat deficit, and on the maximum heat deficit at the bottom of the cold pool.

  16. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Air Inlet and Outlet Openings on a Streamline Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, John V

    1951-01-01

    In connection with the general problem of providing air flow to an aircraft power plant located within a fuselage, an investigation was conducted in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel to determine the effect on external drag and pressure distribution of air inlet openings located at the nose of a streamline body. Air outlet openings located at the tail and at the 21-percent and 63-percent stations of the body were also investigated. Boundary layer transition measurements were made and correlated with the force and the pressure data. Individual openings were investigated with the aid of a blower and then practicable combinations of inlet and outlet openings were tested. Various modifications to the internal duct shape near the inlet opening and the aerodynamic effects of a simulated gun in the duct were also studied. The results of the tests suggested that outlet openings should be designed so that the static pressure of the internal flow at the outlet would be the same as the static pressure of the external flow in the vicinity of the opening.

  17. Electron densities and temperatures in the Venus ionosphere Effects of solar EUV, solar wind pressure and magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Russell, C. T.; Brace, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    The Venus ionosphere is influenced by variations in both solar EUV flux and solar wind conditions. On the dayside the location of the topside of the ionosphere, the ionopause, is controlled by solar wind dynamic pressure. Within the dayside ionosphere, however, electron density is affected mainly by solar EUV variations, and is relatively unaffected by solar wind variations and associated magnetic fields induced within the ionosphere. The existence of a substantial nightside ionosphere of Venus is thought to be due to the rapid nightward transport of dayside ionospheric plasma across the terminator. Typical solar wind conditions do not strongly affect this transport and consequently have little direct influence on nightside ionospheric conditions, except on occasions of extremely high solar wind dynamic pressure. However, both nightside electron density and temperature are affected by the presence of magnetic field, as in the case of ionospheric holes.

  18. The influence of locomotion on air-sac pressures in little penguins.

    PubMed

    Boggs, D F; Baudinette, R V; Frappell, P B; Butler, P J

    2001-10-01

    Air-sac pressures have been reported to oscillate with wing beat in flying magpies and with foot paddling in diving ducks. We sought to determine the impact on air-sac pressure of wing beats during swimming and of the step cycle during walking in little penguins (Eudyptula minor). Fluctuations averaged 0.16+/-0.06 kPa in the interclavicular air sacs, but only 0.06+/-0.04 kPa in the posterior thoracic sac, generating a small differential pressure between sacs of 0.06+/-0.02 kPa (means +/- S.E.M., N=4). These fluctuations occurred at approximately 3 Hz and corresponded to wing beats during swimming, indicated by electromyograms from the pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscles. There was no abdominal muscle activity associated with swimming or exhalation, but the abdominal muscles were active with the step cycle in walking penguins, and oscillations in posterior air-sac pressure (0.08+/-0.038 kPa) occurred with steps. We conclude that high-frequency oscillations in differential air-sac pressure enhance access to and utilization of the O(2) stores in the air sacs during a dive. PMID:11707507

  19. An experimental study of geyser-like flows induced by a pressurized air pocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elayeb, I. S.; Leon, A.; Choi, Y.; Alnahit, A. O.

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies argues that the entrapment of pressurized air pockets within combined sewer systems can produce geyser flows, which is an oscillating jetting of a mixture of gas-liquid flows. To verify that pressurized air pockets can effectively produce geysers, laboratory experiments were conducted. However, past experiments were conducted in relatively small-scale apparatus (i.e. maximum φ2" vertical shaft). This study conducted a set of experiments in a larger apparatus. The experimental setup consists of an upstream head tank, a downstream head tank, a horizontal pipe (46.5ft long, φ6") and a vertical pipe (10ft long, φ6"). The initial condition for the experiments is constant flow discharge through the horizontal pipe. The experiments are initiated by injecting an air pocket with pre-determined volume and pressure at the upstream end of the horizontal pipe. The air pocket propagates through the horizontal pipe until it arrives to the vertical shaft, where it is released producing a geyser-like flow. Three flow rates in the horizontal pipe and three injected air pressures were tested. The variables measured were pressure at two locations in the horizontal pipe and two locations in the vertical pipe. High resolution videos at two regions in the vertical shaft were also recorded. To gain further insights in the physics of air-water interaction, the laboratory experiments were complemented with numerical simulations conducted using a commercial 3D CFD model, previously validated with experiments.

  20. Differential Velocity between Solar Wind Protons and Alpha Particles in Pressure Balance Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Yohei; Suess, Steven T.; Steinberg, John T.; Sakurai, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    Pressure balance structures (PBSs) are a common high-plasma beta feature in high-latitude, high-speed solar wind. They have been proposed as remnants of coronal plumes. If true, they should reflect the observation that plumes are rooted in unipolar magnetic flux concentrations in the photosphere and are heated as oppositely directed flux is advected into and reconnects with the flux concentration. A minimum variance analysis (MVA) of magnetic discontinuities in PBSs showed there is a larger proportion of tangential discontinuities than in the surrounding high-speed wind, supporting the hypothesis that plasmoids or extended current sheets are formed during reconnection at the base of plumes. To further evaluate the character of magnetic field discontinuities in PBSs, differential streaming between alpha particles and protons is analyzed here for the same sample of PBSs used in the MVA. Alpha particles in high-speed wind generally have a higher radial flow speed than protons. However, if the magnetic field is folded back on itself, as in a large-amplitude Alfven wave, alpha particles will locally have a radial flow speed less than protons. This characteristic is used here to distinguish between folded back magnetic fields (which would contain rotational discontinuities) and tangential discontinuities using Ulysses high-latitude, high-speed solar wind data. The analysis indicates that almost all reversals in the radial magnetic field in PBSs are folded back field lines. This is found to also be true outside PBSs, supporting existing results for typical high-speed, high-latitude wind. There remains a small number of cases that appear not to be folds in the magnetic field and which may be flux tubes with both ends rooted in the Sun. The distinct difference in MVA results inside and outside PBSs remains unexplained.

  1. Differential Velocity Between Solar Wind Protons and Alpha Particles in Pressure Balance Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Y.; Suess, S. T.; Steinberg, J. T.; Sakurai, T.

    2003-01-01

    Pressure balance structures (PBSs) are a common high plasma beta feature in high latitude, high speed solar wind. They have been proposed as remnants of coronal plumes. If true, they should reflect the observation that plumes are rooted in unipolar magnetic flux concentrations in the photosphere and are heated as oppositely directed flux is advected into and reconnects with the flux concentration. A minimum variance analysis (MVA) of magnetic discontinuities in PBSs showed there is a larger proportion of tangential discontinuities than in the surrounding high speed wind, supporting the hypothesis that plasmoids or extended current sheets are formed during reconnection at the base of plumes. To further evaluate the character of magnetic field discontinuities in PBSs, differential streaming between alpha particles and protons is analyzed here for the same sample of PBSs used in the MVA. Alpha particles in high speed wind generally have a higher radial flow speed than protons. However, if the magnetic field is folded back on itself, as in a large amplitude Alfven wave, alpha particles will locally have a radial flow speed less than protons. This characteristic is used here to distinguish between folded back magnetic fields (which would contain rotational discontinuities) and tangential discontinuities using Ulysses high latitude, high speed solar wind data. The analysis indicates that almost all reversals in the radial magnetic field in PBSs are folded back field lines. This is found to also be true outside PBSs, supporting existing results for typical high speed, high latitude wind. There remains a small number of cases that appear not to be folds in the magnetic field and which may be flux tubes with both ends rooted in the Sun. The distinct difference in MVA results inside and outside PBSs remains unexplained.

  2. Aerodynamic effect of combustor inlet-air pressure on fuel jet atomization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Mean drop diameters were measured with a recently developed scanning radiometer in a study of the atomization of liquid jets injected cross stream in high velocity and high pressure airflows. At constant inlet air pressure, reciprocal mean drop diameter, was correlated with airflow mass velocity. Over a combustor inlet-air pressure range of 1 to 21 atmospheres, the ratio of orifice to mean drop diameter, D(O)/D(M), was correlated with the product of Weber and Reynolds number, WeRe, and with the molecular scale momentum transfer ratio of gravitational to inertial forces.

  3. Air mass flow estimation in turbocharged diesel engines from in-cylinder pressure measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Desantes, J.M.; Galindo, J.; Guardiola, C.; Dolz, V.

    2010-01-15

    Air mass flow determination is needed for the control of current internal combustion engines. Current methods are based on specific sensors (as hot wire anemometers) or indirect estimation through manifold pressure. With the availability of cylinder pressure sensors for engine control, methods based on them can be used for replacing or complementing standard methods. Present paper uses in cylinder pressure increase during the intake stroke for inferring the trapped air mass. The method is validated on two different turbocharged diesel engines and compared with the standard methods. (author)

  4. Aerodynamic effect of combustor inlet-air pressure on fuel jet atomization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Mean drop diameters were measured with a recently developed scanning radiometer in a study of the atomization of liquid jets injected cross stream in high velocity and high pressure airflows. At constant inlet air pressure, reciprocal mean drop diameter was correlated with airflow mass velocity. Over a combustor inlet-air pressure range of 1 to 21 atmospheres, the ratio of orifice to mean drop diameter, D(O)/D(M), was correlated with the product of Weber and Reynolds number, WeRe, and with the molecular scale momentum transfer ratio of gravitational to inertial forces. Previously announced in STAR as N84-22910

  5. Intercooler cooling-air weight flow and pressure drop for minimum drag loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, J George; Valerino, Michael F

    1944-01-01

    An analysis has been made of the drag losses in airplane flight of cross-flow plate and tubular intercoolers to determine the cooling-air weight flow and pressure drop that give a minimum drag loss for any given cooling effectiveness and, thus, a maximum power-plant net gain due to charge-air cooling. The drag losses considered in this analysis are those due to (1) the extra drag imposed on the airplane by the weight of the intercooler, its duct, and its supports and (2) the drag sustained by the cooling air in flowing through the intercooler and its duct. The investigation covers a range of conditions of altitude, airspeed, lift-drag ratio, supercharger-pressure ratio, and supercharger adiabatic efficiency. The optimum values of cooling air pressure drop and weight flow ratio are tabulated. Curves are presented to illustrate the results of the analysis.

  6. Preliminary investigation of cooling-air ejector performance at pressure ratios from 1 to 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, C W; Hollister, D P; Sargent, A F , Jr

    1951-01-01

    Preliminary investigation was made of conical cooling air ejector at primary pressure ratios from 1 to 10. The cooling-air flow was maintained at zero and the resulting pressure variation in the shroud indicated pumping ability. The cooling-air flow was maintained at zero and the resulting pressure variation in the shroud indicated pumping ability. The gross thrust of the ejector and nozzle were compared. Several ratios of the spacing between the nozzle and shroud exit to the nozzle exit diameter were investigated for several shroud to nozzle exit diameter ratios. Maximum gross thrust loss occurred under conditions of zero cooling-air flow and was as much as 35 percent below nozzle jet thrust. For minimum thrust loss, ejector should be designed with as low diameter and spacing ratio as possible.

  7. Numerical simulation of high pressure release and dispersion of hydrogen into air with real gas model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaksarfard, R.; Kameshki, M. R.; Paraschivoiu, M.

    2010-06-01

    Hydrogen is a renewable and clean source of energy, and it is a good replacement for the current fossil fuels. Nevertheless, hydrogen should be stored in high-pressure reservoirs to have sufficient energy. An in-house code is developed to numerically simulate the release of hydrogen from a high-pressure tank into ambient air with more accuracy. Real gas models are used to simulate the flow since high-pressure hydrogen deviates from ideal gas law. Beattie-Bridgeman and Abel Noble equations are applied as real gas equation of state. A transport equation is added to the code to calculate the concentration of the hydrogen-air mixture after release. The uniqueness of the code is to simulate hydrogen in air release with the real gas model. Initial tank pressures of up to 70 MPa are simulated.

  8. Response of dayside magnetosphere and ionosphere to solar wind dynamic pressure pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, A.; Shen, X.; Shi, Q.

    2014-12-01

    We showed in-situ dayside magnetosphere plasma and field observation with THEMIS and GOES satellites after a sudden solar wind dynamic pressure impulse in detail. The flow evolution is consistent with the prediction of global MHD simulations. The flow vortex confirmed with multiple satellites (rotating clockwise)were inferred to be accompany with FAC that flow into the north (south) ionosphere in the north (south) hemisphere according to Bx and By variations. We think that the FAC is responsible for the ionospheric pre-noon TCV event found by the ground magnetism data.

  9. Watching the wind: seismic data contamination at long-periods due to atmospheric pressure-field-induced tilting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, S.; Bodin, P.; Hagel, K.; Fletcher, D.

    2010-12-01

    Long-period noise generated by the elastic response of the Earth to atmospheric pressure fluctuations has long been recognized as a limiting factor for seismic investigations. The quality of seismic data recorded by sensitive, near-surface broadband seismometers can be severely corrupted by this effect. During the recent installation of a new broadband site on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington, the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network recorded and investigated elevated daytime noise levels at periods exceeding 30 seconds. Substantial power spectral density variations of the background noise field, 15-20 dB, were observed in the horizontal component seismograms. The pattern of the long-period noise exhibited striking correlations with local fluctuations of the air temperature and wind speed as measured nearby the seismic station by the National Weather Service Forecast Office, Seattle, Washington, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Several past studies have demonstrated that local wind systems may lead to variations of the atmospheric pressure field that deform the ground and perturb seismograms. The rotational component of this motion is detected by horizontal-component seismometers because at periods longer than the sensor’s low corner frequency the sensor is acting essentially as a tiltmeter. We obtained a transfer function that describes the response of the broadband seismometer to a tilt step change and estimated the amplitude of tilt noise to be on the order of 10-9 - 10-8 radians. Within the seismic pass-band of the sensor, it is not possible to remove the tilt signal from the observed seismograms because the details of the tilting depend on the pressure field variations, the compliance of the near surface to pressure variations, and the design and construction of the seismometer vault itself. At longer periods, using the seismic data to recover tilts of tectonic origin is made challenging because of the needed instrument correction

  10. Downhole steam generator using low pressure fuel and air supply

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a spiral, tubular heat exchanger is used in the combustion chamber to isolate the combustion process from the water being superheated for conversion into steam. The isolation allows combustion of a relatively low pressure oxidant and fuel mixture for generating high enthalpy steam. The fuel is preheated by feedback of combustion gases from the top of the combustion chamber through a fuel preheater chamber. The hot exhaust gases of combustion at the bottom of the combustion chamber, after flowing over the heat exchanger enter an exhaust passage and pipe. The exhaust pipe is mounted inside the water supply line heating the water flowing into the heat exchanger. After being superheated in the heat exchanger, the water is ejected through an expansion nozzle and converts into steam prior to penetration into the earth formation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at a steam outlet downstream of the nozzle and close when the steam pressure is lost due to flameout.

  11. Downhole steam generator using low pressure fuel and air supply

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.

    1983-06-28

    An apparatus is claimed for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a spiral, tubular heat exchanger is used in the combustion chamber to isolate the combustion process from the water being superheated for conversion into steam. The isolation allows combustion of a relatively low pressure oxidant and fuel mixture for generating high enthalpy steam. The fuel is preheated by feedback of combustion gases from the top of the combustion chamber through a fuel preheater chamber. The hot exhaust gases of combustion at the bottom of the combustion chamber, after flowing over the heat exchanger enter an exhaust passage and pipe. The exhaust pipe is mounted inside the water supply line heating the water flowing into the heat exchanger. After being superheated in the heat exchanger, the water is ejected through an expansion nozzle and converts into steam prior to penetration into the earth formation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at a steam outlet downstream of the nozzle and close when the steam pressure is lost due to flameout.

  12. Adding a custom made pressure release valve during air enema for intussusception: A new technique

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Hosni Morsi; Ahmed, Osama; Ahmed, Refaat Khodary

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-surgical reduction remains the first line treatment of choice for intussusception. The major complication of air enema reduction is bowel perforation. The authors developed a custom made pressure release valve to be added to portable insufflation devices, delivering air at pressures accepted as safe for effective reduction of intussusception in children under fluoroscopic guidance. The aim of this study was to develop a custom made pressure release valve that is suitable for the insufflation devices used for air enema reduction of intussusception and to put this valve into regular clinical practice. Materials and Methods: An adjustable, custom made pressure release valve was assembled by the authors using readily available components. The valve was coupled to a simple air enema insufflation device. The device was used for the trial of reduction of intussusception in a prospective study that included 132 patients. Results: The success rate for air enema reduction with the new device was 88.2%. The mean pressure required to achieve complete reduction was 100 mmHg. The insufflation pressure never exceeded the preset value (120 mmHg). Of the successful cases, 58.3% were reduced from the first attempt while 36.1% required a second insufflation. Only 5.55% required a third insufflation to complete the reduction. In cases with unsuccessful pneumatic reduction attempt (18.1%), surgical treatment was required. Surgery ranged from simple reduction to resection with a primary end to end anastomosis. No complications from air enema were recorded. Conclusions: The authors recommend adding pressure release valves to ensure safety by avoiding pressure overshoot during the procedure. PMID:26712286

  13. On the impact of radiation pressure on the dynamics and inner structure of dusty wind-driven shells

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez-González, Sergio; Silich, Sergiy; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo

    2014-04-20

    Massive young stellar clusters are strong sources of radiation and mechanical energy. Their powerful winds and radiation pressure sweep up interstellar gas into thin expanding shells that trap the ionizing radiation produced by the central clusters affecting the dynamics and the distribution of their ionized gas. Here we continue our comparison of the star cluster winds and radiation pressure effects on the dynamics of shells around young massive clusters. We calculate the impact that radiation pressure has on the distribution of matter and thermal pressure within such shells, as well as on the density-weighted ionization parameter U{sub w} , and put our results on the diagnostic diagram, which allows one to discriminate between the wind-dominated and radiation-dominated regimes. We found that model-predicted values of the ionization parameter agree well with typical values found in local starburst galaxies. Radiation pressure may affect the inner structure and the dynamics of wind-driven shells, but only during the earliest stages of evolution (before ∼3 Myr) or if a major fraction of the star cluster mechanical luminosity is dissipated or radiated away within the star cluster volume and thus the star cluster mechanical energy output is significantly smaller than star cluster synthetic models predict. However, even in these cases radiation dominates over the wind dynamical pressure only if the exciting cluster is embedded into a high-density ambient medium.

  14. Weather Research and Forecasting Model Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Bauman, William H., III; Hoeth, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This abstract describes work that will be done by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in assessing the success of different model configurations in predicting "wind cycling" cases at Edwards Air Force Base, CA (EAFB), in which the wind speeds and directions oscillate among towers near the EAFB runway. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model allows users to choose among two dynamical cores - the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) and the Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM). There are also data assimilation analysis packages available for the initialization of the WRF model - the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) and the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS). Having a series of initialization options and WRF cores, as well as many options within each core, creates challenges for local forecasters, such as determining which configuration options are best to address specific forecast concerns. The goal of this project is to assess the different configurations available and determine which configuration will best predict surface wind speed and direction at EAFB.

  15. Cold air outbreaks along a non-frozen sea channel: effects of wind on snow bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savijärvi, Hannu

    2015-08-01

    Wintertime cold air outbreaks along a non-frozen sea channel or a long lake can become destructive if the related bands of heavy snowfall hit onto land. The forcing for such bands is studied with a 2D numerical model set across an east-west sea channel at 60oN (`Gulf of Finland'), varying the basic geostrophic wind V g. Without any V g opposite coastal land breezes emerge with convergence. This results in a quasi-steady rising motion w max ~ 7.5 cm/s at 600 m in the middle of the gulf, which can force a snow band. During weak V g, the rising motion is reduced but least so for winds from 60o to 80o (~ENE), when modest alongshore bands could exist near the downstream (Estonian) coast. During V g of 4-6 m/s from any direction, the land breezes and rising motions are reduced more effectively, so snow bands are not expected during moderate basic flow. In contrast, during a strong V g of 20-25 m/s from 110o to 120o (~ESE) the land breeze perturbations are intense with w max up to 15-18 cm/s. The induced alongshore bands of heavy snowfall are located in these cases at the sea but quite close to the downstream (Finnish) coast. They can suddenly make a landfall if the basic wind turns clockwise.

  16. Ozone generation using atmospheric pressure glow discharge in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buntat, Z.; Smith, I. R.; Razali, N. A. M.

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents results from a study into the generation of ozone by a stable atmospheric glow discharge, using dry air as the feeding gas for ozone generation. The power supply is 50 Hz ac, with the use of a perforated aluminium sheet for the electrodes and soda lime glass as a dielectric layer in a parallel-plate configuration, stabilizing the generation process and enabling ozone to be produced. The stable glow discharge spreads uniformly at a gas breakdown voltage below 4.8 kV and requires only 330 mW discharge power, with a limitation of 3 mm on the maximum gap spacing for the dry air. With the technique providing a high collision rate between the electrons and gas molecules during the discharge process, a high ozone yield is obtained. An analysis of the effect on the production rate of parameters such as the input voltage, gas flow rate and reaction chamber dimensions resulted in a highest efficiency of production of almost 350 g kWh-1 and confirms its potential as an important ozone generation technology.

  17. Measurement of temperature and pressure on the surface of a blunt cone using FBG sensor in hypersonic wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, A. S. Guru; Sharath, U.; Nagarjun, V.; Hegde, G. M.; Asokan, S.

    2013-09-01

    Measurement of temperature and pressure exerted on the leeward surface of a blunt cone specimen has been demonstrated in the present work in a hypersonic wind tunnel using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. The experiments were conducted on a 30° apex-angle blunt cone with 51 mm base diameter at wind flow speeds of Mach 6.5 and 8.35 in a 300 mm hypersonic wind tunnel of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. A special pressure insensitive temperature sensor probe along with the conventional bare FBG sensors was used for explicit temperature and aerodynamic pressure measurement respectively on the leeward surface of the specimen. computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the flow field around the blunt cone specimen has also been carried out to obtain the temperature and pressure at conditions analogous to experiments. The results obtained from FBG sensors and the CFD simulations are found to be in good agreement with each other.

  18. Wind tunnel evaluation of air-foil performance using simulated ice shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, M. B.; Zaguli, R. J.; Gregorek, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    A two-phase wind tunnel test was conducted in the 6 by 9 foot Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at NASA Lewis Research Center to evaluate the effect of ice on the performance of a full scale general aviation wing. In the first IRT tests, rime and glaze shapes were carefully documented as functions of angle of attack and free stream conditions. Next, simulated ice shapes were constructed for two rime and two glaze shapes and used in the second IRT tunnel entry. The ice shapes and the clean airfoil were tapped to obtain surface pressures and a probe used to measure the wake characteristics. These data were recorded and processed, on-line, with a minicomputer/digital data acquisition system. The effect of both rime and glaze ice on the pressure distribution, Cl, Cd, and Cm are presented.

  19. Torricelli and the Ocean of Air: The First Measurement of Barometric Pressure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The recognition of barometric pressure was a critical step in the development of environmental physiology. In 1644, Evangelista Torricelli described the first mercury barometer in a remarkable letter that contained the phrase, “We live submerged at the bottom of an ocean of the element air, which by unquestioned experiments is known to have weight.” This extraordinary insight seems to have come right out of the blue. Less than 10 years before, the great Galileo had given an erroneous explanation for the related problem of pumping water from a deep well. Previously, Gasparo Berti had filled a very long lead vertical tube with water and showed that a vacuum formed at the top. However, Torricelli was the first to make a mercury barometer and understand that the mercury was supported by the pressure of the air. Aristotle stated that the air has weight, although this was controversial for some time. Galileo described a method of measuring the weight of the air in detail, but for reasons that are not clear his result was in error by a factor of about two. Torricelli surmised that the pressure of the air might be less on mountains, but the first demonstration of this was by Blaise Pascal. The first air pump was built by Otto von Guericke, and this influenced Robert Boyle to carry out his classical experiments of the physiological effects of reduced barometric pressure. These were turning points in the early history of high-altitude physiology. PMID:23455767

  20. Torricelli and the ocean of air: the first measurement of barometric pressure.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2013-03-01

    The recognition of barometric pressure was a critical step in the development of environmental physiology. In 1644, Evangelista Torricelli described the first mercury barometer in a remarkable letter that contained the phrase, "We live submerged at the bottom of an ocean of the element air, which by unquestioned experiments is known to have weight." This extraordinary insight seems to have come right out of the blue. Less than 10 years before, the great Galileo had given an erroneous explanation for the related problem of pumping water from a deep well. Previously, Gasparo Berti had filled a very long lead vertical tube with water and showed that a vacuum formed at the top. However, Torricelli was the first to make a mercury barometer and understand that the mercury was supported by the pressure of the air. Aristotle stated that the air has weight, although this was controversial for some time. Galileo described a method of measuring the weight of the air in detail, but for reasons that are not clear his result was in error by a factor of about two. Torricelli surmised that the pressure of the air might be less on mountains, but the first demonstration of this was by Blaise Pascal. The first air pump was built by Otto von Guericke, and this influenced Robert Boyle to carry out his classical experiments of the physiological effects of reduced barometric pressure. These were turning points in the early history of high-altitude physiology. PMID:23455767

  1. Soot formation and temperature field structure in laminar propane-air diffusion flames at elevated pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Bento, Decio S.; Guelder, OEmer L.; Thomson, Kevin A.

    2006-06-15

    The effect of pressure on soot formation and the structure of the temperature field was studied in coflow propane-air laminar diffusion flames over the pressure range of 0.1 to 0.73 MPa in a high-pressure combustion chamber. The fuel flow rate was selected so that the soot was completely oxidized within the visible flame and the flame was stable at all pressures. Spectral soot emission was used to measure radially resolved soot volume fraction and soot temperature as a function of pressure. Additional soot volume fraction measurements were made at selected heights using line-of-sight light attenuation. Soot concentration values from these two techniques agreed to within 30% and both methods exhibited similar trends in the spatial distribution of soot concentration. Maximum line-of-sight soot concentration along the flame centerline scaled with pressure; the pressure exponent was about 1.4 for pressures between 0.2 and 0.73 MPa. Peak carbon conversion to soot, defined as the percentage of fuel carbon content converted to soot, also followed a power-law dependence on pressure, where the pressure exponent was near to unity for pressures between 0.2 and 0.73 MPa. Soot temperature measurements indicated that the overall temperatures decreased with increasing pressure; however, the temperature gradients increased with increasing pressure. (author)

  2. Observations of dayside subauroral proton arcs and EMIC waves associated with increases in solar wind pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Dasrath, D. K.; Frey, H. U.; Yeoman, T. K.; Lessard, M.

    2013-12-01

    We present three examples of simultaneous subauroral proton arcs in the southern hemisphere near local noon recorded by the Far Ultraviolet (FUV) instrument on the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft and associated Pc1 waves recorded by ground based magnetometers at high latitude stations in Antarctica. Each event appeared to be triggered by a large increase in solar wind dynamic pressure during otherwise quiet geomagnetic conditions. The resulting compression of the dayside magnetosphere triggered ~0.5 Hz EMIC waves which were observed by search coil magnetometers at Halley and South Pole Station, Antarctica. These waves in turn caused energetic protons to precipitate into the southern high latitude ionosphere where they caused the appearance of an aurora several degrees of latitude equatorward of the steady southern auroral oval, and generated plasma irregularities which were detected by the Halley SuperDARN radar. Two additional proton arcs at similar latitude but in the dusk sector occurred shortly after the main phase of minor geomagnetic storms, and were not associated with solar wind pressure increases.

  3. Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Real Air Plasma in Wide Range of Temperature and Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunlin; Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Feng, Ying; Rong, Mingzhe; Zhang, Hantian

    2016-07-01

    Air plasma has been widely applied in industrial manufacture. In this paper, both dry and humid air plasmas' thermodynamic and transport properties are calculated in temperature 300-100000 K and pressure 0.1-100 atm. To build a more precise model of real air plasma, over 70 species are considered for composition. Two different methods, the Gibbs free energy minimization method and the mass action law method, are used to determinate the composition of the air plasma in a different temperature range. For the transport coefficients, the simplified Chapman-Enskog method developed by Devoto has been applied using the most recent collision integrals. It is found that the presence of CO2 has almost no effect on the properties of air plasma. The influence of H2O can be ignored except in low pressure air plasma, in which the saturated vapor pressure is relatively high. The results will serve as credible inputs for computational simulation of air plasma. supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program)(No. 2015CB251002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51521065, 51577145), the Science and Technology Project Funds of the Grid State Corporation (SGTYHT/13-JS-177), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and State Grid Corporation Project (GY71-14-004)

  4. Air-braked cycle ergometers: validity of the correction factor for barometric pressure.

    PubMed

    Finn, J P; Maxwell, B F; Withers, R T

    2000-10-01

    Barometric pressure exerts by far the greatest influence of the three environmental factors (barometric pressure, temperature and humidity) on power outputs from air-braked ergometers. The barometric pressure correction factor for power outputs from air-braked ergometers is in widespread use but apparently has never been empirically validated. Our experiment validated this correction factor by calibrating two air-braked cycle ergometers in a hypobaric chamber using a dynamic calibration rig. The results showed that if the power output correction for changes in air resistance at barometric pressures corresponding to altitudes of 38, 600, 1,200 and 1,800 m above mean sea level were applied, then the coefficients of variation were 0.8-1.9% over the range of 160-1,597 W. The overall mean error was 3.0 % but this included up to 0.73 % for the propagated error that was associated with errors in the measurement of: a) temperature b) relative humidity c) barometric pressure d) force, distance and angular velocity by the dynamic calibration rig. The overall mean error therefore approximated the +/- 2.0% of true load that was specified by the Laboratory Standards Assistance Scheme of the Australian Sports Commission. The validity of the correction factor for barometric pressure on power output was therefore demonstrated over the altitude range of 38-1,800 m. PMID:11071051

  5. A barometric pressure sensor based on the air-gap scale effect in a cantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minh-Dung, Nguyen; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Uchiyama, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2013-09-01

    The most common structure for a conventional barometric pressure sensor consists of a vacuum-sealed cavity and a diaphragm. However, we hypothesize that a simple structure with an unsealed cavity and an ultra-thin cantilever can provide more sensitive measurements. We produced a 300-nm-thick cantilever with a small spring constant, which made the cantilever sensitive to low pressures. We demonstrated that miniaturizing the air-gap of the cantilever enables the sensor to measure barometric pressure changes at a low pressure change rate with a high resolution, which was 1 Pa at 0.05 Hz, and for a gap size of 1.7 μm.

