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Sample records for air pressurizing hose

  1. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 57.13021... Air and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves are...-pressure hose lines of 3/4-inch inside diameter or larger, and between high-pressure hose lines of...

  2. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 57.13021... Air and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves are...-pressure hose lines of 3/4-inch inside diameter or larger, and between high-pressure hose lines of...

  3. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 57.13021... Air and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves are...-pressure hose lines of 3/4-inch inside diameter or larger, and between high-pressure hose lines of...

  4. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 57.13021... Air and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves are...-pressure hose lines of 3/4-inch inside diameter or larger, and between high-pressure hose lines of...

  5. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 57.13021... Air and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves are...-pressure hose lines of 3/4-inch inside diameter or larger, and between high-pressure hose lines of...

  6. 6. DETAIL OF HIGHPRESSURE COMPRESSED AIR HOSE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF HIGH-PRESSURE COMPRESSED AIR HOSE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF SHIPPING AND RECEIVING ROOM (109) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. Apparatus for Leak Testing Pressurized Hoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Steve D. (Inventor); Garrison, Steve G. (Inventor); Gant, Bobby D. (Inventor); Palmer, John R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A hose-attaching apparatus for leak-testing a pressurized hose may include a hose-attaching member. A bore may extend through the hose-attaching member. An internal annular cavity may extend coaxially around the bore. At least one of a detector probe hole and a detector probe may be connected to the internal annular cavity. At least a portion of the bore may have a diameter which is at least one of substantially equal to and less than a diameter of a hose to be leak-tested.

  8. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. 154.554 Section 154.554... Hose § 154.554 Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. Cargo hose that may be exposed to the pressure in the... at least five times the maximum working pressure on the hose during cargo transfer....

  9. 46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section... Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a maximum working pressure not less than the maximum pressure to which it may be subjected and at least 1034...

  10. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. 154.554 Section 154.554... Hose § 154.554 Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. Cargo hose that may be exposed to the pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure...

  11. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. 154.554 Section 154.554... Hose § 154.554 Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. Cargo hose that may be exposed to the pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure...

  12. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. 154.554 Section 154.554... Hose § 154.554 Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. Cargo hose that may be exposed to the pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure...

  13. 46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section... Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a maximum working pressure not less than the maximum pressure to which it may be subjected and at least 1034...

  14. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. 154.554 Section 154.554... Hose § 154.554 Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. Cargo hose that may be exposed to the pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure...

  15. 46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section 154.556 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a...

  16. 46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section 154.556 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a...

  17. 46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section 154.556 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a...

  18. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56.13021... and Boilers § 56.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves are used, safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be used at connections to machines of...

  19. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56.13021... and Boilers § 56.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves are used, safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be used at connections to machines of...

  20. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56.13021... and Boilers § 56.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves are used, safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be used at connections to machines of...

  1. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56.13021... and Boilers § 56.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves are used, safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be used at connections to machines of...

  2. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56.13021... and Boilers § 56.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves are used, safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be used at connections to machines of...

  3. Vibro-acoustic characterization of flexible hose in CO2 car air conditioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelini, F.; Bergami, A.; Martarelli, M.; Tomasini, E. P.

    2008-06-01

    Following the EU directive 2006/40/EC proscribing from 2011 that refrigerant fluids must have a global warming potential not higher than 150, it will not be allowed anymore to employ the current R134a on car air conditioning systems. Maflow s.p.a (automotive hose maker) is developing products for each possible new refrigerant. This paper is focused on hoses for CO2 refrigerants operating in the worst conditions because of the high pressures and temperatures at which they are working (with R134a the high pressure is 18 bar and low pressure is 3 bar; with CO2 the high pressure is 100 bar and low pressure is 35 bar). Therefore the noise emission control of the CO2 air conditioning systems is very important. The aim of this study is to develop a standard measurement method for the vibro - acoustic characterization of High Pressure (HP - Shark F4) and Low Pressure (LP - ULEV) hoses to reduce noise emission and raise car passenger comfort; in particular deep research on high pressure hose. The method is based on the measurement of the vibration level of the hoses in a standard test bench by means of a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) and its acoustic emission by a sound intensity probe.

  4. Special pliers connect hose containing liquid under pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaydes, R. A.

    1964-01-01

    For speed and safety in handling disconnect fittings on a hose carrying liquid under pressure, special pliers have been constructed. A gear and rack mechanism is combined with two or more wide-opening U-shaped jaws which are placed over the quick-disconnect fittings.

  5. Ignition of PTFE-lined flexible hoses by rapid pressurization with oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janoff, Dwight; Bamford, Larry J.; Newton, Barry E.; Bryan, Coleman J.

    1989-01-01

    A high-volume pneumatic-impact system has been used to test PTFE-lined stainless steel braided hoses, in order to characterize the roles played in the mechanism of oxygen-induced ignition by impact pressure, pressurization rate, and upstream and downstream volumes of the hose. Ignitions are noted to have occurred at impact pressures well below the working pressure of the hoses, as well as at pressurization rates easily obtainable through manual operation of valves. The use of stainless steel hardlines downstream of the hose prevented ignitions at all pressures and pressurization rates; internal observations have shown evidence of shock ionization in the oxygen prior to ignition.

  6. Lightweight, all-metal hose assembly has high flexibility and strength over wide range of temperature and pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bessing, L. L.

    1966-01-01

    Lightweight flexible, metal braid reinforced hose assembly is used in high and low pressure oxygen, helium, and hydrogen systems. These hose assemblies have been successfully used on the Saturn-2 stage to provide joints of sufficient flexibility to absorb movement resulting from temperature variations.

  7. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure... be approved only when used to supply respirable air at the pressures and quantities required. (b) The manufacturer shall specify the range of air pressure at the point of attachment of the air-supply hose to...

  8. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure... be approved only when used to supply respirable air at the pressures and quantities required. (b) The manufacturer shall specify the range of air pressure at the point of attachment of the air-supply hose to...

  9. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure... be approved only when used to supply respirable air at the pressures and quantities required. (b) The manufacturer shall specify the range of air pressure at the point of attachment of the air-supply hose to...

  10. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure... be approved only when used to supply respirable air at the pressures and quantities required. (b) The manufacturer shall specify the range of air pressure at the point of attachment of the air-supply hose to...

  11. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure... be approved only when used to supply respirable air at the pressures and quantities required. (b) The manufacturer shall specify the range of air pressure at the point of attachment of the air-supply hose to...

  12. Hydraulic hose selection and care

    SciTech Connect

    Paine, W.

    1982-03-01

    The hoses and circuits that transport fluid are the key to virtually all hydraulic systems. With the rapid growth of the application of hydraulics to mining equipment, hose has become a major component of these machines. A typical front-end loader, scraper, dump truck, shearer, or support mechanism uses many feet of hydraulic hose. This hose must be flexible, strong, and abrasion-resistant, to withstand the pressures and temperatures generated within the system. Additionally, the couplings must be easy to install and resist leaking. On any hydraulic hose, it is the type and amount of reinforcement that determines the working pressure of the hose. Low-pressure, medium-pressure, and high pressure are the designations used to identify hydraulic hose.

  13. 46 CFR 154.562 - Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. 154.562 Section 154.562 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.562 Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. Each cargo hose must pass a hydrostatic pressure test...

  14. 46 CFR 154.562 - Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. 154.562 Section 154.562 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.562 Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. Each cargo hose must pass a hydrostatic pressure test...

  15. 46 CFR 154.562 - Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. 154.562 Section 154.562 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.562 Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. Each cargo hose must pass a hydrostatic pressure test...

  16. 46 CFR 154.562 - Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. 154.562 Section 154.562 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.562 Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. Each cargo hose must pass a hydrostatic pressure test...

  17. 46 CFR 154.562 - Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. 154.562 Section 154.562 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.562 Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. Each cargo hose must pass a hydrostatic pressure test...

  18. Fatigue testing of corrugated and Teflon hoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, Steve M.; Swanson, Theodore D.; Costello, Frederick A.

    1990-01-01

    Single and two-phase heat transport systems for the thermal control of large space facilities require fluid lines that traverse joints and either rotate or move in some other manner. Flexible hoses are being considered as one means of traversing these joints. To test the resilience of flexible hoses to bending stress, a test assembly was constructed to determine the number of flexing cycles the hoses could withstand before losing their ability to maintain a constant pressure. Corrugated metal hoses and Teflon hoses were tested at different pressures with nitrogen gas. The metal hoses had lives ranging from 30,000 to 100,000 flexing cycles. But, even after 400,000 cycles, the Teflon hoses remained essentially intact, though some leakage in the convoluted Teflon is noted.

  19. Aviation fueling hose

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This standard provides comprehensive specifications and identifies appropriate test procedures for aircraft fueling hose, hose couplings, and coupled hose assemblies suitable for use on aviation fuel servicing equipment (fuelers/hydrant dispensers).

  20. 33 CFR 154.500 - Hose assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (both incorporated by reference, see 33 CFR 154.106); or (3) Quick-disconnect couplings that meet ASTM F1122 (incorporated by reference, see 33 CFR 154.106). (e) Each hose must be marked with one of the...) Date of the latest test required by 33 CFR 156.170. (g) The hose burst pressure and the pressure...

  1. Air pressure measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, H. N.

    1978-01-01

    The pressure measurement was made by a Model 830J Rosemont sensor which utilized the principle of a changing pressure to change correspondingly the capacitance of the pressure sensitive element. The sensor's range was stated to be from zero to 100 Torr (14 km); however, the sensor was not activated until an altitude of 20 km (41 Torr) was reached during the balloon ascent. The resolution of the sensor was specified by the manufacturer as infinitesimal; however, associated electronic and pressure readout systems limit the resolution to .044 Torr. Thus in the vicinity of an altitude of 30 km the pressure resolution corresponded to an altitude resolution of approximately 33 meters.

  2. Flexible collapse-resistant and length-stable vaccum hose

    SciTech Connect

    Kashy, David H.

    2003-08-19

    A hose for containing a vacuum, which hose has an impermeable flexible tube capable of holding a vacuum and a braided or interwoven flexible interior wall, said wall providing support to said interior wall of said impermeable flexible tube. Optionally, an exterior braided or woven wall may be provided to the hose for protection or to allow the hose to be used as a pressure hose. The hose may delimit a vacuum space through which may travel a thermal transfer line containing, for example, cryogenic fluid.

  3. 30 CFR 56.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 56.7802 Section 56.7802... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be provided across connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch...

  4. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The...

  5. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply hose is pressure tested prior to being placed into initial service and every 24 months thereafter to...

  6. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply hose is pressure tested prior to being placed into initial service and every 24 months thereafter to...

  7. 30 CFR 56.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 56.7802 Section 56.7802... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be provided across connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch...

  8. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The...

  9. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply hose is pressure tested prior to being placed into initial service and every 24 months thereafter to...

  10. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The...

  11. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The...

  12. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply hose is pressure tested prior to being placed into initial service and every 24 months thereafter to...

  13. 30 CFR 56.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 56.7802 Section 56.7802... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be provided across connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch...

  14. 30 CFR 56.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 56.7802 Section 56.7802... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be provided across connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch...

  15. 30 CFR 56.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 56.7802 Section 56.7802... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be provided across connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch...

  16. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply hose is pressure tested prior to being placed into initial service and every 24 months thereafter to...

  17. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The...

  18. Shut-off mechanism for ventilation hose

    SciTech Connect

    Huyett, J.D.; Meskanick, G.R.

    1989-12-07

    A shut-off mechanism to provide automatic closure of a ventilation hose when the operation of drawing air through the hose is terminated. The mechanism includes a tube of light gauge metal inside of which are mounted a plurality of louver doors positioned in the closed position due to gravity when the ventilation unit is not operational. When the unit is operational, air flowing into the unit maintains the doors in the open position. 5 figs.

  19. Fluid Flow through Pipes--Another Look at Fire Hoses and Garden Hoses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, W.; Paranjape, B. V.

    1991-01-01

    The forward force of water on a hose is calculated using only the pressure gradient, the radius and length of the hose. The misconception about recoil on the nozzle is discussed. Dissipation energy and the consequent heat generation in a fluid flow are also described. (KR)

  20. Rotary Coupling Extends Life Of Hose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, Steve; Costello, Frederick; Swanson, Theodore

    1991-01-01

    Oscillating rotary coupling enables hose to withstand bending oscillations without leakage. Intended for use where hose connects to stationary structure at one end and to oscillating structure on other end. Coupling, (a sun-and-planetary pulley system), eliminates fatigue stress at fixed end. Pulley coupling requires less hose than conventional helical-wrap couplings, and its weight, pressure drop, heat loss or gain, and fluid contents also less. Conceived for use on Space Station to transfer vapors across rotary joints to directional radiators for condensation or to transfer liquids to gimballed payloads for evaporation. On Earth, used to carry working fluids to and from evaporative solar collectors following path of Sun.

  1. Safety Modification of Cam-and-Groove Hose Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwindt, Paul; Littlefield, Alan

    2008-01-01

    A modification has been made in the mating halves of a cam-and-groove hose coupling to prevent rapid separation of the halves in the event that the cam levers are released while the fluid in the hose is pressurized. The need for this modification arises because commercial off-the-shelf cam-and-groove hose-coupling halves do not incorporate safety features to prevent separation in the pressurized state. Especially when the pressurized fluid is compressible (e.g., steam or compressed air), the separated halves can be propelled with considerable energy, causing personal injury and/or property damage. Therefore, one purpose served by the modification is to provide for venting to release compressive energy in a contained and safe manner while preventing personal injury and/or property damage. Another purpose served by the modification, during the process of connecting the coupling halves, is to ensure that the coupling halves are properly aligned before the cam levers can be locked into position.

  2. 49 CFR 571.106 - Standard No. 106; Brake hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of water without any additives and free of gases; (c) Reservoir for test fluid; (d) Pressure gauges... tension when pressure is applied. (c) Fill the hose with test fluid and bleed all gases from the system... the valve to the burette for 10 seconds and allow the fluid in the expanded hose to rise into...

  3. 49 CFR 571.106 - Standard No. 106; Brake hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of water without any additives and free of gases; (c) Reservoir for test fluid; (d) Pressure gauges... tension when pressure is applied. (c) Fill the hose with test fluid and bleed all gases from the system... the valve to the burette for 10 seconds and allow the fluid in the expanded hose to rise into...

  4. 49 CFR 571.106 - Standard No. 106; Brake hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of water without any additives and free of gases; (c) Reservoir for test fluid; (d) Pressure gauges... tension when pressure is applied. (c) Fill the hose with test fluid and bleed all gases from the system... the valve to the burette for 10 seconds and allow the fluid in the expanded hose to rise into...

  5. 49 CFR 178.345-9 - Pumps, piping, hoses and connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pumps, piping, hoses and connections. 178.345-9... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-9 Pumps, piping, hoses... that pressure within a cargo tank does not exceed test pressure. (b) Each hose, piping,...

  6. 49 CFR 178.345-9 - Pumps, piping, hoses and connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pumps, piping, hoses and connections. 178.345-9... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-9 Pumps, piping, hoses... that pressure within a cargo tank does not exceed test pressure. (b) Each hose, piping,...

  7. Air separation with temperature and pressure swing

    DOEpatents

    Cassano, Anthony A.

    1986-01-01

    A chemical absorbent air separation process is set forth which uses a temperature swing absorption-desorption cycle in combination with a pressure swing wherein the pressure is elevated in the desorption stage of the process.

  8. Self-sealing, easily purged quick-disconnect hose coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leyerle, R. B.

    1970-01-01

    Coupling for pressurized hoses handles gas or liquid, is easily purged, and automatically seals the hose when disconnected. Volatile or toxic materials can be isolated before the connection is broken. This device may interest food processors and manufacturers of fluid delivery systems.

  9. 30 CFR 57.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 57.7802 Section 57.7802... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be provided across connections to and between high pressure oxygen...

  10. 30 CFR 57.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 57.7802 Section 57.7802... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be provided across connections to and between high pressure oxygen...

  11. 30 CFR 57.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 57.7802 Section 57.7802... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be provided across connections to and between high pressure oxygen...

  12. 30 CFR 57.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 57.7802 Section 57.7802... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be provided across connections to and between high pressure oxygen...

  13. 30 CFR 57.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 57.7802 Section 57.7802... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be provided across connections to and between high pressure oxygen...

  14. Monitoring Air Circulation Under Reduced Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygalov, Vadim

    Adequate air circulation is required for controlled environments to maintain uniform temperature and humidity control, and hence the ability to measure air flow accurately is important. Human and associated life support habitats (e.g.,. plant production systems) for future space missions will likely be operated at pressures less than 100 kPa to minimize gas leakage and structural mass. Under such reduced pressures, the outputs from conventional anemometers for monitoring air flow can change and require re-calibration. These effects of atmospheric pressure on different types of air flow measurements are not completely understood; hence we compared the performance of several air flow sensors across a range of hypobaric pressures. Sensors included a propeller type anemometer, a hot-wire anemometer, and a Pitot-tube based device. Theoretical schematics (including mathematical models) underlying these measurements were developed. Results demonstrated that changes in sensor outputs were predictable based on their operating principles, and that corrections could be developed for sensors calibrated under normal Earth atmosphere pressure ( 100 kPa) and then used at different pressures. The potential effects of hypobaric atmospheres and their altered air flows on plant physiology are also discussed.

  15. Microfluidic pressure sensing using trapped air compression.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Nimisha; Burns, Mark A

    2007-05-01

    We have developed a microfluidic method for measuring the fluid pressure head experienced at any location inside a microchannel. The principal component is a microfabricated sealed chamber with a single inlet and no exit; the entrance to the single inlet is positioned at the location where pressure is to be measured. The pressure measurement is then based on monitoring the movement of a liquid-air interface as it compresses air trapped inside the microfabricated sealed chamber and calculating the pressure using the ideal gas law. The method has been used to measure the pressure of the air stream and continuous liquid flow inside microfluidic channels (d approximately 50 microm). Further, a pressure drop has also been measured using multiple microfabricated sealed chambers. For air pressure, a resolution of 700 Pa within a full-scale range of 700-100 kPa was obtained. For liquids, pressure drops as low as 70 Pa were obtained in an operating range from 70 Pa to 10 kPa. Since the method primarily uses a microfluidic sealed chamber, it does not require additional fabrication steps and may easily be incorporated in several lab-on-a-chip fluidic applications for laminar as well as turbulent flow conditions. PMID:17476384

  16. Microfluidic pressure sensing using trapped air compression.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Nimisha; Burns, Mark A

    2007-05-01

    We have developed a microfluidic method for measuring the fluid pressure head experienced at any location inside a microchannel. The principal component is a microfabricated sealed chamber with a single inlet and no exit; the entrance to the single inlet is positioned at the location where pressure is to be measured. The pressure measurement is then based on monitoring the movement of a liquid-air interface as it compresses air trapped inside the microfabricated sealed chamber and calculating the pressure using the ideal gas law. The method has been used to measure the pressure of the air stream and continuous liquid flow inside microfluidic channels (d approximately 50 microm). Further, a pressure drop has also been measured using multiple microfabricated sealed chambers. For air pressure, a resolution of 700 Pa within a full-scale range of 700-100 kPa was obtained. For liquids, pressure drops as low as 70 Pa were obtained in an operating range from 70 Pa to 10 kPa. Since the method primarily uses a microfluidic sealed chamber, it does not require additional fabrication steps and may easily be incorporated in several lab-on-a-chip fluidic applications for laminar as well as turbulent flow conditions.

  17. Pressure Drop in Radiator Air Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, S R

    1921-01-01

    This report describes a method for measuring the drop in static pressure of air flowing through a radiator and shows (1) a reason for the discrepancy noted by various observers between head resistance and drop in pressure; (2) a difference in degree of contraction of the jet in entering a circular cell and a square cell; (3) the ratio of internal frictional resistance to total head resistance for two representative types; (4) the effect of smoothness of surface on pressure gradient; and (5) the effects of supplying heat to the radiator on pressure gradient. The fact that the pressure gradients are found to be approximately proportional to the square of the rate of flow of air appears to indicate turbulent flow, even in the short tubes of the radiator. It was found that the drop in the static pressure in the air stream through a cellular radiator and the pressure gradient in the air tubes are practically proportional to the square of the air flow in a given air density; that the difference between the head resistance per unit area and the fall of static pressure through the air tubes in radiators is apparent rather than real; and that radiators of different types differ widely in the amount of contraction of the jet at entrance. The frictional resistance was found to vary considerably, and in one case to be two-thirds of the head resistance in the type using circular cells and one-half of the head resistance of the radiator type using square cells of approximately the same dimensions.

  18. MHD aspects of fire-hose type instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Hau, L.

    2003-12-01

    In a homogeneous anisotropic plasma the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Alfvén wave may become unstable for p∥ > pperpendicular to + B2/μ 0. Recently a new type of fire-hose instability is found by Hellinger and Matsumoto [2000] that has maximum growth rate occurring for oblique propagation and may grow faster than the Alfvén mode. This new mode is compressional and may be more efficient at destroying pressure anisotropy than the standard fire hose. In this study we examines the fire-hose type (p∥ > pperpendicular to ) instabilities based on the linear and nonlinear double-polytropic MHD theory. It is shown that there exist two types of MHD fire-hose instabilities associated with the intermediate and slow modes, respectively, and with suitable choice of polytropic exponents the linear instability criteria become the same as those based on the Vlasov theory in the hydromagnetic limit. Moreover, the properties of the nonlinear MHD fire-hose instabilities are found to have great similarities with those obtained from the kinetic theory and hybrid simulation. In particular, the classical fire-hose instability evolves toward the linear fire-hose stability threshold while the nonlinear marginal stability associated with the new fire hose is well below the condition of β ∥ - β perpendicular to = 2 but complies with less stringent linear stability threshold for MHD slow-mode wave.

  19. MHD aspects of fire-hose type instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B. J.; Hau, L. N.

    2003-12-01

    In a homogeneous anisotropic plasma the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shear Alfvén wave may become unstable for p∥ > p⊥ + B2/μo. Recently, a new type of fire-hose instability was found by Hellinger and Matsumoto [2000] that has maximum growth rate occurring for oblique propagation and may grow faster than the Alfvén mode. This new mode is compressional and may be more efficient at destroying pressure anisotropy than the standard fire hose. This paper examines the fire-hose type (p∥ > p⊥) instabilities based on the linear and nonlinear double-polytropic MHD theory. It is shown that there exist two types of MHD fire-hose instabilities, and with suitable choice of polytropic exponents the linear instability criteria become the same as those based on the Vlasov theory in the hydromagnetic limit. Moreover, the properties of the nonlinear MHD fire-hose instabilities are found to have great similarities with those obtained from the kinetic theory and hybrid simulations. In particular, the classical fire-hose instability evolves toward the linear fire-hose stability threshold, while the nonlinear marginal stability associated with the new fire hose is well below the condition of β∥ - β⊥ = 2 but complies with less stringent linear stability threshold for compressible Alfvén waves.

  20. Elevated toxicant yields with narghile waterpipes smoked using a plastic hose.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Rawad; Shihadeh, Alan

    2008-05-01

    The effect of hose permeability on toxicant yields for the narghile waterpipe is investigated, with special reference to the recent adoption of plastic as a hose construction material. Measurements of air infiltration rates for 23 leather and plastic hoses representing 11 types commonly available in Beirut, Lebanon were made, revealing that while leather hoses allowed significant outside air infiltration during a puff constituting up to 31% of the puff volume, plastic hoses were found to be air-tight, indicating that the smoke reaching the waterpipe user can be considerably more concentrated when delivered via a plastic hose. Total particulate matter (TPM), nicotine and carbon monoxide (CO) yields were compared when a waterpipe was machine smoked using a highly permeable leather and an air-tight plastic hose. It was found that the plastic hose resulted in similar yields of nicotine, but more than double the CO yielded with the highly permeable leather hose. Thus, even if narghile smokers titrate for nicotine intake, the use of a plastic hose will likely greatly increase the exposure to CO, a major causative agent in cardiovascular disease. PMID:18207299

  1. Elevated toxicant yields with narghile waterpipes smoked using a plastic hose.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Rawad; Shihadeh, Alan

    2008-05-01

    The effect of hose permeability on toxicant yields for the narghile waterpipe is investigated, with special reference to the recent adoption of plastic as a hose construction material. Measurements of air infiltration rates for 23 leather and plastic hoses representing 11 types commonly available in Beirut, Lebanon were made, revealing that while leather hoses allowed significant outside air infiltration during a puff constituting up to 31% of the puff volume, plastic hoses were found to be air-tight, indicating that the smoke reaching the waterpipe user can be considerably more concentrated when delivered via a plastic hose. Total particulate matter (TPM), nicotine and carbon monoxide (CO) yields were compared when a waterpipe was machine smoked using a highly permeable leather and an air-tight plastic hose. It was found that the plastic hose resulted in similar yields of nicotine, but more than double the CO yielded with the highly permeable leather hose. Thus, even if narghile smokers titrate for nicotine intake, the use of a plastic hose will likely greatly increase the exposure to CO, a major causative agent in cardiovascular disease.

  2. Combined pressurized air solar heat sensing head assembly and a pressurized water drive system used to move solar energy collectors in tracking the sun

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, K.G.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a pressurized water drive system to move a power transmission in one direction or a opposite direction, comprising: (a) two sealed sections of compact, collapsible, flat hose arranged in a line, each section having one end to be joined to an end of the other section, and each section having a second end having an orifice, and each section being arranged in up and down side by side portions for endwise compression of the hose section. The hose section under compression has water contained in the hose section drained out of the end orifice, where the other section is expanded by receiving water under pressure through the other section orifice; (b) a power take off secured to the two sealed sections where they are joined together; (c) a housing within which the two sealed sections expand and contract, having an elongated opening to accommodate the transitory movement of the power take off, and having openings to provide access to the orifices on the two sealed sections; (d) a water control assembly to direct pressurized water alternately to respective orifices of the two sealed sections of one section of the flat hose and thereby expanding the flat hose, moving the power take off in one direction or in the opposite direction by expanding the other section of flat hose; and (e) a power transmission, connected to the power take off, to transmit the motion of the power take off to solar energy collectors in their tracing of the sun.

  3. Building pressurization control with rooftop air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, S.

    1982-10-01

    The modulated exhaust fan appears to be the most cost effective positive means to maintain close building pressure control with rooftop air conditioning, but because building construction and applications vary, every building's pressure control needs must be analyzed. Requirements will vary from no relief to barometric dampers to return fans to modulated exhaust fans. As heating and cooling costs continue to rise and tighter building codes prevail, proper selection of building pressure control is one area that must be monitored more carefully by the HVAC system designer.

  4. Simple Experiments for Teaching Air Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamsipour, Gholamreza

    2006-01-01

    Everyone who teaches physics knows very well that sometimes a simple device or experiment can help to make a concept clear. In this paper, inspired by "The Jumping Pencil" by Martin Gardner, I will discuss a simple demonstration device that can be used to start the study of air pressure.

  5. High pressure microhollow cathode discharges in air

    SciTech Connect

    Khedr, M.A.; Stark, R.H.; Watson, B.; Schoenbach, K.H.

    1998-12-31

    Research on high pressure, large volume glow discharges in air is motivated by applications such as reflectors and absorbers for electromagnetic radiation, plasma processing, and the remediation of gaseous pollution. In order to prevent glow-to-arc transitions, which in high-pressure glow discharges start in the cathode region, it is proposed to use a plasma cathode consisting of an array of microhollow cathode discharges. To explore the conditions for stable operation of single 100 {micro}m microhollow cathode discharges in flowing air, the current-voltage characteristics, and the visual appearance of a 100 {micro}m microhollow cathode discharge were studied. The results show that the threshold current for the transition from a glow into a filamentary discharge varies inversely with pressure. At pressures of 400 Torr the current in the 100 {micro}m hollow cathode discharge must not exceed 0.5 mA in order for the discharge to be stable. The type of instability, which causes the transition from dc to fluctuating currents, is not known at this time, but the observed dependence of the threshold current from the gas pressure points to a thermal instability. Assuming that the White-Allis scaling law still holds for air discharges at pressures close to atmospheric, it is expected that reducing the cathode hole diameter to 50 {micro}m will allow us to operate microhollow cathode discharges at atmospheric air with currents of up to 0.25 mA. Experimental studies on the effect of the cathode dimensions and cathode material are underway and results will be discussed at the conference.

  6. 21 CFR 880.5550 - Alternating pressure air flotation mattress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5550 Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. (a) Identification. An alternating pressure air flotation mattress is a device intended for medical purposes...

  7. 21 CFR 880.5550 - Alternating pressure air flotation mattress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5550 Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. (a) Identification. An alternating pressure air flotation mattress is a device intended for medical purposes...

  8. 21 CFR 880.5550 - Alternating pressure air flotation mattress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5550 Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. (a) Identification. An alternating pressure air flotation mattress is a device intended for medical purposes...

  9. 21 CFR 880.5550 - Alternating pressure air flotation mattress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5550 Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. (a) Identification. An alternating pressure air flotation mattress is a device intended for medical purposes...

  10. 21 CFR 880.5550 - Alternating pressure air flotation mattress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5550 Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. (a) Identification. An alternating pressure air flotation mattress is a device intended for medical purposes...

