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Sample records for air puff tonometry

  1. Tonometry

    MedlinePlus

    ... records eye pressure. The last method is the noncontact method (air puff). In this method, your chin ... you should not have any pain. In the noncontact method, you may feel mild pressure on your ...

  2. Pico2 Monitoring of Transferred Jejunum Perfusion Using an Air Tonometry Technique After Hypopharyngeal Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Hiroyuki; Imanishi, Yorihisa; Ito, Fumihiro; Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Kato, Takashi; Nameki, Hideo; Isobe, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of intraluminal Pco2 (Pico2) monitoring by air tonometry for the assessment of the vascular condition of the transferred jejunum after surgery for hypopharyngeal cancer. Pico2 in the transplanted jejunum of 24 patients was monitored using air tonometry after radical surgery for hypopharyngeal cancer from 2003 to 2010. All but 1 patient, who removed the catheter before monitoring began, were monitored safely. Pico2 in the transferred jejunum correlated with arterial Pco2 (Paco2) that was measured concurrently, and dissociation of Pico2 from Paco2 was observed in cases with vascular complication. In those cases without postoperative vascular complication, the Pico2 value gradually increased for 3 hours but then decreased by 12 hours after surgery. Three patients experienced major vascular complication. All 3 patients had continuous elevation of Pico2 >100 mm Hg, although vascular flow in 1 patient recovered by removal of a venous thrombosis and reanastomosis of the vein 7.5 hours after surgery. Four other patients who experienced elevation of Pico2 had their skin suture released for decompression of their neck wound, resulting in a decrease in Pico2 after treatment. The current results demonstrated that continuous monitoring of Pico2 by air tonometry accurately reflects the vascular condition of the transferred jejunum, and this method is one of the best options for postoperative monitoring of jejunum blood perfusion. PMID:25789955

  3. Stress-free automatic sleep deprivation using air puffs

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Brooks A.; Vanderheyden, William M.; Urpa, Lea M.; Davis, Devon E.; Fitzpatrick, Christopher J.; Prabhu, Kaustubh; Poe, Gina R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation via gentle handling is time-consuming and personnel-intensive. New Method We present here an automated sleep deprivation system via air puffs. Implanted EMG and EEG electrodes were used to assess sleep/waking states in six male Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood samples were collected from an implanted intravenous catheter every 4 hours during the 12-hour light cycle on baseline, 8 hours of sleep deprivation via air puffs, and 8 hours of sleep deprivation by gentle handling days. Results The automated system was capable of scoring sleep and waking states as accurately as our offline version (~90% for sleep) and with sufficient speed to trigger a feedback response within an acceptable amount of time (1.76 s). Manual state scoring confirmed normal sleep on the baseline day and sleep deprivation on the two manipulation days (68% decrease in non-REM, 63% decrease in REM, and 74% increase in waking). No significant differences in levels of ACTH and corticosterone (stress hormones indicative of HPA axis activity) were found at any time point between baseline sleep and sleep deprivation via air puffs. Comparison with Existing Method There were no significant differences in ACTH or corticosterone concentrations between sleep deprivation by air puffs and gentle handling over the 8-hour period. Conclusions Our system accurately detects sleep and delivers air puffs to acutely deprive rats of sleep with sufficient temporal resolution during the critical 4-5 h post learning sleep-dependent memory consolidation period. The system is stress-free and a viable alternative to existing sleep deprivation techniques. PMID:26014662

  4. Theoretical and numerical analysis of the corneal air puff test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonini, Irene; Angelillo, Maurizio; Pandolfi, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Ocular analyzers are used in the current clinical practice to estimate, by means of a rapid air jet, the intraocular pressure and other eye's parameters. In this study, we model the biomechanical response of the human cornea to the dynamic test with two approaches. In the first approach, the corneal system undergoing the air puff test is regarded as a harmonic oscillator. In the second approach, we use patient-specific geometries and the finite element method to simulate the dynamic test on surgically treated corneas. In spite of the different levels of approximation, the qualitative response of the two models is very similar, and the most meaningful results of both models are not significantly affected by the inclusion of viscosity of the corneal material in the dynamic analysis. Finite element calculations reproduce the observed snap-through of the corneal shell, including two applanate configurations, and compare well with in vivo images provided by ocular analyzers, suggesting that the mechanical response of the cornea to the air puff test is actually driven only by the elasticity of the stromal tissue. These observations agree with the dynamic characteristics of the test, since the frequency of the air puff impulse is several orders of magnitude larger than the reciprocal of any reasonable relaxation time for the material, downplaying the role of viscosity during the fast snap-through phase.

  5. Corneal biomechanical properties from air-puff corneal deformation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos, Susana; Kling, Sabine; Bekesi, Nandor; Dorronsoro, Carlos

    2014-02-01

    The combination of air-puff systems with real-time corneal imaging (i.e. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), or Scheimpflug) is a promising approach to assess the dynamic biomechanical properties of the corneal tissue in vivo. In this study we present an experimental system which, together with finite element modeling, allows measurements of corneal biomechanical properties from corneal deformation imaging, both ex vivo and in vivo. A spectral OCT instrument combined with an air puff from a non-contact tonometer in a non-collinear configuration was used to image the corneal deformation over full corneal cross-sections, as well as to obtain high speed measurements of the temporal deformation of the corneal apex. Quantitative analysis allows direct extraction of several deformation parameters, such as apex indentation across time, maximal indentation depth, temporal symmetry and peak distance at maximal deformation. The potential of the technique is demonstrated and compared to air-puff imaging with Scheimpflug. Measurements ex vivo were performed on 14 freshly enucleated porcine eyes and five human donor eyes. Measurements in vivo were performed on nine human eyes. Corneal deformation was studied as a function of Intraocular Pressure (IOP, 15-45 mmHg), dehydration, changes in corneal rigidity (produced by UV corneal cross-linking, CXL), and different boundary conditions (sclera, ocular muscles). Geometrical deformation parameters were used as input for inverse finite element simulation to retrieve the corneal dynamic elastic and viscoelastic parameters. Temporal and spatial deformation profiles were very sensitive to the IOP. CXL produced a significant reduction of the cornea indentation (1.41x), and a change in the temporal symmetry of the corneal deformation profile (1.65x), indicating a change in the viscoelastic properties with treatment. Combining air-puff with dynamic imaging and finite element modeling allows characterizing the corneal biomechanics in-vivo.

  6. Analysis of the corneal reflex with air puff: normal controls and patient groups.

    PubMed

    Varolgüneŝ, N; Celebisoy, N; Akyürekli, O; Pehlivan, M; Akyürekli, O

    1999-09-01

    Though there are several reports published about the corneal reflex elicited by different methods, a standardized electrophysiologic study with air puff in man has not been published. The aim of this study is to standardize the corneal reflex elicited by air puff to cornea. The authors studied the corneal reflex with air puff and direct touch by using a standardized method in patients with thalamic hemorrhage (n = 15), hemispheric infarction (n = 9), brainstem infarction (n = 9), multiple sclerosis (n = 12), and Bell's palsy (n = 12) and in normal control subjects (n = 21). The conventional blink reflex (BR) was also studied. The reflex responses were recorded from both orbicularis oculi muscles by air puff and direct touch to cornea in addition to the electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve. No statistical difference could be detected between the responses elicited by air puff or direct touch to cornea (P > 0.05). Corneal reflex responses were statistically different from the R2 response of the BR (P < 0.005). Because the responses elicited by direct touch and air puff to cornea are identical, air puff to cornea can be used confidently to study the corneal reflex.

  7. Air puff-induced 22-kHz calls in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Sato, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Air puff-induced ultrasonic vocalizations in adult rats, termed "22-kHz calls," have been applied as a useful animal model to develop psychoneurological and psychopharmacological studies focusing on human aversive affective disorders. To date, all previous studies on air puff-induced 22-kHz calls have used outbred rats. Furthermore, newly developed gene targeting technologies, which are essential for further advancement of biomedical experiments using air puff-induced 22-kHz calls, have enabled the production of genetically modified rats using inbred rat strains. Therefore, we considered it necessary to assess air puff-induced 22-kHz calls in inbred rats. In this study, we assessed differences in air puff-induced 22-kHz calls between inbred F344 rats and outbred Wistar rats. Male F344 rats displayed similar total (summed) duration of air puff-induced 22 kHz vocalizations to that of male Wistar rats, however, Wistar rats emitted fewer calls of longer duration, while F344 rats emitted higher number of vocalizations of shorter duration. Additionally, female F344 rats emitted fewer air puff-induced 22-kHz calls than did males, thus confirming the existence of a sex difference that was previously reported for outbred Wistar rats. The results of this study could confirm the reliability of air puff stimulus for induction of a similar amount of emissions of 22-kHz calls in different rat strains, enabling the use of air puff-induced 22-kHz calls in inbred F344 rats and derived genetically modified animals in future studies concerning human aversive affective disorders.

  8. Material Properties from Air Puff Corneal Deformation by Numerical Simulations on Model Corneas

    PubMed Central

    Dorronsoro, Carlos; de la Hoz, Andrés; Marcos, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Objective To validate a new method for reconstructing corneal biomechanical properties from air puff corneal deformation images using hydrogel polymer model corneas and porcine corneas. Methods Air puff deformation imaging was performed on model eyes with artificial corneas made out of three different hydrogel materials with three different thicknesses and on porcine eyes, at constant intraocular pressure of 15 mmHg. The cornea air puff deformation was modeled using finite elements, and hyperelastic material parameters were determined through inverse modeling, minimizing the difference between the simulated and the measured central deformation amplitude and central-peripheral deformation ratio parameters. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed on the model cornea materials as well as on corneal strips, and the results were compared to stress-strain simulations assuming the reconstructed material parameters. Results The measured and simulated spatial and temporal profiles of the air puff deformation tests were in good agreement (< 7% average discrepancy). The simulated stress-strain curves of the studied hydrogel corneal materials fitted well the experimental stress-strain curves from uniaxial extensiometry, particularly in the 0–0.4 range. Equivalent Young´s moduli of the reconstructed material properties from air-puff were 0.31, 0.58 and 0.48 MPa for the three polymer materials respectively which differed < 1% from those obtained from extensiometry. The simulations of the same material but different thickness resulted in similar reconstructed material properties. The air-puff reconstructed average equivalent Young´s modulus of the porcine corneas was 1.3 MPa, within 18% of that obtained from extensiometry. Conclusions Air puff corneal deformation imaging with inverse finite element modeling can retrieve material properties of model hydrogel polymer corneas and real corneas, which are in good correspondence with those obtained from uniaxial extensiometry

  9. Non-contact investigation of the corneal biomechanics with air-puff swept source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maczynska, Ewa; Karnowski, Karol; Kaluzny, Bartlomiej; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we use swept source optical coherence tomography combined with air-puff module (air-puff SS-OCT) to investigate the properties of the cornea. During OCT measurement the cornea was stimulated by short, air pulse, and corneal response was recorded. In this preliminary study, the air-puff SS-OCT instrument was applied to measure behavior of the porcine corneas under varied, well-controlled intraocular pressure conditions. Additionally, the biomechanical response of the corneal tissue before, during and after crosslinking procedure (CXL) was assessed. Air-puff swept source OCT is a promising tool to extract information about corneal behavior as well as to monitor and assess the effect of CXL.

  10. Corneal Viscoelastic Properties from Finite-Element Analysis of In Vivo Air-Puff Deformation

    PubMed Central

    Kling, Sabine; Bekesi, Nandor; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Pascual, Daniel; Marcos, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Biomechanical properties are an excellent health marker of biological tissues, however they are challenging to be measured in-vivo. Non-invasive approaches to assess tissue biomechanics have been suggested, but there is a clear need for more accurate techniques for diagnosis, surgical guidance and treatment evaluation. Recently air-puff systems have been developed to study the dynamic tissue response, nevertheless the experimental geometrical observations lack from an analysis that addresses specifically the inherent dynamic properties. In this study a viscoelastic finite element model was built that predicts the experimental corneal deformation response to an air-puff for different conditions. A sensitivity analysis reveals significant contributions to corneal deformation of intraocular pressure and corneal thickness, besides corneal biomechanical properties. The results show the capability of dynamic imaging to reveal inherent biomechanical properties in vivo. Estimates of corneal biomechanical parameters will contribute to the basic understanding of corneal structure, shape and integrity and increase the predictability of corneal surgery. PMID:25121496

  11. Coupled Biomechanical Response of the Cornea Assessed by Non-Contact Tonometry. A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical response of the cornea subjected to a non-contact air-jet tonometry diagnostic test represents an interplay between its geometry, the corneal material behavior and the loading. The objective is to study this interplay to better understand and interpret the results obtained with a non-contact tonometry test. A patient-specific finite element model of a healthy eye, accounting for the load free configuration, was used. The corneal tissue was modeled as an anisotropic hyperelastic material with two preferential directions. Three different sets of parameters within the human experimental range obtained from inflation tests were considered. The influence of the IOP was studied by considering four pressure levels (10–28 mmHg) whereas the influence of corneal thickness was studied by inducing a uniform variation (300–600 microns). A Computer Fluid Dynamics (CFD) air-jet simulation determined pressure loading exerted on the anterior corneal surface. The maximum apex displacement showed a linear variation with IOP for all materials examined. On the contrary, the maximum apex displacement followed a cubic relation with corneal thickness. In addition, a significant sensitivity of the apical displacement to the corneal stiffness was also obtained. Explanation to this behavior was found in the fact that the cornea experiences bending when subjected to an air-puff loading, causing the anterior surface to work in compression whereas the posterior surface works in tension. Hence, collagen fibers located at the anterior surface do not contribute to load bearing. Non-contact tonometry devices give useful information that could be misleading since the corneal deformation is the result of the interaction between the mechanical properties, IOP, and geometry. Therefore, a non-contact tonometry test is not sufficient to evaluate their individual contribution and a complete in-vivo characterization would require more than one test to independently determine the membrane

  12. Video-Puff of Air Hits Ball of Water in Space Onboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. In this video clip, Dr. Pettit demonstrates the phenomenon of a puff of air hitting a ball of water that is free floating in space. Watch the video to see why Dr. Pettit remarks 'I'd hate think that our planet would go through these kinds of gyrations if it got whacked by a big asteroid'.

  13. Air-puff associated quantification of non-linear biomechanical properties of the human cornea in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sinha Roy, Abhijit; Kurian, Mathew; Matalia, Himanshu; Shetty, Rohit

    2015-08-01

    With the advent of newer techniques to correct refraction such as flapless laser procedure and collagen crosslinking, in vivo estimation of corneal biomechanical properties has gained importance. In this study, a new 3-D patient specific inverse finite element method of estimating corneal biomechanical properties from air-puff applanation was developed. The highlight of the model was inclusion of patient-specific corneal tomography, fiber dependent hyperelastic model, cross links between collagen lamellae and epithelium layer. A lumped mass, spring and dashpot model was included to model the resistance to motion and deformation of the eye globe caused by air-puff applanation. 10 normal eyes of 10 human subjects were used for the study. 3-D finite element models were constructed and custom routines were scripted for performing the inverse calculations. The model for each eye was perturbed to estimate the effect of measured intraocular pressure on the estimated biomechanical variables. The study demonstrated that the inverse method was effective in quantification of material properties and was sensitive to intraocular pressure alterations. Specifically, in vivo fiber dependent hyperelastic biomechanical properties of human corneas were estimated for the first time.

  14. Dummies versus air puffs: efficient stimulus delivery for low-volatile odors.

    PubMed

    Brandstaetter, Andreas Simon; Rössler, Wolfgang; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes

    2010-05-01

    Aiming to unravel how animals perceive odors, a variety of neurophysiological techniques are used today. For olfactory stimulation, odors are commonly incorporated into a constant airstream that carries odor molecules to the receptor organ (air-delivered stimulation). Such odor delivery works well for odors of high volatility (naturally effective over long distances) but less or not at all for low-volatile odors (usually only received at short range). We developed a new odor stimulation technique especially suited for low-volatile odors and compared it with conventional air-delivered stimulation using 2 neurophysiological approaches. Odor-loaded dummies were moved into close vicinity of the receptor organs on the antenna of the Florida carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus (dummy-delivered stimulation). Neuronal activity was monitored either at receptor neuron level using electroantennography or in the first olfactory neuropile, the antennal lobes, using calcium imaging. We tested 3 odors of different volatility: C. floridanus' highly volatile alarm pheromone undecane, its low-volatile trail pheromone nerolic acid, and an even less volatile, behaviorally active C23 alkene, cis-9-tricosene. For low-volatile odors, dummy-delivered stimulation was particularly efficient. We conclude that dummy-delivered stimulation is advantageous compared to the commonly used air-delivered stimulation when studying an animal's detection and processing of low-volatile odors.

  15. Intestinal and Gastric Tonometry During Experimental Burn Shock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Continuous measurement of gut pH with near- infrared spectroscopy during hemorrhagic shock. J...Arterial blood gases and pulmonary artery catheter data were measured every 6 h. Gastric and ileal regional PCO2 (PrCO2) were measured continuously by...catheter data were measured every 6 h. Gastric and ileal regional PCO2 (PrCO2) were measured continuously by air tonometry and recorded hourly

  16. Tonometry in three herbivorous wildlife species.

    PubMed

    Ofri, R.; Horowitz, I.H.; Kass, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    Tonometry was performed to estimate intraocular pressure (IOP) in 12 Nubian ibexes (Capra ibex nubiana), 10 Grant zebras (Equus burchelli ) and five Arabian oryxes (Oryx leucoryx), using both applanation (Tono-Pen) and/or indentation (Schiotz) tonometers. Animals were anesthetized with a mixture of etorphine hydrochloride and acepromazine maleate. Mean (+/- SD) IOP in the ibex was 17.95 +/- 4.78 mmHg (24 eyes, indentation tonometry). In the zebra, indentation tonometry (20 eyes) yielded a mean IOP of 25.30 +/- 3.06 mmHg, and applanation tonometry (six eyes) yielded a mean IOP of 29.47 +/- 3.43 mmHg. In the oryx, indentation tonometry (five eyes) yielded a mean IOP of 22.68 +/- 8.15 mmHg, and applanation tonometry (10 eyes) yielded a mean IOP of 11.76 +/- 3.43 mmHg. There were no significant effects of gender, age, weight, side or reading number on the IOP measured in any of the three species. No significant differences were found between the IOP of the three species, nor between the readings of the two instruments, although some of the P-values were close to the significance level.

  17. Gastric tonometry: where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Hamilton, M A; Mythen, M G

    2001-04-01

    Gastric tonometry has proved to be a sensitive but not specific predictor of outcome in the critically ill. The data accumulated to date indicate that those patients able to achieve or maintain a normal gastric mucosal pH do better than those who do not. In addition, therapy aimed at improving an abnormal gastric mucosal pH has proved to be less successful. These findings may simply indicate that tonometry identifies those "responders" and "nonresponders," as becomes increasingly apparent in populations of critical care patients receiving interventional therapy. Gastric tonometry has undergone a number of methodologic changes over the last decade, seeing a switch from saline to automated gas tonometry. Along with this switch of methodology has come a deeper scrutiny of the indices used to assess gut perfusion. Most studies (including all the interventional ones) have used gastric mucosal pH. The newer indices of gut luminal PCO2 (PgCO2) referenced to arterial CO2 (PgCO2-PaCO2) or end tidal CO2 (PgCO2-PeCO2), although relatively well validated, remain to be proven as predictors of outcome or guides to interventional therapy. If we take a fresh look at the interventional trials in intensive care patients, there is a very definite trend toward benefit in the protocol groups, although they are generally reported as negative studies. There is much to be accomplished, however, before we accept the gastric tonometer as a routine tool with which to guide therapy based on gastrointestinal perfusion, including a greater understanding of gastrointestinal physiology and, as ever, the call for an adequately powered prospective randomized controlled trial to evaluate the clinical utility of gas tonometry.

  18. Heart rate and heart rate variability assessment identifies individual differences in fear response magnitudes to earthquake, free fall, and air puff in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wei, Wei; Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z; Zhao, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Fear behaviors and fear memories in rodents have been traditionally assessed by the amount of freezing upon the presentation of conditioned cues or unconditioned stimuli. However, many experiences, such as encountering earthquakes or accidental fall from tree branches, may produce long-lasting fear memories but are behaviorally difficult to measure using freezing parameters. Here, we have examined changes in heartbeat interval dynamics as physiological readout for assessing fearful reactions as mice were subjected to sudden air puff, free-fall drop inside a small elevator, and a laboratory-version earthquake. We showed that these fearful events rapidly increased heart rate (HR) with simultaneous reduction of heart rate variability (HRV). Cardiac changes can be further analyzed in details by measuring three distinct phases: namely, the rapid rising phase in HR, the maximum plateau phase during which HRV is greatly decreased, and the recovery phase during which HR gradually recovers to baseline values. We showed that durations of the maximum plateau phase and HR recovery speed were quite sensitive to habituation over repeated trials. Moreover, we have developed the fear resistance index based on specific cardiac response features. We demonstrated that the fear resistance index remained largely consistent across distinct fearful events in a given animal, thereby enabling us to compare and rank individual mouse's fear responsiveness among the group. Therefore, the fear resistance index described here can represent a useful parameter for measuring personality traits or individual differences in stress-susceptibility in both wild-type mice and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) models.

  19. Comparison of Intraocular Pressure before and after Laser In Situ Keratomileusis Refractive Surgery Measured with Perkins Tonometry, Noncontact Tonometry, and Transpalpebral Tonometry

    PubMed Central

    Cacho, Isabel; Sanchez-Naves, Juan; Batres, Laura; Pintor, Jesús; Carracedo, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the intraocular pressure (IOP) before and after Laser In Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK), measured by Diaton, Perkins, and noncontact air pulse tonometers. Methods. Fifty-seven patients with a mean age of 34.88 were scheduled for myopia LASIK treatment. Spherical equivalent refraction (SER), corneal curvature (K), and central corneal thickness (CCT) and superior corneal thickness (SCT) were obtained before and after LASIK surgery. IOP values before and after surgery were measured using Diaton, Perkins, and noncontact air pulse tonometers. Results. The IOP values before and after LASIK surgery using Perkins tonometer and air tonometers were statistically significant (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences were found (p > 0.05) for IOP values measured with Diaton tonometer. CCT decreases significantly after surgery (p < 0.05) but no statistical differences were found in SCT (p = 0.08). Correlations between pre- and postsurgery were found for all tonometers used, with p = 0.001 and r = 0.434 for the air pulse tonometer, p = 0.008 and r = 0.355 for Perkins, and p < 0.001 and r = 0.637 for Diaton. Conclusion. Transpalpebral tonometry may be useful for measuring postsurgery IOP after myopic LASIK ablation because this technique is not influenced by the treatment. PMID:26167293

  20. Agreement of patient-measured intraocular pressure using rebound tonometry with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) in glaucoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shaoying; Yu, Marco; Baig, Nafees; Hansapinyo, Linda; Tham, Clement C.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine the agreement of patient-measured intraocular pressure (IOP) using rebound tonometry with ophthalmologist-measured IOP using Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT). Fifty-three glaucoma patients used rebound tonometry (Icare ONE, Icare Finland Oy., Finland) to measure their own IOP in ambient environments for 1 week, 5 times per day. Clinic IOP measurements were performed by ophthalmologists using GAT and by patients using rebound tonometry on examination days 1, 4 and 7 of the same week. The agreement between the two tonometries was evaluated by modified Bland-Altman plots and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined. Differences in ICCs of them among the three examination days were evaluated by bootstrap resampling analysis. Respective within-measurement ICC of GAT and rebound tonometry were 0.98 and 0.94 on Day 1, 0.98 and 0.93 on Day 4, and 0.96 and 0.92 on Day 7. In a modified Bland-Altman plot, the mean difference ±1 standard deviation (SD) between the two tonometries was 0.15 ± 0.65 mmHg (p = 0.682). Between-measurement ICC were 0.66, 0.76 and 0.73 on the 3 examination days. There was no significant difference among ICCs. In conclusion, patient-measured IOP using rebound tonometry and ophthalmologist-measured IOP using GAT demonstrate good agreement. PMID:28165028

  1. Pulmonary Function in Flight (PuFF) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In this International Space Station (ISS) onboard photo, Expedition Six Science Officer Donald R. Pettit works to set up the Pulmonary Function in Flight (PuFF) experiment hardware in the Destiny Laboratory. Expedition Six is the fourth and final crew to perform the PuFF experiment. The PuFF experiment was developed to better understand what effects long term exposure to microgravity may have on the lungs. The focus is on measuring changes in the everness of gas exchange in the lungs, and on detecting changes in respiratory muscle strength. It allows astronauts to measure blood flow through the lungs, the ability of the lung to take up oxygen, and lung volumes. Each PuFF session includes five lung function tests, which involve breathing only cabin air. For each planned extravehicular (EVA) activity, a crew member performs a PuFF test within one week prior to the EVA. Following the EVA, those crew members perform another test to document the effect of exposure of the lungs to the low-pressure environment of the space suits. This experiment utilizes the Gas Analyzer System for Metabolic Analysis Physiology, or GASMAP, located in the Human Research Facility (HRF), along with a variety of other Puff equipment including a manual breathing valve, flow meter, pressure-flow module, pressure and volume calibration syringes, and disposable mouth pieces.

  2. Effects of design parameters and puff topography on heating coil temperature and mainstream aerosols in electronic cigarettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tongke; Shu, Shi; Guo, Qiuju; Zhu, Yifang

    2016-06-01

    Emissions from electronic cigarettes (ECs) may contribute to both indoor and outdoor air pollution and the number of users is increasing rapidly. ECs operate based on the evaporation of e-liquid by a high-temperature heating coil. Both puff topography and design parameters can affect this evaporation process. In this study, both mainstream aerosols and heating coil temperature were measured concurrently to study the effects of design parameters and puff topography. The heating coil temperatures and mainstream aerosols varied over a wide range across different brands and within same brand. The peak heating coil temperature and the count median diameter (CMD) of EC aerosols increased with a longer puff duration and a lower puff flow rate. The particle number concentration was positively associated with the puff duration and puff flow rate. These results provide a better understanding of how EC emissions are affected by design parameters and puff topography and emphasize the urgent need to better regulate EC products.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF TRANSIENT PUFF EMISSIONS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Symposium Paper Transient puff emissions were characterized from burning carpet charges that were fed to a pilotscale rotary kiln combustor to assess the potential impact on emissions of using post-consumer carpet as an alternative fuel in cement kilns.

  4. MESOI: an interactive Lagrangian trajectory puff diffusion model

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.

    1981-12-01

    MESOI is an interactive Lagrangian trajectory puff diffusion model based on an earlier model by Start and Wendell at the Air Resources Laboratory Field Office at Idaho Falls, Idaho. Puff trajectories are determined using spatially and temporally varying wind fields. Diffusion in the puffs is computed as a function of distance traveled and atmospheric stability. Exposures are computed at nodes of a 31 by 31 grid. There is also provision for interpolation of short term exposures at off-grid locations. This report discusses: the theoretical bases of the model, the numerical approach used in the model, and the sensitivity and accuracy of the model. It contains a description of the computer program and a listing of the code. MESOI is written in FORTRAN. A companion report (Athey, Allwine and Ramsdell, 1981) contains a user's guide to MESOI and documents utility programs that maintain the data files needed by the model.

  5. Comparison of Goldmann applanation tonometry and Pascal dynamic contour tonometry in relation to central corneal thickness and corneal curvature

    PubMed Central

    Andreanos, Konstantinos; Koutsandrea, Chryssanthi; Papaconstantinou, Dimitris; Diagourtas, Andreas; Kotoulas, Andreas; Dimitrakas, Panagiotis; Moschos, Marilita M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to assess the influence of central corneal thickness (CCT) and corneal curvature in tonometry measurements taken by Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and Pascal dynamic contour tonometry (DCT). Methods This was a prospective study of 185 eyes from 97 subjects, attending outpatient ophthalmology appointments, who underwent intraocular pressure measurements by GAT and Pascal DCT. CCT and corneal curvature were obtained using ultrasound pachymetry and Orbscan topography, respectively. All measurements were carried out among males and females during the period 2009–2012. Apart from the usual descriptive and exploratory data analysis, one-way analysis of variance and agreement analysis were performed, linear as well as intraclass correlation coefficients were estimated, and multiple scatter and Bland–Altman plots were produced. Results Mean IOP measurements obtained were 17.21±4.10 mmHg by DCT and 13.23±4.07 mmHg by GAT. Mean difference between the GAT and DCT measurements was 3.88±2.8 mmHg. Mean CCT and corneal curvature were 522.78±52 μm and 43.83±2.9823 D, respectively. Conclusion Intraocular pressure measured by GAT was consistently lower when compared with DCT, and this difference was greatest with thinner CCT. Flat corneas seem to influence GAT measurements compared to DCT. PMID:28003737

  6. Buffer regulation of calcium puff sequences.

    PubMed

    Fraiman, Daniel; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

    2014-02-01

    Puffs are localized Ca(2 +) signals that arise in oocytes in response to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). They are the result of the liberation of Ca(2 +) from the endoplasmic reticulum through the coordinated opening of IP3 receptor/channels clustered at a functional release site. The presence of buffers that trap Ca(2 +) provides a mechanism that enriches the spatio-temporal dynamics of cytosolic calcium. The expression of different types of buffers along the cell's life provides a tool with which Ca(2 +) signals and their responses can be modulated. In this paper we extend the stochastic model of a cluster of IP3R-Ca(2 +) channels introduced previously to elucidate the effect of buffers on sequences of puffs at the same release site. We obtain analytically the probability laws of the interpuff time and of the number of channels that participate of the puffs. Furthermore, we show that under typical experimental conditions the effect of buffers can be accounted for in terms of a simple inhibiting function. Hence, by exploring different inhibiting functions we are able to study the effect of a variety of buffers on the puff size and interpuff time distributions. We find the somewhat counter-intuitive result that the addition of a fast Ca(2 +) buffer can increase the average number of channels that participate of a puff.

  7. Occurrence of transient puffs in a rotary-kiln incinerator simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Linak, W.P.; Kilgroe, J.D.; McSorley, J.A.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Dunn, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses a statistically designed parametric investigation to determine which waste and kiln variables (charge mass, charge surface area, charge composition, and kiln temperature) significantly affect both instantaneous intensity and total magnitude of the puffs leaving a kiln used to incinerate simple prototype plastic wastes, ranging from polyethylene to polyvinychloride. Results show the relative ease with which failure conditions are achieved, even at high excess air values and high kiln temperatures. Transient puffs leaving the kiln contain a number of hazardous compounds. Increasing kiln temperature does not necessarily decrease the puff intensity and may in fact cause an increase. However, the total mass emitted always decreases with increasing temperature. In addition, the mass, surface area, and composition of the charge are all important.

  8. Assessment of intraocular pressure measured by Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer, Goldmann Applanation Tonometry, and Dynamic Contour Tonometry in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Ping-Bo; Li, Cong-Yi; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Duan, Xuan-Chu

    2012-01-01

    AIM To investigate the accuracy of intraocular pressure (IOP) as measured by a Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA), as well as the relationship between central corneal thickness (CCT) and IOP as measured by ORA, Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT), and dynamic contour tonometry (DCT). METHODS A total of 158 healthy individuals (296 eyes) were chosen randomly for measurement of IOP. After CCT was measured using A-ultrasound (A-US), IOP was measured by ORA, GAT, and DCT devices in a randomized order. The IOP values acquired using each of the three tonometries were compared, and the relationship between CCT and IOP values were analyzed separately. Two IOP values, Goldmann-correlated IOP value (IOPg) and corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc), were got using ORA. Three groups were defined according to CCT: 1) thin cornea (CCT<520µm); 2) normal-thickness cornea (CCT: 520–580µm); and 3) thick cornea (CCT>580µm) groups. RESULTS In normal subjects, IOP measurements were 14.95±2.99mmHg with ORA (IOPg), 15.21±2.77mmHg with ORA (IOPcc), 15.22±2.77mmHg with GAT, and 15.49±2.56mmHg with DCT. Mean differences were 0.01±2.29mmHg between IOPcc and GAT (P>0.05) and 0.28±2.20mmHg between IOPcc and DCT (P>0.05). There was a greater correlation between IOPcc and DCT (r=0.946, P=0.000) than that between IOPcc and GAT (r=0.845, P=0.000). DCT had a significant correlation with GAT (r=0.854, P=0.000). GAT was moderately correlated with CCT (r=0.296, P<0.001), while IOPcc showed a weak but significant correlation with CCT (r=−0.155, P=0.007). There was a strong negative correlation between CCT and the difference between IOPcc and GAT(r=-0.803, P=0.000), with every 10µm increase in CCT resulting in an increase in this difference of 0.35mmHg. The thick cornea group (CCT>580µm) showed the least significant correlation between IOPcc and GAT (r=0.859, P=0.000); while the thin cornea group (CCT<520µm) had the most significant correlation between IOPcc and GAT (r=0

  9. Dynamic contour tonometry over silicone hydrogel contact lens

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Andrew K.C.; Tse, Jimmy S.H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study compared the measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP) and ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) using the Dynamic Contour Tonometry (DCT) over silicone hydrogel contact lenses of different modulus. Corneal biomechanics were also measured using the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA). Methods Forty-seven young (mean age 22.3 years, standard deviation 1.2 years) subjects had IOP, OPA, corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) measured without lens and with two brands of silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Each eye wore one brand followed by another, randomly assigned, and then the lenses switched over. Difference and agreement of IOP and OPA with and without silicone hydrogel contact lens were studied. Results The right and left eyes had similar corneal curvatures, central corneal thicknesses, IOP, OPA and corneal biomechanics at baseline. No significant difference was found in CH and CRF when they were measured over different contact lenses. IOP demonstrated a greater difference (95% limits of agreement: 2.73 mmHg) compared with no lens when it was measured over high modulus silicone hydrogel lenses. Agreement improved over low lens modulus silicone hydrogel lenses (95% limits of agreement: 2.2–2.4 mmHg). 95% limits of agreement were within 1.0 mmHg for OPA. Conclusions This study demonstrated the feasibility of DCT over silicone hydrogel lenses. Low lens modulus silicone hydrogel contact lens in situ has no clinical effect on DCT. PMID:24766866

  10. Perimetry, tonometry and epidemiology: the fate of glaucoma management.

    PubMed

    Heijl, Anders

    2011-06-01

    This is the lecture that I gave when I was awarded Acta Ophthalmologica's gold medal and honorary award at the Nordic Ophthalmological Congress in Reykjavik in August 2010. I was inspired by Jared Diamond's famous book: Guns, Germs, and Steel, The Fates of Human Societies. Diamond is professor of geography and physiology at the University of California, Los Angeles. In this book, which won the Pulitzer Prize, the author explains why the European civilization took over the world. This was all because of predetermined factors of biological nature, environmental differences that were strengthened by feedback loops, and resulted in technological innovation and superiority. In this presentation, I write about the development of glaucoma knowledge and management. I suggest that the development might have been predetermined, just waiting for more facts to be unveiled by research. The technologies tonometry and perimetry have been fundamental as has epidemiological techniques and controlled trials. The new and increased knowledge about glaucoma must now be translated to improvements of clinical glaucoma care. The glaucoma scientists of today and tomorrow will continue to reveal as yet unknown facts, maybe in a predetermined way, but nevertheless of benefit to all patients with glaucoma.

  11. Assessment of vascular autonomic function using peripheral arterial tonometry.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Satomi; Oono, Ai; Ishihara, Yuri; Hasegawa, Yuki; Akaza, Miho; Sumi, Yuki; Inoue, Yoshinori; Izumiyama, Hajime; Hirao, Kenzo; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Sasano, Tetsuo

    2017-03-01

    Peripheral autonomic function is impaired in diabetic polyneuropathy. However, it is difficult to evaluate it due to the lack of non-invasive quantitative assessment. We aimed to establish a novel index to evaluate vascular autonomic function using reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT), a widely performed endothelial function test. Sixty-five subjects were enrolled, including healthy subjects, cases with sympathetic nerve blockers, and diabetic patients. RH-PAT was performed with 5-min blood flow occlusion in unilateral arm. We calculated the reduction ratio of the post-occlusion pulse amplitude to the baseline in the non-occluded arm (RPN), with 1-min sliding window. In healthy subjects, RPN gradually increased with time-dependent manner. However, this phenomenon was eliminated in cases with sympathetic nerve blockers. Plasma concentration of norepinephrine was measured before and after the blood flow occlusion, which showed a significant increase. We then compared RPNs with the change in heart rate variability (HRV) parameters. RPN calculated at 5 min after the reperfusion had the highest correlation with the change in sympathetic HRV parameter, and thus, we named sympathetic hypoemia index (SHI). Finally, we studied the relationship between SHI and diabetes. SHI was significantly lower in diabetic patients than matched controls. SHI, a novel index derived from RH-PAT, represented the peripheral sympathetic activity. SHI may be useful for assessing the vascular autonomic activity in diabetic patients.

  12. Use of reactive hyperemia - peripheral arterial tonometry and circulating biological markers to predict outcomes in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Nobre, Vandack; Ataíde, Thiago Bragança; Brant, Luisa Caldeira; Oliveira, Clara Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Lucas Vieira; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho; Lopes, Fernanda Barbosa; Saraiva, Ivan Euclides; Andrade, Marcus Vinícius

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the usefulness and prognostic value of reactive hyperemia - peripheral arterial tonometry in patients with sepsis. Moreover, we investigated the association of reactive hyperemia - peripheral arterial tonometry results with serum levels of certain inflammatory molecules. Methods Prospective study, conducted in an 18-bed mixed intensive care unit for adults. The exclusion criteria included severe immunosuppression or antibiotic therapy initiated more than 48 hours before assessment. We measured the reactive hyperemia - peripheral arterial tonometry on inclusion (day 1) and on day 3. Interleukin-6, interleukin-10, high-mobility group box 1 protein and soluble ST2 levels were measured in the blood obtained upon inclusion. Results Seventeen of the 79 patients (21.6%) enrolled were determined to have reactive hyperemia - peripheral arterial tonometry signals considered technically unreliable and were excluded from the study. Thus, 62 patients were included in the final analysis, and they underwent a total of 95 reactive hyperemia - peripheral arterial tonometry exams within the first 48 hours after inclusion. The mean age was 51.5 (SD: 18.9), and 49 (62%) of the patients were male. Reactive hyperemia indexes from days 1 and 3 were not associated with vasopressor need, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, or 28-day mortality. Among the patients who died, compared with survivors, there was a significant increase in the day 3 reactive hyperemia index compared with day 1 (p = 0.045). There was a weak negative correlation between the day 1 reactive hyperemia - peripheral arterial tonometry index and the levels of high-mobility group box 1 protein (r = -0.287). Conclusion Technical difficulties and the lack of clear associations between the exam results and clinical severity or outcomes strongly limits the utility of reactive hyperemia - peripheral arterial tonometry in septic patients

  13. He Puff System For Dust Detector Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    B. Rais, C.H. Skinner A.L. Roquemore

    2010-10-01

    Local detection of surface dust is needed for the safe operation of next-step magnetic fusion devices such as ITER. An electrostatic dust detector, based on a 5 cm x 5 cm grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 50 V, has been developed to detect dust on remote surfaces and was successfully tested for the first time on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). We report on a helium puff system that clears residual dust from this detector and any incident debris or fibers that might cause a permanent short circuit. The entire surface of the detector was cleared of carbon particles by two consecutive helium puffs delivered by three nozzles of 0.45 mm inside diameter. The optimal configuration was found to be with the nozzles at an angle of 30o with respect to the surface of the detector and a helium backing pressure of 6 bar. __________________________________________________

  14. Trans-scleral tactile tonometry: an instrumented approach.

    PubMed

    Polyvás, Péter P; Peyman, Gholam; Enikov, Eniko T

    2013-07-01

    This article describes a feasibility study of a novel trans-scleral tonometer based on the use of an instrumented form of digital palpation tonometry. Similar to manual digital palpation tonometery, trans-scleral tonometer utilizes two force probes offset by a fixed distance. Force indentation data from these probes have been shown to correlate with the intraocular pressure (IOP) of the eye. Enucleated porcine eyes were used to experimentally validate the approach. The observed hysteresis in the force data was analyzed using an analytical model that accounts for the outflow of the aqueous humor. The predictions of the model indicate that the primary reason behind the observed hysteresis is stress relaxation (accommodation) in the visco-elastic corneo-scleral shell. Experimental data from eye distention and indentation tests were then used to infer the conditions under which the novel tonometer would be expected to have an accuracy of ±1 mmHg. Analysis of the data shows that indentation rates should be kept below 0.5 mm/s for a pressure range of 10-35 mmHg. Two commonly used pressure control protocols were tested in an effort to ensure accurate IOP values during the palpation tests. Due to the large increase of IOP during digital palpation, the trans-scleral (intra-vitreous) pressurization was found to be inadequate, leading to clogging of the line by the displaced vitreous. No such problems were identified when the eye was pressurized through the cornea and into the anterior chamber. Force data from multiple palpation experiments are used to generate calibration curves for a two-probe conceptual tonometer. The calibration showed that a 10 mN of force variation corresponds to 1 mmHg of IOP change. A possible implementation using a contoured facial mask is also presented.