  6. A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun for nanomaterial synthesis in liquid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Shuang; Wang, Kaile; Zuo, Shasha; Liu, Jiahui; Zhang, Jue Fang, Jing

    2015-10-15

    A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun based on a dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes was proposed. The portable plasma gun with an embedded mini air pump was driven by a 12 V direct voltage battery. The air plasma jet generated from the gun could be touched without a common shock hazard. Besides working in air, the plasma gun can also work in water. The diagnostic result of optical emission spectroscopy showed the difference in reactive species of air plasma jet between in air and in water. The plasma gun was excited in 20 ml chloroauric acid aqueous solution with a concentration of 1.214 mM. A significant amount of gold nanoparticles were synthesized after 2 min continuous discharge. The plasma gun with these unique features is applicable in plasma medicine, etching, and s-nthesis of nanomaterials.

  7. A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun for nanomaterial synthesis in liquid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuang; Wang, Kaile; Zuo, Shasha; Liu, Jiahui; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-10-01

    A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun based on a dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes was proposed. The portable plasma gun with an embedded mini air pump was driven by a 12 V direct voltage battery. The air plasma jet generated from the gun could be touched without a common shock hazard. Besides working in air, the plasma gun can also work in water. The diagnostic result of optical emission spectroscopy showed the difference in reactive species of air plasma jet between in air and in water. The plasma gun was excited in 20 ml chloroauric acid aqueous solution with a concentration of 1.214 mM. A significant amount of gold nanoparticles were synthesized after 2 min continuous discharge. The plasma gun with these unique features is applicable in plasma medicine, etching, and s-nthesis of nanomaterials.

  8. Air pressure waves from Mount St. Helens eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Barograms from a number of National Weather Service stations were assembled for the May 18, 1980, eruption and compared to airblast wave propagations from large explosions. Wave amplitudes at 50 to 300 km distances were about what might be expected from a nuclear explosion of between 1 megaton and 10 megaton yield. Pressure-time signatures could not be resolved for the first compression phase, because of the slow paper recording speed. The 900 s negative phase duration was much too long for comparison with the negative phase of an explosion. Nevertheless, positive and negative amplitudes were about equal, as often observed at long distances from explosions. Calculations have been made for a simple finite amplitude propagation model. These show rough bounds on the source compression rate, to give the observed inaudible waves at least to 54 km distance, yet cause audibly rapid compression at Seattle, near 150 km, and beyond.

  9. The Use of Red Green Blue Air Mass Imagery to Investigate the Role of Stratospheric Air in a Non-convective Wind Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, E. B.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Molthan, A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Non-convective wind events commonly occur with passing extratropical cyclones and have significant societal and economic impacts. Since non-convective winds often occur in the absence of specific phenomena such as a thunderstorm, tornado, or hurricane, the public are less likely to heed high wind warnings and continue daily activities. Thus non-convective wind events result in as many fatalities as straight line thunderstorm winds. One physical explanation for non-convective winds includes tropopause folds. Improved model representation of stratospheric air and associated non-convective wind events could improve non-convective wind forecasts and associated warnings. In recent years, satellite data assimilation has improved skill in forecasting extratropical cyclones; however errors still remain in forecasting the position and strength of extratropical cyclones as well as the tropopause folding process. The goal of this study is to determine the impact of assimilating satellite temperature and moisture retrieved profiles from hyperspectral infrared (IR) sounders (i.e. Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS), and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)) on the model representation of the tropopause fold and an associated high wind event that impacted the Northeast United States on 09 February 2013. Model simulations using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting Model (ARW) were conducted on a 12-km grid with cycled data assimilation mimicking the operational North American Model (NAM). The results from the satellite assimilation run are compared to a control experiment (without hyperspectral IR retrievals), Modern Era-Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis, and Rapid Refresh analyses.

  10. Air-Loads Prediction of a UH-60A Rotor inside the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, I-Chung; Romander, Ethan A.; Potsdam, Mark; Yeo, Hyeonsoo

    2010-01-01

    The presented research extends the capability of a loose coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational structure dynamics (CSD) code to calculate the flow-field around a rotor and test stand mounted inside a wind tunnel. Comparison of predicted air-load results for a full-scale UH-60A rotor recently tested inside the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center and in free-air flight are made for three challenging flight data points from the earlier conducted UH-60A Air-loads Program. Overall results show that the extension of the coupled CFD/CSD code to the wind-tunnel environment is generally successful.

  11. Developing a Peak Wind Probability Forecast Tool for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, WInifred; Roeder, William

    2007-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in east-central Florida. The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violations. The tool will include climatologies of the 5-minute mean and peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  12. Using wind setdown and storm surge on Lake Erie to calibrate the air-sea drag coefficient.

    PubMed

    Drews, Carl

    2013-01-01

    The air-sea drag coefficient controls the transfer of momentum from wind to water. In modeling storm surge, this coefficient is a crucial parameter for estimating the surge height. This study uses two strong wind events on Lake Erie to calibrate the drag coefficient using the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Wave Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system and the the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Simulated waves are generated on the lake with Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN). Wind setdown provides the opportunity to eliminate wave setup as a contributing factor, since waves are minimal at the upwind shore. The study finds that model results significantly underestimate wind setdown and storm surge when a typical open-ocean formulation without waves is used for the drag coefficient. The contribution of waves to wind setdown and storm surge is 34.7%. Scattered lake ice also increases the effective drag coefficient by a factor of 1.1. PMID:23977309

  13. Using Wind Setdown and Storm Surge on Lake Erie to Calibrate the Air-Sea Drag Coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Drews, Carl

    2013-01-01

    The air-sea drag coefficient controls the transfer of momentum from wind to water. In modeling storm surge, this coefficient is a crucial parameter for estimating the surge height. This study uses two strong wind events on Lake Erie to calibrate the drag coefficient using the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Wave Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system and the the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Simulated waves are generated on the lake with Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN). Wind setdown provides the opportunity to eliminate wave setup as a contributing factor, since waves are minimal at the upwind shore. The study finds that model results significantly underestimate wind setdown and storm surge when a typical open-ocean formulation without waves is used for the drag coefficient. The contribution of waves to wind setdown and storm surge is 34.7%. Scattered lake ice also increases the effective drag coefficient by a factor of 1.1. PMID:23977309

  14. Pressure distributions obtained on a 0.10-scale model of the Space Shuttle Orbiter's forebody in the Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. M., III; Henry, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Pressure distribution test data obtained on a 0.10-scale model of the forward fuselage of the Space Shuttle Orbiter are presented without analysis. The tests were completed in the Ames Unitary Wind Tunnel (UPWT). The UPWT tests were conducted in two different test sections operating in the continuous mode, the 8 x 7 feet and 9 x 7 feet test sections. Each test section has its own Mach number range, 1.6 to 2.5 and 2.5 to 3.5 for the 9 x 7 feet and 8 x 7 feet test section, respectively. The test Reynolds number ranged from 1.6 to 2.5 x 10 to the 6th power ft and 0.6 to 2.0 x 10 to the 6th power ft, respectively. The tests were conducted in support of the development of the Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS). In addition to modeling the 20 SEADS orifices, the wind-tunnel model was also instrumented with orifices to match Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI) port locations that existed on the Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102) during the Orbiter Flight test program. This DFI simulation has provided a means for comparisons between reentry flight pressure data and wind-tunnel and computational data.

  15. Atmospheric-pressure air microplasma jets in aqueous media for the inactivation of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianhui; Liu, Dongping; Song, Ying; Sun, Yue; Yang, Si-ze

    2013-05-01

    The hollow fiber-based cold air microplasma jet array running at atmospheric pressure has been designed to inactivate Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) cells in vitro in aqueous media. The influences of electrode configurations, air flow rate, and applied voltage on the discharge characteristics of the single microplasma jet operating in aqueous media are presented, and the bactericidal efficiency of the hollow fibers-based and large-volume microplasma jet array is reported. Optical emission spectroscopy is utilized to identify excited species during the antibacterial testing of plasma in solutions. These well-aligned and rather stable air microplasma jets containing a variety of short-lived species, such as OH and O radicals and charged particles, are in direct contact with aqueous media and are very effective in killing P. fluorescens cells in aqueous media. This design shows its potential application for atmospheric pressure air plasma inactivation of bacteria cells in aqueous media.

  16. Atmospheric-pressure air microplasma jets in aqueous media for the inactivation of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xianhui; Yang, Si-ze; Liu, Dongping; Song, Ying; Sun, Yue

    2013-05-15

    The hollow fiber-based cold air microplasma jet array running at atmospheric pressure has been designed to inactivate Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) cells in vitro in aqueous media. The influences of electrode configurations, air flow rate, and applied voltage on the discharge characteristics of the single microplasma jet operating in aqueous media are presented, and the bactericidal efficiency of the hollow fibers-based and large-volume microplasma jet array is reported. Optical emission spectroscopy is utilized to identify excited species during the antibacterial testing of plasma in solutions. These well-aligned and rather stable air microplasma jets containing a variety of short-lived species, such as OH and O radicals and charged particles, are in direct contact with aqueous media and are very effective in killing P. fluorescens cells in aqueous media. This design shows its potential application for atmospheric pressure air plasma inactivation of bacteria cells in aqueous media.

  17. Pressure-Sensitive Paint and Video Model Deformation Systems at the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, G. E.; Burner, A. W.; DeLoach, R.

    1999-01-01

    Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) and video model deformation (VMD) systems have been installed in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center to support the supersonic wind tunnel testing requirements of the High Speed Research (HSR) program. The PSP and VMD systems have been operational since early 1996 and provide the capabilities of measuring global surface static pressures and wing local twist angles and deflections (bending). These techniques have been successfully applied to several HSR wind tunnel models for wide ranges of the Mach number, Reynolds number, and angle of attack. A review of the UPWT PSP and VMD systems is provided, and representative results obtained on selected HSR models are shown. A promising technique to streamline the wind tunnel testing process, Modern Experimental Design, is also discussed in conjunction with recently-completed wing deformation measurements at UPWT.

  18. Indoor modeling of the wind pressure in solar installations with flat and step-like frames for HCPV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumyantsev, Valery D.; Ashcheulov, Yury V.; Chekalin, Alexander V.; Chumakov, Yury S.; Shvarts, Maxim Z.; Timofeev, Vladimir V.

    2014-09-01

    As a rule, the HCPV modules are mounted on solar trackers in a form of a flat panel. Wind pressure is one of the key factors limiting the operation capabilities of such type solar installations. At the PV Lab of the Ioffe Institute, the sun-trackers with step-like frame for modules have been proposed and developed, which have a potential for significant reduction of wind pressure. Such a reduction is realized in a wide range of the frame tilt angles the most typical for day-light operation of solar installations. In the present work, theoretical consideration and indoor experiments with mechanical models of installation frames have been carried out. A wind tunnel has been used as an experimental instrument for quantitative comparison in conventional units of expected wind loads on module frames of different designs.

  19. Preliminary Assessment of Potential Avian Interactions at Four Proposed Wind Energy Facilities on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-08-01

    The United States Air Force (USAF) is investigating whether to install wind turbines to provide a supplemental source of electricity at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) near Lompoc, California. As part of that investigation, VAFB sought assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to provide a preliminary characterization of the potential risk to wildlife resources (mainly birds and bats) from wind turbine installations. With wind power development expanding throughout North America and Europe, concerns have surfaced over the number of bird fatalities associated with wind turbines. Guidelines developed for the wind industry by the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC) recommend assessing potential impacts to birds, bats, and other potentially sensitive resources before construction. The primary purpose of an assessment is to identify potential conflicts with sensitive resources, to assist developers with identifying their permitting needs, and to develop strategies to avoid impacts or to mitigate their effects. This report provides a preliminary (Phase I) biological assessment of potential impacts to birds and bats that might result from construction and operation of the proposed wind energy facilities on VAFB.

  20. Profiling Wind and Greenhouse Gases by Infrared-laser Occultation: Algorithm and Results from Simulations in Windy Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plach, Andreas; Proschek, Veronika; Kirchengast, Gottfried

    2014-05-01

    We employ the Low Earth Orbit (LEO-LEO) microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO) method to derive a full set of thermodynamic state variables from microwave signals and climate benchmark profiling of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and line-of-sight (l.o.s.) wind using infrared-laser signals. The focus lies on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region (UTLS - 5 km to 35 km). The GHG retrieval errors are generally smaller than 1% to 3% r.m.s., at a vertical resolution of about 1 km. In this study we focus on the infrared-laser part of LMIO, where we introduce a new, advanced wind retrieval algorithm to derive accurate l.o.s. wind profiles. The wind retrieval uses the reasonable assumption of the wind blowing along spherical shells (horizontal winds) and therefore the l.o.s. wind speed can be retrieved by using an Abel integral transform. A 'delta-differential transmission' principle is applied to two thoroughly selected infrared-laser signals placed at the wings of the highly symmetric C18OO absorption line (nominally ±0.004 cm-1 from the line center near 4767 cm-1) plus a related 'off-line' reference signal. The delta-differential transmission obtained by differencing these signals is clear from atmospheric broadband effects and is proportional to the wind-induced Doppler shift; it serves as the integrand of the Abel transform. The Doppler frequency shift calculated along with the wind retrieval is in turn also used in the GHG retrieval to correct the frequency of GHG-sensitive infrared-laser signals for the wind-induced Doppler shift, which enables improved GHG estimation. This step therefore provides the capability to correct potential wind-induced residual errors of the GHG retrieval in case of strong winds. We performed end-to-end simulations to test the performance of the new retrieval in windy air. The simulations used realistic atmospheric conditions (thermodynamic state variables and wind profiles) from an analysis field of the European Centre for

  1. Air-Water Gas Exchange in Wetland Water Columns Due To Wind and Thermal Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindexter, C.; Variano, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this work is to provide a parameterization of the air-water gas transfer rate in wetlands, and do so in terms of easily measured environmental variables. This parameterization is intended to support biogeochemical modeling in wetlands by providing an interfacial flux of key importance. Our approach uses laboratory experiments describe the oxygen transfer across an air-water interface in a model wetland. The oxygen transfer is sensitive to the externally imposed wind, vegetation characteristics, and vertical thermal convection. We vary these systematically, determining the gas transfer (or "piston") velocity that describes interfacial gas flux. We measure velocity vector fields near the air-water interface using particle image velocimetry, and use these measurements to help explain the mechanisms behind the measured trends in oxygen transfer. The explanatory power of these measurements includes the relationship between plant geometry and surface divergence. We explore the potential impact of our results on wetland modeling and management, for issues such as carbon sequestration and methane emission.

  2. Evaluation of Air Capture Ratio of Scramjet Inlet by Multi-Point Pressure Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Eijiro; Mitani, Tohru; Sakuranaka, Noboru; Izumikawa, Muneo; Watanabe, Syuichi; Masuya, Goro

    A method to evaluate aerodynamic performances of scramjet engines by using multi-probe rakes was proposed. The aerodynamic tests were carried out under Mach 4 flight conditions. The Pitot and static pressures were measured at 250 points in the cross sectional area of the engine exit by the rakes. Local mass flux and thrust function were evaluated from the pressure measurement at each point and integrations of these values enabled to obtain the mass flow rate and the stream thrust at the engine exit. The air capture ratios were independently measured by the rakes and a conventional choked flowmeter. The air capture ratios measured by these two methods agreed within 2%. It was found that the rakes enabled to measure the air capture ratio more simply than the flowmeter. Additionally, the effect of boundary layer ingestion to an internal drag was investigated by the rakes. The decrease of air capture ratio measured by the rakes showed that the ingested boundary layers were separated in the inlet. The pressure drag of inlet increased by the separation and the pressure thrust decreased by the decrease of air capture ratio. As a result, the internal drag increased when the forebody boundary layer was ingested.

  3. Auto-ignition and upper explosion limit of rich propane-air mixtures at elevated pressures.

    PubMed

    Norman, F; Van den Schoor, F; Verplaetsen, F

    2006-09-21

    The auto-ignition limits of propane-air mixtures at elevated pressures up to 15 bar and for concentrations from 10 mol% up to 70 mol% are investigated. The experiments are performed in a closed spherical vessel with a volume of 8 dm3. The auto-ignition temperatures decrease from 300 degrees C to 250 degrees C when increasing the pressure from 1 bar to 14.5 bar. It is shown that the fuel concentration most sensitive to auto-ignition depends on initial pressure. A second series of experiments investigates the upper flammability limit of propane-air mixtures at initial temperatures up to 250 degrees C and pressures up to 30 bar near the auto-ignition area. Finally the propane auto-oxidation is modelled using several detailed kinetic reaction mechanisms and these numerical calculations are compared with the experimental results. PMID:16716499

  4. Correlation of Fin Buffet Pressures on an F/A-18 with Scaled Wind-Tunnel Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.; Shah, Gautam H.

    1999-01-01

    Buffeting is an aeroelastic phenomenon occurring at high angles of attack that plagues high performance aircraft, especially those with twin vertical tails. Previous wind-tunnel and flight tests were conducted to characterize the buffet loads on the vertical tails by measuring surface pressures, bending moments, and accelerations. Following these tests, buffeting responses were computed using the measured buffet pressures and compared to the measured buffeting responses. The calculated results did not match the measured data because the assumed spatial correlation of the buffet pressures was not correct. A better understanding of the partial (spatial) correlation of the differential buffet pressures on the tail was necessary to improve the buffeting predictions. Several wind-tunnel investigations were conducted for this purpose. When compared, the results of these tests show that the partial correlation scales with flight conditions. One of the remaining questions is whether the wind-tunnel data is consistent with flight data. Presented herein, cross-spectra and coherence functions calculated from pressures that were measured on the High Alpha Research Vehicle indicate that the partial correlation of the buffet pressures in flight agrees with the partial correlation observed in the wind tunnel.

  5. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.149 Type C supplied-air respirator... air-supply system, and the range of hose length for the respirator. For example, he might specify that... pressure at the point of attachment of the hose to the air-supply system shall not exceed 863 kN/m.2...

  6. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.149 Type C supplied-air respirator... air-supply system, and the range of hose length for the respirator. For example, he might specify that... pressure at the point of attachment of the hose to the air-supply system shall not exceed 863 kN/m.2...

  7. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.149 Type C supplied-air respirator... air-supply system, and the range of hose length for the respirator. For example, he might specify that... pressure at the point of attachment of the hose to the air-supply system shall not exceed 863 kN/m.2...

  8. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.149 Type C supplied-air respirator... air-supply system, and the range of hose length for the respirator. For example, he might specify that... pressure at the point of attachment of the hose to the air-supply system shall not exceed 863 kN/m.2...

  9. High-resolution daily gridded datasets of air temperature and wind speed for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, S.; Krähenmann, S.; Bissolli, P.

    2015-08-01

    New high-resolution datasets for near surface daily air temperature (minimum, maximum and mean) and daily mean wind speed for Europe (the CORDEX domain) are provided for the period 2001-2010 for the purpose of regional model validation in the framework of DecReg, a sub-project of the German MiKlip project, which aims to develop decadal climate predictions. The main input data sources are hourly SYNOP observations, partly supplemented by station data from the ECA&D dataset (http://www.ecad.eu). These data are quality tested to eliminate erroneous data and various kinds of inhomogeneities. Grids in a resolution of 0.044° (5 km) are derived by spatial interpolation of these station data into the CORDEX area. For temperature interpolation a modified version of a regression kriging method developed by Krähenmann et al. (2011) is used. At first, predictor fields of altitude, continentality and zonal mean temperature are chosen for a regression applied to monthly station data. The residuals of the monthly regression and the deviations of the daily data from the monthly averages are interpolated using simple kriging in a second and third step. For wind speed a new method based on the concept used for temperature was developed, involving predictor fields of exposure, roughness length, coastal distance and ERA Interim reanalysis wind speed at 850 hPa. Interpolation uncertainty is estimated by means of the kriging variance and regression uncertainties. Furthermore, to assess the quality of the final daily grid data, cross validation is performed. Explained variance ranges from 70 to 90 % for monthly temperature and from 50 to 60 % for monthly wind speed. The resulting RMSE for the final daily grid data amounts to 1-2 °C and 1-1.5 m s-1 (depending on season and parameter) for daily temperature parameters and daily mean wind speed, respectively. The datasets presented in this article are published at http://dx.doi.org/10.5676/DWD_CDC/DECREG0110v1.

  10. GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

    2014-05-05

    This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

  11. Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Butcher, Thomas A.; Celebi, Yusuf; Fisher, Leonard

    2000-09-15

    The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

  12. Pressure measurement in supersonic air flow by differential absorptive laser-induced thermal acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Roger C.; Herring, G. C.; Balla, R. Jeffrey

    2007-06-01

    Nonintrusive, off-body flow barometry in Mach 2 airflow has been demonstrated in a large-scale supersonic wind tunnel using seedless laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA). The static pressure of the gas flow is determined with a novel differential absorption measurement of the ultrasonic sound produced by the LITA pump process. Simultaneously, the streamwise velocity and static gas temperature of the same spatially resolved sample volume were measured with this nonresonant time-averaged LITA technique. Mach number, temperature, and pressure have 0.2%, 0.4%, and 4% rms agreement, respectively, in comparison with known free-stream conditions.

  13. Pressure Measurement in Supersonic Air Flow by Differential Absorptive Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Roger C.; Herring, Gregory C.; Balla, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Nonintrusive, off-body flow barometry in Mach-2 airflow has been demonstrated in a large-scale supersonic wind tunnel using seedless laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA). The static pressure of the gas flow is determined with a novel differential absorption measurement of the ultrasonic sound produced by the LITA pump process. Simultaneously, stream-wise velocity and static gas temperature of the same spatially-resolved sample volume were measured with this nonresonant time-averaged LITA technique. Mach number, temperature and pressure have 0.2%, 0.4%, and 4% rms agreement, respectively, in comparison with known free-stream conditions.

  14. Effects of a solar wind pressure pulse in the magnetosphere and in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juusola, Liisa; Andreeova, Katerina; Palmroth, Minna; Amm, Olaf

    2010-05-01

    On 17 July 2005, an earthward bound north-south oriented magnetic cloud and its sheath were observed by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO), and the Wind solar wind monitors. A steplike increase of the solar wind dynamic pressure was related to the leading edge of the sheath. A timing analysis between the three spacecraft revealed that this front was not aligned with GSE y axis, but tilted by an angle of about 55° towards the x axis. Hence, the first contact with the magnetosphere occured on the dawnside rather than at the subsolar point. Fortunately, Cluster, Double Star 1, and Geotail happened to be distributed close to the magnetopause in this region, which made it possible to closely monitor the motion of the magnetopause. When the pressure pulse impacted the magnetosphere, the magnetopause was perceived first to move inward and then immediatelly correct the overshoot by slightly expanding again such that it ended up between the Cluster constellation with Double Star 1 inside the magnetosphere and Geotail in the magnetosheath. In the ionosphere, the AE index showed a relatively weak enhancement with a peak of less than 200 nT. This enhancement lasted for about 10 minutes and coincided with the inward and subsequent outward motion of the magnetopause observed by the magnetospheric spacecraft. The ground-based International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effects (IMAGE) magnetometer network was also located on the dawn side during the arrival of the pressure pulse. The 1-D equivalent currents showed a peak of eastward current in the region covered by IMAGE, where the westward electrojet generally dominates at that time. After 10 minutes, the region of weakening eastward current was divided in two by the recovering westward electrojet. The 2-D equivalent currents further revealed that while the region of eastward current expanded from the east, the recovery of the westward electrojet began from the western edge

  15. Effects of air breathing engine plumes on SSV orbiter subsonic wing pressure distribution, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soard, T.

    1974-01-01

    Data presented were obtained during wind tunnel tests of a 0.0405-scale model of the -89B ferry configuration of the space shuttle vehicle orbiter. These tests were conducted in the Rockwell International low speed wind tunnel (NAAL). The primary test objective was to investigate orbiter wing pressure distributions resulting from nacelle plumes above and below the wing. Three six-engine nacelle configurations were tested. One configuration has a twin-podded nacelle mounted above each wing and the others had one mounted below each wing. Both had a centerline twin-podded nacelle mounted below the wing. Wing pressure distribution was determined by locating static pressure bugs on the upper and lower surfaces of the left wing. Pressure bugs were also located on the upper and lower surfaces of the body flap and on the B12 afterbody fairing when it was installed. Base and balance cavity pressures were recorded and a strain gage instrumented beam in the right wing measured elevon hinge moments and normal forces.

  16. Dominance of toroidal oscillations in dawn/dusk sectors: A consequence of solar wind pressure variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, A. K.; Rajaram, R.

    2003-02-01

    The pressure variations in the solar wind produce the oscillations in surface currents at the magnetopause boundary in order to nullify the pressure imbalance. These currents introduce compressional variations in the magnetic field within the magnetosphere. The response of transverse field line oscillations to such changes in the magnetic field has been brought out in perfectly reflecting ionospheric conditions. The analysis clearly shows that the fundamental toroidal modes are dominant in the dawn and the dusk sectors as revealed by the statistical studies of pulsations observed by the satellite AMPTE/CCE (Anderson et al., 1990). It is traditionally believed that such oscillations are mainly driven by Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability (Anderson et al., 1990). Our analysis shows that the dominance of fundamental toroidal modes in the dawn and dusk sectors can also be explained in terms of response to impressed pressure impulses without invoking K-H instability. The analysis also shows that poloidal modes do not exhibit any longitudinal structures. These results are consistent with the observations (Anderson et al., 1990).

  17. Characterization and Uncertainty Analysis of a Reference Pressure Measurement System for Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Tahani; Tripp, John; Tcheng, Ping; Burkett, Cecil; Sealey, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the calibration results and uncertainty analysis of a high-precision reference pressure measurement system currently used in wind tunnels at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Sensors, calibration standards, and measurement instruments are subject to errors due to aging, drift with time, environment effects, transportation, the mathematical model, the calibration experimental design, and other factors. Errors occur at every link in the chain of measurements and data reduction from the sensor to the final computed results. At each link of the chain, bias and precision uncertainties must be separately estimated for facility use, and are combined to produce overall calibration and prediction confidence intervals for the instrument, typically at a 95% confidence level. The uncertainty analysis and calibration experimental designs used herein, based on techniques developed at LaRC, employ replicated experimental designs for efficiency, separate estimation of bias and precision uncertainties, and detection of significant parameter drift with time. Final results, including calibration confidence intervals and prediction intervals given as functions of the applied inputs, not as a fixed percentage of the full-scale value are presented. System uncertainties are propagated beginning with the initial reference pressure standard, to the calibrated instrument as a working standard in the facility. Among the several parameters that can affect the overall results are operating temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity, and facility vibration. Effects of factors such as initial zeroing and temperature are investigated. The effects of the identified parameters on system performance and accuracy are discussed.

  18. Effect of pressure on structure and NO sub X formation in CO-air diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maahs, H. G.; Miller, I. M.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made of nitric oxide formation in a laminar CO-air diffusion flame over a pressure range from 1 to 50 atm. The carbon monoxide (CO) issued from a 3.06 mm diameter port coaxially into a coflowing stream of air confined within a 20.5 mm diameter chimney. Nitric oxide concentrations from the flame were measured at two carbon monoxide (fuel) flow rates: 73 standard cubic/min and 146 sccm. Comparison of the present data with data in the literature for a methane-air diffusion flame shows that for flames of comparable flame height (8 to 10 mm) and pseudoequivalence ratio (0.162), the molar emission index of a CO-air flame is significantly greater than that of a methane-air flame.

  19. Characterization of waviness in wind turbine blades using air coupled ultrasonics

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrapani, Sunil Kishore; Dayal, Vinay; Hsu, David K.; Barnard, Daniel J.; Gross, Andrew

    2011-06-23

    Waviness in glass fiber reinforced composite is of great interest in composite research, since it results in the loss of stiffness. Several NDE techniques have been used previously to detect waviness. This work is concerned with waves normal to the plies in a composite. Air-coupled ultrasonics was used to detect waviness in thick composites used in the manufacturing of wind turbine blades. Composite samples with different wave aspect ratios were studied. Different wavy samples were characterized, and a three step process was developed to make sure the technique is field implementable. This gives us a better understanding of the effect of waviness in thick composites, and how it affects the life and performance of the composite.

  20. Numerical modeling on air quality in an urban environment with changes of the aspect ratio and wind direction.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Mohamed F

    2013-06-01

    Due to heavy traffic emissions within an urban environment, air quality during the last decade becomes worse year by year and hazard to public health. In the present work, numerical modeling of flow and dispersion of gaseous emissions from vehicle exhaust in a street canyon were investigated under changes of the aspect ratio and wind direction. The three-dimensional flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants were modeled using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model which was numerically solved using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The diffusion flow field in the atmospheric boundary layer within the street canyon was studied for different aspect ratios (W/H=1/2, 3/4, and 1) and wind directions (θ=90°, 112.5°, 135°, and 157.5°). The numerical models were validated against wind tunnel results to optimize the turbulence model. The numerical results agreed well with the wind tunnel results. The simulation demonstrated that the minimum concentration at the human respiration height within the street canyon was on the windward side for aspect ratios W/H=1/2 and 1 and wind directions θ=112.5°, 135°, and 157.5°. The pollutant concentration level decreases as the wind direction and aspect ratio increase. The wind velocity and turbulence intensity increase as the aspect ratio and wind direction increase. PMID:23192299

  1. Comparison of Tests on Air Propellers in Flight with Wind Tunnel Model Tests on Similar Forms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, W F; Lesley, E P

    1926-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the performance, characteristics, and coefficients of full-sized air propellers in flight and to compare these results with those derived from wind-tunnel tests on reduced scale models of similar geometrical form. The full-scale equipment comprised five propellers in combination with a VE-7 airplane and Wright E-4 engine. This part of the work was carried out at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, between May 1 and August 24, 1924, and was under the immediate charge of Mr. Lesley. The model or wind-tunnel part of the investigation was carried out at the Aerodynamic Laboratory of Stanford University and was under the immediate charge of Doctor Durand. A comparison of the curves for full-scale results with those derived from the model tests shows that while the efficiencies realized in flight are close to those derived from model tests, both thrust developed and power absorbed in flight are from 6 to 10 per cent greater than would be expected from the results of model tests.