  11. Propaq Neonatal monitor used with its own single- or with Critikon twin-hose cuffs: does it matter?.

    PubMed

    Amoore

    1997-12-01

    Some oscillometric non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) monitors use twin-hose cuffs, whereas others use single-hose cuffs. The incompatibility hinders the transfer of patients from monitors using a single-hose cuff to monitors using twin-hose cuffs and vice versa. In particular, the Propaq Encore uses a single-hose cuff, whereas the Critikon Dinamap uses a twin-hose single-bladder cuff. To facilitate the transfer of neonatal patients between the two monitors, we evaluated whether we could use the Propaq monitor with a Critikon dual-hose cuff connected via a 'Y' piece adaptor to the single lumen hose of the Propaq, rather than using the Propaq's own single-hose cuff. Using an NIBP test simulator, we compared the pressures recorded by the Propaq with the two cuff types over a range of pressures (from 60/30 to 120/80 mmHg), pulse rates (40-240 bpm) and pulse strengths (down to 10% of nominal). The differences between the results recorded with the two cuffs were very small and smaller than the differences between the Propaq and the Critikon. The results suggest that the measurements of pressure with the Propaq are not affected by the use of either a single- or a twin-hose cuff. Users need to be aware that different NIBP monitors may give different pressure readings.

  12. Intraoral Air Pressure of Alaryngeal Speakers during a No-Air Insufflation Maneuver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham, Mary M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Intraoral air pressure was recorded during the production of consonant cognate pairs by 8 esophageal speakers (mean age 67 years) under 2 experimental conditions: after the insufflation of air and without air insufflation. Results revealed that peak intraoral air pressure magnitudes were significantly greater following the insufflation of air than…

  13. 30 CFR 18.39 - Hose conduit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hose conduit. 18.39 Section 18.39 Mineral... § 18.39 Hose conduit. Hose conduit shall be provided for mechanical protection of all machine cables that are exposed to damage. Hose conduit shall be flame resistant and have a minimum wall thickness...

  14. 30 CFR 18.39 - Hose conduit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hose conduit. 18.39 Section 18.39 Mineral... § 18.39 Hose conduit. Hose conduit shall be provided for mechanical protection of all machine cables that are exposed to damage. Hose conduit shall be flame resistant and have a minimum wall thickness...

  15. 30 CFR 18.39 - Hose conduit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hose conduit. 18.39 Section 18.39 Mineral... § 18.39 Hose conduit. Hose conduit shall be provided for mechanical protection of all machine cables that are exposed to damage. Hose conduit shall be flame resistant and have a minimum wall thickness...

  16. 30 CFR 18.39 - Hose conduit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hose conduit. 18.39 Section 18.39 Mineral... § 18.39 Hose conduit. Hose conduit shall be provided for mechanical protection of all machine cables that are exposed to damage. Hose conduit shall be flame resistant and have a minimum wall thickness...

  17. 30 CFR 18.39 - Hose conduit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hose conduit. 18.39 Section 18.39 Mineral... § 18.39 Hose conduit. Hose conduit shall be provided for mechanical protection of all machine cables that are exposed to damage. Hose conduit shall be flame resistant and have a minimum wall thickness...

  18. Method for predicting frictional loss in metal bellows and flexible hose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, J. R.; Daniels, C. M.

    1966-01-01

    Test date obtained concerning the frictional pressure loss to fluids flowing in unsleeved bellows and flexible hose. This data should be useful in the design of fluid systems where high delivery velocities are involved and flexible hose or bellows must be employed.

  19. 49 CFR 571.106 - Standard No. 106; Brake hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... withstand water pressure of 4,000 psi for 2 minutes without rupture, and then shall not rupture at less than....3.5Water absorption and burst strength. A hydraulic brake hose assembly, after immersion in water for 70 hours (S6.5), shall withstand water pressure of 4,000 psi for 2 minutes, and then shall...

  20. Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (Δq) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (ΔH). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of Δq higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% Δq and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area

  1. Differential air sac pressures in diving tufted ducks Aythya fuligula.

    PubMed

    Boggs, D F; Butler, P J; Wallace, S E

    1998-09-01

    The air in the respiratory system of diving birds contains a large proportion of the body oxygen stores, but it must be in the lungs for gas exchange with blood to occur. To test the hypothesis that locomotion induces mixing of air sac air with lung air during dives, we measured differential pressures between the interclavicular and posterior thoracic air sacs in five diving tufted ducks Aythya fuligula. The peak differential pressure between posterior thoracic and interclavicular air sacs, 0.49+/-0.13 kPa (mean +/- s.d.), varied substantially during underwater paddling as indicated by gastrocnemius muscle activity. These data support the hypothesis that locomotion, perhaps through associated abdominal muscle activity, intermittently compresses the posterior air sacs more than the anterior ones. The result is differential pressure fluctuations that might induce the movement of air between air sacs and through the lungs during dives. PMID:9716518

  2. Controlling the resistive hose instability in relativistic electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Fernsler, R.F.; Slinker, S.P.; Lampe, M.; Hubbard, R.F.

    1995-11-01

    The resistive hose instability has long been recognized as the major impediment to the propagation of intense, relativistic electrons beams in dense gas. However, hose is a convective instability, and therefore its growth is limited by the length of the beam pulse, the local growth rate, and the speed at which the instability convects through the pulse. The convective speed and the growth rate depend on the beam and plasma parameters, and these vary strongly from beam head to tail. In this paper, hose theory is reformulated to incorporate these variations, and the reformulated model is then used to compute the maximum hose growth possible in a given beam pulse. In air, the model predicts that hose grows by many orders of magnitude when the beam current is less than 10 kA or has a rise time more than a few nanoseconds long. But the growth is predicted to be less than a factor of 20 if the current is 50 kA or more, the rise time is subnanosecond, and the beam radius is properly tapered from head to tail. The model is supported by extensive numerical simulations and is in general agreement with available experimental data. Many of the issues discussed here may have application to other instabilities as well. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  3. 46 CFR 154.560 - Cargo hose: Prototype test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose: Prototype test. 154.560 Section 154.560... Hose § 154.560 Cargo hose: Prototype test. (a) Each cargo hose must be of a type that passes a... service temperature. (b) Each cargo hose must not be the hose used in the prototype test....

  4. 46 CFR 154.560 - Cargo hose: Prototype test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo hose: Prototype test. 154.560 Section 154.560... Hose § 154.560 Cargo hose: Prototype test. (a) Each cargo hose must be of a type that passes a... service temperature. (b) Each cargo hose must not be the hose used in the prototype test....

  5. 46 CFR 154.560 - Cargo hose: Prototype test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo hose: Prototype test. 154.560 Section 154.560... Hose § 154.560 Cargo hose: Prototype test. (a) Each cargo hose must be of a type that passes a... service temperature. (b) Each cargo hose must not be the hose used in the prototype test....

  6. 46 CFR 154.560 - Cargo hose: Prototype test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo hose: Prototype test. 154.560 Section 154.560... Hose § 154.560 Cargo hose: Prototype test. (a) Each cargo hose must be of a type that passes a... service temperature. (b) Each cargo hose must not be the hose used in the prototype test....

  7. 46 CFR 154.560 - Cargo hose: Prototype test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Prototype test. 154.560 Section 154.560... Hose § 154.560 Cargo hose: Prototype test. (a) Each cargo hose must be of a type that passes a... service temperature. (b) Each cargo hose must not be the hose used in the prototype test....

  8. Modelling of air pressure effects in casting moulds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attar, E.; Homayonifar, P.; Babaei, R.; Asgari, K.; Davami, P.

    2005-09-01

    In the casting process, as a mould is filled with molten metal, air escapes through the vents. Air pressure in the mould cavity has serious effects upon the filling behaviour such as surface profile of the molten metal and filling time. In this project a computational model was developed for calculation of air pressure during the mould filling. A 3D single phase code based on the SOLA-VOF algorithm was used for the prediction of the fluid flow. The ideal gas assumption, conservation of mass equation and Bernoulli law were used for the calculation of air pressure. A new algorithm was developed to interpolate air pressure on the surface cells. The creation of air pressure was correlated with the sizes of the vents and their locations. An experimental test was designed to verify the modelling results. Comparison between the experimental data and simulation results has shown a good agreement.

  9. Evaluation of Hose in Hose transfer line service life

    SciTech Connect

    EAGLE, O.H.

    2003-05-30

    This document presents a determination for the amount of expected service life from Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines based on vendor information and past HIHTL experience. Based on the information presented in this report and referenced documentation, we conclude the service life of the inner hose establishes the limits of service life for the finished assemblies. Since the process and environmental conditions to which the transfer line is subjected will not adversely affect the hose, the effective service life is that stated by the vendor--three years from the date of initial transfer. Transfer line assemblies have a shelf life of seven years from the date of hose manufacture, if stored in accordance with Section 2.1. This evaluation provides documentation showing that a three year service life has been justified. In the event that transfer lines are to be operated after three years from the date of initial transfer and within the shelf life of seven years, they must be reevaluated for their ability to perform intended functions.

  10. 49 CFR 393.45 - Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable requirements of FMVSS No. 106 (49 CFR 571.106). (b) Brake tubing and hose installation. Brake... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end... REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.45 Brake tubing and hoses;...

  11. 49 CFR 393.45 - Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... applicable requirements of FMVSS No. 106 (49 CFR 571.106). (b) Brake tubing and hose installation. Brake... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end... REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.45 Brake tubing and hoses;...

  12. 49 CFR 393.45 - Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... applicable requirements of FMVSS No. 106 (49 CFR 571.106). (b) Brake tubing and hose installation. Brake... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end... REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.45 Brake tubing and hoses;...

  13. 49 CFR 393.45 - Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... applicable requirements of FMVSS No. 106 (49 CFR 571.106). (b) Brake tubing and hose installation. Brake... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end... REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.45 Brake tubing and hoses;...

  14. 49 CFR 393.45 - Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... applicable requirements of FMVSS No. 106 (49 CFR 571.106). (b) Brake tubing and hose installation. Brake... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end... REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.45 Brake tubing and hoses;...

  15. Noncontact Monitoring of Respiration by Dynamic Air-Pressure Sensor.

    PubMed

    Takarada, Tohru; Asada, Tetsunosuke; Sumi, Yoshihisa; Higuchi, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that a dynamic air-pressure sensor system allows respiratory status to be visually monitored for patients in minimally clothed condition. The dynamic air-pressure sensor measures vital information using changes in air pressure. To utilize this device in the field, we must clarify the influence of clothing conditions on measurement. The present study evaluated use of the dynamic air-pressure sensor system as a respiratory monitor that can reliably detect change in breathing patterns irrespective of clothing. Twelve healthy volunteers reclined on a dental chair positioned horizontally with the sensor pad for measuring air-pressure signals corresponding to respiration placed on the seat back of the dental chair in the central lumbar region. Respiratory measurements were taken under 2 conditions: (a) thinly clothed (subject lying directly on the sensor pad); and (b) thickly clothed (subject lying on the sensor pad covered with a pressure-reducing sheet). Air-pressure signals were recorded and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration were calculated. This information was compared with expiratory tidal volume measured simultaneously by a respirometer connected to the subject via face mask. The dynamic air-pressure sensor was able to receive the signal corresponding to respiration regardless of clothing conditions. A strong correlation was identified between expiratory tidal volume and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration for all subjects under both clothing conditions (0.840-0.988 for the thinly clothed condition and 0.867-0.992 for the thickly clothed condition). These results show that the dynamic air-pressure sensor is useful for monitoring respiratory physiology irrespective of clothing.

  16. Noncontact Monitoring of Respiration by Dynamic Air-Pressure Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Takarada, Tohru; Asada, Tetsunosuke; Sumi, Yoshihisa; Higuchi, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that a dynamic air-pressure sensor system allows respiratory status to be visually monitored for patients in minimally clothed condition. The dynamic air-pressure sensor measures vital information using changes in air pressure. To utilize this device in the field, we must clarify the influence of clothing conditions on measurement. The present study evaluated use of the dynamic air-pressure sensor system as a respiratory monitor that can reliably detect change in breathing patterns irrespective of clothing. Twelve healthy volunteers reclined on a dental chair positioned horizontally with the sensor pad for measuring air-pressure signals corresponding to respiration placed on the seat back of the dental chair in the central lumbar region. Respiratory measurements were taken under 2 conditions: (a) thinly clothed (subject lying directly on the sensor pad); and (b) thickly clothed (subject lying on the sensor pad covered with a pressure-reducing sheet). Air-pressure signals were recorded and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration were calculated. This information was compared with expiratory tidal volume measured simultaneously by a respirometer connected to the subject via face mask. The dynamic air-pressure sensor was able to receive the signal corresponding to respiration regardless of clothing conditions. A strong correlation was identified between expiratory tidal volume and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration for all subjects under both clothing conditions (0.840–0.988 for the thinly clothed condition and 0.867–0.992 for the thickly clothed condition). These results show that the dynamic air-pressure sensor is useful for monitoring respiratory physiology irrespective of clothing. PMID:26398125

  17. Supplemental air injection method and devices for carburetors of internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Coberley, L.E.

    1986-03-11

    A supplemental air injection means for carburetors of internal combustion engines is described consisting of: a coupling provided with an air inlet port for receiving air under pressure and at least one air outlet port for exhausting the air under pressure; a nozzle means comprising a hose connected at one end to the outlet port and a nozzle at the other end of the hose for selectively directing the air under pressure issuing therefrom; and clamp means for selectively positioning the nozzle for directing air under pressure issuing therefrom into the venturi of a carburetor of the associated engine; the clamp means comprising an apertured strip of metal for mounting in an associated air filter of the associated engine for supporting and selectively positioning the nozzle means.

  18. Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell integral air accumular containment

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Basel, Richard A.

    2004-02-10

    A fuel cell generator apparatus contains at least one fuel cell subassembly module in a module housing, where the housing is surrounded by a pressure vessel such that there is an air accumulator space, where the apparatus is associated with an air compressor of a turbine/generator/air compressor system, where pressurized air from the compressor passes into the space and occupies the space and then flows to the fuel cells in the subassembly module, where the air accumulation space provides an accumulator to control any unreacted fuel gas that might flow from the module.

  19. 46 CFR 148.410 - Fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hoses. 148.410 Section 148.410 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.410 Fire hoses. When Table 148.10 of this part associates a material with a reference to this section, a fire hose must be available at each hatch...

  20. 33 CFR 155.800 - Transfer hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transfer hose. 155.800 Section 155.800 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.800 Transfer hose. Hose used to transfer oil or hazardous...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1858 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose. 154.1858 Section 154.1858 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1858 Cargo hose. The person in charge of cargo transfer shall ensure that cargo hose used for cargo transfer service meets §§...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1858 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo hose. 154.1858 Section 154.1858 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1858 Cargo hose. The person in charge of cargo transfer shall ensure that cargo hose used for cargo transfer service meets §§...

  3. 46 CFR 148.410 - Fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hoses. 148.410 Section 148.410 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.410 Fire hoses. When Table 148.10 of this part associates a material with a reference to this section, a fire hose must be available at each hatch...

  4. 33 CFR 155.800 - Transfer hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transfer hose. 155.800 Section 155.800 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.800 Transfer hose. Hose used to transfer oil or hazardous...

  5. 46 CFR 148.410 - Fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hoses. 148.410 Section 148.410 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.410 Fire hoses. When Table 148.10 of this part associates a material with a reference to this section, a fire hose must be available at each hatch...

  6. 33 CFR 154.500 - Hose assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hose assemblies. 154.500 Section...) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.500 Hose assemblies. Each hose assembly used for transferring oil or hazardous material must meet the...

  7. 33 CFR 154.500 - Hose assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hose assemblies. 154.500 Section...) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.500 Hose assemblies. Each hose assembly used for transferring oil or hazardous material must meet the...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1858 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo hose. 154.1858 Section 154.1858 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1858 Cargo hose. The person in charge of cargo transfer shall ensure that cargo hose used for cargo transfer service meets §§...

  9. 33 CFR 155.800 - Transfer hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transfer hose. 155.800 Section 155.800 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.800 Transfer hose. Hose used to transfer oil or hazardous...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1858 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo hose. 154.1858 Section 154.1858 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1858 Cargo hose. The person in charge of cargo transfer shall ensure that cargo hose used for cargo transfer service meets §§...

  11. 46 CFR 148.410 - Fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hoses. 148.410 Section 148.410 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.410 Fire hoses. When Table 148.10 of this part associates a material with a reference to this section, a fire hose must be available at each hatch...

  12. 33 CFR 155.800 - Transfer hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transfer hose. 155.800 Section 155.800 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.800 Transfer hose. Hose used to transfer oil or hazardous...

  13. 33 CFR 155.800 - Transfer hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transfer hose. 155.800 Section 155.800 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.800 Transfer hose. Hose used to transfer oil or hazardous...

  14. 33 CFR 154.500 - Hose assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hose assemblies. 154.500 Section...) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.500 Hose assemblies. Each hose assembly used for transferring oil or hazardous material must meet the...

  15. 33 CFR 154.500 - Hose assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hose assemblies. 154.500 Section...) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.500 Hose assemblies. Each hose assembly used for transferring oil or hazardous material must meet the...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1858 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose. 154.1858 Section 154.1858 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1858 Cargo hose. The person in charge of cargo transfer shall ensure that cargo hose used for cargo transfer service meets §§...

  17. Plant responses to reduced air pressure: advanced techniques and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daunicht, H.-J.; Brinkjans, H. J.

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge on air pressure impacts on plant processes and growth is essential for understanding responses to altitude and for comprehending the way of action of aerial gasses in general, and is of potential importance for life support systems in space. Our research on reduced air pressure was extended by help of a new set-up comprising two constantly ventilated chambers (283 L each), allowing pressure gradients of +/- 100 kPa. They provide favourable general growth conditions while maintaining all those factors constant or at desired levels which modify the action of air pressure, e.g. water vapour pressure deficit and air mass flow over the plants. Besides plant growth parameters, transpiration and CO_2 gas exchange are determined continuously. Results are presented on young tomato plants grown hydroponically, which had been treated with various combinations of air pressure (400 - 700 - 1000 hPa), CO_2 concentration and wind intensity for seven days. At the lowest pressure transpiration was enhanced considerably, and the plants became sturdier. On the other hand growth was retarded to a certain extent, attributable to secondary air pressure effects. Therefore, even greater limitations of plant productivity are expected after more extended periods of low pressure treatment.

  18. A Balanced-pressure Sliding Seal for Transfer of Pressurized Air Between Stationary and Rotating Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curren, Arthur N; Cochran, Reeves P

    1957-01-01

    A combination sliding-ring and pressure-balancing seal capable of transferring pressurize air from stationary to rotating parts was developed and experimentally investigated at sliding velocities and cooling-air pressures up to 10,000 feet per minute and 38.3 pounds per square inch absolute, respectively. Leakage of cooling air was completely eliminated with an expenditure of balance air less than one-fourth the leakage loss of air from labyrinth seals under the same conditions. Additional cooling of the carbon-base seal rings was required, and the maximum wear rate on the rings was about 0.0005 inch per hour.

  19. The relationships between air exposure, negative pressure, and hemolysis.

    PubMed

    Pohlmann, Joshua R; Toomasian, John M; Hampton, Claire E; Cook, Keith E; Annich, Gail M; Bartlett, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the hemolytic effects of both negative pressure and an air-blood interface independently and in combination in an in vitro static blood model. Samples of fresh ovine or human blood (5 ml) were subjected to a bubbling air interface (0-100 ml/min) or negative pressure (0-600 mm Hg) separately, or in combination, for controlled periods of time and analyzed for hemolysis. Neither negative pressure nor an air interface alone increased hemolysis. However, when air and negative pressure were combined, hemolysis increased as a function of negative pressure, the air interface, and time. Moreover, when blood samples were exposed to air before initiating the test, hemolysis was four to five times greater than samples not preexposed to air. When these experiments were repeated using freshly drawn human blood, the same phenomena were observed, but the hemolysis was significantly higher than that observed in sheep blood. In this model, hemolysis is caused by combined air and negative pressure and is unrelated to either factor alone.

  20. Air plasma jet with hollow electrodes at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Uhm, Han Sup

    2007-05-15

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet with air is produced through hollow electrodes and dielectric with a hole of 1 mm diam. The plasma jet device is operated by injecting pressurized air into the electrode hole. The air plasma jet device at average powers less than 5 W exhibits a cold plasma jet of about 2 cm in length and near the room temperature, being low enough to treat thermally sensitive materials. Preliminary studies on the discharge characteristics and application tests are also presented by comparing the air plasma jet with the nitrogen and argon plasma jet.

  1. Flexible hose for liquefied gases

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, H.B.

    1984-05-01

    Flexible hose for liquefied gases, comprising a tubular body of biaxially oriented polypropylene film (2) arranged between an inner helically wound wire (3) and an outer helically wound wire (4), said wires being wound at the same pitch but having the windings displaced by half a pitch width from each other.

  2. Air circulation under reduced atmospheric pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillhouse, Lendell E.

    The control of heat exchange is vital for plant life in off-world, low pressure, greenhouses. The ability to control this process was limited by methodology and technology. Mathematical models, based on classical mechanics are created to enhance our control capabilities. Data is collected using various sensors placed inside the Low Pressure Test Bed (LPTB) Chamber at Kennedy Space Center. Data from those sensors became non-linear at various pressures below 25 kPa. We introduced mathematical calibration corrections and found that sensor data linearity could be extended to a greater range of pressures. These calibration corrections allow for sensor calibration corrections in operational environments that differ from the environment of calibration (normal Earth atmospheric pressure).

  3. Laboratory performance of alternating pressure air mattresses component and sequelae.

    PubMed

    Bain, Duncan

    The performance of three different alternating pressure air mattresses with different geometries of air cell were compared (Nimbus 3, Heritage, Tamora Plus), using simple performance indices based on pressure mapping. The aim of this study was to examine the effect on performance of elevating the backrest and thigh section of the bed into sitting position. Ten healthy volunteers of various sizes were pressure-mapped over the full pressure cycle on three alternating pressure air mattresseses with differing cell geometries. This was then repeated with the beds profiled to a sitting position. Performance of the alternating pressure air mattresses in terms of their ability to redistribute pressure dynamically was assessed in the different positions. The different alternating pressure air mattresses performed similarly with the bed in the lying flat position, but smaller cells appeared to be more effective in the sitting position. A conclusion was made that cell geometry may have an effect on the ability of the mattress to achieve alternating behaviour in the sitting position.

  4. 58. AIR PRESSURIZATION TANK BEING LIFTED INTO PLACE ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. AIR PRESSURIZATION TANK BEING LIFTED INTO PLACE ON THE VAL BRIDGE STRUCTURE AT ISLIP CANYON, April 9, 1948. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 27. EXTENSION OF SURGE CHAMBER AND AIR PIPES TO PRESSURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. EXTENSION OF SURGE CHAMBER AND AIR PIPES TO PRESSURE LINE, HIGHLINE PUMPING PLANT. December 11, 1920 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. Influence of ambient air pressure on effervescent atomization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, S. K.; Lefebvre, A. H.; Rollbuhler, J.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of ambient air pressure on the drop-size distributions produced in effervescent atomization is examined in this article. Also investigated are the effects on spray characteristics of variations in air/liquid mass ratio, liquid-injection pressure, and atomizer discharge-orifice diameter at different levels of ambient air pressure. It is found that continuous increase in air pressure above the normal atmospheric value causes the mean drop-size to first increase up to a maximum value and then decline. An explanation for this characteristic is provided in terms of the various contributing factors to the overall atomization process. It is also observed that changes in atomizer geometry and operating conditions have little effect on the distribution of drop-sizes in the spray.

  7. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Surface Air Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing (Inventor); Hu, Yongxiang (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for remotely measuring surface air pressure. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention utilizes the steps of transmitting a signal having multiple frequencies into the atmosphere, measuring the transmitted/reflected signal to determine the relative received power level of each frequency and then determining the surface air pressure based upon the attenuation of the transmitted frequencies.

  8. 33 CFR 183.560 - Hose clamps: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hose clamps: Installation. 183... Hose clamps: Installation. Each hose clamp on a hose from the fuel tank to the fuel inlet connection on the engine, a hose between the fuel pump and the carburetor, or a vent line must: (a) Be used...

  9. 33 CFR 183.560 - Hose clamps: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hose clamps: Installation. 183... Hose clamps: Installation. Each hose clamp on a hose from the fuel tank to the fuel inlet connection on the engine, a hose between the fuel pump and the carburetor, or a vent line must: (a) Be used...

  10. 33 CFR 183.560 - Hose clamps: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hose clamps: Installation. 183... Hose clamps: Installation. Each hose clamp on a hose from the fuel tank to the fuel inlet connection on the engine, a hose between the fuel pump and the carburetor, or a vent line must: (a) Be used...

  11. 33 CFR 183.560 - Hose clamps: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hose clamps: Installation. 183... Hose clamps: Installation. Each hose clamp on a hose from the fuel tank to the fuel inlet connection on the engine, a hose between the fuel pump and the carburetor, or a vent line must: (a) Be used...

  12. 33 CFR 183.560 - Hose clamps: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hose clamps: Installation. 183... Hose clamps: Installation. Each hose clamp on a hose from the fuel tank to the fuel inlet connection on the engine, a hose between the fuel pump and the carburetor, or a vent line must: (a) Be used...

  13. [A new approach to improving air in habitable pressurized modules].

    PubMed

    Argunova, A M; Odelevskiĭ, V K; Strogonova, L B

    2009-01-01

    Habitable pressurized modules, including space cabin, should provide ecologically efficient and physiologically auspicious conditions. The regenerated air should be comparable with fresh air of the natural environment humans belonged with over thousand years of evolution. Air scrubbing system GALOINHALATOR IGK-02 (MAI, patent No. 2209093) comprises eco-pure minerals from the salt rocks in Verkhnekamsk (the Urals). The portable automatic system controls air saturation with negative light aeroions and fine salt aerosols at preset levels. The laboratory, clinical and model tests demonstrated bactericide and bacteriostatic effects of air produced by GALOINHALATOR and the mineral ability to adsorb harmful volatile admixtures. Breathing decontaminated and ionized air during long stay in a pressurized module is beneficial to human performance, immunity, and chronic diseases prevention. PMID:19621806

  14. Teaching Science: Air Pressure "Eggs-periments."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how teachers can introduce students to various scientific concept concerning motion, air composition, and heat by conducting an experiment: A peeled, hard-boiled egg is sucked into a bottle neck slightly smaller than the egg, after the bottle has been filled and emptied of hot water. Also discusses how students' understanding of the…

  15. Pressure of air on coming to rest from various speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1927-01-01

    The text gives theoretical formulas from which is computed a table for the pressure of air on coming to rest from various speeds, such as those of aircraft and propeller blades. Pressure graphs are given for speeds from 1 cm. Sec. up to those of swift projectiles.

  16. FireHose Streaming Benchmarks

    2015-01-27

    The FireHose Streaming Benchmarks are a suite of stream-processing benchmarks defined to enable comparison of streaming software and hardware, both quantitatively vis-a-vis the rate at which they can process data, and qualitatively by judging the effort involved to implement and run the benchmarks. Each benchmark has two parts. The first is a generator which produces and outputs datums at a high rate in a specific format. The second is an analytic which reads the streammore » of datums and is required to perform a well-defined calculation on the collection of datums, typically to find anomalous datums that have been created in the stream by the generator. The FireHose suite provides code for the generators, sample code for the analytics (which users are free to re-implement in their own custom frameworks), and a precise definition of each benchmark calculation.« less

  17. FireHose Streaming Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Karl Anderson, Steve Plimpton

    2015-01-27

    The FireHose Streaming Benchmarks are a suite of stream-processing benchmarks defined to enable comparison of streaming software and hardware, both quantitatively vis-a-vis the rate at which they can process data, and qualitatively by judging the effort involved to implement and run the benchmarks. Each benchmark has two parts. The first is a generator which produces and outputs datums at a high rate in a specific format. The second is an analytic which reads the stream of datums and is required to perform a well-defined calculation on the collection of datums, typically to find anomalous datums that have been created in the stream by the generator. The FireHose suite provides code for the generators, sample code for the analytics (which users are free to re-implement in their own custom frameworks), and a precise definition of each benchmark calculation.

  18. Automated Facility For Cleaning Large Flex Hoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, Louis E.

    1995-01-01

    Technicians no longer exposed to hazardous cleaning materials. Proposed computer-controlled facility cleans bellow-type expansion joints and large flex hoses. Major portions of automated cleaning facility contained in clean room. One piece of equipment in clean room tower in which hose or expansion joint to be cleaned hoisted by hydraulic machinery and hung vertically. Once hose or expansion joint hung in required position, technician initiates programmed cleaning procedure from console on computer monitoring system. Procedure includes degreasing, cleaning with detergents, rinsing, pickling, and passivating operations. After cleaning completed, technician removes hose or expansion joint from tower and wraps open ends to prevent recontamination of interior.

  19. Fuel Cells Utilizing Oxygen From Air at Low Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisar, Alan; Boyer, Chris; Greenwald, Charles

    2006-01-01

    A fuel cell stack has been developed to supply power for a high-altitude aircraft with a minimum of air handling. The fuel cell is capable of utilizing oxygen from ambient air at low pressure with no need for compression. For such an application, it is advantageous to take oxygen from the air (in contradistinction to carrying a supply of oxygen onboard), but it is a challenging problem to design a fuel-cell stack of reasonable weight that can generate sufficient power while operating at reduced pressures. The present fuel-cell design is a response to this challenge. The design features a novel bipolar plate structure in combination with a gas-diffusion structure based on a conductive metal core and a carbon gas-diffusion matrix. This combination makes it possible for the flow fields in the stack to have a large open fraction (ratio between open volume and total volume) to permit large volumes of air to flow through with exceptionally low backpressure. Operations at reduced pressure require a corresponding increase in the volume of air that must be handled to deliver the same number of moles of oxygen to the anodes. Moreover, the increase in the open fraction, relative to that of a comparable prior fuel-cell design, reduces the mass of the stack. The fuel cell has been demonstrated to operate at a power density as high as 105 W/cm2 at an air pressure as low as 2 psia (absolute pressure 14 kPa), which is the atmospheric pressure at an altitude of about 50,000 ft ( 15.2 km). The improvements in the design of this fuel cell could be incorporated into designs of other fuel cells to make them lighter in weight and effective at altitudes higher than those of prior designs. Potential commercial applications for these improvements include most applications now under consideration for fuel cells.