  15. Huff and puff process for retorting oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Russum, L. W.

    1984-06-05

    Greater product yield and quality as well as simplified gas recovery can be attained by a huff and puff process for retorting oil shale. The process can be advantageously carried out in in situ retorts under ground as well as in surface retorts above ground. In the process, an active retort of raw oil shale is retorted without prior combustion of oil shale therein with retort off gases, which have been heated in a spent shale retort. In the preferred mode, retort off gases from the active retort and air are alternately injected into the spent retort to cyclically heat the off gases and combust the coked shale. The retort off gases can be deoiled and optionally scrubbed of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide before being heated in the spent retort.

  16. Plasma puff initiation of high Coulomb transfer switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venable, D. D.; Choi, E. H.

    1990-01-01

    The plasma-puff triggering mechanism based on a hypocycloidal pinch geometry was investigated to determine the optimal operating conditions for the azimuthally uniform surface flashover which initiates plasma-puff under wide range of fill gas pressure of Ar, He and N2. The optimal fill gas pressure for the azimuthally uniform plasma-puff was about 120 mTorr and 450 Torr for He and N2, and between 120 mTorr and 5 Torr for Ar. The inverse pinch switch was triggered with the plasma-puff and the switching capability under various electrical parameters and working gas pressures of Ar, He and N2 was determined. It was also shown that the azimuthally uniform switching discharges were dependent on the type of fill gas and its fill pressure. A new concept of plasma-focus driven plasma-puff was also discussed in comparison with the hypocycloidal pinch plasma-puff triggering. The main discharge of inverse pinch switch with plasma-focus driven plasma-puff trigger is found to be more azimuthally uniform than that with hypocycloidal pinch plasma-puff trigger in a gas pressure region between 80 mTorr and 1 Torr.

  17. Noninvasive Measurement of Central Vascular Pressures With Arterial Tonometry: Clinical Revival of the Pulse Pressure Waveform?

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Matthew R.; Stepanek, Jan; Cevette, Michael; Covalciuc, Michael; Hurst, R. Todd; Tajik, A. Jamil

    2010-01-01

    The arterial pulse has historically been an essential source of information in the clinical assessment of health. With current sphygmomanometric and oscillometric devices, only the peak and trough of the peripheral arterial pulse waveform are clinically used. Several limitations exist with peripheral blood pressure. First, central aortic pressure is a better predictor of cardiovascular outcome than peripheral pressure. Second, peripherally obtained blood pressure does not accurately reflect central pressure because of pressure amplification. Lastly, antihypertensive medications have differing effects on central pressures despite similar reductions in brachial blood pressure. Applanation tonometry can overcome the limitations of peripheral pressure by determining the shape of the aortic waveform from the radial artery. Waveform analysis not only indicates central systolic and diastolic pressure but also determines the influence of pulse wave reflection on the central pressure waveform. It can serve as a useful adjunct to brachial blood pressure measurements in initiating and monitoring hypertensive treatment, in observing the hemodynamic effects of atherosclerotic risk factors, and in predicting cardiovascular outcomes and events. Radial artery applanation tonometry is a noninvasive, reproducible, and affordable technology that can be used in conjunction with peripherally obtained blood pressure to guide patient management. Keywords for the PubMed search were applanation tonometry, radial artery, central pressure, cardiovascular risk, blood pressure, and arterial pulse. Articles published from January 1, 1995, to July 1, 2009, were included in the review if they measured central pressure using radial artery applanation tonometry. PMID:20435839

  18. Time-dependent buoyant puff model for explosive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kansa, E.J.

    1997-10-01

    This paper presents a new model for explosive puff rise histories that is derived from the strong conservative form of the partial differential equations of mass, momenta, and total energy that are integrated over space to yield a coupled system of time dependent nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). By allowing the dimensions of the puff to evolve laterally and horizontally, the initial rising spherical shaped puff evolves into a rising ellipsoidal shaped mushroom cloud. This model treats the turbulence that is generated by the puff itself and the ambient atmospheric turbulence as separate mechanisms in determining the puff history. The puff rise history was found to depend not only upon the mass and initial temperature of the explosion, but also upon the local stability conditions of the ambient atmosphere through which the puff rises. This model was calibrated by comparison with the Roller Coaster experiments, ranging from unstable to very stable atmospheric conditions; the agreement of the model history curves with these experimental curves was within 10%.

  19. Time-dependent buoyant puff model for explosive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kansa, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    Several models exist to predict the time dependent behavior of bouyant puffs that result from explosions. This paper presents a new model that is derived from the strong conservative form of the conservation partial differential equations that are integrated over space to yield a coupled system of time dependent nonlinear ordinary differential equations. This model permits the cloud to evolve from an intial spherical shape not an ellipsoidal shape. It ignores the Boussinesq approximation, and treats the turbulence that is generated by the puff itself and the ambient atmospheric tubulence as separate mechanisms in determining the puff history. The puff cloud rise history was found to depend no only on the mass and initial temperature of the explosion, but also upon the stability conditions of the ambient atmosphere. This model was calibrated by comparison with the Roller Coaster experiments.

  20. SIMPLODE: An Imploding Gas Puff Plasma Model. I. Neon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    recent experimental results obtained on GAMBLE II. In addition, the influence of the Plasma Erosion Opening Switch on the K-shell yield is...LTE radiation physics model and is ideal for use with the gas puff experiments at NRL on the GAMBLE II facility. Recently the GAMBLE II pulse power...facility has been upgraded to accomodate gas puff loads. This modification enhances GAMBLE II’s versatility by expanding the types of material loads that

  1. Understanding eye deformation in non-contact tonometry.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Roland; Kurita, Yuichi; Iida, Yoshichika; Kaneko, Makoto; Mishima, Hiromu K; Tsukamoto, Hidetoshi; Sugimoto, Eiichiro

    2006-01-01

    Non-contact tonometers are widely used to measure the internal eye pressure, i.e. the IntraOcular Pressure (IOP), which is an important parameter for the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma. During the measurement, the eye is deformed by a short air pulse. Commonly the pressure dependent deformation is estimated from the time when the eye becomes flat, which is derived from the monitored reflection of an incident infrared light. We used a high speed camera to capture the complete motion of the eye directly and obtain more data during the pressure measurement. Assuming a simple eye model with non-linear material properties of the cornea, we extend our previous analysis of the motion of the eye, and obtain a similar principle shape of the eye deformation as observed in the experiments.

  2. Study of gas-puff Z-pinches on COBRA

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, N.; Rosenberg, E. W.; Gourdain, P. A.; Grouchy, P. W. L. de; Kusse, B. R.; Hammer, D. A.; Bell, K. S.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Potter, W. M.; Atoyan, L.; Cahill, A. D.; Evans, M.; Greenly, J. B.; Hoyt, C. L.; Pikuz, S. A.; Schrafel, P. C.; Kroupp, E.; Fisher, A.; Maron, Y.

    2014-11-15

    Gas-puff Z-pinch experiments were conducted on the 1 MA, 200 ns pulse duration Cornell Beam Research Accelerator (COBRA) pulsed power generator in order to achieve an understanding of the dynamics and instability development in the imploding and stagnating plasma. The triple-nozzle gas-puff valve, pre-ionizer, and load hardware are described. Specific diagnostics for the gas-puff experiments, including a Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence system for measuring the radial neutral density profiles along with a Laser Shearing Interferometer and Laser Wavefront Analyzer for electron density measurements, are also described. The results of a series of experiments using two annular argon (Ar) and/or neon (Ne) gas shells (puff-on-puff) with or without an on- (or near-) axis wire are presented. For all of these experiments, plenum pressures were adjusted to hold the radial mass density profile as similar as possible. Initial implosion stability studies were performed using various combinations of the heavier (Ar) and lighter (Ne) gasses. Implosions with Ne in the outer shell and Ar in the inner were more stable than the opposite arrangement. Current waveforms can be adjusted on COBRA and it was found that the particular shape of the 200 ns current pulse affected on the duration and diameter of the stagnated pinched column and the x-ray yield.

  3. Comparison of ICare and IOPen vs Goldmann applanation tonometry according to international standards 8612 in glaucoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Pahlitzsch, Milena; Brünner, Jeanette; Gonnermann, Johannes; Maier, Anna-Karina B.; Torun, Necip; Bertelmann, Eckart; Klamann, Matthias KJ.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare IOPen and ICare rebound tonometry to Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) according to International Standards Organization (ISO) 8612 criteria. METHODS Totally 191 eyes (n=107 individuals) were included. Criteria of ISO 8612 were fulfilled: 3 clusters of IOP, measured by GAT, were formed. The GAT results were given as mean±standard deviation. RESULTS GAT (19.7±0.5 mm Hg) showed a significant correlation to ICare (19.8±0.5 mm Hg) (r=0.547, P<0.001) and IOPen (19.5±0.5 mm Hg) (r=0.526, P<0.001). According to ISO 8612 criteria in all 3 IOP groups the number of outliers (of the 95% limits of agreement) exceeded 5% for ICare and IOPen vs GAT: No.1 (n=68) 29.4% and 22.1%, No.2 (n=62) 35.5% and 37.1%, No.3 (n=61) 26.2% and 42.6%, respectively. CONCLUSION The strict requirements of the ISO 8612 are not fulfilled in a glaucoma collective by ICare and IOPen at present. As long as the Goldmann tonometry is applicable it should be used first of all for reproducible IOP readings. ICare and IOPen tonometry should be considered as an alternative tool, if application of Goldmann tonometry is not possible. PMID:27990366

  4. Quantifying calcium fluxes underlying calcium puffs in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Luciana; Solovey, Guillermo; Ventura, Alejandra C.; Dargan, Sheila; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

    2010-01-01

    Summary We determine the calcium fluxes through inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor/channels underlying calcium puffs of Xenopus laevis oocytes using a simplified version of the algorithm of Ventura et al., 2005 [1]. An analysis of 130 puffs obtained with Fluo-4 indicates that Ca2+ release comes from a region of width ~ 450 nm, that the release duration is peaked around 18ms and that the underlying Ca2+ currents range between 0.12 and 0.95pA. All these parameters are independent of IP3 concentration. We explore what distributions of channels that open during a puff, Np, and what relations between current and number of open channels, I(Np), are compatible with our findings and with the distribution of puff-to-trigger amplitude ratio reported in Rose et al, 2006 [2]. To this end, we use simple “mean field” models in which all channels open and close simultaneously. We find that the variability among clusters plays an important role in shaping the observed puff amplitude distribution and that a model for which I(Np) ~Np for small Np and I(Np)~Np1/α (α>1) for large Np, provides the best agreement. Simulations of more detailed models in which channels open and close stochastically show that this nonlinear behavior can be attributed to the limited time resolution of the observations and to the averaging procedure that is implicit in the mean-field models. These conclusions are also compatible with observations of ~400 puffs obtained using the dye Oregon green. PMID:20097419

  5. Suppressing effect of C a2 + blips on puff amplitudes by inhibiting channels to prevent recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan; Qi, Hong; Li, Xiang; Cai, Meichun; Chen, Xingqiang; Liu, Wen; Shuai, Jianwei

    2016-08-01

    As local signals, calcium puffs arise from the concerted opening of a few nearby inositol 1,4,5-trisphospate receptor channels to release C a2 + ions from the endoplasmic reticulum. Although C a2 + puffs have been well studied, little is known about the modulation of cytosolic basal C a2 + concentration ([Ca2 +] Basal) on puff dynamics. In this paper we consider a puff model to study how the statistical properties of puffs are modulated by [Ca2 +] Basal. The puff frequency and lifetime trivially increase with the increasing [Ca2 +] Basal, but an unexpected result is that the puff amplitude and the maximum open-channel number of the puff show decreasing relationship with the increasing [Ca2 +] Basal. The underlying dynamics is related not only to the increasing puff frequency which gives a shorter recovery time, but also to the increasing frequency of blips with only one channel open. We indicate that C a2 + blips cause the channels to be inhibited and prevent their recovery during interpuff intervals, resulting in the suppressing effect on puff amplitudes. With increasing [Ca2 +] Basal, more blips occur to cause more channels to be inhibited, leaving fewer channels available for puff events. This study shows that the blips may play relevant functions in global C a2 + waves through modulating puff dynamics.

  6. Plasma-puff initiation of high Coulomb transfer switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Venable, Demetrius D.; Lee, Ja H.; Choi, Eun H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, J. H.; Nguyen, D. X.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma-puff triggering mechanism based on a hypocycloidal pinch geometry was investigated to determine the optimal operating conditions for an azimuthally uniform surface flashover which initiates plasma-puff under wide ranges of fill gas pressures of Ar, He and N2. The optimal fill gas pressures for the azimuthally uniform plasma-puff were about 120 mTorr less than P(sub opt) less than 450 Torr for He and N2. For Argon 20 mTorr is less than P(sub opt) is less than 5 Torr. The inverse pinch switch was triggered with the plasma-puff and the switching capability under various electrical parameters and working gas pressures of Ar, He and N2 was determined. It was also shown that the azimuthally uniform switching discharges were dependent on the type of fill gas and its fill pressure. A new concept of plasma-focus driven plasma-puff was also discussed in comparison with hypocycloidal pinch plasma-puff triggering. The main discharge of the inverse pinch switch with the plasma-focus driven plasma-puff trigger is found to be more azimuthally uniform than that with the hypocycloidal pinch plasma-puff trigger in a gas pressure region between 80 mTorr and 1 Torr. In order to assess the effects of plasma current density on material erosion of electrodes, emissions from both an inverse-pinch plasma switch (INPIStron) and from a spark gap switch under test were studied with an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA). The color temperature of the argon plasma was approximately 4,000 K which corresponded with the peak continuum emission near 750 nm. There are the strong line emissions of argon in the 650 - 800 nm range and a lack of line emissions of copper and other solid material used in the switch. This indicates that the plasma current density during closing is low and the hot spot or hot filament in the switch is negligible. This result also indicates considerable reduction of line emission with the INPIStron switch over that of a spark-gap switch. However, a strong carbon

  7. Plasma-puff initiation of high Coulomb transfer switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venable, D. D.; Han, K. S.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma-puff triggering mechanism based on a hypocycloidal pinch geometry was investigated to determine the optimal operating conditions for an azimuthally uniform surface flashover which initiates plasma-puff under wide ranges of fill gas pressures of Ar, He and N2. The optimal fill gas pressures for the azimuthally uniform plasma-puff were about 120 mTorr less than P(opt) less than 450 Torr for He and N2. For Argon 120 mTorr less than P(opt) less than 5 Torr for argon. The inverse pinch switch was triggered with the plasma-puff and the switching capability under various electrical parameters and working gas pressures of Ar, He and N2 was determined. It was also shown that the azimuthally uniform switching discharges were dependent on the type of fill gas and its fill pressure. A new concept of plasma-focus driven plasma-puff was also discussed in comparison with hypocycloidal pinch plasma-puff triggering. The main discharge of the inverse pinch switch with the plasma-focus driven plasma-puff trigger is found to be more azimuthally uniform than that with the hypocycloidal pinch plasma-puff trigger in a gas pressure region between 80 mTorr and 1 Torr. In order to assess the effects of plasma current density on material erosion of electrodes, emissions from both an inverse-pinch plasma switch (INPIStron) and from a spark gap switch under test were studied with an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA). The color temperature of the argon plasma was approximately 4,000 K which corresponded with the peak continuum emission near 750 nm. There are the strong line emissions of argon in the 650 - 800 nm range and a lack of line emissions of copper and other solid material used in the switch. This indicates that the plasma current density during closing is low and the hot spot or hot filament in the switch is negligible. This result also indicates considerable reduction of line emission with the INPIStron switch over that of a spark-gap switch. However, a strong carbon line

  8. Triggering for submaximal exercise level in gastric exercise tonometry: serial lactate, heart rate, or respiratory quotient?

    PubMed

    Otte, Johannes A; Oostveen, Ellie; Mensink, Peter B F; Geelkerken, Robert H; Kolkman, Jeroen J

    2007-08-01

    Gastric exercise tonometry is a functional diagnostic test in chronic gastrointestinal ischemia. As maximal exercise can cause false-positive tests, exercise buildup should be controlled to remain submaximal. We evaluated three parameters for monitoring and adjusting exercise levels (heart rate [HR], respiratory quotient [RQ], and serial lactate measurements) in 178 tests in both healthy volunteers and patients suspected of gastrointestinal ischemia. Exercise levels above submaximal occurred in 20% of HR-, 2% of RQ-, and 5% of lactate-monitored tests (P<0.05 for HR vs. RQ and lactate). Low levels were seen in 5% of HR-, 10% of RQ-, and 41% of lactate-monitored tests (P<0.01 for lactate vs. HR and RQ). High levels resulted in 43% false-positive tonometry results compared to 19% of all tests (P<0.001); low levels did not result in more false negatives (5% vs. 6%). Although RQ monitoring yielded the greatest proportion of optimal exercise tests, serial lactate monitoring is our method of choice, combining optimal diagnostic accuracy, low cost, and simplicity.

  9. Properties of extruded chia-corn meal puffs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the properties of extruded corn meal puffs containing chia. Mixtures of corn meal and chia seeds (0-20%) were processed in a laboratory-scale twin-screw extruder at different moisture contents (18-22%) and final heating zone temperatures (120-160 °C). Extrusion processing pro...

  10. Study on mental stress using near-infrared spectroscopy, electroencephalography, and peripheral arterial tonometry.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yoshikazu; Ogata, Hajime; Takano, Hidenori; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Mukai, Toshiharu; Yagi, Tohru

    2008-01-01

    In this research, we used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as an alternative technique for mental state analysis, and compared its performance with other conventional techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG) and peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) during stress and healing tasks. We measured biological signals simultaneously in our experiments using these techniques for comparison. NIRS results showed that the level of total hemoglobin in the frontal cortex increased during a stress task and decreased during a healing task for all subjects whose blood volume change was properly recorded. EEG, however, showed inconsistent results due to task variation. Only PAT gave consistent results in many of the subjects. Taken together, the results suggest that NIRS might be suitable for mental state evaluation, with PAT as an alternative.

  11. Cataract surgery causes biomechanical alterations to the eye detectable by Corvis ST tonometry

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Yoshitake; Nakakura, Shunsuke; Asaoka, Ryo; Matsuya, Kanae; Fujio, Yuki; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Modern cataract surgery is generally considered to bring about modest and sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction. However, the pathophysiological mechanism for this remains unclear. Moreover, a change in ocular biomechanical properties after surgery can affect the measurement of IOP. The aim of the study is to investigate ocular biomechanics, before and following cataract surgery, using Corvis ST tonometry (CST). Patients and methods Fifty-nine eyes of 59 patients with cataract were analyzed. IOP with Goldmann applanation tonometry (IOP-G), axial length, corneal curvature and CST parameters were measured before cataract surgery and, up to 3 months, following surgery. Since CST parameters are closely related to IOP-G, linear modeling was carried out to investigate whether there was a change in CST measurements following cataract surgery, adjusted for a change in IOP-G. Results IOP-G significantly decreased after surgery (mean±standard deviation: 11.8±3.1 mmHg) compared to pre-surgery (15.2±4.3 mmHg, P<0.001). Peak distance (the distance between the two surrounding peaks of the cornea at the highest concavity), maximum deformation amplitude (the movement of the corneal apex from the start of deformation to the highest concavity) and A1/A2 velocity (the corneal velocity during inward or outward movement) significantly increased after cataract surgery (P<0.05) while radius (the central curvature radius at the highest concavity) was significantly smaller following cataract surgery (P<0.05). Linear modeling supported many of these findings, suggesting that peak distance, maximum deformation amplitude and A2 velocity were increased, whereas A2 deformation amplitude and highest concavity time were decreased (after adjustment for IOP change), following cataract surgery. Conclusion Corneal biomechanical properties, as measured with CST, were observed to change significantly following cataract surgery. Trial registration Japan Clinical Trials Registry UMIN

  12. 'Carcinogens in a puff': smoking in Hong Kong movies.

    PubMed

    Ho, Sai-Yin; Wang, Man-Ping; Lai, Hak-Kan; Hedley, Anthony J; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2010-12-01

    Smoking scenes in movies, exploited by the tobacco industry to circumvent advertisement bans, are linked to adolescent smoking. Recently, a Hong Kong romantic comedy Love in a puff put smoking at centre stage, with numerous smoking scenes and words that glamourise smoking. Although WHO has issued guidelines on reducing the exposure of children to smoking in movies, none is adopted in Hong Kong. Comprehensive tobacco control strategies are urgently needed to protect young people in Hong Kong from cigarette promotion in movies.

  13. Effect of Deuterium Gas Puff On The Edge Plasma In NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S. J.

    2014-02-20

    This paper describes a detailed examination of the effects of a relatively small pulsed deuterium gas puff on the edge plasma and edge turbulence in NSTX. This gas puff caused little or no change in the line-averaged plasma density or total stored energy, or in the edge density and electron temperature up to the time of the peak of the gas puff. The radial profile of the Dα light emission and the edge turbulence within this gas puff did not vary significantly over its rise and fall, implying that these gas puffs did not significantly perturb the local edge plasma or edge turbulence. These measurements are compared with modeling by DEGAS 2, UEDGE, and with simplified estimates for the expected effects of this gas puff.

  14. Hedonic Predictors of Tobacco Dependence: A Puff Guide to Smoking Cessation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-07

    general linear model described in hypothesis 2.1 and added FTND as a continuous independent variable. A significant FTND by Puff Number interaction would...indicate that the association between FTND and liking ratings differed across puff numbers. A significant FTND by Abstinence State interaction ...This conclusion is qualified by the presence of a significant Puff Number by Abstinence State interaction , F (6, 1224) = 3.91, p = .0058. Figure 3

  15. Edge turbulence measurements in NSTX by gas puff imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqueda, R. J.; Wurden, G. A.; Zweben, S.; Roquemore, L.; Kugel, H.; Johnson, D.; Kaye, S.; Sabbagh, S.; Maingi, R.

    2001-01-01

    Turbulent filaments in visible light emission corresponding mainly to density fluctuations at the edge have been observed in large aspect ratio tokamaks: TFTR, ASDEX, Alcator C-Mod, and DIII-D. This article reports on similar turbulent structures observed in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) using a fast-framing, intensified, digital visible camera. These filaments were previously detected mainly in high recycling regions, such as at limiters or antennas, where the line emission from neutral atoms was modulated by the fluctuations in local plasma density. However, by introducing controlled edge gas puffs, i.e., gas puff imaging, we have increased the brightness and contrast in the fluctuation images and allowed the turbulent structure to be measured independently of the recycling. A set discrete fiber-optically coupled sight-lines also measured the frequency spectra of these light fluctuations with a 200 kHz bandwidth. Initial results in NSTX show that the turbulent filaments are well aligned with the magnetic field which can be up to 45° from the horizontal at the outer midplane of NSTX. The dominant wavelength perpendicular to the magnetic field is ˜7-11 cm, corresponding to a k⊥ ρs of ˜0.3 at an assumed Te=25 eV, and the frequency spectra has a typical broad shape characteristic of edge turbulence extending to about 100 kHz. By imaging a He gas puff along a magnetic field line the characteristic radial scalelength appears to be in the 3-5 cm range.

  16. Intraocular pressure in captive American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) as measured by rebound tonometry.

    PubMed

    Molter, Christine M; Hollingsworth, Steven R; Kass, Philip H; Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Wack, Raymund F

    2014-09-01

    Intraocular pressure was measured using rebound tonometry in American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), with the head in an upright standing position and when lowered in a feeding position, to establish a reference range. Mean +/- standard deviation (SD) (range) intraocular pressure for flamingos with the head in an upright position was right eye (OD)= 10.9 +/- 1.8 mm Hg (7-15 mm Hg) and left eye (OS) = 11.1 +/- 2.3 mm Hg (8-21 mm Hg). Median intraocular pressure for flamingos with the head in an upright position was OD and OS = 11 mm Hg. Mean intraocular pressure for flamingos with the head in a feeding position was OD = 14.3 +/- 2.5 mm Hg (10-22 mm Hg) and OS = 14.4 +/- 2.7 mm Hg (11-24 mm Hg), which were significantly higher. Median intraocular pressure for flamingos with the head in a feeding position was OD and OS = 14 mm Hg.

  17. Aircraft Survivability: Survivability Against Man Portable Air Defense Systems, Summer 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    air into the air stream ahead of the engine, while holding T2 at near-ambient condi- tions. Hot air was produced using an airflow rig ( Huff and Puff ... Huff and Puff , a trailer-mounted, TF30 turbofan engine, has a butterfly valve that can quickly re-direct the TF30 bypass air to the test article...Variable Exhaust Nozzle (VEN) shown in closed position Figure 6. HIVAS test setup Figure 7. Fan and compressor damage test setup with “ huff and puff

  18. Olive Oil Based Emulsions in Frozen Puff Pastry Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Lupi, F. R.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Puff pastry is an interesting food product having different industrial applications. It is obtained by laminating layers of dough and fats, mainly shortenings or margarine, having specific properties which provides required spreading characteristic and able to retain moisture into dough. To obtain these characteristics, pastry shortenings are usually saturated fats, however the current trend in food industry is mainly oriented towards unsatured fats such as olive oil, which are thought to be safer for human health. In the present work, a new product, based on olive oil, was studied as shortening replacer in puff pastry production. To ensure the desired consistency, for the rheological matching between fat and dough, a water-in-oil emulsion was produced based on olive oil, emulsifier and a hydrophilic thickener agent able to increase material structure. Obtained materials were characterized by rheological dynamic tests in linear viscoelastic conditions, aiming to setup process and material consistency, and rheological data were analyzed by using the weak gel model. Results obtained for tested emulsions were compared to theological properties of a commercial margarine, adopted as reference value for texture and stability. Obtained emulsions are characterized by interesting rheological properties strongly dependent on emulsifier characteristics and water phase composition. However a change in process temperature during fat extrusion and dough lamination seems to be necessary to match properly typical dough rheological properties.

  19. Beyond DNA puffs: What can we learn from studying sciarids?

    PubMed

    Simon, Claudio Roberto; Siviero, Fábio; Monesi, Nadia

    2016-07-01

    Members of the Sciaridae family attracted the interest of researchers because of the demonstration that the DNA puff regions, which are formed in the salivary gland polytene chromosomes at the end of the fourth larval instar, constitute sites of developmentally regulated gene amplification. Besides contributing to a deeper understanding of the process of gene amplification, the study of sciarids has also provided important insights on other biological processes such as sex determination, programmed cell death, insect immunity, telomere maintenance, and nucleolar organizing regions (NOR) formation. Open questions in sciarids include among others, early development, the role of noncoding RNAs in gene amplification and the relationship between gene amplification and transcription in DNA puff forming regions. These and other questions can now be pursued with next generation sequencing techniques and experiments using RNAi experiments, since this latter technique has been shown to be feasible in sciarids. These new perspectives in the field of sciarid biology open the opportunity to consolidate sciarid species as important emerging models. genesis 54:361-378, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Gas puff imaging diagnostic on NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, S. J.; Scotti, F.; Stotler, D. L.; Diallo, A.; Mandell, N.; Terry, J. L.; Han, W.

    2016-10-01

    The first results and plans for the gas puff imaging (GPI) diagnostic on NSTX-U will be described. The GPI optical efficiency has been improved by about × 10 using a new fiber bundle and interference filter, and the new optics has a zoom lens which can potentially resolve turbulence below the ion gyroradius scale. Experiments are planned to study high-k edge turbulence, correlations of edge turbulence with the SOL heat flux width, and the trigger mechanism of the L-H transition. A second fast camera is planned to view the GPI gas cloud from across the machine, which can potentially measure the field line pitch by simultaneously viewing individual field-aligned blob filaments in the radial vs. poloidal (GPI) and toroidal vs. poloidal (second camera) directions. An incoming collaboration from MIT will bring a 9 × 10 pixel APD-based detector array from Alcator C-Mod to NSTX-U, initially for faster and more sensitive imaging of the existing GPI gas puff. New results and further diagnostic plans will be described. This work was supported by USDOE Contracts #DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-SC0014264, and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Tonographic Effect of Ocular Response Analyzer in Comparison to Goldmann Applanation Tonometry

    PubMed Central

    Pitz, Susanne; Schmidtmann, Irene; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Wasielica-Poslednik, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Aims The tonographic effect is a phenomenon of intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction following repeated tonometry. This study examines whether the tonographic effect occurs following IOP measurement performed with Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA). Methods Both eyes of 31 glaucoma patients and 35 healthy controls underwent nine IOP-measurements performed with GAT and ORA. The number of GAT and ORA measurements performed on each eye differed depending on the randomly allocated investigation scheme. Central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber volume (ACV) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were assessed with Pentacam before and after the repeated GAT/ORA measurements. Results There was no statistically significant tonographic effect for IOP readings obtained by the ORA: corneal compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc) (-0.11 ± 3.06 mmHg, p = 0.843 in patients and -0.71 ± 3.28 mmHg, p = 0.208 for controls) and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) (-0.31 ± 2.38 mmHg, p = 0.469 in patients and -0.31 ± 2.37 mmHg, p = 0.441 in controls) measured with ORA. There was a significant IOP reduction from the first to the second GAT measurement, i.e. tonographic effect (-0.55 ± 2.00 mmHg, p = 0.138 in patients and -1.15 ± 1.52 mmHg, p < 0.001 in controls). CCT, corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were lower in glaucoma patients. The repeated IOP measurements resulted in an increase of CCT in all subjects (but no change of ACV and ACD). The tonographic effect of GAT correlated with CCT in glaucoma patients (r = 0.37). Conclusion In contrast to GAT, repeated ORA measurements do not result in the tonographic effect. Repeated IOP measurements resulted in an increase of central corneal thickness, but did not influence the volume and depth of anterior chamber. PMID:28068365

  2. Intraocular pressure with rebound tonometry and effects of topical intraocular pressure reducing medications in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Di, Yue; Luo, Xiu-Mei; Qiao, Tong; Lu, Na

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the intraocular pressure (IOP) of adult guinea pig eyes with rebound tonometry (RBT), and assess the effects of four distinctive topical IOP reducing medications including Carteolol, Brimonidine, Brinzolamide and Latanoprost. METHODS The IOPs of twenty-four 12-week-old guinea pigs (48 eyes) were measured every two hours in one day with RBT as baselines. All the animals were then divided into four groups (Carteolol, Brimonidine, Brinzolamide and Latanaprost groups, n=6). The IOPs were measured and compared to the baseline 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 15 and 24h after treatment. RESULTS The mean baseline IOP of 24 guinea pigs (48 eyes) was 10.3±0.36 mm Hg (6-13 mm Hg) and no binocular significant differences of IOPs were observed (t=1.76, P>0.05). No significant difference of IOP in Carteolol group at each time point was observed before and after treatment (t=1.48, P>0.05). In Brimonidine group, IOP was 2.2±1.9 mm Hg lower than the baseline after one hour (t=3.856, P=0.003) and lasted for one hour. In Brinzolamide group, IOP was 1.4±1.1 mm Hg lower than the baseline after one hour (t=4.53, P=0.001) and lasted for 7h and the IOP declined most at 3h. In Latanaprost group, IOP was 2.1±1.3 mm Hg lower than the baseline after one hour (t=6.11, P=0.001) and lasted for one hour. CONCLUSION The IOP of guinea pig eyes is relatively stable compared to human eyes. In four reducing IOP medications, no significant effect of Carteolol is observed. Brinzolamide has the longest duration, while the Brimonidine has the shortest duration and the maximum level of treatment. PMID:28251075

  3. Detection of subclinical keratoconus through non-contact tonometry and the use of discriminant biomechanical functions.

    PubMed

    Peña-García, Pablo; Peris-Martínez, Cristina; Abbouda, Alessandro; Ruiz-Moreno, José M

    2016-02-08

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a discriminant function departing from the biomechanical parameters provided by a non-contact tonometer (Corvis-ST, Oculus Optikgeräte, Wetzlar, Germany) to distinguish subclinical keratoconus from normal eyes. 212 eyes (120 patients) were divided in two groups: 184 healthy eyes of 92 patients aged 32.99 ± 7.85 (21-73 years) and 28 eyes of 28 patients aged 37.79 ± 14.21 (17-75 years) with subclinical keratoconus. The main outcome measures were age, sex, intraocular pressure (IOP), corneal central thickness (CCT) and other specific biomechanical parameters provided by the tonometer. Correlations between all biomechanical parameters and the rest of variables were evaluated. The biomechanical measures were corrected in IOP and CCT (since these variable are not directly related with the corneal structure and biomechanical behavior) to warrant an accurate comparison between both types of eyes. Two discriminant functions were created from the set of corrected variables. The best discriminant function created depended on three parameters: maximum Deformation Amplitude (corrected in IOP and CCT), First Applanation time (corrected in CCT) and CCT. Statistically significant differences were found between groups for this function (p=2·10(-10); Mann-Withney test). The area under the Receiving Operating Characteristic was 0.893 ± 0.028 (95% confidence interval 0.838-0.949). Sensitivity and specificity were 85.7% and 82.07% respectively. These results show that the use of biomechanical parameters provided by non-contact tonometry, previous normalization, combined with the theory of discriminant functions is a useful tool for the detection of subclinical keratoconus.

  4. Effects of a GPI deuterium gas puff on the edge plasma in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, S. J.; Bell, R. E.; Davis, W. M.; Saye, S. M.; Kubota, S.; Maingi, R.; Munsat, T.; Leblanc, B. P.; Maqueda, R. J.; Sechrest, Y.; Smith, D. R.; Stotler, D. P.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2013-10-01

    Deuterium neutral gas puffs near the outer midplane of NSTX have been routinely used for the gas puff imaging (GPI) diagnostic to measure edge turbulence. These puffs can inject up to 3.5 × 1020 D atoms over 100 msec from a manifold at the outer wall, with a maximum influx of 1022 atoms/sec after 20 msec. The 3D shape and absolute brightness of the D-alpha emission cloud from this puff have previously been modeled using DEGAS 2. The effects of the GPI puff on the edge plasma are now evaluated using Thomson scattering and other edge diagnostics of NSTX. The time evolution of the radial profile of D-alpha emission from the GPI cloud itself can be used to infer local changes in density and/or temperature. These results will be compared with models for the expected density and temperature perturbations, including parallel and perpendicular transport, drifts, rotation, and energy loss from radiation and charge exchange. The edge turbulence seen by GPI does not change significantly vs. time during the GPI puff, and other measurements of edge turbulence will be evaluated across the time of this puff.

  5. Skin conductance responses are elicited by the airway sensory effects of puffs from cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Nasir H; Bechara, Antoine

    2006-07-01

    The airway sensations stimulated by smoking are an important source of hedonic impact (pleasure) for dependent smokers. The learning process by which these sensations become pleasurable is not well understood. The classical conditioning model predicts that airway sensory stimulation will elicit sympathetic arousal that is positively correlated with the hedonic impact that is elicited by airway sensory stimulation. To test this prediction, we measured skin conductance responses (SCRs) and subjective hedonic impact elicited by a series of individual puffs from nicotinized, denicotinized and unlit cigarettes. Nicotinized puffs elicited more subjective hedonic impact than denicotinized and unlit puffs partly as a result of the fact that they provided a greater level of airway sensory stimulation. We found that SCRs were not larger for nicotinized puffs than for denicotinized puffs, but that they were larger for both nicotinized and denicotinized puffs than for unlit puffs. We also found that the average SCR of a subject to denicotinized puffs was positively correlated with the average hedonic impact that a subject obtained from denicotinized puffs. Together, this suggests that SCR magnitude does not reflect within-subject variations in hedonic impact that are due to variations in the level of airway sensory stimulation, but that it does reflect individual differences in the amount of hedonic impact that is derived from a given level of airway sensory stimulation. The results of a post hoc correlation analysis suggest that these individual differences may have been due to variations in the prevailing urge to smoke. The implications of these findings for the classical conditioning model, as well as for other learning models, are discussed.

  6. Research on plasma-puff initiation of high Coulomb transfer switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venable, Demetrius D.; Han, Kwang S.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma-puff triggering mechanism based on hypocycloidal pinch geometry was investigated to determine the optimal operating conditions for an azimuthally uniform surface flashover which initiates plasma-puff under wide ranges of fill gas pressures of Ar, He and N2. Research is presented and resulting conference papers are attached. These papers include 'Characteristics of Plasma-Puff Trigger for an Inverse-Pinch Plasma Switch'; 'Ultra-High-Power Plasma Switch INPUTS for Pulse Power Systems'; 'Characteristics of Switching Plasma in an Inverse-Pinch Switch'; 'Comparative Study of INPIStron and Spark Gap'; and 'INPIStron Switched Pulsed Power for Dense Plasma Pinches.'

  7. Comparison of non-invasive blood pressure monitoring using modified arterial applanation tonometry with intra-arterial measurement.