  2. Wind tunnel experiments: cold-air pooling and atmospheric decoupling above a melting snow patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mott, Rebecca; Paterna, Enrico; Horender, Stefan; Crivelli, Philip; Lehning, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The longevity of perennial snowfields is not fully understood, but it is known that strong atmospheric stability and thus boundary-layer decoupling limit the amount of (sensible and latent) heat that can be transmitted from the atmosphere to the snow surface. The strong stability is typically caused by two factors, (i) the temperature difference between the (melting) snow surface and the near-surface atmosphere and (ii) cold-air pooling in topographic depressions. These factors are almost always a prerequisite for perennial snowfields to exist. For the first time, this contribution investigates the relative importance of the two factors in a controlled wind tunnel environment. Vertical profiles of sensible heat and momentum fluxes are measured using two-component hot-wire and one-component cold-wire anemometry directly over the melting snow patch. The comparison between a flat snow surface and one that has a depression shows that atmospheric decoupling is strongly increased in the case of topographic sheltering but only for low to moderate wind speeds. For those conditions, the near-surface suppression of turbulent mixing was observed to be strongest, and the ambient flow was decoupled from the surface, enhancing near-surface atmospheric stability over the single snow patch.

  3. Development of Solar Wind Model Driven by Empirical Heat Flux and Pressure Terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Edward C., Jr.; Ofman, L.; Selwa, M.; Kramar, M.

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a time stationary self-consistent 2D MHD model of the solar corona and solar wind as suggested by Sittler et al. (2003). Sittler & Guhathakurta (1999) developed a semiempirical steady state model (SG model) of the solar wind in a multipole 3-streamer structure, with the model constrained by Skylab observations. Guhathakurta et al. (2006) presented a more recent version of their initial work. Sittler et al. (2003) modified the SG model by investigating time dependent MHD, ad hoc heating term with heat conduction and empirical heating solutions. Next step of development of 2D MHD models was performed by Sittler & Ofman (2006). They derived effective temperature and effective heat flux from the data-driven SG model and fit smooth analytical functions to be used in MHD calculations. Improvements of the Sittler & Ofman (2006) results now show a convergence of the 3-streamer topology into a single equatorial streamer at altitudes > 2 R(sub S). This is a new result and shows we are now able to reproduce observations of an equatorially confined streamer belt. In order to allow our solutions to be applied to more general applications, we extend that model by using magnetogram data and PFSS model as a boundary condition. Initial results were presented by Selwa et al. (2008). We choose solar minimum magnetogram data since during solar maximum the boundary conditions are more complex and the coronal magnetic field may not be described correctly by PFSS model. As the first step we studied the simplest 2D MHD case with variable heat conduction, and with empirical heat input combined with empirical momentum addition for the fast solar wind. We use realistic magnetic field data based on NSO/GONG data, and plan to extend the study to 3D. This study represents the first attempt of fully self-consistent realistic model based on real data and including semi-empirical heat flux and semi-empirical effective pressure terms.

  4. Observational features of field line resonances excited by solar wind pressure variations on 4 September 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warnecke, J.; Luehr, H.; Takahashi, K.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to establish the most probable excitation mechanism of the magnetic storm occurred after an inverse sudden impulse on September 4, 1984. Geomagnetic pulsations in the Pc5-frequency range observed at magnetometer stations are evaluated. Attention is focused on two events of the enhanced activity: for the first one, conjugate observations on the ground are assessed and then compared with satellite-based observations on adjacent field lines; for the second event two hours later, data from an extended azimuthal range is employed. It is pointed out that the observations are consistent with the theory of filed-line resonance, and may be interpreted as excitations caused by pressure variations in the solar wind. Both magnetopause-surface waves and cavity resonances are excited; the cavity mode drives toroidal field-line oscillations at locations where its frequency matches the resonance frequency of the field lines.

  5. Effect of sudden solar wind dynamic pressure changes at subauroral latitudes - Change in magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, G.; Russell, C. T.; Petrinec, S. M.; Ginskey, M.

    1993-01-01

    The observations obtained during the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) from the magnetometers of the IGS network extending from Cambridge, England, to Tromso, Norway, are used to study the response of subauroral current systems to sudden changes in solar wind dynamic pressure. Observations show that the response is very strong at subauroral latitudes. The preliminary response in the H component is a brief, small increase in the dayside morning sector and a decrease in the aftenoon and night sectors. The main response in the horizontal field (the H and D components) is toward the pole except in the dayside morning sector. The inferred ionospheric current is mainly a circulatory system flowing counterclockwise when viewed from the north pole everywhere at subauroral latitudes except the dayside morning sector.

  6. Effect of sudden solar wind dynamic pressure changes at subauroral latitudes: Change in magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Le, G.; Russell, C.T.; Petrinec, S.M.; Ginskey, M. )

    1993-03-01

    The observations obtained during the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) from the magnetometers of the IGS network extending from Cambridge, England, to Tromso, Norway, are used to study the response of subauroral current systems to sudden changes in solar wind dynamic pressure. Observations show that the response is very strong at subauroral latitudes. The preliminary response in the H component is a brief, small increase in the dayside moring sector and a decrease in the afternoon and night sectors. The main response in the horizontal field (the H and D components) is toward the pole except in the dayside morning sector. The inferred ionospheric current is mainly a circulatory system flowing counterclockwise when viewed form the north pole everywhere at subauroral latitudes except the dayside morning sector. 29 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Special features of a substorm during high solar wind dynamic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, A.T.Y.; Ohtani, S.; Newell, P.T.

    1995-10-01

    A substorm on July 24, 1986, exhibiting a rather unusual auroral morphology is analyzed with data from spacecraft (Viking; DMSP F6 and F7; GOES 5 and 6; three LANL geosynchronous satellites; CCE; and IMP 8). This substorm occurred during high solar wind dynamic pressure (>5 nPa). Several notable features for this substorm are: (1) the substorm onset activity was preceded by prominent auroral activations in the morning sector with spatial separations between adjacent bright regions ranging from {approximately}160 to 640 km, and their intensity was modulated at {approximately}3.2-min intervals; (2) the initial substorm activity was concentrated in the morning sector, followed by a sudden activation in the dusk sector, leaving the midnight sector relatively undisturbed, in sharp contrast to the traditional substorm development; (3) while a substorm injection was observed at a geocentric distance of {approximately}8.4 R{sub E} by CCE in association with the substorm onset, particle injections (detectable with three LANL geosynchronous satellites) and dipolarization signatures (detectable by the two GOES satellites) were not observed until subsequent intensifications; (4) timing subsequent substorm intensifications from injections at the geosynchronous altitude differed from timing intensifications based on Viking auroral images by as much as {approximately}3 min; (5) the polar cap boundary was at a significantly higher latitude than the poleward boundary delineated by detectable auroral luminosity in the auroral oval. Detailed timing analysis suggests the substorm onset to be associated with southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), possibly with the crossing of an IMF sector boundary (interplanetary current sheet). The dimming of auroral luminosity in the midnight region was associated with a sudden northward turning of the IMF during high solar wind dynamic pressure condition. 36 refs., 14 figs.

  8. The Determination of the Percent of Oxygen in Air Using a Gas Pressure Sensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, James; Chancey, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    The experiment of determination of the percent of oxygen in air is performed in a general chemistry laboratory in which students compare the results calculated from the pressure measurements obtained with the calculator-based systems to those obtained in a water-measurement method. This experiment allows students to explore a fundamental reaction…

  9. Compressed-air work is entering the field of high pressures.

    PubMed

    Le Péchon, J Cl; Gourdon, G

    2010-01-01

    Since 1850, compressed-air work has been used to prevent shafts or tunnels under construction from flooding. Until the 1980s, workers were digging in compressed-air environments. Since the introduction of tunnel boring machines (TBMs), very little digging under pressure is needed. However, the wearing out of cutter-head tools requires inspection and repair. Compressed-air workers enter the pressurized working chamber only occasionally to perform such repairs. Pressures between 3.5 and 4.5 bar, that stand outside a reasonable range for air breathing, were reached by 2002. Offshore deep diving technology had to be adapted to TBM work. Several sites have used mixed gases: in Japan for deep shaft sinking (4.8 bar), in The Netherlands at Western Scheldt Tunnels (6.9 bar), in Russia for St. Petersburg Metro (5.8 bar) and in the United States at Seattle (5.8 bar). Several tunnel projects are in progress that may involve higher pressures: Hallandsås (Sweden) interventions in heliox saturation up to 13 bar, and Lake Mead (U.S.) interventions to about 12 bar (2010). Research on TBMs and grouting technologies tries to reduce the requirements for hyperbaric works. Adapted international rules, expertise and services for saturation work, shuttles and trained personnel matching industrial requirements are the challenges. PMID:20737925

  10. SOIL-AIR PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENT WITH A TRANSIENT PRESSURE BUILDUP METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical solution for transient pressure change in a single venting well was derived from mass conservation of air, Darcy's law of flow in porous media, and the ideal gas law equation of state. Slopes of plots of Pw2 against ln (t+Δt)/Δt similar to Homer's plot were used to ...

  11. 49 CFR 393.51 - Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges... and vacuum gauges. (a) General Rule. Every bus, truck and truck tractor, except as provided in.... (d) Vacuum brakes. A commercial motor vehicle (regardless of the date it was manufactured)...

  12. 49 CFR 393.51 - Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges... and vacuum gauges. (a) General Rule. Every bus, truck and truck tractor, except as provided in.... (d) Vacuum brakes. A commercial motor vehicle (regardless of the date it was manufactured)...

  13. 49 CFR 393.51 - Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges... and vacuum gauges. (a) General Rule. Every bus, truck and truck tractor, except as provided in.... (d) Vacuum brakes. A commercial motor vehicle (regardless of the date it was manufactured)...

  14. Acute Effects of Continuous Positive Air way Pressure on Pulse Pressure in Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Quintão, Mônica; Chermont, Sérgio; Marchese, Luana; Brandão, Lúcia; Bernardez, Sabrina Pereira; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Rocha, Nazareth de Novaes; Nóbrega, Antônio Claudio L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with heart failure (HF) have left ventricular dysfunction and reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP). Increased adrenergic drive causes vasoconstriction and vessel resistance maintaining MAP, while increasing peripheral vascular resistance and conduit vessel stiffness. Increased pulse pressure (PP) reflects a complex interaction of the heart with the arterial and venous systems. Increased PP is an important risk marker in patients with chronic HF (CHF). Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been used for acute decompensated HF, to improve congestion and ventilation through both respiratory and hemodynamic effects. However, none of these studies have reported the effect of NIV on PP. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the acute effects of NIV with CPAP on PP in outpatients with CHF. Methods Following a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, and placebo-controlled protocol, twenty three patients with CHF (17 males; 60 ± 11 years; BMI 29 ± 5 kg/cm2, NYHA class II, III) underwent CPAP via nasal mask for 30 min in a recumbent position. Mask pressure was 6 cmH2O, whereas placebo was fixed at 0-1 cmH2O. PP and other non invasive hemodynamics variables were assessed before, during and after placebo and CPAP mode. Results CPAP decreased resting heart rate (Pre: 72 ± 9; vs. Post 5 min: 67 ± 10 bpm; p < 0.01) and MAP (CPAP: 87 ± 11; vs. control 96 ± 11 mmHg; p < 0.05 post 5 min). CPAP decreased PP (CPAP: 47 ± 20 pre to 38 ± 19 mmHg post; vs. control: 42 ± 12 mmHg, pre to 41 ± 18 post p < 0.05 post 5 min). Conclusion NIV with CPAP decreased pulse pressure in patients with stable CHF. Future clinical trials should investigate whether this effect is associated with improved clinical outcome. PMID:24676373

  15. Pressure distribution on a vectored-thrust V/STOL fighter in the transition-speed range. [wind tunnel tests to measure pressure distribution on body and wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, R. E.; Margason, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel with a vectored-thrust V/STOL fighter configuration to obtain detailed pressure measurements on the body and on the wing in the transition-speed range. The vectored-thrust jet exhaust induced a region of negative pressure coefficients on the lower surface of the wing and on the bottom of the fuselage. The location of the jet exhaust relative to the wing was a major factor in determining the extent of the region of negative pressure coefficients.

  16. WIND TUNNEL STUDY OF THE FLOW FIELD WITHIN AND AROUND OPEN-TOP CHAMBERS USED FOR AIR POLLUTION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Meteorological Wind Tunnel was used to examine the flow field in and around models of open-top field plant growth chambers used to assess the effects of pollutant gases on plant growth. Baffles designed to reduce the ingress of ambient air into the chamber through the ope...

  17. Incorporation of the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) for dust into a regional air quality modeling system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion of soil is a major concern of the agricultural community as it removes the most fertile part of the soil and thus degrades soil productivity. Furthermore, suspension of eroded soil particles results in dust emissions into the atmosphere, contributing to poor air quality, reduced visibi...

  18. Measurement of the First Townsend's Ionization Coefficients in Helium, Air, and Nitrogen at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Junxia; Luo, Haiyun; Yue, Yang; Wang, Xinxin

    2014-07-01

    In the past the first Townsend’s ionization coefficient α could only be measured with Townsend discharge in gases at low pressure. After realizing Townsend discharge in some gases at atmospheric pressure by using dielectric barrier electrodes, we had developed a new method for measuring α coefficient at atmospheric pressure, a new optical method based on the discharge images taken with ICCD camera. With this newly developed method α coefficient in helium, nitrogen and air at atmospheric pressure were measured. The results were found to be in good agreement with the data obtained at lower pressure but same reduced field E/p by other groups. It seems that the value of α coefficient is sensitive to the purity of the working gas.

  19. Non-LTE Steady-State Kinetics of He-Air Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Tzvetelina; Petrov, George; Gillman, Eric; Boris, David; Hernández, Sandra; Walton, Scott

    2015-11-01

    A non-LTE, steady-state collisional-radiative kinetics model is developed to study discharges produced in mixtures of He, N2 and O2 (He-Air) at atmospheric pressures. The model is based on a self-consistent solution of coupled Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function, electron energy balance equation, gas thermal balance equation, and a system of non-linear equations for species that govern plasma chemistry (electrons, ions, radicals, atoms and molecules in ground and excited states). The model and results can be applied to study a variety of atmospheric pressure plasmas generated in He-Air mixtures, such as plasma jets, dielectric barrier discharges, laser-induced plasmas, microwave plasmas, etc. In this talk, collisional rates and species densities are obtained as a function of He-to-air ratio and the results are benchmarked against available experimental data. Work supported by the NRL Base Program.

  20. An investigation of air solubility in Jet A fuel at high pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Problems concerned with the supercritical injection concept are discussed. Supercritical injection involves dissolving air into a fuel prior to injection. A similar effect is obtained by preheating the fuel so that a portion of the fuel flashes when its pressure is reduced. Flashing improves atomization properties and the presence of air in the primary zone of a spray flame reduces the formation of pollutants. The investigation is divided into three phases: (1) measure the solubility and density properties of fuel/gas mixtures, including Jet A/air, at pressures and correlate these results using theory; (2) investigate the atomization properties of flashing liquids, including fuel/dissolved gas systems. Determine and correlate the effect of inlet properties and injector geometry on mass flow rates, Sauter mean diameter and spray angles; (3) examine the combustion properties of flashing injection in an open burner flame, considering flame shape and soot production.

  1. Picosecond ballistic imaging of diesel injection in high-temperature and high-pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, Sean P.; Porter, Jason M.; Parker, Terence E.

    2015-04-01

    The first successful demonstration of picosecond ballistic imaging using a 15-ps-pulse-duration laser in diesel sprays at temperature and pressure is reported. This technique uses an optical Kerr effect shutter constructed from a CS2 liquid cell and a 15-ps pulse at 532 nm. The optical shutter can be adjusted to produce effective imaging pulses between 7 and 16 ps. This technique is used to image the near-orifice region (first 3 mm) of diesel sprays from a high-pressure single-hole fuel injector. Ballistic imaging of dodecane and methyl oleate sprays injected into ambient air and diesel injection at preignition engine-like conditions are reported. Dodecane was injected into air heated to 600 °C and pressurized to 20 atm. The resulting images of the near-orifice region at these conditions reveal dramatic shedding of the liquid near the nozzle, an effect that has been predicted, but to our knowledge never before imaged. These shedding structures have an approximate spatial frequency of 10 mm-1 with lengths from 50 to 200 μm. Several parameters are explored including injection pressure, liquid fuel temperature, air temperature and pressure, and fuel type. Resulting trends are summarized with accompanying images.

  2. Modeling the uptake of neutral organic chemicals on XAD passive air samplers under variable temperatures, external wind speeds and ambient air concentrations (PAS-SIM).

    PubMed

    Armitage, James M; Hayward, Stephen J; Wania, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and demonstrate the utility of a fugacity-based model of XAD passive air samplers (XAD-PAS) designed to simulate the uptake of neutral organic chemicals under variable temperatures, external wind speeds and ambient air concentrations. The model (PAS-SIM) simulates the transport of the chemical across the air-side boundary layer and within the sampler medium, which is segmented into a user-defined number of thin layers. Model performance was evaluated using data for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a field calibration study (i.e., active and XAD-PAS data) conducted in Egbert, Ontario, Canada. With some exceptions, modeled PAS uptake curves are in good agreement with the empirical PAS data. The results are highly encouraging, given the uncertainty in the active air sampler data used as input and other uncertainties related to model parametrization (e.g., sampler-air partition coefficients, the influence of wind speed on sampling rates). The study supports the further development and evaluation of the PAS-SIM model as a diagnostic (e.g., to aid interpretation of calibration studies and monitoring data) and prognostic (e.g., to inform design of future passive air sampling campaigns) tool. PMID:24175752

  3. Acute changes in pulse pressure in relation to constituents of particulate air pollution in elderly persons

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Lotte; Buczynska, Anna; Walgraeve, Christophe; Delcloo, Andy; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Van Grieken, Rene; Demeestere, Kristof; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman; De Backer, Hugo; Nemery, Benoit; Nawrot, Tim S.

    2012-08-15

    An increased pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) suggests aortic stiffening. The objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of both particulate matter (PM) mass and composition on blood pressure, among elderly persons. We carried out a panel study in persons living in elderly homes in Antwerp, Belgium. We recruited 88 non-smoking persons, 70% women with a mean age of 83 years (standard deviation: 5.2). Blood pressure was measured and a blood sample was collected on two time points, which were chosen so that there was an exposure contrast in ambient PM exposure. The elemental content of the collected indoor and outdoor PM{sub 2.5} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 {mu}m) mass concentration was measured. Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) on outdoor PM{sub 10} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 {mu}m) were measured. Each interquartile range increase of 20.8 {mu}g/m Superscript-Three in 24-h mean outdoor PM{sub 2.5} was associated with an increase in pulse pressure of 4.0 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 1.8-6.2), in persons taking antihypertensive medication (n=57), but not in persons not using antihypertensive medication (n=31) (p for interaction: 0.02). Vanadium, iron and nickel contents of PM{sub 2.5} were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, among persons on antihypertensive medication. Similar results were found for indoor concentrations. Of the oxy-PAHs, chrysene-5,6-dione and benzo[a]pyrene-3,6-dione were significantly associated with increases in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. In elderly, pulse pressure was positively associated with acute increases in outdoor and indoor air pollution, among persons taking antihypertensive medication. These results might form a mechanistic pathway linking air pollution as a trigger of cardiovascular events.

  4. On Static Pressure Fluctuation between Sirocco Fan Blades in a Car Air-Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Yasuhiko; Kato, Takaaki; Moriguchi, Yuu; Sakai, Masaharu; Ito, Kouji; Mitsuishi, Yasushi; Nagata, Kouji; Kubo, Takashi

    In this study, special attention is directed to static pressure fluctuation in a sirocco fan for a car air-conditioning system, because it is expected that there is a close connection between the fluid noise and the pressure fluctuation. The final purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between the static pressure fluctuation between fan blades and the sound noise emitted to the outside of the fan, and to develop an air-conditioning system with highly low noise level. For this purpose, first of all, a new micro probe for the measurement of static pressure fluctuation has been developed. This new micro probe is composed of an L-type static pressure tube (the outer diameter is 0.5 mm and the inner diameter is 0.34 mm) and a very small pressure transducer. This probe exhibits a flat frequency response until approximately 2,000 Hz, and it is set between the blades of the fan rotating at 1,500 rpm. The measurements of the static pressure fluctuation between the blades have been performed, and the intensity of sound source was quantified from the second derivative of the phase-averaged static pressure fluctuation signals on the basis of Ribner's formula (Ribner 1962). The experiments have been made in two different modes, i.e., the cooling mode (FACE MODE) and the heating mode (FOOT MODE). It is shown that the static pressure increases rapidly as the blade approaches to the nose of the casing. It is also found that the sound source for FACE MODE shows the larger value than that for FOOT MODE as a whole. In particular, the largest intensity of sound source is observed when the blade approaches to the nose. From these results, it is confirmed that the present new static pressure probe is useful to specify the distributions of sound source in a sirocco fan.

  5. Onshore Winds and Coastal Fog Enhance Bacterial Connections Between Water and Air In the Coastal Environment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueker, M.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Juhl, A. R.; Weathers, K. C.; Uriarte, M.

    2013-12-01

    Globally, bacteria suspended in the atmosphere, or microbial aerosols, can range in concentration from 10^4 to 10^5 cells m^-3. They can be either attached to ambient aerosol particles or exist singly in the air, and can serve as ice, cloud and fog nucleators. To better understand sources for bacterial aerosols in the coastal environment, we assessed the effect of onshore wind speed on bacterial aerosol production and fallout in urban and non-urban coastal settings. We found that the fallout rate of culturable (viable) bacterial aerosols increased with onshore wind speeds. Furthermore, molecular characterization of the 16S rRNA gene diversity of bacteria from aerosols and surface waters revealed a similar species-level bacterial composition. This bacterial connection between water and air quality was strengthened at wind speeds above 4 m s^-1, with similar temporal patterns for coarse aerosol concentrations, culturable bacterial fallout rates, and presence of aquatic bacteria in near-shore aerosols. The water-air connection created by onshore winds in the coastal environment may be further modulated by coastal fog. Previous work has shown that the deposition of viable microbial aerosols increases by several orders of magnitude when fog is present in the coastal environment. Also, molecular analyses of bacteria in fog provide evidence that coastal fog enhances the viability of aerosolized marine bacteria, potentially allowing these bacteria to be transported further inland in a viable state with onshore winds. Implications for the coupling of wind-based aerosol production from surface waters with fog presence in the coastal environment include bi-directional atmospheric feedbacks between terrestrial and coastal ocean systems and the potential for water quality to affect air quality at coastal sites.

  6. The Relation Between Wind Speed and Air-Sea Temperature Difference in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer off Northwest Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Wind speed and atmospheric stability have an important role in determining the turbulence in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) as well as the surface wave field. The understanding of MABL dynamics in northwest Europe is complicated by fetch effects, the proximity of coastlines, shallow topography, and larger scale circulation patterns (e.g., cold air outbreaks). Numerical models have difficulty simulating the marine atmospheric boundary layer in coastal areas and partially enclosed seas, and this is partly due to spatial resolution problems at coastlines. In these offshore environments, the boundary layer processes are often best understood directly from time series measurements from fixed platforms or buoys, in spite of potential difficulties from platform flow distortion as well as the spatial sparseness of the data sets. This contribution presents the results of time series measurements from offshore platforms in the North Sea and Norwegian Sea in terms of a summary diagnostic - wind speed versus air-sea temperature difference (U-ΔT) - with important implications for understanding atmospheric boundary layer processes. The U-ΔT diagram was introduced in earlier surveys of data from coastal (Sletringen; O.J. Andersen and J. Løvseth, J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 57, 97-109, 1995) and offshore (Statfjord A; K.J. Eidsvik, Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 32, 103-132, 1985) sites in northwest Europe to summarize boundary layer conditions at a given location. Additional information from a series of measurement purpose-built offshore measurement and oil/gas production platforms from the southern North Sea to the Norwegian Sea illustrates how the wind characteristics vary spatially over large distances, highlighting the influence of cold air outbreaks, in particular. The results are important for the offshore wind industry because of the way that wind turbines accrue fatigue damage in different conditions of atmospheric stability and wind speed.

  7. Ionization Parameter as a Diagnostic of Radiation and Wind Pressures in H II Regions and Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Sherry C. C.; Matzner, Christopher D.

    2012-10-01

    The ionization parameter {\\cal U} is potentially useful as a tool to measure radiation pressure feedback from massive star clusters, as it directly reflects the ratio of radiation to gas pressure and is readily derived from mid-infrared line ratios. We consider a number of physical effects which combine to determine the apparent value of {\\cal U} in observations encompassing one or many H II regions. An upper limit is set by the compression of gas by radiation pressure, when this is important. The pressure of shocked stellar winds and the presence of neutral clumps both tend to reduce {\\cal U} for a given intensity of irradiation. The most intensely irradiated regions are selectively dimmed by internal dust absorption of ionizing photons, leading to a bias for observations on galactic scales. We explore these effects in analytical and numerical models for dusty H II regions and use them to interpret previous observational results. We find that radiation pressure confinement sets the upper limit log _{10} {\\cal U}\\simeq -1 seen in individual regions. Unresolved starbursts are known to display a maximum value of ~= - 2.3. While lower, this is also consistent with a large portion of their H II regions being radiation pressure dominated, given the different technique used to interpret unresolved regions, and given the bias caused by dust absorption. We infer that many individual, strongly illuminated regions cannot be significantly overpressured by stellar winds, and that even when averaged on galactic scales, the shocked wind pressure cannot be large compared to radiation pressure. Therefore, most H II regions cannot be adiabatic wind bubbles. Our models imply a metallicity dependence in the physical structure and dust attenuation of radiation-dominated regions, both of which should vary strongly across a critical metallicity of about one-twentieth solar.

  8. IONIZATION PARAMETER AS A DIAGNOSTIC OF RADIATION AND WIND PRESSURES IN H II REGIONS AND STARBURST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Sherry C. C.; Matzner, Christopher D.

    2012-10-01

    The ionization parameter U is potentially useful as a tool to measure radiation pressure feedback from massive star clusters, as it directly reflects the ratio of radiation to gas pressure and is readily derived from mid-infrared line ratios. We consider a number of physical effects which combine to determine the apparent value of U in observations encompassing one or many H II regions. An upper limit is set by the compression of gas by radiation pressure, when this is important. The pressure of shocked stellar winds and the presence of neutral clumps both tend to reduce U for a given intensity of irradiation. The most intensely irradiated regions are selectively dimmed by internal dust absorption of ionizing photons, leading to a bias for observations on galactic scales. We explore these effects in analytical and numerical models for dusty H II regions and use them to interpret previous observational results. We find that radiation pressure confinement sets the upper limit log{sub 10}U{approx_equal}-1 seen in individual regions. Unresolved starbursts are known to display a maximum value of {approx_equal} - 2.3. While lower, this is also consistent with a large portion of their H II regions being radiation pressure dominated, given the different technique used to interpret unresolved regions, and given the bias caused by dust absorption. We infer that many individual, strongly illuminated regions cannot be significantly overpressured by stellar winds, and that even when averaged on galactic scales, the shocked wind pressure cannot be large compared to radiation pressure. Therefore, most H II regions cannot be adiabatic wind bubbles. Our models imply a metallicity dependence in the physical structure and dust attenuation of radiation-dominated regions, both of which should vary strongly across a critical metallicity of about one-twentieth solar.

  9. Properties of Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Pulses at 1 AU during the Deep Minimum between Solar Cycles 23 and 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Y. Q.; Zuo, P. B.; Feng, X. S.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Observations during the deep solar minimum between Solar Cycles 23 and 24 offer an opportunity for characterizing the nature of solar wind dynamic pressure pulses (DPPs) under extreme solar activity. In this study, we identify 226 DPPs from July 2008 to June 2009 using an automatic detection algorithm based on high-resolution plasma data from the Wind spacecraft to investigate the features of DPPs during the deep solar minimum. For comparison, the similarities and differences of the statistical characteristics of the DPPs during the deep solar minimum and during the previous solar minimum are also examined. It is found that the number and the occurrence rate of DPPs during the deep solar minimum are only about one-third of those during the previous minimum, which may be attributed to lower solar wind dynamic pressure and weaker dynamic pressure fluctuations. From a statistical perspective, however, no obvious difference is apparent between the other basic DPP properties in the two solar minima, such as the absolute and relative amplitude of the dynamic pressure changes and the durations of the transition regions of DPPs. Other basic properties of the DPPs during the deep solar minimum are as follows: 1) the distribution of the absolute value of the dynamic pressure amplitude change peaks at 1.0 - 1.5 nPa, 2) the most probable relative pressure changes are 0.2 - 0.8, 3) DPP durations are broad-peaked between 150 s and 210 s with a mean of about 171 s, 4) 76.7 % of the DPPs can be considered as pressure balance structures, 5) dynamic pressure changes across DPPs are dominated by density changes, 6) specially, during the deep solar minimum, a considerable portion of DPPs, 86.7 %, are associated with large-scale solar wind transients such as interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and stream interaction regions (SIRs).

  10. Further investigations of automated surface observing system (ASOS) winds used in air quality modeling applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brower, R.P.; Jones, W.B.; Sherwell, J.

    1999-07-01

    Since 1992, a significant shift in the way standard surface meteorological data are observed and collected has occurred across the country. The National Weather Service, the Federal Aviation Administration, and the Department of Defense have been deploying the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) at nearly one thousand sites. Prior to ASOS, manual observation and recordation were the norm. With the advent of ASOS, an unprecedented level of meteorological data is now available; observations of standard meteorological variables are available almost real-time at more sites. However, with ASOS, meteorological data are being gathered in a fundamentally different way. New automated instruments sample, analyze, and record meteorological observations without human intervention. Many of these meteorological observations are key inputs to predictive air quality models. Reliable estimates of plume transport and dispersion require reliable and available meteorological data. The effect of the ASOS method of data collection on the dispersion modeling community is not clear. Because the hourly data now being reported at most stations across the country are being gathered in a fundamentally different way than previously, it is prudent to examine the differences between hourly meteorological observations gathered before and after ASOS. A preliminary analysis1 of pre-ASOS and ASOS data suggested that the differences in the observations could impact the data's application to air quality models. This expanded study examines more thoroughly the differences between wind data gathered before and after ASOS implementation in order to identify potential ramifications for air quality modeling. Pre-ASOS and ASOS data, from five stations in and around Maryland that represent the diversity of urbanization and topography of the region and that have a reasonably long record of ASOS observations, are examined.