  20. Inverse Association between Air Pressure and Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovitis

    PubMed Central

    Furu, Moritoshi; Nakabo, Shuichiro; Ohmura, Koichiro; Nakashima, Ran; Imura, Yoshitaka; Yukawa, Naoichiro; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Ito, Hiromu; Fujii, Takao; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a bone destructive autoimmune disease. Many patients with RA recognize fluctuations of their joint synovitis according to changes of air pressure, but the correlations between them have never been addressed in large-scale association studies. To address this point we recruited large-scale assessments of RA activity in a Japanese population, and performed an association analysis. Here, a total of 23,064 assessments of RA activity from 2,131 patients were obtained from the KURAMA (Kyoto University Rheumatoid Arthritis Management Alliance) database. Detailed correlations between air pressure and joint swelling or tenderness were analyzed separately for each of the 326 patients with more than 20 assessments to regulate intra-patient correlations. Association studies were also performed for seven consecutive days to identify the strongest correlations. Standardized multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate independent influences from other meteorological factors. As a result, components of composite measures for RA disease activity revealed suggestive negative associations with air pressure. The 326 patients displayed significant negative mean correlations between air pressure and swellings or the sum of swellings and tenderness (p = 0.00068 and 0.00011, respectively). Among the seven consecutive days, the most significant mean negative correlations were observed for air pressure three days before evaluations of RA synovitis (p = 1.7×10−7, 0.00027, and 8.3×10−8, for swellings, tenderness and the sum of them, respectively). Standardized multiple linear regression analysis revealed these associations were independent from humidity and temperature. Our findings suggest that air pressure is inversely associated with synovitis in patients with RA. PMID:24454853

  1. Air plasma jet with hollow electrodes at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Uhm, Han Sup

    2007-05-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet with air is produced through hollow electrodes and dielectric with a hole of 5W exhibits a cold plasma jet of about 2cm in length and near the room temperature, being low enough to treat thermally sensitive materials. Preliminary studies on the discharge characteristics and application tests are also presented by comparing the air plasma jet with the nitrogen and argon plasma jet.

  2. Temperature and pressure influence on explosion pressures of closed vessel propane-air deflagrations.

    PubMed

    Razus, Domnina; Brinzea, Venera; Mitu, Maria; Oancea, Dumitru

    2010-02-15

    An experimental study on pressure evolution during closed vessel explosions of propane-air mixtures was performed, for systems with various initial concentrations and pressures ([C(3)H(8)]=2.50-6.20 vol.%, p(0)=0.3-1.2 bar). The explosion pressures and explosion times were measured in a spherical vessel (Phi=10 cm), at various initial temperatures (T(0)=298-423 K) and in a cylindrical vessel (Phi=10 cm; h=15 cm), at ambient initial temperature. The experimental values of explosion pressures are examined against literature values and compared to adiabatic explosion pressures, computed by assuming chemical equilibrium within the flame front. The influence of initial pressure, initial temperature and fuel concentration on explosion pressures and explosion times are discussed. At constant temperature and fuel/oxygen ratio, the explosion pressures are linear functions of total initial pressure, as reported for other fuel-air mixtures. At constant initial pressure and composition, both the measured and calculated (adiabatic) explosion pressures are linear functions of reciprocal value of initial temperature. Such correlations are extremely useful for predicting the explosion pressures of flammable mixtures at elevated temperatures and/or pressures, when direct measurements are not available.

  3. Internal Thermal Control System Hose Heat Transfer Fluid Thermal Expansion Evaluation Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, P. O.; Hawk, H. D.

    2001-01-01

    During assembly of the International Space Station, the Internal Thermal Control Systems in adjacent modules are connected by jumper hoses referred to as integrated hose assemblies (IHAs). A test of an IHA has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center to determine whether the pressure in an IHA filled with heat transfer fluid would exceed the maximum design pressure when subjected to elevated temperatures (up to 60 C (140 F)) that may be experienced during storage or transportation. The results of the test show that the pressure in the IHA remains below 227 kPa (33 psia) (well below the 689 kPa (100 psia) maximum design pressure) even at a temperature of 71 C (160 F), with no indication of leakage or damage to the hose. Therefore, based on the results of this test, the IHA can safely be filled with coolant prior to launch. The test and results are documented in this Technical Memorandum.

  4. D0 Cryo Instrument Air Backup System

    SciTech Connect

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-11-20

    The D0 instrument air system for cryo controls has an emergency backup supply of nitrogen gas. The backup system consists of a high pressure tube trailer (38 tubes - 2400 psig MAWP), piping, valves, regulators and pressure monitoring instrumentation. The trailer is located south of DAB alongside the LN{sub 2} Dewar. Fixed piping ties to the trailer with a flex-hose. The piping follows the cryo piping bridge entering the south wall of DAB. where it passes through the pipe chase and into the cryo pump room (Rm 315). The high pressure gas is regulated down to 90 psig before tying into the compressor supplied instrument air system. Check valves are installed at the tee for the primary air and the backup N{sub 2}. Normal operating pressure for instrument air is 100-120 psig. With the backup supply pressure set to 90 psig, 'emergency air' is supplied whenever primary air pressure falls below 90 psig. There are two additional, outside connections to the system: one is a connection for repumping the trailer after a minimum backup volume is reached and the other is an auxiliary flex-hose connection for another trailer. All manual valves at system connections will be locked closed when not in use. The system's maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is 2400 psi, which is the trailer MAWP. All piping and components have a minimum 2400 psi working pressure. Actual component working pressures are included in the component list.

  5. Dispensing system eliminates torsion in deployed hoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Dispensing system uses a rotating drum, transfer arm, and stationary drum to deploy, reel in, and store an attached hose. This system which eliminates torsion and minimizes strain and wear of flexible hoses, is used for handling flexible cables that have one end permanently attached to an outlet or connector.

  6. Tongue-Palate Contact Pressure, Oral Air Pressure, and Acoustics of Clear Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searl, Jeff; Evitts, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared articulatory contact pressure (ACP), oral air pressure (Po), and speech acoustics for conversational versus clear speech. They also assessed the relationship of these measures to listener perception. Method: Twelve adults with normal speech produced monosyllables in a phrase using conversational and clear speech.…

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW PRESSURE, AIR ATOMIZED OIL BURNER WITH HIGH ATOMIZER AIR FLOW

    SciTech Connect

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5--8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or FAB has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a torroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the tiring rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% 0{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

  8. Multi-hole pressure probes to air data system for subsonic small-scale air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, A. M.; Berezin, D. R.; Puzirev, L. N.; Tarasov, A. Z.; Kharitonov, A. M.; Shmakov, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    A brief review of research performed to develop multi-hole probes to measure of aerodynamic angles, dynamic head, and static pressure of a flying vehicle. The basis of these works is the application a well-known classical multi-hole pressure probe technique of measuring of a 3D flow to use in the air data system. Two multi-hole pressure probes with spherical and hemispherical head to air-data system for subsonic small-scale vehicles have been developed. A simple analytical probe model with separation of variables is proposed. The probes were calibrated in the wind tunnel, one of them is in-flight tested.

  9. High flexibility, noncollapsing light weight hose

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.A.

    1991-02-01

    This invention relates generally to a high-flexibility, light weight, noncollapsing hose and more particularly to such a hose having a large size and particularly useful as equipment draining a radioactively contaminated fluid through a noncontaiminated, isolated and restricted space with high confidence against kinking, collapse, or leaking even with large relative motion between the inlet and outlet ends of the hose. In the operation of nuclear facilities, such as nuclear reactors, processing plants for nuclear fuels and related materials, and chemical processing plants, for example, it is necessary to handle radioactively and/or chemically contaminated fluids which in many instances must be conducted, such as for draining purposes, through a noncontaminated, isolated area. Conduction of such contaminated fluids through uncontaminated environments in practice requires the highest confidence that the hose will not kink, collapse, break, or leak even though the hose may be subject to a large amount of motion relative to the inlet and outlet ends of the hose. Any such breaking, or leaking would result in undesirable contamination of the area through which the hose passes which could result in major damage and/or in the requirement to shut down the operation for cleanup and decontamination processing of the area. Additional problems are also encountered in processing plants for contaminated materials due to the fact that hoses conducting the contaminated liquids or gases pass through inaccessible, restricted spaces requiring extreme flexibility in the hose, but with the assurance that the hose will neither kink nor collapse to close off the flow.

  10. Modeling of an air-backed diaphragm in dynamic pressure sensors: Effects of the air cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haijun; Olson, Douglas A.; Yu, Miao

    2014-12-01

    As the key structure of most dynamic pressure sensors, a diaphragm backed by an air cavity plays a critical role in the determination of sensor performance metrics. In this paper, we investigate the influence of air cavity length on the sensitivity and bandwidth. A continuum mechanics model neglecting the air viscous effect is first developed to capture the structural-acoustic coupling between a clamped circular diaphragm and a cylindrical backing air cavity. To facilitate sensor design, close-form approximations are obtained to calculate the static sensitivity and the fundamental natural frequency of the air-backed diaphragm. Parametric studies based on this analytical model show that the air cavity can change both the effective mass and the effective stiffness of the diaphragm. One new finding is that the natural frequency of the air-backed diaphragm behaves differently in three different cavity length ranges. In particular, due to the mass effect of the air cavity being dominant, it is shown for the first time that the natural frequency decreases when the cavity length decreases below a critical value in the short cavity range. Furthermore, a finite element method (FEM) model is developed to validate the continuum mechanics model and to study the damping effect of the air cavity. These results provide important design guidelines for dynamic pressure sensors with air-backed diaphragms.

  11. The Jar Magic--Instructional Activities for Teaching Air Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Bing-Hong; Chen, Chyong-Sun

    2013-01-01

    There are a variety of impressive activities designed for teaching the concept of air pressure to junior high school students. Water, glasses, balloons, plastic bottles, and suction cups are some of the items commonly used in these experiments. For example, if we take a glass of water, cover it with a piece of cardboard, and invert the glass,…

  12. Experimental Air Pressure Tank Systems for Process Control Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Christopher E.; Holland, Charles E.; Gatzke, Edward P.

    2006-01-01

    In process control education, particularly in the field of chemical engineering, there is an inherent need for industrially relevant hands-on apparatuses that enable one to bridge the gap between the theoretical content of coursework and real-world applications. At the University of South Carolina, two experimental air-pressure tank systems have…

  13. An alternating pressure sequence proposal for an air-cell cushion for preventing pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Arias, Sandra; Cardiel, Eladio; Rogeli, Pablo; Mori, Taketoshi; Nakagami, Gojiro; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Sanada, Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and release of pressure on ischial regions are two important parameters for evaluating the effectiveness of a cushion; especially the release of pressure over time on ischial tuberosities, which is significant for preventing pressure ulcers. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect on interface pressure through the application of a proposed alternating pressure sequence for an air-cell cushion. Six healthy volunteers were asked to sit on the air cell cushion, in static and alternating modes, as well as on a typical foam cushion for 12 minutes. Interface pressure was monitored with a matrix sensor system. Interface pressure values on ischial tuberosities, user contact area and pressure distribution were analyzed. Results showed that IP on IT tends to increase in both foam and static cushions, while in alternating cushion IP on IT tends to decrease. User contact area was significantly larger in alternating cushion than in static or foam cushions. Moreover, there is a better pressure re-distribution with alternating cushion than with the other cushions. The goal of the alternating sequence is to redistribute pressure and stimulate the ischial regions in order to promote blood flow and prevent pressure occurring in wheelchair users.

  14. Improved fireman's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. A.; Morris, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Prototype high pressure glass filament-wound, aluminum-lined pressurant vessels suitable for use in a fireman's compressed air breathing system were designed, fabricated, and acceptance tested in order to demonstrate the feasibility of producing such high performance, lightweight units. The 4000 psi tanks have a 60 standard cubic foot (SCF) air capacity, and have a 6.5 inch diamter, 19 inch length, 415 inch volume, weigh 13 pounds when empty, and contain 33 percent more air than the current 45 SCF (2250 psi) steel units. The current steel 60 SCF (3000 psi) tanks weigh approximately twice as much as the prototype when empty, and are 2 inches, or 10 percent shorter. The prototype units also have non-rusting aluminum interiors, which removes the hazard of corrosion, the need for internal coatings, and the possibility of rust particles clogging the breathing system.

  15. Cold Micro-Plasma Jets in Atmospheric Pressure Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, A. H.; Suddala, S.; Schoenbach, K. H.

    2003-10-01

    Direct current microhollow cathode discharges (MHCDs) have been operated in air, nitrogen and oxygen at pressures of one atmosphere. The electrodes are 250 μm thick molybdenum foils, separated by an alumina insulator of the same thickness. A cylindrical hole with a diameter in the 100 μm range is drilled through all layers. By flowing gases at high pressure through this hole, plasma jets with radial dimensions on the same order as the microhole dimensions, and with lengths of up to one centimeter are generated. The gas temperature in these jets was measured by means of a micro-thermocouple. The lowest temperatures of close to room temperature were measured when the flow changed from laminar to turbulent. The results of spectral emission and absorption studies indicate high concentrations of byproducts, such as ozone, when the discharge is operated in air or oxygen. This work is supported by the U.S Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR).

  16. 46 CFR 118.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 118.320 Section 118.320 Shipping... System § 118.320 Fire hoses and nozzles. (a) A fire hose with a nozzle must be attached to each fire... provided, hoses may be temporarily removed during heavy weather or cargo handling operations,...

  17. 46 CFR 154.551 - Cargo hose: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo hose: General. 154.551 Section 154.551 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.551 Cargo hose: General. Each of the vessel's liquid and vapor cargo hose for loading...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1155 - Hand hose line: Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand hose line: Coverage. 154.1155 Section 154.1155... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1155 Hand hose line: Coverage. The coverage for the area for a hand hose line under § 154.1150 must not exceed the length of the hand hose line except the coverage for...

  19. 46 CFR 154.552 - Cargo hose: Compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo hose: Compatibility. 154.552 Section 154.552 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.552 Cargo hose: Compatibility. Liquid and vapor cargo hoses must: (a) Not chemically...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.158 - Standpipe and hose systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standpipe and hose systems. 1910.158 Section 1910.158 Labor... Standpipe and hose systems. (a) Scope and application—(1) Scope. This section applies to all small hose... or cabinets are provided to contain fire hose, the employer shall assure that they are designed...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1155 - Hand hose line: Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand hose line: Coverage. 154.1155 Section 154.1155... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1155 Hand hose line: Coverage. The coverage for the area for a hand hose line under § 154.1150 must not exceed the length of the hand hose line except the coverage for...

  2. 46 CFR 154.551 - Cargo hose: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose: General. 154.551 Section 154.551 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.551 Cargo hose: General. Each of the vessel's liquid and vapor cargo hose for loading...

  3. 46 CFR 105.35-15 - Fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hose. 105.35-15 Section 105.35-15 Shipping COAST... VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-15 Fire hose. (a) One length of fire hose shall be provided for each fire hydrant required. (b) Fire hose may be commercial...

  4. 33 CFR 183.532 - Clips, straps, and hose clamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clips, straps, and hose clamps..., straps, and hose clamps. (a) Each clip, strap, and hose clamp must: (1) Be made from a corrosion... under § 183.590, a hose clamp installed on a fuel line system requiring metallic fuel lines or...

  5. 46 CFR 154.558 - Cargo hose: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo hose: Marking. 154.558 Section 154.558 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.558 Cargo hose: Marking. Each cargo hose must be marked with the: (a) Maximum working...

  6. 46 CFR 154.552 - Cargo hose: Compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Compatibility. 154.552 Section 154.552 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.552 Cargo hose: Compatibility. Liquid and vapor cargo hoses must: (a) Not chemically...

  7. 46 CFR 105.35-15 - Fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hose. 105.35-15 Section 105.35-15 Shipping COAST... VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-15 Fire hose. (a) One length of fire hose shall be provided for each fire hydrant required. (b) Fire hose may be commercial...

  8. 46 CFR 154.552 - Cargo hose: Compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo hose: Compatibility. 154.552 Section 154.552 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.552 Cargo hose: Compatibility. Liquid and vapor cargo hoses must: (a) Not chemically...

  9. 33 CFR 183.558 - Hoses and connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hoses and connections. 183.558...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.558 Hoses and connections. (a) Each hose used between the fuel pump and the carburetor must be “USCG Type A1” hose. (b)...

  10. 46 CFR 154.558 - Cargo hose: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose: Marking. 154.558 Section 154.558 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.558 Cargo hose: Marking. Each cargo hose must be marked with the: (a) Maximum working...

  11. 33 CFR 183.558 - Hoses and connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoses and connections. 183.558...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.558 Hoses and connections. (a) Each hose used between the fuel pump and the carburetor must be “USCG Type A1” hose. (b)...

  12. 33 CFR 183.540 - Hoses: Standards and markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hoses: Standards and markings... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.540 Hoses: Standards and markings. (a) “USCG Type A1” hose means hose that meets the performance requirements of:...

  13. 33 CFR 183.540 - Hoses: Standards and markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hoses: Standards and markings... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.540 Hoses: Standards and markings. (a) “USCG Type A1” hose means hose that meets the performance requirements of:...

  14. 46 CFR 98.25-80 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose. 98.25-80 Section 98.25-80 Shipping COAST... Cargo hose. (a) Cargo hose fabricated of seamless steel pipe with swivel joints, wire braided armored rubber or other hose material acceptable to the Commandant, shall be fitted to the liquid or vapor...

  15. 46 CFR 154.558 - Cargo hose: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Marking. 154.558 Section 154.558 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.558 Cargo hose: Marking. Each cargo hose must be marked with the: (a) Maximum working...

  16. 33 CFR 183.540 - Hoses: Standards and markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hoses: Standards and markings... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.540 Hoses: Standards and markings. (a) “USCG Type A1” hose means hose that meets the performance requirements of:...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.158 - Standpipe and hose systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standpipe and hose systems. 1910.158 Section 1910.158 Labor... Standpipe and hose systems. (a) Scope and application—(1) Scope. This section applies to all small hose... or cabinets are provided to contain fire hose, the employer shall assure that they are designed...

  18. 46 CFR 154.558 - Cargo hose: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo hose: Marking. 154.558 Section 154.558 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.558 Cargo hose: Marking. Each cargo hose must be marked with the: (a) Maximum working...

  19. 33 CFR 183.558 - Hoses and connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hoses and connections. 183.558...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.558 Hoses and connections. (a) Each hose used between the fuel pump and the carburetor must be “USCG Type A1” hose. (b)...

  20. 46 CFR 181.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... fire hose that conforms to UL 19 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or hose that is listed... by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the Commandant. (c) Each fire hose... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 181.320 Section 181.320...

  1. 46 CFR 98.25-80 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo hose. 98.25-80 Section 98.25-80 Shipping COAST... Cargo hose. (a) Cargo hose fabricated of seamless steel pipe with swivel joints, wire braided armored rubber or other hose material acceptable to the Commandant, shall be fitted to the liquid or vapor...

  2. 33 CFR 183.532 - Clips, straps, and hose clamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Clips, straps, and hose clamps..., straps, and hose clamps. (a) Each clip, strap, and hose clamp must: (1) Be made from a corrosion... under § 183.590, a hose clamp installed on a fuel line system requiring metallic fuel lines or...

  3. 46 CFR 105.35-15 - Fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hose. 105.35-15 Section 105.35-15 Shipping COAST... VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-15 Fire hose. (a) One length of fire hose shall be provided for each fire hydrant required. (b) Fire hose may be commercial...

  4. 46 CFR 98.25-80 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo hose. 98.25-80 Section 98.25-80 Shipping COAST... Cargo hose. (a) Cargo hose fabricated of seamless steel pipe with swivel joints, wire braided armored rubber or other hose material acceptable to the Commandant, shall be fitted to the liquid or vapor...

  5. 33 CFR 183.532 - Clips, straps, and hose clamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clips, straps, and hose clamps..., straps, and hose clamps. (a) Each clip, strap, and hose clamp must: (1) Be made from a corrosion... under § 183.590, a hose clamp installed on a fuel line system requiring metallic fuel lines or...

  6. 46 CFR 154.552 - Cargo hose: Compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose: Compatibility. 154.552 Section 154.552 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.552 Cargo hose: Compatibility. Liquid and vapor cargo hoses must: (a) Not chemically...

  7. 46 CFR 118.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 118.320 Section 118.320 Shipping... System § 118.320 Fire hoses and nozzles. (a) A fire hose with a nozzle must be attached to each fire... provided, hoses may be temporarily removed during heavy weather or cargo handling operations,...

  8. 33 CFR 183.532 - Clips, straps, and hose clamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clips, straps, and hose clamps..., straps, and hose clamps. (a) Each clip, strap, and hose clamp must: (1) Be made from a corrosion... under § 183.590, a hose clamp installed on a fuel line system requiring metallic fuel lines or...

  9. 46 CFR 154.552 - Cargo hose: Compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo hose: Compatibility. 154.552 Section 154.552 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.552 Cargo hose: Compatibility. Liquid and vapor cargo hoses must: (a) Not chemically...

  10. 46 CFR 105.35-15 - Fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hose. 105.35-15 Section 105.35-15 Shipping COAST... VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-15 Fire hose. (a) One length of fire hose shall be provided for each fire hydrant required. (b) Fire hose may be commercial...

  11. 46 CFR 98.25-80 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose. 98.25-80 Section 98.25-80 Shipping COAST... Cargo hose. (a) Cargo hose fabricated of seamless steel pipe with swivel joints, wire braided armored rubber or other hose material acceptable to the Commandant, shall be fitted to the liquid or vapor...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1155 - Hand hose line: Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand hose line: Coverage. 154.1155 Section 154.1155... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1155 Hand hose line: Coverage. The coverage for the area for a hand hose line under § 154.1150 must not exceed the length of the hand hose line except the coverage for...

  13. 46 CFR 154.551 - Cargo hose: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo hose: General. 154.551 Section 154.551 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.551 Cargo hose: General. Each of the vessel's liquid and vapor cargo hose for loading...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1155 - Hand hose line: Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand hose line: Coverage. 154.1155 Section 154.1155... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1155 Hand hose line: Coverage. The coverage for the area for a hand hose line under § 154.1150 must not exceed the length of the hand hose line except the coverage for...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.158 - Standpipe and hose systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standpipe and hose systems. 1910.158 Section 1910.158 Labor... Standpipe and hose systems. (a) Scope and application—(1) Scope. This section applies to all small hose... or cabinets are provided to contain fire hose, the employer shall assure that they are designed...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1155 - Hand hose line: Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand hose line: Coverage. 154.1155 Section 154.1155... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1155 Hand hose line: Coverage. The coverage for the area for a hand hose line under § 154.1150 must not exceed the length of the hand hose line except the coverage for...

  17. 46 CFR 118.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 118.320 Section 118.320 Shipping... System § 118.320 Fire hoses and nozzles. (a) A fire hose with a nozzle must be attached to each fire... provided, hoses may be temporarily removed during heavy weather or cargo handling operations,...

  18. 33 CFR 183.532 - Clips, straps, and hose clamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clips, straps, and hose clamps..., straps, and hose clamps. (a) Each clip, strap, and hose clamp must: (1) Be made from a corrosion... under § 183.590, a hose clamp installed on a fuel line system requiring metallic fuel lines or...

  19. 46 CFR 118.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 118.320 Section 118.320 Shipping... System § 118.320 Fire hoses and nozzles. (a) A fire hose with a nozzle must be attached to each fire... provided, hoses may be temporarily removed during heavy weather or cargo handling operations,...

  20. 46 CFR 154.551 - Cargo hose: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: General. 154.551 Section 154.551 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.551 Cargo hose: General. Each of the vessel's liquid and vapor cargo hose for loading...

  1. 46 CFR 154.558 - Cargo hose: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo hose: Marking. 154.558 Section 154.558 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.558 Cargo hose: Marking. Each cargo hose must be marked with the: (a) Maximum working...

  2. 33 CFR 183.540 - Hoses: Standards and markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoses: Standards and markings... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.540 Hoses: Standards and markings. (a) “USCG Type A1” hose means hose that meets the performance requirements of:...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.158 - Standpipe and hose systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standpipe and hose systems. 1910.158 Section 1910.158 Labor... Standpipe and hose systems. (a) Scope and application—(1) Scope. This section applies to all small hose... or cabinets are provided to contain fire hose, the employer shall assure that they are designed...

  4. 46 CFR 105.35-15 - Fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hose. 105.35-15 Section 105.35-15 Shipping COAST... VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-15 Fire hose. (a) One length of fire hose shall be provided for each fire hydrant required. (b) Fire hose may be commercial...

  5. 46 CFR 154.551 - Cargo hose: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo hose: General. 154.551 Section 154.551 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.551 Cargo hose: General. Each of the vessel's liquid and vapor cargo hose for loading...

  6. 46 CFR 98.25-80 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo hose. 98.25-80 Section 98.25-80 Shipping COAST... Cargo hose. (a) Cargo hose fabricated of seamless steel pipe with swivel joints, wire braided armored rubber or other hose material acceptable to the Commandant, shall be fitted to the liquid or vapor...

  7. 33 CFR 183.558 - Hoses and connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hoses and connections. 183.558...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.558 Hoses and connections. (a) Each hose used between the fuel pump and the carburetor must be “USCG Type A1” hose. (b)...

  8. 33 CFR 183.540 - Hoses: Standards and markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hoses: Standards and markings... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.540 Hoses: Standards and markings. (a) “USCG Type A1” hose means hose that meets the performance requirements of:...

  9. 46 CFR 118.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 118.320 Section 118.320 Shipping... System § 118.320 Fire hoses and nozzles. (a) A fire hose with a nozzle must be attached to each fire... provided, hoses may be temporarily removed during heavy weather or cargo handling operations,...

  10. 46 CFR 181.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fire hose that conforms to UL 19 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or hose that is listed... by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the Commandant. (c) Each fire hose... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 181.320 Section 181.320...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.158 - Standpipe and hose systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standpipe and hose systems. 1910.158 Section 1910.158 Labor... Standpipe and hose systems. (a) Scope and application—(1) Scope. This section applies to all small hose... or cabinets are provided to contain fire hose, the employer shall assure that they are designed...

  12. 33 CFR 183.558 - Hoses and connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hoses and connections. 183.558...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.558 Hoses and connections. (a) Each hose used between the fuel pump and the carburetor must be “USCG Type A1” hose. (b)...

  13. Air and gas pockets in sewerage pressure mains.

    PubMed

    Lubbers, C L; Clemens, F

    2005-01-01

    In The Netherlands, wastewater is collected in municipal areas and transported to large centralised WWTPs by means of an extensive system of pressure mains. Over the past decades these pressure mains did not receive much attention in terms of monitoring of performance or maintenance. For that reason, in practice their state of functioning is often not known. Failure of operation is only noticed when the capacity of the system proves to be insufficient to fulfil the minimum design capacity demand. A recent inventory showed that half of the pressure mains show an increased pressure loss for no directly obvious reason. Many causes may account for the reduction of the system's nominal capacity like an increased wall roughness, scaling or occurrence of free gas in the pipeline. The occurrence of free gas may be caused by degassing of dissolved (bio) gas or by air entrained at the pumps' inlet or at air valves. A research study is started that will focus on three main issues: The description of the gas-water phenomena in wastewater pressure mains with respect to transportation and dynamic hydraulic behaviour, A method to diagnose gas problems, and To overcome future problems by either applying remedial measures or improving the design of wastewater pressure systems. For this study, two experimental facilities are constructed, a small circuit for the study of multi-phase flow and a second, larger one for the research into diagnostic methods. This paper describes the preliminary results of the experiments in the multi-phase circuit.

  14. 46 CFR 154.1170 - Hand hose line: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand hose line: General. 154.1170 Section 154.1170... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1170 Hand hose line: General. Each dry chemical hand hose line must: (a) Not be longer than 33m (108 ft.); (b) Be stored on a hose reel or in a hose cabinet and be one that...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1170 - Hand hose line: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand hose line: General. 154.1170 Section 154.1170... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1170 Hand hose line: General. Each dry chemical hand hose line must: (a) Not be longer than 33m (108 ft.); (b) Be stored on a hose reel or in a hose cabinet and be one that...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1170 - Hand hose line: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand hose line: General. 154.1170 Section 154.1170... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1170 Hand hose line: General. Each dry chemical hand hose line must: (a) Not be longer than 33m (108 ft.); (b) Be stored on a hose reel or in a hose cabinet and be one that...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1170 - Hand hose line: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand hose line: General. 154.1170 Section 154.1170... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1170 Hand hose line: General. Each dry chemical hand hose line must: (a) Not be longer than 33m (108 ft.); (b) Be stored on a hose reel or in a hose cabinet and be one that...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1170 - Hand hose line: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand hose line: General. 154.1170 Section 154.1170... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1170 Hand hose line: General. Each dry chemical hand hose line must: (a) Not be longer than 33m (108 ft.); (b) Be stored on a hose reel or in a hose cabinet and be one that...

  19. The hybrid pressurized air receiver (HPAR) in the SUNDISC cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, Lukas; Hoffmann, Jaap; Gauché, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Tubular metallic pressurized air solar receivers face challenges in terms of temperature distribution on the absorber tubes and the limited sustainable solar influx. The HPAR concept aims at mitigating these problems through a macro-volumetric design and a secondary non-pressurized air flow around the absorber elements. Here, a 360◦ manifestation of this concept for implementation in the dual-pressure SUNDISC cycle is presented. Computationally inexpensive models for the numerous heat flows were developed for use in parametric studies of a receiver's geometric layout. Initial findings are presented on the optical penetration of concentrated solar radiation into the absorber structure, blocking of thermal radiation from hot surfaces and the influence of the flow path through the heated tubes. In the basic design the heat transfer to the non-pressurized air stream is found to be insufficient and possible measures for its improvement are given. Their effect will be examined in more detailed models of external convection and thermal radiation to be able to provide performance estimates of the system.