    PubMed

    Harju, Jarkko; Vehkaoja, Antti; Kumpulainen, Pekka; Campadello, Stefano; Lindroos, Ville; Yli-Hankala, Arvi; Oksala, Niku

    2017-01-19

    Intermittent non-invasive blood pressure measurement with tourniquets is slow, can cause nerve and skin damage, and interferes with other measurements. Invasive measurement cannot be safely used in all conditions. Modified arterial tonometry may be an alternative for fast and continuous measurement. Our aim was to compare arterial tonometry sensor (BPro(®)) with invasive blood pressure measurement to clarify whether it could be utilized in the postoperative setting. 28 patients who underwent elective surgery requiring arterial cannulation were analyzed. Patients were monitored post-operatively for 2 h with standard invasive monitoring and with a study device comprising an arterial tonometry sensor (BPro(®)) added with a three-dimensional accelerometer to investigate the potential impact of movement. Recordings were collected electronically. The results revealed inaccurate readings in method comparison between the devices based on recommendations by Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI). On a Bland-Altman plot, the bias and precision between these two methods was 19.8 ± 16.7 (Limits of agreement - 20.1 to 59.6) mmHg, Spearman correlation coefficient r = 0.61. For diastolic pressure, the difference was 4.8 ± 7.7 (LoA - 14.1 to 23.6) mmHg (r = 0.72), and for mean arterial pressure it was 11.18 ± 11.1 (LoA - 12.1 to 34.2) mmHg (r = 0.642). Our study revealed inaccurate agreement (AAMI) between the two methods when measuring systolic and mean blood pressures during post-operative care. The readings for diastolic pressures were inside the limits recommended by AAMI. Movement increased the failure rate significantly (p < 0.001). Thus, arterial tonometry is not an appropriate replacement for invasive blood pressure measurement in these patients.

  8. Excitability in a stochastic differential equation model for calcium puffs.

    PubMed

    Rüdiger, S

    2014-06-01

    Calcium dynamics are essential to a multitude of cellular processes. For many cell types, localized discharges of calcium through small clusters of intracellular channels are building blocks for all spatially extended calcium signals. Because of the large noise amplitude, the validity of noise-approximating model equations for this system has been questioned. Here we revisit the master equations for local calcium release, examine the multiple scales of calcium concentrations in the cluster domain, and derive adapted stochastic differential equations. We show by comparison of discrete and continuous trajectories that the Langevin equations can be made consistent with the master equations even for very small channel numbers. In its deterministic limit, the model reveals that excitability, a dynamical phenomenon observed in many natural systems, is at the core of calcium puffs. The model also predicts a bifurcation from transient to sustained release which may link local and global calcium signals in cells.

  9. Developing the Pulsed Fission-Fusion (PuFF) Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.; Cassibry, Jason; Bradley, David; Fabisinski, Leo; Statham, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    In September 2013 the NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) organization awarded a phase I contract to the PuFF team. Our phase 1 proposal researched a pulsed fission-fusion propulsion system that compressed a target of deuterium (D) and tritium (T) as a mixture in a column, surrounded concentrically by Uranium. The target is surrounded by liquid lithium. A high power current would flow down the liquid lithium and the resulting Lorentz force would compress the column by roughly a factor of 10. The compressed column would reach criticality and a combination of fission and fusion reactions would occur. Our Phase I results, summarized herein, review our estimates of engine and vehicle performance, our work to date to model the fission-fusion reaction, and our initial efforts in experimental analysis.

  10. Modification of plasma flows with gas puff in the scrape-off layer of ADITYA tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Sangwan, Deepak; Jha, Ratneshwar; Brotankova, Jana; Gopalkrishna, M. V.

    2013-06-15

    The parallel Mach numbers are measured at three locations in the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma of ADITYA tokamak by using Mach probes. The flow pattern is constructed from these measurements and the modification of flow pattern is observed by introducing a small puff of working gas. In the normal discharge, there is an indication of shell structure in the SOL plasma flows, which is removed during the gas puff. The plasma parameters, particle flux and Reynolds stress are also measured in the normal discharge and in the discharge with gas puff. It is observed that Reynolds stress and Mach number are coupled in the near SOL region and decoupled in the far SOL region. The coupling in the near SOL region gets washed away during the gas puff.

  11. Cigarette filter ventilation is a defective design because of misleading taste, bigger puffs, and blocked vents

    PubMed Central

    Kozlowski, L; O'Connor, R

    2002-01-01

    Data sources: Searched from November 1999 to November 2000 internet databases of industry documents (www.pmdocs.com, www.rjrtdocs.com, www.lorillarddocs.com, www.bw.aalatg.com, www.cdc.gov/tobacco/industrydocs, www.tobaccodocuments.org, www.tobaccopapers.org, www.hlth.gov.bc.ca/Guildford, www.cctc.ca/ncth/Guildford, www.cctc.ca/ncth/Guildford2) for documents related to filter ventilation. Documents found dated from 1955 through 1994. Study selection: Those documents judged to contain the most relevant information or data on filter ventilation related to cigarette taste and compensatory smoking, while also trying to avoid redundancy from various documents deriving from the same underlying data. Data synthesis: Filter ventilation is a crucial design feature creating three main problems for lower tar cigarettes as measured by official smoking machine testing. Firstly, it misleadingly makes cigarettes taste lighter and milder, and, therefore, they appear less dangerous to smokers. Secondly, it promotes compensation mainly by facilitating the taking of larger puffs. Thirdly, for very heavily ventilated cigarettes (that is, > 65% filter air dilution), behavioural blocking of vents with lips or fingers is an additional contributor to compensatory smoking. These three effects are found in industry research as well as published research. Conclusions: Filter ventilation is a dangerous, defective technology that should be abandoned in less hazardous nicotine delivery systems. Health interested groups should test cigarettes in a way that reflects compensatory smoking. Lower tar (vented filter) cigarettes should be actively countermarketed. PMID:11893814

  12. Optimization of Fat-Reduced Puff Pastry Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Silow, Christoph; Zannini, Emanuele; Axel, Claudia; Belz, Markus C E; Arendt, Elke K

    2017-02-22

    Puff pastry is a high-fat bakery product with fat playing a key role, both during the production process and in the final pastry. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was successfully used to evaluate puff pastry quality for the development of a fat-reduced version. The technological parameters modified included the level of roll-in fat, the number of fat layers (50-200) and the final thickness (1.0-3.5 mm) of the laminated dough. Quality characteristics of puff pastry were measured using the Texture Analyzer with an attached Extended Craft Knife (ECK) and Multiple Puncture Probe (MPP), the VolScan and the C-Cell imaging system. The number of fat layers and final dough thickness, in combination with the amount of roll-in fat, had a significant impact on the internal and external structural quality parameters. With technological changes alone, a fat-reduced (≥30%) puff pastry was developed. The qualities of fat-reduced puff pastries were comparable to conventional full-fat (33 wt %) products. A sensory acceptance test revealed no significant differences in taste of fatness or 'liking of mouthfeel'. Additionally, the fat-reduced puff pastry resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation to 'liking of flavor' and overall acceptance by the assessors.

  13. Characteristics of plasma-puff trigger for a inverse-pinch plasma switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Eun H.; Venable, Demetrius D.; Han, Kwang S.; Lee, Ja H.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma-puff triggering mechanism based on a hypocycloidal pinch geometry was investigated to determine the optimal operating conditions for the azimuthally uniform surface flashover which initiates plasma-puff under wide ranges of fill gas pressure of Ar, He and N2. The optimal fill-gas pressure range for the azimuthally uniform plasma-puff was about 120 mTorr less than or equal to P(sub op) less than or equal to 450 Torr for He and N2. For Argon 120 mTorr is less than or equal to P(sub op) is less than or equal to 5 Torr. The inverse-pinch switch was triggered with the plasma-puff and the switching capability under various electrical parameters and working gas pressures of Ar, He and N2 was determined. The azimuthally uniform switching discharges were dependent on the type of fill gas and its fill pressure. A new concept of plasma-focus driven plasma-puff will be discussed in comparison with the current hypocycloidal-pinch plasma-puff triggering.

  14. Optimization of Fat-Reduced Puff Pastry Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Silow, Christoph; Zannini, Emanuele; Axel, Claudia; Belz, Markus C. E.; Arendt, Elke K.

    2017-01-01

    Puff pastry is a high-fat bakery product with fat playing a key role, both during the production process and in the final pastry. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was successfully used to evaluate puff pastry quality for the development of a fat-reduced version. The technological parameters modified included the level of roll-in fat, the number of fat layers (50–200) and the final thickness (1.0–3.5 mm) of the laminated dough. Quality characteristics of puff pastry were measured using the Texture Analyzer with an attached Extended Craft Knife (ECK) and Multiple Puncture Probe (MPP), the VolScan and the C-Cell imaging system. The number of fat layers and final dough thickness, in combination with the amount of roll-in fat, had a significant impact on the internal and external structural quality parameters. With technological changes alone, a fat-reduced (≥30%) puff pastry was developed. The qualities of fat-reduced puff pastries were comparable to conventional full-fat (33 wt %) products. A sensory acceptance test revealed no significant differences in taste of fatness or ‘liking of mouthfeel’. Additionally, the fat-reduced puff pastry resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation to ‘liking of flavor’ and overall acceptance by the assessors. PMID:28231095

  15. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  16. Comparison of baroreflex sensitivity estimated from ECG R-R and inter-systolic intervals obtained by finger plethysmography and radial tonometry.

    PubMed

    Viehweg, Juliane; Reimann, Manja; Gasch, Julia; Rüdiger, Heinz; Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2016-05-01

    Spontaneous BRS estimates may considerable vary according to the technique of blood pressure and heart rate assessment. To optimise and standardise BRS estimation for clinical use we evaluated possible differences between spontaneous BRS indices estimated from either finger plethysmography or radial tonometry. Forty-five healthy volunteers underwent simultaneous recordings of electrocardiogram, finger plethysmography and radial tonometry in supine position and during 60° head-up tilt. BRS was computed by spectral analysis from either R-R time series and/or arterial pressure pulse. Radial tonometry generated higher mean BRS estimates than finger plethysmography. The difference decreased upon postural change from supine to upright. In the upright position, BRS estimates based on R-R interval proved to be generally lower compared to BRS indices estimated from arterial pressure pulse. The ratio of low-to-high-frequency power of inter-systolic interval and systolic blood pressure from tonometry was lower than that from plethysmography in supine and approximated in upright position. Spectral parameters of inter-systolic interval and R-R interval did not differ in supine but diverged in upright position. Changes of spectral parameters were most pronounced in R-R interval. Arterial pressure pulse is adequate for estimation of BRS under resting conditions but it may distort BRS estimates under physical load. We, therefore, recommend using an ECG signal for BRS estimation especially in non-stationary conditions.

  17. Evaluation of a puff dispersion model in complex terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Thuillier, R.H. )

    1992-03-01

    California's Pacific Gas and Electric Company has many power plant operations situated in complex terrain, prominent examples being the Geysers geothermal plant in Lake and Sonoma Counties, and the Diablo Canyon nuclear plant in San Luis Obispo County. Procedures ranging from plant licensing to emergency response require a dispersion modeling capability in a complex terrain environment. This paper describes the performance evaluation of such a capability, the Pacific Gas and Electric Company Modeling System (PGEMS), a fast response Gaussian puff model with a three-dimensional wind field generator. Performance of the model was evaluated for ground level and short stack elevated release on the basis of a special intensive tracer experiment in the complex coastal terrain surrounding the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant in San Luis Obispo County, California. The model performed well under a variety of meteorological and release conditions within the test region of 20-kilometer radius surrounding the nuclear plant, and turned in a superior performance in the wake of the nuclear plant, using a new wake correction algorithm for ground level and roof-vent releases a that location.

  18. CO/sub 2/ Huff-Puff simulation using a compositional reservoir simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, H.H.; Brugman, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Increased field application of the CO/sub 2/ Huff-Puff process has resulted in increased laboratory and numerical simulation activity. This paper focuses on numerical simulation of the CO/sub 2/ Huff-Puff process in a light oil reservoir, using a fully-compositional reservoir simulator. A simulation model is first validated by successfully history-matching production data from two huff-puff cycles. A performance prediction is then conducted for a third cycle. A number of parametric runs are performed to determine oil recovery as affected by: 1. The number of cycles; 2. The timing of injection, soak and back-production operations; and 3. The quantity and composition of the injected solvent.

  19. CO2 Huff-n-Puff Process in a Light Oil Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Boomer, R.J.; Cole, R.; Kovar, M.; Prieditis, J.; Vogt, J.; Wehner, S.

    1999-02-24

    The application cyclic CO2, often referred to as the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process, may find its niche in the maturing waterfloods of the Permian Basin. Coupling the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process to miscible flooding applications could provide the needed revenue to sufficiently mitigate near-term negative cash flow concerns in capital-intensive miscible projects. Texaco Exploration and Production Inc. and the US Department of Energy have teamed up in a attempt to develop the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process in the Grayburg and San Andres formations which are light oil, shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs that exist throughout the Permian Basin. This cost-shared effort is intended to demonstrate the viability of this underutilized technology in a specific class of domestic reservoir.

  20. The airway sensory impact of nicotine contributes to the conditioned reinforcing effects of individual puffs from cigarettes⋆

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Nasir H.; Bechara, Antoine

    2005-01-01

    Puffs from cigarettes are the fundamental unit of smoking reward. Here, we examined the extent to which reward from puffs can be derived from the airway sensory effect of nicotine, in the absence of a direct central nervous system effect of nicotine. We did this by assessing the self-reported reward obtained from individual puffs from nicotinized, denicotinized and unlit cigarettes within 7 s of inhalation, which is before nicotine had an opportunity to reach the brain. We also assessed the self-reported strength of airway sensations elicited by the puffs. We found that nicotinized puffs were rated as both stronger and more rewarding than denicotinized and unlit puffs. We also found that the extent to which nicotine elicited reward was directly correlated with the extent to which nicotine elicited airway sensations. This indicates that the airway sensory effects of nicotine contribute to the reward from puffs, above and beyond the reward derived from the airway sensory effects of non-nicotine constituents. These findings have implications for the interpretation of studies that use puffs as experimental units to examine nicotine reward. They also have implications for the use of denicotinized and low nicotine cigarettes as aids to smoking cessation. PMID:15996724

  1. A sip-and-puff wireless remote control for the Apple iPod.

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael; Grogg, Kevin; Anschutz, John; Fierman, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    This brief technical note describes the authors' efforts to modify an existing wireless remote control for the Apple iPod so it could be operated using sip-and-puff switches by individuals with limited upper extremity dexterity due to cervical level spinal cord injury. The authors were able to successfully interface the wireless controller with sip-and-puff switches so that users could play, pause, and fast forward through a song list on the iPod. Details of the interface are described, and limitations of the current system are discussed.

  2. CO[sub 2] huff n'' puff revives shallow light-oil-depleted reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bardon, C.; Corlay, P.; Longeron, D. ); Miller, B.

    1994-05-01

    Bretagne has experimented successfully with CO[sub 2] huff n'' puff injection since 1985 in the Shoemaker field in Kentucky. Numerical simulations were performed with a compositional model to review and to quantify the influence of all parameters that could be responsible for the production improvement observed in the wells. Laboratory studies were conducted to get relevant physical data, particularly concerning relative permeabilities with three phases present. These data were integrated into the numerical model, giving good agreement with field results, and predicted production performance more accurately. Finally, the optimization of the huff n'' puff process in Shoemaker is presented.

  3. Comparison of Gas Puff Imaging Data in NSTX with the DEGAS 2 Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, B.; Stotler, D. P.; Zweben, S. J.; Bell, M.; Diallo, A.; Leblanc, B.

    2012-11-08

    Gas-Puff-Imaging (GPI) is a two dimensional diagnostic which measures the edge Dα light emission from a neutral D2 gas puff nears the outer mid-plane of NSTX. DEGAS 2 is a 3-D Monte Carlo code used to model neutral transport and atomic physics in tokamak plasmas. In this paper we compare measurements of the Dα light emission obtained by GPI on NSTX with DEGAS 2 simulations of Dα light emission for specific experiments. Both the simulated spatial distribution and absolute intensity of the Dα light emission agree well with the experimental data obtained between ELMs in H-mode. __________________________________________________

  4. Comparison of Gas Puff Imaging Data in NSTX with the DEGAS 2 Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, B.; Stotler, D. P.; Zweben, S. J.; Bell, M.; Diallo, A.; Leblanc, B.

    2012-10-27

    Gas-Puff-Imaging (GPI) is a two dimensional diagnostic which measures the edge Dα light emission from a neutral D2 gas puff nears the outer mid-plane of NSTX. DEGAS 2 is a 3-D Monte Carlo code used to model neutral transport and atomic physics in tokamak plasmas. In this paper we compare measurements of the Dα light emission obtained by GPI on NSTX with DEGAS 2 simulations of Dα light emission for specific experiments. Both the simulated spatial distribution and absolute intensity of the Dα light emission agree well with the experimental data obtained between ELMs in H-mode.

  5. Developmental ecdysteroid titers and DNA puffs in larvae of two sciarid species, Rhynchosciara americana and Rhynchosciara milleri (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Soares, M A M; Hartfelder, K; Tesserolli de Souza, J M; Stocker, A J

    2015-10-01

    Ecdysteroid titers, developmental landmarks and the presence of prominent amplifying regions (DNA puffs) have been compared during late larval to pupal development in four groups of Rhynchosciara americana larvae and in R. americana and Rhynchosciara milleri. Three prominent DNA puffs (B2, C3 and C8) expand and regress sequentially on the rising phase of the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) titer in R. americana as a firm, cellular cocoon is being constructed. A sharp rise in 20E coincides with the regression of these puffs. The shape of the 20E curve is similar in R. milleri, a species that does not construct a massive cocoon, but the behavior of certain DNA puffs and their temporal relationship to the curve differs. Regions corresponding to B2 and C3 can be identified in R. milleri by banding pattern similarity with R. americana chromosomes and, in the case of B2, by hybridization to an R. americana probe. A B2 puff appears in R. milleri as the 20E titer rises but remains small in all gland regions. A puff similar to the R. americana C3 puff occurs in posterior gland cells of R. milleri (C3(Rm)) after the B2 puff, but this site did not hybridize to R. americana C3 probes. C3(Rm) incorporated (3)H-thymidine above background, but showed less post-puff DNA accumulation than C3 of R. americana. R. americana C8 probes hybridized to a more distal region of the R. milleri C chromosome that did not appear to amplify or form a large puff. These differences can be related to developmental differences, in particular differences in cocoon construction between the two species.

  6. Comparison of True and Smoothed Puff Profile Replication on Smoking Behavior and Mainstream Smoke Emissions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To estimate exposures to smokers from cigarettes, smoking topography is typically measured and programmed into a smoking machine to mimic human smoking, and the resulting smoke emissions are tested for relative levels of harmful constituents. However, using only the summary puff data—with a fixed puff frequency, volume, and duration—may underestimate or overestimate actual exposure to smoke toxins. In this laboratory study, we used a topography-driven smoking machine that faithfully reproduces a human smoking session and individual human topography data (n = 24) collected during previous clinical research to investigate if replicating the true puff profile (TP) versus the mathematically derived smoothed puff profile (SM) resulted in differences in particle size distributions and selected toxic/carcinogenic organic compounds from mainstream smoke emissions. Particle size distributions were measured using an electrical low pressure impactor, the masses of the size-fractionated fine and ultrafine particles were determined gravimetrically, and the collected particulate was analyzed for selected particle-bound, semivolatile compounds. Volatile compounds were measured in real time using a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer. By and large, TP levels for the fine and ultrafine particulate masses as well as particle-bound organic compounds were slightly lower than the SM concentrations. The volatile compounds, by contrast, showed no clear trend. Differences in emissions due to the use of the TP and SM profiles are generally not large enough to warrant abandoning the procedures used to generate the simpler smoothed profile in favor of the true profile. PMID:25536227

  7. Development of the gas-puff imaging diagnostic in the TEXTOR tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Shesterikov, I.; Xu, Y.; Berte, M.; Dumortier, P.; Van Schoor, M.; Vergote, M.; Schweer, B.; Van Oost, G.

    2013-05-15

    Gas puff imaging (GPI) [S. J. Zweben, D. P. Stotler et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 1981 (2002); R. J. Maqueda, G. A. Wurden et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2020 (2003)] is a powerful diagnostic that permits a two-dimensional measurement of turbulence in the edge region of a fusion plasma and is based on the observation of the local emission of a neutral gas, actively puffed into the periphery of the plasma. The developed in-vessel GPI telescope observes the emission from the puffed gas along local (at the puff) magnetic field lines. The GPI telescope is specially designed to operate in severe TEXTOR conditions and can be treated as a prototype for the GPI systems on next generation machines. Also, the gas puff nozzle is designed to have a lower divergence of the gas flow than previous GPI diagnostics. The resulting images show poloidally and radially propagating structures, which are associated with plasma blobs. We demonstrate that the local gas puff does not disturb plasma properties. Our results indicate also that the neutral gas emission intensity is more sensitive to the electron density than the electron temperature. Here, we present implementation details of the GPI system on TEXTOR and discuss some design and diagnostic issues related to the development of GPI systems in general.

  8. X-ray radiation from puff-on-wire implosion on the COBRA generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouart, N.; Engelbrecht, J.; de Grouchy, P.; Qi, N.; Shelkovenko, T.; Pikuz, S.; Kusse, B.; Hammer, D.; Giuliani, J.; Dasgupta, A.; Velikovich, A.; Apruzese, J.; Clark, R.

    2016-10-01

    Substantial progress has been made in developing plasma radiation sources from Z-pinch implosions. University pulsed power machines provide a cost effective platform to study alternative mechanisms of producing x-rays that may provide guidance in search of further improvements on the larger machines. Radiation from puff-on-wire implosions were previously studied. We report recent observations and modeling of puff-on-wire implosions using the 1 MA COBRA generator in the long pulse mode. The gas puff used Ne, Ar, or Kr and the wire material was either Cu or manganin 290 (84% Cu, 12% Mn, 4% Ni). The diagnostics include time-integrated pinhole cameras and an axially resolved spectrometer, multiple filtered PCDs and Si-diodes, and time-gated XUV cameras. X-ray radiation from the gas puff and the K-alpha line from wire material was detected. A 1-D multi-zone non-LTE kinetics code with radiation transport will be used to model the radiation to infer the plasma conditions. Work supported by DOE/NNSA.

  9. Radial and Azimuthal Velocity Profiles in Gas-Puff Z-Pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocco, Sophia; Engelbrecht, Joseph; Banasek, Jacob; de Grouchy, Philip; Qi, Niansheng; Hammer, David

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of neon, argon, and krypton (either singly or in combination) gas puff z-pinch plasmas are studied on Cornell's 1MA, 100-200ns rise-time COBRA pulsed power generator. The triple-nozzle gas puff valve, consisting of two annular gas puffs and a central jet, allows radial tailoring of the gas puff mass-density profile and the use of 1, 2 or 3 different gases at different pressures. Interferometry supplies information on sheath thickness and electron density, variously filtered PCDs and silicon diodes measure hard and soft x-ray production, and multi frame visible and extreme UV imaging systems allow tracking of the morphology of the plasma. A 527nm, 10J Thomson scattering diagnostic system is used to determine radial and azimuthal velocities. Implosion velocities of 170km/s (Kr) and 300km/s (Ne/Ar) are observed. We are investigating the correlations between instability growth, plasma density profile, velocity partitioning as a function of radius, and radiation production. Research supported by the NNSA Stewardship Sciences Academic Programs under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NA0001836.

  10. The usefulness of CorvisST Tonometry and the Ocular Response Analyzer to assess the progression of glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Masato; Hirasawa, Kazunori; Murata, Hiroshi; Nakakura, Shunsuke; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Asaoka, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    Corneal Visualization Scheimpflug Technology (CST) and Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) measurements were carried out in 105 eyes of 69 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. All patients had axial length (AL), central corneal thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP) with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and eight visual fields (VF)s with the Humphrey Field Analyzer. VF progression was summarized using a time trend analysis of mean total deviation (mTD) and the association between mTD progression rate and a number of ocular parameters (including CST and ORA measurements) was assessed using mixed linear regression analysis. The optimal model of VF progression selected based on the corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc) included ORA’s corneal hysteresis (CH) parameter as well as a number of CST measurements: mTD progression rate = 1.2–0.070 * mean GAT + 0.090 * CH–1.5 * highest concavity deformation amplitude with CST + 9.4 * A1 deformation amplitude with CST–0.05 * A2 length with CST (AICc = 125.8). Eyes with corneas that experience deep indentation at the maximum deformation, shallow indentation at the first applanation and wide indentation at the second applanation in the CST measurement are more likely to experience faster rates of VF progression. PMID:28094315

  11. The usefulness of CorvisST Tonometry and the Ocular Response Analyzer to assess the progression of glaucoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Masato; Hirasawa, Kazunori; Murata, Hiroshi; Nakakura, Shunsuke; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Asaoka, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    Corneal Visualization Scheimpflug Technology (CST) and Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) measurements were carried out in 105 eyes of 69 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. All patients had axial length (AL), central corneal thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP) with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and eight visual fields (VF)s with the Humphrey Field Analyzer. VF progression was summarized using a time trend analysis of mean total deviation (mTD) and the association between mTD progression rate and a number of ocular parameters (including CST and ORA measurements) was assessed using mixed linear regression analysis. The optimal model of VF progression selected based on the corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc) included ORA’s corneal hysteresis (CH) parameter as well as a number of CST measurements: mTD progression rate = 1.2–0.070 * mean GAT + 0.090 * CH–1.5 * highest concavity deformation amplitude with CST + 9.4 * A1 deformation amplitude with CST–0.05 * A2 length with CST (AICc = 125.8). Eyes with corneas that experience deep indentation at the maximum deformation, shallow indentation at the first applanation and wide indentation at the second applanation in the CST measurement are more likely to experience faster rates of VF progression.

  12. Event Reconstruction for Atmospheric Releases Employing Urban Puff Model UDM with Stochastic Inversion Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, S; Glascoe, L; Kosovic, B; Dyer, K; Hanley, W; Nitao, J; Gordon, R

    2005-11-03

    The rapid identification of contaminant plume sources and their characteristics in urban environments can greatly enhance emergency response efforts. Source identification based on downwind concentration measurements is complicated by the presence of building obstacles that can cause flow diversion and entrainment. While high-resolution computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are available for predicting plume evolution in complex urban geometries, such simulations require large computational effort. We make use of an urban puff model, the Defence Science Technology Laboratory's (Dstl) Urban Dispersion Model (UDM), which employs empirically based puff splitting techniques. UDM enables rapid urban dispersion simulations by combining traditional Gaussian puff modeling with empirically deduced mixing and entrainment approximations. Here we demonstrate the preliminary reconstruction of an atmospheric release event using stochastic sampling algorithms and Bayesian inference together with the rapid UDM urban puff model based on point measurements of concentration. We consider source inversions for both a prototype isolated building and for observations and flow conditions taken during the Joint URBAN 2003 field campaign at Oklahoma City. The Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) stochastic sampling method is used to determine likely source term parameters and considers both measurement and forward model errors. It should be noted that the stochastic methodology is general and can be used for time-varying release rates and flow conditions as well as nonlinear dispersion problems. The results of inversion indicate the probability of a source being at a particular location with a particular release rate. Uncertainty in observed data, or lack of sufficient data, is inherently reflected in the shape and size of the probability distribution of source term parameters. Although developed and used independently, source inversion with both UDM and a finite-element CFD code can be

  13. Ball tonometry: a rapid, nondestructive method for measuring cell turgor pressure in thin-walled plant cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lintilhac, P. M.; Wei, C.; Tanguay, J. J.; Outwater, J. O.

    2000-01-01

    In this article we describe a new method for the determination of turgor pressures in living plant cells. Based on the treatment of growing plant cells as thin-walled pressure vessels, we find that pressures can be accurately determined by observing and measuring the area of the contact patch formed when a spherical glass probe is lowered onto the cell surface with a known force. Within the limits we have described, we can show that the load (determined by precalibration of the device) divided by the projected area of the contact patch (determined by video microscopy) provides a direct, rapid, and accurate measure of the internal turgor pressure of the cell. We demonstrate, by parallel measurements with the pressure probe, that our method yields pressure data that are consistent with those from the pressure probe. Also, by incubating target tissues in stepped concentrations of mannitol to incrementally reduce the turgor pressure, we show that the pressures measured by tonometry accurately reflect the predicted changes from the osmotic potential of the bathing medium. The advantages of this new method over the pressure probe are considerable, however, in that we can move rapidly from cell to cell, taking measurements every 20 s. In addition, the nondestructive nature of the method means that we can return to the same cell repeatedly for periodic pressure measurements. The limitations of the method lie in the fact that it is suitable only for superficial cells that are directly accessible to the probe and to cells that are relatively thin walled and not heavily decorated with surface features. It is also not suitable for measuring pressures in flaccid cells.

  14. Puff and bite: the relationship between the glucocorticoid stress response and anti-predator performance in checkered puffer (Sphoeroides testudineus).

    PubMed

    Cull, Felicia; O'Connor, Constance M; Suski, Cory D; Shultz, Aaron D; Danylchuk, Andy J; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    Individual variation in the endocrine stress response has been linked to survival and performance in a variety of species. Here, we evaluate the relationship between the endocrine stress response and anti-predator behaviors in wild checkered puffers (Sphoeroides testudineus) captured at Eleuthera Island, Bahamas. The checkered puffer has a unique and easily measurable predator avoidance strategy, which is to inflate or 'puff' to deter potential predators. In this study, we measured baseline and stress-induced circulating glucocorticoid levels, as well as bite force, a performance measure that is relevant to both feeding and predator defence, and 'puff' performance. We found that puff performance and bite force were consistent within individuals, but generally decreased following a standardized stressor. Larger puffers were able to generate a higher bite force, and larger puffers were able to maintain a more robust puff performance following a standardized stressor relative to smaller puffers. In terms of the relationship between the glucocorticoid stress response and performance metrics, we found no relationship between post-stress glucocorticoid levels and either puff performance or bite force. However, we did find that baseline glucocorticoid levels predicted the ability of a puffer to maintain a robust puff response following a repeated stressor, and this relationship was more pronounced in larger individuals. Our work provides a novel example of how baseline glucocorticoids can predict a fitness-related anti-predator behavior.

  15. Radiative properties of argon gas puff z-pinch implosions on COBRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouart, N. D.; de Grouchy, P. W. L.; Qi, N.; Giuliani, J. L.; Dasgupta, A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Apruzese, J. P.; Clark, R. W.

    2016-10-01

    Spatially resolved and time-integrated x-ray spectroscopy, combined with modeling of the spectra with detailed radiation kinetics and transport, is a powerful method to study the conditions in a hot moving plasma. K-shell argon spectra were measured from gas puff implosions with different center jet masses on the 1 MA COBRA generator at Cornell University. The outer to inner plenum pressures (1 and 3 psia, respectively) were the same for all shots producing an outer to inner mass ratio of 1:1. This paper uses non-local thermodynamic equilibrium kinetic modeling to infer the ion density, electron temperature, K-shell radiating mass, and K-shell powers from stagnating argon gas puff z-pinch implosion. We find that the implosions with a center jet produced bright spot regions of plasma with higher temperature and density than those without a jet.

  16. Directed percolation describes lifetime and growth of turbulent puffs and slugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipos, Maksim; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2011-09-01

    We show that directed percolation (DP) simulations in a pipe geometry in 3+1 dimensions capture the observed complex phenomenology of the transition to turbulence. At low Reynolds numbers (Re), turbulent puffs form and spontaneously relaminarize. At high Re, turbulent slugs expand uniformly into the laminar regions. In a spatiotemporally intermittent state between these two regimes of Re, puffs split and turbulent regions exhibit laminar patches. DP also captures some of the quantitative features of the transition, with a superexponentially diverging characteristic lifetime below the transition. Above the percolation threshold, active (turbulent) clusters expand into the inactive (laminar) phase with a well-defined velocity whose scaling with control parameter (Reynolds number or percolation probability) is consistent with experimental results. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of a conjecture of Pomeau.

  17. Laboratory evaluation of the CO2 huff-n-puff process for heavy oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Sayegh, S.G.; Maini, B.B.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate a CO2 huff-n-puff well stimulation process in a Lloydminster heavy oil reservoir. Two series of phase behavior measurements were done on the reconstituted oil, each in a pressurization-then-liberation cycle. The first series was performed using CO2 as the carbonating gas. Some oil swelling occurred, and a large viscosity reduction was observed. CO2 was retained preferentially to CH4 during liberation and, consequently reduced viscosities were maintained down to low pressures. The second series was performed using a 1:3 mole ratio CH4:CO2, simulating the use of recycled gas in the huff-n-puff process. The results revealed that CH4 reduces the efficiency of CO2. 12 references.

  18. The CO/sub 2/ huff 'n' puff process in a bottomwater-drive reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.R.

    1988-06-01

    Two CO/sub 2/ huff 'n' puff projects were conducted in the 4,900-ft (1495-m) Reservoir (BA) Sand Unit (4900' R(BA)SU), Timbalier Bay field, Louisiana. This reservoir is a bottomwater-drive reservoir unit a 26/sup 0/ API (0.9-g/cm/sup 3/) oil gravity and 18% primary oil recovery. Before CO/sub 2/ injection, both project wells were gas lifting more than 1,000 BFPD (160 m/sup 3//d fluid) with 99% water cuts. After CO/sub 2/ injection, the production from each well increased to 200 BOPD (32 m/sup 3//d oil). This paper discusses the CO/sub 2/ huff 'n' puff process, specific reservoir characteristics, and project evaluation.

  19. MESOI Version 2. 0: an interactive mesoscale Lagrangian puff dispersion model with deposition and decay

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.; Glantz, C.S.

    1983-11-01

    MESOI Version 2.0 is an interactive Lagrangian puff model for estimating the transport, diffusion, deposition and decay of effluents released to the atmosphere. The model is capable of treating simultaneous releases from as many as four release points, which may be elevated or at ground-level. The puffs are advected by a horizontal wind field that is defined in three dimensions. The wind field may be adjusted for expected topographic effects. The concentration distribution within the puffs is initially assumed to be Gaussian in the horizontal and vertical. However, the vertical concentration distribution is modified by assuming reflection at the ground and the top of the atmospheric mixing layer. Material is deposited on the surface using a source depletion, dry deposition model and a washout coefficient model. The model also treats the decay of a primary effluent species and the ingrowth and decay of a single daughter species using a first order decay process. This report is divided into two parts. The first part discusses the theoretical and mathematical bases upon which MESOI Version 2.0 is based. The second part contains the MESOI computer code. The programs were written in the ANSI standard FORTRAN 77 and were developed on a VAX 11/780 computer. 43 references, 14 figures, 13 tables.

  20. Efficient neutron production from a novel configuration of deuterium gas-puff z-pinch.

    PubMed

    Klir, D; Kubes, P; Rezac, K; Cikhardt, J; Kravarik, J; Sila, O; Shishlov, A V; Kovalchuk, B M; Ratakhin, N A; Kokshenev, V A; Labetsky, A Yu; Cherdizov, R K; Fursov, F I; Kurmaev, N E; Dudkin, G N; Nechaev, B A; Padalko, V N; Orcikova, H; Turek, K

    2014-03-07

    A novel configuration of a deuterium z pinch has been used to generate fusion neutrons. Injecting an outer hollow cylindrical plasma shell around an inner deuterium gas puff, neutron yields from DD reactions reached Y(n)=(2.9 ± 0.3) × 10(12) at 700 ns implosion time and 2.7 MA current. Such a neutron yield means a tenfold increase in comparison with previous deuterium gas puff experiments at the same current generator. The increase of beam-target yields was obtained by a larger amount of current assembled on the z-pinch axis, and subsequently by higher induced voltage and higher energies of deuterons. A stack of CR-39 track detectors on the z-pinch axis showed hydrogen ions up to 38 MeV. Maximum neutron energies of 15 and 22 MeV were observed by radial and axial time-of-flight detectors, respectively. The number of DD neutrons per one joule of stored plasma energy approached 5 × 10(7). This implies that deuterium gas puff z pinches belong to the most efficient plasma-based sources of DD neutrons.

  1. An evaluation of CO/sub 2/ huff 'n' puff tests in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, H.K.; Alston, R.B.

    1989-02-01

    Field experience in 28 Texas CO/sub 2/ huff 'n' puff projects is presented and discussed. In the absence of mechanical problems, CO/sub 2/ huff 'n' puff can recover oil from 23- to 30/sup 0/API Texas gulf coast Miocene reservoirs. Shorter soak times (10 to 17 days) recovered as much oil, or more, as longer soak times for 2- to 3-cp crudes. Injection of larger volumes of CO/sub 2/ (8 MMscf instead of 4 MMscf) resulted in greater incremental oil recovery of a 33-cp crude. Oil-cut response can guide in the selection of wells to receive multiple cycles of CO/sub 2/. Two simple predictive methods are presented for estimating incremental oil recovery from CO/sub 2/ huff 'n' puff. One is from the literature and the other was developed for the Texas reservoirs, where oil swelling and viscosity reduction are important oil recovery mechanisms. Although predictions from both methods show modest agreement with field production, the method developed specifically for the Texas cases has the advantage of being based only on fluid properties, which are easy to measure or to estimate accurately.

  2. An evaluation of CO/sub 2/ huff 'n' puff field tests in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, H.K.; Alston, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    Field experience in 28 Texas CO/sub 2/ huff 'n' puff projects is presented and discussed. These projects were designed and implemented by producing department personnel. In the absence of mechanical problems, CO/sub 2/ huff 'n' puff can recover oil from 23-30/sup 0/API Texas Gulf Coast Miocene Reservoirs. Shorter soak times (10-17 days) recovered as much or more oil as longer soak times for 2.3 cP crudes. Injection of larger volumes of CO/sub 2/ (8 MMSCF (230,000 m/sup 3/) instead of 4 MMSCF (11,000 m/sup 3/)) resulted in greater incremental oil recovery of a 33 cP (0.033 Pa-s) crude. Oil cut response can guide in the selection of wells to receive multiple cycles of CO/sub 2/. Two simple predictive methods are presented for estimating incremental oil recovery from CO/sub 2/ huff 'n' puff. One is from the literature and the other was developed for the Texas reservoirs, where oil swelling and viscosity reduction are important oil recovery mechanisms. Although predictions from both methods show modest agreement with field production, the method developed specifically for Texas cases was slightly better.