  11. The ionospheric signatures of flux transfer events and solar wind dynamic pressure changes

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, M. Imperial College, London ); Cowley, S.W.H. ); Sandholt, P.E. ); Lepping, R.P. )

    1990-10-01

    The generation of flow and current vortices in the dayside auroral ionosphere has been predicted for two processes occurring at the dayside magnetopause. The first of these mechanisms is time-dependent magnetic reconnection, in flux transfer events (FTEs); the second is the action of solar wind dynamic pressure changes. The ionospheric flow signature of an FTE should be a twin vortex, with the mean flow velocity in the central regon of the pattern equal ot the velocity of the pattern as a whole. On the other hand, a pulse of enhanced or reduced dynamic pressure is also expected to produce a twin vortex, but with the central plasma flow being generally different in speed from, and almost orthogonal to, the motion of the whole pattern. In this paper, the authors make use of this distinction to discuss recent observations of vortical flow patterns in the dayside auroral ionosphere in terms of one or other of the proposed mechanisms. They conclude that some of the observatons reported are consistent only with the predicted signature of FTEs. They then evaluate the dimensions of the open flux tubes required to explain some recent simultaneous radar and auroral observatons and infer that they are typically 300 km in north-south extent but up to 2,000 km in longitudinal extent (i.e., roughly 5 hours of MLT). Hence these observations suggest that recent theories of FTEs which invoke time-varying reconnecton at an elongated neutral line may be correct.

  12. Pressure Balance at Mars and Solar Wind Interaction with the Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krymskii, A. M.; Ness, N. F.; Crider, D. H.; Breus, T. K.; Acuna, M. H.; Hinson, D.

    2003-01-01

    The strongest crustal fields are located in certain regions in the Southern hemisphere. In the Northern hemisphere, the crustal fields are rather weak and usually do not prevent direct interaction between the SW and the Martian ionosphere/atmosphere. Exceptions occur in the isolated mini-magnetospheres formed by the crustal anomalies. Electron density profiles of the ionosphere of Mars derived from radio occultation data obtained by the Radio Science Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) experiment have been compared with the crustal magnetic fields measured by the MGS Magnetometer/Electron Reflectometer (MAG/ER) experiment. A study of 523 electron density profiles obtained at latitudes from +67 deg. to +77 deg. has been conducted. The effective scale-height of the electron density for two altitude ranges, 145-165 km and 165-185 km, and the effective scale-height of the neutral atmosphere density in the vicinity of the ionization peak have been derived for each of the profiles studied. For the regions outside of the potential mini-magnetospheres, the thermal pressure of the ionospheric plasma for the altitude range 145-185 km has been estimated. In the high latitude ionosphere at Mars, the total pressure at altitudes 160 and 180 km has been mapped. The solar wind interaction with the ionosphere of Mars and origin of the sharp drop of the electron density at the altitudes 200-210 km will be discussed.

  13. Anomalous Shocks on the Measured Near-Field Pressure Signatures of Low-Boom Wind-Tunnel Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Unexpected shocks on wind-tunnel-measured pressure signatures prompted questions about design methods, pressure signature measurement techniques, and the quality of measurements in the flow fields near lifting models. Some of these unexpected shocks were the result of component integration methods. Others were attributed to the three-dimension nature of the flow around a lifting model, to inaccuracies in the prediction of the area-ruled lift, or to wing-tip stall effects. This report discusses the low-boom model wind-tunnel data where these unexpected shocks were initially observed, the physics of the lifting wing/body model's flow field, the wind-tunnel data used to evaluate the applicability of methods for calculating equivalent areas due to lift, the performance of lift prediction codes, and tip stall effects so that the cause of these shocks could be determined.

  14. Effects of solar wind dynamic pressure on the ionospheric O+ fluence during the 31 August 2005 storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiano, P. A.; Brambles, O. J.; Lotko, W.; Zhang, B.; Wiltberger, M.; Lyon, J.

    2010-11-01

    The Multifluid-Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (MFLFM) global simulation model incorporating an ionospheric cusp O+ outflow model based on an empirical relation between downward DC Poynting flux and O+ outflow flux regulated by the precipitating electron number flux (Fen) is used to simulate the 31 August 2005 storm. A baseline run incorporating the original solar wind data is contrasted against a case where the solar wind dynamic pressure (Pdyn) is artificially adjusted to see what effects this variable has on the O+ fluence generated in the model. Consistent with data, it is found that both the fluence and O+ outflow flux have a positive correlation with the solar wind dynamic pressure. Additionally, changes in Pdyn affect the downward Poynting flux only marginally and regulates both outflow flux and cusp outflow area via Fen. Increases in Pdyn lead to increased cusp electron precipitation, which has the physical effect of enhancing the upwelling O+ population available for outflow.

  15. Gas bubble dimensions in Archean lava flows indicate low air pressure at 2.7 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, S. M.; Buick, R.; Hagadorn, J.; Blake, T.; Perreault, J.; Harnmeijer, J.; Catling, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Air pressure constrains atmospheric composition, which, in turn, is linked to the Earth system through biogeochemical cycles and fluxes of volatiles from and to the Earth's interior. Previous studies have only placed maximum levels on surface air pressure for the early Earth [1]. Here, we calculate an absolute value for Archean barometric pressure using gas bubble size (vesicle) distributions in uninflated basaltic lava flows that solidified at sea level 2.7 billion years ago in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. These vesicles have been filled in by secondary minerals deposited during metasomatism and so are now amydules, but thin sections show that infilling did not change vesicle dimensions. Amygdule dimensions are measured using high-resolution X-ray tomography from core samples obtained from the top and bottom of the lava flows. The modal size expressed at the top and at the bottom of an uninflated flow can be linked to atmospheric pressure using the ideal gas law. Such a technique has been verified as a paleoaltimeter using Hawaiian Quaternary lava flows [2]. We use statistical methods to estimate the mean and standard deviation of the volumetric size of the amygdules by applying 'bootstrap'resampling and the Central Limit Theorem. Our data indicate a surprisingly low atmospheric pressure. Greater nitrogen burial under anaerobic conditions likely explains lower pressure. Refs: [1] Som et al. (2012) Nature 484, 359-262. D. L. Sahagian et al. (2002) J. Geol., 110, 671-685.

  16. A Comparative Study of Sound Speed in Air at Room Temperature between a Pressure Sensor and a Sound Sensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrani, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of sound speed measurements in air using two types of sensor that are widely employed in physics and engineering education, namely a pressure sensor and a sound sensor. A computer-based laboratory with pressure and sound sensors was used to carry out measurements of air through a 60 ml syringe. The fast Fourier…

  17. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. 84.157 Section 84.157 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. (a) The...

  18. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. 84.157 Section 84.157 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. (a) The...

  19. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. 84.157 Section 84.157 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. (a) The...

  20. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. 84.157 Section 84.157 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. (a) The...

  1. Daily changes in oxygen saturation and pulse rate associated with particulate air pollution and barometric pressure.

    PubMed

    Dockery, D W; Pope, C A; Kanner, R E; Martin Villegas, G; Schwartz, J

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have linked fine particulate air pollution with increases in morbidity and mortality rates from cardiopulmonary complications. Although the underlying biologic mechanisms responsible for this increase remain largely unknown, potential pathways include transient declines in blood oxygenation and changes in pulse rate following exposures to particulate air pollution episodes. This study evaluated potential associations between daily measures of respirable particulate matter (PM) with pulse rate and oxygen saturation of the blood. Pulse rate and oxygen saturation (Spo2) using pulse oximetry were measured daily in 90 elderly subjects living near air pollution monitors during the winter of 1995-96 in Utah Valley. We also evaluated potential associations of oxygen saturation and pulse rate with barometric pressure. Small but statistically significant positive associations between day-to-day changes in Spo2 and barometric pressure were observed. Pulse rate was inversely associated with barometric pressure. Exposure to particulate pollution was not significantly associated with Spo2 except in male participants 80 years of age or older. Increased daily pulse rate, as well as the odds of having a pulse rate 5 or 10 beats per minute (bpm) above normal (normal is defined as the individual's mean pulse rate throughout the study period), were significantly associated with exposure to particulate pollution on the previous 1 to 5 days. The medical or biologic relevance of these increases in pulse rate following exposure to particulate air pollution requires further study. PMID:10192116

  2. Calculating osmotic pressure of xylitol solutions from molality according to UNIFAC model and measuring it with air humidity osmometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lan; Zhan, Tingting; Zhan, Xiancheng; Wei, Guocui; Tan, Xiaoying; Wang, Xiaolan; Li, Chengrong

    2014-11-01

    The osmotic pressure of xylitol solution at a wide concentration range was calculated according to the UNIFAC model and experimentally determined by our newly reported air humidity osmometry. The measurements from air humidity osmometry were compared with UNIFAC model calculations from dilute to saturated solution. Results indicate that air humidity osmometry measurements are comparable to UNIFAC model calculations at a wide concentration range by two one-sided test and multiple testing corrections. The air humidity osmometry is applicable to measure the osmotic pressure and the osmotic pressure can be calculated from the concentration. PMID:24032449

  3. Influence of atmospheric pressure supplied on permittivity of air-film of aerostatic bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Zhang, Yubing; Li, Dong-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Influence of atmospheric pressure supplied on permittivity of the air-film is researched based on the capacitive testing method of the air film thickness of aerostatic bearing. An experiment platform is designed. The experimental results illustrate that permittivity has significant negative correlation with atmospheric pressure which varies from 0.1MPa to 0.48MPa when other environmental conditions remain unchanged. The curves conform to the fourth-order polynomial approximately. All of the values of R2 are beyond 0.944 which means that trend lines fit the data curves well. Relative permittivity of the air film is between 0.996 and 1.324. This interval shows that weak current exists between restrictor and flat of the experiment which are not absolutely insulating and atmosphere of the air film is not pure. This result provides a basis both for establishing accurate mathematical model of air film thickness and capacitance value of the aerostatic bearing and for other exploratory experiments later.

  4. Study of flow fields induced by surface dielectric barrier discharge actuator in low-pressure air

    SciTech Connect

    Che, Xueke E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn; Nie, Wansheng; Tian, Xihui; Hou, Zhiyong; He, Haobo; Zhou, Penghui; Zhou, Siyin; Yang, Chao; Shao, Tao E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn

    2014-04-15

    Surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) is a promising method for a flow control. Flow fields induced by a SDBD actuator driven by the ac voltage in static air at low pressures varying from 1.0 to 27.7 kPa are measured by the particle image velocimetry method. The influence of the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude on the induced flow fields is studied. The results show that three different classes of flow fields (wall jet flow field, complex flow field, and vortex-shape flow field) can be induced by the SDBD actuator in the low-pressure air. Among them, the wall jet flow field is the same as the tangential jet at atmospheric pressure, which is, together with the vertical jet, the complex flow field. The vortex-shape flow field is composed of one vertical jet which points towards the wall and two opposite tangential jets. The complex and the vortex-shape flow fields can be transformed to the wall jet flow field when the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude are changed. It is found that the discharge power consumption increases initially, decreases, and then increases again at the same applied ac voltage magnitude when the air pressure decreases. The tangential velocity of the wall jet flow field increases when the air pressure decreases. It is however opposite for the complex flow field. The variation of the applied ac voltage frequency influences differently three different flow fields. When the applied ac voltage magnitude increases at the same applied ac voltage frequency, the maximal jet velocity increases, while the power efficiency increases only initially and then decreases again. The discharge power shows either linear or exponential dependences on the applied ac voltage magnitude.

  5. Elevated Plasma Endothelin-1 and Pulmonary Arterial Pressure in Children Exposed to Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Vincent, Renaud; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Barragán-Mejía, Gerardo; Garrido-García, Luis; Camacho-Reyes, Laura; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Paredes, Rogelio; Romero, Lina; Osnaya, Hector; Villarreal-Calderón, Rafael; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Hazucha, Milan J.; Reed, William

    2007-01-01

    Background Controlled exposures of animals and humans to particulate matter (PM) or ozone air pollution cause an increase in plasma levels of endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor that regulates pulmonary arterial pressure. Objectives The primary objective of this field study was to determine whether Mexico City children, who are chronically exposed to levels of PM and O3 that exceed the United States air quality standards, have elevated plasma endothelin-1 levels and pulmonary arterial pressures. Methods We conducted a study of 81 children, 7.9 ± 1.3 years of age, lifelong residents of either northeast (n = 19) or southwest (n = 40) Mexico City or Polotitlán (n = 22), a control city with PM and O3 levels below the U.S. air quality standards. Clinical histories, physical examinations, and complete blood counts were done. Plasma endothelin-1 concentrations were determined by immunoassay, and pulmonary arterial pressures were measured by Doppler echocardiography. Results Mexico City children had higher plasma endothelin-1 concentrations compared with controls (p < 0.001). Mean pulmonary arterial pressure was elevated in children from both northeast (p < 0.001) and southwest (p < 0.05) Mexico City compared with controls. Endothelin-1 levels in Mexico City children were positively correlated with daily outdoor hours (p = 0.012), and 7-day cumulative levels of PM air pollution < 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) before endothelin-1 measurement (p = 0.03). Conclusions Chronic exposure of children to PM2.5 is associated with increased levels of circulating endothelin-1 and elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure. PMID:17687455

  6. Thermal and Pressure Characterization of a Wind Tunnel Force Balance Using the Single Vector System. Experimental Design and Analysis Approach to Model Pressure and Temperature Effects in Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, Keith C.; Commo, Sean A.; Johnson, Thomas H.; Parker, Peter A,

    2011-01-01

    Wind tunnel research at NASA Langley Research Center s 31-inch Mach 10 hypersonic facility utilized a 5-component force balance, which provided a pressurized flow-thru capability to the test article. The goal of the research was to determine the interaction effects between the free-stream flow and the exit flow from the reaction control system on the Mars Science Laboratory aeroshell during planetary entry. In the wind tunnel, the balance was exposed to aerodynamic forces and moments, steady-state and transient thermal gradients, and various internal balance cavity pressures. Historically, these effects on force measurement accuracy have not been fully characterized due to limitations in the calibration apparatus. A statistically designed experiment was developed to adequately characterize the behavior of the balance over the expected wind tunnel operating ranges (forces/moments, temperatures, and pressures). The experimental design was based on a Taylor-series expansion in the seven factors for the mathematical models. Model inversion was required to calculate the aerodynamic forces and moments as a function of the strain-gage readings. Details regarding transducer on-board compensation techniques, experimental design development, mathematical modeling, and wind tunnel data reduction are included in this paper.

  7. Heat transfer and pressure drop for air flow through enhanced passages

    SciTech Connect

    Obot, N.T.; Esen, E.B.

    1992-06-01

    An extensive experimental investigation was carried out to determine the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics for laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of air through a smooth passage and twenty-three enhanced passages. The internal surfaces of all enhanced passages had spirally shaped geometries; these included fluted, finned/ribbed and indented surfaces. The Reynolds number (Re) was varied between 400 and 50000. The effect of heat transfer (wall cooling or fluid heating) on pressure drop is most significant within the transition region; the recorded pressure drop with heat transfer is much higher than that without heat transfer. The magnitude of this effect depends markedly on the average surface temperature and, to a lesser extent, on the geometric characteristics of the enhanced surfaces. When the pressure drop data are reduced as values of the Fanning friction factor(f), the results are about the same with and without heat transfer for turbulent flow, with moderate differences in the laminar and transition regions.

  8. Heat transfer and pressure drop for air flow through enhanced passages. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Obot, N.T.; Esen, E.B.

    1992-06-01

    An extensive experimental investigation was carried out to determine the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics for laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of air through a smooth passage and twenty-three enhanced passages. The internal surfaces of all enhanced passages had spirally shaped geometries; these included fluted, finned/ribbed and indented surfaces. The Reynolds number (Re) was varied between 400 and 50000. The effect of heat transfer (wall cooling or fluid heating) on pressure drop is most significant within the transition region; the recorded pressure drop with heat transfer is much higher than that without heat transfer. The magnitude of this effect depends markedly on the average surface temperature and, to a lesser extent, on the geometric characteristics of the enhanced surfaces. When the pressure drop data are reduced as values of the Fanning friction factor(f), the results are about the same with and without heat transfer for turbulent flow, with moderate differences in the laminar and transition regions.

  9. Tornado type wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Ch.-T.

    1984-06-05

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  10. Tornado type wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting

    1984-01-01

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  11. Long-Term Air Pollution Exposure and Blood Pressure in the Sister Study

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Stephanie H.; Van Hee, Victor C.; Bergen, Silas; Szpiro, Adam A.; DeRoo, Lisa A.; London, Stephanie J.; Marshall, Julian D.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to air pollution has been consistently associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but mechanisms remain uncertain. Associations with blood pressure (BP) may help to explain the cardiovascular effects of air pollution. Objective We examined the cross-sectional relationship between long-term (annual average) residential air pollution exposure and BP in the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences’ Sister Study, a large U.S. cohort study investigating risk factors for breast cancer and other outcomes. Methods This analysis included 43,629 women 35–76 years of age, enrolled 2003–2009, who had a sister with breast cancer. Geographic information systems contributed to satellite-based nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) predictions at participant residences at study entry. Generalized additive models were used to examine the relationship between pollutants and measured BP at study entry, adjusting for cardiovascular disease risk factors and including thin plate splines for potential spatial confounding. Results A 10-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with 1.4-mmHg higher systolic BP (95% CI: 0.6, 2.3; p < 0.001), 1.0-mmHg higher pulse pressure (95% CI: 0.4, 1.7; p = 0.001), 0.8-mmHg higher mean arterial pressure (95% CI: 0.2, 1.4; p = 0.01), and no significant association with diastolic BP. A 10-ppb increase in NO2 was associated with a 0.4-mmHg (95% CI: 0.2, 0.6; p < 0.001) higher pulse pressure. Conclusions Long-term PM2.5 and NO2 exposures were associated with higher blood pressure. On a population scale, such air pollution–related increases in blood pressure could, in part, account for the increases in cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality seen in prior studies. Citation Chan SH, Van Hee VC, Bergen S, Szpiro AA, DeRoo LA, London SJ, Marshall JD, Kaufman JD, Sandler DP. 2015. Long-term air pollution exposure and blood pressure in the Sister Study. Environ Health

  12. Generation and diagnostics of atmospheric pressure CO{sub 2} plasma by laser driven plasma wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Makoto; Yamagiwa, Yoshiki; Tanaka, Kensaku; Arakawa, Yoshihiro; Nomura, Satoshi; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2012-08-01

    Atmospheric pressure CO{sub 2} plasma was generated by a laser driven plasma wind tunnel. At an ambient pressure of 0.38 MPa, a stable plasma was maintained by a laser power of 1000 W for more than 20 min. The translational temperature was measured using laser absorption spectroscopy with the atomic oxygen line at 777.19 nm. The measured absorption profiles were analyzed by a Voigt function considering Doppler, Stark, and pressure-broadening effects. Under the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium, all broadening effects were consistent with each other. The measured temperature ranged from 8500 K to 8900 K.

  13. Plasma formation in atmospheric pressure helium discharges under different background air pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yaoge; Hao Yanpeng; Zheng Bin

    2012-09-15

    Atmospheric pressure glow discharges generated between parallel-plate electrodes in helium have been characterized using temporally resolved emission spectra. The variation of typical spectral lines over time has been analyzed. In helium with a low concentration of N{sub 2}, the emission of He at 706.5 nm is dominant and appears 500 ns earlier than N{sub 2}{sup +} first negative bands, indicating low reaction rates of Penning ionization and charge transfer in the initial stage. During the decay, it is the Penning ionization caused by He metastables with a long lifetime rather than the charge transfer reaction that leads to the long decay of N{sub 2}{sup +} emissions. When helium contains a higher concentration of N{sub 2} molecules, the N{sub 2}{sup +} first negative bands become the most intense, and emissions from He, N{sub 2}{sup +}, and O exhibit similar behavior as they increase. The emissions last for a shorter time under such conditions because of rapid consumption of He metastables and He{sub 2}{sup +}.

  14. Effect of Different Levels of Pressure Relieving Air-Mattress Firmness on Cough Strength

    PubMed Central

    Kamikawa, Norimichi; Taito, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Makoto; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Hamada, Hironobu

    2016-01-01

    Cough is an important host-defense mechanism. The elderly and patients who are severely ill cannot cough effectively when lying in the supine position. Furthermore, pressure relieving air-mattresses are recommended for preventing the development of pressure ulcers. In this study, we clarified whether or not the cough peak flow (CPF), an index of cough strength, is affected by different firmness levels of a pressure relieving air-mattress in healthy volunteers in the supine position. Fifty-two healthy young men participated. All the measurements were carried out on each participant in the supine position on a pressure relieving air-mattress. The participants were assessed at two firmness levels, a “hard” and “soft” mode. The CPF, forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal expiratory pressure (PEmax), and maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) were determined for each mode. The sinking distance of the body into the mattress was measured without any activity and the difference between the sinking distances of the two firmness levels was determined. The CPF, FVC, PEmax, and PImax were determined for each mode. The sinking distance of the body into the mattress was measured and the difference between the sinking distances of the two firmness levels was determined. The CPF, FVC, PEmax and PImax values of the participants coughing on the mattress were significantly lower when the mattress was in “soft” than in “hard” mode. The differences between the sinking distances of the mattress in “soft” and “hard” modes were larger for the anterior superior iliac spine. A harder mattress may lead to increased CPF in healthy young men lying in the supine position, and increased CPF may be important for host defense. PMID:26741497

  15. Effect of Different Levels of Pressure Relieving Air-Mattress Firmness on Cough Strength.

    PubMed

    Kamikawa, Norimichi; Taito, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Makoto; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Hamada, Hironobu

    2016-01-01

    Cough is an important host-defense mechanism. The elderly and patients who are severely ill cannot cough effectively when lying in the supine position. Furthermore, pressure relieving air-mattresses are recommended for preventing the development of pressure ulcers. In this study, we clarified whether or not the cough peak flow (CPF), an index of cough strength, is affected by different firmness levels of a pressure relieving air-mattress in healthy volunteers in the supine position. Fifty-two healthy young men participated. All the measurements were carried out on each participant in the supine position on a pressure relieving air-mattress. The participants were assessed at two firmness levels, a "hard" and "soft" mode. The CPF, forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal expiratory pressure (PEmax), and maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) were determined for each mode. The sinking distance of the body into the mattress was measured without any activity and the difference between the sinking distances of the two firmness levels was determined. The CPF, FVC, PEmax, and PImax were determined for each mode. The sinking distance of the body into the mattress was measured and the difference between the sinking distances of the two firmness levels was determined. The CPF, FVC, PEmax and PImax values of the participants coughing on the mattress were significantly lower when the mattress was in "soft" than in "hard" mode. The differences between the sinking distances of the mattress in "soft" and "hard" modes were larger for the anterior superior iliac spine. A harder mattress may lead to increased CPF in healthy young men lying in the supine position, and increased CPF may be important for host defense. PMID:26741497

  16. Evaluation of pressure response in the Los Alamos controlled air incinerator during three incident scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Vavruska, J.S.; Elsberry, K.; Thompson, T.K.; Pendergrass, J.A.

    1996-05-01

    The Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) is a system designed to accept radioactive mixed waste containing alpha-emitting radionuclides. A mathematical model was developed to predict the pressure response throughout the offgas treatment system of the CAI during three hypothetical incident scenarios. The scenarios examined included: (1) loss of burner flame and failure of the flame safeguard system with subsequent reignition of fuel gas in the primary chamber, (2) pyrolytic gas buildup from a waste package due to loss of induced draft and subsequent restoration of induced draft, and (3) accidental charging of propellant spray cans in a solid waste package to the primary chamber during a normal feed cycle. For each of the three scenarios, the finite element computer model was able to determine the transient pressure surge and decay response throughout the system. Of particular interest were the maximum absolute pressures attainable at critical points in the system as well as maximum differential pressures across the high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Modeling results indicated that all three of the scenarios resulted in maximum HEPA filter differential pressures well below the maximum allowable levels.

  17. Experimental Study on a Standing Wave Thermoacoustic Prime Mover with Air Working Gas at Various Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Ikhsan; Achmadin, Wahyu N.; Murti, Prastowo; Nohtomi, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    Thermoacoustic prime mover is an energy conversion device which converts thermal energy into acoustic work (sound wave). The advantages of this machine are that it can work with air as the working gas and does not produce any exhaust gases, so that it is environmentally friendly. This paper describes an experimental study on a standing wave thermoacoustic prime mover with air as the working gas at various pressures from 0.05 MPa to 0.6 MPa. We found that 0.2 MPa is the optimum pressure which gives the lowest onset temperature difference of 355 °C. This pressure value would be more preferable in harnessing low grade heat sources to power the thermoacoustic prime mover. In addition, we find that the lowest onset temperature difference is obtained when rh /δ k ratio is 2.85, where r h is the hydraulic radius of the stack and δ k is the thermal penetration depth of the gas. Moreover, the pressure amplitude of the sound wave is significantly getting larger from 2.0 kPa to 9.0 kPa as the charged pressure increases from 0.05 MPa up to 0.6 MPa.

  18. Emission measurements for a lean premixed propane/air system at pressures up to 30 atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roffe, G.; Venkataramani, K. S.

    1978-01-01

    The emissions of a lean premixed system of propane/air were measured in a flametube apparatus. Tests were conducted at inlet temperatures of 600K and 800K and pressures of 10 atm and 30 atm over a range of equivalence ratios. The data obtained were combined with previous data taken in the same apparatus to correlate nitrogen oxide emissions with operating conditions. Sampling probe design was found to have a pronounced effect on measured CO levels but did not influence measurements. The most effective probe tested was one which combined thermal and pressure quenching of the gas sample.

  19. Investigation of air solubility in jet A fuel at high pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupprecht, S. D.; Faeth, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    The solubility and density properties of saturated mixtures of fuels and gases were measured. The fuels consisted of Jet A and dodecane, the gases were air and nitrogen. The test range included pressures of 1.03 to 10.34 MPa and temperatures of 298 to 373 K. The results were correlated successfully, using the Soave equation of state. Over this test range, dissolved gas concentrations were roughly proportional to pressure and increased slightly with increasing temperature. Mixture density was relatively independent of dissolved gas concentration.

  20. Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part II: Laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méchain, G.; Olivier, T.; Franco, M.; Couairon, A.; Prade, B.; Mysyrowicz, A.

    2006-05-01

    We present experimental studies of filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse in air at low pressures. The evolution of the filament has been studied by measuring along the propagation axis the conductivity and the sub-THz emission from the plasma channel. We show experimentally that the filamentation process occurs at pressures as low as 0.2 atm in agreement with numerical simulations. Experimental and numerical results [A. Couairon, M. Franco, G. Méchain, T. Olivier, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun., submitted for publication] are compared and the possible sources of discrepancy are discussed.

  1. Wind-Based Navigation of a Hot-air Balloon on Titan: A Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furfaro, Roberto; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Elfes, Alberto; Reh, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Current analysis of data streamed back to Earth by the Cassini spacecraft features Titan as one of the most exciting places in the solar system. NASA centers and universities around the US, as well as the European Space Agency, are studying the possibility of sending, as part of the next mission to this giant moon of Saturn, a hot-air balloon (Montgolfier-type) for further and more in-depth exploration. The basic idea would be to design a reliable, semi-autonomous, and yet cheap Montgolfier capable of using continuous flow of waste heat from a power source to lift the balloon and sustain its altitude in the Titan environment. In this paper we study the problem of locally navigating a hot-air balloon in the nitrogen-based Titan atmosphere. The basic idea is to define a strategy (i.e. design of a suitable guidance system) that allows autonomous and semi-autonomous navigation of the balloon using the available (and partial) knowledge of the wind structure blowing on the saturnian satellite surface. Starting from first principles we determined the appropriate thermal and dynamical models describing (a) the vertical dynamics of the balloon and (b) the dynamics of the balloon moving on a vertical plane (2-D motion). Next, various non-linear fuzzy-based control strategies have been evaluated, analyzed and implemented in MATLAB to numerically simulate the capability of the system to simultaneously maintain altitude, as well as a scientifically desirable trajectory. We also looked at the ability of the balloon to perform station keeping. The results of the simulation are encouraging and show the effectiveness of such a system to cheaply and effectively perform semiautonomous exploration of Titan.

  2. Comprehensive wind correction for a Rayleigh Doppler lidar from atmospheric temperature and pressure influences and Mie contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangguan, Ming-Jia; Xia, Hai-Yun; Dou, Xian-Kang; Wang, Chong; Qiu, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Yun-Peng; Shu, Zhi-Feng; Xue, Xiang-Hui

    2015-09-01

    A correction considering the effects of atmospheric temperature, pressure, and Mie contamination must be performed for wind retrieval from a Rayleigh Doppler lidar (RDL), since the so-called Rayleigh response is directly related to the convolution of the optical transmission of the frequency discriminator and the Rayleigh-Brillouin spectrum of the molecular backscattering. Thus, real-time and on-site profiles of atmospheric pressure, temperature, and aerosols should be provided as inputs to the wind retrieval. Firstly, temperature profiles under 35 km and above the altitude are retrieved, respectively, from a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) and a Rayleigh integration lidar (RIL) incorporating to the RDL. Secondly, the pressure profile is taken from the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) analysis, while radiosonde data are not available. Thirdly, the Klett-Fernald algorithms are adopted to estimate the Mie and Rayleigh components in the atmospheric backscattering. After that, the backscattering ratio is finally determined in a nonlinear fitting of the transmission of the atmospheric backscattering through the Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) to a proposed model. In the validation experiments, wind profiles from the lidar show good agreement with the radiosonde in the overlapping altitude. Finally, a continuous wind observation shows the stability of the correction scheme. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41174131, 41274151, 41304123, 41121003 and 41025016).

  3. Parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated in atmospheric-pressure air

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasenko, V. F.

    2011-05-15

    Conditions under which the number of runaway electrons in atmospheric-pressure air reaches {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} are determined. Recommendations for creating runaway electron accelerators are given. Methods for measuring the parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam and X-ray pulses from gas-filled diodes, as well as the discharge current and gap voltage, are described. A technique for determining the instant of runaway electron generation with respect to the voltage pulse is proposed. It is shown that the reduction in the gap voltage and the decrease in the beam current coincide in time. The mechanism of intense electron beam generation in gas-filled diodes is analyzed. It is confirmed experimentally that, in optimal regimes, the number of electrons generated in atmospheric-pressure air with energies T > eU{sub m}, where U{sub m} is the maximum gap voltage, is relatively small.