  20. One-Component Pressure-Temperature Phase Diagrams in the Presence of Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade-Gamboa, Julio; Martire, Daniel O.; Donati, Edgardo R.

    2010-01-01

    One-component phase diagrams are good approximations to predict pressure-temperature ("P-T") behavior of a substance in the presence of air, provided air pressure is not much higher than the vapor pressure. However, at any air pressure, and from the conceptual point of view, the use of a traditional "P-T" phase diagram is not strictly correct. In…

  1. Generation of subnanosecond electron beams in air at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyrya, I. D.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.; Rybka, D. V.

    2009-11-01

    Optimum conditions for the generation of runaway electron beams with maximum current amplitudes and densities in nanosecond pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure are determined. A supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) with a current amplitude of ˜30 A, a current density of ˜20 A/cm2, and a pulse full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ˜100 ps has been observed behind the output foil of an air-filled diode. It is shown that the position of the SAEB current maximum relative to the voltage pulse front exhibits a time shift that varies when the small-size collector is moved over the foil surface.

  2. Heat-insulated hose for liquefied gases

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, H.B.; Williams, G.L.

    1983-04-19

    Shell Research developed a heat-insulated hose for LNG and LPG comprising 1) an inner hose that is resistant to cryogenic temperatures, 2) several successive layers of heat-insulating material, such as polystyrene foam, arranged around the inner hose, and 3) an outer protective sheath around the outermost layer. Each layer is a helically wound strip of fiber material holding together a mosaic of blocks of the heat-insulating material. Suitable for loading and offloading tankers, this invention can float at the water surface, making it particularly useful for the emergency transfer of cargo from one tanker to another.

  3. Intraoral air pressure and oral air flow under different bleed and bite-block conditions.

    PubMed

    Putnam, A H; Shelton, R L; Kastner, C U

    1986-03-01

    Intraoral pressures and oral flows were measured as normal talkers produced /p lambda/ and /si/ under experimental conditions that perturbed the usual aeromechanical production characteristics of the consonants. A translabial pressure-release device was used to bleed off intraoral pressure during /p/. Bite-blocks were used to open the anterior bite artificially during /s/. For /p/, intraoral pressure decreased and translabial air leakage increased as bleed orifice area increased. For /s/, flow increased as the area of sibilant constriction increased, but differential pressure across the /s/ oral constriction did not vary systematically with changes in its area. Flow on postconsonantal vowels /lambda/ and /i/ did not vary systematically across experimental conditions. The data imply that maintenance of perturbed intraoral pressure was more effective when compensatory options included opportunity for increased respiratory drive and structural adjustments at the place of consonant articulation rather than increased respiratory drive alone.

  4. The Jar Magic -- Instructional Activities for Teaching Air Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Bing-Hong; Chen, Chyong-Sun

    2013-12-01

    There are a variety of impressive activities designed for teaching the concept of air pressure to junior high school students. Water, glasses, balloons, plastic bottles, and suction cups are some of the items commonly used in these experiments. For example, if we take a glass of water, cover it with a piece of cardboard, and invert the glass, amazingly, no water spills out. Further, one may also use balloons and plastic bottles as the components in another experiment. Place a balloon in a plastic bottle and spread the balloon's mouth over the bottle's rim. Inflate the balloon by blowing into it. Students will be astonished at the fact that the balloon remains inflated even though its mouth is open. Making suction cups "stick" to the wall is also an instance of proving how air pressure works.

  5. Microcontrolled air-mattress for ulcer by pressure prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasluosta, Cristian F.; Fontana, Juan M.; Beltramone, Diego A.; Taborda, Ricardo A. M.

    2007-11-01

    An ulcer by pressure is produced when a constant pressure is exerted over the skin. This generates the collapse of the blood vessels and, therefore, a lack in the contribution of the necessary nutrients for the affected zone. As a consequence, the skin deteriorates, eventually causing an ulcer. In order to prevent it, a protocol must be applied to the patient, which is reflected on time and cost of treatment. There are some air mattresses available for this purpose, but whose performance does not fulfill all requirements. The prototype designed in our laboratory is based on the principle of the air mattress. Its objective is to improve on existing technologies and, due to an increased automation, reduce time dedication for personnel in charge of the patient. A clinical experience was made in the local Emergencies Hospital and also in an institution dedicated to aged patients care. In both cases, the results obtained and the comments from the personnel involved were favorable.

  6. AIR SEPARATION BY PRESSURE SWING ADSORPTION USING SUPERIOR ADSORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph T. Yang

    2001-08-31

    Li-X zeolite (Si/Al = 1.0) is currently the best sorbent for use in the separation of air by adsorption processes. In particular, pressure swing adsorption (PSA) using zeolite sorbents is being increasingly used for air separation. Silver is also known to strongly affect the adsorptive properties of zeolites; and it is known that thermal vacuum dehydration of silver zeolites leads to the formation of silver clusters within the zeolite. In this work we have synthesized type X zeolites containing Ag and also varying mixtures of Li and Ag. In this project, we developed the Ag-containing zeolite as the best sorbent for air separation. We have also studied Co-ligand compounds as oxygen-selective sorbents. Syntheses, structural characterization and adsorption properties have been performed on all sorbents. The results are described in detail in 5 chapters.

  7. Benzene Dissociation in DC Atmospheric Pressure Air Glow Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chunqi; Stark, Robert H.; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2001-10-01

    By using a micro-hollow cathode discharge (MHCD) as an electron source to lower or eliminate the cathode fall voltage, a glow discharge could be operated in a dc atmospheric pressure air [1]. The effect of this glow discharge plasma on VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) remediation, particularly, benzene remediation, has been studied. A higher than 90 % destruction rate has been obtained by flowing a 300 ppm benzene/ dry air mixture through the plasma filament. The plasma is confined by a dielectric to a cross-section of 1 mm by 1.5 mm and extends over a depth of 0.8 mm. With a flow rate of 100 sccm, the residence time of the gas in the plasma column is 0.7 ms. A destruction efficiency of more than 0.5 L/kJ has been measured. The energy efficiency is 0.9 g/kWh which is comparable to that achieved by low pressure glow discharges in benzene/ noble gas mixtures [2]. References: [1] R. H. Stark and K. H. Schoenbach, "Direct Current Glow Discharges in Atmospheric Air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 3568 (2001). [2] D. L. McCorkle, W. Ding, C. Ma and L. A. Pinnaduwage, "Dissociation of Benzene and Methylene Chloride Based on Enhanced Dissociative Electron Attachment to Highly Excited Molecules," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 32, 46 (1999). Acknowledgments: This work is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  8. Low-cost, portable fire hose tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jocke, R. F.; Miller, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Availability of pumping unit permits scheduling and performing required periodic hose tests in proper manner while retaining full fire equipment readiness. Use of pumping unit preserves operating life and capability of pumper truck.

  9. Beam hosing instability in overdense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Gruener, F. J.; Leemans, W. P.

    2012-12-21

    Transverse stability of the drive beam is critical to plasma wakefield accelerators. A long, relativistic particle beam propagating in an overdense plasma is subject to beam envelope modulation and hosing (centroid displacement) instabilities. Coupled equations for the beam centroid and envelope are derived. The growth rate for beam hosing is examined including return current effects (where the beam radius is of order the plasma skin depth) in the long-beam, strongly-coupled, overdense regime.

  10. Hose- and Tube-Cleaning Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollins, F. P.; Glass, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Self-contained, single-use module enables hose or tube to be cleaned thoroughly in field, in one operation, using water of unknown or questionable quality. Previously, chemicals for flow cleaning had to be mixed, diluted and pumped through tubes and hoses in many successive steps; deionizers, water-treatment facilities, and chemical storage required. With proposed device cleaning performed safely, without special training. Ready to use, device packaged as cleaning kit with tube to be cleaned.

  11. Low pressure high speed Stirling air engine. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.A.

    1980-06-16

    The purpose of this project was to design, construct and test a simple, appropriate technology low pressure, high speed, wood-fired Stirling air engine of 100 W output. The final design was a concentric piston/displacer engine of 454 in. bore and 1 in. stroke with a rhombic drive mechanism. The project engine was ultimately completed and tested, using a propane burner for all tests as a matter of convenience. The 100 W aim was exceeded, at atmospheric pressure, over a wide range of engine speed with the maximum power being 112 W at 1150 rpm. A pressure can was constructed to permit pressurization; however the grant funds were running out, and the only pressurized power test attempted was unsuccessful due to seal difficulties. This was a disappointment because numerous tests on the 4 cubic inch engine suggested power would be more than doubled with pressurization at 25 psig. A manifold was designed and constructed to permit operation of the engine over a standard No. 40 pot bellied stove. The engine was run successfully, but at reduced speed and power, over this stove. The project engine started out being rather noisy in operation, but modifications ultimately resulted in a very quiet engine. Various other difficulties and their solutions also are discussed. (LCL)

  12. Brass plasmoid in external magnetic field at different air pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, D. N.; Thareja, Raj K.; Pandey, Pramod K.

    2013-10-15

    The behavior of expanding brass plasmoid generated by 266 nm wavelength of Nd:YAG laser in nonuniform magnetic field at different air pressures has been examined using optical emission spectroscopy and fast imaging of plasma plumes. The splitting of the plasma plumes and enhancement of intensity of Cu I at 510.5 nm in the presence of magnetic field at lower pressures are discussed. The threading and expulsion of the magnetic field lines through the plasmoid are correlated with the ambient pressure. The stoichiometry of the plasma plume is not significantly influenced by the magnetic field; however, the abundance of neutral to ionic species of Cu and Zn is greatly influenced by the magnetic field.

  13. A stagnation pressure probe for droplet-laden air flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, S. N. B.; Leonardo, M.; Ehresman, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    It is often of interest in a droplet-laden gas flow to obtain the stagnation pressure of both the gas phase and the mixture. A flow-decelerating probe (TPF), with separate, purged ports for the gas phase and the mixture and with a bleed for accumulating liquid at the closed end, has been developed. Measurements obtained utilizing the TPF in a nearly isothermal air-water droplet mixture flow in a smooth circular pipe under various conditions of flow velocity, pressure, liquid concentration and droplet size are presented and compared with data obtained under identical conditions with a conventional, gas phase stagnation pressure probe (CSP). The data obtained with the CSP and TPF probes are analyzed to determine the applicability of the two probes in relation to the multi-phase characteristics of the flow and the geometry of the probe.

  14. The influence of intraocular pressure and air jet pressure on corneal contactless tonometry tests.

    PubMed

    Simonini, Irene; Pandolfi, Anna

    2016-05-01

    The air puff is a dynamic contactless tonometer test used in ophthalmology clinical practice to assess the biomechanical properties of the human cornea and the intraocular pressure due to the filling fluids of the eye. The test is controversial, since the dynamic response of the cornea is governed by the interaction of several factors which cannot be discerned within a single measurement. In this study we describe a numerical model of the air puff tests, and perform a parametric analysis on the major action parameters (jet pressure and intraocular pressure) to assess their relevance on the mechanical response of a patient-specific cornea. The particular cornea considered here has been treated with laser reprofiling to correct myopia, and the parametric study has been conducted on both the preoperative and postoperative geometries. The material properties of the cornea have been obtained by means of an identification procedure that compares the static biomechanical response of preoperative and postoperative corneas under the physiological IOP. The parametric study on the intraocular pressure suggests that the displacement of the cornea׳s apex can be a reliable indicator for tonometry, and the one on the air jet pressure predicts the outcomes of two or more distinct measurements on the same cornea, which can be used in inverse procedures to estimate the material properties of the tissue.

  15. DETAIL OF FIRE HOSE ON 16’8” LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF FIRE HOSE ON 16’-8” LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  16. Breakdown of air pockets in downwardly inclined sewerage pressure mains.

    PubMed

    Lubbers, C L; Clemens, F H L R

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands, wastewater is collected in municipal areas and transported to centralised WWTPs by an extensive system of pressure mains. Over the last decades these pressure mains did not receive much attention in terms of monitoring of performance or maintenance. A recent inventory showed that half of the pressure mains show an increased pressure loss for no directly obvious reason. One of the many causes that account for the reduction of the flow capacity is the occurrence of free gas in the pipeline. During dry weather periods with low flow velocities, gas may accumulate at high points in the system. Once the velocity increases during storm weather flow, the air pockets may be broken down and transported to the end of the system. A research study is started focussing on the description of the gas-water phenomena in wastewater pressure mains with respect to transportation of gas. An experimental facility is constructed for the study of multi-phase flow. This paper describes the preliminary results of experiments on breakdown rates of gas pockets as a function of inclination angle and water flow rate. The results show an increasing breakdown rate with increasing inclination angle.

  17. Air Flow and Pressure Drop Measurements Across Porous Oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Dennis S.; Cuy, Michael D.; Werner, Roger A.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of air flow tests across eight porous, open cell ceramic oxide samples. During ceramic specimen processing, the porosity was formed using the sacrificial template technique, with two different sizes of polystyrene beads used for the template. The samples were initially supplied with thicknesses ranging from 0.14 to 0.20 in. (0.35 to 0.50 cm) and nonuniform backside morphology (some areas dense, some porous). Samples were therefore ground to a thickness of 0.12 to 0.14 in. (0.30 to 0.35 cm) using dry 120 grit SiC paper. Pressure drop versus air flow is reported. Comparisons of samples with thickness variations are made, as are pressure drop estimates. As the density of the ceramic material increases the maximum corrected flow decreases rapidly. Future sample sets should be supplied with samples of similar thickness and having uniform surface morphology. This would allow a more consistent determination of air flow versus processing parameters and the resulting porosity size and distribution.

  18. Comparison of deliverable and exhaustible pressurized air flow rates in laboratory gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, J.A.

    1994-10-01

    Calculations were performed to estimate the maximum credible flow rates of pressurized air into Plutonium Process Support Laboratories gloveboxes. Classical equations for compressible fluids were used to estimate the flow rates. The calculated maxima were compared to another`s estimates of glovebox exhaust flow rates and corresponding glovebox internal pressures. No credible pressurized air flow rate will pressurize a glovebox beyond normal operating limits. Unrestricted use of the pressurized air supply is recommended.

  19. Fire hose gripping device and process for fighting fires in oil refineries and the like

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, D.R.; Everding, R.J.

    1989-08-15

    This patent describes a firefighting process. It comprises the steps of: attaching one end of a fire hose to a fire hydrant when the end of the fire hose is in a generally collapsed flattened position; uncoiling the fire hose; attaching a manually grippable spray nozzle to the other end of the fire hose; inflating and substantially filling the fire hose with water from the water supply means to expand the hose to a semirigid expanded position; grasping, lifting, and carrying the filled fire hose with one hand; gripping a vertical elastomeric handle of a hose clamp with the other hand. The hose clamp having a generally U-shaped hose-engaging member. The U-shaped hose-engaging member having an open end defining an access opening for receiving the hose. The access opening being larger than the maximum diameter and transverse span of the uncoiled filled fire hose: inserting the hose-engaging member on the fire hose such that there is sufficient clearance between the hose-engaging member and the fire hose to side hose clamp to another position; moving the hose clamp at an acute angle of inclination relative to the hose to detachable secure and inter-lockingly engage the hose-engaging member to the filled fire hose; manually lifting the vertical elastomeric handle of the hose clamp to elevate the fire hose; pointing the nozzle towards the fire; and spraying water from the nozzle on the fire.

  20. Microwave generation of stable atmospheric-pressure fireballs in air.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Karl D

    2006-11-01

    The generation of stable buoyant fireballs in a microwave cavity in air at atmospheric pressure without the use of vaporized solids is described. These fireballs have some of the characteristics of ball lightning and resemble those reported by Dikhtyar and Jerby [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045002 (2006)], although of a different color, and do not require the presence of molten or vaporized material. Mechanisms of microwave plasma formation and fluid dynamics can account for the observed behavior of the fireballs, which do not appear to meet the accepted definition of dusty plasmas in this case. Relevance to models of ball lightning and industrial applications are discussed. PMID:17279961

  1. Cold atmospheric pressure air plasma jet for medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, J. F.; Price, R. O.; Bowman, A.; Chiavarini, R. L.; Stacey, M.; Schoenbach, K. H.; Mohamed, A.-A H.; Swanson, R. J.

    2008-06-16

    By flowing atmospheric pressure air through a direct current powered microhollow cathode discharge, we were able to generate a 2 cm long plasma jet. With increasing flow rate, the flow becomes turbulent and temperatures of the jet are reduced to values close to room temperature. Utilizing the jet, yeast grown on agar can be eradicated with a treatment of only a few seconds. Conversely, animal studies show no skin damage even with exposures ten times longer than needed for pathogen extermination. This cold plasma jet provides an effective mode of treatment for yeast infections of the skin.

  2. Cold atmospheric pressure air plasma jet for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, J. F.; Mohamed, A.-A. H.; Price, R. O.; Swanson, R. J.; Bowman, A.; Chiavarini, R. L.; Stacey, M.; Schoenbach, K. H.

    2008-06-01

    By flowing atmospheric pressure air through a direct current powered microhollow cathode discharge, we were able to generate a 2cm long plasma jet. With increasing flow rate, the flow becomes turbulent and temperatures of the jet are reduced to values close to room temperature. Utilizing the jet, yeast grown on agar can be eradicated with a treatment of only a few seconds. Conversely, animal studies show no skin damage even with exposures ten times longer than needed for pathogen extermination. This cold plasma jet provides an effective mode of treatment for yeast infections of the skin.

  3. Vandenberg Air Force Base Pressure Gradient Wind Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Warning category winds can adversely impact day-to-day space lift operations at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. NASA's Launch Services Program and other programs at VAFB use wind forecasts issued by the 30 Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) to determine if they need to limit activities or protect property such as a launch vehicle. The 30 OSSWF tasked the AMU to develop an automated Excel graphical user interface that includes pressure gradient thresholds between specific observing stations under different synoptic regimes to aid forecasters when issuing wind warnings. This required the AMU to determine if relationships between the variables existed.

  4. Microwave generation of stable atmospheric-pressure fireballs in air

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Karl D.

    2006-11-15

    The generation of stable buoyant fireballs in a microwave cavity in air at atmospheric pressure without the use of vaporized solids is described. These fireballs have some of the characteristics of ball lightning and resemble those reported by Dikhtyar and Jerby [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045002 (2006)], although of a different color, and do not require the presence of molten or vaporized material. Mechanisms of microwave plasma formation and fluid dynamics can account for the observed behavior of the fireballs, which do not appear to meet the accepted definition of dusty plasmas in this case. Relevance to models of ball lightning and industrial applications are discussed.

  5. Microwave generation of stable atmospheric-pressure fireballs in air.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Karl D

    2006-11-01

    The generation of stable buoyant fireballs in a microwave cavity in air at atmospheric pressure without the use of vaporized solids is described. These fireballs have some of the characteristics of ball lightning and resemble those reported by Dikhtyar and Jerby [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045002 (2006)], although of a different color, and do not require the presence of molten or vaporized material. Mechanisms of microwave plasma formation and fluid dynamics can account for the observed behavior of the fireballs, which do not appear to meet the accepted definition of dusty plasmas in this case. Relevance to models of ball lightning and industrial applications are discussed.

  6. Microwave generation of stable atmospheric-pressure fireballs in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Karl D.

    2006-11-01

    The generation of stable buoyant fireballs in a microwave cavity in air at atmospheric pressure without the use of vaporized solids is described. These fireballs have some of the characteristics of ball lightning and resemble those reported by Dikhtyar and Jerby [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045002 (2006)], although of a different color, and do not require the presence of molten or vaporized material. Mechanisms of microwave plasma formation and fluid dynamics can account for the observed behavior of the fireballs, which do not appear to meet the accepted definition of dusty plasmas in this case. Relevance to models of ball lightning and industrial applications are discussed.

  7. Pressure measurements of a three wave journal air bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimofte, Florin; Addy, Harold E., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    In order to validate theoretical predictions of a wave journal bearing concept, a bench test rig was assembled at NASA Lewis Research Center to measure the steady-state performance of a journal air bearing. The tester can run up to 30,000 RPM and the spindle has a run out of less than 1 micron. A three wave journal bearing (50 mm diameter and 58 mm length) has been machined at NASA Lewis. The pressures at 16 ports along the bearing circumference at the middle of the bearing length were measured and compared to the theoretical prediction. The bearing ran at speeds up to 15,000 RPM and certain loads. Good agreement was found between the measured and calculated pressures.

  8. Heart-rate monitoring by air pressure and causal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Naoki; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hata, Yutaka

    2011-06-01

    Among lots of vital signals, heart-rate (HR) is an important index for diagnose human's health condition. For instance, HR provides an early stage of cardiac disease, autonomic nerve behavior, and so forth. However, currently, HR is measured only in medical checkups and clinical diagnosis during the rested state by using electrocardiograph (ECG). Thus, some serious cardiac events in daily life could be lost. Therefore, a continuous HR monitoring during 24 hours is desired. Considering the use in daily life, the monitoring should be noninvasive and low intrusive. Thus, in this paper, an HR monitoring in sleep by using air pressure sensors is proposed. The HR monitoring is realized by employing the causal analysis among air pressure and HR. The causality is described by employing fuzzy logic. According to the experiment on 7 males at age 22-25 (23 on average), the correlation coefficient against ECG is 0.73-0.97 (0.85 on average). In addition, the cause-effect structure for HR monitoring is arranged by employing causal decomposition, and the arranged causality is applied to HR monitoring in a setting posture. According to the additional experiment on 6 males, the correlation coefficient is 0.66-0.86 (0.76 on average). Therefore, the proposed method is suggested to have enough accuracy and robustness for some daily use cases.

  9. 46 CFR 193.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hydrants and hose. 193.10-10 Section 193.10-10... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 193.10-10 Fire hydrants and hose. (a) The size of fire hydrants, hose, and nozzles and the length of hose required shall be as noted in Table 193.10-5(a). (b)...

  10. 46 CFR 193.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hydrants and hose. 193.10-10 Section 193.10-10... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 193.10-10 Fire hydrants and hose. (a) The size of fire hydrants, hose, and nozzles and the length of hose required shall be as noted in Table 193.10-5(a). (b)...

  11. 46 CFR 193.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hydrants and hose. 193.10-10 Section 193.10-10... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 193.10-10 Fire hydrants and hose. (a) The size of fire hydrants, hose, and nozzles and the length of hose required shall be as noted in Table 193.10-5(a). (b)...

  12. 46 CFR 95.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hydrants and hose. 95.10-10 Section 95.10-10... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 95.10-10 Fire hydrants and hose. (a) The size of fire hydrants, hose, and nozzles and the length of hose required shall be as noted in Table 95.10-5(a). (b)...

  13. 46 CFR 95.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hydrants and hose. 95.10-10 Section 95.10-10... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 95.10-10 Fire hydrants and hose. (a) The size of fire hydrants, hose, and nozzles and the length of hose required shall be as noted in Table 95.10-5(a). (b)...

  14. 46 CFR 193.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hydrants and hose. 193.10-10 Section 193.10-10... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 193.10-10 Fire hydrants and hose. (a) The size of fire hydrants, hose, and nozzles and the length of hose required shall be as noted in Table 193.10-5(a). (b)...

  15. 46 CFR 95.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hydrants and hose. 95.10-10 Section 95.10-10... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 95.10-10 Fire hydrants and hose. (a) The size of fire hydrants, hose, and nozzles and the length of hose required shall be as noted in Table 95.10-5(a). (b)...

  16. 46 CFR 95.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hydrants and hose. 95.10-10 Section 95.10-10... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 95.10-10 Fire hydrants and hose. (a) The size of fire hydrants, hose, and nozzles and the length of hose required shall be as noted in Table 95.10-5(a). (b)...

  17. 46 CFR 193.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hydrants and hose. 193.10-10 Section 193.10-10... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 193.10-10 Fire hydrants and hose. (a) The size of fire hydrants, hose, and nozzles and the length of hose required shall be as noted in Table 193.10-5(a). (b)...

  18. 46 CFR 95.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hydrants and hose. 95.10-10 Section 95.10-10... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 95.10-10 Fire hydrants and hose. (a) The size of fire hydrants, hose, and nozzles and the length of hose required shall be as noted in Table 95.10-5(a). (b)...

  19. Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure and Newborn Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. Objective: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods: We studied 1,131 mother–infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts, area pre-birth cohort. We calculated average exposures by trimester and during the 2 to 90 days before birth for temporally resolved fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide measured at stationary monitoring sites, and for spatiotemporally resolved estimates of PM2.5 and BC at the residence level. We measured SBP at a mean age of 30 ± 18 hr with an automated device. We used mixed-effects models to examine associations between air pollutant exposures and SBP, taking into account measurement circumstances; child’s birth weight; mother’s age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic position, and third-trimester BP; and time trend. Estimates represent differences in SBP associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in each pollutant. Results: Higher mean PM2.5 and BC exposures during the third trimester were associated with higher SBP (e.g., 1.0 mmHg; 95% CI: 0.1, 1.8 for a 0.32-μg/m3 increase in mean 90-day residential BC). In contrast, O3 was negatively associated with SBP (e.g., –2.3 mmHg; 95% CI: –4.4, –0.2 for a 13.5-ppb increase during the 90 days before birth). Conclusions: Exposures to PM2.5 and BC in late pregnancy were positively associated with newborn SBP, whereas O3 was negatively associated with SBP. Longitudinal follow-up will enable us to assess the implications of these findings for health during later childhood and adulthood. Citation: van Rossem L, Rifas-Shiman SL, Melly SJ, Kloog I, Luttmann-Gibson H, Zanobetti A, Coull BA, Schwartz JD, Mittleman MA, Oken E, Gillman MW, Koutrakis P, Gold DR. 2015. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure

  20. 46 CFR 107.257 - Testing of fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Testing of fire hose. 107.257 Section 107.257 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.257 Testing of fire hose. Each fire hose must be subjected to...

  1. 46 CFR 107.257 - Testing of fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Testing of fire hose. 107.257 Section 107.257 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.257 Testing of fire hose. Each fire hose must be subjected to...

  2. 46 CFR 107.257 - Testing of fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Testing of fire hose. 107.257 Section 107.257 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.257 Testing of fire hose. Each fire hose must be subjected to...

  3. 46 CFR 107.257 - Testing of fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Testing of fire hose. 107.257 Section 107.257 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.257 Testing of fire hose. Each fire hose must be subjected to...

  4. 46 CFR 107.257 - Testing of fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testing of fire hose. 107.257 Section 107.257 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.257 Testing of fire hose. Each fire hose must be subjected to...

  5. 46 CFR 108.425 - Fire hoses and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hoses and associated equipment. 108.425 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.425 Fire hoses and associated equipment. (a) Each length of fire hose in a fire main system must be— (1) Of 11/2 or 21/2 inch nominal...

  6. 46 CFR 167.45-10 - Couplings on fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Couplings on fire hose. 167.45-10 Section 167.45-10... SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-10 Couplings on fire hose. The couplings on fire hose shall be of brass, copper, or composition material. All hydrants shall be...

  7. Predicting Flow-Induced Vibrations In A Convoluted Hose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Stuart A.

    1994-01-01

    Composite model constructed from two less accurate models. Predicts approximately frequencies and modes of vibrations induced by flows of various fluids in convoluted hose. Based partly on spring-and-lumped-mass representation of dynamics involving springiness and mass of convolution of hose and density of fluid in hose.

  8. 46 CFR 169.735 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hose stations. 169.735 Section 169.735 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.735 Fire hose stations. Each fire hydrant...,” etc. Where the hose is not stowed in the open or readily seen behind glass, this identification...

  9. 46 CFR 131.880 - Fire hoses and axes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hoses and axes. 131.880 Section 131.880 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.880 Fire hoses and axes. Each fire hose and axe must...

  10. Influence of centering forces on IFR hose instability

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, H.L.

    1982-12-06

    The appropriate centering force terms are added to the ion-focused regime hose equations and their effect on hose development is calculated. It is found that while hose at very high frequencies is stabilized, the overall suppression is only moderate and other stabilization processes need to be explored.

  11. 46 CFR 97.37-15 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hose stations. 97.37-15 Section 97.37-15 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-15 Fire hose stations. (a) Each fire hydrant shall.... Where the hose is not stowed in the open or behind glass so as to be readily seen, this...

  12. 46 CFR 167.45-10 - Couplings on fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Couplings on fire hose. 167.45-10 Section 167.45-10... SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-10 Couplings on fire hose. The couplings on fire hose shall be of brass, copper, or composition material. All hydrants shall be...

  13. 46 CFR 169.735 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hose stations. 169.735 Section 169.735 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.735 Fire hose stations. Each fire hydrant...,” etc. Where the hose is not stowed in the open or readily seen behind glass, this identification...

  14. 46 CFR 167.45-10 - Couplings on fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Couplings on fire hose. 167.45-10 Section 167.45-10... SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-10 Couplings on fire hose. The couplings on fire hose shall be of brass, copper, or composition material. All hydrants shall be...

  15. 46 CFR 97.37-15 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hose stations. 97.37-15 Section 97.37-15 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-15 Fire hose stations. (a) Each fire hydrant shall.... Where the hose is not stowed in the open or behind glass so as to be readily seen, this...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2621 - Testing transfer hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Testing transfer hoses. 193.2621 Section 193.2621 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2621 Testing transfer hoses. Hoses used in LNG or...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1866 - Cargo hose connection: Transferring cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo hose connection: Transferring cargo. 154.1866 Section 154.1866 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Cargo hose connection: Transferring cargo. No person may transfer cargo through a cargo hose...