  3. CO2 Huff-n-Puff Process in a Light Oil Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    John Prieditis; Mark Kovar; Roger Cole; Scott Wehner

    1998-02-02

    The principal objective of the Sundown Slaughter Unit (SSU) CO2 Huff- n- Puff (H- n- P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. Sundown Slaughter Unit is the second demonstration site associated with this project, following the unsuccessful test at Central Vacuum Unit. The ultimate goal will be to develop guidelines based on commonly available data that other operators in the industry can use to investigate the applicability of the process within other fields. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan in support of the Department of Energy's (DOE) objective of increasing domestic oil production and deferring the abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. Tasks associated with this objective are carried out in what is a timely effort for near- term goals. The goal of this Sundown Slaughter Unit Project is to demonstrate the CO2 Huff- n- Puff process in a waterflooded, light oil, shallow shelf carbonate reservoir within the Permian Basin. The CO2 Huff- n- Puff process is a proven enhanced oil recovery technology for Louisiana- Texas gulf coast sandstone reservoirs. The reader is referred to three Society of Petroleum Engineer (SPE) papers, No. 15502, No. 16720 & No. 20208 for a review of the theory, mechanics of the process, and several case histories. The process has even been shown to be moderately effective in conjunction with steam on heavy California crude oils. Although the technology is proven in gulf coast sandstones, it continues to be a very underutilized enhanced recovery option for carbonates. The goal of this technology demonstration is to gain an overall understanding of the reservoir qualities that influence CO2 Huff- n- Puff production responses within a heterogeneous reservoir such as the shallow shelf carbonate environment of the Sundown Slaughter Unit. A generalized

  4. Reference intervals for intraocular pressure measured by rebound tonometry in ten raptor species and factors affecting the intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Anne; Müller, Kerstin; Arndt, Gisela; Eule, Johanna Corinna

    2011-09-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with the TonoVet rebound tonometer in 10 raptor species, and possible factors affecting IOP were investigated. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed, and IOP was assessed in 2 positions, upright and dorsal recumbency, in 237 birds belonging to the families Accipitridae, Falconidae, Strigidae, and Tytonidae. Mean IOP values of healthy eyes were calculated for each species, and differences between families, species, age, sex, left and right eye, as well as the 2 body positions were evaluated. Physiologic fluctuations of IOP were assessed by measuring IOP serially for 5 days at the same time of day in 15 birds of 3 species. Results showed IOP values varied by family and species, with the following mean IOP values (mm Hg +/- SD) determined: white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), 26.9 +/- 5.8; red kite (Milvus milvus), 13.0 +/- 5.5; northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), 18.3 +/- 3.8; Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), 15.5 +/- 2.5; common buzzard (Buteo buteo), 26.9 +/- 7.0; common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), 9.8 +/- 2.5; peregrine falcon, (Falco peregrinus), 12.7 +/- 5.8; tawny owl (Strix aluco), 9.4 +/- 4.1; long-eared owl (Asio otus), 7.8 +/- 3.2; and barn owl (Tyto alba), 10.8 +/- 3.8. No significant differences were found between sexes or between left and right eyes. In goshawks, common buzzards, and common kestrels, mean IOP was significantly lower in juvenile birds than it was in adult birds. Mean IOP differed significantly by body position in tawny owls (P = .01) and common buzzards (P = .04). By measuring IOP over several days, mean physiologic variations of +/- 2 mm Hg were detected. Differences in IOP between species and age groups should be considered when interpreting tonometric results. Physiologic fluctuations of IOP may occur and should not be misinterpreted. These results show that rebound tonometry is a useful diagnostic tool in measuring IOP in birds of prey because it provides rapid

  5. Modulation of Elementary Calcium Release Mediates a Transition from Puffs to Waves in an IP3R Cluster Model

    PubMed Central

    Rückl, Martin; Parker, Ian; Marchant, Jonathan S.; Nagaiah, Chamakuri; Johenning, Friedrich W.; Rüdiger, Sten

    2015-01-01

    The oscillating concentration of intracellular calcium is one of the most important examples for collective dynamics in cell biology. Localized releases of calcium through clusters of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor channels constitute elementary signals called calcium puffs. Coupling by diffusing calcium leads to global releases and waves, but the exact mechanism of inter-cluster coupling and triggering of waves is unknown. To elucidate the relation of puffs and waves, we here model a cluster of IP3R channels using a gating scheme with variable non-equilibrium IP3 binding. Hybrid stochastic and deterministic simulations show that puffs are not stereotyped events of constant duration but are sensitive to stimulation strength and residual calcium. For increasing IP3 concentration, the release events become modulated at a timescale of minutes, with repetitive wave-like releases interspersed with several puffs. This modulation is consistent with experimental observations we present, including refractoriness and increase of puff frequency during the inter-wave interval. Our results suggest that waves are established by a random but time-modulated appearance of sustained release events, which have a high potential to trigger and synchronize activity throughout the cell. PMID:25569772

  6. First Argon Gas Puff Experiments With 500 ns Implosion Time On Sphinx Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Zucchini, F.; Calamy, H.; Lassalle, F.; Loyen, A.; Maury, P.; Grunenwald, J.; Georges, A.; Morell, A.; Bedoch, J.-P.; Ritter, S.; Combes, P.; Smaniotto, O.; Lample, R.; Coleman, P. L.; Krishnan, M.

    2009-01-21

    Experiments have been performed at the SPHINX driver to study potential of an Argon Gas Puff load designed by AASC. We present here the gas Puff hardware and results of the last shot series.The Argon Gas Puff load used is injected thanks to a 20 cm diameter nozzle. The nozzle has two annuli and a central jet. The pressure and gas type in each of the nozzle plena can be independently adjusted to tailor the initial gaz density distribution. This latter is selected as to obtain an increasing radial density from outer shell towards the pinch axis in order to mitigate the RT instabilities and to increase radiating mass on axis. A flashboard unit produces a high intensity UV source to pre-ionize the Argon gas. Typical dimensions of the load are 200 mm in diameter and 40 mm height. Pressures are adjusted to obtain an implosion time around 550 ns with a peak current of 3.5 MA.With the goal of improving k-shell yield a mass scan of the central jet was performed and implosion time, mainly given by outer and middle plena settings, was kept constant. Tests were also done to reduce the implosion time for two configurations of the central jet. Strong zippering of the radiation production was observed mainly due to the divergence of the central jet over the 40 mm of the load height. Due to that feature k-shell radiation is mainly obtained near cathode. Therefore tests were done to mitigate this effect first by adjusting local pressure of middle and central jet and second by shortening the pinch length.At the end of this series, best shot gave 5 kJ of Ar k-shell yield. PCD detectors showed that k-shell x-ray power was 670 GW with a FWHM of less than 10 ns.

  7. Breeding Super-Earths and Birthing Super-Puffs in Transitional Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2015-12-01

    The riddle posed by super-Earths (1--4 Earth radii, 2--20 Earth masses) is that they are not Jupiters: their core masses are large enough to trigger runaway gas accretion, yet somehow super-Earths accreted atmospheres that weigh only a few percent of their total mass. We show that this puzzle is solved if super-Earthsformed late, as the last vestiges of their parent gas disks were about to clear. This scenario would seem to present fine-tuning problems, but we show that there are none. Ambient gas densities can span many orders of magnitude, and super-Earths can robustly emerge with percent-by-weight atmospheres after ~0.1--1 Myr. We propose that 1) close-in super-Earths form in situ, because their cores necessarily coagulate in gas-poor environments—gas dynamical friction must be weakened sufficiently to allow constituent protocores to cross orbits and merge; 2) super- Earths acquire their atmospheres from ambient wisps of gas that are supplied from a diffusing outer disk. The formation environment is reminiscent of the largely evacuated but still accreting inner cavities of transitional protoplanetary disks. We also 3) address the inverse problem presented by super-puffs: an uncommon class of short- period planets seemingly too voluminous for their small masses (4--10 Earth radii, 2--6 Earth masses). Super-puffs most easily acquire their thick atmospheres as dust-free, rapidly cooling worlds outside ~1 AU where nebular gas is colder, less dense, and therefore less opaque. Unlike super-Earths which can form in situ, super-puffs probably migrated in to their current orbits; they are expected to form the outer links of mean-motion resonant chains, and to exhibit greater water content.

  8. Gas-puff liner implosion in the configuration with helical current return rods

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokin, S. A.

    2013-02-15

    Results of experiments with double-shell gas-puff liners carried out on a high-current MIG generator (2 MA, 80 ns) are presented. To stabilize the process of liner implosion and increase the efficiency of energy transfer from the generator to the liner plasma, a current return in the form of a multifilar helix was used. The effect of the configuration of the current return on the parameters of the generated pulses of argon and neon K-shell radiation (with photon energies of 3-5 and 0.9-1.5 keV, respectively) and the neutron yield from a deuterium liner were studied.

  9. Desktop water window microscope using a double-stream gas puff target source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachulak, Przemyslaw W.; Torrisi, Alfio; Bartnik, Andrzej; Adjei, Daniel; Kostecki, Jerzy; Wegrzynski, Lukasz; Jarocki, Roman; Szczurek, Mirosław; Fiedorowicz, Henryk

    2015-03-01

    A compact, desktop size, microscope, based on nitrogen double-stream gas puff target soft X-ray source, which emits radiation in water window spectral range at the wavelength of λ = 2.88 nm, is demonstrated. The microscope employs ellipsoidal grazing incidence condenser mirror for sample illumination and Fresnel zone plate objective. The microscope is capable of capturing magnified images of objects with 60 nm spatial resolution and exposure time as low as a few seconds. Details about the source and the microscope as well as a few examples of different applications are presented and discussed.

  10. Investigation of Metal Puff Z pinch Based on Multichannel Vacuum Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousskikh, A. G.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Zhigalin, A. S.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Baksht, R. B.; Mitrofanov, K. N.

    2015-11-01

    The performance of a metal double puff Z-pinch system has been studied experimentally. In this type of system, the outer and inner cylindrical shells were produced by ten plasma guns. Each gun initiates a vacuum arc operating between aluminum electrodes. The net current of the guns was 80 kA. The arc-produced plasma shells were compressed by using a 450-kA, 450-ns driver, and as a result, a plasma column 0.2 cm in diameter was formed. The power of the Al K-line radiation emitted by the plasma for 7 ns was 800 MW/cm.

  11. C02 Huff-n-Puff Process in a Light Oil Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Kovar; Scott Wehner

    1998-01-31

    The principal objective of this CO2 Huf-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO2 H-n-P process, coupled with reservoir characterization components are to be used to determine if this process is technically and economically feasible for field implementation. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan of increasing oil production and deferring abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs.

  12. SRI PUFF 8 Computer Program for One-Dimensional Stress Wave Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    33 4.4 Pressure-Volume Relations at Constant Internal Energy for an Aluminum 38 4.5 Sketch of Mie-Griineisen and modified PUFF-Expansion Equation... Aluminum Plate onto a Hot Aluminum Plate at 1.46 x 10 cm/sec 76 6.1 Sample GENRAT Listing of Input Data for a Radiation Problem 78 6.2 Sample GENRAT...Absorption Data for Several Elements (on Tape 2) 113 C.3 Input Deck for Hot Aluminum Impact Calculation 115 C.4 GENRAT Output for Input Deck of

  13. Simulations of gas puff effects on edge density and ICRF coupling in ASDEX upgrade using EMC3-Eirene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Lunt, T.; Bobkov, V.; Coster, D.; Brida, D.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Jacquet, P.; Feng, Y.

    2015-12-10

    Simulations were carried out with the 3D plasma transport code EMC3-EIRENE, to study the deuterium gas (D{sub 2}) puff effects on edge density and the coupling of Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) power in ASDEX Upgrade. Firstly we simulated an inter-ELM phase of an H-mode discharge with a moderate (1.2 × 10{sup 22} electrons/s) lower divertor gas puff. Then we changed the gas source positions to the mid-plane or top of machine while keeping other conditions the same. Cases with different mid-plane or top gas valves are investigated. Our simulations indicate that compared to lower divertor gas puffing, the mid-plane gas puff can enhance the local density in front of the antennas most effectively, while a rather global (toroidally uniform) but significantly smaller enhancement is found for top gas puffing. Our results show quantitative agreement with the experiments.

  14. Cloning of a gene localized and expressed at the ecdysteroid regulated puff 74EF in salivary glands of Drosophila larvae

    PubMed Central

    Möritz, Th.; Edström, J. E.; Pongs, O.

    1984-01-01

    The puffing cycle of salivary gland chromosomes of Drosophila larvae, which initiates the developmental path to pupariation, is induced by ecdysteroid hormone. Its action leads to prominent puffs at loci 2B5, 74EF and 75B. Fragments of the 74EF puff of the D. melanogaster 3L chromosome were microdissected from salivary gland squashes. EcoRI-digested DNA of these fragments was cloned into λ phage. Clones were screened with puff stage-specific cDNA probes. Thirteen out of 650 clones hybridized preferentially with puff stage 4-specific cDNA. The prominent early puffs at 74EF and 75B are most active between puff stage 4 and 6. Therefore, one of the 13 λ phages was chosen for further analysis. It was used to isolate 24 kb of Drosophila DNA from genomic libraries. The DNA hybridized in situ to locus 74F. The 74F DNA coded for a transcript, which was made in salivary glands, but not in fat body of third instar larvae. It accumulated in KC cells in response to ecdysteroid treatment. The polyadenylated transcript size was ˜2.7 kb as judged by Nothern blot analysis. The transcription start site of the 74F gene has been mapped. Sequences upstream of the transcription site contain several sequence elements common to other eucaryotic genes, including potential Z-DNA forming sequences. Also, there is sequence homology to upstream sequences, which have been involved in the regulation of transcription of the salivary gland glue protein 4 gene. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:16453498

  15. Investigating the effect of adding an on-axis jet to Ar gas puff Z pinches on Z.

    DOE PAGES

    Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Jennings, Christopher Ashley; Jones, Brent M.; ...

    2016-10-20

    Double-shell Ar gas puff implosions driven by 16.5±0.5 MA on the Z generator at Sandia National Laboratories are very effective emitters of Ar K-shell radiation (photon energy >3 keV), producing yields of 330 ± 9% kJ (B. Jones et al., Phys. Plasmas, 22, 020706, 2015). In addition, previous simulations and experiments have reported dramatic increases in K-shell yields when adding an on-axis jet to double shell gas puffs for some configurations.

  16. An ambusher's arsenal: chemical crypsis in the puff adder (Bitis arietans)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ashadee Kay; Maritz, Bryan; McKay, Shannon; Glaudas, Xavier; Alexander, Graham J.

    2015-01-01

    Ambush foragers use a hunting strategy that places them at risk of predation by both visual and olfaction-oriented predators. Resulting selective pressures have driven the evolution of impressive visual crypsis in many ambushing species, and may have led to the development of chemical crypsis. However, unlike for visual crypsis, few studies have attempted to demonstrate chemical crypsis. Field observations of puff adders (Bitis arietans) going undetected by several scent-orientated predator and prey species led us to investigate chemical crypsis in this ambushing species. We trained dogs (Canis familiaris) and meerkats (Suricata suricatta) to test whether a canid and a herpestid predator could detect B. arietans using olfaction. We also tested for chemical crypsis in five species of active foraging snakes, predicted to be easily detectable. Dogs and meerkats unambiguously indicated active foraging species, but failed to correctly indicate puff adder, confirming that B. arietans employs chemical crypsis. This is the first demonstration of chemical crypsis anti-predatory behaviour, though the phenomenon may be widespread among ambushers, especially those that experience high mortality rates owing to predation. Our study provides additional evidence for the existence of an ongoing chemically mediated arms race between predator and prey species. PMID:26674950

  17. An ambusher's arsenal: chemical crypsis in the puff adder (Bitis arietans).

    PubMed

    Miller, Ashadee Kay; Maritz, Bryan; McKay, Shannon; Glaudas, Xavier; Alexander, Graham J

    2015-12-22

    Ambush foragers use a hunting strategy that places them at risk of predation by both visual and olfaction-oriented predators. Resulting selective pressures have driven the evolution of impressive visual crypsis in many ambushing species, and may have led to the development of chemical crypsis. However, unlike for visual crypsis, few studies have attempted to demonstrate chemical crypsis. Field observations of puff adders (Bitis arietans) going undetected by several scent-orientated predator and prey species led us to investigate chemical crypsis in this ambushing species. We trained dogs (Canis familiaris) and meerkats (Suricata suricatta) to test whether a canid and a herpestid predator could detect B. arietans using olfaction. We also tested for chemical crypsis in five species of active foraging snakes, predicted to be easily detectable. Dogs and meerkats unambiguously indicated active foraging species, but failed to correctly indicate puff adder, confirming that B. arietans employs chemical crypsis. This is the first demonstration of chemical crypsis anti-predatory behaviour, though the phenomenon may be widespread among ambushers, especially those that experience high mortality rates owing to predation. Our study provides additional evidence for the existence of an ongoing chemically mediated arms race between predator and prey species.

  18. Recent Advances with the AMPX Covariance Processing Capabilities in PUFF-IV

    SciTech Connect

    Wiarda, D. Arbanas, G.; Leal, L.; Dunn, M.E.

    2008-12-15

    The program PUFF-IV is used to process resonance parameter covariance information given in ENDF/B File 32 and point wise covariance matrices given in ENDF/B File 33 into group-averaged covariances matrices on a user-supplied group structure. For large resonance covariance matrices, found for example in {sup 235}U, the execution time of PUFF-IV can be quite long. Recently the code was modified to take advantage of Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) routines for the most time-consuming matrix multiplications. This led to a substantial decrease in execution time. This faster processing capability allowed us to investigate the conversion of File 32 data into File 33 data using a larger number of user-defined groups. While conversion substantially reduces the ENDF/B file size requirements for evaluations with a large number of resonances, a trade-off is made between the number of groups used to represent the resonance parameter covariance as a point wise covariance matrix and the file size. We are also investigating a hybrid version of the conversion, in which the low-energy part of the File 32 resonance parameter covariances matrix is retained and the correlations with higher energies as well as the high energy part are given in File 33.

  19. Recent Advances with the AMPX Covariance Processing Capabilities in PUFF-IV

    SciTech Connect

    Wiarda, Dorothea; Arbanas, Goran; Leal, Luiz C; Dunn, Michael E

    2008-01-01

    The program PUFF-IV is used to process resonance parameter covariance information given in ENDF/B File 32 and point-wise covariance matrices given in ENDF/B File 33 into group-averaged covariances matrices on a user-supplied group structure. For large resonance covariance matrices, found for example in 235U, the execution time of PUFF-IV can be quite long. Recently the code was modified to take advandage of Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) routines for the most time-consuming matrix multiplications. This led to a substantial decrease in execution time. This faster processing capability allowed us to investigate the conversion of File 32 data into File 33 data using a larger number of user-defined groups. While conversion substantially reduces the ENDF/B file size requirements for evaluations with a large number of resonances, a trade-off is made between the number of groups used to represent the resonance parameter covariance as a point-wise covariance matrix and the file size. We are also investigating a hybrid version of the conversion, in which the low-energy part of the File 32 resonance parameter covariances matrix is retained and the correlations with higher energies as well as the high energy part are given in File 33.

  20. Argon gas-puff radius optimiaztion for Saturn operating in the long-pulse mode.

    SciTech Connect

    Apruzese, John P.; Jackson, S. L.; Commisso, Robert J.; Weber, Bruce V.; Mosher, Daniel A.

    2010-06-01

    Argon gas puff experiments using the long pulse mode of Saturn (230-ns rise time) have promise to increase the coupled energy and simplify operations because the voltage is reduced in vacuum and the forward-going energy is higher for the same Marx charge. The issue addressed in this work is to determine if the 12-cm-diameter triple nozzle used in Saturn long-pulse-mode experiments to date provides maximum K-shell yield, or if a different-radius nozzle provides additional radiation. Long-pulse implosions are modeled by starting with measured density distributions from the existing 12-cm-diameter nozzle, and then varying the outer radius in an implosion-energy-conserving self-similar manner to predict the gas-puff diameter that results in the maximum K-shell yield. The snowplow-implosions and multi-zone radiation transport models used in the analysis are benchmarked against detailed measurements from the 12-cm-diameter experiments. These calculations indicate that the maximum K-shell emission is produced with very nearly the existing nozzle radius.

  1. Applicability of solvent based Huff-and-Puff Method to enhance heavy oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qazvini Firouz, Alireza

    Over and above solvent based processes, specifically, the cyclic solvent injection well known as "Huff-and-Puff', has demonstrated a significant potential to enhance heavy oil recovery. Solvent and CO2 Huff-and-Puff are analogies to cyclic steam stimulation; however, in this method, steam is replaced with CO2, hydrocarbon solvent or mixture of the two. This study attempts to validate the feasibility of the Solvent Based Huff-and-Puff Method with respect to enhancing heavy oil recovery and to investigate the effect of fluid, operation, and reservoir parameters on its' performance. Thus, both experimental and reservoir simulation approaches were applied and, the impact of the aforementioned parameters on the performance of the process was investigated. All experiments were conducted in a Berea core with the dimensions of 30.48 cm by 5.07 cm. The core has a permeability of 1800 md and a porosity of 24% which was mounted in a high pressure, stainless steel core holder. Before conducting each Huff-and-Puff Test, the core was saturated with an oil sample representative of Saskatchewan heavy oil reservoirs and exhibited a viscosity of 952 mPa.s, at a temperature of 28°C. Prior to the tests, a complete phase behavior (PVT) analysis of the oil sample and solvents mixture was conducted using CMG- WinProp(TM) software. Over 12 sets of Huff-and-Puff Experiments, utilizing the pure solvent of carbon dioxide, methane, and mixtures of CO2 and propane, were performed at different operating pressures. A soaking time period of 24 hrs and a cut-off pressure of 276 kPa were considered for all cycles. In addition, all Huff-and-Puff Cycles were continued for each operating pressure until production dropped below one percent of the original oil in place. The production trend and recovery factor for each experiment were determined. The final oil recoveries, at the highest operating pressure of 7239 kPa for pure CO2 and, at 6895 kPa for pure methane, were 71 and 50 % OOIP, respectively

  2. High-Z Pusher Experiments on the Cobra Triple Nozzle Gas-Puff Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grouchy, Philip; Qi, Niansheng; Kusse, Bruce; Seyler, Charles; Atoyan, Levon; Byvank, Tom; Cahill, Adam; Greenly, John; Hoyt, Cad; Pikuz, Sergei; Shelkovenko, Tania; Hammer, David

    2014-10-01

    For inertial confinement fusion application and as efficient hard x-ray sources, the imploding sheath of a gas-puff z-pinch or thin liner must be accelerated to the highest possible velocity before hydrodynamic instabilities significantly disrupt the implosion symmetry. Much recent work has focused on increasing implosion stability using radially structured mass-density profiles produced by multi-nozzle gas-puff valves. The introduction of a high-Z element such as xenon into the outer gas shells in such experiments can modify radiation output during the implosion phase as well as at stagnation. In these experiments xenon is introduced into the triple-nozzle gas valve fielded on the (1 MA, 200 ns) COBRA z-pinch machine at Cornell University. The xenon is introduced only in the outer shell, only in the inner shell or in both, to investigate the radiative effects on implosion hydrodynamics and x-ray yield. Results are compared to those obtained during pure argon implosions with the same mass-density profile. Sheath thicknesses and stability are recorded using laser interferometry (532 nm) and multi-frame imaging systems. The distribution of flow velocities and of high-Z material across the pinch is investigated using a (5 GW, 527 nm) Thomson scattering probe. Work supported by DOE Grant No. DE-NA0001836.

  3. Probability density function of a puff dispersing from the wall of a turbulent channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quoc; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios

    2015-11-01

    Study of dispersion of passive contaminants in turbulence has proved to be helpful in understanding fundamental heat and mass transfer phenomena. Many simulation and experimental works have been carried out to locate and track motions of scalar markers in a flow. One method is to combine Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Lagrangian Scalar Tracking (LST) to record locations of markers. While this has proved to be useful, high computational cost remains a concern. In this study, we develop a model that could reproduce results obtained by DNS and LST for turbulent flow. Puffs of markers with different Schmidt numbers were released into a flow field at a frictional Reynolds number of 150. The point of release was at the channel wall, so that both diffusion and convection contribute to the puff dispersion pattern, defining different stages of dispersion. Based on outputs from DNS and LST, we seek the most suitable and feasible probability density function (PDF) that represents distribution of markers in the flow field. The PDF would play a significant role in predicting heat and mass transfer in wall turbulence, and would prove to be helpful where DNS and LST are not always available.

  4. Comparison of self-measured diurnal intraocular pressure profiles using rebound tonometry between primary angle closure glaucoma and primary open angle glaucoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shaoying; Baig, Nafees; Hansapinyo, Linda; Jhanji, Vishal; Wei, Shihui; Tham, Clement C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To document the diurnal intraocular pressure (IOP) profile with rebound tonometry performed by primary glaucoma patients in non-clinic environment. Patients and methods Fifty-three medically-treated eyes of 31 primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and 22 primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients with no previous eye surgery were recruited. Diurnal IOP was measured 5 times per day at four-hourly intervals from 08:00 to 24:00 for 1 week in patients’ study eye using rebound tonometry in a non-clinic environment. The diurnal IOP profiles were compared between PACG and POAG eyes. Results For both PACG and POAG eyes, mean patient-measured IOP was highest in the morning, gradually decreased over the course of a day, and was lowest by midnight (p < 0.001). The diurnal IOP fluctuation ± 1 standard deviation (SD), as documented by SD in daily IOP values, was lower in PACG group (1.6 ± 1.1 mmHg) than in POAG group (2.0 ± 1.2 mmHg; p = 0.049). The mean trough IOP ± 1 SD was higher in PACG group (12.9 ± 2.8 mmHg), compared to POAG group (11.5 ± 3.8 mmHg; p = 0.041). The mean IOP level at midnight ± 1 SD in PACG group (14.0 ± 3.2 mmHg) was higher than that in POAG group (12.1 ± 3.7 mmHg; p = 0.013). Conclusions IOP in primary glaucoma patients was highest in the morning, and decreased over the course of a day in non-clinic environment. Treated diurnal IOP fluctuation seemed to be greater in POAG than PACG eyes. PMID:28333942

  5. Effect of angiotensin receptor blockade on central aortic systolic blood pressure in hypertensive Asians measured using radial tonometry: an open prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Teong, Hui Hwang; Chin, Adeline Mei Lin; Sule, Ashish Anil; Tay, Jam Chin

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Central aortic systolic pressure (CASP) has been shown to be a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events than brachial blood pressure (BP). Different classes of drugs have differential effects on CASP and brachial BP. This open prospective cohort study aimed to observe changes in CASP (measured using radial tonometry) among hypertensive Asians after 12 weeks of treatment with valsartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). METHODS Patients with treatment-naïve hypertension or uncontrolled hypertension who were on non-ARB therapy were eligible for inclusion. Patients with uncontrolled BP (i.e. ≥ 140/90 mmHg) received valsartan for 12 weeks. The patients’ brachial systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP), and CASP changes were monitored using the BPro® watch. RESULTS The mean age of the 44 enrolled patients was 35 years. At baseline, the mean BP and CASP were 150.2/91.4 ± 10.6/9.4 mmHg and 136.3 ± 12.2 mmHg, respectively. Valsartan reduced SBP, DBP and CASP by 14.9 ± 10.7 mmHg, 10.9 ± 8.4 mmHg and 15.3 ± 10.9 mmHg, respectively (all p < 0.001). Every 1.0-mmHg reduction in brachial SBP resulted in a 0.8-mmHg reduction in CASP (p < 0.001). A CASP cut-off of 122.5 mmHg discriminated between controlled and uncontrolled BP (sensitivity 74%, specificity 88%). CONCLUSION Using radial tonometry, we demonstrated good correlation between CASP and brachial SBP reductions after 12 weeks of treatment with valsartan in our study cohort. Correlation analysis between CASP and SBP reductions may be useful for demonstrating whether a drug is able to lower CASP beyond lowering SBP. PMID:26875683

  6. Design and implementation of immiscible carbon dioxide displacement projects (CO/sub 2/ huff-puff) in south Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, F.S.; Landry, R.W.; Bou-Mikael, S.

    1986-01-01

    The CO/sub 2/ Huff-Puff (Immiscible Carbon Dioxide Displacement) process is described including reservoir mechanics. The planning, design, and implementation of the projects including the equipment specifically designed and constructed for these projects are discussed. Case histories of selected projects are included. The paper contains field operations detailing the problems encountered and subsequentially corrected.

  7. The ecdysone receptor (ScEcR-A) binds DNA puffs at the start of DNA amplification in Sciara coprophila

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Gerald M.; Foulk, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    The steroid hormone ecdysone induces DNA amplification and subsequent DNA puff formation in late fourth larval instar salivary gland polytene chromosomes of the fungus fly, Sciara coprophila. Previous in vitro studies on DNA puff II/9A in Sciara demonstrated that the ecdysone receptor (ScEcR-A) efficiently binds an ecdysone response element adjacent to the origin recognition complex binding site within the II/9A amplification origin, implying a role for ScEcR-A in amplification. Here, we extrapolate themolecular details from locus II/9A to the rest of the genome using immunofluorescence with a ScEcR-A-specific antibody. ScEcR-A binds all DNA puff sites just as amplification begins and persists throughout the processes of amplification, transcription, and puffing. Ecdysone injections into pre-amplification stage larvae prematurely induce both DNA amplification and ScEcR-A binding to DNA puff sites. These data are consistent with a direct role for ScEcR-A in DNA amplification. PMID:23737076

  8. Intra-puff CO and CO 2 measurements of cigarettes with iron oxide cigarette paper using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Danielle R.; Parrish, Milton E.; Gee, Diane L.; Harward, Charles N.

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this research was to apply Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS) for measuring selected gaseous constituents in mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke for experimental cigarettes designed to reduce MS CO using iron oxide cigarette papers. These two complimentary analytical techniques are well suited for providing per puff smoke deliveries and intra-puff evolution profiles in cigarette smoke respectively. The quad quantum cascade (QC) laser high resolution infrared spectroscopy system has the necessary temporal and spectral resolution and whole smoke analysis capabilities to provide detailed information for CO and CO 2 as they are being formed in both MS and SS smoke. The QC laser system has an optimal data rate of 20 Hz and a unique puffing system, with a square wave shaped puff, that allows whole smoke to enter an 18 m, 0.3 L multi-pass gas cell in real time (0.1 s cell response time) requiring no syringe or Cambridge filter pad. Another similar multi-pass gas cell with a 36 m pathlength simultaneously monitors the sidestream cigarette smoke. The smoke from experimental cigarettes manufactured with two types of iron oxide papers were compared to the smoke from cigarettes manufactured similarly without iron oxide in the paper using both instrument systems. The delivery per puff determined by the QC laser method agreed with FTIR results. MS CO intra-puff evolution profiles for iron oxide prototype cigarettes demonstrated CO reduction when compared to cigarettes without iron oxide paper. Additionally, both CO and CO 2 intra-puff evolution profiles of the cigarettes with iron oxide paper showed a significant reduction at the initial portion of the 2 s puff not observed in the non-iron oxide prototype cigarettes. This effect also was observed for ammonia and ethylene, suggesting that physical parameters such as paper porosity and burn rate are important. The SS CO and

  9. Deuterium gas puff Z-pinch at currents of 2 to 3 mega-ampere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klir, D.; Shishlov, A. V.; Kubes, P.; Rezac, K.; Fursov, F. I.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kravarik, J.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Labetsky, A. Yu.; Ratakhin, N. A.

    2012-03-01

    Deuterium gas-puff experiments have been carried out on the GIT-12 generator at the Institute of High Current Electronics in Tomsk. The emphasis was put on the study of plasma dynamics and neutron production in double shell gas puffs. A linear mass density of deuterium (D2) varied between 50 and 85 μg/cm. Somewhat problematic was a spread of the D2 gas at a large diameter in the central anode-cathode region. The generator operated in two regimes, with and without a plasma opening switch (POS). When the POS was used, a current reached a peak of 2.7 MA with a 200 ns rise time. Without the POS, a current rise time approached 1500 ns. The influence of different current rise times on neutron production was researched. Obtained results were important for comparison of fast deuterium Z-pinches with plasma foci. Average DD neutron yields with and without the POS were about 1011. The neutron yield seems to be dependent on a peak voltage at the Z-pinch load. In all shots, the neutron emission started during stagnation. At the beginning of the neutron production, the neutron emission correlated with soft x-rays and a significant fraction of neutrons could be explained by the thermonuclear mechanism. Nevertheless, a peak of the neutron emission occurred 40 ns after a soft x-ray peak. At this very moment, hard x-rays above 1 MeV were detected and a rapid expansion with a velocity of 3×105 m/s was observed. In the case of the POS, 1 MeV widths of radial neutron spectra implied that there are deuterons with the energy above 200 keV moving in the radial direction. On the basis of D2 gas puff experiments in the 0.3-17 MA region, the neutron yield dependence on a current as Y∝I3.0±0.2 was proposed.

  10. Breeding Super-Earths and Birthing Super-puffs in Transitional Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2016-02-01

    The riddle posed by super-Earths (1-4R⊕, 2-20M⊕) is that they are not Jupiters: their core masses are large enough to trigger runaway gas accretion, yet somehow super-Earths accreted atmospheres that weigh only a few percent of their total mass. We show that this puzzle is solved if super-Earths formed late, as the last vestiges of their parent gas disks were about to clear. This scenario would seem to present fine-tuning problems, but we show that there are none. Ambient gas densities can span many (in one case up to 9) orders of magnitude, and super-Earths can still robustly emerge after ˜0.1-1 Myr with percent-by-weight atmospheres. Super-Earth cores are naturally bred in gas-poor environments where gas dynamical friction has weakened sufficiently to allow constituent protocores to gravitationally stir one another and merge. So little gas is present at the time of core assembly that cores hardly migrate by disk torques: formation of super-Earths can be in situ. The basic picture—that close-in super-Earths form in a gas-poor (but not gas-empty) inner disk, fed continuously by gas that bleeds inward from a more massive outer disk—recalls the largely evacuated but still accreting inner cavities of transitional protoplanetary disks. We also address the inverse problem presented by super-puffs: an uncommon class of short-period planets seemingly too voluminous for their small masses (4-10R⊕, 2-6M⊕). Super-puffs most easily acquire their thick atmospheres as dust-free, rapidly cooling worlds outside ˜1 AU where nebular gas is colder, less dense, and therefore less opaque. Unlike super-Earths, which can form in situ, super-puffs probably migrated in to their current orbits; they are expected to form the outer links of mean-motion resonant chains, and to exhibit greater water content. We close by confronting observations and itemizing remaining questions.

  11. X-ray results from a modified nozzle and double gas puff z pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, T.; Fisher, A.; Van Drie, A. )

    1991-03-15

    The nozzle and the anode of the UCI (University of California, Irvine) {ital z}-pinch facility were modified to study the influence of the anode-cathode geometrical structure on the stability of the pinch and the x-ray yield of the pinch. The anode was modified from a honey-comb to a hollow cylinder with a 4-cm diameter and a {similar to}3.5-mm wall thickness, placed 2 cm below the cathode. The cavity in the center of the cathode was enlarged from 6-mm diameter to 36 mm. The design of the cathode and the anode showed a marked improvement of the pinch stability over the previous design. Both zirconium and carbon-carbon nozzle were used for the Kr and Ne {ital z} pinches. After a few tens of shots the Zr nozzle was melted at the edge and the pinch degraded, while the carbon-carbon nozzle did not sustain any damage for more than 300 shots. Some shots showed the {ital di}/{ital dt} at the implosion is {similar to}5 times higher than the {ital di}/{ital dt} at the beginning of the discharge, this has never been obtained at UCI before. This ratio of the initial {ital di}/{ital dt} to pinch {ital di}/{ital dt} is a measure of the pinch quality. By serendipity it was found that double gas puff {ital z} pinch increased the hard x-ray ({gt}1 keV) output by about an order of magnitude. The nozzle was then modified to allow double puff operation. A 3.4-mm-diam hole was opened at the center of the nozzle and a plunger was inserted from the top to control the mass of the gas entering the hole. The diagnostics include {ital di}/{ital dt} coil, soft, and hard x-ray diodes. Soft and hard x-ray emission are both enhanced by the double gas puff {ital z} pinch.

  12. BREEDING SUPER-EARTHS AND BIRTHING SUPER-PUFFS IN TRANSITIONAL DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene E-mail: echiang@astro.berkeley.edu

    2016-02-01

    The riddle posed by super-Earths (1–4R{sub ⊕}, 2–20M{sub ⊕}) is that they are not Jupiters: their core masses are large enough to trigger runaway gas accretion, yet somehow super-Earths accreted atmospheres that weigh only a few percent of their total mass. We show that this puzzle is solved if super-Earths formed late, as the last vestiges of their parent gas disks were about to clear. This scenario would seem to present fine-tuning problems, but we show that there are none. Ambient gas densities can span many (in one case up to 9) orders of magnitude, and super-Earths can still robustly emerge after ∼0.1–1 Myr with percent-by-weight atmospheres. Super-Earth cores are naturally bred in gas-poor environments where gas dynamical friction has weakened sufficiently to allow constituent protocores to gravitationally stir one another and merge. So little gas is present at the time of core assembly that cores hardly migrate by disk torques: formation of super-Earths can be in situ. The basic picture—that close-in super-Earths form in a gas-poor (but not gas-empty) inner disk, fed continuously by gas that bleeds inward from a more massive outer disk—recalls the largely evacuated but still accreting inner cavities of transitional protoplanetary disks. We also address the inverse problem presented by super-puffs: an uncommon class of short-period planets seemingly too voluminous for their small masses (4–10R{sub ⊕}, 2–6M{sub ⊕}). Super-puffs most easily acquire their thick atmospheres as dust-free, rapidly cooling worlds outside ∼1 AU where nebular gas is colder, less dense, and therefore less opaque. Unlike super-Earths, which can form in situ, super-puffs probably migrated in to their current orbits; they are expected to form the outer links of mean-motion resonant chains, and to exhibit greater water content. We close by confronting observations and itemizing remaining questions.

  13. Amplification and expression of a salivary gland DNA puff gene in the prothoracic gland of Bradysia hygida (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Candido-Silva, Juliana Aparecida; Machado, Maiaro Cabral Rosa; Hartfelder, Klaus Hartmann; de Almeida, Jorge Cury; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luisa; Monesi, Nadia

    2015-03-01

    The DNA puff BhC4-1 gene, located in DNA puff C4 of Bradysiahygida, is amplified and expressed in the salivary gland at the end of the fourth larval instar as a late response to the increase in 20-hydroxyecdysone titer that triggers metamorphosis. Functional studies revealed that the mechanisms that regulate BhC4-1 expression in the salivary gland are conserved in transgenic Drosophila. These studies also led to the identification of a cis-regulatory module that drives developmentally regulated expression of BhC4-1-lacZ in the prothoracic gland cells of the ring gland, a compound organ which in Drosophila results from the fusion of the prothoracic glands, the corpus allatum and the corpus cardiacum. Here we have investigated the occurrence of BhC4-1 expression in B. hygida prothoracic glands. We report the identification of the B. hygida prothoracic gland and demonstrate that it releases ecdysone. Using RT-qPCR, western blots and immunolocalization experiments, we demonstrate that the BhC4-1 mRNA and the BhC4-1 protein are both expressed in the B. hygida prothoracic glands at the same time that DNA puff C4 is formed in the salivary gland. We also show that BhC4-1 is concomitantly amplified 4.8-fold in the prothoracic gland and 23-fold in the salivary gland. Our results reveal the occurrence of stage specific expression of a DNA puff gene in the prothoracic glands of B. hygida, and extend previous studies that have shown that DNA puff genes expression is not restricted to the salivary gland. In addition, the description of stage specific gene amplification in the prothoracic glands of B. hygida constitutes the first demonstration that gene amplification in Diptera might occur concomitantly in two different tissues in the same developmental stage.