  4. Parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated in atmospheric-pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, V. F.

    2011-05-01

    Conditions under which the number of runaway electrons in atmospheric-pressure air reaches ˜5 × 1010 are determined. Recommendations for creating runaway electron accelerators are given. Methods for measuring the parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam and X-ray pulses from gas-filled diodes, as well as the discharge current and gap voltage, are described. A technique for determining the instant of runaway electron generation with respect to the voltage pulse is proposed. It is shown that the reduction in the gap voltage and the decrease in the beam current coincide in time. The mechanism of intense electron beam generation in gas-filled diodes is analyzed. It is confirmed experimentally that, in optimal regimes, the number of electrons generated in atmospheric-pressure air with energies T > eU m , where U m is the maximum gap voltage, is relatively small.

  5. Influence of venting areas on the air blast pressure inside tubular structures like railway carriages.

    PubMed

    Larcher, Martin; Casadei, Folco; Solomos, George

    2010-11-15

    In case of a terrorist bomb attack the influence and efficiency of venting areas in tubular structures like train carriages is of interest. The pressure-time function of an air blast wave resulting from a solid charge is first compared to that of a gas or dust explosion and the capability of a venting structure to fly away is assessed. Several calculations using fluid-structure interaction are performed, which show that after a certain distance from the explosion, the air blast wave inside a tubular structure becomes one-dimensional, and that the influence of venting areas parallel to the wave propagation direction is small. The pressure peak and the impulse at certain points in a tubular structure are compared for several opening sizes. The overall influence of realistic size venting devices remains moderate and their usefulness in mitigating internal explosion effects in trains is discussed. PMID:20728991

  6. Evaluation of analytical methodology for hydrocarbons in high pressure air and nitrogen systems. [evaluation of methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Samples of liquid oxygen, high pressure nitrogen, low pressure nitrogen, and missile grade air were studied to determine the hydrocarbon concentrations. Concentration of the samples was achieved by adsorption on a molecular sieve and activated charcoal. The trapped hydrocarbons were then desorbed and transferred to an analytical column in a gas chromatograph. The sensitivity of the method depends on the volume of gas passed through the adsorbent tubes. The value of the method was verified through recoverability and reproducibility studies. The use of this method enables LOX, GN2, and missile grade air systems to be routinely monitored to determine low level increases in specific hydrocarbon concentration that could lead to potentially hazardous conditions.

  7. Open Air Silicon Deposition by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma under Local Ambient Gas Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Teruki; Konno, Nobuaki; Yoshida, Yukihisa

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we report open air silicon (Si) deposition by combining a silane free Si deposition technology and a newly developed local ambient gas control technology. Recently, material processing in open air has been investigated intensively. While a variety of materials have been deposited, there were only few reports on Si deposition due to the susceptibility to contamination and the hazardous nature of source materials. Since Si deposition is one of the most important processes in device fabrication, we have developed open air silicon deposition technologies in BEANS project. For a clean and safe process, a local ambient gas control head was designed. Process gas leakage was prevented by local evacuation, and air contamination was shut out by inert curtain gas. By numerical and experimental investigations, a safe and clean process condition with air contamination less than 10 ppm was achieved. Si film was deposited in open air by atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical transport under the local ambient gas control. The film was microcrystalline Si with the crystallite size of 17 nm, and the Hall mobility was 2.3 cm2/V .s. These properties were comparable to those of Si films deposited in a vacuum chamber. This research has been conducted as one of the research items of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization ``BEANS'' project.

  8. Laser-rf creation and diagnostics of seeded atmospheric pressure air and nitrogen plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Siqi; Denning, C. Mark; Scharer, John E.

    2008-07-01

    A laser initiation and radio frequency (rf) sustainment technique has been developed and improved from our previous work to create and sustain large-volume, high-pressure air and nitrogen plasmas. This technique utilizes a laser-initiated, 15 mTorr partial pressure tetrakis (dimethylamino) ethylene seed plasma with a 75 Torr background gas pressure to achieve high-pressure air/nitrogen plasma breakdown and reduce the rf power requirement needed to sustain the plasma. Upon the laser plasma initiation, the chamber pressure is raised to 760 Torr in 0.5 s through a pulsed gas valve, and the end of the chamber is subsequently opened to the ambient air. The atmospheric-pressure plasma is then maintained with the 13.56 MHz rf power. Using this technique, large-volume (1000 cm{sup 3}), high electron density (on the order of 10{sup 11-12} cm{sup -3}), 760 Torr air and nitrogen plasmas have been created while rf power reflection is minimized during the entire plasma pulse utilizing a dynamic matching method. This plasma can project far away from the antenna region (30 cm), and the rf power budget is 5 W/cm{sup 3}. Temporal evolution of the plasma electron density and total electron-neutral collision frequency during the pulsed plasma is diagnosed using millimeter wave interferometry. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) aided by SPECAIR, a special OES simulation program for air-constituent plasmas, is used to analyze the radiating species and thermodynamic characteristics of the plasma. Rotational and vibrational temperatures of 4400-4600{+-}100 K are obtained from the emission spectra from the N{sub 2}(2+) and N{sub 2}{sup +}(1-) transitions by matching the experimental spectrum results with the SPECAIR simulation results. Based on the relation between the electron collision frequency and the neutral density, utilizing millimeter wave interferometry, the electron temperature of the 760 Torr nitrogen plasma is found to be 8700{+-}100 K (0.75{+-}0.1 eV). Therefore, the plasma

  9. Characterization of an atmospheric pressure air plasma source for polymer surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shujun; Tang, Jiansheng

    2013-10-01

    An atmospheric pressure air plasma source was generated through dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). It was used to modify polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) surfaces with very high throughput. An equivalent circuit model was used to calculate the peak average electron density. The emission spectrum from the plasma was taken and the main peaks in the spectrum were identified. The ozone density in the down plasma region was estimated by Absorption Spectroscopy. NSF and ARC-ODU

  10. Vibration and recoil control of pneumatic hammers. [by air flow pressure regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinescu, I. N.; Darabont, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Vibration sources are described for pneumatic hammers used in the mining industry (pick hammers), in boiler shops (riveting hammers), etc., bringing to light the fact that the principal vibration source is the variation in air pressure inside the cylinder. The present state of the art of vibration control of pneumatic hammers as it is practiced abroad, and the solutions adopted for this purpose, are discussed. A new type of pneumatic hammer with a low noise and vibration level is presented.

  11. Air pollution, blood pressure, and the risk of hypertensive complications during pregnancy: the generation R study.

    PubMed

    van den Hooven, Edith H; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Pierik, Frank H; Hofman, Albert; van Ratingen, Sjoerd W; Zandveld, Peter Y J; Mackenbach, Johan P; Steegers, Eric A P; Miedema, Henk M E; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. We assessed the associations of exposure to particulate matter (PM(10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) levels with blood pressure measured in each trimester of pregnancy and the risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia in 7006 women participating in a prospective cohort study in the Netherlands. Information on gestational hypertensive disorders was obtained from medical records. PM(10) exposure was not associated with first trimester systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but a 10-μg/m(3) increase in PM(10) levels was associated with a 1.11-mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43 to 1.79) and 2.11-mm Hg (95% CI 1.34 to 2.89) increase in systolic blood pressure in the second and third trimester, respectively. Longitudinal analyses showed that elevated PM(10) exposure levels were associated with a steeper increase in systolic blood pressure throughout pregnancy (P<0.01), but not with diastolic blood pressure patterns. Elevated NO(2) exposure was associated with higher systolic blood pressure levels in the first, second, and third trimester (P<0.05), and with a more gradual increase when analyzed longitudinally (P<0.01). PM(10) exposure, but not NO(2) exposure, was associated with an increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension (odds ratio 1.72 [95% CI 1.12 to 2.63] per 10-μg/m(3) increase). In conclusion, our results suggest that air pollution may affect maternal cardiovascular health during pregnancy. The effects might be small but relevant on a population level. PMID:21220700

  12. Pressure distribution on the roof of a model low-rise building tested in a boundary layer wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goliber, Matthew Robert

    With three of the largest metropolitan areas in the United States along the Gulf coast (Houston, Tampa, and New Orleans), residential populations ever increasing due to the subtropical climate, and insured land value along the coast from Texas to the Florida panhandle greater than $500 billion, hurricane related knowledge is as important now as ever before. This thesis focuses on model low-rise building wind tunnel tests done in connection with full-scale low-rise building tests. Mainly, pressure data collection equipment and methods used in the wind tunnel are compared to pressure data collection equipment and methods used in the field. Although the focus of this report is on the testing of models in the wind tunnel, the low-rise building in the field is located in Pensacola, Florida. It has a wall length of 48 feet, a width of 32 feet, a height of 10 feet, and a gable roof with a pitch of 1:3 and 68 pressure ports strategically placed on the surface of the roof. Built by Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) in 2002, the importance of the test structure has been realized as it has been subjected to numerous hurricanes. In fact, the validity of the field data is so important that the following thesis was necessary. The first model tested in the Bill James Wind Tunnel for this research was a rectangular box. It was through the testing of this box that much of the basic wind tunnel and pressure data collection knowledge was gathered. Knowledge gained from Model 1 tests was as basic as how to: mount pressure tubes on a model, use a pressure transducer, operate the wind tunnel, utilize the pitot tube and reference pressure, and measure wind velocity. Model 1 tests also showed the importance of precise construction to produce precise pressure coefficients. Model 2 was tested in the AABL Wind Tunnel at Iowa State University. This second model was a 22 inch cube which contained a total of 11 rows of pressure ports on its front and top faces. The purpose of Model 2 was to

  13. Evaluation of the constant pressure panel method (CPM) for unsteady air loads prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appa, Kari; Smith, Michael J. C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper evaluates the capability of the constant pressure panel method (CPM) code to predict unsteady aerodynamic pressures, lift and moment distributions, and generalized forces for general wing-body configurations in supersonic flow. Stability derivatives are computed and correlated for the X-29 and an Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, and a flutter analysis is carried out for a wing wind tunnel test example. Most results are shown to correlate well with test or published data. Although the emphasis of this paper is on evaluation, an improvement in the CPM code's handling of intersecting lifting surfaces is briefly discussed. An attractive feature of the CPM code is that it shares the basic data requirements and computational arrangements of the doublet lattice method. A unified code to predict unsteady subsonic or supersonic airloads is therefore possible.

  14. Comparison of aerodynamic data measured in air and Freon-12 wind-tunnel test mediums

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out to measure two dimensional static aerodynamic characteristics of a 65 sub l-213 airfoil in air and Freon-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) test mediums at corresponding test conditions. The purpose of the tests was to compare measurements in the two test mediums and to evaluate reported methods of converting Freon-12 data to equivalent air values. The test article was a two dimensional wing instrumented to measure chordwise surface pressure distributions. The parameters considered were Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.0, angles of attack of zero deg and 1 deg, and Reynolds numbers based on model chord from 2,000,000 to 21,000,000. The agreement between data measured in the two test mediums is further improved by application of the transonic or area ratio similarity laws. Where flow conditions are characterized by surface shocks or stall, the effects of flow separation may not be identically reflected in the Freon-12 data, even when converted in accordance with existing similarity laws.

  15. The Effect of Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure on the Physical Processes that Drive the Storm-time Ring Current Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemon, C.; Chen, M. W.; Guild, T. B.

    2011-12-01

    Statistical studies suggest that the solar wind dynamic pressure influences the development of the storm-time ring current, with increased dynamic pressure leading to increased ring current energy. But physical understanding of that relationship is lacking. While magnetospheric compressions drive adiabatic energization of plasma and thereby directly increase the ring current energy, this effect should be reversible, and dynamic pressure can vary rapidly in either direction during magnetic storms. Rather, the process of plasma transport from the plasma sheet to the ring current is affected by magnetopause currents that perturb the background field in the magnetosphere. This perturbation will affect both convective transport and gradient/curvature drift of plasma, which will subsequently further perturb the magnetic and electric fields. Using the Rice Convection Model with a force-equilibrated magnetic field (the RCM-E), we are able to simulate the ring current development in response to varying upstream conditions. This study contrasts the development of the ring current in response to different solar wind dynamic pressure inputs: sustained low dynamic pressure, sustained high dynamic pressure, and low dynamic pressure with a superposed pressure pulse. We quantitatively account for the processes that lead to variations in ring current development during these different upstream driving scenarios. These processes include the effect of the magnetopause currents (and ring and tail currents) on plasma drift paths, modifications of the convection electric field due to adiabatic energization of plasma (electric shielding), and the induction electric fields caused by changes in the magnetopause, ring, and tail currents. Our simulations separately investigate the extent to which ring current enhancements are driven by 1) the impact of the magnetopause currents on the magnetic and (indirectly) electric fields of the inner magnetosphere, 2) the coupling of the plasma sheet to

  16. High resolution system for upper air (troposphere) wind and temperature profile measurements. [meteorological radar/Jimsphere system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, D. W.; Vaughan, W. W.

    1973-01-01

    The Jimsphere/Jimsonde system is described and some possible applications of the system for air-sea interface measurements are presented. As space vehicles became larger and more sophisticated, an improved method for obtaining wind profile data had to be found. To satisfy this need the FPS-16 radar/Jimsphere system was developed. The Jimsphere is an aluminized mylar spherical balloon, two meters in diameter. The balloon is under superpressure, and is tracked with a high precision radar system. The development of this detailed wind profile system was started in 1963, and the present design was established in 1964. To improve the system, a program was initiated in 1965 to obtain high resolution temperature data simultaneously with the wind profile data.

  17. Evaluation of the operator protection factors offered by positive pressure air suits against airborne microbiological challenge.

    PubMed

    Steward, Jackie A; Lever, Mark S

    2012-08-01

    Laboratories throughout the world that perform work with Risk Group 4 Pathogens generally adopt one of two approaches within BSL-4 environments: either the use of positive pressure air-fed suits or using Class III microbiological safety cabinets and isolators for animal work. Within the UK at present, all laboratories working with Risk Group 4 agents adopt the use of Class III microbiological safety cabinet lines and isolators. Operator protection factors for the use of microbiological safety cabinets and isolators are available however; there is limited published data on the operator protection factors afforded by the use of positive pressure suits. This study evaluated the operator protection factors provided by positive pressure air suits against a realistic airborne microbiological challenge. The suits were tested, both intact and with their integrity compromised, on an animated mannequin within a stainless steel exposure chamber. The suits gave operator protection in all tests with an intact suit and with a cut in the leg. When compromised by a cut in the glove, a very small ingress of the challenge was seen as far as the wrist. This is likely to be due to the low airflow in the gloves of the suit. In all cases no microbiological penetration of the respiratory tract was observed. These data provide evidence on which to base safety protocols for use of positive pressure suits within high containment laboratories. PMID:23012620

  18. Pattern recognition techniques for visualizing the biotropic waveform of air temperature and pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozheredov, V. A.

    2012-12-01

    It is known that long periods of adverse weather have a negative effect on the human cardiovascular system. A number of studies have set a lower limit of around 5 days for the duration of these periods. However, the specific features of the negative dynamics of the main weather characteristics—air temperature and atmospheric pressure—remained open. To address this problem, the present paper proposes a conjunctive method of the theory of pattern recognition. It is shown that this method approaches a globally optimal (in the sense of recognition errors) Neumann critical region and can be used to solve various problems in heliobiology. To illustrate the efficiency of this method, we show that some quickly relaxing short sequences of temperature and pressure time series (the so-called temperature waves and waves of atmospheric pressure changes) increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases and can lead to serious organic lesions (particularly myocardial infarction). It is established that the temperature waves and waves of atmospheric pressure changes increase the average morbidity rate of myocardial infarction by 90% and 110%, respectively. Atmospheric pressure turned out to be a more biotropic factor than air temperature.

  19. The role of air pressure and contact force in shaping obstruent consonant onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lan

    2003-04-01

    Soft tissues (the tongue or lips) are used to form the narrow oral constriction for turbulence noise generation during the production of obstruent consonants. The displacement of the soft tissue subject to oral pressure buildup is comparable to the vertical dimension of the constriction. The contact force during the closure of stop consonants and affricates provides a pressure load over 5 times larger than the air pressure at the surface in contact. It can influence the time variation of the constriction size at onset in the form of elastic energy stored in the compliant structure forming the constriction. A finite element fluid-structure interaction program has been used to simulate the effect of these external forces during the onset of obstruent consonants. Preliminary results from a 2-D tongue tip constriction/closure model show that air pressure and contact force can introduce movement on the order of 0.1-0.2 mm during the first tens of milliseconds after release, which is enough to affect the size of the constriction at onset and the nature of release burst. The results of this kind can be used for speech synthesis, guiding the modification of the trajectories of articulators at the consonant onset. [Work supported by NIH.

  20. Evaluation of the Operator Protection Factors Offered by Positive Pressure Air Suits against Airborne Microbiological Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Steward, Jackie A.; Lever, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Laboratories throughout the world that perform work with Risk Group 4 Pathogens generally adopt one of two approaches within BSL-4 environments: either the use of positive pressure air-fed suits or using Class III microbiological safety cabinets and isolators for animal work. Within the UK at present, all laboratories working with Risk Group 4 agents adopt the use of Class III microbiological safety cabinet lines and isolators. Operator protection factors for the use of microbiological safety cabinets and isolators are available however; there is limited published data on the operator protection factors afforded by the use of positive pressure suits. This study evaluated the operator protection factors provided by positive pressure air suits against a realistic airborne microbiological challenge. The suits were tested, both intact and with their integrity compromised, on an animated mannequin within a stainless steel exposure chamber. The suits gave operator protection in all tests with an intact suit and with a cut in the leg. When compromised by a cut in the glove, a very small ingress of the challenge was seen as far as the wrist. This is likely to be due to the low airflow in the gloves of the suit. In all cases no microbiological penetration of the respiratory tract was observed. These data provide evidence on which to base safety protocols for use of positive pressure suits within high containment laboratories. PMID:23012620

  1. Effects of the air pressure on the wave-packet dynamics of gaseous iodine molecules at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Rongwei; He, Ping; Chen, Deying; Xia, Yuanqin; Yu, Xin; Wang, Jialing; Jiang, Yugang

    2013-02-01

    Based on ultrafast laser pulses, time-resolved resonance enhancement coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (RE-CARS) is applied to investigate wave-packet dynamics in gaseous iodine. The effects of air pressure on the wave-packet dynamics of iodine molecules are studied at pressures ranging from 1.5 Torr to 750 Torr. The RE-CARS signals are recorded in a gas cell filled with a mixture of about 0.3 Torr iodine in air buffer gas at room temperature. The revivals and fractional revival structures in the wave-packet signal are found to gradually disappear with rising air pressure up to 750 Torr, and the decay behaviors of the excited B-state and ground X-state become faster with increasing air pressure, which is due to the collision effects of the molecules and the growing complexity of the spectra at high pressures.

  2. New data for aerosols generated by releases of pressurized powders and solutions in static air

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Sutter, S.L.; Hodgson, W.H.

    1987-05-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases. Aerosols generated by accidents are being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop radioactive source-term estimation methods. Experiments measuring the mass airborne and particle size distribution of aerosols produced by pressurized releases were run. Carbon dioxide was used to pressurize uranine solutions to 50, 250, and 500 psig before release. The mass airborne from these experiments was higher than for comparable air-pressurized systems, but not as great as expected based on the amount of gas dissolved in the liquid and the volume of liquid ejected from the release equipment. Flashing sprays of uranine at 60, 125, and 240 psig produced a much larger source term than all other pressurized releases performed under this program. Low-pressure releases of depleted uranium dioxide at 9, 17.5, and 24.5 psig provided data in the energy region between 3-m spills and 50-psig pressurized releases.

  3. Emissions measurements for a lean premixed propane/air system at pressures up to 30 atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roffe, G.

    1979-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted in which the emissions of a lean premixed system of propane and air were measured at pressures of 5, 10, 20 and 30 atm in a flametube apparatus. Measurements were made for inlet temperatures between 600K and 1000K and combustor residence times from 1.0 to 3.0 msec. A schematic of the test rig is presented along with graphs showing emissions measurements for nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and UHC as functions of bustor residence time for various equivalence ratios, entrance temperatures and pressures; typical behavior of emissions as a function of equivalence ratio for a fixed residence time. Correlations of nitric oxide emission index with adiabatic flame temperature for a fixed residence time of 2 msec and pressures from 5 to 30 atm; and adiabatic flame temperature corresponding to CO breakpoint conditions for 2 msec residence time as a function of inlet temperature.

  4. Surface Pressure Study of Lipid Aggregates at the Air Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shew, Woody; Ploplis Andrews, Anna

    1996-11-01

    Qualitative and quantitative descriptions of the growth of fatty acid aggregates on a water/air interface were made by analyzing surface pressure measurements taken with a Langmuir Balance. High concentrations of palmitic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, and also phosphatidylethanolamine in solution with chloroform were applied with a syringe to the surface of the Langmuir Balance and surface pressure was monitored as aggregates assembled spontaneously. The aggregation process for palmitic acid was determined to consist of three distinct parts. Exponential curves were fit to the individual regions of the data and growth and decay constants were determined. Surface pressure varied in very complex ways for lauric acid, myristic acid, and phosphatidylethanolamine yet kinetic measurements yield qualitative information about assembly of those aggregates. This research was supported by NSF Grant No. DMR-93-22301.

  5. Effects of Photoionization on Similarity Properties of Streamers at Various Pressures in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, N.; Pasko, V. P.

    2005-12-01

    Similarity relations [e.g., Roth, Industrial plasma engineering, Vol. 1, 1995, p. 306] represent a useful tool for analysis of gas discharges since they allow to use known properties of the discharge at one pressure to deduce features of discharges at variety of other pressures of interest, at which experimental studies may not be feasible or even possible. In addition to traditional design of glow discharge tubes, similarity relations have been successfully applied to understanding of streamer discharges in air at several atmospheres, which are used for triggering of combustion in spark ignition engines [Achat et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 25, 661, 1992; Tardiveau et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 34, 1690, 2001], and also for analysis and interpretation of streamer discharges in sprites occurring at very low air pressures in altitude range 40-90 km in the Earth's atmosphere [e.g., Liu and Pasko, JGR, 109, A04301, 2004]. Streamer discharges similar to those documented in sprites [Gerken and Inan, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 33, 282, 2005, and references therein] have been observed in point-to-plane discharge geometry in laboratory experiments at near ground pressures [Pancheshnyi et al., Phys. Rev. E, 71, 016407, 2005; Briels et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 33, 264, 2005]. Understanding of the physical processes which lead to the observed departures from similarity relations at different pressures in these experiments represents an important problem, resolution of which would synergistically benefit understanding of streamers in both systems (i.e., due to generally relaxed requirements on time resolution of imaging systems needed for studies of sprite streamers, and easy repeatability of discharges in high pressure laboratory experiments). In this talk we report results from a streamer model developed in [Liu and Pasko, JGR, 109, A04301, 2004; GRL, L05104, 2005; J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., in review, 2005] as applied to propagation of positive streamers at various

  6. Advancing a smart air cushion system for preventing pressure ulcers using projection Moiré for large deformation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Sheng-Lin; Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Lee, Carina Jean-Tien; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2016-03-01

    A pressure ulcer is one of the most important concerns for wheelchair bound patients with spinal cord injuries. A pressure ulcer is a localized injury near the buttocks that bear ischial tuberosity oppression over a long period of time. Due to elevated compression to blood vessels, the surrounding tissues suffer from a lack of oxygen and nutrition. The ulcers eventually lead to skin damage followed by tissue necrosis. The current medical strategy is to minimize the occurrence of pressure ulcers by regularly helping patients change their posture. However, these methods do not always work effectively or well. As a solution to fundamentally prevent pressure ulcers, a smart air cushion system was developed to detect and control pressure actively. The air cushion works by automatically adjusting a patient's sitting posture to effectively relieve the buttock pressure. To analyze the correlation between the dynamic pressure profiles of an air cell with a patient's weight, a projection Moiré system was adopted to measure the deformation of an air cell and its associated stress distribution. Combining a full-field deformation imaging with air pressure measured within an air cell, the patient's weight and the stress distribution can be simultaneously obtained. By integrating a full-field optical metrology with a time varying pressure sensor output coupled with different active air control algorithms for various designs, we can tailor the ratio of the air cells. Our preliminary data suggests that this newly developed smart air cushion has the potential to selectively reduce localized compression on the tissues at the buttocks. Furthermore, it can take a patient's weight which is an additional benefit so that medical personnel can reference it to prescribe the correct drug dosages.

  7. The atomic oxygen green and red line emission response to sudden impulses of the solar wind dynamic pressure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonovich, Ludmila; Leonovich, Vitaly; Tashchilin, Anatoly

    The atomic oxygen green and red line emission response to sudden impulses of the solar wind dynamic pressure was revealed at mid-latitudes. The paper presents the study results of the dependence of the observed emissions intensity from the sudden variations in the solar wind and the geomagnetic field. These results show a relationship of the emissions disturbance amplitude with the solar wind speed, as well as with the geomagnetic field variations. We used the zenith photometer optical data, the geomagnetic field and the total electron content variations obtained for the Eastern Siberia region (52(°) N, 103(°) E). The investigation was supported by the RFFI grants № 12-05-00024-а, № 13-05-00733.

  8. Subsonic wind-tunnel tests of a trailing-cone device for calibrating aircraft static pressure systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, F. L., Jr.; Ritchie, V. S.

    1973-01-01

    A trailing-cone device for calibrating aircraft static-pressure systems was tested in a transonic wind tunnel to investigate the pressure-sensing characteristics of the device including effects of several configuration changes. The tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.30 to 0.95 with Reynolds numbers from (0.9 x one million to 4.1 x one million per foot). The results of these tests indicated that the pressures sensed by the device changed slightly but consistently as the distance between the device pressure orifices and cone was varied from 4 to 10 cone diameters. Differences between such device-indicated pressures and free-stream static pressure were small, however, and corresponded to Mach number differences of less than 0.001 for device configurations with pressure orifices located 5 or 6 cone diameters ahead of the cone. Differences between device-indicated and free-stream static pressures were not greatly influenced by a protection skid at the downstream end of the pressure tube of the device nor by a 2-to-1 change in test Reynolds number.

  9. A novel multi-beam correlation lidar for wind profiling and plume tracking for air quality applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, N. S.

    2014-12-01

    Various types of in-situ and remote sensing techniques are being utilized for measuring air quality parameters. In this paper, the development and testing of a novel three beam multifunctional direct detection lidar for air quality applications will be discussed. Operating at 1030 nm wavelength, this lidar is a nanosecond class direct detection system with three transceivers and is capable of tracking the motion of aerosol structures using elastic backscatter. Designed with scalable and modular elements and advanced algorithms and graphical user display, this lidar is tripod mounted and measures three component (3D) winds by cross correlation of aerosol backscatter from three near-parallel beams. Besides extracting multi-component wind data, the system is designed provide various atmospheric elements including turbulence. Performance of this lidar in regard to crosswind profiling has been validated with ultrasonic anemometers under low and high wind conditions. From the field data, it shown that this lidar is capable of providing relatively high spatial resolution (<1.2 m) and line-of-sight error less than 0.1 m/s over a range of greater than 2 km. With a maximum operational range of over 15 km, this lidar was recently used to study effluents from a smokestack. The results of our plume tracking study will be presented and follow-on applications for studying air emissions due to hydraulic fracturing or fracking, will be discussed.

  10. Simplified Configuration for the Combustor of an oil Burner using a low Pressure, high flow air-atomizing Nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, Thomas; Celebi, Yusuf; Fisher, Leonard

    1998-09-28

    The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The inventors have devised a fuel burner that uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle. The improved fuel burner does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design.

  11. Decay of femtosecond laser-induced plasma filaments in air, nitrogen, and argon for atmospheric and subatmospheric pressures.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, N L; Bodrov, S B; Tsarev, M V; Murzanev, A A; Sergeev, Yu A; Malkov, Yu A; Stepanov, A N

    2016-07-01

    The temporal evolution of a plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided femtosecond laser pulse was studied experimentally and theoretically in air, nitrogen (with an admixture of ∼3% O_{2}), and argon in a wide range of gas pressures (from 2 to 760 Torr). Measurements by means of transverse optical interferometry and pulsed terahertz scattering techniques showed that plasma density in air and nitrogen at atmospheric pressure reduces by an order of magnitude within 3-4 ns and that the decay rate decreases with decreasing pressure. The argon plasma did not decay within several nanoseconds for pressures of 50-760 Torr. We extended our theoretical model previously applied for atmospheric pressure air plasma to explain the plasma decay in the gases under study and to show that allowance for plasma channel expansion affects plasma decay at low pressures. PMID:27575227

  12. Decay of femtosecond laser-induced plasma filaments in air, nitrogen, and argon for atmospheric and subatmospheric pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, N. L.; Bodrov, S. B.; Tsarev, M. V.; Murzanev, A. A.; Sergeev, Yu. A.; Malkov, Yu. A.; Stepanov, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    The temporal evolution of a plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided femtosecond laser pulse was studied experimentally and theoretically in air, nitrogen (with an admixture of ˜3% O2), and argon in a wide range of gas pressures (from 2 to 760 Torr). Measurements by means of transverse optical interferometry and pulsed terahertz scattering techniques showed that plasma density in air and nitrogen at atmospheric pressure reduces by an order of magnitude within 3-4 ns and that the decay rate decreases with decreasing pressure. The argon plasma did not decay within several nanoseconds for pressures of 50-760 Torr. We extended our theoretical model previously applied for atmospheric pressure air plasma to explain the plasma decay in the gases under study and to show that allowance for plasma channel expansion affects plasma decay at low pressures.

  13. Analysis of an Aircraft Honeycomb Sandwich Panel with Circular Face Sheet/Core Disbond Subjected to Ground-Air Pressurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinker, Martin; Krueger, Ronald; Ratcliffe, James

    2013-01-01

    The ground-air pressurization of lightweight honeycomb sandwich structures caused by alternating pressure differences between the enclosed air within the honeycomb core and the ambient environment is a well-known and controllable loading condition of aerospace structures. However, initial face sheet/core disbonds intensify the face sheet peeling effect of the internal pressure load significantly and can decrease the reliability of the sandwich structure drastically. Within this paper, a numerical parameter study was carried out to investigate the criticality of initial disbonds in honeycomb sandwich structures under ground-air pressurization. A fracture mechanics approach was used to evaluate the loading at the disbond front. In this case, the strain energy release rate was computed via the Virtual Crack Closure Technique. Special attention was paid to the pressure-deformation coupling which can decrease the pressure load within the disbonded sandwich section significantly when the structure is highly deformed.