  18. 49 CFR 193.2621 - Testing transfer hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testing transfer hoses. 193.2621 Section 193.2621 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2621 Testing transfer hoses. Hoses used in LNG or...

  19. 46 CFR 131.880 - Fire hoses and axes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hoses and axes. 131.880 Section 131.880 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.880 Fire hoses and axes. Each fire hose and axe must...

  20. 46 CFR 153.972 - Connecting a cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Connecting a cargo hose. 153.972 Section 153.972... Procedures § 153.972 Connecting a cargo hose. The person in charge of cargo transfer may not authorize the connection of a hose to a cargo containment system unless: (a) He has ensured himself that the cargo will...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1866 - Cargo hose connection: Transferring cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose connection: Transferring cargo. 154.1866 Section 154.1866 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Cargo hose connection: Transferring cargo. No person may transfer cargo through a cargo hose...

  2. 46 CFR 169.735 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hose stations. 169.735 Section 169.735 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.735 Fire hose stations. Each fire hydrant...,” etc. Where the hose is not stowed in the open or readily seen behind glass, this identification...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1866 - Cargo hose connection: Transferring cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose connection: Transferring cargo. 154.1866 Section 154.1866 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Cargo hose connection: Transferring cargo. No person may transfer cargo through a cargo hose...

  4. 46 CFR 169.735 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hose stations. 169.735 Section 169.735 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.735 Fire hose stations. Each fire hydrant...,” etc. Where the hose is not stowed in the open or readily seen behind glass, this identification...

  5. 46 CFR 108.425 - Fire hoses and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hoses and associated equipment. 108.425 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.425 Fire hoses and associated equipment. (a) Each length of fire hose in a fire main system must be— (1) Of 11/2 or 21/2 inch nominal...

  6. 46 CFR 108.425 - Fire hoses and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hoses and associated equipment. 108.425 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.425 Fire hoses and associated equipment. (a) Each length of fire hose in a fire main system must be— (1) Of 11/2 or 21/2 inch nominal...

  7. 46 CFR 97.37-15 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hose stations. 97.37-15 Section 97.37-15 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-15 Fire hose stations. (a) Each fire hydrant shall.... Where the hose is not stowed in the open or behind glass so as to be readily seen, this...

  8. 46 CFR 131.880 - Fire hoses and axes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hoses and axes. 131.880 Section 131.880 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.880 Fire hoses and axes. Each fire hose and axe must...

  9. 46 CFR 131.880 - Fire hoses and axes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hoses and axes. 131.880 Section 131.880 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.880 Fire hoses and axes. Each fire hose and axe must...

  10. 46 CFR 169.735 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hose stations. 169.735 Section 169.735 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.735 Fire hose stations. Each fire hydrant...,” etc. Where the hose is not stowed in the open or readily seen behind glass, this identification...

  11. 46 CFR 108.425 - Fire hoses and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hoses and associated equipment. 108.425 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.425 Fire hoses and associated equipment. (a) Each length of fire hose in a fire main system must be— (1) Of 11/2 or 21/2 inch nominal...

  12. 46 CFR 153.972 - Connecting a cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Connecting a cargo hose. 153.972 Section 153.972... Procedures § 153.972 Connecting a cargo hose. The person in charge of cargo transfer may not authorize the connection of a hose to a cargo containment system unless: (a) He has ensured himself that the cargo will...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1866 - Cargo hose connection: Transferring cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo hose connection: Transferring cargo. 154.1866 Section 154.1866 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Cargo hose connection: Transferring cargo. No person may transfer cargo through a cargo hose...

  14. 33 CFR 127.1102 - Transfer hoses and loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transfer hoses and loading arms. 127.1102 Section 127.1102 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Transfer hoses and loading arms. (a) Each hose within the marine transfer area for LHG used for...

  15. 46 CFR 153.972 - Connecting a cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Connecting a cargo hose. 153.972 Section 153.972... Procedures § 153.972 Connecting a cargo hose. The person in charge of cargo transfer may not authorize the connection of a hose to a cargo containment system unless: (a) He has ensured himself that the cargo will...

  16. 46 CFR 131.880 - Fire hoses and axes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hoses and axes. 131.880 Section 131.880 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.880 Fire hoses and axes. Each fire hose and axe must...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1866 - Cargo hose connection: Transferring cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo hose connection: Transferring cargo. 154.1866 Section 154.1866 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Cargo hose connection: Transferring cargo. No person may transfer cargo through a cargo hose...

  18. 46 CFR 167.45-10 - Couplings on fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Couplings on fire hose. 167.45-10 Section 167.45-10... SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-10 Couplings on fire hose. The couplings on fire hose shall be of brass, copper, or composition material. All hydrants shall be...

  19. 46 CFR 153.972 - Connecting a cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Connecting a cargo hose. 153.972 Section 153.972... Procedures § 153.972 Connecting a cargo hose. The person in charge of cargo transfer may not authorize the connection of a hose to a cargo containment system unless: (a) He has ensured himself that the cargo will...

  20. 46 CFR 97.37-15 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hose stations. 97.37-15 Section 97.37-15 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-15 Fire hose stations. (a) Each fire hydrant shall.... Where the hose is not stowed in the open or behind glass so as to be readily seen, this...

  1. 49 CFR 193.2621 - Testing transfer hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Testing transfer hoses. 193.2621 Section 193.2621 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2621 Testing transfer hoses. Hoses used in LNG or...

  2. 49 CFR 193.2621 - Testing transfer hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Testing transfer hoses. 193.2621 Section 193.2621 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2621 Testing transfer hoses. Hoses used in LNG or...

  3. 46 CFR 97.37-15 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hose stations. 97.37-15 Section 97.37-15 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-15 Fire hose stations. (a) Each fire hydrant shall.... Where the hose is not stowed in the open or behind glass so as to be readily seen, this...

  4. 46 CFR 153.972 - Connecting a cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Connecting a cargo hose. 153.972 Section 153.972... Procedures § 153.972 Connecting a cargo hose. The person in charge of cargo transfer may not authorize the connection of a hose to a cargo containment system unless: (a) He has ensured himself that the cargo will...

  5. 46 CFR 108.425 - Fire hoses and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hoses and associated equipment. 108.425 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.425 Fire hoses and associated equipment. (a) Each length of fire hose in a fire main system must be— (1) Of 11/2 or 21/2 inch nominal...

  6. 46 CFR 167.45-10 - Couplings on fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Couplings on fire hose. 167.45-10 Section 167.45-10... SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-10 Couplings on fire hose. The couplings on fire hose shall be of brass, copper, or composition material. All hydrants shall be...

  7. 49 CFR 193.2621 - Testing transfer hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Testing transfer hoses. 193.2621 Section 193.2621 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2621 Testing transfer hoses. Hoses used in LNG or...

  8. 46 CFR 181.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cargo decks, where no protection is provided, hoses may be temporarily removed during heavy weather or... fire hose that conforms to UL 19 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or hose that is listed... by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the Commandant. (c) Each fire...

  9. 46 CFR 181.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cargo decks, where no protection is provided, hoses may be temporarily removed during heavy weather or... fire hose that conforms to UL 19 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or hose that is listed... by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the Commandant. (c) Each fire...

  10. Theory of ion-hose instability

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Solutions are derived for the partial-differential equations of the rigid model of ion hose with and without an applied axial magnetic field. An upper bound on the amplitude of the beam response, derived from these exact solutions, is compared with the upper bound derived by means of an asymptotic saddle-point calculation. In the exact solutions, explicit boundary conditions are retained. The details of the boundary conditions are significant in understanding the driven ion-hose instability in the experiments. Consideration of the effects of a magnetic field is important because in the ion-hose experiments at Sandia National Laboratories the beam is immersed in an applied axial-magnetic field.

  11. Air Pressure Responses to Sudden Vocal Tract Pressure Bleeds During Production of Stop Consonants: New Evidence of Aeromechanical Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, David J.; Weissler, Mark C.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate short-latency vocal tract air pressure responses to sudden pressure bleeds during production of voiceless bilabial stop consonants. It was hypothesized that the occurrence of respiratory reflexes would be indicated by distinct patterns of responses as a function of bleed magnitude. In Study 1, 19 adults produced syllable trains of /pΛ/ using a mouthpiece coupled to a computer-controlled perturbator. The device randomly created bleed apertures that ranged from 0 to 40 mm2 during production of the 2nd or 4th syllable of an utterance. Although peak oral air pressure dropped in a linear manner across bleed apertures, it averaged 2 to 3 cm H2O at the largest bleed. While slope of oral pressure also decreased in a linear trend, duration of the oral pressure pulse remained relatively constant. The patterns suggest that respiratory reflexes, if present, have little effect on oral air pressure levels. In Study 2, both oral and subglottal air pressure responses were monitored in 2 adults while bleed apertures of 20 and 40 mm2 were randomly created. For 1 participant, peak oral air pressure dropped across bleed apertures, as in Study 1. Subglottal air pressure and slope, however, remained relatively stable. These patterns provide some support for the occurrence of respiratory reflexes to regulate subglottal air pressure. Overall, the studies indicate that the inherent physiologic processes of the respiratory system, which may involve reflexes, and passive aeromechanical resistance of the upper airway are capable of developing oral air pressure in the face of substantial pressure bleeds. Implications for understanding speech production and the characteristics of individuals with velopharyngeal dysfunction are discussed. PMID:15324286

  12. Air pressure responses to sudden vocal tract pressure bleeds during production of stop consonants: new evidence of aeromechanical regulation.

    PubMed

    Zajac, David J; Weissler, Mark C

    2004-08-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate short-latency vocal tract air pressure responses to sudden pressure bleeds during production of voiceless bilabial stop consonants. It was hypothesized that the occurrence of respiratory reflexes would be indicated by distinct patterns of responses as a function of bleed magnitude. In Study 1, 19 adults produced syllable trains of "puh" using a mouthpiece coupled to a computer-controlled perturbator. The device randomly created bleed apertures that ranged from 0 to 40 mm2 during production of the 2nd or 4th syllable of an utterance. Although peak oral air pressure dropped in a linear manner across bleed apertures, it averaged 2 to 3 cm H2O at the largest bleed. While slope of oral pressure also decreased in a linear trend, duration of the oral pressure pulse remained relatively constant. The patterns suggest that respiratory reflexes, if present, have little effect on oral air pressure levels. In Study 2, both oral and subglottal air pressure responses were monitored in 2 adults while bleed apertures of 20 and 40 mm2 were randomly created. For 1 participant, peak oral air pressure dropped across bleed apertures, as in Study 1. Subglottal air pressure and slope, however, remained relatively stable. These patterns provide some support for the occurrence of respiratory reflexes to regulate subglottal air pressure. Overall, the studies indicate that the inherent physiologic processes of the respiratory system, which may involve reflexes, and passive aeromechanical resistance of the upper airway are capable of developing oral air pressure in the face of substantial pressure bleeds. Implications for understanding speech production and the characteristics of individuals with velopharyngeal dysfunction are discussed.

  13. Converging swirling liquid jets from pressure swirl atomizers: Effect of inner air pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, D.; Raghunandan, B. N.

    2002-12-01

    Converging swirling liquid jets from pressure swirl atomizers injected into atmospheric air are studied experimentally using still and cine photographic techniques in the context of liquid-liquid coaxial swirl atomizers used in liquid rocket engines. The jet exhibits several interesting flow features in contrast to the nonswirling liquid jets (annular liquid jets) studied in the literature. The swirl motion creates multiple converging sections in the jet, which gradually collapse one after the other due to the liquid sheet breakup with increasing Weber number (We). This is clearly related to the air inside the converging jet which exhibits a peculiar variation of the pressure difference across the liquid sheet, ΔP, with We. The variation shows a decreasing trend of ΔP with We in an overall sense, but exhibits local maxima and minima at specific flow conditions. The number of maxima or minima observed in the curve depends on the number of converging sections seen in the jet at the lowest We. An interesting feature of this variation is that it delineates the regions of prominent jet flow features like the oscillating jet region, nonoscillating jet region, number of converging sections, and so on. Numerical predictions of the jet characteristics are obtained by modifying an existing nonswirling liquid jet model by including the swirling motion. The comparison between the experimental and numerical measurements shows that the pressure difference across the liquid sheet is important for the jet behavior and cannot be neglected in any theoretical analysis.

  14. 30 CFR 57.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 57.13015 Section 57.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...

  15. 30 CFR 57.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 57.13015 Section 57.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...

  16. 30 CFR 57.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 57.13015 Section 57.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...

  17. 30 CFR 56.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 56.13015 Section 56.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.172 - Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels... SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Portable, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other Than Ship's Equipment § 1915.172 Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Portable, unfired...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.172 - Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels... SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Portable, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other Than Ship's Equipment § 1915.172 Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Portable, unfired...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.172 - Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels... SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Portable, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other Than Ship's Equipment § 1915.172 Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Portable, unfired...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.172 - Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels... SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Portable, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other Than Ship's Equipment § 1915.172 Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Portable, unfired...

  2. 30 CFR 57.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 57.13015 Section 57.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.172 - Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels... SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Portable, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other Than Ship's Equipment § 1915.172 Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Portable, unfired...

  4. 30 CFR 56.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 56.13015 Section 56.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...

  5. 30 CFR 56.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 56.13015 Section 56.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...

  6. 30 CFR 57.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 57.13015 Section 57.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...

  7. 30 CFR 56.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 56.13015 Section 56.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...

  8. 30 CFR 56.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 56.13015 Section 56.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...

  9. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-08-24

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life.

  10. High-flexibility, noncollapsing lightweight hose

    DOEpatents

    Williams, David A.

    1993-01-01

    A high-flexibility, noncollapsing, lightweight, large-bore, wire-reinforced hose is inside fiber-reinforced PVC tubing that is flexible, lightweight, and abrasion resistant. It provides a strong, kink- and collapse-free conduit for moving large quantities of dangerous fluids, e.g., removing radioactive waste water or processing chemicals.

  11. High-flexibility, noncollapsing lightweight hose

    DOEpatents

    Williams, D.A.

    1993-04-20

    A high-flexibility, noncollapsing, lightweight, large-bore, wire-reinforced hose is inside fiber-reinforced PVC tubing that is flexible, lightweight, and abrasion resistant. It provides a strong, kink- and collapse-free conduit for moving large quantities of dangerous fluids, e.g., removing radioactive waste water or processing chemicals.

  12. 46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... that has an inside diameter— (a) Larger than three inches, must meet the requirements in 33 CFR 154.500... cargo pump or pump discharge relief valve setting, but not less than 100 pounds per square inch. 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST...

  13. Two-functional seal for hose connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, M. B.

    1969-01-01

    Seal, machined from a plastic material, prevents liquid hydrogen leakage from hose connectors. It serves as a block-type seal supporting maximum loading of the poppet with slight elastic deflection or as a lip-type seal that is deformed elastically in bending, tension, or compression by the seated poppet.

  14. 46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that has an inside diameter— (a) Larger than three inches, must meet the requirements in 33 CFR 154.500... cargo pump or pump discharge relief valve setting, but not less than 100 pounds per square inch. 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST...

  15. Plastic tubing protects flexible copper hose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellgren, B. E.

    1966-01-01

    Flexible copper purge and coolant hoses is covered with a high-temperature shrinkable plastic for protection against severe vibration during rocket engine tests. This type of tubing is being used on all flexible water tubes used in F-1 engine tests.

  16. 46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... that has an inside diameter— (a) Larger than three inches, must meet the requirements in 33 CFR 154.500... cargo pump or pump discharge relief valve setting, but not less than 100 pounds per square inch. 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST...

  17. 46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... that has an inside diameter— (a) Larger than three inches, must meet the requirements in 33 CFR 154.500... cargo pump or pump discharge relief valve setting, but not less than 100 pounds per square inch. 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST...

  18. 46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... that has an inside diameter— (a) Larger than three inches, must meet the requirements in 33 CFR 154.500... cargo pump or pump discharge relief valve setting, but not less than 100 pounds per square inch. 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST...

  19. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanfords Interim Stabilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    TORRES, T.D.

    2001-03-23

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000a), defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of waste transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000b), has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications associated with Interim Stabilization. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning, RPP-6028 Section 3.2.7. Performance Incentive Number ORP-05 requires that all the Single Shell Tanks be Interim Stabilized by September 30, 2003. The Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone M-41-00, enforced by a federal consent decree, requires all the Single Shell Tanks to be Interim stabilized by September 30, 2004. By meeting the Performance Incentive the TPA milestone is met. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment used to transfer waste have a life in excess of the forecasted operational time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer, published literature and calculations. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are the hose material's resistance to the harmful effects of process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, exposure to ionizing radiation and the

  20. 46 CFR 153.940 - Standards for marking of cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for marking of cargo hose. 153.940 Section 153... Cargo Transfer Hose § 153.940 Standards for marking of cargo hose. No person may mark a hose assembly as meeting the standards of this section unless the hose assembly meets the following requirements: (a)...

  1. 46 CFR 153.940 - Standards for marking of cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for marking of cargo hose. 153.940 Section 153... Cargo Transfer Hose § 153.940 Standards for marking of cargo hose. No person may mark a hose assembly as meeting the standards of this section unless the hose assembly meets the following requirements: (a)...

  2. 46 CFR 153.940 - Standards for marking of cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for marking of cargo hose. 153.940 Section 153... Cargo Transfer Hose § 153.940 Standards for marking of cargo hose. No person may mark a hose assembly as meeting the standards of this section unless the hose assembly meets the following requirements: (a)...

  3. 46 CFR 153.940 - Standards for marking of cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for marking of cargo hose. 153.940 Section 153... Cargo Transfer Hose § 153.940 Standards for marking of cargo hose. No person may mark a hose assembly as meeting the standards of this section unless the hose assembly meets the following requirements: (a)...

  4. 46 CFR 153.940 - Standards for marking of cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for marking of cargo hose. 153.940 Section 153... Cargo Transfer Hose § 153.940 Standards for marking of cargo hose. No person may mark a hose assembly as meeting the standards of this section unless the hose assembly meets the following requirements: (a)...

  5. Study of short atmospheric pressure dc glow microdischarge in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Anatoly; Bogdanov, Eugene; Chirtsov, Alexander; Emelin, Sergey

    2011-10-01

    The results of experiments and simulations of short (without positive column) atmospheric pressure dc glow discharge in air are presented. We used metal steel electrodes with a gap of 5-100 microns. The experimental voltage-current characteristic's (VAC) have a constant or slightly increasing form at low gap. The most stable microdischarges were burning with a flat cathode and rounded anode, when the length of the discharge is automatically established near the minimum of the Paschen curve by changing their binding on the anode. In this case microdischarge was stable and it had growing VAC. For simulations we used 2D fluid model with kinetic description of electrons. We solved the balance equations for the vibrationally- and the electronically-excited states of a nitrogen and oxygen molecules; nitrogen and oxygen atoms; ozone molecule; and different nitrogen and oxygen ions with different plasmochemical reactions between them. Simulations predicted the main regions of the dc glow discharges including cathode and anode sheath and plasma of negative glow, Faraday dark space and transition region. Gas heating plays an important role in shaping the discharge profiles. The results of experiments and simulations of short (without positive column) atmospheric pressure dc glow discharge in air are presented. We used metal steel electrodes with a gap of 5-100 microns. The experimental voltage-current characteristic's (VAC) have a constant or slightly increasing form at low gap. The most stable microdischarges were burning with a flat cathode and rounded anode, when the length of the discharge is automatically established near the minimum of the Paschen curve by changing their binding on the anode. In this case microdischarge was stable and it had growing VAC. For simulations we used 2D fluid model with kinetic description of electrons. We solved the balance equations for the vibrationally- and the electronically-excited states of a nitrogen and oxygen molecules; nitrogen

  6. [Aerodynamics study on pressure changes inside pressure-type whole-body plethysmograph produced by flowing air].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei-Hua; Shen, Hua-Hao

    2010-02-25

    When using pressure-type plethysmography to test lung function of rodents, calculation of lung volume is always based on Boyle's law. The precondition of Boyle's law is that perfect air is static. However, air in the chamber is flowing continuously when a rodent breathes inside the chamber. Therefore, Boyle's law, a principle of air statics, may not be appropriate for measuring pressure changes of flowing air. In this study, we deduced equations for pressure changes inside pressure-type plethysmograph and then designed three experiments to testify the theoretic deduction. The results of theoretic deduction indicated that increased pressure was generated from two sources: one was based on Boyle's law, and the other was based on the law of conservation of momentum. In the first experiment, after injecting 0.1 mL, 0.2 mL, 0.4 mL of air into the plethysmograph, the pressure inside the chamber increased sharply to a peak value, then promptly decreased to horizontal pressure. Peak values were significantly higher than the horizontal values (P<0.001). This observation revealed that flowing air made an extra effect on air pressure in the plethysmograph. In the second experiment, the same volume of air was injected into the plethysmograph at different frequencies (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 Hz) and pressure changes inside were measured. The results showed that, with increasing frequencies, the pressure changes in the chamber became significantly higher (P<0.001). In the third experiment, small animal ventilator and pipette were used to make two types of airflow with different functions of time. The pressure changes produced by the ventilator were significantly greater than those produced by the pipette (P<0.001). Based on the data obtained, we draw the conclusion that, the flow of air plays a role in pressure changes inside the plethysmograph, and the faster the airflow is, the higher the pressure changes reach. Furthermore, the type of airflow also influences the pressure changes

  7. [Aerodynamics study on pressure changes inside pressure-type whole-body plethysmograph produced by flowing air].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei-Hua; Shen, Hua-Hao

    2010-02-25

    When using pressure-type plethysmography to test lung function of rodents, calculation of lung volume is always based on Boyle's law. The precondition of Boyle's law is that perfect air is static. However, air in the chamber is flowing continuously when a rodent breathes inside the chamber. Therefore, Boyle's law, a principle of air statics, may not be appropriate for measuring pressure changes of flowing air. In this study, we deduced equations for pressure changes inside pressure-type plethysmograph and then designed three experiments to testify the theoretic deduction. The results of theoretic deduction indicated that increased pressure was generated from two sources: one was based on Boyle's law, and the other was based on the law of conservation of momentum. In the first experiment, after injecting 0.1 mL, 0.2 mL, 0.4 mL of air into the plethysmograph, the pressure inside the chamber increased sharply to a peak value, then promptly decreased to horizontal pressure. Peak values were significantly higher than the horizontal values (P<0.001). This observation revealed that flowing air made an extra effect on air pressure in the plethysmograph. In the second experiment, the same volume of air was injected into the plethysmograph at different frequencies (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 Hz) and pressure changes inside were measured. The results showed that, with increasing frequencies, the pressure changes in the chamber became significantly higher (P<0.001). In the third experiment, small animal ventilator and pipette were used to make two types of airflow with different functions of time. The pressure changes produced by the ventilator were significantly greater than those produced by the pipette (P<0.001). Based on the data obtained, we draw the conclusion that, the flow of air plays a role in pressure changes inside the plethysmograph, and the faster the airflow is, the higher the pressure changes reach. Furthermore, the type of airflow also influences the pressure changes.

  8. Response of entrained air-void systems in cement paste to pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Scope and Method of Study: Determine the response of entrained air-void systems in fresh cement paste to applied pressures by utilizing micro-computed tomography. Compare results to those suggested by the ASTM C231 Type B pressure meter calibration equations. Findings and Conclusions: The results of this research suggest that although the Type B pressure meter assumptions are valid for the compression of individual voids, the volume of air-voids which dissolve under pressure is significant enough to register noticeable errors when using a synthetic air-entraining admixture with the Type B pressure meter test. Results currently suggest that air-void systems with a significant percentage of small voids present will have higher deviation from the Boyle's Law model used by the Type B pressure meter due to the dissolution of these air-voids.

  9. Compression-ignition Engine Performance at Altitudes and at Various Air Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Charles S; Collins, John H

    1937-01-01

    Engine test results are presented for simulated altitude conditions. A displaced-piston combustion chamber on a 5- by 7-inch single cylinder compression-ignition engine operating at 2,000 r.p.m. was used. Inlet air temperature equivalent to standard altitudes up to 14,000 feet were obtained. Comparison between performance at altitude of the unsupercharged compression-ignition engine compared favorably with the carburetor engine. Analysis of the results for which the inlet air temperature, inlet air pressure, and inlet and exhaust pressure were varied indicates that engine performance cannot be reliably corrected on the basis of inlet air density or weight of air charge. Engine power increases with inlet air pressure and decreases with inlet air temperatures very nearly as straight line relations over a wide range of air-fuel ratios. Correction factors are given.

  10. Design, testing, and evaluation of an air injection grouting system for geothermal bores. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this research was to examine the feasibility of an air injection grouting system for geothermal bores. The system that was researched used a pressurized blow tank and a small diameter hose (3/4 or 1 inch) to pneumatically transport dry bentonite granules into a wet bore. Upon contact with the annular fluid in the bore, water or drilling mud, the particles hydrated and formed a grout. A valve on the bottom of the tank allowed the feed rate of particles into the hose to be adjusted. Granular bentonites that were tested ranged in particle size from four to fifty mesh. The pneumatic conveying properties of granular bentonites were studied in dry injection tests. For a fifty-foot length of three quarter inch hose, mass flow rates up to 50 lb/min were found at a tank pressure of 25 psi with air flow rates ranging from 8 to 17 scfm for pressures of 15 to 25 psi. Mass flow rates of over 100 lb/min at a pressure of 25 psi were reached with a one inch hose. Air flow rates ranged 27 to 50 scfm for pressures of 15 to 25 psi for the one inch hose. Testing simulating wet bore conditions were also performed. A method of removing the injection hose at a constant rate was found to produce a uniform, high solids content grout. A relationship between mass flow rate and the percent solids of the resulting grout was discovered in test with drilling mud as an annular fluid. The mass flow rate and percent solids relationship for tests in water was influenced by the type of granular bentonite. Permeability coefficients of air injected grouts were found to be similar to those of slurry bentonite grouts. Tests with a sand and bentonite mixture had flow rates similar to those found for straight granular bentonites, although the number of possible valve settings was reduced. The sand/bentonite mixture produced an acceptable grout in wet injection tests once the reduced yield of the mixture, due to the sand, was taken into account. A field trial conducted with the Solinst

  11. 78 FR 1735 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. Air Data Pressure Transducers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Executive Order 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... International Inc. Air Data Pressure Transducers AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... certain Honeywell International Inc. air data pressure transducers as installed on various aircraft....

  12. DESIGN NOTE: Measuring the residual air pressure in triple-point-of-water cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. R.

    2004-01-01

    Residual gas pressure is one of the factors influencing the temperature realized by triple-point-of-water cells. This note describes a simple procedure for measuring and correcting for the residual air pressure in sealed cells. The procedure is applicable to any cell with a McLeod-gauge extension or sufficient remnant 'seal-off' tube to trap an air bubble.

  13. Respiratory and Laryngeal Responses to an Oral Air Pressure Bleed during Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Jessica E.; Stathopoulos, Elaine T.

    2003-01-01

    Researchers have hypothesized that the respiratory and laryngeal speech subsystems would respond to an air pressure bleed, but these responses have not been empirically studied. The present study examined the nature of the responses of the respiratory and laryngeal subsystems to an air pressure bleed in order to provide information relevant to the…

  14. Air Pressure Responses to Sudden Vocal Tract Pressure Bleeds during Production of Stop Consonants: New Evidence of Aeromechanical Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, David J.; Weissler, Mark C.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate short-latency vocal tract air pressure responses to sudden pressure bleeds during production of voiceless bilabial stop consonants. It was hypothesized that the occurrence of respiratory reflexes would be indicated by distinct patterns of responses as a function of bleed magnitude. In Study 1, 19 adults…

  15. Development of a Low Pressure, Air Atomized Oil Burner with High Atomizer Air Flow: Progress Report FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5-8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or ''FAB'' has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a toroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the firing rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% O{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

  16. The air elimination capabilities of pressure infusion devices and fluid-warmers.

    PubMed

    Schnoor, J; Macko, S; Weber, I; Rossaint, R

    2004-08-01

    Pressurised infusion devices may have only limited capability to detect and remove air during pressurised infusions. In order to assess pressure infusion systems with regard to their actual air elimination capabilities four disposable pressure infusion systems and fluid warmers were investigated: The Level 1 (L-1), Ranger (RA), Gymar (GY), and the Warmflo (WF). Different volumes of air were injected proximal to the heat exchanger and the remaining amount of air that was delivered at the end of the tubing was measured during pressurised infusions. Elimination of the injected air (100-200 ml) was superior by the RA system when compared to L-1 (p < 0.01). The GY and WF systems failed to eliminate the injected air. In conclusion, air elimination was best performed by the RA system. In terms of the risk of air embolism during pressurised infusions, improvements in air elimination of the investigated devices are still necessary. PMID:15270975

  17. Behavior of a horizontal air curtain subjected to a vertical pressure gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linden, James; Phelps, LeEllen

    2012-09-01

    We present the details on an experiment to investigate the behavior of an air curtain that is subjected to a transverse pressure gradient. The setup simulates the conditions that will be present in the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), a 4-meter solar observatory that will be built on Haleakala, Hawaii. A test rig was built to replicate the region at which the optical path crosses a temperature and pressure boundary between the telescope mount region, which is at the ambient temperature and pressure, and a warmer, pressurized lab space directly below. Use of an air curtain in place of an optically-transmitting window at the interface would allow science observations at a wider range of scientific wavelengths. With the air curtain exhibiting transitional flow behavior across the boundary, and applied pressure gradients of up to 6.5 Pa, we found that the air curtain was able to hold a pressure gradient of 0.25 Pa. As the applied pressure was increased, transient turbulent regions formed at the interface, and predictable flow behavior only occurred in the region closest to the air curtain blower. Computer modeling is used to validate the test data, identify laminar regions of the air curtain where minimal image distortion would occur, and explore the relationship between the applied pressure, effective pressure difference, and air curtain profile.