  14. Cross-Section Covariance Data Processing with the AMPX Module PUFF-IV

    SciTech Connect

    Wiarda, Dorothea; Leal, Luiz C; Dunn, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    The ENDF community is endeavoring to release an updated version of the ENDF/B-VII library (ENDF/B-VII.1). In the new release several new evaluations containing covariance information have been added, as the community strives to add covariance information for use in programs like the TSUNAMI (Tools for Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Methodology Implementation) sequence of SCALE (Ref 1). The ENDF/B formatted files are processed into libraries to be used in transport calculations using the AMPX code system (Ref 2) or the NJOY code system (Ref 3). Both codes contain modules to process covariance matrices: PUFF-IV for AMPX and ERRORR in the case of NJOY. While the cross section processing capability between the two code systems has been widely compared, the same is not true for the covariance processing. This paper compares the results for the two codes using the pre-release version of ENDF/B-VII.1.

  15. Use of vacuum arc plasma guns for a metal puff Z-pinch system

    SciTech Connect

    Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Labetskaya, N. A.; Baksht, R. B.

    2011-09-15

    The performance of a metal puff Z-pinch system has been studied experimentally. In this type of system, the initial cylindrical shell 4 cm in diameter was produced by ten plasma guns. Each gun initiates a vacuum arc operating between magnesium electrodes. The net current of the guns was 80 kA. The arc-produced plasma shell was compressed by using a 450-kA, 450-ns driver, and as a result, a plasma column 0.3 cm in diameter was formed. The electron temperature of the plasma reached 400 eV at an average ion concentration of 1.85 {center_dot} 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. The power of the Mg K-line radiation emitted by the plasma for 15-30 ns was 300 MW/cm.

  16. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poehlmann, Flavio R.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively.

  17. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode.

    PubMed

    Poehlmann, Flavio R; Cappelli, Mark A; Rieker, Gregory B

    2010-12-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively.

  18. C02 Huff-n-Puff Process in a Light Oil shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Kovar, Mark; Wehner, Scott

    1997-06-30

    The principal objective of this CO2 Huff-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO2 H-n-P process, coupled with the Central Vacuum Unit (CVU) reservoir characterization components will be used to determine if this process is technically and economically feasible for field implementation. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan in support of the Department of Energy's (DOE) objective of increasing domestic oil production and deferring the abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. Tasks associated with this objective are carried out in what is considered a timely effort for near-term goals.

  19. Compression enhancement by current stepping in a multicascade liner gas-puff Z-pinch plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattak, N. A. D.; Ahmad, Zahoor; Zakaullah, M.; Murtaza, G.

    2008-04-01

    Plasma dynamics of a liner consisting of two or three annular cascade gas-puffs with entrained axial magnetic field is studied using the modified snow-plow model. The current stepping technique (Les 1984 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 17 733) is employed to enhance compression of the imploding plasma. A small-diameter low-voltage-driven system of imploding plasma is considered in order to work out the possibility of the highest gain, in terms of plasma parameters and radiation yield with a relatively simple and compact system. Our numerical results demonstrate that current stepping enhances the plasma compression, yielding high values of the plasma parameters and compressed magnetic field Bz (in magnitudes), if the switching time for the additional current is properly synchronized.

  20. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode

    PubMed Central

    Poehlmann, Flavio R.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively. PMID:21267082

  1. Computational modeling of Krypton gas puffs with tailored mass density profiles on Z

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C. A.; Ampleford, D. J.; Lamppa, D. C.; Hansen, S. B.; Jones, B.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Jobe, M.; Strizic, T.; Reneker, J.; Rochau, G. A.; Cuneo, M. E.

    2015-05-15

    Large diameter multi-shell gas puffs rapidly imploded by high current (∼20 MA, ∼100 ns) on the Z generator of Sandia National Laboratories are able to produce high-intensity Krypton K-shell emission at ∼13 keV. Efficiently radiating at these high photon energies is a significant challenge which requires the careful design and optimization of the gas distribution. To facilitate this, we hydrodynamically model the gas flow out of the nozzle and then model its implosion using a 3-dimensional resistive, radiative MHD code (GORGON). This approach enables us to iterate between modeling the implosion and gas flow from the nozzle to optimize radiative output from this combined system. Guided by our implosion calculations, we have designed gas profiles that help mitigate disruption from Magneto-Rayleigh–Taylor implosion instabilities, while preserving sufficient kinetic energy to thermalize to the high temperatures required for K-shell emission.

  2. Computational modeling of Krypton gas puffs with tailored mass density profiles on Z

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Lamppa, Derek C.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Jones, Brent Manley; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Jobe, Marc Ronald Lee; Reneker, Joseph; Rochau, Gregory A.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Strizic, T.

    2015-05-18

    Large diameter multi-shell gas puffs rapidly imploded by high current (~20 MA, ~100 ns) on the Z generator of Sandia National Laboratories are able to produce high-intensity Krypton K-shell emission at ~13 keV. Efficiently radiating at these high photon energies is a significant challenge which requires the careful design and optimization of the gas distribution. To facilitate this, we hydrodynamically model the gas flow out of the nozzle and then model its implosion using a 3-dimensional resistive, radiative MHD code (GORGON). This approach enables us to iterate between modeling the implosion and gas flow from the nozzle to optimize radiative output from this combined system. Furthermore, guided by our implosion calculations, we have designed gas profiles that help mitigate disruption from Magneto-Rayleigh–Taylor implosion instabilities, while preserving sufficient kinetic energy to thermalize to the high temperatures required for K-shell emission.

  3. Application of bio-huff-`n`-puff technology at Jilin oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Xiu-Yuan Wang; Yan-Fed Xue; Gang Dai; Ling Zhao

    1995-12-31

    An enriched culture 48, capable of adapting to the reservoir conditions and fermenting molasses to produce gas and acid, was used as an inoculum for bio- huff-`n`-puff tests at Fuyu oil area of Jilin oil field. The production well was injected with water containing 4-6% (v/v) molasses and inoculum, and then shut in. After 15-21 days, the well was placed back in operation. A total of 44 wells were treated, of which only two wells showed no effects. The daily oil production of treated wells increased by 33.3-733.3%. Up to the end of 1994, the oil production was increased by 204 tons per well on average. Results obtained from various types of production wells were discussed.

  4. Computational modeling of Krypton gas puffs with tailored mass density profiles on Z

    DOE PAGES

    Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Lamppa, Derek C.; ...

    2015-05-18

    Large diameter multi-shell gas puffs rapidly imploded by high current (~20 MA, ~100 ns) on the Z generator of Sandia National Laboratories are able to produce high-intensity Krypton K-shell emission at ~13 keV. Efficiently radiating at these high photon energies is a significant challenge which requires the careful design and optimization of the gas distribution. To facilitate this, we hydrodynamically model the gas flow out of the nozzle and then model its implosion using a 3-dimensional resistive, radiative MHD code (GORGON). This approach enables us to iterate between modeling the implosion and gas flow from the nozzle to optimize radiativemore » output from this combined system. Furthermore, guided by our implosion calculations, we have designed gas profiles that help mitigate disruption from Magneto-Rayleigh–Taylor implosion instabilities, while preserving sufficient kinetic energy to thermalize to the high temperatures required for K-shell emission.« less

  5. Processing Neutron Cross Section Covariances using NJOY-99 and PUFF-IV

    SciTech Connect

    Arcilla, R. Kahler, A.C.; Oblozinsky, P.; Herman, M.

    2008-12-15

    With the growing demand for multigroup covariances, the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) has been experiencing an upsurge in its covariance data processing activities using the two US codes NJOY-99 (LANL) and PUFF-IV (ORNL). The code NJOY-99 was upgraded by incorporating the new module ERRORJ-2.3, while the NNDC served as the active user and provided feedback. The NNDC has been primarily processing neutron cross section covariances on its 64-bit Linux cluster in support of two DOE programs, the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and the Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). For GNEP, the NNDC used NJOY-99.259 to generate multigroup covariance matrices of {sup 56}Fe, {sup 23}Na, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U from the JENDL-3.3 library using the 15-, 33-, and 230-energy group structures. These covariance matrices will be used to test a new collapsing algorithm which will subsequently be employed to calculate uncertainties on integral parameters in different fast neutron-based systems. For NCSP, we used PUFF-IV 1.0.4 to verify the processability of new evaluated covariance data of {sup 55}Mn, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U generated by a collaboration of ORNL and LANL. For the data end-users at large, the NNDC has made available a Web site which provides a static visualization interface for all materials with covariance data in the four major data libraries: ENDF/B-VI.8 (47 materials), ENDF/B-VII.0 (26 materials), JEFF-3.1 (37 materials) and JENDL-3.3 (20 materials)

  6. Processing Neutron Cross Section Covariances using NJOY-99 and PUFF-IV

    SciTech Connect

    Arcilla,R.; Kahler, A.C.; Oblozinsky, P.; Herman, M.

    2008-06-24

    With the growing demand for multigroup covariances, the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) has been experiencing an upsurge in its covariance data processing activities using the two US codes NJOY-99 (LANL) and PUFF-IV (ORNL). The code NJOY-99 was upgraded by incorporating the new module ERRORJ-2.3, while the NNDC served as the active user and provided feedback. The NNDC has been primarily processing neutron cross section covariances on its 64-bit Linux cluster in support of two DOE programs, the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and the Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). For GNEP, the NNDC used NJOY-99.259 to generate multigroup covariance matrices of {sup 56}Fe, {sup 23}Na, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U from the JENDL-3.3 library using the 15-, 33-, and 230-energy group structures. These covariance matrices will be used to test a new collapsing algorithm which will subsequently be employed to calculate uncertainties on integral parameters in different fast neutron-based systems. For NCSP, we used PUFF-IV 1.0.4 to verify the processability of new evaluated covariance data of {sup 55}Mn, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U generated by a collaboration of ORNL and LANL. For the data end-users at large, the NNDC has made available a Web site which provides a static visualization interface for all materials with covariance data in the four major data libraries: ENDF/B-VI.8 (47 materials), ENDF/B-VII.0 (26 materials), JEFF-3.1 (37 materials) and JENDL-3.3 (20 materials).

  7. Phylogeography of the widespread African puff adder (Bitis arietans) reveals multiple Pleistocene refugia in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Axel; Baker, Karis; Hendry, Catriona R; Peppin, Lindsay; Phelps, Tony; Tolley, Krystal A; Wüster, Catharine E; Wüster, Wolfgang

    2013-02-01

    Evidence from numerous Pan-African savannah mammals indicates that open-habitat refugia existed in Africa during the Pleistocene, isolated by expanding tropical forests during warm and humid interglacial periods. However, comparative data from other taxonomic groups are currently lacking. We present a phylogeographic investigation of the African puff adder (Bitis arietans), a snake that occurs in open-habitat formations throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Multiple parapatric mitochondrial clades occur across the current distribution of B. arietans, including a widespread southern African clade that is subdivided into four separate clades. We investigated the historical processes responsible for generating these phylogeographic patterns in southern Africa using species distribution modelling and genetic approaches. Our results show that interior regions of South Africa became largely inhospitable for B. arietans during glacial maxima, whereas coastal and more northerly areas remained habitable. This corresponds well with the locations of refugia inferred from mitochondrial data using a continuous phylogeographic diffusion model. Analysis of data from five anonymous nuclear loci revealed broadly similar patterns to mtDNA. Secondary admixture was detected between previously isolated refugial populations. In some cases, this is limited to individuals occurring near mitochondrial clade contact zones, but in other cases, more extensive admixture is evident. Overall, our study reveals a complex history of refugial isolation and secondary expansion for puff adders and a mosaic of isolated refugia in southern Africa. We also identify key differences between the processes that drove isolation in B. arietans and those hypothesized for sympatric savannah mammals.

  8. Demonstration of a neonlike argon soft-x-ray laser with a picosecond-laser-irradiated gas puff target.

    PubMed

    Fiedorowicz, H; Bartnik, A; Dunn, J; Smith, R F; Hunter, J; Nilsen, J; Osterheld, A L; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2001-09-15

    We demonstrate a neonlike argon-ion x-ray laser, using a short-pulse laser-irradiated gas puff target. The gas puff target was formed by pulsed injection of gas from a high-pressure solenoid valve through a nozzle in the form of a narrow slit and irradiated with a combination of long, 600-ps and short, 6-ps high-power laser pulses with a total of 10 J of energy in a traveling-wave excitation scheme. Lasing was observed on the 3p (1)S(0)?3s (1)P(1) transition at 46.9 nm and the 3d (1)P(1)?3p (1)P(1) transition at 45.1 nm. A gain of 11 cm(-1) was measured on these transitions for targets up to 0.9 cm long.

  9. Design and initial results from a kilojoule level dense plasma focus with hollow anode and cylindrically symmetric gas puff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellsworth, J. L.; Falabella, S.; Tang, V.; Schmidt, A.; Guethlein, G.; Hawkins, S.; Rusnak, B.

    2014-01-01

    We have designed and built a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Z-pinch device using a kJ-level capacitor bank and a hollow anode, and fueled by a cylindrically symmetric gas puff. Using this device, we have measured peak deuteron beam energies of up to 400 keV at 0.8 kJ capacitor bank energy and pinch lengths of ˜6 mm, indicating accelerating fields greater than 50 MV/m. Neutron yields of on the order of 107 per shot were measured during deuterium operation. The cylindrical gas puff system permitted simultaneous operation of DPF with a radiofrequency quadrupole accelerator for beam-into-plasma experiments. This paper describes the machine design, the diagnostic systems, and our first results.

  10. Design and initial results from a kilojoule level Dense Plasma Focus with hollow anode and cylindrically symmetric gas puff.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, J L; Falabella, S; Tang, V; Schmidt, A; Guethlein, G; Hawkins, S; Rusnak, B

    2014-01-01

    We have designed and built a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Z-pinch device using a kJ-level capacitor bank and a hollow anode, and fueled by a cylindrically symmetric gas puff. Using this device, we have measured peak deuteron beam energies of up to 400 keV at 0.8 kJ capacitor bank energy and pinch lengths of ∼6 mm, indicating accelerating fields greater than 50 MV/m. Neutron yields of on the order of 10(7) per shot were measured during deuterium operation. The cylindrical gas puff system permitted simultaneous operation of DPF with a radiofrequency quadrupole accelerator for beam-into-plasma experiments. This paper describes the machine design, the diagnostic systems, and our first results.

  11. On the possibility of neutron generation in an imploding TiD{sub 2} puff Z pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Baksht, Rina B.; Oreshkin, Vladimir I.; Rousskikh, Alexander G.

    2013-08-15

    Simulation of implosion of a TiD{sub 2} puff Z pinch is reported. The Z pinch is supposed to be produced by the plasma flow generated by a vacuum arc, as described by Rousskikh et al.[Phys. Plasmas 18, 092707 (2011)]. To simulate the implosion, a one-dimensional two-temperature radiative magnetohydrodynamics code was used. The simulation has shown that neutrons are generated during the implosion of a TiD{sub 2} puff Z pinch due to thermalization of the pinch plasma stagnated on axis. It has been shown that the necessary condition for neutron generation is that the ion temperature must be substantially higher than the electron temperature. For a pinch current of 1 MA, the predicted yield of 'thermal' neutrons is 2.5 × 10{sup 9} neutrons/shot.

  12. Generation and characterization of plasma channels in gas puff targets using soft X-ray radiography technique

    SciTech Connect

    Wachulak, P. W. Bartnik, A.; Jarocki, R.; Fok, T.; Węgrzyński, Ł.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, M.; Jabczyński, J.; Fiedorowicz, H.

    2014-10-15

    We present our recent results of a formation and characterization of plasma channels in elongated krypton and xenon gas puff targets. The study of their formation and temporal expansion was carried out using a combination of a soft X-ray radiography (shadowgraphy) and pinhole camera imaging. Two high-energy short laser pulses were used to produce the channels. When a pumping laser pulse was shaped into a line focus, using cylindrical and spherical lenses, the channels were not produced because much smaller energy density was deposited in the gas puff target. However, when a point focus was obtained, using just a spherical lens, the plasma channels appeared. The channels were up to 9 mm in length, had a quite uniform density profile, and expanded in time with velocities of about 2 cm/μs.

  13. Design and initial results from a kilojoule level dense plasma focus with hollow anode and cylindrically symmetric gas puff

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsworth, J. L. Falabella, S.; Tang, V.; Schmidt, A.; Guethlein, G.; Hawkins, S.; Rusnak, B.

    2014-01-15

    We have designed and built a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Z-pinch device using a kJ-level capacitor bank and a hollow anode, and fueled by a cylindrically symmetric gas puff. Using this device, we have measured peak deuteron beam energies of up to 400 keV at 0.8 kJ capacitor bank energy and pinch lengths of ∼6 mm, indicating accelerating fields greater than 50 MV/m. Neutron yields of on the order of 10{sup 7} per shot were measured during deuterium operation. The cylindrical gas puff system permitted simultaneous operation of DPF with a radiofrequency quadrupole accelerator for beam-into-plasma experiments. This paper describes the machine design, the diagnostic systems, and our first results.

  14. Characterization of neutron emission from mega-ampere deuterium gas puff Z-pinch at microsecond implosion times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klir, D.; Shishlov, A. V.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kubes, P.; Labetsky, A. Yu; Rezac, K.; Cikhardt, J.; Fursov, F. I.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kravarik, J.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Sila, O.; Stodulka, J.

    2013-08-01

    Experiments with deuterium (D2) triple shell gas puffs were carried out on the GIT-12 generator at a 3 MA current level and microsecond implosion times. The outer, middle and inner nozzle diameters were 160 mm, 80 mm and 30 mm, respectively. The influence of the mass of deuterium shells on neutron emission times, neutron yields and neutron energy spectra was studied. The injected linear mass of deuterium varied between 50 and 255 µg cm-1. Gas puffs imploded onto the axis before the peak of generator current at 700-1100 ns. Most of the neutrons were emitted during the second neutron pulse after the development of instabilities. Despite higher currents, heavier gas puffs produced lower neutron yields. Optimal mass and a short time delay between the valve opening and the generator triggering were more important than the better coincidence of stagnation with peak current. The peak neutron yield from D(d, n)3He reactions reached 3 × 1011 at 2.8 MA current, 90 µg cm-1 injected linear mass and 37 mm anode-cathode gap. In the case of lower mass shots, a large number of 10 MeV neutrons were produced either by secondary DT reactions or by DD reactions of deuterons with energies above 7 MeV. The average neutron yield ratio Y>10 MeV/Y2.5 MeV reached (6 ± 3) × 10-4. Such a result can be explained by a power law distribution for deuterons as \\rmd N_d/\\rmd E_d\\propto E_d^{-3} . The optimization of a D2 gas puff Z-pinch and similarities to a plasma focus and its drive parameter are described.

  15. A study on synthetic relieving plug agent for steam huff-puff wells in the water-sensitive formation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Biao; Cheng Yunxin; Jian Yinxue; Hu Zimian

    1995-11-01

    A great quantity of heavy crude oil has been produced by using steam huff-puff method in the Liaohe Oil Field. This kind of crude contains a lot of resin-asphaltene and possesses the property of very high viscosity and specific gravity. The formation is not only very sensitive to water, but also is damaged by drilling muds. Through steam injection, the production rate was still very low and the duration of steam huff-puff was very short because of plugs which were formed by clay swelling and the residual hydrocarbon that was produced by volatilization of light fractions of heavy crude around the wellbore. This paper offers a synthetic relieving plug agent which is a mixed fluid, containing organic mixed solvent, inorganic acid, surfactant and other additives. The synthetic relieving plug agent (ARP-8801 and BJ-30) has been successfully used in 37 wells in Shuguang No. 48 Union, Liaohe Oil Field since April 1989. According to the statistical data obtained from 33 experimental wells, it has been shown that the ARP-8801 and BJ-30 synthetic relieving plug agent has excellent relieving plug ability for the heavy crude wells using steam huff-puff method in water-sensitive formations. The production rate per well was increased on an average from 0--8.6 tons/day (before treatment) to 6.0--26.7 tons/day (after treatment). The duration of steam huff-puff was increased on an average from 121 days (before treatment) to 218 days (after treatment). The oil/steam ratio increased from 0.41 (before treatment) to 1.17 (after treatment). The cumulative incremental oil production has reached 41,704 tons. The application in oil field proved that the method, offered by this paper, is a very nice stimulation treatment for heavy crude wells injecting steam in the water-sensitive formation. The mechanism of relieving plug is also discussed in this paper.

  16. Experimental Results from Plasma Shell on Deuterium Gas-puff Z-pinch on the Current Level of 3 MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezac, K.; Klir, D.; Kubes, P.; Kravarik, J.; Shishlov, A.; Labetsky, A.; Kokshenev, V.; Ratakhin, N.; GIT-12 Team

    2013-10-01

    The experiments with a plasma shell on deuterium gas-puff Z-pinch were carried out on the GIT-12 generator at IHCE in Tomsk. We diagnosed Z-pinch shots with deuterium linear mass of about 100 μg/cm. The outer shell of the load was formed by 48 plasma guns positioned on diameter of 350 mm, the diameter of the nozzle producing deuterium inner shell gas-puff was 80 mm. Results obtained from X-ray and neutron diagnostics, especially neutron time-of-flight signals, where 15 MeV neutrons (in radial direction) and 22 MeV neutrons (in axial direction) were registered, are presented. Obtained implosion velocity of the gas-puff had the value of 4 . 5 ×107 cm/s, neutron yield from D(d,n)3He reaction was in order of 1012 neutrons/shot on a current level of about 2.7 MA. The time correlations of the TOF diagnostics with other diagnostics such as electrical characteristics, an MCP frames, and a visible streak camera are also presented. Work supported by MEYS CR research programs No. ME090871, No. LG13029, by GACR grant No. P205/12/0454, grant CRA IAEA No. 17088 and RFBR research project No. 13-08-00479-a.

  17. A laboratory and field evaluation of the CO/sub 2/ huff 'n puff process for light oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Monger, T.G.; Coma, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is a laboratory and field investigation of the CO/sub 2/ huff 'n puff process for the enhanced recovery of light crude oil. The results of continuous and cyclic CO/sub 2/ displacements using a 31.2 /sup 0/API (870 kg/m/sup 3/) stock tank oil in watered-out Berea cores are presented. Fourteen single-well cyclic CO/sub 2/ field tests in south Louisianan sands are examined. Laboratory results demonstrate that the CO/sub 2/ huff 'n puff process recovers waterflood residual oil. Incremental oil recovery increased with the amount of CO/sub 2/ injected, and was not benefited by operating at the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP). Maximum ultimate incremental oil recovery required a soak period and additional water influx. Incremental oil recovery continued with a second cycle of CO/sub 2/, but a third cycle showed significant decline. Recovery factors averaging less than 2 Mscf (57 m/sup 3/) of CO/sub 2/ per barrel of incremental oil were achieved in nine out of fourteen field tests. Field results suggest that in the absence of mechanical problems, initial response improved with larger space occupied by CO/sub 2/, thicker perforation interval, and lower CO/sub 2/ reservoir viscosities; while lifetime response improved with lower prior water cut. Field results confirm that the CO/sub 2/ huff 'n puff process recovers waterflood residual oil, and that a second cycle can be successful.

  18. Investigating the effect of adding an on-axis jet to Ar gas puff Z pinches on Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Jennings, C. A.; Jones, B.; Apruzese, J. P.; Ampleford, D. J.; Lamppa, D. C.; Coverdale, C. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Giuliani, J. L.; Hansen, S. B.; Jones, M. C.; Moore, N. W.; Rochau, G. A.; Thornhill, J. W.

    2016-10-01

    Double-shell Ar gas puff implosions driven by 16.5 ± 0.5 MA on the Z generator at Sandia National Laboratories are very effective emitters of Ar K-shell radiation (photon energy >3 keV), producing yields of 330 ± 9% kJ [B. Jones et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 020706 (2015)]. Previous simulations and experiments have reported dramatic increases in K-shell yields when adding an on-axis jet to double shell gas puffs for some configurations. We report on a series of experiments on Z testing Ar gas puff configurations with and without an on-axis jet guided by 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. Adding an on-axis jet was found to significantly improve the performance of some, but not all, configurations. The maximum observed K-shell yield of 375 ± 9% kJ was produced with a configuration that rapidly imploded onto an on-axis jet. A dramatic difference was observed in the plasma conditions at stagnation when a jet was used, producing a narrower stagnation column in experiments with a higher density but relatively lower electron temperature. The MHD simulations accurately reproduce the experimental measurements. The conversion efficiency for electrical energy delivered to the load to K-shell x-rays is estimated to be ˜12.5% for the best-performing configuration, similar to the best results from experiments at smaller facilities.

  19. Initial magnetic field compression studies using gas-puff Z-pinches and thin liners on COBRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Concepcion, R. J.; Evans, M. T.; Greenly, J. B.; Hammer, D. A.; Hoyt, C. L.; Kroupp, E.; Kusse, B. R.; Maron, Y.; Novick, A. S.; Pikuz, S. A.; Qi, N.; Rondeau, G.; Rosenberg, E.; Schrafel, P. C.; Seyler, C. E.; Shelkovenko, T. C.

    2013-08-01

    This magnetic compression of cylindrical liners filled with DT gas has promise as an efficient way to achieve fusion burn using pulsed-power machines. However, to avoid rapid cooling of the fuel by transfer of heat to the liner an axial magnetic field is required. This field has to be compressed during the implosion since the thermal insulation is more demanding as the compressed DT plasma becomes hotter and its volume smaller. This compression of the magnetic field is driven both by the imploding liner and plasma. To highlight how this magnetic field compression by the plasma and liner evolves we have separately studied Z-pinch implosions generated by gas puff and liner loads. The masses of the gas puff and liner loads were adjusted to match COBRA's current rise times. Our results have shown that Ne gas-puff implosions are well described by a snowplow model where electrical currents are predominately localized to the outer surface of the imploding plasma and the magnetic field is external to the imploding plasma. Liner implosions are dominated by the plasma ablation process on the inside surface of the liner and the electrical currents and magnetic fields are advected into the inner plasma volume; the sharp radial gradient associated with the snowplow process is not present.

  20. Shock formation in Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe on DD gas puff implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narkis, J.; Rahman, H. U.; Wessel, F. J.; Ney, P.; Beg, F.

    2016-10-01

    1- and 2-D simulations of a 1-cm radius, gas-puff implosion of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe liners onto a DD target are conducted using the discharge parameters for the Univ. Nevada, Reno, Zebra (1 MA, 125 ns) voltage driver and the resistive MHD code MACH2. During the run-in phase, initial†shock heating preheats the DD plasma, with subsequent stable, adiabatic compression heating the target to high energy density. The dynamics of the former in both the liner and target are investigated. It is shown that magnetic field transport to the liner/target interface does not occur prior to the run-in phase in Ne and Ar liners, yet does occur in Kr and Xe liners, and that magnetic field transport to the interface is a requirement for shock initiation, thus demonstrating the necessity for using a high-Z material in the Staged Z-pinch. Shock reflection off the axis and subsequent collision with the interface results in partial transmission into the liner, which manifests as current reversal, and consequently an enhanced Bθ gradient. 2-D simulations show that magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth decreases with increasing Z, with shock formation providing sufficient isolation to reproduce the current reversal and enhanced Bθ gradient observed in 1-D simulations. Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  1. R-Z Density Mapping and CFD Simulation of Gas Puff Nozzle Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Erik; Valenzuela, Julio; Krasheninnikov, Igor; Frazier, Alister; Covington, Aaron; Beg, Farhat; Darling, Tim; Nevada Terawatt Facility Team; University of San Diego Team

    2015-11-01

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is a technique in which a tracer is added to the gas flow for measurement of its spatial and temporal density profile. The Nd:YAG EKSPLA laser 20mJ/150ps at the fourth harmonic 266nm wavelength is focused down to a <1mm pencil beam to excite the acetone tracer. The use of anr ICCD gating camera is necessary because the 4ns short-lived fluorescence state is an order-of-magnitude dimmer than the 200us long-lived phosphorescence state. Mapping the density profile in time and space requires multiple shots. Once the temporal and spatial density profile is obtained, it can be used and benchmarked for two independent CFD software programs using transient solvers: OpenFOAM and FLUENT. The measurements and simulations serve as the initial conditions for (i) Gas Puff experiments that utilize special nozzle contours to inject the gas load between the electrode gap on pulsed-power machines and (ii) use with future MHD modeling efforts. Support for this work is provided by DOE/NNSA grant DE-NA0002075 and funded by the US Department of Energy, ARPA-E, Control Number 1184-1527.

  2. Diagnostics of deuterium gas-puff z-pinch experiments on the GIT-12 generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cikhardt, J.; Klir, D.; Rezac, K.; Kubes, P.; Kravarik, J.; Batobolotova, B.; Sila, O.; Turek, K.; Shishlov, A.; Labetsky, A.; Kokshenev, V.; Chedizov, R.; Ratakhin, N.; Varlachev, V.; Garapatsky, A.; Dudkin, G.; Padalko, V.; GIT-12 Team

    2014-10-01

    Z-pinch experiments with a deuterium gas-puff and an outer plasma shell generated by plasma guns were carried out on the GIT-12 generator at the IHCE in Tomsk. Using this novel configuration of the load, the neutron yields from the DD reaction were significantly increased from 2×1011 up to 3×1012 neutrons per shot at the current level of about 3 MA. In addition to recent experiments, the threshold activation detectors were used in order to get the information about the energy spectrum of the generated neutrons. The copper, indium, and lead samples were irradiated by the pulse of the neutrons generated during the experimental shot. The decay radiation of the products from the reactions 63Cu(n,2n)62Cu, 115In(n, γ) 116 mIn and 206Pb (n,3n)204mPb was observed using gamma spectrometer. According to the used neutron ToF scintillation detectors, the energy of neutrons reaches up to 20 MeV. The work was supported by the MSMT of the Czech Republic research Programs No. ME090871, No. LG13029, by the GACR Grant No. P205/12/0454, Grant CRA IAEA No. 17088 and RFBR research Project No. 13-08-00479-a.

  3. Diagnostics of Fast Axial Ions Produced in Deuterium Gas-Puff Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezac, K.; Klir, D.; Cikhardt, J.; Kubes, P.; Sila, O.; Kravarik, J.; Shishlov, A. V.; Labetsky, A. Yu.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Orcikova, H.; Turek, K.; Dudkin, N.; Padalko, V. N.; GIT-12 Team

    2016-10-01

    An unexpected advantage of some Z-pinch configurations is a possibility of an acceleration of ions to high energies. One of these configurations is a deuterium gas-puff with outer plasma shell, where hydrogen ions with energies up to 40 MeV has been observed during Z-pinch experiments on the GIT-12 generator since 2013. During the recent campaign in 2016, the source of high energetic ions and also parameters of ion pulses have been studied by various in-chamber diagnostics in 24 experimental shots on the current level below 3 MA. Principal aims were (i) to find a spatial distribution of ion sources, (ii) localization of ion sources on the z-axis and (iii) determine the ion energy spectra by an unfold technique. All of these has been done with the help of a new diagnostic setup consists of an ion pinhole camera, an ion 3-pinhole camera, a multi-pinhole camera and a detector of spatial ion beam profile. The ion diagnostics contained stacks with various absorbers, CR-39 track detectors, HD-V2 and EBT-3 radio-chromic films. One more aim, (iv) the study of a difference in production time of axial ion pulses with off-axis pulses, were accomplished by LiF samples and nTOF signals. This work was supported by the projects GACR 16-07036S, MSMT LD14089, CTU. SGS16/223/OHK3/3T/13, IAEA RC17088.

  4. Shock formation in Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe on deuterium gas puff implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Narkis, J.; Rahman, H. U.; Ney, P.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Wessel, F. J.; Conti, F.; Valenzuela, J. C.; Beg, F. N.

    2016-12-29

    1- and 2-D simulations of 1-cm radius, gas-puff liners of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe imploding onto a deuterium target are conducted using the discharge parameters for the Zebra (1 MA, 130 ns) driver using the resistive MHD code MACH2. This is an implementation of the Staged Z-pinch concept, in which the target is driven to high-energy-density first by shock compression launched by a diffused azimuthal magnetic field (J×B force), and then by the adiabatic compression as the liner converges on axis. During the run-in phase, the initial shock heating preheats the deuterium plasma, with a subsequent stable, adiabatic compression heating the target to high energy density. Shock compression of the target coincides with the development of a J×B force at the target/liner interface. Stronger B-field transport and earlier shock compression increases with higher-Z liners, which results in an earlier shock arrival on axis. As a result, delayed shock formation in lower-Z liners yields a relative increase in shock heating, however, the 2-D simulations show an increased target isolation from magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability penetration, suggesting that an optimal balance between these two effects is reached in an Ar or Kr liner, rather than with Xe.

  5. Upgrade to the Gas Puff Imaging Diagnostic that Views Alcator C-Mod's Inboard Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierchio, J. M.; Terry, J. L.

    2012-10-01

    We describe an upgrade of Alcator C-Mod's Gas Puff Imaging system which views the inboard plasma edge and SOL along lines-of-sight that are approximately parallel to the local magnetic field. The views are arranged in a 2D (R,Z) array with ˜2.8 cm radial coverage and ˜2.4 cm poloidal coverage. 23 of 54 available views were coupled via fibers to individual interference filters and PIN photodiode detectors. We are in the process of upgrading the system in order to increase the sensitivity of the system by replacing the PIN photodiodes with a 4x8 array of Avalanche Photo-Diodes (APD). Light from 30 views is coupled to the single-chip APD array through a single interference filter. We expect an improvement in signal-to-noise ratio of more than 10x. The frequency response of the system will increase from ˜400 kHz to 1MHz. The dynamic range of the new system is manipulated by changing the high-voltages on the APDs. Test results of the detectors' channel-to-channel cross-talk, frequency response, and gain curves will be presented, along with schematics of the experimental setup. The upgraded system allows for more study of inboard edge fluctuations, including whether the quasi-coherent fluctuations observed in the outboard edge also exist inboard.

  6. Ion Acceleration in Megaampere Deuterium Gas-Puff Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klir, D.,; Cikhardt, J.; Cikhardtova, B.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Munzar, V.; Rezac, K.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A.; Cherdizov, R.; Fursov, F.; Kokshenev, V.; Kovalchuk, B.; Kurmaev, N.; Labetsky, A.; Ratakhin, N.; Dudkin, G.; Padalko, V.; Krasa, J.; Turek, K.

    2016-10-01

    Acceleration of ions to high energies was observed in deuterium z-pinches already at the beginning of the fusion research in the 1950s. Even though the ion acceleration mechanism in z-pinches and dense plasma foci has been studied for decades, it is still a source of controversy which has not been resolved. Recently, the ion emission has been researched at a 3 MA current on the GIT-12 generator (IHCE in Tomsk). When an outer hollow cylindrical plasma shell was injected around an inner deuterium gas puff, a larger amount of current was assembled on the z-pinch axis at stagnation. After the disruptive development of m =0 necks, hydrogen ions were accelerated up to 40 MeV energies. Comprehensive diagnostics of multi-MeV protons and deuterons provided unique information about the ion acceleration in z-pinches. The better knowledge of the ion emission was used to increase the neutron yield above 1013. A large amount of experimental data from various ion diagnostic instruments is also useful for validation of numerical codes and verification of various hypotheses about the ion acceleration mechanism in z-pinches. This work was partially supported by the GACR Grant No. 16-07036S.

  7. Shock formation in Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe on deuterium gas puff implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Narkis, J.; Rahman, H. U.; Ney, P.; ...

    2016-12-29

    1- and 2-D simulations of 1-cm radius, gas-puff liners of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe imploding onto a deuterium target are conducted using the discharge parameters for the Zebra (1 MA, 130 ns) driver using the resistive MHD code MACH2. This is an implementation of the Staged Z-pinch concept, in which the target is driven to high-energy-density first by shock compression launched by a diffused azimuthal magnetic field (J×B force), and then by the adiabatic compression as the liner converges on axis. During the run-in phase, the initial shock heating preheats the deuterium plasma, with a subsequent stable, adiabatic compressionmore » heating the target to high energy density. Shock compression of the target coincides with the development of a J×B force at the target/liner interface. Stronger B-field transport and earlier shock compression increases with higher-Z liners, which results in an earlier shock arrival on axis. As a result, delayed shock formation in lower-Z liners yields a relative increase in shock heating, however, the 2-D simulations show an increased target isolation from magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability penetration, suggesting that an optimal balance between these two effects is reached in an Ar or Kr liner, rather than with Xe.« less

  8. Simulations of Ar gas-puff implosions on Z with a Xe dopant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangri, Varun; Giuliani, J. L.; Velikovich, A. L.; Ouart, N. D.; Dasgupta, A.; Thornhill, J. W.; Apruzese, J. P.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Jones, B.; Jennings, C. A.