  14. Improved Performance of an Air Cooled Condenser (ACC) Using SPX Wind Guide Technology at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Mortensen

    2010-12-31

    This project added a new airflow enhancement technology to an existing ACC cooling process at a selected coal power plant. Airflow parameters and efficiency improvement for the main plant cooling process using the applied technology were determined and compared with the capabilities of existing systems. The project required significant planning and pre-test execution in order to reach the required Air Cooled Condenser system configuration for evaluation. A host Power Plant ACC system had to be identified, agreement finalized, and addition of the SPX ACC Wind Guide Technology completed on that site. Design of the modification, along with procurement, fabrication, instrumentation, and installation of the new airflow enhancement technology were executed. Baseline and post-modification cooling system data was collected and evaluated. The improvement of ACC thermal performance after SPX wind guide installation was clear. Testing of the improvement indicates there is a 5% improvement in heat transfer coefficient in high wind conditions and 1% improvement at low wind speed. The benefit increased with increasing wind speed. This project was completed on schedule and within budget.

  15. Static voltage distribution between turns of secondary winding of air-core spiral strip transformer and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong-bo; Liu, Jin-liang; Cheng, Xin-bing; Zhang, Yu

    2011-09-01

    The static voltage distribution between winding turns has great impact on output characteristics and lifetime of the air-core spiral strip pulse transformer (ACSSPT). In this paper, winding inductance was calculated by electromagnetic theory, so that the static voltage distribution between turns of secondary winding of ACSSPT was analyzed conveniently. According to theoretical analysis, a voltage gradient because of the turn-to-turn capacitance was clearly noticeable across the ground turns. Simulation results of Pspice and CST EM Studio codes showed that the voltage distribution between turns of secondary winding had linear increments from the output turn to the ground turn. In experiment, the difference in increased voltage between the ground turns and the output turns of a 20-turns secondary winding is almost 50%, which is believed to be responsible for premature breakdown of the insulation, particularly between the ground turns. The experimental results demonstrated the theoretical analysis and simulation results, which had important value for stable and long lifetime ACSSPT design. A new ACSSPT with improved structure has been used successfully in intense electron beam accelerators steadily.

  16. Head Shape and Winding Angle Optimization of Composite Pressure Vessels Based on a Multi-level Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vafaeesefat, A.; Khani, A.

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents a multi-level strategy for the optimization of composite pressure vessels with nonmetallic liners. The design variables for composite vessels include the head shape, the winding angle, the layer thickness, the number of layers, and the stacking sequence. A parameter called “modified shape factor” is introduced as an objective function. This parameter takes into account the effects of the internal pressure and volume, the vessel weight, and the composite material properties. The proposed algorithm uses genetic algorithm and finite element analysis to optimize the design parameters. As a few examples, this procedure is implemented on geodesic and ellipsoidal heads. The results show that for the given vessel conditions, the geodesic head shape with helical winding angle of nine degrees has the better performance.

  17. Static and Wind-on Performance of Polymer-Based Pressure-Sensitive Paints Using Platinum and Ruthenium as the Luminophore.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kin Hing; Kontis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to investigate the static and wind-on performance of two in-house-developed polymer-based pressure-sensitive paints. Platinum tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin and tris-bathophenanthroline ruthenium II are used as the luminophores of these two polymer-based pressure-sensitive paints. The pressure and temperature sensitivity and the photo-degradation rate of these two pressure-sensitive paints have been investigated. In the wind tunnel test, it was observed that the normalised intensity ratio of both polymer-based pressure-sensitive paints being studied decreases with increasing the number of wind tunnel runs. The exact reason that leads to the occurrence of this phenomenon is unclear, but it is deduced that the luminophore is either removed or deactivated by the incoming flow during a wind tunnel test. PMID:27128913

  18. Static and Wind-on Performance of Polymer-Based Pressure-Sensitive Paints Using Platinum and Ruthenium as the Luminophore

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Kin Hing; Kontis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to investigate the static and wind-on performance of two in-house-developed polymer-based pressure-sensitive paints. Platinum tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin and tris-bathophenanthroline ruthenium II are used as the luminophores of these two polymer-based pressure-sensitive paints. The pressure and temperature sensitivity and the photo-degradation rate of these two pressure-sensitive paints have been investigated. In the wind tunnel test, it was observed that the normalised intensity ratio of both polymer-based pressure-sensitive paints being studied decreases with increasing the number of wind tunnel runs. The exact reason that leads to the occurrence of this phenomenon is unclear, but it is deduced that the luminophore is either removed or deactivated by the incoming flow during a wind tunnel test. PMID:27128913

  19. Efficacy of spatial averaging of infrasonic pressure in varying wind speeds.

    PubMed

    DeWolf, Scott; Walker, Kristoffer T; Zumberge, Mark A; Denis, Stephane

    2013-06-01

    Wind noise reduction (WNR) is important in the measurement of infrasound. Spatial averaging theory led to the development of rosette pipe arrays. The efficacy of rosettes decreases with increasing wind speed and only provides a maximum of ~20 dB WNR due to a maximum size limitation. An Optical Fiber Infrasound Sensor (OFIS) reduces wind noise by instantaneously averaging infrasound along the sensor's length. In this study two experiments quantify the WNR achieved by rosettes and OFISs of various sizes and configurations. Specifically, it is shown that the WNR for a circular OFIS 18 m in diameter is the same as a collocated 32-inlet pipe array of the same diameter. However, linear OFISs ranging in length from 30 to 270 m provide a WNR of up to ~30 dB in winds up to 5 m/s. The measured WNR is a logarithmic function of the OFIS length and depends on the orientation of the OFIS with respect to wind direction. OFISs oriented parallel to the wind direction achieve ~4 dB greater WNR than those oriented perpendicular to the wind. Analytical models for the rosette and OFIS are developed that predict the general observed relationships between wind noise reduction, frequency, and wind speed. PMID:23742329

  20. The seasonal vertical distribution of the Saharan Air Layer and its modulation by the wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsamalis, C.; Chédin, A.; Pelon, J.; Capelle, V.

    2013-11-01

    winter and 9 m deg-1 in summer. Spring and fall present similar characteristics for both mean altitude and geometrical thickness. Wind plays a major role not only for the transport of dust within the SAL but also by sculpting it. During winter, the trade winds transport SAL towards South America, while in spring and summer they bring dust-free maritime air masses mainly from the North Atlantic up to about 50° W below the SAL. The North Atlantic westerlies, with their southern border occurring between 15 and 30° N (depending on the season, the longitude and the altitude), prevent the SAL from developing further northward. In addition, their southward shift with altitude gives SAL its characteristic oval shape in the northern part. The effective dry deposition velocity of dust particles is estimated to be 0.07 cm s-1 in winter, 0.14 cm s-1 in spring, 0.2 cm s-1 in summer and 0.11 cm s-1 in fall. Finally, the African Easterly Jet (AEJ) is observed to collocate with the maximum dust load of the SAL, and this might promote the differential advection for SAL parts, especially during summer.

  1. Global MHD simulation of the magnetospheric response to large and sudden enhancement of the solar wind dynamic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Y.; Kataoka, R.; Den, M.; Tanaka, T.; Nagatsuma, T.; Fujita, S.

    2013-12-01

    A large and sudden enhancement of the dynamic pressure in the solar wind generates a geomagnetic sudden commencement (SC). The magnetic field variation of SC at auroral latitudes shows a bipolar change which consists of preliminary impulse (PI) and main impulse (MI). Fujita et al. [2003a, 2003b] reproduced the PI/MI magnetic field variation using a magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling simulation and clarified the fundamental mechanisms. Interestingly, Araki et al. [1997] reported an anomalously large-amplitude SC of more than 200 nT with an unusually spiky waveform at low latitude, which occurred when the magnetopause was pushed inside geostationary orbit. Such a super SC is the target of this study. We investigate the large-amplitude SC at auroral latitudes when a large solar wind dynamic pressure impinges on the magnetosphere using a newly developed magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling simulation which has advanced robustness. We simulate two SC events of dynamic pressure enhancement of 16 times larger than the standard value, caused by the density enhancement and velocity enhancement, respectively. As an initial result of the comparison with the SC events, it is found that magnetic field variation of PI/MI is larger and sharper in the case of velocity rise than the case of density rise. It is therefore suggested that high-speed solar wind may be needed to create large and sharp SC. It is also found that a magnetic field variation similar to so-called Psc appears after PI/MI only in the case of velocity rise. When the high-speed solar wind impinges on magnetosphere, vortices are repeatedly formed at the equatorial magnetopause, probably due to the K-H instability. It seems that the high pressure of the vortices play an essential role as a current generator to drive the field-aligned currents and the magnetic field oscillation. In this presentation, we discuss the mechanisms of super SC in more detail, combining the other interesting simulation results.

  2. Pressure coefficient evaluation on the surface of the SONDA III model tested in the TTP Pilot Transonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, M. L. C. C.; Falcao Filho, J. B. P.; Basso, E.; Caldas, V. R.

    2015-02-01

    A test campaign of the Brazilian sounding rocket Sonda III was carried out at the Pilot Transonic Wind Tunnel, TTP. The aim of the campaign was to investigate aerodynamic phenomena taking place at the connection region of the first and second stages. Shock and expansion waves are expected at this location causing high gradients in airflow properties around the vehicle. Pressure taps located on the surface of a Sonda III half model measure local static pressures. Other measured parameters were freestream static and total pressures of the airflow. Estimated parameters were pressure coefficients and Mach numbers. Uncertainties associated with the estimated parameters were calculated by employing the Law of Propagation of Uncertainty and the Monte Carlo method. It was found that both uncertainty evaluation methods resulted in similar values. A Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation code was elaborated to help understand the changes in the flow field properties caused by the disturbances.

  3. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  4. An Analytical Solution for Mechanical Responses Induced by Temperature and Air Pressure in a Lined Rock Cavern for Underground Compressed Air Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shu-Wei; Xia, Cai-Chu; Du, Shi-Gui; Zhang, Ping-Yang; Zhou, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Mechanical responses induced by temperature and air pressure significantly affect the stability and durability of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in a lined rock cavern. An analytical solution for evaluating such responses is, thus, proposed in this paper. The lined cavern of interest consists of three layers, namely, a sealing layer, a concrete lining and the host rock. Governing equations for cavern temperature and air pressure, which involve heat transfer between the air and surrounding layers, are established first. Then, Laplace transform and superposition principle are applied to obtain the temperature around the lined cavern and the air pressure during the operational period. Afterwards, a thermo-elastic axisymmetrical model is used to analytically determine the stress and displacement variations induced by temperature and air pressure. The developments of temperature, displacement and stress during a typical operational cycle are discussed on the basis of the proposed approach. The approach is subsequently verified with a coupled compressed air and thermo-mechanical numerical simulation and by a previous study on temperature. Finally, the influence of temperature on total stress and displacement and the impact of the heat transfer coefficient are discussed. This paper shows that the temperature sharply fluctuates only on the sealing layer and the concrete lining. The resulting tensile hoop stresses on the sealing layer and concrete lining are considerably large in comparison with the initial air pressure. Moreover, temperature has a non-negligible effect on the lined cavern for underground compressed air storage. Meanwhile, temperature has a greater effect on hoop and longitudinal stress than on radial stress and displacement. In addition, the heat transfer coefficient affects the cavern stress to a higher degree than the displacement.

  5. The effectiveness of small changes for pressure redistribution; using the air mattress for small changes.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Sayumi; Sato, Aya; Azuma, Eri; Urushidani, Hiroko; Osawa, Masako; Kadoya, Kanaho; Takamura, Mana; Nunomi, Makiko; Mitsuoka, Akimi; Nishizawa Yokono, Tomoe; Sugama, Junko

    2016-05-01

    Observing small changes (SCs) at specific sites is a new form of managing changes in position. We investigated SCs at specific sites considering interface pressure, contact area, body alignment and physical sensation in nine healthy female adults and evaluated SCs using the air mattress that was divided into six cells (A-F). Thirty-three SC combinations at one or several sites were evaluated. Pressure in the sacral region significantly decreased in 28 SC combinations compared with the supine position (p < 0.05), and the effect of pressure redistribution was greater when SCs were applied at several instead of a single site. The contact area at 17 of the 28 SC combinations significantly increased (p < 0.05). Among sites ranked based on interface pressure, body alignment and physical sensation, SCs at sites BCE, AE and BD were the most favorable. The common feature among these three combinations was that they involved tilting the buttock region and one other site. The findings suggested that SCs at the buttock region could reduce disruptions in alignment as well as the impact on physical sensation caused by the body sinking into the mattress and improve interface pressure redistribution via increased contact area with the mattress. PMID:26827265

  6. Design of a MEMS piezoresistive differential pressure sensor with small thermal hysteresis for air data modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jin Woo; Lee, Jang-Sub; An, Jun-Eon; Park, Chan Gook

    2015-06-01

    The design, fabrication, and evaluation results of a MEMS piezoresistive differential pressure sensor fabricated by the dry etching process are described in this paper. The proposed sensor is designed to have optimal performances in mid-pressure range from 0 psi to 20 psi suitable for a precision air data module. The piezoresistors with a Wheatstone bridge structure are implanted where the thermal effects are minimized subject to sustainment of the sensitivity. The rectangular-shaped silicon diaphragm is adopted and its dimension is analyzed for improving pressure sensitivity and linearity. The bridge resistors are driven by constant current to compensate temperature effects on sensitivity. The designed differential pressure sensor is fabricated by using MEMS dry etching techniques, and the fabricated sensing element is attached and packaged in a Kovar package in consideration of leakage and temperature hysteresis. The implemented sensors are tested and evaluated as well. The evaluation results show the static RSS (root sum square) accuracy including nonlinearity, non-repeatability, and pressure hysteresis before temperature compensation is about 0.09%, and the total error band which includes the RSS accuracy, the thermal hysteresis, and other thermal effects is about 0.11%, which confirm the validity of the proposed design process.

  7. Design of a MEMS piezoresistive differential pressure sensor with small thermal hysteresis for air data modules.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin Woo; Lee, Jang-Sub; An, Jun-Eon; Park, Chan Gook

    2015-06-01

    The design, fabrication, and evaluation results of a MEMS piezoresistive differential pressure sensor fabricated by the dry etching process are described in this paper. The proposed sensor is designed to have optimal performances in mid-pressure range from 0 psi to 20 psi suitable for a precision air data module. The piezoresistors with a Wheatstone bridge structure are implanted where the thermal effects are minimized subject to sustainment of the sensitivity. The rectangular-shaped silicon diaphragm is adopted and its dimension is analyzed for improving pressure sensitivity and linearity. The bridge resistors are driven by constant current to compensate temperature effects on sensitivity. The designed differential pressure sensor is fabricated by using MEMS dry etching techniques, and the fabricated sensing element is attached and packaged in a Kovar package in consideration of leakage and temperature hysteresis. The implemented sensors are tested and evaluated as well. The evaluation results show the static RSS (root sum square) accuracy including nonlinearity, non-repeatability, and pressure hysteresis before temperature compensation is about 0.09%, and the total error band which includes the RSS accuracy, the thermal hysteresis, and other thermal effects is about 0.11%, which confirm the validity of the proposed design process. PMID:26133864

  8. The physics of pulsed streamer discharge in high pressure air and applications to engine techonologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yung-Hsu

    The goal of this dissertation is to study high pressure streamers in air and apply it to diesel engine technologies. Nanosecond scale pulsed high voltage discharges in air/fuel mixtures can generate radicals which in turn have been shown to improve combustion efficiency in gasoline fueled internal combustion engines. We are exploring the possibility to extend such transient plasma generation and expected radical species generation to the range of pressures encountered in compression-ignition (diesel) engines having compression ratios of ˜20:1, thereby improving lean burning efficiency and extending the range of lean combustion. At the beginning of this dissertation, research into streamer discharges is reviewed. Then, we conducted experiments of streamer propagation at high pressures, calculated the streamer velocity based on both optical and electrical measurements, and the similarity law was checked by analyzing the streamer velocity as a function of the reduced electric field, E/P. Our results showed that the similarity law is invalid, and an empirical scaling factor, E/√P, is obtained and verified by dimensional analysis. The equation derived from the dimensional analysis will be beneficial to proper electrode and pulse generator design for transient plasma assisted internal engine experiments. Along with the high pressure study, we applied such technique on diesel engine to improve the fuel efficiency and exhaust treatment. We observed a small effect of transient plasma on peak pressure, which implied that transient plasma has the capability to improve the fuel consumption. In addition, the NO can be reduced effectively by the same technique and the energy cost is 30 eV per NO molecule.

  9. Wind-forced variability of the deep eastern north Pacific: Observations of seafloor pressure and abyssal currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niller, P. P.; Filloux, J.; Liu, W. T.; Samelson, R. M.; Paduan, J. D.; Paulson, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    Data from an array of bottom pressure gauges and a string of current meters in the vicinity of 47 deg N, 139 deg W, are used to examine the deep-ocean variability forced by ocean surface wind stress curl from August 1987 to June 1988. Bottom geostrophic currents are computed from the pressure gauge array, and these correspond well to the long-period directly measured currents at 3000 m. The supratidal-period bottom pressure variations are coherent at 95% confidence with the wind stress curl in period bands of 3-4 days and 15-60 days but removed in distances of 400 and 700 km to the northwest and the southeast, respectively. A linear, two-layer hydrodynamic model is used to examine the theoretical forcing produced by random-phased surface wind fields for the conditions of the eastern north Pacific and the 15- to 60-day-period observed response is reproduced credibly. To model 3- to 15-day variations, more realistic models are required.

  10. Repair of Corrosion in Air Supply Piping at the NASA Glenn Research Center's 1 by 1 Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Michael

    2000-01-01

    During a test at the NASA Glenn Research Center's 1 x 1 Supersonic Wing Tunnel, it was discovered that particles entrained in the air flow were damaging the pressure sensitive paint on a test article. An investigation found the source of the entrained particles to be rust on the internal surfaces of the air supply piping. To remedy the situation, the air supply line components made from carbon steel were either refurbished or replaced with new stainless steel components. The refurbishment process included various combinations of chemical cleaning, bead blasting, painting and plating.

  11. Air emission into a water shear layer through porous media. Part 2: Cavitation induced pressure attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, E.C.; Marboe, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Cavitation near the casing of a hydroturbine can lead to damage through both cavitation erosion and mechanical vibration of the casing and the associated piping. Cavitation erosion results from the collapse of cavitation bubbles on or near a surface such as the casing wall. Mechanical vibrations transmitted to the casing directly through the collapse of bubbles on the casing wall indirectly through a coupling of the acoustic pressure pulse due to a nearby collapse on the turbine blade. Air emission along the casing can reduce the intensity of the tip vortex and the gap cavitation through ventilation of the cavity. Reduction in the machinery vibration is obtained by reduction of the intensity of cavitation bubble collapse and attenuation and scattering of the radiated acoustic pressure. This requires a bubble layer which may be introduced in the vicinity of the turbine blade tips. This layer remains for some distance downstream of the blades and is effective for attenuation of tip vortex induced noise and blade surface cavitation noise. For the purpose of characterizing this bubble layer within a water pipe, the authors spanned a pipe with a two dimensional hydrofoil and emitted air through porous media (20 and 100 micron porosity sintered stainless steel) into the shear flow over the hydrofoil. This paper is limited to an investigation of the attenuation of acoustic pressure propagating to the casing rather than the reduction in acoustic source level due to collapse cushioning effects.

  12. Design of a two dimensional planer pressurized air labyrinth seal test rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konicki, Joseph S.

    1993-12-01

    A two-dimensional planer labyrinth seal test rig was designed to operate with air supplied at 45 psig and temperatures up to 150 F. The rig operates with a manually specified test section pressure up to 30 psig yielding Mach numbers to 0.9 and gap Reynolds numbers to 100,000. The air flow rate through the seal will be controlled by setting inlet pressure and adjusting an outlet control valve. The test section measurements are 18 inches wide by 1.5 inches depth by 6 inches in length and provides for 10:1 large scale geometry seals to be used to facilitate measurements. Design maximum seal gap size is 0.15 inches. The test section has a glass viewing port to allow flow field measurement by non-intrusive means such as Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) with seals containing up to 5 sealing knives. Measurements of pressure, temperature and flow fields can also be simultaneously measured by probes inserted in the seal itself, or mounted on the removable/replaceable top plate. Inlet flow is conditioned through the use of a dump diffuser incorporating screens, honeycombs, expansion and contraction portions. The inlet flow to the test section can be modified from uniform to various non-uniform conditions by employing profile generators such as screens and winglets. A detailed mechanical design has been conducted including stress analysis and seal flow rate predictions.

  13. The impact of mass flow and masking on the pressure drop of air filter in heavy-duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoseeinzadeh, Sepideh; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation approach to predict and evaluate the impact of the mass-flow inlet on the pressure drop of turbocharger`s air filtfer in heavy-duty diesel engine. The numerical computations were carried out using a commercial CFD program whereas the inlet area of the air filter consisted of several holes connected to a channel. After entering through the channel, the air passes among the holes and enters the air filter. The effect of masking holes and hydraulic diameter is studied and investigated on pressure drop. The results indicate that pressure drop increase with decreasing of hydraulic diameter and masking of the holes has considerable affect on the pressure drop.

  14. Measurement of Respiration, Heart Beat and Body Movement on a Bed Using Dynamic Air-Pressure Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuno, Hiroaki; Takashima, Mitsuru; Okawai, Hiroaki

    In this study, the possibility of the measurement of respiration, heart beat, and body movement on a bed was examined using the dynamic air-pressure sensor aiming at a daily health monitoring. The dynamic air-pressure sensor measures vital information using a change of air pressure. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in this study. The dynamic air-pressure sensor was installed under the bed mat and respiration and heart beat information were measured. This information was compared with the standard waveforms obtained from respiratory belt transducer and the electrocardiograph. As a result, both waveforms demonstrate a high correlation, and confirmed the validity of this method. A change of waveform and a quantitative evaluation of respiration, heart beat, and body movement measured from during sleep using this sensor can be useful for a daily health monitoring.

  15. Completion of the Edward Air Force Base Statistical Guidance Wind Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreher, Joseph G.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this task was to develop a GUI using EAFB wind tower data similar to the KSC SLF peak wind tool that is already in operations at SMG. In 2004, MSFC personnel began work to replicate the KSC SLF tool using several wind towers at EAFB. They completed the analysis and QC of the data, but due to higher priority work did not start development of the GUI. MSFC personnel calculated wind climatologies and probabilities of 10-minute peak wind occurrence based on the 2-minute average wind speed for several EAFB wind towers. Once the data were QC'ed and analyzed the climatologies were calculated following the methodology outlined in Lambert (2003). The climatologies were calculated for each tower and month, and then were stratified by hour, direction (10" sectors), and direction (45" sectors)/hour. For all climatologies, MSFC calculated the mean, standard deviation and observation counts of the Zminute average and 10-minute peak wind speeds. MSFC personnel also calculated empirical and modeled probabilities of meeting or exceeding specific 10- minute peak wind speeds using PDFs. The empirical PDFs were asymmetrical and bounded on the left by the 2- minute average wind speed. They calculated the parametric PDFs by fitting the GEV distribution to the empirical distributions. Parametric PDFs were calculated in order to smooth and interpolate over variations in the observed values due to possible under-sampling of certain peak winds and to estimate probabilities associated with average winds outside the observed range. MSFC calculated the individual probabilities of meeting or exceeding specific 10- minute peak wind speeds by integrating the area under each curve. The probabilities assist SMG forecasters in assessing the shuttle FR for various Zminute average wind speeds. The A M ' obtained the processed EAFB data from Dr. Lee Bums of MSFC and reformatted them for input to Excel PivotTables, which allow users to display different values with point

  16. Air-sea dimethylsulfide (DMS) gas transfer in the North Atlantic: evidence for limited interfacial gas exchange at high wind speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, T. G.; De Bruyn, W.; Miller, S. D.; Ward, B.; Christensen, K.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2013-11-01

    Shipboard measurements of eddy covariance dimethylsulfide (DMS) air-sea fluxes and seawater concentration were carried out in the North Atlantic bloom region in June/July 2011. Gas transfer coefficients (k660) show a linear dependence on mean horizontal wind speed at wind speeds up to 11 m s-1. At higher wind speeds the relationship between k660 and wind speed weakens. At high winds, measured DMS fluxes were lower than predicted based on the linear relationship between wind speed and interfacial stress extrapolated from low to intermediate wind speeds. In contrast, the transfer coefficient for sensible heat did not exhibit this effect. The apparent suppression of air-sea gas flux at higher wind speeds appears to be related to sea state, as determined from shipboard wave measurements. These observations are consistent with the idea that long waves suppress near-surface water-side turbulence, and decrease interfacial gas transfer. This effect may be more easily observed for DMS than for less soluble gases, such as CO2, because the air-sea exchange of DMS is controlled by interfacial rather than bubble-mediated gas transfer under high wind speed conditions.

  17. Effects of the air breathing engine plumes on SSV orbiter subsonic wing pressure distributions (OA57A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, B. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic pressure investigations were conducted on a 0.0405 scale representation of the -89 space shuttle orbiter ferry configuration in the Rockwell International 7.75 x 11.00 foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The primary test objective was to investigate the orbiter wing pressure distribution resulting from five under-wing engine nacelle plumes. Two five engine nacelle configurations were tested at 3 ground plane heights with pressure bug measurements being made on the left upper and lower wing panel. In addition, base and balance cavity pressure measurements were made, with elevon normal and hinge moment measurements on the right panel.

  18. High-pressure ceramic air heater for indirectly fired gas turbine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahaye, P. G.; Briggs, G. F.; Vandervort, C. L.; Seger, J. L.

    The Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) offers a method for operating high-efficiency gas and steam turbine combined cycles on coal. In the EFCC, an air heater replaces the gas turbine combustor so that the turbine can be indirectly fired. Ceramic materials are required for the heat exchange surfaces to accommodate the operating temperatures of modern gas turbines. The ceramic air heater or heat exchanger is the focus of this program, and the two primary objectives are (1) to demonstrate that a ceramic air heater can be reliably pressurized to a level of 225 psia (1.5 MPa); and (2) to show that the air heater can withstand exposure to the products of coal combustion at elevated temperatures. By replacing the gas turbine combustor with a ceramic air heater, the cycle can use coal or other ash-bearing fuels. Numerous programs have attempted to fuel high efficiency gas turbines directly with coal, often resulting in significant ash deposition upon turbine components and corrosion or erosion of turbine blades. This report will show that a ceramic air heater is significantly less susceptible to ash deposition or corrosion than a gas turbine when protected by rudimentary methods of gas-stream clean-up. A 25 x 10(sup 6) Btu/hr (7 MW) test facility is under construction in Kennebunk, Maine. It is anticipated that this proof of concept program will lead to commercialization of the EFCC by electric utility and industrial organizations. Applications are being pursued for power plants ranging from 10 to 100 megawatts.

  19. Blood Pressure and Same-Day Exposure to Air Pollution at School: Associations with Nano-Sized to Coarse PM in Children

    PubMed Central

    Pieters, Nicky; Koppen, Gudrun; Van Poppel, Martine; De Prins, Sofie; Cox, Bianca; Dons, Evi; Nelen, Vera; Panis, Luc Int; Plusquin, Michelle; Schoeters, Greet

    2015-01-01

    Background Ultrafine particles (UFP) may contribute to the cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution, partly because of their relatively efficient alveolar deposition. Objective In this study, we assessed associations between blood pressure and short-term exposure to air pollution in a population of schoolchildren. Methods In 130 children (6–12 years of age), blood pressure was determined during two periods (spring and fall 2011). We used mixed models to study the association between blood pressure and ambient concentrations of particulate matter and ultrafine particles measured in the schools’ playground. Results Independent of sex, age, height, and weight of the child, parental education, neighborhood socioeconomic status, fish consumption, heart rate, school, day of the week, season, wind speed, relative humidity, and temperature on the morning of examination, an interquartile range (860 particles/cm3) increase in nano-sized UFP fraction (20–30 nm) was associated with a 6.35 mmHg (95% CI: 1.56, 11.14; p = 0.01) increase in systolic blood pressure. For the total UFP fraction, systolic blood pressure was 0.79 mmHg (95% CI: 0.07, 1.51; p = 0.03) higher, but no effects on systolic blood pressure were found for the nano-sized fractions with a diameter > 100 nm, nor PM2.5, PMcoarse, and PM10. Diastolic blood pressure was not associated with any of the studied particulate mass fractions. Conclusion Children attending school on days with higher UFP concentrations (diameter < 100 nm) had higher systolic blood pressure. The association was dependent on UFP size, and there was no association with the PM2.5 mass concentration. Citation Pieters N, Koppen G, Van Poppel M, De Prins S, Cox B, Dons E, Nelen V, Int Panis L, Plusquin M, Schoeters G, Nawrot TS. 2015. Blood pressure and same-day exposure to air pollution at school: associations with nano-sized to coarse PM in children. Environ Health Perspect 123:737–742; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408121

  20. Study on an Efficient Dehumidifying Air-conditioning System utilizing Phase Change of Intermediate Pressure Refrigerant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Kensaku; Inaba, Hideo

    The present study has proven a new dehumidifying system that aimed to reduce the sensible heat factor(SHF) of cooling process without using additional heat to relieve the internationally indicated conflict between energy saving and dehumidification necessary for keeping adequate indoor air quality (IAQ). In this system, we used intermediate pressure refrigerant in a vapor compression refrigerating cycle as heat transfer medium of a characteristic heat exchanger to precool the process air entering into an evaporator as well as to reheat the process air leaving from the evaporator. By this system, the present results achieved higher moisture removal and consequently higher efficiency of dehumidifying process. In addition to this fact, since this system has capability of integration into air-conditioning apparatus(HVAC system), it will be able to work for wide range of cooling load by variable SHF function. In the present paper, technical information, experimental results, and simulation results which assumed to apply this system into HVAC system are reported.