  18. High pressure flame system for pollution studies with results for methane-air diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, I. M.; Maahs, H. G.

    1977-01-01

    A high pressure flame system was designed and constructed for studying nitrogen oxide formation in fuel air combustion. Its advantages and limitations were demonstrated by tests with a confined laminar methane air diffusion flame over the pressure range from 1 to 50 atm. The methane issued from a 3.06 mm diameter port concentrically into a stream of air contained within a 20.5 mm diameter chimney. As the combustion pressure is increased, the flame changes in shape from wide and convex to slender and concave, and there is a marked increase in the amount of luminous carbon. The height of the flame changes only moderately with pressure.

  19. 46 CFR 98.33-7 - Pipe and hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pipe and hose connections. 98.33-7 Section 98.33-7... Certain Grade E Combustible Liquids and Other Regulated Materials § 98.33-7 Pipe and hose connections. If a portable tank authorized under § 98.33-5 of this part has a pipe or hose connection in its...

  20. 46 CFR 131.830 - Fire-hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire-hose stations. 131.830 Section 131.830 Shipping... Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.830 Fire-hose stations. Each fire station must be... STATION #1,” “* * * 2,” “* * * 3,” and so on. Where the hose is not so stowed in the open or behind...

  1. 46 CFR 131.830 - Fire-hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire-hose stations. 131.830 Section 131.830 Shipping... Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.830 Fire-hose stations. Each fire station must be... STATION #1,” “* * * 2,” “* * * 3,” and so on. Where the hose is not so stowed in the open or behind...

  2. 46 CFR 98.33-7 - Pipe and hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pipe and hose connections. 98.33-7 Section 98.33-7... Certain Grade E Combustible Liquids and Other Regulated Materials § 98.33-7 Pipe and hose connections. If a portable tank authorized under § 98.33-5 of this part has a pipe or hose connection in its...

  3. 46 CFR 131.830 - Fire-hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire-hose stations. 131.830 Section 131.830 Shipping... Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.830 Fire-hose stations. Each fire station must be... STATION #1,” “* * * 2,” “* * * 3,” and so on. Where the hose is not so stowed in the open or behind...

  4. 46 CFR 131.830 - Fire-hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire-hose stations. 131.830 Section 131.830 Shipping... Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.830 Fire-hose stations. Each fire station must be... STATION #1,” “* * * 2,” “* * * 3,” and so on. Where the hose is not so stowed in the open or behind...

  5. 46 CFR 98.33-7 - Pipe and hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe and hose connections. 98.33-7 Section 98.33-7... Certain Grade E Combustible Liquids and Other Regulated Materials § 98.33-7 Pipe and hose connections. If a portable tank authorized under § 98.33-5 of this part has a pipe or hose connection in its...

  6. 46 CFR 98.33-7 - Pipe and hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pipe and hose connections. 98.33-7 Section 98.33-7... Certain Grade E Combustible Liquids and Other Regulated Materials § 98.33-7 Pipe and hose connections. If a portable tank authorized under § 98.33-5 of this part has a pipe or hose connection in its...

  7. 46 CFR 98.33-7 - Pipe and hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pipe and hose connections. 98.33-7 Section 98.33-7... for Certain Grade E Combustible Liquids and Other Regulated Materials § 98.33-7 Pipe and hose connections. If a portable tank or IBC authorized under § 98.33-5 of this part has a pipe or hose...

  8. 46 CFR 131.830 - Fire-hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire-hose stations. 131.830 Section 131.830 Shipping... Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.830 Fire-hose stations. Each fire station must be... STATION #1,” “* * * 2,” “* * * 3,” and so on. Where the hose is not so stowed in the open or behind...

  9. High-pressure combustor exhaust emissions with improved air-atomizing and conventional pressure-atomizing fuel nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    A high-pressure combustor segment 0.456 meter (18 in.) long with a maximum cross section of 0.153 by 0.305 meter (6 by 12 in.) was tested with specially designed air-atomizing and conventional pressure-atomizing fuel nozzles at inlet-air temperatures of 340 to 755 k (610 deg to 1360 R), reference velocities of 12.4 to 26.1 meters per second (41 to 86 ft/sec), and fuel-air ratios of 0.008 to 0.020. Increasing inlet-air pressure from 4 to 20 atmospheres generally increased smoke number and nitric oxide, but decreased carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon concentrations with air-atomizing and pressure-atomizing nozzles. Emission indexes for carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were lower at 4, 10, and 20 atmospheres, and nitric oxide emission indexes were lower at 10 and 20 atmospheres with air-atomizing than with pressure-atomizing nozzles.

  10. Air Circulation and Heat Exchange Under Reduced Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rygalov, V.; Wheeler, R.; Dixon, M.; Fowler, P.; Hillhouse, L.

    2010-01-01

    Heat exchange rates decrease non-linearly with reductions in atmospheric pressure. This decrease creates risk of thermal stress (elevated leaf temperatures) for plants under reduced pressures. Forced convection (fans) significantly increases heat exchange rate under almost all pressures except below 10 kPa. Plant cultivation techniques under reduced pressures will require forced convection. The cooling curve technique is a reliable means of assessing the influence of environmental variables like pressure and gravity on gas exchange of plant. These results represent the extremes of gas exchange conditions for simple systems under variable pressures. In reality, dense plant canopies will exhibit responses in between these extremes. More research is needed to understand the dependence of forced convection on atmospheric pressure. The overall thermal balance model should include latent and radiative exchange components.

  11. Insect hygroreceptor responses to continuous changes in humidity and air pressure.

    PubMed

    Tichy, H; Kallina, W

    2010-06-01

    The most favored model of humidity transduction views the cuticular wall of insect hygroreceptive sensilla as a hygromechanical transducer. Hygroscopic swelling or shrinking alters the geometry of the wall, deforming the dendritic membranes of the moist and dry cells. The small size the sensilla and their position surrounded by elevated structures creates technical difficulties to mechanically stimulate them by direct contact. The present study investigated hygroreceptors on the antennae of the cockroach and the stick insect. Accurately controlled, homogeneous mechanical input was delivered by modulating air pressure. Both the moist and dry cells responded not only to changes in air pressure but also in the opposite direction, as observed during changes in air humidity. The moist cell's excitatory response to increasing humidity and increasing air pressure implies that swelling of the hygroscopic cuticle compresses the dendrites, and the dry cell's excitatory response to decreasing humidity and decreasing air pressure implies that shrinking of the hygroscopic cuticle expands the dendrites. The moist and dry cells of the stick insect are more sensitive to pressure changes than those of the cockroach, but the responses to air pressure are generally weaker than to humidity. Therefore the hygroreceptive sensilla differ in their physical properties and constitutions. Furthermore, the mechanical parameters associated with homogeneous changes in air pressure on the sensillum surface can only partially account for the responses of the moist and dry cells of both species to humidity stimulation. PMID:20375249

  12. Insect hygroreceptor responses to continuous changes in humidity and air pressure

    PubMed Central

    Tichy, H.; Kallina, W.

    2011-01-01

    The most favored model of humidity transduction views the cuticular wall of insect hygroreceptive sensilla as a hygromechanical transducer. Hygroscopic swelling or shrinking alters the geometry of the wall, deforming the dendritic membranes of the moist and dry cells. The small size the sensilla and their position surrounded by elevated structures creates technical difficulties to mechanically stimulate them by direct contact. The present study investigated hygroreceptors on the antennae of the cockroach and the stick insect. Accurately controlled, homogeneous mechanical input was delivered by modulating air pressure. Both the moist and dry cells responded not only to changes in air pressure, but also in the opposite direction, as observed during changes in air humidity. The moist-cell’s excitatory response to increasing humidity and increasing air pressure implies that swelling of the hygroscopic cuticle compresses the dendrites, and the dry-cell’s excitatory response to decreasing humidity and decreasing air pressure implies that shrinking of the hygroscopic cuticle expands the dendrites. The moist and dry cells of the stick insect are more sensitive to pressure changes than those of the cockroach, but the responses to air pressure are generally weaker than to humidity. Therefore, the hygroreceptive sensilla differ in their physical properties and constitutions. Furthermore, the mechanical parameters associated with homogeneous changes in air pressure on the sensillum surface can only partially account for the responses of the moist and dry cells of both species to humidity stimulation. PMID:20375249

  13. Velocity and pressure distribution behind bodies in an air current

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A

    1924-01-01

    The following experiments on the air flow behind bodies were made for the purpose of assisting in the explanation of the phenomena connected with air resistance. The first two series of experiments dealt with the phenomena behind a cylinder. The third series of experiments was carried out behind a streamlined strut.

  14. An objective definition of air mass types affecting Athens, Greece; the corresponding atmospheric pressure patterns and air pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Sindosi, O A; Katsoulis, B D; Bartzokas, A

    2003-08-01

    This work aims at defining characteristic air mass types that dominate in the region of Athens, Greece during the cold (November-March) and the warm (May-September) period of the year and also at evaluating the corresponding concentration levels of the main air pollutants. For each air mass type, the mean atmospheric pressure distribution (composite maps) over Europe and the Mediterranean is estimated in order to reveal the association of atmospheric circulation with air pollution levels in Athens. The data basis for this work consists of daily values of thirteen meteorological and six pollutant parameters covering the period 1993-97. The definition of the characteristic air mass types is attempted objectively by using the methods of Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis. The results show that during the cold period of the year there are six prevailing air mass types (at least 3% of the total number of days) and six infrequent ones. The examination of the corresponding air pollution concentration levels shows that the primary air pollutants appear with increased concentrations when light or southerly winds prevail. This is usually the case when a high pressure system is located over the central Mediterranean or a low pressure system lays over south Italy, respectively. Low levels of the primary pollutants are recorded under northeasterly winds, mainly caused by a high pressure system over Ukraine. During the warm period of the year, the southwestern Asia thermal low and the subtropical anticyclone of the Atlantic Ocean affect Greece. Though these synoptic systems cause almost stagnant conditions, four main air mass types are dominant and ten others, associated with extreme weather, are infrequent. Despite the large amounts of total solar radiation characterizing this period, ozone concentrations remain at low levels in central Athens because of its destruction by nitric oxide.

  15. Method and apparatus for monitoring oxygen partial pressure in air masks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Mark E. (Inventor); Pettit, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for monitoring an oxygen partial pressure in an air mask and providing a tactile warning to the user. The oxygen partial pressure in the air mask is detected using an electrochemical sensor, the output signal from which is provided to a comparator. The comparator compares the output signal with a preset reference value or range of values representing acceptable oxygen partial pressures. If the output signal is different than the reference value or outside the range of values, the air mask is vibrated by a vibrating motor to alert the user to a potentially hypoxic condition.

  16. Control of an Isolated Table's Fluctuation Caused by Supplied Air Pressure Using a Voice Coil Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirani, Habiburahman; Wakui, Shinji

    Pneumatic type anti-vibration apparatuses are used in the field of semiconductor manufacturing and precision measurement. The variation of the supplied air pressure from the air compressor causes the position fluctuation of the isolated table. A control method using a voice coil motor (VCM) as the actuator is proposed in this study to control the position fluctuation of the isolated table caused by the supplied air pressure. The feedforward compensator control scheme is used to provide a proper controlled signal to the VCM. According to the controlled signal, VCM exerts driving force in the opposite direction of the air spring expansion or compression to suppress the vibration of the isolated table.

  17. Endotracheal tube cuff pressure before, during, and after fixed-wing air medical retrieval.

    PubMed

    Brendt, Peter; Schnekenburger, Marc; Paxton, Karen; Brown, Anthony; Mendis, Kumara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background. Increased endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff pressure is associated with compromised tracheal mucosal perfusion and injuries. No published data are available for Australia on pressures in the fixed-wing air medical retrieval setting. Objective. After introduction of a cuff pressure manometer (Mallinckrodt, Hennef, Germany) at the Royal Flying Doctor Service (RFDS) Base in Dubbo, New South Wales (NSW), Australia, we assessed the prevalence of increased cuff pressures before, during, and after air medical retrieval. Methods. This was a retrospective audit in 35 ventilated patients during fixed-wing retrievals by the RFDS in NSW, Australia. Explicit chart review of ventilated patients was performed for cuff pressures and changes during medical retrievals with pressurized aircrafts. Pearson correlation was calculated to determine the relation of ascent and ETT cuff pressure change from ground to flight level. Results. The mean (± standard deviation) of the first ETT cuff pressure measurement on the ground was 44 ± 20 cmH2O. Prior to retrieval in 11 patients, the ETT cuff pressure was >30 cmH2O and in 11 patients >50 cmH2O. After ascent to cruising altitude, the cuff pressure was >30 cmH2O in 22 patients and >50 cmH2O in eight patients. The cuff pressure was reduced 1) in 72% of cases prior to take off and 2) in 85% of cases during flight, and 3) after landing, the cuff pressure increased in 85% of cases. The correlation between ascent in cabin altitude and ETT cuff pressure was r = 0.3901, p = 0.0205. Conclusions. The high prevalence of excessive cuff pressures during air medical retrieval can be avoided by the use of cuff pressure manometers. Key words: cuff pressure; air medical retrieval; prehospital. PMID:23252881

  18. Endotracheal tube cuff pressure before, during, and after fixed-wing air medical retrieval.

    PubMed

    Brendt, Peter; Schnekenburger, Marc; Paxton, Karen; Brown, Anthony; Mendis, Kumara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background. Increased endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff pressure is associated with compromised tracheal mucosal perfusion and injuries. No published data are available for Australia on pressures in the fixed-wing air medical retrieval setting. Objective. After introduction of a cuff pressure manometer (Mallinckrodt, Hennef, Germany) at the Royal Flying Doctor Service (RFDS) Base in Dubbo, New South Wales (NSW), Australia, we assessed the prevalence of increased cuff pressures before, during, and after air medical retrieval. Methods. This was a retrospective audit in 35 ventilated patients during fixed-wing retrievals by the RFDS in NSW, Australia. Explicit chart review of ventilated patients was performed for cuff pressures and changes during medical retrievals with pressurized aircrafts. Pearson correlation was calculated to determine the relation of ascent and ETT cuff pressure change from ground to flight level. Results. The mean (± standard deviation) of the first ETT cuff pressure measurement on the ground was 44 ± 20 cmH2O. Prior to retrieval in 11 patients, the ETT cuff pressure was >30 cmH2O and in 11 patients >50 cmH2O. After ascent to cruising altitude, the cuff pressure was >30 cmH2O in 22 patients and >50 cmH2O in eight patients. The cuff pressure was reduced 1) in 72% of cases prior to take off and 2) in 85% of cases during flight, and 3) after landing, the cuff pressure increased in 85% of cases. The correlation between ascent in cabin altitude and ETT cuff pressure was r = 0.3901, p = 0.0205. Conclusions. The high prevalence of excessive cuff pressures during air medical retrieval can be avoided by the use of cuff pressure manometers. Key words: cuff pressure; air medical retrieval; prehospital.

  19. Reusable hose fittings emerge as source of apprehension over safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    This paper reports that while the area of hose care and maintenance may not warrant the same degree of vigilance that is called for in other propane safety-related areas, it has become apparent that marketers should start paying close attention to the subject of properly installed hose-end fittings or risk the consequences of a potentially disastrous mismatch. Indeed, if there is any topic in which the seemingly ho-hum subject of propane hose generates a difference of opinion or debate, it is the subject of reusable end-fittings. Currently there are opposing schools of thought on whether this particular hardware should be used at all. The reusable ends for LPG transfer hose (commonly called the boss type) consist of two segments that grip the hose in a clamp-like fashion. A mismatched boss coupling will probably result in improper or inadequate compression of the hose. This could lead in turn to the hose separating from the hose end.

  20. Firefighter's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    The research to design, fabricate, test, and deliver a pressure vessel for the main component in an improved high-performance firefighter's breathing system is reported. The principal physical and performance characteristics of the vessel which were required are: (1) maximum weight of 9.0 lb; (2) maximum operating pressure of 4500 psig (charge pressure of 4000 psig); (3) minimum contained volume of 280 in. 3; (4) proof pressure of 6750 psig; (5) minimum burst pressure of 9000 psig following operational and service life; and (6) a minimum service life of 15 years. The vessel developed to fulfill the requirements described was completely sucessful, i.e., every category of performence was satisfied. The average weight of the vessel was found to be about 8.3 lb, well below the 9.0 lb specification requirement.

  1. Relativistic fluid model of the resistive hose instability

    SciTech Connect

    Siambis, J.G. )

    1992-10-01

    A systematic analysis of the hose instability using the relativistic fluid formulation is reported. In its basic nature, the hose instability is a macroscopic, low-frequency instability, hence a fluid model should, in principle, give an accurate account of the hose instability. It has been found that for zeroth-order beam displacements, giving rise to rigid beam displacements, the fluid wave equation and resulting dispersion relation are identical to the spread-mass model and the energy-group model results. When first-order fluid displacements are included as well, giving rise to compressible, nonfrozen displacements in the axial direction and beam cross-section distortion in the radial direction, then there is obtained a wave equation similar, but not identical to the multicomponent model. The dispersion relation is solved for numerically. The hose instability growth rate is found to be similar to the multicomponent model result, over part of the beam frame, real hose frequency range.

  2. Investigation of flexible hose insertion forces and selected factors.

    PubMed

    Drinkaus, P; Armstrong, T; Foulke, J

    2009-01-01

    Flexible hoses are widely used in automobiles. Understanding the force required to insert a hose, independent of worker variation, is important for engineers, designers and health professionals. Various parameters affect the insertion forces including the interference between the hose and flange. Also, it has been observed that workers often add motions during the insertion process, including rotation and oscillation. This paper describes the effects of these parameters on axial insertion forces. A programmable mill was used to isolate the effects of four variables on hose insertion force: fit, insertion speed, rotational velocity and oscillation magnitude. The results show that the magnitude of the interference of the 19 mm inside diameters (ID) heater hose and the flange, and the insertion technique affect the insertion forces; resulting in a range of insertion forces from 11.1+/-0.2 to 128.4+/-11.3N.

  3. Investigation of Radiation and Chemical Resistance of Flexible HLW Transfer Hose

    SciTech Connect

    E. Skidmore; Billings, K.; Hubbard, M.

    2010-03-24

    A chemical transfer hose constructed of an EPDM (ethylene-propylene diene monomer) outer covering with a modified cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) lining was evaluated for use in high level radioactive waste transfer applications. Laboratory analysis involved characterization of the hose liner after irradiation to doses of 50 to 300 Mrad and subsequent exposure to 25% NaOH solution at 93 C for 30 days, simulating 6 months intermittent service. The XLPE liner mechanical and structural properties were characterized at varying dose levels. Burst testing of irradiated hose assemblies was also performed. Literature review and test results suggest that radiation effects below doses of 100 kGy are minimal, with acceptable property changes to 500 kGy. Higher doses may be feasible. At a bounding dose of 2.5 MGy, the burst pressure is reduced to the working pressure (1.38 MPa) at room temperature. Radiation exposure slightly reduces liner tensile strength, with more significant decrease in liner elongation. Subsequent exposure to caustic solutions at elevated temperature slightly increases elongation, suggesting an immersion/hydrolytic effect or possible thermal annealing of radiation damage. This paper summarizes the laboratory results and recommendations for field deployment.

  4. Influence of air pressure on the performance of plasma synthetic jet actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Jia, Min; Wu, Yun; Li, Ying-hong; Zong, Hao-hua; Song, Hui-min; Liang, Hua

    2016-09-01

    Plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA) has a wide application prospect in the high-speed flow control field for its high jet velocity. In this paper, the influence of the air pressure on the performance of a two-electrode PSJA is investigated by the schlieren method in a large range from 7 kPa to 100 kPa. The energy consumed by the PSJA is roughly the same for all the pressure levels. Traces of the precursor shock wave velocity and the jet front velocity vary a lot for different pressures. The precursor shock wave velocity first decreases gradually and then remains at 345 m/s as the air pressure increases. The peak jet front velocity always appears at the first appearance of a jet, and it decreases gradually with the increase of the air pressure. A maximum precursor shock wave velocity of 520 m/s and a maximum jet front velocity of 440 m/s are observed at the pressure of 7 kPa. The averaged jet velocity in one period ranges from 44 m/s to 54 m/s for all air pressures, and it drops with the rising of the air pressure. High velocities of the precursor shock wave and the jet front indicate that this type of PSJA can still be used to influence the high-speed flow field at 7 kPa. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51407197, 51522606, 51336011, 91541120, and 11472306).

  5. Acceptance test report, inlet air filter and control station pressure decay leak test

    SciTech Connect

    Tuck, J.A., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-11

    This is the acceptance test report for pressure decay leak tests performed on Tank Farm primary ventilation system inlet air filter and control stations, following their installation in the field and prior to acceptance for beneficial use.

  6. Prosthetics socket that incorporates an air splint system focusing on dynamic interface pressure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The interface pressure between the residual limb and prosthetic socket has a significant effect on an amputee’s satisfaction and comfort. This paper presents the design and performance of a new prosthetic socket that uses an air splint system. Methods The air splint prosthetic socket system was implemented by combining the air splint with a pressure sensor that the transhumeral user controls through the use of a microcontroller. The modular construction of the system developed allows the FSR pressure sensors that are placed inside the air splint socket to determine the required size and fitting for the socket used. Fifteen transhumeral amputees participated in the study. Results The subject’s dynamic pressure on the socket that’s applied while wearing the air splint systems was recorded using F-socket transducers and microcontroller analysis. The values collected by the F-socket sensor for the air splint prosthetic socket system were determined accordingly by comparing the dynamic pressure applied using statically socket. The pressure volume of the air splint fluctuated and was recorded at an average of 38 kPa (2.5) to 41 kPa (1.3) over three hours. Conclusion The air splint socket might reduce the pressure within the interface of residual limb. This is particularly important during the daily life activities and may reduce the pain and discomfort at the residual limb in comparison to the static socket. The potential development of an auto-adjusted socket that uses an air splint system as the prosthetic socket will be of interest to researchers involved in rehabilitation engineering, prosthetics and orthotics. PMID:25085005

  7. The rate of pressure rise of gaseous propylene-air explosions in spherical and cylindrical enclosures.

    PubMed

    Razus, Domnina; Movileanua, Codina; Oancea, Dumitru

    2007-01-01

    The maximum rates of pressure rise of propylene-air explosions at various initial pressures and various fuel/oxygen ratios in three closed vessels (a spherical vessel with central ignition and two cylindrical vessels with central or with top ignition) are reported. It was found that in explosions of quiescent mixtures the maximum rates of pressure rise are linear functions on total initial pressure, at constant initial temperature and fuel/oxygen ratio. The slope and intercept of found correlations are greatly influenced by vessel's volume and shape and by the position of the ignition source--factors which determine the amount of heat losses from the burned gas in a closed vessel explosion. Similar data on propylene-air inert mixtures are discussed in comparison with those referring to propylene-air, revealing the influence of nature and amount of inert additive. The deflagration index KG of centrally ignited explosions was also calculated from maximum rates of pressure rise. PMID:16876946

  8. The rate of pressure rise of gaseous propylene-air explosions in spherical and cylindrical enclosures.

    PubMed

    Razus, Domnina; Movileanua, Codina; Oancea, Dumitru

    2007-01-01

    The maximum rates of pressure rise of propylene-air explosions at various initial pressures and various fuel/oxygen ratios in three closed vessels (a spherical vessel with central ignition and two cylindrical vessels with central or with top ignition) are reported. It was found that in explosions of quiescent mixtures the maximum rates of pressure rise are linear functions on total initial pressure, at constant initial temperature and fuel/oxygen ratio. The slope and intercept of found correlations are greatly influenced by vessel's volume and shape and by the position of the ignition source--factors which determine the amount of heat losses from the burned gas in a closed vessel explosion. Similar data on propylene-air inert mixtures are discussed in comparison with those referring to propylene-air, revealing the influence of nature and amount of inert additive. The deflagration index KG of centrally ignited explosions was also calculated from maximum rates of pressure rise.

  9. Electrical explosion of Al and Ag wires in air at different pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkisov, G. S.; Caplinger, J.; Parada, F.; Sotnikov, V. I.

    2016-09-01

    Experiments with electrically exploding fine Al and Ag wires in air demonstrate a strong dependence of the expanding metal core condition and velocity on ambient pressure. Expansion velocity of the wire core varies by 23 times between ˜0.2 km/s and ˜4.6 km/s. The shock-wave velocity at atmospheric pressure is ˜5 km/s and increases to ˜6 km/s when the pressure is decreased to 50 Torr. The condition of the metal core is strongly dependent on material and whether it is expanding into vacuum or against ambient air pressure. Expansion velocity of the fine Al and Ag wires for different surrounding pressures in general agree with Paschen's Law for air gap.

  10. Enhanced heterologous protein production in Pichia pastoris under increased air pressure.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marlene; Oliveira, Carla; Domingues, Lucília; Mota, Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Pichia pastoris is a widely used host for the production of heterologous proteins. In this case, high cell densities are needed and oxygen is a major limiting factor. The increased air pressure could be used to improve the oxygen solubility in the medium and to reach the high oxygen demand of methanol metabolism. In this study, two P. pastoris strains producing two different recombinant proteins, one intracellular (β-galactosidase) and other extracellular (frutalin), were used to investigate the effect of increased air pressure on yeast growth in glycerol and heterologous protein production, using the methanol AOX1-inducible system. Experiments were carried out in a stainless steel bioreactor under total air pressure of 1 bar and 5 bar. The use of an air pressure raise of up to 5 bar proved to be applicable for P. pastoris cultivation. Moreover, no effects on the kinetic growth parameters and methanol utilization (Mut) phenotype of strains were found, while an increase in recombinant β-galactosidase-specific activity (ninefold) and recombinant frutalin production was observed. Furthermore, the air pressure raise led to a reduction in the secreted protease specific activity. This work shows for the first time that the application of an air pressure of 5 bar may be used as a strategy to decrease protease secretion and improve recombinant protein production in P. pastoris.

  11. 33 CFR 150.532 - What are the requirements for connection and stowage of fire hoses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... connection and stowage of fire hoses? 150.532 Section 150.532 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... of fire hoses? (a) At least one length of fire hose, with a combination nozzle, must be connected to each fire hydrant at all times. If it is exposed to the weather, the fire hose may be removed from...

  12. 33 CFR 183.530 - Spud, pipe, and hose fitting configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Spud, pipe, and hose fitting....530 Spud, pipe, and hose fitting configuration. Except when used for a tank fill line, each spud, pipe, or hose fitting used with hose clamps must have: (a) A bead; (b) A flare; or (c) A series of...

  13. 33 CFR 149.550 - What are the requirements for lights on a floating hose string?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... lights on a floating hose string? 149.550 Section 149.550 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation Lights on Floating Hose Strings § 149.550 What are the requirements for lights on a floating hose string? Hose strings that are floating or supported on trestles must display...

  14. 33 CFR 183.530 - Spud, pipe, and hose fitting configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Spud, pipe, and hose fitting....530 Spud, pipe, and hose fitting configuration. Except when used for a tank fill line, each spud, pipe, or hose fitting used with hose clamps must have: (a) A bead; (b) A flare; or (c) A series of...

  15. 33 CFR 150.532 - What are the requirements for connection and stowage of fire hoses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... connection and stowage of fire hoses? 150.532 Section 150.532 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... of fire hoses? (a) At least one length of fire hose, with a combination nozzle, must be connected to each fire hydrant at all times. If it is exposed to the weather, the fire hose may be removed from...

  16. 33 CFR 183.530 - Spud, pipe, and hose fitting configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spud, pipe, and hose fitting....530 Spud, pipe, and hose fitting configuration. Except when used for a tank fill line, each spud, pipe, or hose fitting used with hose clamps must have: (a) A bead; (b) A flare; or (c) A series of...

  17. 33 CFR 150.532 - What are the requirements for connection and stowage of fire hoses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... connection and stowage of fire hoses? 150.532 Section 150.532 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... of fire hoses? (a) At least one length of fire hose, with a combination nozzle, must be connected to each fire hydrant at all times. If it is exposed to the weather, the fire hose may be removed from...

  18. 33 CFR 183.530 - Spud, pipe, and hose fitting configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Spud, pipe, and hose fitting....530 Spud, pipe, and hose fitting configuration. Except when used for a tank fill line, each spud, pipe, or hose fitting used with hose clamps must have: (a) A bead; (b) A flare; or (c) A series of...

  19. 33 CFR 149.550 - What are the requirements for lights on a floating hose string?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lights on a floating hose string? 149.550 Section 149.550 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation Lights on Floating Hose Strings § 149.550 What are the requirements for lights on a floating hose string? Hose strings that are floating or supported on trestles must display...

  20. 46 CFR 153.1104 - Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. 153... Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. Before a cargo hose used in discharging an NLS from a ship's cargo tank is disconnected, the hose must be drained back to the transfer terminal unless...

  1. 46 CFR 153.1104 - Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. 153... Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. Before a cargo hose used in discharging an NLS from a ship's cargo tank is disconnected, the hose must be drained back to the transfer terminal unless...

  2. 46 CFR 153.1104 - Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. 153... Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. Before a cargo hose used in discharging an NLS from a ship's cargo tank is disconnected, the hose must be drained back to the transfer terminal unless...

  3. 46 CFR 153.1104 - Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. 153... Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. Before a cargo hose used in discharging an NLS from a ship's cargo tank is disconnected, the hose must be drained back to the transfer terminal unless...

  4. 33 CFR 150.532 - What are the requirements for connection and stowage of fire hoses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... connection and stowage of fire hoses? 150.532 Section 150.532 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... of fire hoses? (a) At least one length of fire hose, with a combination nozzle, must be connected to each fire hydrant at all times. If it is exposed to the weather, the fire hose may be removed from...