    2016-10-01

    A recent experiment on the Z machine at SNL indicated that the presence of a small fraction of Xe (0.8% by number in the center jet) in a Ar gas puff shot had a significant effect on the emitted K-shell radiation. In presence of the Xe dopant, the Ar K-shell yield dramatically reduced from 373 +/-9 to 129 +/-9 kJ. The peak K-shell power was also significantly lower and accompanied by two nearly equal peaks. A second shot without the Xe dopant consisted of a single peak. We present radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of these shots [Z2603 (with Xe) and Z2605 (without Xe)] using the using the Mach2-TCRE code with a tabulated collisional radiative equilibrium model. Detailed numerical simulations exploring the impact of the Xe dopant on the implosion dynamics and the resultant K-shell radiation will be presented. Analysis of a time- and space resolved synthetic K-shell spectra would also be presented. Work supported by the DOE/NNSA. SNL is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. CO2 Huff-n-Puff Process in a Light Oil Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Kovar, Mark; Wehner, Scott

    1998-01-13

    The application of cyclic CO2, often referred to as the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process, may find its niche in the maturing waterfloods of the Permian Basin. Coupling the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process to miscible flooding applications could provide the needed revenue to sufficiently mitigate near-term negative cash flow concerns in the capital-intensive miscible projects. Texaco Exploration & Production Inc. and the U. S. Department of Energy have teamed up in an attempt to develop the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process in the Grayburg and San Andres formations which are light oil, shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs that exist throughout the Permian Basin. This cost-shared effort is intended to demonstrate the viability of this underutilized technology in a specific class of domestic reservoir. A significant amount of oil reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs. Specifically, the carbonates deposited in shallow shelf (SSC) environments make up the largest percentage of known reservoirs within the Permian Basin of North America. Many of these known resources have been under waterflooding operations for decades and are at risk of abandonment if crude oil recoveries cannot be economically enhanced. The selected sites for this demonstration project are the Central Vacuum Unit waterflood in Lea County, New Mexico and the Sundown Slaughter Field in Hockley County, Texas. Miscible CO2 flooding is the process of choice for enhancing recovery of light oils and already accounts for over 12% of the Permian Basin's daily production. There are significant probable reserves associated with future miscible CO2 projects. However, many are marginally economic at current market conditions due to large up-front capital commitments for a peak response, which may be several years in the future. The resulting negative cash-flow is sometimes too much for an operator to absorb. The CO2 Huff-n-Puff process is being investigated as a near

  10. Preliminary Results of an Examination of Electronic Cigarette User Puff Topography: The Effect of a Mouthpiece-Based Topography Measurement Device on Plasma Nicotine and Subjective Effects

    PubMed Central

    Spindle, Tory R.; Breland, Alison B.; Karaoghlanian, Nareg V.; Shihadeh, Alan L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) heat a nicotine-containing solution; the resulting aerosol is inhaled by the user. Nicotine delivery may be affected by users’ puffing behavior (puff topography), and little is known about the puff topography of ECIG users. Puff topography can be measured using mouthpiece-based computerized systems. However, the extent to which a mouthpiece influences nicotine delivery and subjective effects in ECIG users is unknown. Methods: Plasma nicotine concentration, heart rate, and subjective effects were measured in 13 experienced ECIG users who used their preferred ECIG and liquid (≥12mg/ml nicotine) during 2 sessions (with or without a mouthpiece). In both sessions, participants completed an ECIG use session in which they were instructed to take 10 puffs with 30-second inter-puff intervals. Puff topography was recorded in the mouthpiece condition. Results: Almost all measures of the effects of ECIG use were independent of topography measurement. Collapsed across session, mean plasma nicotine concentration increased by 16.8ng/ml, and mean heart rate increased by 8.5 bpm (ps < .05). Withdrawal symptoms decreased significantly after ECIG use. Participants reported that the mouthpiece affected awareness and made ECIG use more difficult. Relative to previously reported data for tobacco cigarette smokers using similar topography measurement equipment, ECIG-using participants took larger and longer puffs with lower flow rates. Conclusions: In experienced ECIG users, measuring ECIG topography did not influence ECIG-associated nicotine delivery or most measures of withdrawal suppression. Topography measurement systems will need to account for the low flow rates observed for ECIG users. PMID:25239957

  11. Effects of source conditions, vertical diffusivity and spatial resolution of wind data on simulation results based on the tephra-tracking model PUFF: a case study from the Kirishima 2011 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyosugi, K.; Koyaguchi, T.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding how pyroclasts disperse from volcanic plumes is a fundamental problem of volcanology to reconstruct eruption conditions from tephra fallout deposits. Tephra dispersion is not only a scientifically interesting but also socially and economically important problem (e.g., the air traffic disruption caused by the 2010 Eyjafjallaokull volcano eruption). PUFF is a tephra-tracking model developed by the University of Alaska for the use of aviation service alert. In this model, position vector of each particle at a time step is calculated with Lagrangian formulation using local wind velocity and terminal gravitational fallout vector at one time step before; diffusivity due to turbulent behavior is simulated by a random walk formulation. We applied this model to the sub-Plinian phase of the Kirishima 2011 eruption to test the effects of simulation parameters on the features of tephra dispersion and fallout deposits in the field. We systematically investigated the effects of two parameters of PUFF model to tephra dispersion: vertical diffusivity and spatial resolution of wind data. Our results show that, as the value of vertical diffusivity increases, the distribution of settled particles on the ground surface becomes a more elongated shape in the wind direction. This effect is more remarkable for finer particles. These results indicate that the simulation results of the diffusion advection models in general depend on the assumed vertical diffusivity and the spatial resolution of wind data as well as on the source condition (e.g., the release levels of particles and grain size distribution). During the 2011 Kirishima eruption, a sub-Plinian eruption plume of 8 km high was observed by weather radars. The plume extended southeastward around the vent (~60 km), and traveled in the higher altitudes eastward (about 900 km from the vent). The simulation results of PUFF reconstructed these qualitative features observed in the satellite images and the deposits near the

  12. Analysis and Optimization of a Lagrangian Volcanic Ash Particle Tracking Model called Puff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, R.; Dean, K.

    2002-12-01

    Volcanic ash tracking models are important for airborne and ground hazard mitigation. Volcanic ash can have devastating effects on aircraft during flight, and ground sedimentation is potentially hazardous in populated areas. Because ash dispersion is controlled primarily by atmospheric winds, analytic solutions are impractical and must be numerically solved. Two distinct modeling techniques, Lagrangian and Eulerian, are currently used for both regional and global tracking models. Recently, the Lagrangian technique has appeared to be more accurate and efficient for tracking volcanic ash plumes, particularly for small eruptions and at early times during the eruption. Modeling ash plume dispersion is complicated by several factors including particle sedimentation and aggregation, and varying wind-field dynamics from the near surface to upper atmosphere. Furthermore, there exists a very limited data set pertaining to past eruptions with which tracking models can be tested and validated. Due primarily to this dearth of data on past eruptions, tracking models have erred on the side of excess when including potentially important factors in describing particle dynamics. The most recent version of Puff includes eleven distinct, adjustable parameters that are intended to describe various processes that effect airborne particle dynamics. The analysis described here was undertaken to better understand the sensitivity of the model to each of the eleven parameters independently. As a result, an improved understanding of how best to parameterize the model has been gained, as well as several methods to optimize performance and the predictive capability has been discovered. Since Puff includes random perturbations in the ash particle trajectories using a Monte Carlo-type technique, large numbers of successive simulations were performed in the analysis, and the averaged overall behavior was analyzed. Model run groups of 100, 500, and 5000 simulations were performed. The eleven

  13. Gas Puff Imaging Studies of Tokamak Edge Physics in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sechrest, Yancey

    In order to be viable, Next-step fusion devices must overcome two pressing problems: they must be able to achieve high levels of confinement while also handling potentially damaging heat loads on material surfaces. The study of plasma edge physics promises solutions to both problems because the plasma edge, being the boundary between confined and unconfined regions, plays a key role in determining the global confinement and the plasma interaction with material surfaces (e.g. edge transport barriers, pedestal evolution, and edge localized modes). However, the steep gradients in density and temperature in the plasma edge that drive strong fluctuations in plasma parameters require measurements of fluctuations with high spatial and temporal resolution. By measuring drift scale (kyrhos < 2) fluctuations for frequencies less than ˜ 200 kHz, Gas Puff Imaging (GPI) meets these requirements while providing two-dimensional coverage at a large number of measurement locations. This dissertation presents GPI studies of transitions from low to high confinement regimes (L-H transitions) and Edge Localized Modes (ELMs). In 2010, a study of L-H transitions with the GPI diagnostic revealed quasi-periodic reductions in the scrape-off-layer turbulence levels during the 30 ms preceding the transition. The two-dimensional flow fields for these "quiet-periods", estimated from the GPI data by a pattern-matching velocimetry technique, exhibit intriguing similarity with the Drift Wave - Zonal Flow paradigm, a leading candidate in explaining L-H transitions. Following this study, a survey of GPI data from RF heated H-mode plasmas near the L-H power threshold identified short-lived, coherent oscillations in edge emission preceding the ELM crash. These observations provide detailed two-dimensional dynamics of the growth, filamentation, and crash of the ELM event, which could improve our understanding through comparison with nonlinear simulation. Cross diagnostic comparisons of GPI and Beam

  14. A Series of Jets that Drove Streamer-Puff CMEs from Giant Active Region of 2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate characteristics of solar coronal jets that originated from active region NOAA 12192 and produced coronal mass ejections (CMEs). This active region produced many non­-jet major flare eruptions (X and M class) that made no CME. A multitude of jets occurred from the southeast edge of the active region, and in contrast to the major-­flare eruptions in the core, six of these jets resulted in CMEs. Our jet observations are from SDO/AIA EUV channels and from Hinode/XRT, and CME observations are from the SOHO/LASCO C2 coronograph. Each jet-­driven CME was relatively slow-­moving (approx. 200 - 300 km/s) compared to most CMEs; had angular width (20deg - 50deg) comparable to that of the streamer base; and was of the "streamer­-puff" variety, whereby a pre-existing streamer was transiently inflated but not removed (blown out) by the passage of the CME. Much of the chromospheric-­temperature plasma of the jets producing the CMEs escaped from the Sun, whereas relatively more of the chromospheric plasma in the non-CME-producing jets fell back to the solar surface. We also found that the CME-producing jets tended to be faster in speed and longer in duration than the non-CME-­producing jets. We expect that the jets result from eruptions of mini-filaments. We further propose that the CMEs are driven by magnetic twist injected into streamer-­base coronal loops when erupting twisted mini-filament field reconnects with the ambient field at the foot of those loops.

  15. A Series of Jets that Drove Streamer-Puff CMEs from Giant Active Region of 2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate characteristics of solar coronal jets that originated from active region NOAA 12192 and produced coronal mass ejections (CMEs). This active region produced many non-jet major flare eruptions (X and M class) that made no CME. A multiitude of jets occurred from the southeast edge of the active region, and in contrast to the major-flare eruptions in the core, six of these jets resulted in CMEs. Our jet observations are from multiple SDO/AIA EUV channels, including 304, 171 and 193 Angstrom, and CME observations are taken from SOHO/LASCO C2 coronograph. Each jet-driven CME was relatively slow-moving (approximately 200 - 300 km s(sup-1) compared to most CMEs; had angular width (20deg - 50deg) comparable to that of the streamer base; and was of the "streamer-puff" variety, whereby a preexisting streamer was transiently inflated but not removed (blown out) by the passage of the CME. Much of the chromospheric-temperature plasma of the jets producing the CMEs escaped from the Sun, whereas relatively more of the chromospheric plasma in the non-CME-producing jets fell back to the solar surface. We also found that the CME-producing jets tended to be faster in speed and longer in duration than the non-CME-producing jets. We expect that the jets result from eruptions of mini-filaments. We further propose that the CMEs are driven by magnetic twist injected into streamer-base coronal loops when erupting twisted mini-filament field reconnects with the ambient field at the foot of those loops.

  16. A detailed postprocess analysis of an argon gas puff Z-pinch plasma using SPEC2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Y. K.; Kammash, T.; Davis, J.

    1997-05-01

    A postprocess analysis of a single time frame hydrodynamic profile from the PRISM two-dimensional MHD simulation of an argon gas puff Z-pinch plasma experiment on Double-Eagle generator at Physics Internationals, Co. is presented. In addition, spatially resolved emission spectra and filtered (K- and L-shell radiation) x-ray pinhole images, generated using the SPEC2D code, are examined toward the understanding of the emission characteristics of the hot spots and the formation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the plasma.

  17. Measurement of acrolein and 1,3-butadiene in a single puff of cigarette smoke using lead-salt tunable diode laser infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thweatt, W. Dave; Harward, Charles N., Sr.; Parrish, Milton E.

    2007-05-01

    Acrolein and 1,3-butadiene in cigarette smoke generally are measured using two separate analytical methods, a carbonyl derivative HPLC method for acrolein and a volatile organic compound (VOC) GC/MS method for 1,3-butadiene. However, a single analytical method having improved sensitivity and real-time per puff measurement will offer more specific information for evaluating experimental carbon filtered cigarettes designed to reduce the smoke deliveries of these constituents. This paper describes an infrared technique using two lead-salt tunable diode lasers (TDLs) operating with liquid nitrogen cooling with emissions at 958.8 cm -1 and 891.0 cm -1 respectively for the simultaneous measurement of acrolein and 1,3-butadiene, respectively, in each puff of mainstream cigarette smoke in real time. The dual TDL system uses a 3.1 l volume, 100 m astigmatic multiple pass absorption gas cell. Quantitation is based on a spectral fit that uses previously determined infrared molecular line parameters generated in our laboratory, including line positions, line strengths and nitrogen-broadened half-widths for these species. Since acrolein and ethylene absorption lines overlap and 1,3-butadiene, ethylene and propylene absorption lines overlap, the per puff deliveries of ethylene and propylene were determined since their overlapping absorption lines must be taken into account by the spectral fit. The acrolein and 1,3-butadiene total cigarette deliveries for the 1R5F Kentucky Reference cigarette were in agreement with the HPLC and GC/MS methods, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) for 1,3-butadiene and acrolein was 4 ng/puff and 24 ng/puff, respectively, which is more than adequate to determine at which puff they break through the carbon filter. The retention and breakthrough behavior for the two primary smoke constituents depend on the cigarette design and characteristics of the carbon filter being evaluated.

  18. CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The application of cyclic CO{sub 2}, often referred to as the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process, may find its niche in the maturing waterfloods of the Permian Basin. Coupling the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process to miscible flooding applications could provide the needed revenue to sufficiently mitigate near-term negative cash flow concerns in the capital intensive miscible projects. Texaco Exploration and Production Inc. and the US Department of Energy have teamed up in an attempt to develop the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in the Grayburg and San Andres formations, a light oil, shallow shelf carbonate reservoir that exists throughout the Permian Basin. This cost-shared effort is intended to demonstrate the viability of this underutilized technology in a specific class of domestic reservoir. The selected site for this demonstration project is the Central Vacuum Unit waterflood in Lea County, New Mexico. The goals of the project are the development of guidelines for cost-effective selection of candidate reservoirs and wells, along with estimating recovery potential. This project has two defined budget periods. The first budget period primarily involves tasks associated with reservoir analysis and characterization, characterizing existing producibility problems, and reservoir simulation of the proposed technology. The final budget period covers the actual field demonstration of the proposed technology. Technology transfer spans the entire course of the project. This report covers the concluding tasks performed under the second budget period.

  19. Effect of Doubly-excited States on Simulation of K- and L-shell Kr Gas Puff on ZR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Arati; Thornhill, Ward; Giuliani, John; Ouart, Nick; Clark, Robert; Jones, Brent; Ampleford, Dave; Harvey-Thompson, Adam; Hansen, Stephanie; Coverdale, Christine

    2014-10-01

    A number of recent shots employing multi-shell gas puffs of Ar and Kr on the Sandia National Laboratories ZR accelerator have demonstrated unprecedented K-shell yields. The KAP TIXTL spectra of Ar gas puff shots with a Kr dopant in the middle shell show Kr L-shell lines near 2 keV. There have been also pure Kr shots on ZR. Krypton spectra from Z pinch implosions provide a wealth of information about the pinch dynamics and ionization history of the plasma. These spectra can be used together with experimental spectroscopic data to analyze the presence and dynamics of the emitting regions, which could dominate the Kr K- and L-shell yields. We will present synthetic K- and L-shell spectra with a detailed radiation transport scheme from the emission regions determined from Kr 1D simulations, employing a non-LTE collisional-radiative ionization kinetics model. We will also investigate the effects of state-specific dielectronic recombination on the populations and spectra of Z pinch Kr plasma. Work supported by DOE/NNSA. Sandia National laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Low-energy ion emission from a xenon gas-puff laser-plasma X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daido, H.; Yamagami, S.; Suzuki, M.; Azuma, H.; Choi, I. W.; Fiedorowicz, H.

    We have measured low-energy ion emission from a gas-puff laser-plasma X-ray source. The ions may cause the degradation of the condenser mirror of the extreme ultra-violet projection lithography system. A 0.7 J in 8 ns Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 μm was focused onto the xenon gas-puff target with an intensity of 1012 W/cm2. The silicon (111) plates, placed at a distance of 32 mm from the laser-interaction region, were exposed with the xenon ions. The average ion energy was measured to be less than 50 eV with a Faraday-cup detector placed close to the silicon plates. The xenon deposition occurred in the silicon plates with a depth of less than 40 nm. The deposition density was measured with a quadrupole secondary ion mass spectrometer to be 1021 /cm3 after 1500 laser shots. The energy-conversion efficiency from the laser energy into the ions is 0.1%/4 πsr/shot. For the lithography system, if we can remove such ion bombardment completely using novel techniques such as electro-magnetic devices or gas flow curtain techniques, the lifetime of the condenser mirror will be extended significantly.

  1. Arterial Tonometry in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Timothy; Boutagy, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    The study of hemodynamic physiology utilizing traditional methods presents many challenges and limitations to educators. The goal of the educator is to provide the student with an adequate understanding of the basic hemodynamic anatomy and physiology governing blood flow, cardiac cycle and associated Korotkoff sounds, and the pathophysiology of…

  2. Noncontact tonometry using laser interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drescher, Joerg; Stork, Wilhelm; Hey, Stefan; Gundlach, Arnd; Mueller-Glaser, Klaus-Dieter; Kreiner, Christine F.

    1999-02-01

    This paper describes a new method to examine the intraocular pressure (IOP) without any contact to the eye. In our new approach the IOP is determined indirectly from the acoustic properties of the eye as the resonance frequencies of the bulbus are shifting with increasing IOP. Simulations with the Finite Element Method were done to explore the coherence between the IOP and the acoustic properties of the bulbus. A three-dimensional model of the eye was developed comprising the elastic cornea and sclera and the vitreous body. The results showed a significant rise of the resonance-frequencies with increasing IOP. This shift is enlarging for higher modes. In parallel measurements were performed on artificial eyes and on enucleated pig eyes to prove this correlation experimentally. A measuring system existing of a transducer to excite the bulbus, a miniaturized laser-vibrometer and PC was built. The eyes were stimulated both contacting the eye with a transducer by a stick and contactless with sonic waves. Several series of measurements were done to examine the pressure dependency of the acoustic behavior. The measurements showed a proportional constant of 1.25 Hz/mmHg in average, which can be detected easily. The standard deviation measuring different pig eyes was 4.5 mmHg.

  3. A fast rise-rate, adjustable-mass-bit gas puff valve for energetic pulsed plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Loebner, Keith T. K. Underwood, Thomas C.; Cappelli, Mark A.

    2015-06-15

    A fast rise-rate, variable mass-bit gas puff valve based on the diamagnetic repulsion principle was designed, built, and experimentally characterized. The ability to hold the pressure rise-rate nearly constant while varying the total overall mass bit was achieved via a movable mechanical restrictor that is accessible while the valve is assembled and pressurized. The rise-rates and mass-bits were measured via piezoelectric pressure transducers for plenum pressures between 10 and 40 psig and restrictor positions of 0.02-1.33 cm from the bottom of the linear restrictor travel. The mass-bits were found to vary linearly with the restrictor position at a given plenum pressure, while rise-rates varied linearly with plenum pressure but exhibited low variation over the range of possible restrictor positions. The ability to change the operating regime of a pulsed coaxial plasma deflagration accelerator by means of altering the valve parameters is demonstrated.

  4. Recent advancements in the "water-window" microscopy with laser-plasma SXR source based on a double stream gas-puff target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachulak, P. W.

    2016-09-01

    An overview of our recent developments, regarding "water-window" soft X-ray (SXR) microscopy based on a laser-plasma double stream gas puff target sources is presented. The work, presented herein, describes two approaches to SXR microscopy. The first one is a low spatial resolution, achromatic SXR microscopy, employing Wolter type-I objective. The second one is a nanometer spatial resolution SXR microscopy, with the use of a Fresnel zone plate objective, for imaging various objects with quasimonochromatic light, emitted from a double stream gas puff target based short wavelength source. The developments regarding both systems are presented, as well as the possible applications, for which the SXR microscope was already employed. Such compact, table-top size, laboratory type microscopy setups may be employed in the near future for complementary-like studies to other, often used, microscopy techniques.

  5. CO sub 2 Huff 'n' Puff recovery feasibility as function of the effect of CO sub 2 on mineral stability in a Dakota Sandstone Reservoir, central Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.K.; MacGowan, D.B.; Surdam, R.C. )

    1990-05-01

    The high pressures required for CO{sub 2} injection in Huff n' Puff treatment have the potential to destabilize carbonate minerals in the formation. Scaling problems caused by precipitating cements may occur after production resumes. However, the presence of sufficient organic acid anion buffers may stabilize carbonate minerals at high P{sub CO2} causing them to precipitate from the formation waters and block pore throats, Modeling these conditions for individual reservoirs is important in the design of the Huff n' Puff treatment in order to avoid formation damage or production-line clogging. Based on the authors modeling, they predict that in the Huff n' Puff treatment on this Dakota sandstone reservoir, scale buildup in the production line will not be a significant problem. The CO{sub 2} injection Pressures expected (1,100-2,000 psi) are sufficiently high to keep carbonates in solution. No formation damage is expected because there is little carbonate cement in this Dakota sandstone reservoir to dissolve and reprecipitate in the pore throats after pressures decline. Also, organic acid anions are in sufficiently low concentration (3.56 meq/L) that they cannot buffer the pH; thus carbonates will not precipitate with increased {Sigma}CO{sub 2}, especially since calcium concentrations are also low (26 ppm). These predictions will be tested when this Huff n' Puff treatment is initiated. Test results will provide refined input data (especially pressure data) for modeling future treatments. The predictions and test results presented will then be used to improve the predictive capability of the modeling process.

  6. The Coronal-Dimming Footprint of a Streamer-Puff Coronal Mass Ejection: Confirmation of the Magnetic-Arch-Blowout Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2007-01-01

    A streamer puff is a recently identified variety of coronal mass ejection (CME) of narrow to moderate width. It (1) travels our along a streamer, transiently inflating the streamer but leaving it largely intact, and (2) occurs in step with a compact ejective flare in an outer flank of the base of the streamer. These aspects suggest the following magnetic-arch-blowout scenario for the production of these CMEs: the magnetic explosion that produces the flare also produces a plasmoid that explodes up the leg of an outer loop of the arcade base of the streamer, blows out the top of this loop, and becomes the core of the CME. In this paper, we present a streamer-puff CME that produced a coronal-dimming footprint. The coronal dimming, its magnetic setting, and the timing and magnetic setting of a strong compact ejective flare within the dimming footprint nicely confirm the magnetic-arch-blowout scenario. From these observations, together with several published cases of a trans-equatorial CME produced in tandem with an ejective flare or filament eruption that was far offset from directly under the CME, we propose the following. Streamer-puff CMEs are a subclass (one variety) of a broader class of "over-and-out" CMEs that are often much larger than streamer puffs but are similar to them in that they are produced by the blowout of a large quasi-potential magnetic arch by a magnetic explosion that erupts from one foot of the large arch, where it is marked by a filament eruption and/or an ejective flare.

  7. Simulations of Ar gas-puff Z-pinch radiation sources with double shells and central jets on the Z generator

    SciTech Connect

    Tangri, V.; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Velikovich, A. L.; Apruzese, J. P.; Quart, N. D.; DasGupta, A.; Jones, Brent M.; Jennings, Christopher Ashley

    2016-10-19

    Radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations using the non-LTE Mach2-TCRE code in (r,z) geometry are performed for two pairs of recent Ar gas-puff Z-pinch experiments on the refurbished Z generator with an 8 cm diameter nozzle. One pair of shots had an outer-to-inner shell mass ratio of 1:1.6 and a second pair had a ratio of 1:1.

  8. Simulations of Ar gas-puff Z-pinch radiation sources with double shells and central jets on the Z generator

    DOE PAGES

    Tangri, V.; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Giuliani, J. L.; ...

    Radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations using the non-LTE Mach2-TCRE code in (r,z) geometry are performed for two pairs of recent Ar gas-puff Z-pinch experiments on the refurbished Z generator with an 8 cm diameter nozzle. One pair of shots had an outer-to-inner shell mass ratio of 1:1.6 and a second pair had a ratio of 1:1.

  9. Combining physical and numerical simulation to investigate the CO sub 2 huff n' puff process for enhanced light-oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.

    1990-01-01

    Cyclic CO{sub 2} injection, more commonly referred to as the CO{sub 2} huff n' puff process, is an enhanced oil recovery method which targets remaining oil. Initially used for heavy oil recovery, it has been applied recently to the enhanced recovery of light oil with promising results. The CO{sub 2} huff 'n' puff process is physically simulated in laboratory experiments using Berea sandstone consolidated cores with live and dead oil systems. Corefloods provide extensive and systematic data at controlled conditions allowing selected process parameters to be investigated. This research used corefloods to examine the effect of an initial gas saturation and an impure CO{sub 2} source on the process. However, physical restraints such as time taken to perfrom experiments, and the fixed physical properties of the core, preclude corefloods under a wider range of conditions. Coreflood data can be used for tuning a compositional reservoir simulator. A well calibrated numerical model can in turn be used to predict the results of the CO{sub 2} huff n' puff process for diverse reservoir and operating conditons difficult to duplicate in the laboratory. This approach is used to calibrate a commercially available composition model. The calibrated model is then used to predict the effects of soak duration, remaining oil saturation, CO{sub 2} slug size and CO{sub 2} injection rate on ultimate recovery.

  10. Comparison of the MACCS2 atmospheric transport model with Lagrangian puff models as applied to deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis.

    PubMed

    Till, John E; Rood, Arthur S; Garzon, Caroline D; Lagdon, Richard H

    2014-09-01

    The suitability of a new facility in terms of potential impacts from routine and accidental releases is typically evaluated using conservative models and assumptions to assure dose standards are not exceeded. However, overly conservative dose estimates that exceed target doses can result in unnecessary and costly facility design changes. This paper examines one such case involving the U.S. Department of Energy's pretreatment facility of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System Version 2 (MACCS2) was run using conservative parameter values in prescribed guidance to demonstrate that the dose from a postulated airborne release would not exceed the guideline dose of 0.25 Sv. External review of default model parameters identified the deposition velocity of 1.0 cm s as being non-conservative. The deposition velocity calculated using resistance models was in the range of 0.1 to 0.3 cm s-1. A value of 0.1 cm s-1 would result in the dose guideline being exceeded. To test the overall conservatism of the MACCS2 transport model, the 95th percentile hourly average dispersion factor based on one year of meteorological data was compared to dispersion factors generated from two state-of-the-art Lagrangian puff models. The 95th percentile dispersion factor from MACCS2 was a factor of 3 to 6 higher compared to those of the Lagrangian puff models at a distance of 9.3 km and a deposition velocity of 0.1 cm s-1. Thus, the inherent conservatism in MACCS2 more than compensated for the high deposition velocity used in the assessment. Applications of models like MACCS2 with a conservative set of parameters are essentially screening calculations, and failure to meet dose criteria should not trigger facility design changes but prompt a more in-depth analysis using probabilistic methods with a defined margin of safety in the target dose. A sample application of the probabilistic approach is provided.

  11. Prediction of dosage-based parameters from the puff dispersion of airborne materials in urban environments using the CFD-RANS methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthimiou, G. C.; Andronopoulos, S.; Bartzis, J. G.

    2017-02-01

    One of the key issues of recent research on the dispersion inside complex urban environments is the ability to predict dosage-based parameters from the puff release of an airborne material from a point source in the atmospheric boundary layer inside the built-up area. The present work addresses the question of whether the computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methodology can be used to predict ensemble-average dosage-based parameters that are related with the puff dispersion. RANS simulations with the ADREA-HF code were, therefore, performed, where a single puff was released in each case. The present method is validated against the data sets from two wind-tunnel experiments. In each experiment, more than 200 puffs were released from which ensemble-averaged dosage-based parameters were calculated and compared to the model's predictions. The performance of the model was evaluated using scatter plots and three validation metrics: fractional bias, normalized mean square error, and factor of two. The model presented a better performance for the temporal parameters (i.e., ensemble-average times of puff arrival, peak, leaving, duration, ascent, and descent) than for the ensemble-average dosage and peak concentration. The majority of the obtained values of validation metrics were inside established acceptance limits. Based on the obtained model performance indices, the CFD-RANS methodology as implemented in the code ADREA-HF is able to predict the ensemble-average temporal quantities related to transient emissions of airborne material in urban areas within the range of the model performance acceptance criteria established in the literature. The CFD-RANS methodology as implemented in the code ADREA-HF is also able to predict the ensemble-average dosage, but the dosage results should be treated with some caution; as in one case, the observed ensemble-average dosage was under-estimated slightly more than the acceptance criteria. Ensemble

  12. Neutron Activation Diagnostics in Deuterium Gas-Puff Experiments on the 3 MA GIT-12 Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cikhardt, J.; Klir, D.; Rezac, K.; Cikhardtova, B.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A. V.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Fursov, F. I.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Labetsky, A. Yu; Ratakhin, N. A.; Dudkin, G. N.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Varlachev, V. A.; Turek, K.

    2016-10-01

    The experiments with a deuterium z-pinch on the GIT-12 generator at IHCE in Tomsk were performed in the frame of the Czech-Russian agreement. A set of neutron diagnostics included scintillation time-of-flight detectors, bubble detectors, and several kinds of threshold nuclear activation detectors in the order to obtain information about the yield, anisotropy, and spectrum of the neutrons produced by a deuterium gas-puff. The average neutron yield in these experiments was of the order of 1012 neutrons per a single shot. The energy spectrum of the produced neutrons was evaluated using neutron time-of-flight detectors and a set of neutron activation detectors. Because the deuterons in the pinch achieve multi-MeV energies, non-DD neutrons are produced by nuclear reactions of deuterons with a stainless steel vacuum chamber and aluminum components of diagnostics inside the chamber. An estimated number of the non-DD was of the order of 1011. GACR (Grant No. 16-07036S), CME (Grant Nos. LD14089, LG13029, and LH13283), MESRF (Grant No. RFMEFI59114X0001), IAEA (Grant No. RC17088), CTU (Grant No. SGS 16/223/OHK3/3T/13).

  13. Neutron production in deuterium gas-puff z-pinch with outer plasma shell at current of 3 MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cikhardt, J.; Klir, D.; Rezac, K.; Cikhardtova, B.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A. V.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Frusov, F. I.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Labetsky, A. Yu.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Dudkin, G. N.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Varlachev, V. A.; Turek, K.; Krasa, J.

    2015-11-01

    Z-pinch experiments at the current of about 3 MA were carried out on the GIT-12 generator. The outer plasma shell of deuterium gas-puff was generated by the system of 48 plasma guns. This configuration exhibits a high efficiency of the production of DD fusion neutrons with the yield of above 1012 neutrons produced in a single shot with the duration of about 20 ns. The maximum energy of the neutrons produced in this pulse exceeded 30 MeV. The neutron radiation was measured using scintillation TOF detectors, CR-39 nuclear track detectors, bubble detectors BD-PND and BDS-10000 and by several types of nuclear activation detectors. These diagnostic tools were used to measure the anisotropy of neutron fluence and neutron energy spectra. It allows us to estimate the total number of DD neutrons, the contribution of other nuclear reactions, the amount of scattered neutrons, and other parameters of neutron production. This work was supported by the MSMT grants LH13283, LD14089.

  14. Design and optimization of a gas-puff nozzle for staged Z-pinch experiments using computational fluid dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, J. C.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Beg, F. N.; Wessel, F.; Rahman, H.; Ney, P.; Presura, R.; McKee, E.; Darling, T.; Covington, A.

    2015-11-01

    Previous experimental work on staged Z-pinches demonstrated that gas liners can efficiently couple energy and implode uniformly a target-plasma. A 1.5 MA, 1 μs current driver was used to implode a magnetized, Kr liner onto a D + target, producing 1010 neutrons per shot and providing clear evidence of enhanced pinch stability. Time-of-flight data suggest that primary and secondary neutrons were produced. MHD simulations show that in Zebra, a 1.5MA and 100ns rise-time current driver, high fusion gain can be attained when the optimum liner and plasma target conditions are used. In this work we present the design and optimization of a liner-on-target nozzle to be fielded in Zebra and demonstrate high fusion gain at 1 MA current level. The nozzle is composed of an annular high atomic number gas-puff and an on-axis plasma gun that will deliver the ionized deuterium target. The nozzle optimization was carried out using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code fluent and the MHD code Mach2. The CFD simulation produces density and temperature profiles, as a function of the nozzle shapes and gas conditions, which are then used in Mach2 to find the optimum plasma liner implosion-pinch conditions. Funded by the US Department of Energy, ARPA-E, Control Number 1184-1527.

  15. Acceleration of Deuterons to Multi-MeV Energies in Deuterium Gas-Puff Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klir, D.; Cikhardt, J.; Cikhardtova, B.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Rezac, K.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A.; Cherdizov, R.; Fursov, F.; Kokshenev, V.; Kovalchuk, B.; Kurmaev, N.; Labetsky, A.; Ratakhin, N.; Krasa, J.; Turek, K.

    2015-11-01

    A novel configuration of a deuterium gas-puff z-pinch has been used to generate a short (approx. 20 ns) pulse of multi-MeV ions and neutrons. Even though ion acceleration in z-pinches has not been researched to such an extent as in laser-based sources, obtained results show that z-pinches can reach values comparable to those of state-of-the-art lasers. On the 3 MA GIT-12 generator, the peak neutron yield was 3.6x1012. When a neutron-producing sample was placed onto the axis below a cathode mesh, the neutron yield was increased up to 1013. The emission time of 20 ns implied the neutron production rate of 5x1020 n/s. Neutron energies reached the maximum value of 33 MeV. The comprehensive set of ion diagnostics provided unique information about ion acceleration mechanism. The ion emission was highly anisotropic. Deuterons were trapped in the radial direction whereas a lot of fast ions escaped the z-pinch along the axis. On the axis, the total number of >1 MeV and >25 MeV deuterons was 1016 and 5x1012, respectively. Utilizing these ions offers a real possibility of various applications including the production of short-lived isotopes or fast neutron radiography. This work was supported by the MSMT grants LH13283, LD14089.

  16. Deuterium Gas-Puff Z-pinch as a Source of Fast Ions Producing Intensive Pulse of Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezac, K.; Cikhardt, J.; Cikhardtova, B.; Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A.; Cherdizov, R.; Fursov, F.; Kokshenev, V.; Kovalchuk, B.; Kurmaev, N.; Labetsky, A.; Ratakhin, N.; Turek, K.

    2015-11-01

    A deuterium gas-puff with outer plasma shell has been examined on GIT-12 generator (on the current level of 3 MA) since 2013. Such a configuration caused more stable implosion at final stage of z-pinch. The consequence of this was a production of intensive pulses of fast ions. During last 4 campaigns in 2013-2015, fast ions were examined by several in-chamber diagnostics such as: stack detector (ion energy), pinhole camera (location of ion source), multi-pinhole camera (asymmetry and anisotropy of ion emission), and ion beam detector (dynamics of ion pulses). A CR-39 track detectors and also GAFCHROMIC HD-V2 films from these diagnostics will be presented. On the basis of obtained results, the solid sample for increasing of neutron yield up to 1e13 could be placed below the cathode mesh. Except of neutron yield, other properties such as: neutron energies (up to 33 MeV), neutron emission time (about 20 ns), and emission anisotropy of neutrons were measured. Such a short and intensive neutron pulse provides various applications. This work was supported by the MSMT project LH13283.

  17. Neutron Diagnostics of a Deuterium Gas-Puff Z-pinch on the Level of 3 MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezac, Karel; Klir, Daniel; Kubes, Pavel; Kravarik, Jozef; Shishlov, Alexander; Labetsky, Aleksey; Ratakhin, Nicolai; GIT-12 Team

    2011-10-01

    The diagnostics of a deuterium gas-puff Z-pinch (outer shell with diam. of 100 or 80 mm, inner annular with diam. of 30 mm or solid-fill shell with diam. of 20 mm with linear mass varied in each shell in the range of 25 - 40 μg/cm) is presented. The experiments were carried out on the GIT-12 generator at IHCE in Tomsk (2.5 MJ bank energy, load current of 2.8 MA with the rise time of 250 ns) during the April-May campaign in 2011. Results from the neutron time-of-flight diagnostics including the determination of the neutron production time and reconstructed radial energy spectra are shown. Several methods which provided measurement of the total neutron yield indicated the number of neutrons in order of 1011 per one shot. The time correlations with other diagnostics such as electrical characteristics, soft X-rays, hard X-rays and a visible streak camera are also presented. Work supported by MEYS research programs No. LA08024, No. ME09087, No. LC528, by GACR grants No. 202-08-H057 and grant CRA IAEA No. 14817.

  18. Autonomic nervous activation triggered during induction of reactive hyperemia exerts a greater influence on the measured reactive hyperemia index by peripheral arterial tonometry than on flow-mediated vasodilatation of the brachial artery in patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Masanobu; Higashi, Yukihito; Takase, Bonpei; Furumoto, Tomoo; Kario, Kazuomi; Ohya, Yusuke; Yamashina, Akira

    2014-10-01

    Flow-mediated vasodilatation of the brachial artery (FMD) and reactive hyperemia index (RHI) measured by peripheral arterial tonometry are known to be weakly associated with one another, but the mechanisms underlying this weak association remain to be clarified. We examined whether the autonomic nervous activation induced by the 5 min forearm clamping used to induce reactive hyperemia might exert any influence on the FMD and RHI in subjects with hypertension. In 115 subjects with hypertension (age 61±1 years), the FMD and RHI were measured simultaneously, and the heart rate variability (HRV) parameters (low-frequency component (LF), high-frequency component (HF), and the ratio (LF/HF) between the two) were calculated from the electrocardiographic recordings obtained before and after the start of forearm clamping. A multivariate linear regression analysis with adjustments for confounding variables demonstrated that the RHI, but not the FMD, was significantly associated with the percent change of the LF/HF associated with forearm clamping (beta=-0.204, P=0.043). In conclusion, autonomic nervous system activation, especially sympathetic activation, induced by 5-min forearm clamping utilized to provoke reactive hyperemia may significantly affect the RHI rather than FMD in subjects with hypertension.

  19. CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. 1994 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wehner, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    It is anticipated that this project will show that the application of the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in shallow shelf carbonates can be economically implemented to recover appreciable volumes of light oil. The goals of the project are the development of guidelines for cost-effective selection of candidate reservoirs and wells, along with estimating recovery potential. The selected site for the demonstration project is the Central Vacuum Unit waterflood in Lea County, New Mexico. Work is nearing completion on the reservoir characterization components of the project. The near-term emphasis is to, (1) provide an accurate distribution of original oil-in-place on a waterflood pattern entity level, (2) evaluate past recovery efficiencies, (3) perform parametric simulations, and (4) forecast performance for a site specific field demonstration of the proposed technology. Macro zonation now exists throughout the study area and cross-sections are available. The Oil-Water Contact has been defined. Laboratory capillary pressure data was used to define the initial water saturations within the pay horizon. The reservoir`s porosity distribution has been enhanced with the assistance of geostatistical software. Three-Dimensional kriging created the spatial distributions of porosity at interwell locations. Artificial intelligence software was utilized to relate core permeability to core porosity, which in turn was applied to the 3-D geostatistical porosity gridding. An Equation-of-State has been developed and refined for upcoming compositional simulation exercises. Options for local grid-refinement in the model are under consideration. These tasks will be completed by mid-1995, prior to initiating the field demonstrations in the second budget period.

  20. Water-window microscopy using compact, laser-plasma source based on Ar/He double stream gas-puff target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachulak, Przemyslaw W.; Skorupka, Marcin; Bartnik, Andrzej; Kostecki, Jerzy; Jarocki, Roman; Szczurek, Mirosław; Wegrzynski, Lukasz; Fok, Tomasz; Fiedorowicz, Henryk

    2013-05-01

    Photon-based (bosonic-type) imaging at short wavelength vs. electron, or recently neutron, imaging has additional advantages due to different interaction of photons with matter and thus high resolution photon-based imaging is still of high interest to the scientific community. In this work we try to combine the advantages of employing compact, laboratory type laser-plasma short wavelength source, based on Ar/He gas puff target, emitting incoherent radiation, with the "water-window" spectral range. This unique combination is highly suitable for biological imaging, and allows developing a small size microscopy setup, which might be used in various fields of science and technology. Thus, in this paper we report on recent advances in "water-window" desk-top microscopy setup employing a laser-plasma SXR source based on a double stream gas puff target and Wolter type-I objective. The system allows capturing magnified images of the objects with ~1 μm spatial resolution up to ~40 μm thickness and single SXR pulse exposure time as low as 3 ns. For the SXR microscope Ar plasma was produced by focusing of the pumping laser pulses, from Nd:YAG laser (Eksma), by a lens onto a gas puff target. EUV radiation from the plasma was collected and focused by an ellipsoidal, axi-symmetrical nickel coated condenser mirror, developed by Rigaku, Inc. The condenser is a broad-band optic, capable of efficiently reflecting radiation from the EUV range down to SXR region with energy cut-off of ~800 eV. To spectrally narrow the emission from argon plasma a free-standing titanium filter (Lebow) was used. Spectrally filtered radiation illuminates the sample. Then the sample was imaged onto a SXR sensitive back-illuminated, CCD camera (Andor) by a Wolter type-I reflective objective. A characterization and optimization of both the source and the microscope setups are presented and discussed.