  1. Metal-air cells comprising collapsible foam members and means for minimizing internal pressure buildup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Glenn (Inventor); Putt, Ronald A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention provides a prismatic zinc-air cell including, in general, a prismatic container having therein an air cathode, a separator and a zinc anode. The container has one or more oxygen access openings, and the air cathode is disposed in the container in gaseous communication with the oxygen access openings so as to allow access of oxygen to the cathode. The separator has a first side in electrolytic communication with the air cathode and a second side in electrolytic communication with the zinc anode. The separator isolates the cathode and the zinc anode from direct electrical contact and allows passage of electrolyte therebetween. An expansion chamber adjacent to the zinc anode is provided which accommodates expansion of the zinc anode during discharge of the cell. A suitable collapsible foam member generally occupies the expansion space, providing sufficient resistance tending to oppose movement of the zinc anode away from the separator while collapsing upon expansion of the zinc anode during discharge of the cell. One or more vent openings disposed in the container are in gaseous communication with the expansion space, functioning to satisfactorily minimize the pressure buildup within the container by venting gasses expelled as the foam collapses during cell discharge.

  2. Antimicrobial nanoparticle-coated electrostatic air filter with high filtration efficiency and low pressure drop.

    PubMed

    Sim, Kyoung Mi; Park, Hyun-Seol; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Jung, Jae Hee

    2015-11-15

    In this study, we demonstrated an antimicrobial nanoparticle-coated electrostatic (ES) air filter. Antimicrobial natural-product Sophora flavescens nanoparticles were produced using an aerosol process, and were continuously deposited onto the surface of air filter media. For the electrostatic activation of the filter medium, a corona discharge electrification system was used before and after antimicrobial treatment of the filter. In the antimicrobial treatment process, the deposition efficiency of S. flavescens nanoparticles on the ES filter was ~12% higher than that on the pristine (Non-ES) filter. In the evaluation of filtration performance using test particles (a nanosized KCl aerosol and submicron-sized Staphylococcus epidermidis bioaerosol), the ES filter showed better filtration efficiency than the Non-ES filter. However, antimicrobial treatment with S. flavescens nanoparticles affected the filtration efficiency of the filter differently depending on the size of the test particles. While the filtration efficiency of the KCl nanoparticles was reduced on the ES filter after the antimicrobial treatment, the filtration efficiency was improved after the recharging process. In summary, we prepared an antimicrobial ES air filter with >99% antimicrobial activity, ~92.5% filtration efficiency (for a 300-nm KCl aerosol), and a ~0.8 mmAq pressure drop (at 13 cm/s). This study provides valuable information for the development of a hybrid air purification system that can serve various functions and be used in an indoor environment. PMID:26172593

  3. Global surface pressure measurements of static and dynamic stall on a wind turbine airfoil at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disotell, Kevin J.; Nikoueeyan, Pourya; Naughton, Jonathan W.; Gregory, James W.

    2016-05-01

    Recognizing the need for global surface measurement techniques to characterize the time-varying, three-dimensional loading encountered on rotating wind turbine blades, fast-responding pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) has been evaluated for resolving unsteady aerodynamic effects in incompressible flow. Results of a study aimed at demonstrating the laser-based, single-shot PSP technique on a low Reynolds number wind turbine airfoil in static and dynamic stall are reported. PSP was applied to the suction side of a Delft DU97-W-300 airfoil (maximum thickness-to-chord ratio of 30 %) at a chord Reynolds number of 225,000 in the University of Wyoming open-return wind tunnel. Static and dynamic stall behaviors are presented using instantaneous and phase-averaged global pressure maps. In particular, a three-dimensional pressure topology driven by a stall cell pattern is detected near the maximum lift condition on the steady airfoil. Trends in the PSP-measured pressure topology on the steady airfoil were confirmed using surface oil visualization. The dynamic stall case was characterized by a sinusoidal pitching motion with mean angle of 15.7°, amplitude of 11.2°, and reduced frequency of 0.106 based on semichord. PSP images were acquired at selected phase positions, capturing the breakdown of nominally two-dimensional flow near lift stall, development of post-stall suction near the trailing edge, and a highly three-dimensional topology as the flow reattaches. Structural patterns in the surface pressure topologies are considered from the analysis of the individual PSP snapshots, enabled by a laser-based excitation system that achieves sufficient signal-to-noise ratio in the single-shot images. The PSP results are found to be in general agreement with observations about the steady and unsteady stall characteristics expected for the airfoil.

  4. Heat transfer and pressure distributions on hemisphere-cylinders in methane-air combustion products at Mach 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, I.

    1973-01-01

    Heat-transfer and pressure distributions were measured over the surfaces of three hemisphere-cylinder models tested at a nominal Mach number of 7 in the Langley 8-foot high-temperature structures tunnel which uses methane-air products of combustion as a test medium. The results showed that the heat-transfer and pressure distributions over the surface of the models were in good agreement with experimental data obtained in air and also with theoretical predictions.

  5. Mixture distributions for the statistical time delay in synthetic air at low pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanović, Aleksandar P.; Popović, Biljana Č.; Marković, Vidosav Lj.; Stamenković, Suzana N.; Stankov, Marjan N.

    2014-08-01

    The mixture distributions for statistical time delay of electrical breakdown are proposed along with the generalized relation for the effective electron yield. The validity of the proposed model is tested by applying this distribution to experimental data measured in synthetic air at low pressure. Two samples without and with oxide surface are compared in order to determine physical processes leading to appearance of mixture distributions in the case of oxidized cathode. The obtained distributions are tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical hypothesis test in order to justify the use of mixture distributions. The physical interpretation of mixture distribution measured in the synthetic air is proposed, accompanied by the calculated values of the effective electron yield of initiating electrons in the gas gap.

  6. A study of the glow discharge characteristics of contact electrodes at atmospheric pressure in air

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenzheng Sun, Guangliang Li, Chuanhui; Zhang, Rongrong

    2014-04-15

    Electric field distributions and discharge properties of rod-rod contact electrodes were studied under the condition of DBD for the steady generation of atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma (APGD) in air. We found that under the effect of the initial electrons generated in a nanometer-scale gap, the rod-rod cross-contact electrodes yielded APGD plasma in air. Regarding the rod-rod cross-contact electrodes, increasing the working voltage expanded the strong electric field area of the gas gap so that both discharge area and discharge power increased, and the increase in the number of contact points kept the initial discharge voltage unchanged and caused an increase in the plasma discharge area and discharge power. A mesh-like structure of cross-contact electrodes was designed and used to generate more APGD plasma, suggesting high applicability.

  7. Simulation of a runaway electron avalanche developing in an atmospheric pressure air discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Oreshkin, E. V.; Barengolts, S. A.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Oreshkin, V. I.

    2015-12-15

    To gain a better understanding of the operation of atmospheric pressure air discharges, the formation of a runaway electron beam at an individual emission site on the cathode has been numerically simulated. The model provides a description of the dynamics of the fast electrons emitted into an air gap from the surface of the emission zone by solving numerically two-dimensional equations for the electrons. It is supposed that the electric field at the surface of the emission zone is enhanced, providing conditions for continuous acceleration of the emitted electrons. It is shown that the formation of a runaway electron beam in a highly overvolted discharge is largely associated with avalanche-type processes and that the number of electrons in the avalanche reaches 50% of the total number of runaway electrons.

  8. JT8D revised high-pressure turbine cooling and other outer air seal program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1979-01-01

    The JT8D high pressure turbine was revised to reduce leakage between the blade tip shrouds and the outer air seal, and engine testing was performed to determine the effect on performance. The addition of a second knife-edge on the blade tip shroud, the extension of the honeycomb seal land to cover the added knife-edge and an existing spoiler on the shroud, and a material substitution in the seal support ring to improve thermal growth characteristics are included. A relocation of the blade cooling air discharge to insure adequate cooling flow is required. Significant specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature improvements were demonstrated with the revised turbine in sea level and simulated altitude engine tests. Inspection of the revised seal hardware after these tests showed no unusual wear or degradation.

  9. BOREAS AFM-5 Level-2 Upper Air Network Standard Pressure Level Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Alan; Hrynkiw, Charmaine; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS AFM-5 team collected and processed data from the numerous radiosonde flights during the project. The goals of the AFM-05 team were to provide large-scale definition of the atmosphere by supplementing the existing AES aerological network, both temporally and spatially. This data set includes basic upper-air parameters interpolated at 0.5 kiloPascal increments of atmospheric pressure from data collected from the network of upper-air stations during the 1993, 1994, and 1996 field campaigns over the entire study region. The data are contained in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  10. Vegetative buffers for swine odor mitigation - wind tunnel evaluation of air flow dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scale model wind tunnel experiments were completed to determine the effectiveness and feasibility of vegetative buffers to mitigate swine odor and particulate transport. Three series of wind tunnel experiments were completed. The first included four swine housing unit models and either a slurry tank...

  11. Sterilization effect of atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma on dental instruments

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Su-Jin; Huh, Jung-Bo; Yun, Mi-Jung; Chang, Brian Myung W.; Jeong, Chang-Mo

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Autoclaves and UV sterilizers have been commonly used to prevent cross-infections between dental patients and dental instruments or materials contaminated by saliva and blood. To develop a dental sterilizer which can sterilize most materials, such as metals, rubbers, and plastics, the sterilization effect of an atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma device was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS After inoculating E. coli and B. subtilis the diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials were sterilized by exposing them to the plasma for different lengths of time (30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and, 240 seconds). The diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials were immersed in PBS solutions, cultured on agar plates and quantified by counting the colony forming units. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and significance was assessed by the LSD post hoc test (α=0.05). RESULTS The device was effective in killing E. coli contained in the plasma device compared with the UV sterilizer. The atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma device contributed greatly to the sterilization of diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials inoculated with E. coli and B. subtilis. Diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials inoculated with E. coli was effective after 60 and 90 seconds. The diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials inoculated with B. subtilis was effective after 120 and 180 seconds. CONCLUSION The atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma device was effective in killing both E. coli and B. subtilis, and was more effective in killing E. coli than the UV sterilizer. PMID:23508991

  12. Focused excimer laser initiated, radio frequency sustained high pressure air plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Giar, Ryan; Scharer, John

    2011-11-15

    Measurements and analysis of air breakdown processes and plasma production by focusing 193 nm, 300 mJ, 15 MW high power laser radiation inside a 6 cm diameter helical radio frequency (RF) coil are presented. Quantum resonant multi-photon ionization (REMPI) and collisional cascade laser ionization processes are exploited that have been shown to produce high-density (n{sub e} {approx} 7 x 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 3}) cylindrical seed plasmas at 760 Torr. Air breakdown in lower pressures (from 7-22 Torr), where REMPI is the dominant laser ionization process, is investigated using an UV 18 cm focal length lens, resulting in a laser flux of 5.5 GW/cm{sup 2} at the focal spot. The focused laser power absorption and associated shock wave produce seed plasmas for sustainment by the RF (5 kW incident power, 1.5 s) pulse. Measurements of the helical RF antenna load impedance in the inductive and capacitive coupling regimes are obtained by measuring the loaded antenna reflection coefficient. A 105 GHz interferometer is used to measure the plasma electron density and collision frequency. Spectroscopic measurements of the plasma and comparison with the SPECAIR code are made to determine translational, rotational, and vibrational neutral temperatures and the associated neutral gas temperature. From this and the associated measurement of the gas pressure the electron temperature is obtained. Experiments show that the laser-formed seed plasma allows RF sustainment at higher initial air pressures (up to 22 Torr) than that obtained via RF-only initiation (<18 Torr) by means of a 0.3 J UV laser pulse.

  13. [Temporal behavior of light emission of dielectric barrier discharges in air at atmospheric pressure].

    PubMed

    Yin, Zeng-qian; Dong, Li-fang; Han, Li; Li, Xue-chen; Chai, Zhi-fang

    2002-12-01

    The experimental setup of dielectric barrier discharge was designed which is propitious to optical measurement. Temporal behavior of light emission of dielectric barrier discharges (filamentary model) in air at atmospheric pressure was measured by using optical method. Temporal behavior of dielectric barrier discharges was obtained. The experimental results show that the discharge burst in each half cycle of applied voltage consists of a series of discharge pulses, the duration of each discharge pulse is about 30-50 ns, and the interval of the neighboring discharge pulses is about a few hundred ns. The result is of great importance to the application of dielectric barrier discharges. PMID:12914154

  14. Research Update: Direct conversion of amorphous carbon into diamond at ambient pressures and temperatures in air

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, Jagdish Bhaumik, Anagh

    2015-10-01

    We report on fundamental discovery of conversion of amorphous carbon into diamond by irradiating amorphous carbon films with nanosecond lasers at room-temperature in air at atmospheric pressure. We can create diamond in the form of nanodiamond (size range <100 nm) and microdiamond (>100 nm). Nanosecond laser pulses are used to melt amorphous diamondlike carbon and create a highly undercooled state, from which various forms of diamond can be formed upon cooling. The quenching from the super undercooled state results in nucleation of nanodiamond. It is found that microdiamonds grow out of highly undercooled state of carbon, with nanodiamond acting as seed crystals.

  15. Spectrum of the Runaway Electron Beam Generated During a Nanosecond Discharge in Air at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.

    2016-04-01

    The spectrum of supershort avalanche runaway electron beam generated in air at atmospheric pressure is experimentally investigated using a time-of-flight spectrometer and attenuation curves. It is shown that the maximum of the electron energy distribution for the main (second) group of electrons is less than the energy eUm, where Um is the maximal voltage across the gap, and the difference between these energies depends on the design of the cathode and the interelectrode gap in a gas diode. It is confirmed that there are three groups of electrons with different energies in the runaway electron beam spectrum.

  16. Energy distribution of runaway electrons generated by a nanosecond discharge in atmospheric-pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Kostyrya, I. D.; Lomaev, M. I.; Petin, V. K.; Rybka, D. V.; Shlyakhtun, S. V.

    2008-12-01

    The spectra of an ultrashort avalanche electron beam generated by a nanosecond discharge in atmospheric-pressure air were investigated. The temporal characteristics of the beam current pulses, gap voltage, and discharge current in a gas diode were measured with a time resolution of ˜0.1 ns. A simple technique was developed for recovering electron spectra from the curves of beam attenuation by aluminum foils. The effect of the cathode design, electrode gap length, and generator parameters on the electron spectra were studied using seven setups. It is shown that generation of electrons with anomalously high energies requires the use of cathodes with increased curvature radius.

  17. Modification of the surface layers of copper by a diffuse discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulepov, Mikhail A.; Erofeev, Mikhail V.; Oskomov, Konstantin V.; Tarasenko, Victor F.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the results of examination of copper samples exposed to a diffuse discharge initiated by a runaway electron beam in air under normal pressure. The changes in the chemical composition of the surface layers of copper caused by the action of the discharge were investigated. It has been found that the oxygen and carbon concentrations in the surface layers depend on the number of discharge pulses. The study was aimed at finding possible ways of using this type of discharge in research and industry.

  18. Integrated LTCC Pressure/Flow/Temperature Multisensor for Compressed Air Diagnostics†

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Yannick; Maeder, Thomas; Boutinard-Rouelle, Grégoire; Barras, Aurélie; Craquelin, Nicolas; Ryser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We present a multisensor designed for industrial compressed air diagnostics and combining the measurement of pressure, flow, and temperature, integrated with the corresponding signal conditioning electronics in a single low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) package. The developed sensor may be soldered onto an integrated electro-fluidic platform by using standard surface mount device (SMD) technology, e.g., as a standard electronic component would be on a printed circuit board, obviating the need for both wires and tubes and thus paving the road towards low-cost integrated electro-fluidic systems. Several performance aspects of this device are presented and discussed, together with electronics design issues. PMID:22163518

  19. Hover and wind-tunnel testing of shrouded rotors for improved micro air vehicle design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Jason L.

    The shrouded-rotor configuration has emerged as the most popular choice for rotary-wing Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs), because of the inherent safety of the design and the potential for significant performance improvements. However, traditional design philosophies based on experience with large-scale ducted propellers may not apply to the low-Reynolds-number (˜20,000) regime in which MAVs operate. An experimental investigation of the effects of varying the shroud profile shape on the performance of MAV-scale shrouded rotors has therefore been conducted. Hover tests were performed on seventeen models with a nominal rotor diameter of 16 cm (6.3 in) and various values of diffuser expansion angle, diffuser length, inlet lip radius and blade tip clearance, at various rotor collective angles. Compared to the baseline open rotor, the shrouded rotors showed increases in thrust by up to 94%, at the same power consumption, or reductions in power by up to 62% at the same thrust. These improvements surpass those predicted by momentum theory, due to the additional effect of the shrouds in reducing the non-ideal power losses of the rotor. Increasing the lip radius and decreasing the blade tip clearance caused performance to improve, while optimal values of diffuser angle and length were found to be 10 and 50% of the shroud throat diameter, respectively. With the exception of the lip radius, the effects of changing any of the shrouded-rotor parameters on performance became more pronounced as the values of the other parameters were changed to degrade performance. Measurements were also made of the wake velocity profiles and the shroud surface pressure distributions. The uniformity of the wake was improved by the presence of the shrouds and by decreasing the blade tip clearance, resulting in lower induced power losses. For high net shroud thrust, a favorable pressure distribution over the inlet was seen to be more important than in the diffuser. Strong suction pressures were observed

  20. Effect of Fuel-Air Ratio, Inlet Temperature, and Exhaust Pressure on Detonation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, E S; Leary, W A; Diver, J R

    1940-01-01

    An accurate determination of the end-gas condition was attempted by applying a refined method of analysis to experimental results. The results are compared with those obtained in Technical Report no. 655. The experimental technique employed afforded excellent control over the engine variables and unusual cyclic reproducibility. This, in conjunction with the new analysis, made possible the determination of the state of the end-gas at any instant to a fair degree of precision. Results showed that for any given maximum pressure the maximum permissible end-gas temperature increased as the fuel-air ratio was increased. The tendency to detonate was slightly reduced by an increase in residual gas content resulting from an increase in exhaust backpressure with inlet pressure constant.

  1. Design and fabrication of dielectric diaphragm pressure sensors for applications to shock wave measurement in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, W.; Djakov, V.; Barton, J. S.; Watson, S.; MacPherson, W. N.; Stevenson, J. T. M.; Dunare, C. C.

    2007-07-01

    Optical fibre pressure sensors have potential performance advantages over electrical sensors in measuring rapid transients such as shock waves from explosive blasts. We report the development of micromachined optical fibre Fabry-Pérot pressure sensors using a silicon dioxide or nitride diaphragm and detail the fabrication stages of the sensor body and diaphragm. The planar technology used is based on silicon deep etching and direct fusion bonding of silicon wafers. Test results for both types of diaphragm are presented. Sensors with rise times better than 3 µs, range 0.1 to 1 MPa and resolution ~500 Pa have been demonstrated in explosives trials. Despite the difference in the sign of stress for the two diaphragm types, both demonstrated excellent high-speed response to explosively generated air shocks.

  2. Results of tests CS4 and CS5 to investigate dynamic loads and pressures on 0.03-scale models (Ax1319-3/4 and 45-0) of mated 747 cam and space shuttle orbiter in the Boeing transonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A 0.03-scale model of the 747 CAM/Orbiter was tested in an 8 x 12 foot transonic wind tunnel. Dynamic loads, pressure, and empennage flow field data were obtained using pressure transducers, strain gages, and a split film anemometer. The test variables included Mach number, angle of attack, sideslip angle, orbiter tailcone on and off, orbiter partial tailcone, orbiter nozzle air scoops, orbiter body flap angle, and orbiter elevon angle.

  3. SMALL-SCALE PRESSURE-BALANCED STRUCTURES DRIVEN BY OBLIQUE SLOW MODE WAVES MEASURED IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Shuo; He, J.-S.; Tu, C.-Y.; Wang, L.-H.; Marsch, E.

    2013-09-01

    Recently, small-scale pressure-balanced structures (PBSs) were identified in the solar wind, but their formation mechanism remains unclear. This work aims to reveal the dependence of the properties of small-scale PBSs on the background magnetic field (B{sub 0}) direction and thus to corroborate the in situ mechanism that forms them. We analyze the plasma and magnetic field data obtained by WIND in the quiet solar wind at 1 AU. First, we use a developed moving-average method to obtain B{sub 0}(s, t) for every temporal scale (s) at each time moment (t). By wavelet cross-coherence analysis, we obtain the correlation coefficients between the thermal pressure P{sub th} and the magnetic pressure P{sub B}, distributing against the temporal scale and the angle {theta}{sub xB} between B{sub 0}(s, t) and Geocentric Solar Ecliptic coordinates (GSE)-x. We note that the angle coverage of a PBS decreases with shorter temporal scale, but the occurrence of the PBSs is independent of {theta}{sub xB}. Suspecting that the isolated small PBSs are formed by compressive waves in situ, we continue this study by testing the wave modes forming a small-scale PBS with B{sub 0}(s, t) quasi-parallel to GSE-x. As a result, we identify that the cross-helicity and the compressibility attain values for a slow mode from theoretical calculations. The wave vector is derived from minimum variance analysis. Besides, the proton temperatures obey T < T{sub Parallel-To} derived from the velocity distribution functions, excluding a mirror mode, which is the other candidate for the formation of PBSs in situ. Thus, a small-scale PBS is shown to be driven by oblique, slow-mode waves in the solar wind.

  4. Tool for Forecasting Cool-Season Peak Winds Across Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Roeder, William P.

    2010-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed for the day is an important element in the daily morning forecast for ground and space launch operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) must issue forecast advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect peak gusts for >= 25, >= 35, and >= 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. In Phase I of this task, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a cool-season (October - April) tool to help forecast the non-convective peak wind from the surface to 300 ft at KSC/CCAFS. During the warm season, these wind speeds are rarely exceeded except during convective winds or under the influence of tropical cyclones, for which other techniques are already in use. The tool used single and multiple linear regression equations to predict the peak wind from the morning sounding. The forecaster manually entered several observed sounding parameters into a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI), and then the tool displayed the forecast peak wind speed, average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, the timing of the peak wind and the probability the peak wind will meet or exceed 35, 50 and 60 kt. The 45 WS customers later dropped the requirement for >= 60 kt wind warnings. During Phase II of this task, the AMU expanded the period of record (POR) by six years to increase the number of observations used to create the forecast equations. A large number of possible predictors were evaluated from archived soundings, including inversion depth and strength, low-level wind shear, mixing height, temperature lapse rate and winds from the surface to 3000 ft. Each day in the POR was stratified in a number of ways, such as by low-level wind direction, synoptic weather pattern, precipitation and Bulk Richardson number. The most accurate Phase II equations were then selected for an independent verification. The Phase I and II forecast methods were

  5. A fast-response aspirating probe for measurements of total temperature and pressure in transonic cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, W.-F.; Rosson, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    A newly developed, 3-mm-diam, dual hot-wire aspirating probe was used to measure the time-resolved stagnation temperature and pressure in a transonic cryogenic wind tunnel. The probe consists of two coplanar constant temperature hot wires at different overheat ratios operating in a 1.5-mm-diam channel with a choked exit. Thus, the constant Mach number flow by the wires is influenced only by free-stream stagnation temperature and pressure. Diffusion of the free-stream Mach number to a lower value in the channel reduces the dynamic drag on the hot-wire. Frequency response of the present design is dc to 20 kHz. The probe was used to measure the unsteady wake shed from an oscillating airfoil tested in the 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at NASA-Langley Research Center. The hot-wire lasted for more than ten hours before breaking, proving the ruggedness of the probe and the usefulness of the technique in a high dynamic pressure, transonic cryogenic wind tunnel. Typical data obtained from the experiment are presented after reduction to stagnation pressure and temperature.

  6. Laser-based measurements of OH in high pressure CH4/air flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battles, B. E.; Hanson, R. K.

    1991-01-01

    Narrow-linewidth laser absorption measurements are reported from which mole fraction and temperature of OH are determined in high-pressure (1-10 atm), lean CH4/air flames. These measurements were made in a new high pressure combustion facility which incorporates a traversable flat flame burner, providing spatially and temporally uniform combustion gases at pressures up to 10 am. A commercially avialable CW ring dye laser was used with an intracavity doubling crystal to provide near-UV single mode output at approximately 306 nm. The UV beam was rapidly scanned over 120 GHz (0.1 sec scan duration) to resolve the absorption lineshape of the A-X (0,0) R1(7)/R1(11) doublet of the OH radical. From the doublet's absorption lineshape, the temperature was determined; and from peak absorption, Beer's Law was employed to find the mole fraction of OH. These data were obtained as a function of height above the flame at various pressures.

  7. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today. PMID:26573709

  8. Verification and implementation of microburst day potential index (MDPI) and wind INDEX (WINDEX) forecasting tools at Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Mark

    1996-01-01

    This report details the research, development, utility, verification and transition on wet microburst forecasting and detection the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) did in support of ground and launch operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS). The unforecasted wind event on 16 August 1994 of 33.5 ms-1 (65 knots) at the Shuttle Landing Facility raised the issue of wet microburst detection and forecasting. The AMU researched and analyzed the downburst wind event and determined it was a wet microburst event. A program was developed for operational use on the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) weather system to analyze, compute and display Theta(epsilon) profiles, the microburst day potential index (MDPI), and wind index (WINDEX) maximum wind gust value. Key microburst nowcasting signatures using the WSR-88D data were highlighted. Verification of the data sets indicated that the MDPI has good potential in alerting the duty forecaster to the potential of wet microburst and the WINDEX values computed from the hourly surface data do have potential in showing a trend for the maximum gust potential. WINDEX should help in filling in the temporal hole between the MDPI on the last Cape Canaveral rawinsonde and the nowcasting radar data tools.

  9. Metabolic response to air temperature and wind in day-old mallards and a standard operative temperature scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakken, G.S.; Reynolds, P.S.; Kenow, K.P.; Korschgen, C.E.; Boysen, A.F.

    1999-01-01

    Most duckling mortality occurs during the week following hatching and is often associated with cold, windy, wet weather and scattering of the brood. We estimated the thermoregulatory demands imposed by cold, windy weather on isolated 1-d-old mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings resting in cover. We measured O-2 consumption and evaporative water loss at air temperatures from 5 degrees to 25 degrees C and wind speeds of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mis. Metabolic heat production increased as wind increased or temperature decreased but was less sensitive to wind than that of either adult passerines or small mammals. Evaporative heat loss ranged from 5% to 17% of heat production. Evaporative heal loss and the ratio of evaporative heat loss to metabolic heat production was significantly lower in rest phase. These data were used to define a standard operative temperature (T-es) scale for night or heavy overcast conditions. An increase of wind speed from 0.1 to 1 mis decreased T-es by 3 degrees-5 degrees C.

  10. Hot air ablowin! 'Media-speak', social conflict, and the Australian 'decoupled' wind farm controversy.

    PubMed

    Hindmarsh, Richard

    2014-04-01

    In work in science, technology, and society social conflict around wind farms has a growing profile, not least because it draws our attention to two key interrelated themes: 'science, technology and governance' and 'socio-technological systems'. In this article on Australian wind farm development and siting, these themes are highlighted in contexts of sustainability, legitimacy, and competency for policy effectiveness. There is enduring social conflict around wind farms at the local community level, but little government understanding of this conflict or willingness to respond adequately to resolve it. This article examines the conflict through the lens of print media analysis. A key finding of the five identified is that people seeing wind farms as spoiling a sense of place is a primary cause of enduring social conflict at the local community level around wind farms, alongside significant environmental issues and inadequate community engagement; this finding also indicates a central reason for the highly problematic state of Australian wind energy transitions. In turn, by identifying this problematic situation as one of a significantly 'decoupled' and 'dysfunctional' condition of the Australian socio-technological wind farm development and siting system, I suggest remedies including those of a deliberative nature that also respond to the Habermas-Mouffe debate. These inform a socio-technical siting approach or pathway to better respect and navigate contested landscapes for enhanced renewable energy transitions at the local level. PMID:24941611

  11. Wind-tunnel simulation of infiltration across permeable building envelopes: Energy and air pollution exchange rates

    SciTech Connect

    Meroney, R.N.; Neff, D.E.; Birdsall, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    This study investigates the fluid-modeling techniques used to simulate wind-forced natural ventilation rates of rectangular, single-cell low-rise buildings. A 1:25 scale model of the Texas Tech University Wind Engineering Research Field Laboratory is used in a boundary-layer wind tunnel to evaluate alternative strategies for simulating infiltration into permeable buildings. A new approach is proposed which should permit evaluation of a wide range of leakage situations. In addition data is used to critique standard full-scale tracer gas test methods.

  12. Shuttle Entry Air Data System concepts applied to Space Shuttle Orbiter flight pressure data to determine air data - STS 1-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. M., III; Wolf, H.; Flanagan, P. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) is the implementation of a new concept in air data systems, with application to entry vehicles. This concept incorporates an array of flush orifices in the nose and forward fuselage of the vehicle and a new flowfield modeling concept for the analysis of flight data and the determination of the required air data parameters. Although the SEADS has not been fully demonstrated, a developmental analysis capability has been assembled and demonstrated. This analytical capability has been used to analyze selected Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI) pressure data from STS-1 through STS-4 and determine angle of attack and freestream dynamic pressure. The results of this study verify the potential of the SEADS as a highly fault tolerant operational air data system. In addition, the transition of SEADS from its present status as an experimental system to an operational system is shown to be readily achievable.

  13. Strong Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Pulses during Solar Cycle 23 and Their Impacts on Geosynchronous Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, P.

    2015-12-01

    Solar wind dynamic pressure pulse (DPP) structures, across which the dynamic pressure abruptly changes over timescales from a few seconds to several minutes, are often observed in the near-Earth space environment. In this investigation, we first present a statistical study on the properties of strong dynamic pressure pulses in the solar wind during solar cycle 23. It is found that overwhelming majority of DPPs are associated with the solar wind disturbances including the CME-related flows, the corotating interaction regions, as well as the complex ejecta. The annual variations of the averaged occurrence rate of DPPs are roughly in phase with the solar activities. Although the variabilities of geosynchronous magnetic fields (GMFs) due to the impact of positive DPPs have been well established, there appears no systematic investigations on the response of GMFs to negative DPPs. Here we also study the decompression/compression effects of very strong negative/positive DPPs on GMFs under northward IMFs. In response to the decompression of strong negative DPPs, GMFs on dayside, near the dawn and dusk on nightside are generally depressed. But near the midnight region, the responses of GMF are very diverse, being either positive or negative. For part of events when GOES is located at the midnight sector, GMF is found to abnormally increase as the result of magnetospheric decompression caused by negative DPPs. It is known that on certain conditions magnetic depression of nightside GMFs can be caused by the impact of positive DPPs. Here we found that, a stronger pressure enhancement may have a higher probability of producing the exceptional depression of GMF at midnight region. Statistically, both the decompression effect of strong negative DPPs and the compression effect of strong positive DPPs depend on the magnetic local time, being stronger at the noon sector.