  5. 33 CFR 149.550 - What are the requirements for lights on a floating hose string?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lights on a floating hose string? 149.550 Section 149.550 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation Lights on Floating Hose Strings § 149.550 What are the requirements for lights on a floating hose string? Hose strings that are floating or supported on trestles must display...

  6. 33 CFR 183.530 - Spud, pipe, and hose fitting configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Spud, pipe, and hose fitting....530 Spud, pipe, and hose fitting configuration. Except when used for a tank fill line, each spud, pipe, or hose fitting used with hose clamps must have: (a) A bead; (b) A flare; or (c) A series of...

  7. 46 CFR 153.1104 - Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. 153... Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. Before a cargo hose used in discharging an NLS from a ship's cargo tank is disconnected, the hose must be drained back to the transfer terminal unless...

  8. 33 CFR 150.532 - What are the requirements for connection and stowage of fire hoses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... connection and stowage of fire hoses? 150.532 Section 150.532 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... of fire hoses? (a) At least one length of fire hose, with a combination nozzle, must be connected to each fire hydrant at all times. If it is exposed to the weather, the fire hose may be removed from...

  9. 33 CFR 149.550 - What are the requirements for lights on a floating hose string?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Two red lights at each end of the hose string, including the ends in a channel where the hose string... lights on a floating hose string? 149.550 Section 149.550 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation Lights on Floating Hose Strings § 149.550 What are the requirements for...

  10. 33 CFR 149.550 - What are the requirements for lights on a floating hose string?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Two red lights at each end of the hose string, including the ends in a channel where the hose string... lights on a floating hose string? 149.550 Section 149.550 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation Lights on Floating Hose Strings § 149.550 What are the requirements for...

  11. Response of pulmonary veins to increased intracranial pressure and pulmonary air embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, B.T.; Grauer, S.E.; Hyde, R.W.; Ortiz, C.; Moosavi, H.; Utell, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    To see whether air emboli to the lungs rather than brain compression caused these findings, anesthetized dogs received intravenous air infusions, subdural air infusions, or brain compression from balloons inflated in the subdural space. Subdural air and intravenous air resulted in similar vascular responses. Pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa) increased 160% (P < 0.01) and pulmonary venous pressure transiently rose 13 +- 5 Torr (P < 0.05) without an increase in left atrial pressure or cardiac output (Q). The end-tidal PCP/sub 2/ fell 55% (P < 0.01) and the postmortem weight of the lungs increased 55% (P < 0.05). Brain compression with a subdural balloon instead of air only caused a 20% rise in Ppa and Q without pulmonary edema. Thus, pulmonary air emboli rather than brain compression accounts for the edema and pulmonary hypertension caused by subdural air. Catheters in pulmonary veins and the left atrium showed that air emboli cause transient pulmonary venous hypertension as well as a reproducible form of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema.

  12. Further experiments on the stability of laminar and turbulent hydrogen-air flames at reduced pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fine, Burton

    1957-01-01

    Stability limits for laminar and turbulent hydrogen-air burner flames were measured as a function of pressure, burner diameter, and composition. On the basis of a simple flame model, turbulent flashback involved a smaller effective penetration distance than laminar flashback. No current theoretical treatment predicts the observed pressure and diameter dependence of laminar and turbulent blowoff.

  13. Pressure Distribution and Air Data System for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Lorelei S.; Siemers, Paul M., III; Kern, Frederick A.

    1989-01-01

    The Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) is designed to provide critical flight data necessary for the design of future Aeroassist Space Transfer Vehicles (ASTV). This flight experiment will provide aerodynamic, aerothermodynamic, and environmental data for verification of experimental and computational flow field techniques. The Pressure Distribution and Air Data System (PD/ADS), one of the measurement systems incorporated into the AFE spacecraft, is designed to provide accurate pressure measurements on the windward surface of the vehicle. These measurements will be used to determine the pressure distribution and air data parameters (angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and free-stream dynamic pressure) encountered by the blunt-bodied vehicle over an altitude range of 76.2 km to 94.5 km. Design and development data are presented and include: measurement requirements, measurement heritage, theoretical studies to define the vehicle environment, flush-mounted orifice configuration, pressure transducer selection and performance evaluation data, and pressure tubing response analysis.

  14. Variation of the pressure limits of flame propagation with tube diameter for propane-air mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belles, Frank E; Simon, Dorothy M

    1951-01-01

    An investigation was made of the variation of the pressure limits of flame propagation with tube diameter for quiescent propane with tube diameter for quiescent propane-air mixtures. Pressure limits were measured in glass tubes of six different inside diameters, with a precise apparatus. Critical diameters for flame propagation were calculated and the effect of pressure was determined. The critical diameters depended on the pressure to the -0.97 power for stoichiometric mixtures. The pressure dependence decreased with decreasing propane concentration. Critical diameters were related to quenching distance, flame speeds, and minimum ignition energy.

  15. The influence of locomotion on air-sac pressures in little penguins.

    PubMed

    Boggs, D F; Baudinette, R V; Frappell, P B; Butler, P J

    2001-10-01

    Air-sac pressures have been reported to oscillate with wing beat in flying magpies and with foot paddling in diving ducks. We sought to determine the impact on air-sac pressure of wing beats during swimming and of the step cycle during walking in little penguins (Eudyptula minor). Fluctuations averaged 0.16+/-0.06 kPa in the interclavicular air sacs, but only 0.06+/-0.04 kPa in the posterior thoracic sac, generating a small differential pressure between sacs of 0.06+/-0.02 kPa (means +/- S.E.M., N=4). These fluctuations occurred at approximately 3 Hz and corresponded to wing beats during swimming, indicated by electromyograms from the pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscles. There was no abdominal muscle activity associated with swimming or exhalation, but the abdominal muscles were active with the step cycle in walking penguins, and oscillations in posterior air-sac pressure (0.08+/-0.038 kPa) occurred with steps. We conclude that high-frequency oscillations in differential air-sac pressure enhance access to and utilization of the O(2) stores in the air sacs during a dive. PMID:11707507

  16. An experimental study of geyser-like flows induced by a pressurized air pocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elayeb, I. S.; Leon, A.; Choi, Y.; Alnahit, A. O.

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies argues that the entrapment of pressurized air pockets within combined sewer systems can produce geyser flows, which is an oscillating jetting of a mixture of gas-liquid flows. To verify that pressurized air pockets can effectively produce geysers, laboratory experiments were conducted. However, past experiments were conducted in relatively small-scale apparatus (i.e. maximum φ2" vertical shaft). This study conducted a set of experiments in a larger apparatus. The experimental setup consists of an upstream head tank, a downstream head tank, a horizontal pipe (46.5ft long, φ6") and a vertical pipe (10ft long, φ6"). The initial condition for the experiments is constant flow discharge through the horizontal pipe. The experiments are initiated by injecting an air pocket with pre-determined volume and pressure at the upstream end of the horizontal pipe. The air pocket propagates through the horizontal pipe until it arrives to the vertical shaft, where it is released producing a geyser-like flow. Three flow rates in the horizontal pipe and three injected air pressures were tested. The variables measured were pressure at two locations in the horizontal pipe and two locations in the vertical pipe. High resolution videos at two regions in the vertical shaft were also recorded. To gain further insights in the physics of air-water interaction, the laboratory experiments were complemented with numerical simulations conducted using a commercial 3D CFD model, previously validated with experiments.

  17. Air mass flow estimation in turbocharged diesel engines from in-cylinder pressure measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Desantes, J.M.; Galindo, J.; Guardiola, C.; Dolz, V.

    2010-01-15

    Air mass flow determination is needed for the control of current internal combustion engines. Current methods are based on specific sensors (as hot wire anemometers) or indirect estimation through manifold pressure. With the availability of cylinder pressure sensors for engine control, methods based on them can be used for replacing or complementing standard methods. Present paper uses in cylinder pressure increase during the intake stroke for inferring the trapped air mass. The method is validated on two different turbocharged diesel engines and compared with the standard methods. (author)

  18. Aerodynamic effect of combustor inlet-air pressure on fuel jet atomization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Mean drop diameters were measured with a recently developed scanning radiometer in a study of the atomization of liquid jets injected cross stream in high velocity and high pressure airflows. At constant inlet air pressure, reciprocal mean drop diameter, was correlated with airflow mass velocity. Over a combustor inlet-air pressure range of 1 to 21 atmospheres, the ratio of orifice to mean drop diameter, D(O)/D(M), was correlated with the product of Weber and Reynolds number, WeRe, and with the molecular scale momentum transfer ratio of gravitational to inertial forces.

  19. Aerodynamic effect of combustor inlet-air pressure on fuel jet atomization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Mean drop diameters were measured with a recently developed scanning radiometer in a study of the atomization of liquid jets injected cross stream in high velocity and high pressure airflows. At constant inlet air pressure, reciprocal mean drop diameter was correlated with airflow mass velocity. Over a combustor inlet-air pressure range of 1 to 21 atmospheres, the ratio of orifice to mean drop diameter, D(O)/D(M), was correlated with the product of Weber and Reynolds number, WeRe, and with the molecular scale momentum transfer ratio of gravitational to inertial forces. Previously announced in STAR as N84-22910

  20. Plain-jet airblast atomization of alternative liquid petroleum fuels under high ambient air pressure conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasuja, A. K.

    1982-04-01

    The effects that air and fuel properties have upon the spray mean drop size characteristics of a plain-jet airblast atomizer of the type employed in the gas turbine engine are investigated. The tests used kerosene, gas oil and a high-viscosity blend of gas oil in residual fuel oil, and covered a wide range of ambient air pressures. Laser light-scattering technique was employed for drop size measurements. It is concluded that the atomizer's measured mean drop size characteristics are only slightly different from those of the pre-filming type, especially when operating on low-viscosity kerosene under higher ambient air pressure. The beneficial effect of increased levels of ambient air pressure on mean drop size is shown to be much reduced in the case of high-viscosity fuels, thus making the attainment of good atomization performance on such fuels difficult. An expression is derived for correlating the obtained mean drop size data.

  1. Intercooler cooling-air weight flow and pressure drop for minimum drag loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, J George; Valerino, Michael F

    1944-01-01

    An analysis has been made of the drag losses in airplane flight of cross-flow plate and tubular intercoolers to determine the cooling-air weight flow and pressure drop that give a minimum drag loss for any given cooling effectiveness and, thus, a maximum power-plant net gain due to charge-air cooling. The drag losses considered in this analysis are those due to (1) the extra drag imposed on the airplane by the weight of the intercooler, its duct, and its supports and (2) the drag sustained by the cooling air in flowing through the intercooler and its duct. The investigation covers a range of conditions of altitude, airspeed, lift-drag ratio, supercharger-pressure ratio, and supercharger adiabatic efficiency. The optimum values of cooling air pressure drop and weight flow ratio are tabulated. Curves are presented to illustrate the results of the analysis.

  2. Inverse estimation of the acoustic impedance of a porous woven hose from measured transmission coefficients.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Min; Ih, Jeong-Guon; Nakayama, Yoshio; Takao, Hideo

    2003-01-01

    A porous tube, comprised of a resin-coated woven fabric has recently been used as an effective component for use in intake systems of internal combustion engines to reduce the intake noise. For the prediction of the acoustic performance of an engine intake system with a porous woven hose, the acoustic wall impedance of the hose must be known. However, the accurate measurement of the wall impedance of a porous woven hose is not easy because of its peculiar acoustical and structural characteristics. A new measurement technique is proposed herein, that is valid over the low to mid frequency ranges. The acoustics impedance is inversely estimated from an overdetermined set of measured pressure transmission coefficients for specimens of different lengths and the reflection coefficient of end termination. The method involves only one measurement setup, and, as a result, it is very simple. A variation of the proposed method, an inverse estimation method using one of the four-pole parameters is also proposed. An error sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the effect of measurement error on the accuracy of the final result. The measured TL for samples with arbitrary lengths and arbitrary porous frequency are in reasonably good agreement with values predicted from curve-fitted impedance data. PMID:12558253

  3. Inverse estimation of the acoustic impedance of a porous woven hose from measured transmission coefficients.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Min; Ih, Jeong-Guon; Nakayama, Yoshio; Takao, Hideo

    2003-01-01

    A porous tube, comprised of a resin-coated woven fabric has recently been used as an effective component for use in intake systems of internal combustion engines to reduce the intake noise. For the prediction of the acoustic performance of an engine intake system with a porous woven hose, the acoustic wall impedance of the hose must be known. However, the accurate measurement of the wall impedance of a porous woven hose is not easy because of its peculiar acoustical and structural characteristics. A new measurement technique is proposed herein, that is valid over the low to mid frequency ranges. The acoustics impedance is inversely estimated from an overdetermined set of measured pressure transmission coefficients for specimens of different lengths and the reflection coefficient of end termination. The method involves only one measurement setup, and, as a result, it is very simple. A variation of the proposed method, an inverse estimation method using one of the four-pole parameters is also proposed. An error sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the effect of measurement error on the accuracy of the final result. The measured TL for samples with arbitrary lengths and arbitrary porous frequency are in reasonably good agreement with values predicted from curve-fitted impedance data.

  4. Numerical simulation of high pressure release and dispersion of hydrogen into air with real gas model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaksarfard, R.; Kameshki, M. R.; Paraschivoiu, M.

    2010-06-01

    Hydrogen is a renewable and clean source of energy, and it is a good replacement for the current fossil fuels. Nevertheless, hydrogen should be stored in high-pressure reservoirs to have sufficient energy. An in-house code is developed to numerically simulate the release of hydrogen from a high-pressure tank into ambient air with more accuracy. Real gas models are used to simulate the flow since high-pressure hydrogen deviates from ideal gas law. Beattie-Bridgeman and Abel Noble equations are applied as real gas equation of state. A transport equation is added to the code to calculate the concentration of the hydrogen-air mixture after release. The uniqueness of the code is to simulate hydrogen in air release with the real gas model. Initial tank pressures of up to 70 MPa are simulated.

  5. Downhole steam generator using low pressure fuel and air supply

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a spiral, tubular heat exchanger is used in the combustion chamber to isolate the combustion process from the water being superheated for conversion into steam. The isolation allows combustion of a relatively low pressure oxidant and fuel mixture for generating high enthalpy steam. The fuel is preheated by feedback of combustion gases from the top of the combustion chamber through a fuel preheater chamber. The hot exhaust gases of combustion at the bottom of the combustion chamber, after flowing over the heat exchanger enter an exhaust passage and pipe. The exhaust pipe is mounted inside the water supply line heating the water flowing into the heat exchanger. After being superheated in the heat exchanger, the water is ejected through an expansion nozzle and converts into steam prior to penetration into the earth formation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at a steam outlet downstream of the nozzle and close when the steam pressure is lost due to flameout.

  6. Air bubble migration rates as a proxy for bubble pressure distribution in ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadic, Ruzica; Schneebeli, Martin; Bertler, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    Air bubble migration can be used as a proxy to measure the pressure of individual bubbles and can help constrain the gradual close-off of gas bubbles and the resulting age distribution of gases in ice cores. The close-off depth of single bubbles can vary by tens of meters, which leads to a distribution of pressures for bubbles at a given depth. The age distribution of gases (along with gas-age-ice-age differences) decreases the resolution of the gas level reconstructions from ice cores and limits our ability to determine the phase relationship between gas and ice, and thus, the impact of rapid changes of greenhouse gases on surface temperatures. For times of rapid climate change, including the last 150 years, and abrupt climate changes further back in the past, knowledge of the age distribution of the gases trapped in air bubbles will enable us to refine estimates of atmospheric changes. When a temperature gradient is applied to gas bubbles in an ice sample, the bubbles migrate toward warmer ice. This motion is caused by sublimation from the warm wall and subsequent frost deposition on the cold wall. The migration rate depends on ice temperature and bubble pressure and is proportional to the temperature gradient. The spread in migration rates for bubbles in the same samples at given temperatures should therefore reflect the variations in bubble pressures within a sample. Air bubbles with higher pressures would have been closed off higher in the firn column and thus have had time to equilibrate with the surrounding ice pressure, while air bubbles that have been closed off recently would have pressures that are similar to todays atmospheric pressure above the firn column. For ice under pressures up to ~13-16 bar, the pressure distribution of bubbles from a single depth provides a record of the trapping function of air bubbles in the firn column for a certain time in the past. We will present laboratory experiments on air bubble migration, using Antarctic ice core

  7. Ozone generation using atmospheric pressure glow discharge in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buntat, Z.; Smith, I. R.; Razali, N. A. M.

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents results from a study into the generation of ozone by a stable atmospheric glow discharge, using dry air as the feeding gas for ozone generation. The power supply is 50 Hz ac, with the use of a perforated aluminium sheet for the electrodes and soda lime glass as a dielectric layer in a parallel-plate configuration, stabilizing the generation process and enabling ozone to be produced. The stable glow discharge spreads uniformly at a gas breakdown voltage below 4.8 kV and requires only 330 mW discharge power, with a limitation of 3 mm on the maximum gap spacing for the dry air. With the technique providing a high collision rate between the electrons and gas molecules during the discharge process, a high ozone yield is obtained. An analysis of the effect on the production rate of parameters such as the input voltage, gas flow rate and reaction chamber dimensions resulted in a highest efficiency of production of almost 350 g kWh-1 and confirms its potential as an important ozone generation technology.

  8. The discharge of fine silica sand in a silo under different ambient air pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiau, Shu-San; Liao, Chun-Chung; Lee, Jie-Hsien

    2012-04-01

    Silos are widely used for the industrial scale handling and transportation of powdered and granular materials. The process of discharging powder in a silo involves the flow of both solid particles and an interstitial fluid, usually air. In this study, we experimentally investigate the effects of particle size and ambient pressure on the discharge process in open- and closed-top silos. The discharge rate, pressure drop, and pressure recovery rate are measured and discussed. The results show that the particle size, the diameter of the orifice, and the ambient pressure significantly influence the process of discharge. The effect of air flow is stronger on fine-powdered flow in a closed-top silo. The results indicate that the effects of air flow could be reduced by lowering the ambient pressure. In addition, a normalized critical pressure can be defined beyond which the discharge rate increases dramatically. With reduced ambient pressure, this normalized critical pressure decreases with increasing particle size. Finally, the experimental results are compared with results calculated using the Beverloo equation and Darcy's law.

  9. Torricelli and the ocean of air: the first measurement of barometric pressure.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2013-03-01

    The recognition of barometric pressure was a critical step in the development of environmental physiology. In 1644, Evangelista Torricelli described the first mercury barometer in a remarkable letter that contained the phrase, "We live submerged at the bottom of an ocean of the element air, which by unquestioned experiments is known to have weight." This extraordinary insight seems to have come right out of the blue. Less than 10 years before, the great Galileo had given an erroneous explanation for the related problem of pumping water from a deep well. Previously, Gasparo Berti had filled a very long lead vertical tube with water and showed that a vacuum formed at the top. However, Torricelli was the first to make a mercury barometer and understand that the mercury was supported by the pressure of the air. Aristotle stated that the air has weight, although this was controversial for some time. Galileo described a method of measuring the weight of the air in detail, but for reasons that are not clear his result was in error by a factor of about two. Torricelli surmised that the pressure of the air might be less on mountains, but the first demonstration of this was by Blaise Pascal. The first air pump was built by Otto von Guericke, and this influenced Robert Boyle to carry out his classical experiments of the physiological effects of reduced barometric pressure. These were turning points in the early history of high-altitude physiology.

  10. Torricelli and the ocean of air: the first measurement of barometric pressure.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2013-03-01

    The recognition of barometric pressure was a critical step in the development of environmental physiology. In 1644, Evangelista Torricelli described the first mercury barometer in a remarkable letter that contained the phrase, "We live submerged at the bottom of an ocean of the element air, which by unquestioned experiments is known to have weight." This extraordinary insight seems to have come right out of the blue. Less than 10 years before, the great Galileo had given an erroneous explanation for the related problem of pumping water from a deep well. Previously, Gasparo Berti had filled a very long lead vertical tube with water and showed that a vacuum formed at the top. However, Torricelli was the first to make a mercury barometer and understand that the mercury was supported by the pressure of the air. Aristotle stated that the air has weight, although this was controversial for some time. Galileo described a method of measuring the weight of the air in detail, but for reasons that are not clear his result was in error by a factor of about two. Torricelli surmised that the pressure of the air might be less on mountains, but the first demonstration of this was by Blaise Pascal. The first air pump was built by Otto von Guericke, and this influenced Robert Boyle to carry out his classical experiments of the physiological effects of reduced barometric pressure. These were turning points in the early history of high-altitude physiology. PMID:23455767

  11. Torricelli and the Ocean of Air: The First Measurement of Barometric Pressure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The recognition of barometric pressure was a critical step in the development of environmental physiology. In 1644, Evangelista Torricelli described the first mercury barometer in a remarkable letter that contained the phrase, “We live submerged at the bottom of an ocean of the element air, which by unquestioned experiments is known to have weight.” This extraordinary insight seems to have come right out of the blue. Less than 10 years before, the great Galileo had given an erroneous explanation for the related problem of pumping water from a deep well. Previously, Gasparo Berti had filled a very long lead vertical tube with water and showed that a vacuum formed at the top. However, Torricelli was the first to make a mercury barometer and understand that the mercury was supported by the pressure of the air. Aristotle stated that the air has weight, although this was controversial for some time. Galileo described a method of measuring the weight of the air in detail, but for reasons that are not clear his result was in error by a factor of about two. Torricelli surmised that the pressure of the air might be less on mountains, but the first demonstration of this was by Blaise Pascal. The first air pump was built by Otto von Guericke, and this influenced Robert Boyle to carry out his classical experiments of the physiological effects of reduced barometric pressure. These were turning points in the early history of high-altitude physiology. PMID:23455767

  12. Soot formation and temperature field structure in laminar propane-air diffusion flames at elevated pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Bento, Decio S.; Guelder, OEmer L.; Thomson, Kevin A.

    2006-06-15

    The effect of pressure on soot formation and the structure of the temperature field was studied in coflow propane-air laminar diffusion flames over the pressure range of 0.1 to 0.73 MPa in a high-pressure combustion chamber. The fuel flow rate was selected so that the soot was completely oxidized within the visible flame and the flame was stable at all pressures. Spectral soot emission was used to measure radially resolved soot volume fraction and soot temperature as a function of pressure. Additional soot volume fraction measurements were made at selected heights using line-of-sight light attenuation. Soot concentration values from these two techniques agreed to within 30% and both methods exhibited similar trends in the spatial distribution of soot concentration. Maximum line-of-sight soot concentration along the flame centerline scaled with pressure; the pressure exponent was about 1.4 for pressures between 0.2 and 0.73 MPa. Peak carbon conversion to soot, defined as the percentage of fuel carbon content converted to soot, also followed a power-law dependence on pressure, where the pressure exponent was near to unity for pressures between 0.2 and 0.73 MPa. Soot temperature measurements indicated that the overall temperatures decreased with increasing pressure; however, the temperature gradients increased with increasing pressure. (author)

  13. Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Real Air Plasma in Wide Range of Temperature and Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunlin; Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Feng, Ying; Rong, Mingzhe; Zhang, Hantian

    2016-07-01

    Air plasma has been widely applied in industrial manufacture. In this paper, both dry and humid air plasmas' thermodynamic and transport properties are calculated in temperature 300-100000 K and pressure 0.1-100 atm. To build a more precise model of real air plasma, over 70 species are considered for composition. Two different methods, the Gibbs free energy minimization method and the mass action law method, are used to determinate the composition of the air plasma in a different temperature range. For the transport coefficients, the simplified Chapman-Enskog method developed by Devoto has been applied using the most recent collision integrals. It is found that the presence of CO2 has almost no effect on the properties of air plasma. The influence of H2O can be ignored except in low pressure air plasma, in which the saturated vapor pressure is relatively high. The results will serve as credible inputs for computational simulation of air plasma. supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program)(No. 2015CB251002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51521065, 51577145), the Science and Technology Project Funds of the Grid State Corporation (SGTYHT/13-JS-177), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and State Grid Corporation Project (GY71-14-004)

  14. Air-braked cycle ergometers: validity of the correction factor for barometric pressure.

    PubMed

    Finn, J P; Maxwell, B F; Withers, R T

    2000-10-01

    Barometric pressure exerts by far the greatest influence of the three environmental factors (barometric pressure, temperature and humidity) on power outputs from air-braked ergometers. The barometric pressure correction factor for power outputs from air-braked ergometers is in widespread use but apparently has never been empirically validated. Our experiment validated this correction factor by calibrating two air-braked cycle ergometers in a hypobaric chamber using a dynamic calibration rig. The results showed that if the power output correction for changes in air resistance at barometric pressures corresponding to altitudes of 38, 600, 1,200 and 1,800 m above mean sea level were applied, then the coefficients of variation were 0.8-1.9% over the range of 160-1,597 W. The overall mean error was 3.0 % but this included up to 0.73 % for the propagated error that was associated with errors in the measurement of: a) temperature b) relative humidity c) barometric pressure d) force, distance and angular velocity by the dynamic calibration rig. The overall mean error therefore approximated the +/- 2.0% of true load that was specified by the Laboratory Standards Assistance Scheme of the Australian Sports Commission. The validity of the correction factor for barometric pressure on power output was therefore demonstrated over the altitude range of 38-1,800 m.

  15. Tables for pressure of air on coming to rest from various speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F; Louden, F A

    1930-01-01

    In Technical Report no. 247 of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics theoretical formulas are given from which was computed a table for the pressure of air on coming to rest from various speeds, such as those of aircraft and propeller blades. In that report, the table gave incompressible and adiabatic stop pressures of air for even-speed intervals in miles per hour and for some even-speed intervals in knots per hour. Table II of the present report extends the above-mentioned table by including the stop pressures of air for even-speed intervals in miles per hour, feet per-second, knots per hour, kilometers per hour, and meters per second. The pressure values in table II are also more exact than values given in the previous table. To furnish the aeronautical engineer with ready numerical formulas for finding the pressure of air on coming to rest, table I has been derived for the standard values specified below it. This table first presents the theoretical pressure-speed formulas and their working forms in C. G. S. Units as given in NACA Technical Report No. 247, then furnishes additional working formulas for several special units of speed. (author)

  16. Air-braked cycle ergometers: validity of the correction factor for barometric pressure.

    PubMed

    Finn, J P; Maxwell, B F; Withers, R T

    2000-10-01

    Barometric pressure exerts by far the greatest influence of the three environmental factors (barometric pressure, temperature and humidity) on power outputs from air-braked ergometers. The barometric pressure correction factor for power outputs from air-braked ergometers is in widespread use but apparently has never been empirically validated. Our experiment validated this correction factor by calibrating two air-braked cycle ergometers in a hypobaric chamber using a dynamic calibration rig. The results showed that if the power output correction for changes in air resistance at barometric pressures corresponding to altitudes of 38, 600, 1,200 and 1,800 m above mean sea level were applied, then the coefficients of variation were 0.8-1.9% over the range of 160-1,597 W. The overall mean error was 3.0 % but this included up to 0.73 % for the propagated error that was associated with errors in the measurement of: a) temperature b) relative humidity c) barometric pressure d) force, distance and angular velocity by the dynamic calibration rig. The overall mean error therefore approximated the +/- 2.0% of true load that was specified by the Laboratory Standards Assistance Scheme of the Australian Sports Commission. The validity of the correction factor for barometric pressure on power output was therefore demonstrated over the altitude range of 38-1,800 m. PMID:11071051

  17. A barometric pressure sensor based on the air-gap scale effect in a cantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minh-Dung, Nguyen; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Uchiyama, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2013-09-01

    The most common structure for a conventional barometric pressure sensor consists of a vacuum-sealed cavity and a diaphragm. However, we hypothesize that a simple structure with an unsealed cavity and an ultra-thin cantilever can provide more sensitive measurements. We produced a 300-nm-thick cantilever with a small spring constant, which made the cantilever sensitive to low pressures. We demonstrated that miniaturizing the air-gap of the cantilever enables the sensor to measure barometric pressure changes at a low pressure change rate with a high resolution, which was 1 Pa at 0.05 Hz, and for a gap size of 1.7 μm.

  18. A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun for nanomaterial synthesis in liquid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuang; Wang, Kaile; Zuo, Shasha; Liu, Jiahui; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-10-01

    A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun based on a dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes was proposed. The portable plasma gun with an embedded mini air pump was driven by a 12 V direct voltage battery. The air plasma jet generated from the gun could be touched without a common shock hazard. Besides working in air, the plasma gun can also work in water. The diagnostic result of optical emission spectroscopy showed the difference in reactive species of air plasma jet between in air and in water. The plasma gun was excited in 20 ml chloroauric acid aqueous solution with a concentration of 1.214 mM. A significant amount of gold nanoparticles were synthesized after 2 min continuous discharge. The plasma gun with these unique features is applicable in plasma medicine, etching, and s-nthesis of nanomaterials.

  19. A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun for nanomaterial synthesis in liquid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Shuang; Wang, Kaile; Zuo, Shasha; Liu, Jiahui; Zhang, Jue Fang, Jing

    2015-10-15

    A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun based on a dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes was proposed. The portable plasma gun with an embedded mini air pump was driven by a 12 V direct voltage battery. The air plasma jet generated from the gun could be touched without a common shock hazard. Besides working in air, the plasma gun can also work in water. The diagnostic result of optical emission spectroscopy showed the difference in reactive species of air plasma jet between in air and in water. The plasma gun was excited in 20 ml chloroauric acid aqueous solution with a concentration of 1.214 mM. A significant amount of gold nanoparticles were synthesized after 2 min continuous discharge. The plasma gun with these unique features is applicable in plasma medicine, etching, and s-nthesis of nanomaterials.