  1. One- and two-dimensional modeling of argon K-shell emission from gas-puff Z-pinch plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornhill, J. W.; Chong, Y. K.; Apruzese, J. P.; Davis, J.; Clark, R. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Terry, R. E.; Velikovich, A. L.; Commisso, R. J.; Whitney, K. G.; Frese, M. H.; Frese, S. D.; Levine, J. S.; Qi, N.; Sze, H.; Failor, B. H.; Banister, J. W.; Coleman, P. L.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.; Deeney, C.

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, a theoretical model is described and demonstrated that serves as a useful tool for understanding K-shell radiating Z-pinch plasma behavior. Such understanding requires a self-consistent solution to the complete nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium kinetics and radiation transport in order to realistically model opacity effects and the high-temperature state of the plasma. For this purpose, we have incorporated into the MACH2 two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code [R. E. Peterkin et al., J. Comput. Phys. 140, 148 (1998)] an equation of state, called the tabular collisional radiative equilibrium (TCRE) model [J. W. Thornhill et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 3480 (2001)], that provides reasonable approximations to the plasma's opacity state. MACH2 with TCRE is applied toward analyzing the multidimensional implosion behavior that occurred in Decade Quad (DQ) [D. Price et al., Proceedings of the 12th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Monterey, CA, edited by C. Stallings and H. Kirbie (IEEE, New York, 1999), p. 489] argon gas puff experiments that employed a 12cm diameter nozzle with and without a central gas jet on axis. Typical peak drive currents and implosion times in these experiments were ˜6MA and ˜230ns. By using Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence measured initial density profiles as input to the calculations, the effect these profiles have on the ability of the pinch to efficiently produce K-shell emission can be analyzed with this combined radiation-MHD model. The calculated results are in agreement with the experimental result that the DQ central-jet configuration is superior to the no-central-jet experiment in terms of producing more K-shell emission. These theoretical results support the contention that the improved operation of the central-jet nozzle is due to the better suppression of instabilities and the higher-density K-shell radiating conditions that the central-jet configuration promotes. When we applied the model toward projecting argon K

  2. Multicolor, time-gated, soft x-ray pinhole imaging of wire array and gas puff Z pinches on the Z and Saturn pulsed power generators.

    PubMed

    Jones, B; Coverdale, C A; Nielsen, D S; Jones, M C; Deeney, C; Serrano, J D; Nielsen-Weber, L B; Meyer, C J; Apruzese, J P; Clark, R W; Coleman, P L

    2008-10-01

    A multicolor, time-gated, soft x-ray pinhole imaging instrument is fielded as part of the core diagnostic set on the 25 MA Z machine [M. E. Savage et al., in Proceedings of the Pulsed Power Plasma Sciences Conference (IEEE, New York, 2007), p. 979] for studying intense wire array and gas puff Z-pinch soft x-ray sources. Pinhole images are reflected from a planar multilayer mirror, passing 277 eV photons with <10 eV bandwidth. An adjacent pinhole camera uses filtration alone to view 1-10 keV photons simultaneously. Overlaying these data provides composite images that contain both spectral as well as spatial information, allowing for the study of radiation production in dense Z-pinch plasmas. Cu wire arrays at 20 MA on Z show the implosion of a colder cloud of material onto a hot dense core where K-shell photons are excited. A 528 eV imaging configuration has been developed on the 8 MA Saturn generator [R. B. Spielman et al., and A. I. P. Conf, Proc. 195, 3 (1989)] for imaging a bright Li-like Ar L-shell line. Ar gas puff Z pinches show an intense K-shell emission from a zippering stagnation front with L-shell emission dominating as the plasma cools.

  3. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions.

  4. CO2 Huff-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Annual report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wehner, S.C.; Boomer, R.J.; Cole, R.; Preiditus, J.; Vogt, J.

    1996-09-01

    The application of cyclic CO{sub 2}, often referred to as the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process, may find its niche in the maturing waterfloods of the Permian Basin. Coupling the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process to miscible flooding applications could provide the needed revenue to sufficiently mitigate near-term negative cash flow concerns in the capital intensive miscible projects. Texaco Exploration & Production Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy have teamed up in an attempt to develop the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in the Grayburg/San Andres formation; a light oil, shallow shelf carbonate reservoir within the Permian Basin. This cost-shared effort is intended to demonstrate the viability of this underutilized technology in a specific class of domestic reservoir. A significant amount of oil reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs. Specifically, the carbonates deposited in shallow shelf (SSC) environments make up the largest percentage of known reservoirs within the Permian Basin of North America. Many of these known resources have been under waterflooding operations for decades and are at risk of abandonment if crude oil recoveries cannot be economically enhanced. The selected site for this demonstration project is the Central Vacuum Unit waterflood in Lea County, New Mexico.

  5. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode.

    PubMed

    Rieker, G B; Poehlmann, F R; Cappelli, M A

    2013-07-01

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions.

  6. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    SciTech Connect

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2013-07-15

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions.

  7. Genetic analysis of the Drosophila 63F early puff. Characterization of mutations in E63-1 and maggie, a putative Tom22.

    PubMed Central

    Vaskova, M; Bentley, A M; Marshall, S; Reid, P; Thummel, C S; Andres, A J

    2000-01-01

    The 63F early puff in the larval salivary gland polytene chromosomes contains the divergently transcribed E63-1 and E63-2 ecdysone-inducible genes. E63-1 encodes a member of the EF-hand family of Ca(2+)-binding proteins, while E63-2 has no apparent open reading frame. To understand the functions of the E63 genes, we have determined the temporal and spatial patterns of E63-1 protein expression, as well as undertaken a genetic analysis of the 63F puff. We show that E63-1 is expressed in many embryonic and larval tissues, but the third-instar larval salivary gland is the only tissue where increases in protein levels correlate with increases in ecdysone titer. Furthermore, the subcellular distribution of E63-1 protein changes dynamically in the salivary glands at the onset of metamorphosis. E63-1 and E63-2 null mutations, however, have no effect on development or fertility. We have characterized 40 kb of the 63F region, defined as the interval between Ubi-p and E63-2, and have identified three lethal complementation groups that correspond to the dSc-2, ida, and mge genes. We show that mge mutations lead to first-instar larval lethality and that Mge protein is similar to the Tom22 mitochondrial import proteins of fungi, suggesting that it has a role in mitochondrial function. PMID:10978288

  8. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    PubMed Central

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions. PMID:23983449

  9. Performance evaluation of AERMOD, CALPUFF, and legacy air dispersion models using the Winter Validation Tracer Study dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rood, Arthur S.

    2014-06-01

    The performance of the steady-state air dispersion models AERMOD and Industrial Source Complex 2 (ISC2), and Lagrangian puff models CALPUFF and RATCHET were evaluated using the Winter Validation Tracer Study dataset. The Winter Validation Tracer Study was performed in February 1991 at the former Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site near Denver, Colorado. Twelve, 11-h tests were conducted where a conservative tracer was released and measured hourly at 140 samplers in concentric rings 8 km and 16 km from the release point. Performance objectives were unpaired maximum one- and nine-hour average concentration, location of plume maximum, plume impact area, arc-integrated concentration, unpaired nine-hour average concentration, and paired ensemble means. Performance objectives were aimed at addressing regulatory compliance, and dose reconstruction assessment questions. The objective of regulatory compliance is not to underestimate maximum concentrations whereas for dose reconstruction, the objective is an unbiased estimate of concentration in space and time. Performance measures included the fractional bias, normalized mean square error, geometric mean, geometric mean variance, correlation coefficient, and fraction of observations within a factor of two. The Lagrangian puff models tended to exhibit the smallest variance, highest correlation, and highest number of predictions within a factor of two compared to the steady-state models at both the 8-km and 16-km distance. Maximum one- and nine-hour average concentrations were less likely to be under-predicted by the steady-state models compared to the Lagrangian puff models. The characteristic of the steady-state models not to under-predict maximum concentrations make them well suited for regulatory compliance demonstration, whereas the Lagrangian puff models are better suited for dose reconstruction and long range transport.

  10. K-shell and extreme ultraviolet spectroscopic signatures of structured Ar puff Z-pinch loads with high K-shell x-ray yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Failor, B. H.; Sze, H. M.; Banister, J. W.; Levine, J. S.; Qi, N.; Apruzese, J. P.; Lojewski, D. Y.

    2007-02-01

    Structured 12-cm-diam Ar gas-puff loads have recently produced Z-pinch implosions with reduced Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth and increased ≈3mm, consistent with the observed load inductance change and an imploded-mass consisting of a ≈1.5-mm-diam, hot, ⩾20% of load mass) increases the rise and fall times of the XUV emission to ⩾40ns, consistent with a more adiabatic compression and heating of the load. Axial measurements show that, despite differences in the XUV and K-shell emission time histories, the K-shell x-ray yield is insensitive to axial variations in load mass.

  11. A comparison of planar, laser-induced fluorescence, and high-sensitivity interferometry techniques for gas-puff nozzle density measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, S. L.; Weber, B. V.; Mosher, D.; Phipps, D. G.; Stephanakis, S. J.; Commisso, R. J.; Qi, N.; Failor, B. H.; Coleman, P. L.

    2008-10-15

    The distribution of argon gas injected by a 12-cm-diameter triple-shell nozzle was characterized using both planar, laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) and high-sensitivity interferometry. PLIF is used to measure the density distribution at a given time by detecting fluorescence from an acetone tracer added to the gas. Interferometry involves making time-dependent, line-integrated gas density measurements at a series of chordal locations that are then Abel inverted to obtain the gas density distribution. Measurements were made on nominally identical nozzles later used for gas-puff Z-pinch experiments on the Saturn pulsed-power generator. Significant differences in the mass distributions obtained by the two techniques are presented and discussed, along with the strengths and weaknesses of each method.

  12. Effect of resistivity profile on current decay time of initial phase of current quench in neon-gas-puff inducing disruptions of JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, S.; Ohno, N.; Shibata, Y.; Isayama, A.; Kawano, Y.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Takizuka, T.; Okamoto, M.

    2013-11-15

    According to an early work [Y. Shibata et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 025015 (2010)] on the behavior of the plasma current decay in the JT-60U disruptive discharges caused by the radiative collapse with a massive neon-gas-puff, the increase of the internal inductance mainly determined the current decay time of plasma current during the initial phase of current quench. To investigate what determines the increase of the internal inductance, we focus attention on the relationship between the electron temperature (or the resistivity) profile and the time evolution of the current density profile and carry out numerical calculations. As a result, we find the reason of the increase of the internal inductance: The current density profile at the start of the current quench is broader than an expected current density profile in the steady state, which is determined by the temperature (or resistivity) profile. The current density profile evolves into peaked one and the internal inductance is increasing.

  13. CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Topical report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.; Prieditis, J.; Vogt, J.; Wehner, S.

    1995-10-01

    The principle objective of the Central Vacuum Unit (CVU) CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process coupled with the CVU reservoir characterization components will determine if this process is technically and economic for field implementation. The ultimate goal will be to develop guidelines based on commonly available data that other operators in the industry can use to investigate the applicability of the process within other field. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan in support of the Department of Energy`s objective to increasing domestic oil production and deferring the abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. Accomplishments to date are described in this report.

  14. CO{sub 2} HUFF-n-PUFF process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Quarterly technical progress report, [January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.; Prieditis, J.; Vogt, J.; Wehner, S.

    1995-04-21

    The principal objective of the Central Vacuum Unit (CVU) CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process, coupled with the CVU reservoir characterization components will determine if this process is technically and economically feasible for field implementation. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan in support of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) objective of increasing domestic oil production and deferring the abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. Technical progress is reported for geostatitical realizations; paramatric simulation; waterflood review; and reservoir characterization.

  15. CO[sub]2 huff-n-puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir, quarterly technical progress report, January--March, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Wehner, S.C., Kovar, M., Casteel, J.

    1997-03-31

    The principal objective of the Central Vacuum Unit (CVU) C0{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the C0{sub 2} H-n-P process, coupled with the CVU reservoir characterization components will be used to determine if this process is technically and economically feasible for field implementation. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan in support of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) objective of increasing domestic oil production and detecting the abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. Tasks associated with this objective are carried out in what is considered a timely effort for near-term goals.

  16. CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Second quarterly technical progress report, [April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.; Prieditis, J.; Vogt, J.; Wehner, S.

    1995-07-11

    The principal objective of the Central Vacuum Unit (CVU) CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process, coupled with the CVU reservoir characterization components will determine if this process is technically and economically feasible for field implementation. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan in support of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) objective of increasing domestic oil production and deferring the abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. Tasks associated with this objective are carried out in what is considered a timely effort for near-term goals. Technical progress is summarized for; geostatistical realizations; site-specific simulation;waterflood review; and reservoir characterization.

  17. CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.; Prieditis, J.; Vogt, J. Wehner, S.

    1995-10-15

    The principal objective of the Central Vacuum Unit (CVU) CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process, coupled with the CVU reservoir characterization components will determine if this process is technically and economically feasible for field implementation. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan in support of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) objective of increasing domestic oil production and deferring the abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. Tasks associated with this objective are carried out in what is considered a timely effort for near-term goals.

  18. CO{sub 2} Hugg-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Quarterly technical progress report, 2nd quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-25

    The principal objective of the Central Vacuum Unit (CVU) CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process, coupled with the CVU reservoir characterization components will determine if this process is technically and economically feasible for field implementation. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan in support of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) objective of increasing domestic oil production and deferring the abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. Tasks associated with this objective are carried out in what is considered a timely effort for near-term goals.

  19. CO{sub 2} huff-n-puff process in a light oil shallow carbonate reservoir. Annual report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Prieditis, J.; Wehner, S.

    1998-01-01

    The application of cyclic CO{sub 2}, often referred to as the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process, may find its niche in the maturing waterfloods of the Permian Basin. Coupling the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process to miscible flooding applications could provide the needed revenue to sufficiently mitigate near-term negative cash flow concerns in the capital intensive miscible projects. Texaco Exploration & Production Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy have teamed up in an attempt to develop the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in the Grayburg and San Andres formations; a light oil, shallow shelf carbonate reservoir that exists throughout the Permian Basin. A significant amount of oil reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs. Specifically, the carbonates deposited in shallow shelf (SSC) environments make up the largest percentage of known reservoirs within the Permian Basin of North America. Many of these known resources have been under waterflooding operations for decades and are at risk of abandonment if crude oil recoveries cannot be economically enhanced. The selected site for this demonstration project is the Central Vacuum Unit waterflood in Lea County, New Mexico. Miscible CO{sub 2} flooding is the process of choice for enhancing recovery of light oils and already accounts for over 12% of the Permian Basin`s daily production. There are significant probable reserves associated with future miscible CO{sub 2} projects. However, many are marginally economic at current market conditions due to large up-front capital commitments for a peak response which may be several years in the future. The resulting negative cash-flow is sometimes too much for an operator to absorb. The CO{sub 2} H-n-P process is being investigated as a near-term option to mitigate the negative cash-flow situation--allowing acceleration of inventoried miscible CO{sub 2} projects when coupled together.

  20. Attenuating Mutations in Coxsackievirus B3 Map to a Conformational Epitope That Comprises the Puff Region of VP2 and the Knob of VP3

    PubMed Central

    Stadnick, E.; Dan, M.; Sadeghi, A.; Chantler, J. K.

    2004-01-01

    Ten antibody escape mutants of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) were used to identify nucleotide substitutions that determine viral virulence for the heart and pancreas. The P1 region, encoding the structural genes of each mutant, was sequenced to identify mutations associated with the lack of neutralization. Eight mutants were found to have a lysine-to arginine mutation in the puff region of VP2, while two had a glutamate-to-glycine substitution in the knob of VP3. Two mutants, EM1 and EM10, representing each of these mutations, were further analyzed, initially by determining their entire sequence. In addition to the mutations in P1, EM1 was found to have two mutations in the 3D polymerase, while EM10 had a mutation in stem-loop II of the 5′ nontranslated region (5′NTR). The pathogenesis of the mutants relative to that of CVB3 strain RK [CVB3(RK)] then was examined in A/J mice. Both mutants were found to be less cardiotropic than the parental strain, with a 40-fold (EM1) or a 100- to 1,000-fold (EM10) reduction in viral titers in the heart relative to the titers of CVB3(RK). The mutations in VP2, VP3, and the 5′NTR were introduced independently into the RK infectious clone, and the phenotypes of the progeny viruses were determined. The results substantiated that the VP2 and VP3 mutations reduced cardiovirulence, while the 5′NTR mutation in EM10 was associated with a more virulent phenotype when expressed on its own. Stereographic imaging of the two mutations in the capsomer showed that they lie in close proximity on either side of a narrow cleft between the puff and the knob, forming a conformational epitope that is part of the putative binding site for coreceptor DAF. PMID:15564506

  1. Simulations of Ar gas-puff Z-pinch radiation sources with double shells and central jets on the Z generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangri, V.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Velikovich, A. L.; Apruzese, J. P.; Ouart, N. D.; Dasgupta, A.; Jones, B.; Jennings, C. A.

    2016-10-01

    Radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations using the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium Mach2-Tabular Collisional-Radiative Equilibrium code in (r, z) geometry are performed for two pairs of recent Ar gas-puff Z-pinch experiments on the refurbished Z generator with an 8 cm diameter nozzle. One pair of shots had an outer-to-inner shell mass ratio of 1:1.6 and a second pair had a ratio of 1:1. In each pair, one of the shots had a central jet. The experimental trends in the Ar K-shell yield and power are reproduced in the calculations. However, the K-shell yield and power are significantly lower than the other three shots for the case of a double-shell puff of 1:1 mass ratio and no central jet configuration. Further simulations of a hypothetical experiment with the same relative density profile of this configuration, but higher total mass, show that the coupled energy from the generator and the K-shell yield can be increased to levels achieved in the other three configurations, but not the K-shell power. Based on various measures of effective plasma radius, the compression in the 1:1 mass ratio and no central jet case is found to be less because the plasma inside the magnetic piston is hotter and of lower density. Because of the reduced density, and the reduced radiation cooling (which is proportional to the square of the density), the core plasma is hotter. Consequently, for the 1:1 outer-to-inner shell mass ratio, the load mass controls the yield and the center jet controls the power.

  2. Air Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  3. Novel Air Stimulation MR-Device for Intraoral Quantitative Sensory Cold Testing.

    PubMed

    Brönnimann, Ben; Meier, Michael L; Hou, Mei-Yin; Parkinson, Charles; Ettlin, Dominik A

    2016-01-01

    The advent of neuroimaging in dental research provides exciting opportunities for relating excitation of trigeminal neurons to human somatosensory perceptions. Cold air sensitivity is one of the most frequent causes of dental discomfort or pain. Up to date, devices capable of delivering controlled cold air in an MR-environment are unavailable for quantitative sensory testing. This study therefore aimed at constructing and evaluating a novel MR-compatible, computer-controlled cold air stimulation apparatus (CASA) that produces graded air puffs. CASA consisted of a multi-injector air jet delivery system (AJS), a cold exchanger, a cooling agent, and a stimulus application construction. Its feasibility was tested by performing an fMRI stimulation experiment on a single subject experiencing dentine cold sensitivity. The novel device delivered repetitive, stable air stimuli ranging from room temperature (24.5°C ± 2°C) to -35°C, at flow rates between 5 and 17 liters per minute (l/min). These cold air puffs evoked perceptions similar to natural stimuli. Single-subject fMRI-analysis yielded brain activations typically associated with acute pain processing including thalamus, insular and cingulate cortices, somatosensory, cerebellar, and frontal brain regions. Thus, the novel CASA allowed for controlled, repetitive quantitative sensory testing by using air stimuli at graded temperatures (room temperature down to -35°C) while simultaneously recording brain responses. No MR-compatible stimulation device currently exists that is capable of providing non-contact natural-like stimuli at a wide temperature range to tissues in spatially restricted areas such as the mouth. The physical characteristics of this novel device thus holds promise for advancing the field of trigeminal and spinal somatosensory research, namely with respect to comparing therapeutic interventions for dentine hypersensitivity.

  4. Novel Air Stimulation MR-Device for Intraoral Quantitative Sensory Cold Testing

    PubMed Central

    Brönnimann, Ben; Meier, Michael L.; Hou, Mei-Yin; Parkinson, Charles; Ettlin, Dominik A.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of neuroimaging in dental research provides exciting opportunities for relating excitation of trigeminal neurons to human somatosensory perceptions. Cold air sensitivity is one of the most frequent causes of dental discomfort or pain. Up to date, devices capable of delivering controlled cold air in an MR-environment are unavailable for quantitative sensory testing. This study therefore aimed at constructing and evaluating a novel MR-compatible, computer-controlled cold air stimulation apparatus (CASA) that produces graded air puffs. CASA consisted of a multi-injector air jet delivery system (AJS), a cold exchanger, a cooling agent, and a stimulus application construction. Its feasibility was tested by performing an fMRI stimulation experiment on a single subject experiencing dentine cold sensitivity. The novel device delivered repetitive, stable air stimuli ranging from room temperature (24.5°C ± 2°C) to −35°C, at flow rates between 5 and 17 liters per minute (l/min). These cold air puffs evoked perceptions similar to natural stimuli. Single-subject fMRI-analysis yielded brain activations typically associated with acute pain processing including thalamus, insular and cingulate cortices, somatosensory, cerebellar, and frontal brain regions. Thus, the novel CASA allowed for controlled, repetitive quantitative sensory testing by using air stimuli at graded temperatures (room temperature down to −35°C) while simultaneously recording brain responses. No MR-compatible stimulation device currently exists that is capable of providing non-contact natural-like stimuli at a wide temperature range to tissues in spatially restricted areas such as the mouth. The physical characteristics of this novel device thus holds promise for advancing the field of trigeminal and spinal somatosensory research, namely with respect to comparing therapeutic interventions for dentine hypersensitivity. PMID:27445771

  5. A double-blind crossover study comparing the safety and efficacy of three weeks of Flu/Sal 250/50 bid plus albuterol 180 ug prn q4 hours to Flu/Sal 250/50 bid plus albuterol/Ipratropium bromide 2 puffs prn q4 hours in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Balkissoon, Ron; Make, Barry

    2008-08-01

    The Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of Fluticasone 250 microg/Salmeterol 50 microg 1 puff bid for maintenance therapy in patients with COPD associated with chronic bronchitis. Short-acting beta agonists (SABA) have been the recommended rescue medication; however, previous studies have shown that combination short-acting Albuterol (alb) /Ipratropium bromide (IB) has superior bronchodilator properties to albuterol alone in patients with COPD. The safety and efficacy of Albuterol compared to Albuterol/Ipratropium bromide as rescue medications for COPD patients on maintenance combination therapy of ICS/LABA has not been evaluated. Double-blind randomized crossover trial with COPD subjects receiving Fluticasone/ Salmeterol 500 microg/50 microg (Flu/Sal) 1 puff twice daily and 2 puffs of Albuterol Sulfate (90 microg micrograms per inhalation) or 2 puffs of Albuterol (90 microg/puff and Ipratropium Bromide 18 microg/puff. Either Albuterol Sulfate (90 micrograms/puff) or Alb (90 micrograms/puff)/IB used prn for 3 weeks before crossing over to the other rescue formulation. This is a non-inferiority study where safety and efficacy outcomes were serially assessed, including adverse events, Baseline (BDI)/Transition Dyspnea Index (TDI), St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), SF36, diary cards, 24-hour cardiac monitoring, potassium and glucose levels and other adverse events. Twenty subjects completed the study. The mean age was 62.5 (+/- 14.5); 12 were males. The mean baseline FEV(1) (range) was 1.12 L (0.56-1.67) or 40.6 (21-65)% predicted. There were no statistically significant differences between either rescue inhaler formulation with regard to measures neither of lung function or dyspnea nor in terms of safety parameters of cardiac monitoring, glucose and potassium levels and other adverse events. SABA and combination SABA/Ipratropium bromide are equally safe and efficacious as rescue inhalers for patients on combination Fluticasone 500 microg

  6. Cytogenetic analysis of the 2B1-2-2B9-10 region of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. V. Changes in the pattern of polypeptide synthesis in salivary glands caused by mutations located in the 2B5 puff

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovskii, E.B.; Zhimulev, I.F.

    1986-02-01

    The authors have investigated the role of the 2B5 puff in the synthesis of ecdysone-inducible proteins. They showed that in mutants for the overlapping complementation complex (occ) located in the 2B5 puff the synthesis of these proteins is impaired: in mutants 1t336 and 1t366 to a lesser extent and in mutant t143 to a greater extent. Similarly to the deletion of the 2B5 puff, mutation t435 completely blocks the synthesis of ecdysone-inducible proteins. An increase in the dose of the 2B5 puff leads to an increase in the level of synthesis of two ecdysone-inducible polypeptides, for which evidence is available that they are encoded in the region of another ecdysone puff. The results obtained, together with the findings that the tissues of larvae mutant for the occ locus are not sensitive to the action of 20-hydroxy ecdysone and that the normal course of development of ecdysone-dependent puffing is impaired in the chromosomes of salivary glands of these mutants, suggest the presence of a key regulatory role of the 2B5 puff in metamorphosis.

  7. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, K.; Jannik, T.

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  8. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  9. A compact "water-window" microscope with 60-nm spatial resolution based on a double stream gas-puff target and Fresnel zone plate optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Torrisi, Alfio; Nawaz, Muhammad F.; Adjei, Daniel; Bartnik, Andrzej; Kostecki, Jerzy; Wegrzynski, Łukasz; Vondrová, Šárka; Turňová, Jana; Fok, Tomasz; Jančarek, Alexandr; Fiedorowicz, Henryk

    2015-05-01

    Radiation with shorter illumination wavelength allows for extension of the diffraction limit towards nanometer scale, which is a straightforward way to significantly improve a spatial resolution in photon based microscopes. Soft X-ray (SXR) radiation, from the so called "water window" spectral range, λ=2.3-4.4 nm, which is particularly suitable for biological imaging due to natural optical contrast, providing much better spatial resolution than one obtained with visible light microscopes. The high contrast is obtained because of selective absorption of radiation by carbon and water, being constituents of the biological samples. We present a desk-top system, capable of resolving 60 nm features in few seconds exposure time. We exploit the advantages of a compact, laser-plasma SXR source, based on a double stream nitrogen gas puff target, developed at the Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology. The source, emitting quasi-monochromatic, incoherent radiation, in the "water widow" spectral range at λ = 2.88 nm, is coupled with ellipsoidal, grazing incidence condenser and Fresnel zone plate objective. The construction of the microscope with some recent images of test and real samples will be presented and discussed.

  10. Diagnosis of high-intensity pulsed heavy ion beam generated by a novel magnetically insulated diode with gas puff plasma gun.

    PubMed

    Ito, H; Miyake, H; Masugata, K

    2008-10-01

    Intense pulsed heavy ion beam is expected to be applied to materials processing including surface modification and ion implantation. For those applications, it is very important to generate high-purity ion beams with various ion species. For this purpose, we have developed a new type of a magnetically insulated ion diode with an active ion source of a gas puff plasma gun. When the ion diode was operated at a diode voltage of about 190 kV, a diode current of about 15 kA, and a pulse duration of about 100 ns, the ion beam with an ion current density of 54 A/cm(2) was obtained at 50 mm downstream from the anode. By evaluating the ion species and the energy spectrum of the ion beam via a Thomson parabola spectrometer, it was confirmed that the ion beam consists of nitrogen ions (N(+) and N(2+)) of energy of 100-400 keV and the proton impurities of energy of 90-200 keV. The purity of the beam was evaluated to be 94%. The high-purity pulsed nitrogen ion beam was successfully obtained by the developed ion diode system.

  11. High energy axial ion beam generated by deuterium gas-puff Z-pinch at the current level of 3 MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezac, K.; Klir, D.; Kubes, P.; Cikhardt, J.; Batobolotova, B.; Kravarik, J.; Orcikova, H.; Turek, K.; Shishlov, A.; Labetsky, A.; Kokshenev, V.; Ratakhin, N.; GIT-12 Team

    2014-10-01

    The contribution presents results from Z-pinch experiments with a plasma shell on deuterium gas-puff (with deuterium linear mass of about 100 μg/cm) carried out on the GIT-12 generator at IHCE in Tomsk at the current level slightly below 3 MA. The first purpose of experiments was to study the influence of different parameters on the production of neutrons. Neutron yield up to 5 ×1012 neutrons/shot was measured in the shot with LiF catcher. The second purpose was the examination of high-energy ions generated on the Z-pinch axis using RCF and CR-39. Very interesting results were provided by ion pinhole camera, where the influence of magnetic field on the ion beam could be studied. One of the conclusions is that the ions with energy below 10 MeV were significantly deflected by magnetic field. Work supported by MEYS CR research Programs No. ME090871, No. LG13029, by GACR Grant No. P205/12/0454, Grant CRA IAEA No. 17088 and RFBR Grant No. 13-08-00479-a.

  12. CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Quarterly technical progress report, 3rd quarter, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wehner, S.; Smith, V.; Cole, R.; Brugman, B.; Vogt, J.

    1994-10-18

    The principal objective of the Central Vacuum Unit (CVU) CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process, coupled with the CVU reservoir characterization components will determine if this process is technically and economically feasible for field implementation. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan in support of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) objective of increasing domestic oil production and deferring the abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. Texaco Exploration and Production Inc`s. (TEPI) long-term plans are to implement a full-scale miscible CO{sub 2} project in the CVU. However, the current market precludes acceleration of such a capital intensive project. The DOE partnership provides some relief to the associated R and D risks, allowing TEPI to evaluate a proven Gulf-coast sandstone technology in a waterflooded carbonate environment. Technical progress is described on the following studies: Porosity and permeability relationships; Initial water saturation and oil-water contact; Geostatistical realization; and Parametric simulation.

  13. CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Quarterly technical progress report, Fourth quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wehner, S.; Prieditis, J.

    1996-02-05

    The principle objective of the Central Vacuum Unit (CVU) CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process, coupled with the CVU reservoir characterization components will determine if this process is technically and economically feasible for field implementation. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan in support of the Department of Energy`s objective of increasing domestic oil production and deferring the abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. Texaco Exploration and Production Inc`s. (TEPI) mid-term plans are to implement a full-scale miscible CO{sub 2} project in the CVU. TEPI has concluded all of the Tasks associated with the First Budget Period. The DOE approved the TEPI continuation application. Budget Period No. 2 is now in progress. Initial injection of CO{sub 2} began in November, and after a short shut-in period for the soak, the well was returned to production in late December, 1995.

  14. The effect of physiological levels of South African puff adder (Bitis arietans) snake venom on blood cells: an in vitro model

    PubMed Central

    Strydom, Morné A.; Bester, Janette; Mbotwe, Sthembile; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2016-01-01

    A significant burden of illness is caused globally by snakebites particularly by the puff adder, Bitis arietans. Presently there is no reliable and rapid method to confirm envenomation on blood chemistry; although coagulation parameters like prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio and also serum electrolytes are tested. Here, we found that direct in vitro exposure of physiological relevant whole venom levels to human healthy blood (N = 32), caused significant physiological changes to platelet activity using a hematology analyzer, and measuring occlusion time, as well as lyses time, with the global thrombosis test (GTT). Disintegrated platelets were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also confirmed the pathologic effects on erythrocytes (RBCs) (visible as eryptotic RBCs), by looking at both light microscopy and SEM. Thromboelastography showed that no clot formation in whole blood could be induced after addition of whole venom. We propose further clinical studies to investigate the use of light microscopy smears and hematology analyzer results immediately after envenomation, as a possible first-stage of clinical confirmation of envenomation. PMID:27775063

  15. High-resolution time and spatial imaging of tobacco and its pyrolysis products during a cigarette puff by microprobe sampling photoionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hertz-Schünemann, R; Ehlert, S; Streibel, T; Liu, C; McAdam, K; Baker, R R; Zimmermann, R

    2015-03-01

    The time- and space-resolved chemical signatures of gases and vapours formed in solid-state combustion processes are difficult to examine using recent analytical techniques. A machine-smoked cigarette represents a very reproducible model system for dynamic solid-state combustion. By using a special sampling system (microprobe unit) that extracts the formed gases from inside of the burning cigarette, which is coupled to a photoionisation mass spectrometer, it was possible to study the evolution of organic gases during a 2-s cigarette puff. The concentrations of various pyrolysis and combustion products such as 1,3-butadiene, toluene, acetaldehyde and phenol were monitored on-line at different sampling points within cigarettes. A near-microscopic-scale spatial resolution and a 200-ms time resolution were achieved. Finally, the recorded information was combined to generate time-resolved concentration maps, showing the formation and destruction zones of the investigated compounds in the burning cigarette. The combustion zone at the tip of cigarette, where e.g. 1,3-butadiene is predominately formed, was clearly separable from the pyrolysis zones. Depending on the stability of the precursor (e.g. lignin or cellulose), the position of pyrolytic formation varies. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that soft photoionisation mass spectrometry in conjunction with a microprobe sampling device can be used for time- and space-resolved analysis of combustion and pyrolysis reactions. In addition to studies on the model cigarette, further model systems may be studied with this approach. This may include further studies on the combustion of biomass or coal chunks, on heterogeneously catalysed reactions or on spray, dust and gas combustion processes.

  16. CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wehner, S.; Prieditis, J.

    1996-12-31

    The principal objective of the Central Vacuum Unit (CVU) CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process, coupled with the CVU reservoir characterization components will be used to determine if this process is technically and economically feasible for field implementation. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan in support of the Department of energy`s (DOE) objective of increasing domestic oil production and deferring the abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. Texaco Exploration and Production Inc`s. (TEPI) mid-term plans are to implement a full-scale miscible CO{sub 2} project in the CVU. TEPI concluded all of the tasks associated with the First Budget Period by October, 1995. The DOE approved the TEPI continuation application. Budget Period No. 2 is in progress. Initial injection of CO{sub 2} began in November, and after a short shut-in period for the soak, the well was returned to production in late December, 1995. This report, covers TEPI`s efforts at history matching the results of the field demonstration. Costs and economics of the work are presented. The majority of effort during the fourth quarter has revolved around the selection of a new project site and refinement of the demonstration design and well selection.

  17. Dynamic Radioactive Source for Evaluating and Demonstrating Time-dependent Performance of Continuous Air Monitors.

    PubMed

    McLean, Thomas D; Moore, Murray E; Justus, Alan L; Hudston, Jonathan A; Barbé, Benoît

    2016-11-01

    Evaluation of continuous air monitors in the presence of a plutonium aerosol is time intensive, expensive, and requires a specialized facility. The Radiation Protection Services Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a Dynamic Radioactive Source, intended to replace plutonium aerosol challenge testing. The Dynamic Radioactive Source is small enough to be inserted into the sampler filter chamber of a typical continuous air monitor. Time-dependent radioactivity is introduced from electroplated sources for real-time testing of a continuous air monitor where a mechanical wristwatch motor rotates a mask above an alpha-emitting electroplated disk source. The mask is attached to the watch's minute hand, and as it rotates, more of the underlying source is revealed. The measured alpha activity increases with time, simulating the arrival of airborne radioactive particulates at the air sampler inlet. The Dynamic Radioactive Source allows the temporal behavior of puff and chronic release conditions to be mimicked without the need for radioactive aerosols. The new system is configurable to different continuous air monitor designs and provides an in-house testing capability (benchtop compatible). It is a repeatable and reusable system and does not contaminate the tested air monitor. Test benefits include direct user control, realistic (plutonium) aerosol spectra, and iterative development of continuous air monitor alarm algorithms. Data obtained using the Dynamic Radioactive Source has been used to elucidate alarm algorithms and to compare the response time of two commercial continuous air monitors.

  18. Dynamic Radioactive Source for Evaluating and Demonstrating Time-dependent Performance of Continuous Air Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Thomas D.; Moore, Murray E.; Justus, Alan L.; Hudston, Jonathan A.; Barbé, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of continuous air monitors in the presence of a plutonium aerosol is time intensive, expensive, and requires a specialized facility. The Radiation Protection Services Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a Dynamic Radioactive Source, intended to replace plutonium aerosol challenge testing. Furthermore, the Dynamic Radioactive Source is small enough to be inserted into the sampler filter chamber of a typical continuous air monitor. Time-dependent radioactivity is introduced from electroplated sources for real-time testing of a continuous air monitor where a mechanical wristwatch motor rotates a mask above an alpha-emitting electroplated disk source. The mask is attached to the watch’s minute hand, and as it rotates, more of the underlying source is revealed. The alpha activity we measured increases with time, simulating the arrival of airborne radioactive particulates at the air sampler inlet. The Dynamic Radioactive Source allows the temporal behavior of puff and chronic release conditions to be mimicked without the need for radioactive aerosols. The new system is configurable to different continuous air monitor designs and provides an in-house testing capability (benchtop compatible). It is a repeatable and reusable system and does not contaminate the tested air monitor. Test benefits include direct user control, realistic (plutonium) aerosol spectra, and iterative development of continuous air monitor alarm algorithms. We also used data obtained using the Dynamic Radioactive Source to elucidate alarm algorithms and to compare the response time of two commercial continuous air monitors.