  14. Turbulence and pressure loss characteristics of the inlet vanes for the 80- by 120-ft wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    A series of wind tunnel investigations were conducted to determine the flow characteristics downstream of a set of wind tunnel inlet flow conditioning vanes. The purpose was to develop an understanding of the flow mechanisms that contributed to the pressure loss and turbulence generated by the vane set. The near-field characteristics and flow field development were investigated with a 1/3 scale two dimensional model of the vane set at near full-scale Reynolds numbers. In a second series of tests, the global flow field characteristics were investigated by means of a 1/15 scale model of the full vane set and the 5:1 contraction leading to the model's test section. Scale effects due to Reynolds number mismatch were identified and their significance noted and accounted for when possible. Scaling parameters were adopted that allowed predictions to be made of the expected turbulence and pressure distributions in the full-scale wind tunnel test section, based on the small-scale test results. The predictions were found to be in good agreement with actual measurements made in the full-scale facility.

  15. Comparison of nozzle and afterbody surface pressures from wind tunnel and flight test of the YF-17 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, E. J.; Fanning, A. E.; Steers, L. I.

    1978-01-01

    Results are reported from the initial phase of an effort to provide an adequate technical capability to accurately predict the full scale, flight vehicle, nozzle-afterbody performance of future aircraft based on partial scale, wind tunnel testing. The primary emphasis of this initial effort is to assess the current capability and identify the cause of limitations on this capability. A direct comparison of surface pressure data is made between the results from an 0.1-scale model wind tunnel investigation and a full-scale flight test program to evaluate the current subscale testing techniques. These data were acquired at Mach numbers 0.6, 0.8, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 on four nozzle configurations at various vehicle pitch attitudes. Support system interference increments were also documented during the wind tunnel investigation. In general, the results presented indicate a good agreement in trend and level of the surface pressures when corrective increments are applied for known effects and surface differences between the two articles under investigation.

  16. The Real-Time Wall Interference Correction System of the NASA Ames 12-Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Norbert

    1998-01-01

    An improved version of the Wall Signature Method was developed to compute wall interference effects in three-dimensional subsonic wind tunnel testing of aircraft models in real-time. The method may be applied to a full-span or a semispan model. A simplified singularity representation of the aircraft model is used. Fuselage, support system, propulsion simulator, and separation wake volume blockage effects are represented by point sources and sinks. Lifting effects are represented by semi-infinite line doublets. The singularity representation of the test article is combined with the measurement of wind tunnel test reference conditions, wall pressure, lift force, thrust force, pitching moment, rolling moment, and pre-computed solutions of the subsonic potential equation to determine first order wall interference corrections. Second order wall interference corrections for pitching and rolling moment coefficient are also determined. A new procedure is presented that estimates a rolling moment coefficient correction for wings with non-symmetric lift distribution. Experimental data obtained during the calibration of the Ames Bipod model support system and during tests of two semispan models mounted on an image plane in the NASA Ames 12 ft. Pressure Wind Tunnel are used to demonstrate the application of the wall interference correction method.

  17. Changes in sea-level pressure over South Korea associated with high-speed solar wind events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Il-Hyun; Kwak, Young-Sil; Marubashi, Katsuhide; Kim, Yeon-Han; Park, Young-Deuk; Chang, Heon-Young

    2012-09-01

    We explore a possibility that the daily sea-level pressure (SLP) over South Korea responds to the high-speed solar wind event. This is of interest in two aspects: first, if there is a statistical association this can be another piece of evidence showing that various meteorological observables indeed respond to variations in the interplanetary environment. Second, this can be a very crucial observational constraint since most models proposed so far are expected to preferentially work in higher latitude regions than the low latitude region studied here. We have examined daily solar wind speed V, daily SLP difference ΔSLP, and daily log(BV2) using the superposed epoch analysis in which the key date is set such that the daily solar wind speed exceeds 800 km s-1. We find that the daily ΔSLP averaged out of 12 events reaches its peak at day +1 and gradually decreases back to its normal level. The amount of positive deviation of ΔSLP is +2.5 hPa. The duration of deviation is a few days. We also find that ΔSLP is well correlated with both the speed of solar wind and log(BV2). The obtained linear correlation coefficients and chance probabilities with one-day lag for two cases are r ≃ 0.81 with P > 99.9%, and r ≃ 0.84 with P > 99.9%, respectively. We conclude by briefly discussing future direction to pursue.

  18. Method for measuring temperatures and densities in hypersonic wind tunnel air flows using laser-induced O2 fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufer, Gabriel; Mckenzie, Robert L.; Fletcher, Douglas G.

    1990-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence in oxygen, in combination with Raman scattering, is shown to be an accurate means by which temperature, density, and their fluctuations owing to turbulence can be measured in air flows associated with high-speed wind tunnels. For temperatures above 60 K and densities above 0.01 amagat, the uncertainties in the temperature and density measurements can be less than 2 percent, if the signal uncertainties are dominated by photon statistical noise. The measurements are unaffected by collisional quenching and can be achieved with laser fluences for which nonlinear effects are insignificant. Temperature measurements using laser-induced fluorescence alone have been demonstrated at known densities in the range of low temperatures and densities which are expected in a hypersonic wind tunnel.

  19. A method for measuring temperatures and densities in hypersonic wind tunnel air flows using laser-induced O2 fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufer, Gabriel; Fletcher, Douglas G.; Mckenzie, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence in oxygen, in combination with Raman scattering, is shown to be an accurate means by which temperature, density, and their fluctuations due to turbulence can be measured in air flows associated with high-speed wind tunnels. For temperatures above 60 K and densities above 0.01 amagat, the uncertainty in the temperature and density measurements can be less than 2 and 3 percent, respectively, if the signal uncertainties are dominated by photon-statistical noise. The measurements are unaffected by collisional quenching and can be achieved with laser fluences for which nonlinear effects are insignificant. Temperature measurements using laser-induced fluorescence alone have been demonstrated at known densities in the range of low temperatures and densities which are expected in a hypersonic wind tunnel.

  20. The measured field performances of eight different mechanical and air-lift water-pumping wind-turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Kentfield, J.A.C.

    1996-12-31

    Results are presented of the specific performances of eight, different, water-pumping wind-turbines subjected to impartial tests at the Alberta Renewable Energy Test Site (ARETS), Alberta, Canada. The results presented which were derived from the test data, obtained independently of the equipment manufacturers, are expressed per unit of rotor projected area to eliminate the influence of machine size. Hub-height wind speeds and water flow rates for a common lift of 5.5 m (18 ft) constitute the essential test data. A general finding was that, to a first approximation, there were no major differences in specific performance between four units equipped with conventional reciprocating pumps two of which employed reduction gearing and two of which did not. It was found that a unit equipped with a Moyno pump performed well but three air-lift machines had, as was expected, poorer specific performances than the more conventional equipment. 10 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Nanoparticle formation by laser ablation in air and by spark discharges at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itina, T. E.; Voloshko, A.

    2013-12-01

    Recent promising methods of nanoparticle fabrication include laser ablation and spark discharge. Despite different experimental conditions, a striking similarity is often observed in the sizes of the obtained particles. To explain this result, we elucidate physical mechanisms involved in the formation of metallic nanoparticles. In particular, we compare supersaturation degree and sizes of critical nucleus obtained under laser ablation conditions with that obtained for spark discharge in air. For this, the dynamics of the expansion of either ablated or eroded products is described by using a three-dimensional blast wave model. Firstly, we consider nanosecond laser ablation in air. In the presence of a background gas, the plume expansion is limited by the gas pressure. Nanoparticles are mostly formed by nucleation and condensation taking place in the supersaturated vapor. Secondly, we investigate nanoparticles formation by spark discharge at atmospheric pressure. After efficient photoionization and streamer expansion, the cathode material suffers erosion and NPs appear. The calculation results allow us to examine the sizes of critical nuclei as function of the experimental parameters and to reveal the conditions favorable for the size reduction and for the increase in the nanoparticle yield.

  2. Self-pulsing discharges in pre-heated air at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janda, Mário; Machala, Zdenko; Dvonč, Lukáš; Lacoste, Deanna; Laux, Christophe O.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents investigations of self-pulsing discharges in atmospheric pressure air pre-heated to 300-1000 K. Despite using a direct-current power supply, two self-pulsing discharge regimes, a repetitive transient spark (TS) and a repetitive streamer (RS) were generated. The pulse repetition frequency, on the order of a few kHz, can be controlled by adjusting the generator voltage. The TS is a discharge initiated by a streamer, followed by a short (tens of ns) spark current pulse (˜ 1 A), associated with the total discharging of the internal capacity of the electric circuit. The TS is suitable for the study of ‘memory’ effects (pre-heating, pre-ionization) on the mechanisms of streamer-to-spark transition and electrical breakdown in atmospheric pressure air. The TS regime was stable below ˜600 K. Above ˜600 K, a stable repetitive streamer (RS) regime was observed. In this regime, the breakdown and spark did not occur. After the initial streamer, the internal capacity of the electrical circuit discharged partially. With further pre-heating of the gas, the stable TS appeared again at ˜1000 K.

  3. Integrated Energy Method for Propulsion Dynamics Analysis of Air-Pressurized Waterjet Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hsing-Juin; Chiu, Chih-Hong; Hsia, Wen-Kung

    The launching of a waterjet rocket has been a very popular idea in recent years. Its basic propulsion principle makes use of the high-pressurized air inside the rocket’s main body to swiftly expel the water out of the nozzle and thus generate thrust. The waterjet rocket is characterized with nature, interest, combustionlessness, environmental friendliness, simplicity, and minimal cost. Moreover, it is a very good science model for propulsion analysis, design, experiment, and education because of an abundance of easily adjustable key parameters. This model also features separately stored energy and mass of the propellant, in contrast to a conventional rocket. However, related literature shows that no in-depth theoretical analysis of the waterjet rocket has been attempted for various reasons. In this research, the propulsion dynamics of a waterjet rocket is analyzed by simultaneously solving the momentum and the newly derived generalized power equations to predict its flight histogram, computationally, and convolutionally. This integrated energy approach synthesizes the internal and external dynamics analyses together and ingeniously takes full advantage of the clear power supply of pressurized air in a waterjet rocket. The analysis results are generally agreeable with the experimental flight data. While the new power equation herein gives a complete spectrum of physical parameters to be manipulated, there will be wider room in quest of better rocket propulsion performance, especially through the heuristic research of this versatile but affordable waterjet rocket.

  4. Emission spectroscopy of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet operated with air at low frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, L.; Gallego, J. L.; Minotti, F.; Kelly, H.; Grondona, D.

    2015-03-01

    Low-temperature, high-pressure plasma jets have an extensive use in plasma biology and plasma medicine, such as pathogen deactivation, wound disinfection, stopping of bleeding without damage of healthy tissue, acceleration of wound healing, control of bio-film proliferation, etc. In this work, a spectroscopic characterization of a typical plasma jet, operated in air at atmospheric pressure, is reported. Within the spectrum of wavelengths from 200 to 450 nm all remarkable emissions of N2 were monitored. Spectra of the N2 2nd positive system (C3Πu-B3Πg) emitted in air are the most convenient for plasma diagnostics, since they enable to determine electronic Te, rotational Tr and vibrational Tv temperatures by fitting the experimental spectra with the simulated ones. We used SPECAIR software for spectral simulation and obtained the best fit with all these temperatures about 3500K. The conclusion that all temperatures are equal, and its relatively high value, is consistent with the results of a previous work, where it was found that the experimentally determined electrical characteristic was consistent with the model of a thermal arc discharge, together with a highly collisional cathode sheet.

  5. Features of the electron density dynamics in the filamentation of femtosecond laser radiation in air at elevated pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizhov, P. A.; Bukin, V. V.; Ushakov, A. A.; Garnov, S. V.

    2016-04-01

    The electron density in the plasma channel of a femtosecond filament in air at pressures from 1 to 7 atm is measured at different instants, starting from the ionisation onset and up to several hundreds of picoseconds after it. The initial electron density is found to increase sharply in the pressure range of 3 – 4 atm. The plasma channel diameter is found to decrease with an increase in pressure from 3 to 7 atm.

  6. Particle-in-cell simulations of multi-MeV pulsed X-ray induced air plasmas at low pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribière, M.; Cessenat, O.; d'Almeida, T.; de Gaufridy de Dortan, F.; Maulois, M.; Delbos, C.; Garrigues, A.; Azaïs, B.

    2016-03-01

    A full kinetic modelling of the charge particles dynamics generated upon the irradiation of an air-filled cavity by a multi-MeV pulsed x-ray is performed. From the calculated radiative source generated by the ASTERIX generator, we calculated the electromagnetic fields generated by x-ray induced air plasmas in a metallic cavity at different pressures. Simulations are carried out based on a Particle-In-Cell interpolation method which uses 3D Maxwell-Vlasov calculations of the constitutive charged species densities of air plasmas at different pressures at equilibrium. The resulting electromagnetic fields within the cavity are calculated for different electron densities up to 4 × 1010 cm-3. For each air pressure, we show electronic plasma waves formation followed by Landau damping. As electron density increases, the calculations exhibit space-charged neutralization and return current formation.

  7. Wind Tunnel Application of a Pressure-Sensitive Paint Technique to a Faceted Missile Model at Subsonic and Transonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2004-01-01

    A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) technique was applied in a wind tunnel experiment in the NASA Langley Research Center 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel to quantify the vortex-induced surface static pressures on a slender, faceted missile model at subsonic and transonic speeds. Global PSP calibrations were obtained using an in-situ method featuring the simultaneous electronically-scanned pressures (ESP) measurements. Both techniques revealed the significant influence leading-edge vortices on the surface pressure distributions. The mean error in the PSP measurements relative to the ESP data was approximately 0.6 percent at M(sub infinity)=0.70 and 2.6 percent at M(sub infinity)=0.90 and 1.20. The vortex surface pressure signatures obtained from the PSP and ESP techniques were correlated with the off-surface vortex cross-flow structures obtained using a laser vapor screen (LVS) flow visualization technique. The on-surface and off-surface techniques were complementary, since each provided details of the vortex-dominated flow that were not clear or apparent in the other.

  8. Wind Tunnel Application of a Pressure-Sensitive Paint Technique to a Faceted Missile Model at Subsonic and Transonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2004-01-01

    A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) technique was applied in a wind tunnel experiment in the NASA Langley Research Center 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel to quantify the vortex-induced surface static pressures on a slender, faceted missile model at subsonic and transonic speeds. Satisfactory global calibrations of the PSP were obtained at =0.70, 0.90, and 1.20, angles of attack from 10 degrees to 20 degrees, and angles of sideslip of 0 and 2.5 degrees using an in-situ method featuring the simultaneous acquisition of electronically-scanned pressures (ESP) at 57 discrete locations on the model. Both techniques clearly revealed the significant influence on the surface pressure distributions of the vortices shed from the sharp, chine-like leading edges. The mean error in the PSP measurements relative to the ESP data was approximately 0.6 percent at M infinity =0.70 and 2.6 percent at M infinity =0.90 and 1.20. The vortex surface pressure signatures obtained from the PSP and ESP techniques were correlated with the off-surface vortex cross-flow structures obtained using a laser vapor screen (LVS) flow visualization technique. The on-surface and off-surface techniques were complementary, since each provided details of the vortex-dominated flow that were not clear or apparent in the other.

  9. Air Pollution from Industrial Swine Operations and Blood Pressure of Neighboring Residents

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Rachel Avery; Rose, Kathryn M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Industrial swine operations emit odorant chemicals including ammonia, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and volatile organic compounds. Malodor and pollutant concentrations have been associated with self-reported stress and altered mood in prior studies. Objectives: We conducted a repeated-measures study of air pollution, stress, and blood pressure in neighbors of swine operations. Methods: For approximately 2 weeks, 101 nonsmoking adult volunteers living near industrial swine operations in 16 neighborhoods in eastern North Carolina sat outdoors for 10 min twice daily at preselected times. Afterward, they reported levels of hog odor on a 9-point scale and measured their blood pressure twice using an automated oscillometric device. During the same 2- to 3-week period, we measured ambient levels of H2S and PM10 at a central location in each neighborhood. Associations between systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) and pollutant measures were estimated using fixed-effects (conditional) linear regression with adjustment for time of day. Results: PM10 showed little association with blood pressure. DBP [β (SE)] increased 0.23 (0.08) mmHg per unit of reported hog odor during the 10 min outdoors and 0.12 (0.08) mmHg per 1-ppb increase of H2S concentration in the same hour. SBP increased 0.10 (0.12) mmHg per odor unit and 0.29 (0.12) mmHg per 1-ppb increase of H2S in the same hour. Reported stress was strongly associated with BP; adjustment for stress reduced the odor–DBP association, but the H2S–SBP association changed little. Conclusions: Like noise and other repetitive environmental stressors, malodors may be associated with acute blood pressure increases that could contribute to development of chronic hypertension. PMID:23111006

  10. Space Charge Transient Kinetic Characteristics in DC Air Corona Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinghua; Xian, Richang; Sun, Xuefeng; Wang, Tao; Lv, Xuebin; Chen, Suhong; Yang, Fan

    2014-08-01

    Investigating the corona mechanism plays a key role in enhancing the performance of electrical insulation systems. Numerical simulation offers a better understanding of the physical characteristics of air corona discharges. Using a two-dimensional axisymmetrical kinetics model, into which the photoionization effect is incorporated, the DC air corona discharge at atmosphere pressure is studied. The plasma model is based on a self-consistent, multi-component, and continuum description of the air discharge, which is comprised of 12 species and 22 reactions. The discharge voltage-current characteristic predicted by the model is found to be in quite good agreement with experimental measurements. The behavior of the electronic avalanche progress is also described. O2+ and N2+ are the dominant positive ions, and the values of O- and O2- densities are much smaller than that of the electron. The electron and positive ion have a low-density thin layer near the anode, which is a result of the surface reaction and absorption effect of the electrode. As time progresses, the electric field increases and extends along the cathode surface, whereas the cathode fall shrinks after the corona discharge hits the cathode; thus, in the cathode sheath, the electron temperature increases and the position of its peak approaches to the cathode. The present computational model contributes to the understanding of this physical mechanism, and suggests ways to improve the electrical insulation system.

  11. Compact High-Velocity Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Plasma Jet in Ambient Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annette, Meiners; Michael, Leck; Bernd, Abel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet at high streaming velocity operating with ambient air is highlighted. In the present technological approach, the employment of air poses a significant challenge. The high oxygen concentration in air results in a reduced concentration of reactive species in combination with a short species lifetime. The plasma jet assembly presented here contains a special dielectric barrier with a high secondary emission coefficient. In this way, the electron density and in turn the density of reactive species is increased. In addition, the plasma jet assembly is equipped with a short electrode. This leads to a higher voltage across the discharge gap and in turn to an increased density of reactive plasma species. The plasma jet is formed within and emitted by a small conical nozzle. A high-speed gas flow with gas velocity of 340 m/s was achieved at the end of the nozzle. In the jet the concentration of toxic and unwanted neutral plasma species like O3 or NOx is significantly reduced because of the shorter residence time within the plasma. The range of short-lived active plasma species is in turn considerably enhanced. The jet efficiency and action range measured through the oxidation of a test surface were determined by measuring the increase of surface tension of a polypropylene substrate via contact angle measurements after plasma treatment. Numerical modeling of the plasma plume indicates that oxygen atoms are in fact the main active species in the plasma plume.

  12. Focused excimer laser initiated and radio frequency sustained plasma formation in high pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giar, Ryan

    A doctoral thesis project was performed to experimentally investigate the feasibility of focused excimer laser initiation of air plasmas for radio frequency sustainment. A 193 nm, 15 MW, 300 mJ laser was focused with a 18 cm focal length lens to form a small, high density (ne ~ 10 14 cm--3) seed plasma. These laser plasmas were produced inside a borosilicate glass tube around which was wrapped a 5 turn helical antenna. This antenna was powered with 5 kW of 13.56 MHz of radiation for 1.5 s. This was accomplished at a pressure of 22 Torr, resulting in a large volume (300 cm3) air plasma. Diagnostic measurements of this air plasma determined an electron density of 5E10 cm-3 and an electron temperature 1.3 eV with a neutral temperature of 3500 K. The collision frequency was measured to be 9E10 Hz which resulted in a plasma-loaded antenna resistance of 6 O with a voltage reflection coefficient of 0.7.

  13. Use of MODIS Cloud Top Pressure to Improve Assimilation Yields of AIRS Radiances in GSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Srikishen, Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    Radiances from hyperspectral sounders such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) are routinely assimilated both globally and regionally in operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems using the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system. However, only thinned, cloud-free radiances from a 281-channel subset are used, so the overall percentage of these observations that are assimilated is somewhere on the order of 5%. Cloud checks are performed within GSI to determine which channels peak above cloud top; inaccuracies may lead to less assimilated radiances or introduction of biases from cloud-contaminated radiances.Relatively large footprint from AIRS may not optimally represent small-scale cloud features that might be better resolved by higher-resolution imagers like the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Objective of this project is to "swap" the MODIS-derived cloud top pressure (CTP) for that designated by the AIRS-only quality control within GSI to test the hypothesis that better representation of cloud features will result in higher assimilated radiance yields and improved forecasts.

  14. Radio-Frequency Sustainment of Laser Initiated, High-Pressure Air Constituent Plasmas*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, Kamran; Scharer, John; Tysk, Shane; Denning, Mark

    2003-10-01

    We investigate the feasibility of creating a high-density sim 10^12 -10^14 /cc, large volume plasma in air constituents by laser (300 mJ, 20(+/-2) ns) preionization of an organic gas. Tetrakis (dimethyl-amino) ethylene (TMAE) is seeded in high-pressure air constituent gases and then sustained by the efficient absorption of the radio-frequency (RF) power (1-25 kW pulsed) through inductive coupling of the wave fields, thereby reducing the rf initiation power budget.1 A multi-turn helical antenna is used to couple rf power through a capacitive matching network to sustain the plasma. Plasma density and decay recombination mechanisms with and without the background gas are examined using a 105 GHz interferometr.2 The effect of gas heating on plasma life-time enhancement through reduced formation of negative oxygen ions will also be presented. Optical emission spectroscopy is employed to study the process of delayed ionization of the seed gas and RF creation of air constituent plasma and calculate the plasma temperature. RF wave penetration and projection of plasma away from the source region are also examined for different gas flow rates. 1. Kelly K, Scharer J, Paller E, and Ding G, J. App. Phys., 92,698(2002). 2. Akhtar K, Scharer J, Tysk S., and Kho E., Rev. Sci. Instrum., 74, 996 (2003).

  15. Effect of non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment on gingival wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2016-02-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas have been applied in the biomedical field for the improvement of various cellular activities. In dentistry, the healing of gingival soft tissue plays an important role in health and aesthetic outcomes. While the biomedical application of plasma has been thoroughly studied in dentistry, a detailed investigation of plasma-mediated human gingival fibroblast (HGF) migration for wound healing and its underlying biological mechanism is still pending. Therefore, the aim of this study is to apply a non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAAPPJ) to HGF to measure the migration and to reveal the underlying biological mechanisms involved in the migration. After the characterization of NTAAPPJ by optical emission spectroscopy, the adherent HGF was treated with NTAAPPJ or air with a different flow rate. Cell viability, lipid peroxidation, migration, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the expression of migration-related genes (EGFR, PAK1, and MAPK3) were investigated. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. NTAAPPJ and air treatment with a flow rate of 250–1000 standard cubic centimetres per minute (sccm) for up to 30 s did not induce significant decreases in cell viability or membrane damage. A significant increase in the migration of mitomycin C-treated HGF was observed after 30 s of NTAAPPJ treatment compared to 30 s air-only treatment, which was induced by high levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). An increase in migration-related gene expression and EGFR activation was observed following NTAAPPJ treatment in an air flow rate-dependent manner. This is the first report that NTAAPPJ treatment induces an increase in HGF migration without changing cell viability or causing membrane damage. HGF migration was related to an increase in intracellular ROS, changes in the expression of three of the migration-related genes (EGFR, PAK1, and MAPK1), and EGFR activation. Therefore

  16. Dynamical downscaling of wind fields for wind power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengelkamp, H.-T.; Huneke, S.; Geyer, J.

    2010-09-01

    Dynamical downscaling of wind fields for wind power applications H.-T. Mengelkamp*,**, S. Huneke**, J, Geyer** *GKSS Research Center Geesthacht GmbH **anemos Gesellschaft für Umweltmeteorologie mbH Investments in wind power require information on the long-term mean wind potential and its temporal variations on daily to annual and decadal time scales. This information is rarely available at specific wind farm sites. Short-term on-site measurements usually are only performed over a 12 months period. These data have to be set into the long-term perspective through correlation to long-term consistent wind data sets. Preliminary wind information is often asked for to select favourable wind sites over regional and country wide scales. Lack of high-quality wind measurements at weather stations was the motivation to start high resolution wind field simulations The simulations are basically a refinement of global scale reanalysis data by means of high resolution simulations with an atmospheric mesoscale model using high-resolution terrain and land-use data. The 3-dimensional representation of the atmospheric state available every six hours at 2.5 degree resolution over the globe, known as NCAR/NCEP reanalysis data, forms the boundary conditions for continuous simulations with the non-hydrostatic atmospheric mesoscale model MM5. MM5 is nested in itself down to a horizontal resolution of 5 x 5 km². The simulation is performed for different European countries and covers the period 2000 to present and is continuously updated. Model variables are stored every 10 minutes for various heights. We have analysed the wind field primarily. The wind data set is consistent in space and time and provides information on the regional distribution of the long-term mean wind potential, the temporal variability of the wind potential, the vertical variation of the wind potential, and the temperature, and pressure distribution (air density). In the context of wind power these data are used

  17. Propulsion and airframe aerodynamic interactions of supersonic V/STOL configurations. Volume 1: Wind tunnel test pressure data report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilz, D. E.; Devereaux, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    A wind tunnel model of a supersonic V/STOL fighter configuration has been tested to measure the aerodynamic interaction effects which can result from geometrically close-coupled propulsion system/airframe components. The approach was to configure the model to represent two different test techniques. One was a conventional test technique composed of two test modes. In the Flow-Through mode, absolute configuration aerodynamics are measured, including inlet/airframe interactions. In the Jet-Effects mode, incremental nozzle/airframe interactions are measured. The other test technique is a propulsion simulator approach, where a sub-scale, externally powered engine is mounted in the model. This allows proper measurement of inlet/airframe and nozzle/airframe interactions simultaneously. This is Volume 1 of 2: Wind Tunnel Test Pressure Data Report.

  18. Road, rail, and air transportation noise in residential and workplace neighborhoods and blood pressure (RECORD Study).

    PubMed

    Méline, Julie; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thomas, Frederique; Chaix, Basile

    2015-01-01

    Associations between road traffic noise and hypertension have been repeatedly documented, whereas associations with rail or total road, rail, and air (RRA) traffic noise have rarely been investigated. Moreover, most studies of noise in the environment have only taken into account the residential neighborhood. Finally, few studies have taken into account individual/neighborhood confounders in the relationship between noise and hypertension. We performed adjusted multilevel regression analyses using data from the 7,290 participants of the RECORD Study to investigate the associations of outdoor road, rail, air, and RRA traffic noise estimated at the place of residence, at the workplace, and in the neighborhoods around the residence and workplace with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and hypertension. Associations were documented between higher outdoor RRA and road traffic noise estimated at the workplace and a higher SBP [+1.36 mm of mercury, 95% confidence interval (CI): +0.12, +2.60 for 65-80 dB(A) vs 30-45 dB(A)] and DBP [+1.07 (95% CI: +0.28, +1.86)], after adjustment for individual/neighborhood confounders. These associations remained after adjustment for risk factors of hypertension. Associations were documented neither with rail traffic noise nor for hypertension. Associations between transportation noise at the workplace and blood pressure (BP) may be attributable to the higher levels of road traffic noise at the workplace than at the residence. To better understand why only noise estimated at the workplace was associated with BP, our future work will combine Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking, assessment of noise levels with sensors, and ambulatory monitoring of BP. PMID:26356373

  19. Road, rail, and air transportation noise in residential and workplace neighborhoods and blood pressure (RECORD Study)

    PubMed Central

    Méline, Julie; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thomas, Frederique; Chaix, Basile

    2015-01-01

    Associations between road traffic noise and hypertension have been repeatedly documented, whereas associations with rail or total road, rail, and air (RRA) traffic noise have rarely been investigated. Moreover, most studies of noise in the environment have only taken into account the residential neighborhood. Finally, few studies have taken into account individual/neighborhood confounders in the relationship between noise and hypertension. We performed adjusted multilevel regression analyses using data from the 7,290 participants of the RECORD Study to investigate the associations of outdoor road, rail, air, and RRA traffic noise estimated at the place of residence, at the workplace, and in the neighborhoods around the residence and workplace with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and hypertension. Associations were documented between higher outdoor RRA and road traffic noise estimated at the workplace and a higher SBP [+1.36 mm of mercury, 95% confidence interval (CI): +0.12, +2.60 for 65-80 dB(A) vs 30-45 dB(A)] and DBP [+1.07 (95% CI: +0.28, +1.86)], after adjustment for individual/neighborhood confounders. These associations remained after adjustment for risk factors of hypertension. Associations were documented neither with rail traffic noise nor for hypertension. Associations between transportation noise at the workplace and blood pressure (BP) may be attributable to the higher levels of road traffic noise at the workplace than at the residence. To better understand why only noise estimated at the workplace was associated with BP, our future work will combine Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking, assessment of noise levels with sensors, and ambulatory monitoring of BP. PMID:26356373

  20. Development of Cowling for Long-nose Air-cooled Engine in the NACA Full-scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guryansky, Eugene R.; Silverstein, Abe

    1941-01-01

    An investigation of cowlings for long-nose radial engines was made on the Curtiss XP-42 fighter in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel. The unsatisfactory aerodynamic characteristics of all the cowlings with scoop inlets tested led to the development of the annular high-velocity inlet cowlings. Tests showed that ratio of cooling-air velocity at cowling inlet to stream velocity should not be less than 0.5 for this type of cowling and that critical compressibility speed can be extended to more than 500 mph at 20,000 ft altitude.