  20. 13. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF HISTORIC POSTCARD, THE HOSE FIGHT, HOMECOMING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF HISTORIC POSTCARD, THE HOSE FIGHT, HOMECOMING, 1911 (Original copy in possession of Mrs. Elizabeth C. Arnesi) - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Grand River at Bridge Street, Portland, Ionia County, MI

  1. 72. Left to right: Machine Shop, Hose House behind crane, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. Left to right: Machine Shop, Hose House behind crane, tug in Cradle #3, Storge and Joiner Shop, Marine Railway Headhouse and Offices, Cradle #2. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  2. 48. View looking northwest across lock. Hose cleaning of east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. View looking northwest across lock. Hose cleaning of east forebay before pulling spikes. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  3. 46 CFR 78.47-20 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hose stations. 78.47-20 Section 78.47-20 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-20 Fire hose stations. (a) Each fire hydrant shall be identified in red letters and figures at least 2 inches high “FIRE STATION NO 1,” “2,” “3,” etc. Where the...

  4. 46 CFR 78.47-20 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hose stations. 78.47-20 Section 78.47-20 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-20 Fire hose stations. (a) Each fire hydrant shall be identified in red letters and figures at least 2 inches high “FIRE STATION NO 1,” “2,” “3,” etc. Where the...

  5. 46 CFR 78.47-20 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hose stations. 78.47-20 Section 78.47-20 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-20 Fire hose stations. (a) Each fire hydrant shall be identified in red letters and figures at least 2 inches high “FIRE STATION NO 1,” “2,” “3,” etc. Where the...

  6. 46 CFR 78.47-20 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hose stations. 78.47-20 Section 78.47-20 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-20 Fire hose stations. (a) Each fire hydrant shall be identified in red letters and figures at least 2 inches high “FIRE STATION NO 1,” “2,” “3,” etc. Where the...

  7. 46 CFR 78.47-20 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hose stations. 78.47-20 Section 78.47-20 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-20 Fire hose stations. (a) Each fire hydrant shall be identified in red letters and figures at least 2 inches high “FIRE STATION NO 1,” “2,” “3,” etc. Where the...

  8. A novel target-type low pressure drop bidirectional optoelectronic air flow sensor for infant artificial ventilation: Measurement principle and static calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano; Silvestri, Sergio

    2011-02-01

    An optoelectronic target-type volumetric air flow-rate transducer for bidirectional measurements is presented. The sensor is composed of a T-shaped target and two nominally identical LED-photodiode couples which are operated in differential mode. The sensitive surfaces of the photodiodes are differentially shadowed by the deflection of the target, which in turn depends on the gas flow-rate. The principle of operation is described in mathematical terms and the design parameters have been optimized in order to obtain the highest sensitivity along with minimal pressure drop and reduced dimensions. The sensor is placed in a 20 mm diameter hose and was tested with air flow-rate in the typical temperature range of mechanical ventilation between 20 and 40 °C. The theoretical model was validated through experiments carried out in the volumetric flow range from -7.0 to +7.0 l min-1. The nonlinear behavior allows sensitivities equal to 0.6 V l-1 min for flow rates ranging from -2.0 to +2.0 l min-1, equal to 2.0 V l-1 min for flow rates ranging from -3.0 to -2.0 l min-1 and from +2.0 to +3.0 l min-1, up to 5.7 V l-1 min at higher flow rates ranging from -7.0 to -3.0 l min-1 and from +3.0 to +7.0 l min-1. The linear range extends from 3.0 to 7.0 l min-1 with constant sensitivity equal to 5.7 V l-1 min. The sensor is able to detect a flow-rate equal to 1.0 l min-1 with a sensitivity of about 400 mV l-1 min. The differential nature of the output minimizes the influence of the LEDs' power supply variations and allows to obtain a repeatability in the order of 3% of full scale output. The small pressure drop produced by the sensor placed in-line the fluid stream, of about 2.4 Pa at 7 l min-1, corresponds to a negligible fluid dynamic resistance lower than 0.34 Pa l-1 min.

  9. A novel target-type low pressure drop bidirectional optoelectronic air flow sensor for infant artificial ventilation: Measurement principle and static calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano; Silvestri, Sergio

    2011-02-15

    An optoelectronic target-type volumetric air flow-rate transducer for bidirectional measurements is presented. The sensor is composed of a T-shaped target and two nominally identical LED-photodiode couples which are operated in differential mode. The sensitive surfaces of the photodiodes are differentially shadowed by the deflection of the target, which in turn depends on the gas flow-rate. The principle of operation is described in mathematical terms and the design parameters have been optimized in order to obtain the highest sensitivity along with minimal pressure drop and reduced dimensions. The sensor is placed in a 20 mm diameter hose and was tested with air flow-rate in the typical temperature range of mechanical ventilation between 20 and 40 deg. C. The theoretical model was validated through experiments carried out in the volumetric flow range from -7.0 to +7.0 l min{sup -1}. The nonlinear behavior allows sensitivities equal to 0.6 V l{sup -1} min for flow rates ranging from -2.0 to +2.0 l min{sup -1}, equal to 2.0 V l{sup -1} min for flow rates ranging from -3.0 to -2.0 l min{sup -1} and from +2.0 to +3.0 l min{sup -1}, up to 5.7 V l{sup -1} min at higher flow rates ranging from -7.0 to -3.0 l min{sup -1} and from +3.0 to +7.0 l min{sup -1}. The linear range extends from 3.0 to 7.0 l min{sup -1} with constant sensitivity equal to 5.7 V l{sup -1} min. The sensor is able to detect a flow-rate equal to 1.0 l min{sup -1} with a sensitivity of about 400 mV l{sup -1} min. The differential nature of the output minimizes the influence of the LEDs' power supply variations and allows to obtain a repeatability in the order of 3% of full scale output. The small pressure drop produced by the sensor placed in-line the fluid stream, of about 2.4 Pa at 7 l min{sup -1}, corresponds to a negligible fluid dynamic resistance lower than 0.34 Pa l{sup -1} min.

  10. Atmospheric-pressure air microplasma jets in aqueous media for the inactivation of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xianhui; Yang, Si-ze; Liu, Dongping; Song, Ying; Sun, Yue

    2013-05-15

    The hollow fiber-based cold air microplasma jet array running at atmospheric pressure has been designed to inactivate Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) cells in vitro in aqueous media. The influences of electrode configurations, air flow rate, and applied voltage on the discharge characteristics of the single microplasma jet operating in aqueous media are presented, and the bactericidal efficiency of the hollow fibers-based and large-volume microplasma jet array is reported. Optical emission spectroscopy is utilized to identify excited species during the antibacterial testing of plasma in solutions. These well-aligned and rather stable air microplasma jets containing a variety of short-lived species, such as OH and O radicals and charged particles, are in direct contact with aqueous media and are very effective in killing P. fluorescens cells in aqueous media. This design shows its potential application for atmospheric pressure air plasma inactivation of bacteria cells in aqueous media.

  11. LESSONS LEARNED IN OPERATING THE HOSE-IN-HOSE SYSTEM FOR TRANSFSERRING SLUDGE AT HANFORDS K-BASINS

    SciTech Connect

    PERES MW

    2008-01-07

    In May 2007, the Department of Energy and the Fluor Hanford K Basin Closure Project completed transferring sludge from the K East Basin to new containers in the K West Basin using a Hose-in-Hose system. This project presented a number of complex and unique technical, operational, and management challenges that had to be resolved to complete the required transfers and satisfy project milestones. The project team (including DOE; regulators; and Fluor management, operations, maintenance, engineering and all other support organizations) found innovative solutions to each challenge. This paper records lessons learned during the operational phase of the sludge transfer via the Hose-In-Hose system. The subject is limited to the operational phase and does not cover design, development, testing or turnover. A discussion of the situation or problem encountered is provided, along with the lesson learned as applicable to a future program or project.

  12. Characterization of the respiratory and heart beat signal from an air pressure-based ballistocardiographic setup.

    PubMed

    Willemen, Tim; Van Deun, Dorien; Verhaert, Vincent; Van Huffel, Sabine; Haex, Bart; Vander Sloten, Jos

    2014-01-01

    Off-body detection of respiratory and cardiac activity presents an enormous opportunity for general health, stress and sleep quality monitoring. The presented setup detects the mechanical activity of both heart and lungs by measuring pressure difference fluctuations between two air volumes underneath the chest area of the subject. The registered signals were characterized over four different sleep postures, three different base air pressures within the air volumes and three different mattress top layer materials. Highest signal strength was detected in prone posture for both the respiratory and heart beat signal. Respiratory signal strength was the lowest in supine posture, while heart beat signal strength was lowest for right lateral. Heart beat cycle variability was highest in prone and lowest in supine posture. Increasing the base air pressure caused a reduction in signal amplitude for both the respiratory and the heart beat signal. A visco-elastic poly-urethane foam top layer had significantly higher respiration amplitude compared to high resilient poly-urethane foam and latex foam. For the heart beat signal, differences between the top layers were small. The authors conclude that, while the influence of the mattress top layer material is small, the base air pressure can be tuned for optimal mechanical transmission from heart and lungs towards the registration setup.

  13. Characteristics of radio-frequency, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges with air using bare metal electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Huabo; Sun Wenting; Li Heping; Bao Chengyu; Zhang Xiaozhang

    2006-10-16

    In this letter, an induced gas discharge approach is proposed and described in detail for obtaining a uniform atmospheric-pressure glow discharge with air in a {gamma} mode using water-cooled, bare metal electrodes driven by radio-frequency (13.56 MHz) power supply. A preliminary study on the discharge characteristics of the air glow discharge is also presented in this study. With this induced gas discharge approach, radio-frequency, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges using bare metal electrodes with other gases which cannot be ignited directly as the plasma working gas, such as nitrogen, oxygen, etc., can also be obtained.

  14. GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

    2014-05-05

    This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

  15. Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Butcher, Thomas A.; Celebi, Yusuf; Fisher, Leonard

    2000-09-15

    The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

  16. Effects of hydraulic pressure on the performance of single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaoan; Liu, Weifeng; Guo, Jian; Sun, Dan; Pan, Bin; Ye, Yaoli; Ding, Weijun; Huang, Haobin; Li, Fujian

    2014-06-15

    Scaling up of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) without losing power density requires a thorough understanding of the effect of hydraulic pressure on MFC performance. In this work, the performance of an activated carbon air-cathode MFC was evaluated under different hydraulic pressures. The MFC under 100 mmH2O hydraulic pressure produced a maximum power density of 1260 ± 24 mW m(-2), while the power density decreased by 24.4% and 44.7% as the hydraulic pressure increased to 500 mmH2O and 2000 mmH2O, respectively. Notably, the performance of both the anode and the cathode had decreased under high hydraulic pressures. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests of the cathode indicated that both charge transfer resistance and diffusion transfer resistance increased with the increase in hydraulic pressure. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that the similarity among anodic biofilm communities under different hydraulic pressures was ≥ 90%, and the communities of all MFCs were dominated by Geobacter sp. These results suggested that the reduction in power output of the single chamber air-cathode MFC under high hydraulic pressures can be attributed to water flooding of the cathode and suppression the metabolism of anodic exoelectrogenic bacteria.

  17. An analysis of contact stiffness between a finger and an object when wearing an air-cushioned glove: the effects of the air pressure.

    PubMed

    Wu, John Z; Wimer, Bryan M; Welcome, Daniel E; Dong, Ren G

    2012-04-01

    Air-cushioned gloves have the advantages of lighter weight, lower cost, and unique mechanical performance, compared to gloves made of conventional engineering materials. The goal of this study is to analyze the contact interaction between fingers and object when wearing an air-cushioned glove. The contact interactions between the the fingertip and air bubbles, which is considered as a cell of a typical air-cushioned glove, has been analyzed theoretically. Two-dimensional finite element models were developed for the analysis. The fingertip model was assumed to be composed of skin layers, subcutaneous tissue, bone, and nail. The air bubbles were modeled as air sealed in the container of nonelastic membrane. We simulated two common scenarios: a fingertip in contact with one single air bubble and with two air cushion bubbles simultaneously. Our simulation results indicated that the internal air pressure can modulate the fingertip-object contact characteristics. The contact stiffness reaches a minimum when the initial air pressure is equal to 1.3 and 1.05 times of the atmosphere pressure for the single air bubble and the double air bubble contact, respectively. Furthermore, the simulation results indicate that the double air bubble contact will result in smaller volumetric tissue strain than the single air bubble contact for the same force.

  18. Pressure-loss and flow coefficients inside a chordwise-finned, impingement, convection, and film air-cooled turbine vane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    Total-pressure-loss coefficients, flow discharge coefficients, and friction factors were determined experimentally for the various area and geometry changes and flow passages within an air-cooled turbine vane. The results are compared with those of others obtained on similar configurations, both actual and large models, of vane passages. The supply and exit air pressures were controlled and varied. The investigation was conducted with essentially ambient-temperature air and without external flow of air over the vane.

  19. Effect of pressure on structure and NO sub X formation in CO-air diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maahs, H. G.; Miller, I. M.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made of nitric oxide formation in a laminar CO-air diffusion flame over a pressure range from 1 to 50 atm. The carbon monoxide (CO) issued from a 3.06 mm diameter port coaxially into a coflowing stream of air confined within a 20.5 mm diameter chimney. Nitric oxide concentrations from the flame were measured at two carbon monoxide (fuel) flow rates: 73 standard cubic/min and 146 sccm. Comparison of the present data with data in the literature for a methane-air diffusion flame shows that for flames of comparable flame height (8 to 10 mm) and pseudoequivalence ratio (0.162), the molar emission index of a CO-air flame is significantly greater than that of a methane-air flame.

  20. High pressure ceramic air heater for indirectly fired gas turbine applications

    SciTech Connect

    LaHaye, P.G.; Briggs, G.F.; Orozxo, N.J.; Seger, J.L.

    1993-11-01

    The EFCC cycle is conceptually simple. Air enters the compressor where it is pressurized and becomes the tube-side flow of the ceramic air heater. Heat transferred from the hot combustion gases flowing through the shell-side raises the air temperature to the desired turbine inlet temperature. Internally insulated high pressure piping returns the heated compressor air to the turbine, where it is expanded providing power to drive the electric generator and gas turbine compressor. Exhaust air from the turbine is used as the combustion air for the coal combustor. The EFCC cycle burns pulverized coal in an atmospheric combustion chamber similar to the combustion system in a conventional steam generator. The combustion gas exits the combustor and enters a slag screen, or impact separator, where the larger ash particles are collected to prevent fouling of the heat exchanger. After the slag screen, the combustion gas enters the shell-side of the CerHX where its thermal energy is transferred to the tube side air flow. Shell-side exit temperatures are sufficiently high to provide thermal energy for the bottoming Rankine Cycle through a heat recovery steam generator. Exhaust gas exiting the steam generator passes through a flue gas desulfurization system and a particulate removal system.

  1. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. 84.157 Section 84.157 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. (a) The static pressure in the facepiece shall not exceed 38 mm. (1.5 inches) of water-column height. (b) The pressure...

  2. 49 CFR 393.51 - Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges... and vacuum gauges. (a) General Rule. Every bus, truck and truck tractor, except as provided in.... (d) Vacuum brakes. A commercial motor vehicle (regardless of the date it was manufactured)...

  3. 49 CFR 393.51 - Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges... and vacuum gauges. (a) General Rule. Every bus, truck and truck tractor, except as provided in.... (d) Vacuum brakes. A commercial motor vehicle (regardless of the date it was manufactured)...

  4. 49 CFR 393.51 - Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges... and vacuum gauges. (a) General Rule. Every bus, truck and truck tractor, except as provided in.... (d) Vacuum brakes. A commercial motor vehicle (regardless of the date it was manufactured)...

  5. 49 CFR 393.51 - Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges... and vacuum gauges. (a) General Rule. Every bus, truck and truck tractor, except as provided in.... (d) Vacuum brakes. A commercial motor vehicle (regardless of the date it was manufactured)...

  6. 49 CFR 393.51 - Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges... and vacuum gauges. (a) General Rule. Every bus, truck and truck tractor, except as provided in.... (d) Vacuum brakes. A commercial motor vehicle (regardless of the date it was manufactured)...

  7. Negative Intraoral Air Pressures of Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants: Physiology, Phonology, and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Maureen B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of four children with deafness who had cochlear implants investigated the use of negative intraoral air pressure in articulation, from both the physiological and phonological perspectives. The study showed that the children used speech-production strategies that were different from hearing children and that deviant speech behaviors should…

  8. Compressed-air work is entering the field of high pressures.

    PubMed

    Le Péchon, J Cl; Gourdon, G

    2010-01-01

    Since 1850, compressed-air work has been used to prevent shafts or tunnels under construction from flooding. Until the 1980s, workers were digging in compressed-air environments. Since the introduction of tunnel boring machines (TBMs), very little digging under pressure is needed. However, the wearing out of cutter-head tools requires inspection and repair. Compressed-air workers enter the pressurized working chamber only occasionally to perform such repairs. Pressures between 3.5 and 4.5 bar, that stand outside a reasonable range for air breathing, were reached by 2002. Offshore deep diving technology had to be adapted to TBM work. Several sites have used mixed gases: in Japan for deep shaft sinking (4.8 bar), in The Netherlands at Western Scheldt Tunnels (6.9 bar), in Russia for St. Petersburg Metro (5.8 bar) and in the United States at Seattle (5.8 bar). Several tunnel projects are in progress that may involve higher pressures: Hallandsås (Sweden) interventions in heliox saturation up to 13 bar, and Lake Mead (U.S.) interventions to about 12 bar (2010). Research on TBMs and grouting technologies tries to reduce the requirements for hyperbaric works. Adapted international rules, expertise and services for saturation work, shuttles and trained personnel matching industrial requirements are the challenges. PMID:20737925

  9. SOIL-AIR PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENT WITH A TRANSIENT PRESSURE BUILDUP METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical solution for transient pressure change in a single venting well was derived from mass conservation of air, Darcy's law of flow in porous media, and the ideal gas law equation of state. Slopes of plots of Pw2 against ln (t+Δt)/Δt similar to Homer's plot were used to ...

  10. The Impact of a Science Demonstration on Children's Understanding of Air Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepardson, Damiel P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines 52 fifth graders' written and oral responses to determine the impact of a scientific demonstration on their understanding of air pressure. For one-third of the children, the demonstration reinforced previous understanding. Recommendations for using demonstrations to promote children's scientific understanding are presented. (ZWH)

  11. The Determination of the Percent of Oxygen in Air Using a Gas Pressure Sensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, James; Chancey, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    The experiment of determination of the percent of oxygen in air is performed in a general chemistry laboratory in which students compare the results calculated from the pressure measurements obtained with the calculator-based systems to those obtained in a water-measurement method. This experiment allows students to explore a fundamental reaction…

  12. Promoting Students' Learning of Air Pressure Concepts: The Interrelationship of Teaching Approaches and Student Learning Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    She, Hsiao-Ching

    2005-01-01

    The author explored the potential to promote students' understanding of difficult science concepts through an examination of the inter-relationships among the teachers' instructional approach, students' learning preference styles, and their levels of learning process. The concept "air pressure," which requires an understanding of invisible,…

  13. Hydrostatic pressure effect on micro air bubbles deposited on surfaces with a retreating tip.

    PubMed

    Huynh, So Hung; Wang, Jingming; Yu, Yang; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2014-06-01

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on 6 μL air bubbles formed on micropillar structured PDMS and silicone surfaces using a 2 mm diameter stainless steel tip retreated at 1 mm/s was investigated. Dimensional analysis of the tip retraction process showed the experiments to be conducted in the condition where fluid inertial forces are comparable in magnitude with surface tension forces, while viscous forces were lower. Larger bubbles could be left behind on the structured PDMS surface. For hydrostatic pressures in excess of 20 mm H2O (196 Pa), the volume of bubble deposited was found to decrease progressively with pressure increase. The differences in width of the deposited bubbles (in contact with the substrate) were significant at any particular pressure but marginal in height. The attainable height before rupture reduced with pressure increase, thereby accounting for the reducing dispensed volume characteristic. On structured PDMS, the gaseous bridge width (in contact with the substrate) was invariant with tip retraction, while on silicone it was initially reducing before becoming invariant in the lead up to rupture. With silicone, hence, reductions in the contact width and height were both responsible for reduced volumes with pressure increase. Increased hydrostatic pressure was also found to restrict the growth in contact width on silicone during the stage when air was injected in through the tip. The ability to effect bubble size in such a simple manner may already be harnessed in nature and suggests possibilities in technological applications.

  14. Acute Effects of Continuous Positive Air way Pressure on Pulse Pressure in Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Quintão, Mônica; Chermont, Sérgio; Marchese, Luana; Brandão, Lúcia; Bernardez, Sabrina Pereira; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Rocha, Nazareth de Novaes; Nóbrega, Antônio Claudio L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with heart failure (HF) have left ventricular dysfunction and reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP). Increased adrenergic drive causes vasoconstriction and vessel resistance maintaining MAP, while increasing peripheral vascular resistance and conduit vessel stiffness. Increased pulse pressure (PP) reflects a complex interaction of the heart with the arterial and venous systems. Increased PP is an important risk marker in patients with chronic HF (CHF). Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been used for acute decompensated HF, to improve congestion and ventilation through both respiratory and hemodynamic effects. However, none of these studies have reported the effect of NIV on PP. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the acute effects of NIV with CPAP on PP in outpatients with CHF. Methods Following a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, and placebo-controlled protocol, twenty three patients with CHF (17 males; 60 ± 11 years; BMI 29 ± 5 kg/cm2, NYHA class II, III) underwent CPAP via nasal mask for 30 min in a recumbent position. Mask pressure was 6 cmH2O, whereas placebo was fixed at 0-1 cmH2O. PP and other non invasive hemodynamics variables were assessed before, during and after placebo and CPAP mode. Results CPAP decreased resting heart rate (Pre: 72 ± 9; vs. Post 5 min: 67 ± 10 bpm; p < 0.01) and MAP (CPAP: 87 ± 11; vs. control 96 ± 11 mmHg; p < 0.05 post 5 min). CPAP decreased PP (CPAP: 47 ± 20 pre to 38 ± 19 mmHg post; vs. control: 42 ± 12 mmHg, pre to 41 ± 18 post p < 0.05 post 5 min). Conclusion NIV with CPAP decreased pulse pressure in patients with stable CHF. Future clinical trials should investigate whether this effect is associated with improved clinical outcome. PMID:24676373

  15. Near-complete optic nerve transection by high-pressure air

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Soo Won; Lee, Jong Seok; Choi, Han Sung; Ko, Young Gwan; Hong, Hoon Pyo

    2016-01-01

    The use of high-pressure air instruments has become more common. Consequently, there have been a number of cases of orbital emphysema caused by contact with high-pressure air. In this case, a 62-year-old male patient visited an emergency medical center after his left eye was shot by an air compressor gun that was used to wash cars. Lacerations were observed in the upper and lower eyelids of his left eye. Radiological examinations revealed orbital emphysema, optic nerve transection, pneumocephalus, and subcutaneous emphysema in the face, neck, shoulder, and mediastinum. Canalicular injury repair was performed, and the emphysema resolved. However, there was near-complete vision loss in the patient’s left eye. Because most optic nerve transections occur after a severe disruption in bone structure, pure optic nerve transections without any injury of the bone structure, as in the present case, is extremely rare. PMID:27752640

  16. An investigation of air solubility in Jet A fuel at high pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Problems concerned with the supercritical injection concept are discussed. Supercritical injection involves dissolving air into a fuel prior to injection. A similar effect is obtained by preheating the fuel so that a portion of the fuel flashes when its pressure is reduced. Flashing improves atomization properties and the presence of air in the primary zone of a spray flame reduces the formation of pollutants. The investigation is divided into three phases: (1) measure the solubility and density properties of fuel/gas mixtures, including Jet A/air, at pressures and correlate these results using theory; (2) investigate the atomization properties of flashing liquids, including fuel/dissolved gas systems. Determine and correlate the effect of inlet properties and injector geometry on mass flow rates, Sauter mean diameter and spray angles; (3) examine the combustion properties of flashing injection in an open burner flame, considering flame shape and soot production.

  17. Acute changes in pulse pressure in relation to constituents of particulate air pollution in elderly persons

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Lotte; Buczynska, Anna; Walgraeve, Christophe; Delcloo, Andy; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Van Grieken, Rene; Demeestere, Kristof; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman; De Backer, Hugo; Nemery, Benoit; Nawrot, Tim S.

    2012-08-15

    An increased pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) suggests aortic stiffening. The objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of both particulate matter (PM) mass and composition on blood pressure, among elderly persons. We carried out a panel study in persons living in elderly homes in Antwerp, Belgium. We recruited 88 non-smoking persons, 70% women with a mean age of 83 years (standard deviation: 5.2). Blood pressure was measured and a blood sample was collected on two time points, which were chosen so that there was an exposure contrast in ambient PM exposure. The elemental content of the collected indoor and outdoor PM{sub 2.5} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 {mu}m) mass concentration was measured. Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) on outdoor PM{sub 10} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 {mu}m) were measured. Each interquartile range increase of 20.8 {mu}g/m Superscript-Three in 24-h mean outdoor PM{sub 2.5} was associated with an increase in pulse pressure of 4.0 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 1.8-6.2), in persons taking antihypertensive medication (n=57), but not in persons not using antihypertensive medication (n=31) (p for interaction: 0.02). Vanadium, iron and nickel contents of PM{sub 2.5} were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, among persons on antihypertensive medication. Similar results were found for indoor concentrations. Of the oxy-PAHs, chrysene-5,6-dione and benzo[a]pyrene-3,6-dione were significantly associated with increases in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. In elderly, pulse pressure was positively associated with acute increases in outdoor and indoor air pollution, among persons taking antihypertensive medication. These results might form a mechanistic pathway linking air pollution as a trigger of cardiovascular events.

  18. On Static Pressure Fluctuation between Sirocco Fan Blades in a Car Air-Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Yasuhiko; Kato, Takaaki; Moriguchi, Yuu; Sakai, Masaharu; Ito, Kouji; Mitsuishi, Yasushi; Nagata, Kouji; Kubo, Takashi

    In this study, special attention is directed to static pressure fluctuation in a sirocco fan for a car air-conditioning system, because it is expected that there is a close connection between the fluid noise and the pressure fluctuation. The final purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between the static pressure fluctuation between fan blades and the sound noise emitted to the outside of the fan, and to develop an air-conditioning system with highly low noise level. For this purpose, first of all, a new micro probe for the measurement of static pressure fluctuation has been developed. This new micro probe is composed of an L-type static pressure tube (the outer diameter is 0.5 mm and the inner diameter is 0.34 mm) and a very small pressure transducer. This probe exhibits a flat frequency response until approximately 2,000 Hz, and it is set between the blades of the fan rotating at 1,500 rpm. The measurements of the static pressure fluctuation between the blades have been performed, and the intensity of sound source was quantified from the second derivative of the phase-averaged static pressure fluctuation signals on the basis of Ribner's formula (Ribner 1962). The experiments have been made in two different modes, i.e., the cooling mode (FACE MODE) and the heating mode (FOOT MODE). It is shown that the static pressure increases rapidly as the blade approaches to the nose of the casing. It is also found that the sound source for FACE MODE shows the larger value than that for FOOT MODE as a whole. In particular, the largest intensity of sound source is observed when the blade approaches to the nose. From these results, it is confirmed that the present new static pressure probe is useful to specify the distributions of sound source in a sirocco fan.

  19. Acute changes in pulse pressure in relation to constituents of particulate air pollution in elderly persons.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Lotte; Buczynska, Anna; Walgraeve, Christophe; Delcloo, Andy; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Van Grieken, René; Demeestere, Kristof; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman; De Backer, Hugo; Nemery, Benoit; Nawrot, Tim S

    2012-08-01

    An increased pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) suggests aortic stiffening. The objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of both particulate matter (PM) mass and composition on blood pressure, among elderly persons. We carried out a panel study in persons living in elderly homes in Antwerp, Belgium. We recruited 88 non-smoking persons, 70% women with a mean age of 83 years (standard deviation: 5.2). Blood pressure was measured and a blood sample was collected on two time points, which were chosen so that there was an exposure contrast in ambient PM exposure. The elemental content of the collected indoor and outdoor PM(2.5) (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm) mass concentration was measured. Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) on outdoor PM(10) (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm) were measured. Each interquartile range increase of 20.8 μg/m³ in 24-h mean outdoor PM(2.5) was associated with an increase in pulse pressure of 4.0 mm Hg (95% confidence interval: 1.8-6.2), in persons taking antihypertensive medication (n=57), but not in persons not using antihypertensive medication (n=31) (p for interaction: 0.02). Vanadium, iron and nickel contents of PM(2.5) were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, among persons on antihypertensive medication. Similar results were found for indoor concentrations. Of the oxy-PAHs, chrysene-5,6-dione and benzo[a]pyrene-3,6-dione were significantly associated with increases in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. In elderly, pulse pressure was positively associated with acute increases in outdoor and indoor air pollution, among persons taking antihypertensive medication. These results might form a mechanistic pathway linking air pollution as a trigger of cardiovascular events.

  20. Investigation of the reaction of liquid hydrogen with liquid air in a pressure tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karb, Erich H.

    1987-01-01

    A pressure tube should protect the FR-2 reactor from the consequences of a hydrogen-air reaction, which is conceivable in the breakdown of several safety devices of the planned cold neutron source Project FR-2/16. The magnitudes and time pattern of the pressures to be expected were investigated. In the geometry used and the ignition mechanism selected, which is comparable to the strongest ignition process conceivable in the reactor, the reaction proceeds with greater probability than combustion. The combustion is possibly smaller if local limited partial detonations are superimposed. The magnitude of the pressure was determined by the masses of the reaction partners, liquid H2 and liquid air, and determines their ratio to each other.