  19. Dynamic Radioactive Source for Evaluating and Demonstrating Time-dependent Performance of Continuous Air Monitors

    DOE PAGES

    McLean, Thomas D.; Moore, Murray E.; Justus, Alan L.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of continuous air monitors in the presence of a plutonium aerosol is time intensive, expensive, and requires a specialized facility. The Radiation Protection Services Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a Dynamic Radioactive Source, intended to replace plutonium aerosol challenge testing. Furthermore, the Dynamic Radioactive Source is small enough to be inserted into the sampler filter chamber of a typical continuous air monitor. Time-dependent radioactivity is introduced from electroplated sources for real-time testing of a continuous air monitor where a mechanical wristwatch motor rotates a mask above an alpha-emitting electroplated disk source. The mask is attached tomore » the watch’s minute hand, and as it rotates, more of the underlying source is revealed. The alpha activity we measured increases with time, simulating the arrival of airborne radioactive particulates at the air sampler inlet. The Dynamic Radioactive Source allows the temporal behavior of puff and chronic release conditions to be mimicked without the need for radioactive aerosols. The new system is configurable to different continuous air monitor designs and provides an in-house testing capability (benchtop compatible). It is a repeatable and reusable system and does not contaminate the tested air monitor. Test benefits include direct user control, realistic (plutonium) aerosol spectra, and iterative development of continuous air monitor alarm algorithms. We also used data obtained using the Dynamic Radioactive Source to elucidate alarm algorithms and to compare the response time of two commercial continuous air monitors.« less

  20. Mapping air quality zones for coastal urban centers.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Brian; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Thé, Jesse; Munshed, Mohammad; Faisal, Shah; Abdullah, Meshal; Al Aseed, Athari

    2017-05-01

    This study presents a new method that incorporates modern air dispersion models allowing local terrain and land-sea breeze effects to be considered along with political and natural boundaries for more accurate mapping of air quality zones (AQZs) for coastal urban centers. This method uses local coastal wind patterns and key urban air pollution sources in each zone to more accurately calculate air pollutant concentration statistics. The new approach distributes virtual air pollution sources within each small grid cell of an area of interest and analyzes a puff dispersion model for a full year's worth of 1-hr prognostic weather data. The difference of wind patterns in coastal and inland areas creates significantly different skewness (S) and kurtosis (K) statistics for the annually averaged pollutant concentrations at ground level receptor points for each grid cell. Plotting the S-K data highlights grouping of sources predominantly impacted by coastal winds versus inland winds. The application of the new method is demonstrated through a case study for the nation of Kuwait by developing new AQZs to support local air management programs. The zone boundaries established by the S-K method were validated by comparing MM5 and WRF prognostic meteorological weather data used in the air dispersion modeling, a support vector machine classifier was trained to compare results with the graphical classification method, and final zones were compared with data collected from Earth observation satellites to confirm locations of high-exposure-risk areas. The resulting AQZs are more accurate and support efficient management strategies for air quality compliance targets effected by local coastal microclimates.

  1. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  2. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Climate Change on Children's Health: Session Two: Air Quality Impacts MODERATOR: Susan Anenberg, EPA Meredith McCormack, Johns ... University • Effects of Climate Change on Children’s Health: Air Quality Impacts Frederica Perera, Columbia University • Air quality Impacts ...

  3. Impact assessment of PM10 cement plants emissions on urban air quality using the SCIPUFF dispersion model.

    PubMed

    Leone, Vincenzo; Cervone, Guido; Iovino, Pasquale

    2016-09-01

    The Second-order Closure Integrated Puff (SCIPUFF) model was used to study the impact on urban air quality caused by two cement plants emissions located near the city of Caserta, Italy, during the entire year of 2015. The simulated and observed PM10 concentrations were compared using three monitoring stations located in urban and sub-urban area of Caserta city. Both simulated and observed concentrations are shown to be highest in winter, lower in autumn and spring and lowest in summer. Model results generally follow the pattern of the observed concentrations but have a systematic under-prediction of the concentration values. Measures of the bias, NMSE and RMSE indicate a good correlation between observed and estimated values. The SCIPUFF model data analysis suggest that the cement plants are major sources for the measured PM10 values and are responsible for the deterioration of the urban air quality in the city of Caserta.

  4. EXTRAN: A computer code for estimating concentrations of toxic substances at control room air intakes

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1991-03-01

    This report presents the NRC staff with a tool for assessing the potential effects of accidental releases of radioactive materials and toxic substances on habitability of nuclear facility control rooms. The tool is a computer code that estimates concentrations at nuclear facility control room air intakes given information about the release and the environmental conditions. The name of the computer code is EXTRAN. EXTRAN combines procedures for estimating the amount of airborne material, a Gaussian puff dispersion model, and the most recent algorithms for estimating diffusion coefficients in building wakes. It is a modular computer code, written in FORTRAN-77, that runs on personal computers. It uses a math coprocessor, if present, but does not require one. Code output may be directed to a printer or disk files. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. A plume-in-grid approach to characterize air quality impacts of aircraft emissions at the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissman, J.; Arunachalam, S.; Woody, M.; West, J. J.; BenDor, T.; Binkowski, F. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impacts of aircraft emissions during the landing and takeoff cycle on PM2.5 concentrations during the months of June 2002 and July 2002 at the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Primary and secondary pollutants were modeled using the Advanced Modeling System for Transport, Emissions, Reactions, and Deposition of Atmospheric Matter (AMSTERDAM). AMSTERDAM is a modified version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model that incorporates a plume-in-grid process to simulate emissions sources of interest at a finer scale than can be achieved using CMAQ's model grid. Three fundamental issues were investigated: the effects of aircraft on PM2.5 concentrations throughout northern Georgia, the differences resulting from use of AMSTERDAM's plume-in-grid process rather than a traditional CMAQ simulation, and the concentrations observed in aircraft plumes at sub-grid scales. Comparison of model results with an air quality monitor located in the vicinity of the airport found that normalized mean bias ranges from -77.5% to 6.2% and normalized mean error ranges from 40.4% to 77.5%, varying by species. Aircraft influence average PM2.5 concentrations by up to 0.232 μg m-3 near the airport and by 0.001-0.007 μg m-3 throughout the Atlanta metro area. The plume-in-grid process increases concentrations of secondary PM pollutants by 0.005-0.020 μg m-3 (compared to the traditional grid-based treatment) but reduces the concentration of non-reactive primary PM pollutants by up to 0.010 μg m-3, with changes concentrated near the airport. Examination of sub-grid scale results indicates that puffs within 20 km of the airport often have average PM2.5 concentrations one order of magnitude higher than aircraft contribution to the grid cells containing those puffs, and within 1-4 km of emitters, puffs may have PM2.5 concentrations 3 orders of magnitude greater than the aircraft contribution to their grid cells. 21% of all aircraft-related puffs

  6. A plume-in-grid approach to characterize air quality impacts of aircraft emissions at the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissman, J.; Arunachalam, S.; Woody, M.; West, J. J.; BenDor, T.; Binkowski, F. S.

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the impacts of aircraft emissions during the landing and takeoff cycle on PM2.5 concentrations during the months of June and July 2002 at the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Primary and secondary pollutants were modeled using the Advanced Modeling System for Transport, Emissions, Reactions, and Deposition of Atmospheric Matter (AMSTERDAM). AMSTERDAM is a modified version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model that incorporates a plume-in-grid process to simulate emissions sources of interest at a finer scale than can be achieved using CMAQ's model grid. Three fundamental issues were investigated: the effects of aircraft on PM2.5 concentrations throughout northern Georgia, the differences resulting from use of AMSTERDAM's plume-in-grid process rather than a traditional CMAQ simulation, and the concentrations observed in aircraft plumes at subgrid scales. Comparison of model results with an air quality monitor located in the vicinity of the airport found that normalized mean bias ranges from -77.5% to 6.2% and normalized mean error ranges from 40.4% to 77.5%, varying by species. Aircraft influence average PM2.5 concentrations by up to 0.232 μg m-3 near the airport and by 0.001-0.007 μg m-3 throughout the Atlanta metro area. The plume-in-grid process increases concentrations of secondary PM pollutants by 0.005-0.020 μg m-3 (compared to the traditional grid-based treatment) but reduces the concentration of non-reactive primary PM pollutants by up to 0.010 μg m-3, with changes concentrated near the airport. Examination of subgrid-scale results indicates that median aircraft contribution to grid cells is higher than median puff concentration in the airport's grid cell and outside of a 20 km × 20 km square area centered on the airport, while in a 12 km × 12 km square ring centered on the airport, puffs have median concentrations over an order of magnitude higher than aircraft contribution to the grid cells. Maximum

  7. Air Policing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Iraq. To provide a background for understanding why Britain commenced the policy of air policing, this paper begins with a review of contemporary...7 Omissi, Air Power, XV. 8 policing actions or the pushing home of advantages gained by the air.” Within the context of this paper , the...control operations, and therefore within the context of this paper , the term coercive airpower refers to the threat of harming a population or the threat

  8. Incorporation of air into a snack food reduces energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Osterholt, Kathrin M.; Roe, Liane S.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated how the air content of a familiar snack food affected energy intake and whether varying the method of serving the snack modified intake. We tested two versions of an extruded snack (cheese puffs) that were equal in energy density (5.7 kcal/g), but differed in energy per volume (less-aerated snack: 1.00 kcal/ml; more- aerated snack: 0.45 kcal/ml). In a within-subjects design, 16 women and 12 men consumed the snacks ad libitum in the laboratory during four afternoon sessions. A standard volume (1250 ml) of each snack was served once in a bowl and once in an opaque bag. Results showed that intake of the two snacks differed significantly by energy (p=0.0003) and volume (p<0.0001); subjects consumed 21% less weight and energy (70±17 kcal) of the more-aerated snack than the less-aerated snack, although they consumed a 73% greater volume of the more-aerated snack (239±24 ml). These findings suggest that subjects responded to both the weight and volume of the snack. Despite differences in intake, hunger and fullness ratings did not differ across conditions. The serving method did not significantly affect intake. Results from this study indicate that incorporating air into food provides a strategy to reduce energy intake from energy-dense snacks. PMID:17188782

  9. The Impact of Multi-pollutant Clusters on the Association between Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Microvascular Function

    PubMed Central

    Ljungman, Petter L.; Wilker, Elissa H.; Rice, Mary B.; Austin, Elena; Schwartz, Joel; Gold, Diane R.; Koutrakis, Petros; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Vita, Joseph A.; Mitchell, Gary F.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior studies including the Framingham Heart Study have suggested associations between single components of air pollution and vascular function; however, underlying mixtures of air pollution may have distinct associations with vascular function. Methods We used a k-means approach to construct five distinct pollution mixtures from elemental analyses of particle filters, air pollution monitoring data, and meteorology. Exposure was modeled as an interaction between fine particle mass (PM2.5), and concurrent pollution cluster. Outcome variables were two measures of microvascular function in the fingertip in the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts from 2003-2008. Results In 1,720 participants, associations between PM2.5 and baseline pulse amplitude tonometry differed by air pollution cluster (interaction p value 0.009). Higher PM2.5 on days with low mass concentrations but high proportion of ultrafine particles from traffic was associated with 18% (95% CI 4.6%; 33%) higher baseline pulse amplitude per 5 μg/m3 and days with high contributions of oil and wood combustion with 16% (95% CI 0.2%; 34%) higher baseline pulse amplitude. We observed no variation in associations of PM2.5 with hyperemic response to ischemia observed across air pollution clusters. Conclusions PM2.5 exposure from air pollution mixtures with large contributions of local ultrafine particles from traffic, heating oil and wood combustion was associated with higher baseline pulse amplitude but not PAT ratio. Our findings suggest little association between acute exposure to air pollution clusters reflective of select sources and hyperemic response to ischemia, but possible associations with excessive small artery pulsatility with potentially deleterious microvascular consequences. PMID:26562062

  10. Air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, F Handley

    1924-01-01

    I purpose (sic) in this paper to deal with the development in air transport which has taken place since civil aviation between England and the Continent first started at the end of August 1919. A great deal of attention has been paid in the press to air services of the future, to the detriment of the consideration of results obtained up to the present.

  11. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  12. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  13. Investigation, by single photon ionisation (SPI)-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS), of the effect of different cigarette-lighting devices on the chemical composition of the first cigarette puff.

    PubMed

    Adam, Thomas; Baker, Richard R; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Soft single-photon ionisation (SPI)-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) has been used to investigate the effect of different cigarette-lighting devices on the chemical composition of the mainstream smoke from the first cigarette puff. Lighting devices examined were a Borgwaldt electric lighter, a propane/butane gas lighter, a match, a candle, and the burning zone of another cigarette. To eliminate the effects of the different masses of tobacco burnt by use of the different lighting methods a normalisation procedure was performed which enabled investigation of changes in the chemical patterns of the resulting smoke. When another cigarette was used as the lighting device, elevated levels of ammonia and other nitrogen-containing substances were observed. These are high in the sidestream smoke of the cigarette used for lighting and would be drawn into the mainstream smoke of the cigarette being lit. In contrast, smoke from the cigarette lit by the electric lighter contained slightly higher normalised amounts of isoprene. Lighting the cigarette by use of a candle resulted in larger amounts of substances, e.g. benzene, which most probably originated from thermal decomposition of wax. The composition of the first puff of smoke obtained by use of the three lighting methods with open flames (gas lighter, match, and candle) was usually similar whereas the composition of the smoke produced by use of the electric lighter and the cigarette as the lighter were more unique. The chemical patterns generated by the different lighting devices could, however, be separated by principal-component analyses. Two additional test series were also studied. In the first the cigarette was lit with an electric lighter, then extinguished, the ash was cut off, and the cigarette was re-lit. In the second the cigarette was heated in an oven to 80 degrees C for 5 min before being lit. These treatments did not result in changes in the chemical composition compared with cigarettes lit in the

  14. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  15. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Sunday, April 9, 2017 About | Contact InfoBites Quick ... general dentist, who has been trained in restorative dentistry techniques, will perform any procedures that use air- ...

  16. Vascular function and short-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution.

    PubMed

    Pope, C Arden; Hansen, Jaron C; Kuprov, Roman; Sanders, Matthew D; Anderson, Michael N; Eatough, Delbert J

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to fine particulate air pollution has been implicated as a risk factor for cardiopulmonary disease and mortality. Proposed biological pathways imply that particle-induced pulmonary and systemic inflammation play a role in activating the vascular endothelium and altering vascular function. Potential effects of fine particulate pollution on vascular function are explored using controlled chamber exposure and uncontrolled ambient exposure. Research subjects included four panels with a total of 26 healthy nonsmoking young adults. On two study visits, at least 7 days apart, subjects spent 3 hr in a controlled-exposure chamber exposed to 150-200 microg/m3 of fine particles generated from coal or wood combustion and 3 hr in a clean room, with exposure and nonexposure periods alternated between visits. Baseline, postexposure, and post-clean room reactive hyperemia-peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) was conducted. A microvascular responsiveness index, defined as the log of the RH-PAT ratio, was calculated. There was no contemporaneous vascular response to the few hours of controlled exposure. Declines in vascular response were associated with elevated ambient exposures for the previous 2 days, especially for female subjects. Cumulative exposure to real-life fine particulate pollution may affect vascular function. More research is needed to determine the roles of age and gender, the effect of pollution sources, the importance of cumulative exposure over a few days versus a few hours, and the lag time between exposure and response.

  17. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Air Toxics Website Rules and Implementation Related Information Air Quality Data and Tools Clean Air Act Criteria Air ... Resources Visibility and Haze Voluntary Programs for Improving Air Quality Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, ...

  18. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  19. /Air Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Samar; Sohn, Hong Yong; Kim, Hang Goo

    2014-08-01

    Molten magnesium oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air causing melt loss and handling difficulties. The use of certain additive gases such as SF6, SO2, and CO2 to form a protective MgO layer over a magnesium melt has been proposed. The oxidation behavior of molten magnesium in air containing various concentrations of SF6 was investigated. Measurements of the kinetics of the oxide layer growth at various SF6 concentrations in air and temperatures were made. Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis unit in the temperature range of 943 K to 1043 K (670 °C to 770 °C). Results showed that a thin, coherent, and protective MgF2 layer was formed under SF6/Air mixtures, with a thickness ranging from 300 nm to 3 μm depending on SF6 concentration, temperature, and exposure time. Rate parameters were calculated and a model for the process was developed. The morphology and composition of the surface films were studied using scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscope.

  20. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  1. Electronic cigarettes and indoor air quality: a simple approach to modeling potential bystander exposures to nicotine.

    PubMed

    Colard, Stéphane; O'Connell, Grant; Verron, Thomas; Cahours, Xavier; Pritchard, John D

    2014-12-24

    There has been rapid growth in the use of electronic cigarettes ("vaping") in Europe, North America and elsewhere. With such increased prevalence, there is currently a debate on whether the aerosol exhaled following the use of e-cigarettes has implications for the quality of air breathed by bystanders. Conducting chemical analysis of the indoor environment can be costly and resource intensive, limiting the number of studies which can be conducted. However, this can be modelled reasonably accurately based on empirical emissions data and using some basic assumptions. Here, we present a simplified model, based on physical principles, which considers aerosol propagation, dilution and extraction to determine the potential contribution of a single puff from an e-cigarette to indoor air. From this, it was then possible to simulate the cumulative effect of vaping over time. The model was applied to a virtual, but plausible, scenario considering an e-cigarette user and a non-user working in the same office space. The model was also used to reproduce published experimental studies and showed good agreement with the published values of indoor air nicotine concentration. With some additional refinements, such an approach may be a cost-effective and rapid way of assessing the potential exposure of bystanders to exhaled e-cigarette aerosol constituents.

  2. Air pollution.

    PubMed

    Le, Nhu D; Sun, Li; Zidek, James V

    2010-01-01

    Toxic air pollutants are continuously released into the air supply. Various pollutants come from chemical facilities and small businesses, such as automobile service stations and dry cleaning establishments. Others, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other volatile organic chemicals, arise primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) and are emitted from sources that include car exhausts, home heating and industrial power plants. Pollutants in the atmosphere also result from photochemical transformations; for example, ozone is formed when molecular oxygen or nitrogen interacts with ultraviolet radiation. An association between air pollution exposure and lung cancer has been observed in several studies. The evidence for other cancers is far less conclusive. Estimates of the population attributable risk of cancer has varied substantially over the last 40 years, reflecting the limitations of studies; these include insufficient information on confounders, difficulties in characterizing associations due to a likely lengthy latency interval, and exposure misclassification. Although earlier estimates were less than one percent, recent cohort studies that have taken into account some confounding factors, such as smoking and education amongst others, suggest that approximately 3.6% of lung cancer in the European Union could be due to air pollution exposure, particularly to sulphate and fine particulates. A separate cohort study estimated 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers could be due to air pollution exposure. Therefore, while cigarette smoking remains the predominant risk factor, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to air pollution may be higher than previously thought. Overall, major weaknesses in all air-pollution-and-cancer studies to date have been inadequate characterization of long-term air pollution exposure and imprecise or no measurements of covariates. It has only been in the last

  3. Air Quality System (AQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  4. Air cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Okiyoshi; Wakasa, Masayuki; Tamanoi, Yoshihito

    1991-04-01

    The present invention relates to an air cell. This air cell provides a compact light-weight power source for model aircraft permitting them to fly for an extended period so that they may be used for such practical purposes as crop dusting, surveying, and photographing. The cell is comprised of a current collector so disposed between a magnesium, zinc, or aluminum alloy cathode and a petroleum graphite anode that it is in contact with the anode. The anode is formed by adding polytetrafluoroethylene dispersion liquid in a mixture of active carbon and graphite powder, pouring the mixture into a mold and heating it to form the anode. It is fabricated by a plurality of anode sections and is formed with at least one hole so that it can provide a cell which is compact in size and light in weight yet is capable of generating a high output. The anode, the cathode, and a separator are wetted by an electrolytic liquid. The electrolyte is continuously supplied through the life of the cell.

  5. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  6. Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... can protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  7. Air Sensor Toolbox

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  8. HEPA air filter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  9. Needed: Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on air pollution for young readers. Discusses damage to substances and sickness from air pollution, air quality, and what to do in a pollution alert. Includes questions with answers, illustrations, and activities for the learner. (MA)

  10. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  11. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  12. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  13. Impact analysis of traffic-related air pollution based on real-time traffic and basic meteorological information.

    PubMed

    Pan, Long; Yao, Enjian; Yang, Yang

    2016-12-01

    With the rapid development of urbanization and motorization in China, traffic-related air pollution has become a major component of air pollution which constantly jeopardizes public health. This study proposes an integrated framework for estimating the concentration of traffic-related air pollution with real-time traffic and basic meteorological information and also for further evaluating the impact of traffic-related air pollution. First, based on the vehicle emission factor models sensitive to traffic status, traffic emissions are calculated according to the real-time link-based average traffic speed, traffic volume, and vehicular fleet composition. Then, based on differences in meteorological conditions, traffic pollution sources are divided into line sources and point sources, and the corresponding methods to determine the dynamic affecting areas are also proposed. Subsequently, with basic meteorological data, Gaussian dispersion model and puff integration model are applied respectively to estimate the concentration of traffic-related air pollution. Finally, the proposed estimating framework is applied to calculate the distribution of CO concentration in the main area of Beijing, and the population exposure is also calculated to evaluate the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health. Results show that there is a certain correlation between traffic indicators (i.e., traffic speed and traffic intensity) of the affecting area and traffic-related CO concentration of the target grid, which indicates the methods to determine the affecting areas are reliable. Furthermore, the reliability of the proposed estimating framework is verified by comparing the predicted and the observed ambient CO concentration. In addition, results also show that the traffic-related CO concentration is higher in morning and evening peak hours, and has a heavier impact on public health within the Fourth Ring Road of Beijing due to higher population density and higher CO

  14. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  15. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  16. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to threaten the lives and health of ... sources such as fires and dust contribute to air pollution. Learn more Fighting for Healthy Air The American ...

  17. System for time-discretized vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of spark breakdown in air.

    PubMed

    Ryberg, D; Fierro, A; Dickens, J; Neuber, A

    2014-10-01

    A system for time-discretized spectroscopic measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission from spark discharges in the 60-160 nm range has been developed for the study of early plasma-forming phenomena. The system induces a spark discharge in an environment close to atmospheric conditions created using a high speed puff value, but is otherwise kept at high vacuum to allow for the propagation of VUV light. Using a vertical slit placed 1.5 mm from the discharge the emission from a small cross section of the discharge is allowed to pass into the selection chamber consisting of a spherical grating, with 1200 grooves/mm, and an exit slit set to 100 μm. Following the exit slit is a photomultiplier tube with a sodium salicylate scintillator that is used for the time discretized measurement of the VUV signal with a temporal resolution limit of 10 ns. Results from discharges studied in dry air, Nitrogen, SF6, and Argon indicate the emission of light with wavelengths shorter than 120 nm where the photon energy begins to approach the regime of direct photoionization.

  18. System for time-discretized vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of spark breakdown in air

    SciTech Connect

    Ryberg, D.; Fierro, A.; Dickens, J.; Neuber, A.

    2014-10-15

    A system for time-discretized spectroscopic measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission from spark discharges in the 60-160 nm range has been developed for the study of early plasma-forming phenomena. The system induces a spark discharge in an environment close to atmospheric conditions created using a high speed puff value, but is otherwise kept at high vacuum to allow for the propagation of VUV light. Using a vertical slit placed 1.5 mm from the discharge the emission from a small cross section of the discharge is allowed to pass into the selection chamber consisting of a spherical grating, with 1200 grooves/mm, and an exit slit set to 100 μm. Following the exit slit is a photomultiplier tube with a sodium salicylate scintillator that is used for the time discretized measurement of the VUV signal with a temporal resolution limit of 10 ns. Results from discharges studied in dry air, Nitrogen, SF{sub 6}, and Argon indicate the emission of light with wavelengths shorter than 120 nm where the photon energy begins to approach the regime of direct photoionization.

  19. Pyrolysis and combustion of tobacco in a cigarette smoking simulator under air and nitrogen atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Busch, Christian; Streibel, Thorsten; Liu, Chuan; McAdam, Kevin G; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2012-04-01

    A coupling between a cigarette smoking simulator and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer was constructed to allow investigation of tobacco smoke formation under simulated burning conditions. The cigarette smoking simulator is designed to burn a sample in close approximation to the conditions experienced by a lit cigarette. The apparatus also permits conditions outside those of normal cigarette burning to be investigated for mechanistic understanding purposes. It allows control of parameters such as smouldering and puff temperatures, as well as combustion rate and puffing volume. In this study, the system enabled examination of the effects of "smoking" a cigarette under a nitrogen atmosphere. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with a soft ionisation technique is expedient to analyse complex mixtures such as tobacco smoke with a high time resolution. The objective of the study was to separate pyrolysis from combustion processes to reveal the formation mechanism of several selected toxicants. A purposely designed adapter, with no measurable dead volume or memory effects, enables the analysis of pyrolysis and combustion gases from tobacco and tobacco products (e.g. 3R4F reference cigarette) with minimum aging. The combined system demonstrates clear distinctions between smoke composition found under air and nitrogen smoking atmospheres based on the corresponding mass spectra and visualisations using principal component analysis.

  20. Effects of a sea breeze discontinuity on air quality in an industrial coastal environment of the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, Patrick; Sokolov, Anton; Talbot, Charles; Fourmentin, Marc; Willart, Véronique; Delbarre, Hervé

    2010-05-01

    The effects of interaction between the sea breeze and synoptic wind on air pollutants have been studied in an industrial coastal environment of the North Sea. These effects have been investigated, during one day, using ground-based remote sensing systems and surface station data alongside with mesoscale modelling outputs. During a campaign in the North of France, continuous lidar measurements documented the structure and the evolution of the lower troposphere. The combination of lidar, sodar and surface station observations showed that the atmospheric boundary layer is well stratified during the night, with a stable double layer structure which slows the growing process of the mixing layer, in the morning and before the sea-breeze onset. During the day, we observed discontinuity in meteorological measurements due to the sea-breeze occurrences. We have found that these sudden changes were well correlated with high concentrations of sulphur dioxide at ground level (up to 400 ?g/m3). The first sea breeze puff generates a change of the structure of the lower troposphere with a coupling between the residual layer and the convective boundary layer. The discontinuity of the sea-breeze gravity current is well observed by lidar signals and sodar echo. The analysis revealed that the impacts of the sea-breeze discontinuity have significant implications on the local and the regional pollution above industrialized areas. This phenomenon triggers important changes on the local and regional air quality, more particularly in urban and industrial coastal localities.

  1. Isokinetic air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Sehmel, George A.

    1979-01-01

    An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

  2. Geneva '98 -- all huff and puff?

    PubMed

    Heywood, M

    1998-10-01

    The overwhelming conclusion suggested by the 1998 World AIDS Conference is that the world has not succeeded in controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS and the gap between developing and developed countries is widening. AIDS remains an epidemic of the marginalized and the unequal. This was reflected in the profile of conference attenders. Missing were senior government officials, politicians, and senior representatives of the private sector (including the pharmaceutical industry). New combination therapies have reduced AIDS-related morbidity and mortality, but they are not available in developing countries. Moreover, there are drastic side-effects and the long-term efficacy remains unknown. Antiretrovirals such as zidovudine offer potential to reduce vertical HIV transmission but, even if they were affordable in Africa, their protective benefits would be undone by the economic and social importance of breast feeding. Both governments and the private sector have reneged on their responsibility to invest in AIDS prevention. Continuing social discrimination against people with AIDS and the lack of appropriate community care resources, especially in developing countries, have impeded people's incentive to be tested for HIV. If the World AIDS Conference is to be an effective forum, it must become the place where governments and people with power meet to decide how to put into action the vast store of knowledge that is available about AIDS prevention and control.

  3. PUFF TOO: a residual stress experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.W.

    1980-04-01

    Following the passage of the dynamic effects in a contained explosive detonation, there remains a strong compressive stress field in the material about the cavity. In this experiment, a 454-kg (1000 lb) sphere of high explosive was detonated in saturated ashfall tuff. Instrumentation measured peak stresses over the range of 0.1 to 6.0 GPa (1 to 6 kbar) and the complete stress-time waveform, including the so-called residual stress, at the 0.1 GPa (1 kbar) peak stress range. Mineback revealed detonation-induced fractures and fractures induced by postevent work.

  4. Science off the Sphere: Astro Puffs

    NASA Video Gallery

    In his off-duty time, NASA Astronaut Don Pettit experiments with the physics of water in the weightless environment aboard the International Space Station. Through a partnership between NASA and th...

  5. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel better ... and getting rid of pollutants can improve the quality of your indoor air. Environmental Protection Agency

  6. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... and 2014. In 2008, EPA significantly strengthened the air quality standards for lead to provide health protection for ... time? Setting and Reviewing Standards What are lead air quality standards? How are they developed and reviewed? What ...

  7. Transforming air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Janet McCabe

    2005-04-01

    Earlier this year, the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee submitted to EPA 38 recommendations intended to improve air quality management in the United States. This article summarizes the evaluation process leading up to the Committee's recommendations. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  8. National Air Toxics Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NATA is an ongoing comprehensive evaluation of air toxics in the U.S. As a screening tool, it helps air agencies prioritize pollutants, emission sources and locations of interest for further study to gain a better understanding of risks.

  9. Airing It Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzemeyer, Ted

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how proper maintenance can help schools eliminate sources contributing to poor air quality. Maintaining heating and air conditioning units, investigating bacterial breeding grounds, fixing leaking boilers, and adhering to ventilation codes and standards are discussed. (GR)

  10. Air Quality Analysis

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides information for air quality data analysts inside and outside EPA. Much of the information is in the form of documented analyses that support the review of the national air qualiyt standards.

  11. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  12. Air Data - Concentration Map

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Make a map of daily concentrations over several days. The daily air quality can be displayed in terms of the Air Quality Index or in concentration ranges for certain PM species like organic carbon, nitrates, and sulfates.

  13. Into Thin Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Shows how schools are working to avoid the types of equipment, supplies, and maintenance practices that harm indoor air quality. Simple steps to maintaining a cleaner indoor air environment are highlighted as are steps to reducing the problem air quality and the occurrence of asthma. (GR)

  14. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  15. Air Sensor Guidebook

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Air Sensor Guidebook has been developed by the U.S. EPA to assist those interested in potentially using lower cost air quality sensor technologies for air quality measurements. Its development was in direct response to a request for such a document following a recent scienti...

  16. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  17. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  18. Clean Air Act Text

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Act is the law that defines EPA's responsibilities for protecting and improving the nation's air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer. The last major change in the law, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, enacted in 1990 by Congress.

  19. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  20. Air Parity: Re-Discovering Contested Air Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    AIR PARITY: RE-DISCOVERING CONTESTED AIR OPERATIONS BY CHRISTOPHER LAZIDIS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF...THE SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES FOR COMPLETION OF GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES AIR ...UNIVERSITY MAXWELL AIR FORCE BASE, ALABAMA JUNE 2016 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited ii APPROVAL The

  1. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  2. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  3. Draft air deflecting device

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, J.E.

    1982-05-18

    A draft air deflecting device is mountable proximate to a window contained in a firebox and serves as a conduit which directs draft air across the inner surface of the window prior to its supporting combustion of the fuel in the firebox. In this respect , the draft air deflecting device is formed as a box which communicates with draft air holes located in the firebox and which includes a forwardly extending lip serving to define a nozzle for both increasing the velocity and directing the incoming draft air across the firebox window. The incoming draft air is thus utilized to cool and to prevent soot, creosote and other particulates from accumulating on the window.

  4. Air Power and Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    American air ace.- New York: Putnam , 1958. (UG!3 290 G98) Guild, Richard E. The double attack system: a formalization. Yokota Air Base, Japan, 1968...1962) Sa..dby;•Robert H.M.S. Air bombardment: the story of it- development New York: Harper, 1961. (UGK 207 S25) Saunders, Hilary A.S. .Per ardua; the...1961. Letchworth, Herts: Harleyford Publications, 1961. (UGH 3215 .F5 887) Bruce, John N. British ,aeroplance 1914-1918. London: Putnam ; 1957. (Ref

  5. Contact air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Porth, R

    1999-05-01

    The advantages of contact air abrasion techniques are readily apparent. The first, of course, is the greatly increased ease of use. Working with contact also tends to speed the learning curve by giving the process a more natural dental feel. In addition, as one becomes familiar with working with a dust stream, the potential for misdirecting the air flow is decreased. The future use of air abrasion for deep decay removal will make this the treatment of choice for the next millennium.

  6. Applications Using AIRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  7. Air modulation apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenahan, D. T.; Corsmeier, R. J.; Sterman, A. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An air modulation apparatus, such as for use in modulating cooling air to the turbine section of a gas turbine engine is described. The apparatus includes valve means disposed around an annular conduit, such as a nozzle, in the engine cooling air circuit. The valve means, when in a closed position, blocks a portion of the conduit, and thus reduces the amount and increases the velocity of cooling air flowing through the nozzle. The apparatus also includes actuation means, which can operate in response to predetermined engine conditions, for enabling opening and closing of the valve means.

  8. Clean Air Excellence Awards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These non-monetary awards honor sustainable efforts toward pollutant emissions reduction from innovators in clean air technology, community action and outreach, policy development, and transportation efficiency.

  9. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Ronald G.; Salazar, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  10. Bad Air For Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    1976-01-01

    Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)

  11. Next Generation Air Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development is evaluating and developing a rang...

  12. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  13. Air Pollution and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  14. Discriminatory Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaull, Julian

    1976-01-01

    Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

  15. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  16. Air Cargo Marketing Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in developing a market for air cargo services are discussed. A comparison is made between the passenger traffic problems and those of cargo traffic. Emphasis is placed on distribution analyses which isolates total distribution cost, including logistical costs such as transportation, inventory, materials handling, packaging, and processing. Specific examples of methods for reducing air cargo costs are presented.

  17. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  18. Air Pollution Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  19. AIR HEATER EXPERIMENT,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The test program described in this report was designed to determine the feasibility of using a vitiated air heater for the PLUTO facility from the...profiles across the outlet proved relatively flat. The feasibility of using this burner for PLUTO facility air heating was established. (Author)

  20. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  1. The Air We Breathe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Dina

    2010-01-01

    Topics discussed include NASA mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research; the role of Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric gases, layers of the Earth's atmosphere, ozone layer, air pollution, effects of air pollution on people, the Greenhouse Effect, and breathing on the International Space Station.

  2. Air pollution and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2010-12-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  3. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  4. Portable oven air circulator

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Jorgen A.; Nygren, Donald W.

    1983-01-01

    A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

  5. Bearings Only Air-to-Air Ranging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-25

    sensor, observer and target parameters still remain. In order to reduce the number of cases to a manageable one, while preserving the geometric...perforance of variotu. ulro-air passive ranging tecnique has been examined as a fimn- tiam of uarget location andi motiom, observer motion. and length

  6. Culture systems: air quality.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Poor laboratory air quality is a known hazard to the culture of human gametes and embryos. Embryologists and chemists have employed analytical methods for identifying and measuring bulk and select air pollutants to assess the risk they pose to the embryo culture system. However, contaminant concentrations that result in gamete or embryotoxicity are poorly defined. Combating the ill effects of poor air quality requires an understanding of how toxicants can infiltrate the laboratory, the incubator, and ultimately the culture media. A further understanding of site-specific air quality can then lead to the consideration of laboratory design and management strategies that can minimize the deleterious effects that air contamination may have on early embryonic development in vitro.

  7. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S

    2016-12-30

    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  8. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  9. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  10. Air washer/scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.H.; Gerdes, D.F.; Telchuk, S.E.

    1982-05-04

    An air washer or scrubber, particularly for paint spray booths and especially adapted for removing paint particles from air passing downwardly through the grille floor of a paint spray booth and against a water-washed subfloor, comprises an elongated v-shaped slot in the subfloor extending along the longitudinal centerline of the booth. The inner edges of the walls forming the v-shaped slot are upturned to form ledges so that water flowed over the subfloor and the walls of the slot impinges against the ledges and is thrown upwardly and inwardly to form a curtain of water completely covering the slot. Exhaust means pulls paintladen air from the spray chamber through the water curtain and the slot and into an expansion chamber, the bottom walls of which form a second v-shaped slot contiguous with the first mentioned slot. The water, in which virtually all of the paint particles are entrained, and the air are discharged from the second slot and impinged against a baffle sheet angling downwardly away from the expansion chamber. The end of the sheet is upturned at a small angle to deflect the water and form an umbrella of water through which the air must pass for a final cleaning action. An optional curved deflector plate positioned beneath the umbrella of water aids in separating the water and air so that only clean, dry air is exhausted to atmosphere.

  11. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  12. Air Quality Management Process Cycle

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  13. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    MedlinePlus

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Forecast Current AQI AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - ... September 2016, Busan, South Korea. More more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke ...

  14. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    MedlinePlus

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one ... exposure and protect your health. For your local air quality, visit www.airnow.gov View or print guide ...

  15. Lean in Air Permitting Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Lean in Air Permitting Guide is designed to help air program managers at public agencies better understand the potential value and results that can be achieved by applying Lean improvement methods to air permitting processes.

  16. Liquid-Air Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Compact unit supplies air longer than compressed-air unit. Emergency breathing apparatus stores air as cryogenic liquid instead of usual compressed gas. Intended for firefighting or rescue operations becoming necessary during planned potentially hazardous procedures.

  17. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  18. Air Shower Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Alania, Marco; Gomez, Adolfo V. Chamorro; Araya, Ignacio J.; Huerta, Humberto Martinez; Flores, Alejandra Parra; Knapp, Johannes

    2009-04-30

    Air shower simulations are a vital part of the design of air shower experiments and the analysis of their data. We describe the basic features of air showers and explain why numerical simulations are the appropriate approach to model the shower simulation. The CORSIKA program, the standard simulation program in this field, is introduced and its features, performance and limitations are discussed. The basic principles of hadronic interaction models and some gerneral simulation techniques are explained. Also a brief introduction to the installation and use of CORSIKA is given.

  19. Air/Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  20. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  1. Air conditioned suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, G. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An environmentally controlled suit is described consisting of an airtight outergarment attached by an airtight bellows to the wall of a sterile chamber, an undergarment providing for circulation of air near the skin of the wearer, and a circulation system comprised of air supply and distribution to the extremities of the undegarment and central collection and exhaust of air from the midsection of the undergarment. A workman wearing the undergarment and attached circulation system enters the outer garment through a tunnel in the chamber wall and the attached bellows to work in the chamber without any danger of spreading bacteria.

  2. Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Balmes, John R.; Collard, Harold R.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution exposure is a well-established risk factor for several adverse respiratory outcomes, including airways diseases and lung cancer. Few studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite many forms of ILD arising from environmental exposures. There are potential mechanisms by which air pollution could cause, exacerbate, or accelerate the progression of certain forms of ILD via pulmonary and systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress. This article will review the current epidemiologic and translational data supporting the plausibility of this relationship and propose a new conceptual framework for characterizing novel environmental risk factors for these forms of lung disease. PMID:25846532

  3. Air Force Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-08

    Air Force Research Laboratory 8 June 2009 Mr. Leo Marple Ai F R h L b t r orce esearc a ora ory Leo.Marple@wpafb.af.mil DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air Force Research Laboratory 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Laboratory ,Wright

  4. Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Takeji

    The reduction of intake of outdoor air volume in air conditioned buildings, adopted as the strategy for saving energy, has caused sick building syndrome abroad. Such symptoms of sick building as headache, stimuli of eye and nose and lethargy, appears to result from cigarette smoke, folmaldehyde and volatile organic carbons. On the other hand, in airtight residences not only carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from domestic burning appliances but also allergens of mite, fungi, pollen and house dust, have become a subject of discussion. Moreover, asbestos and radon of carcinogen now attract a great deal of attention. Those indoor air pollutants are discussed.

  5. Air heating system

    DOEpatents

    Primeau, John J.

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  6. Olefin metathesis in air

    PubMed Central

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady

    2015-01-01

    Summary Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance. PMID:26664625

  7. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  8. Using soil records with atmospheric dispersion modeling to investigate the effects of clean air regulations on 60 years of manganese deposition in Marietta, Ohio (USA).

    PubMed

    Carter, Megan R; Gaudet, Brian J; Stauffer, David R; White, Timothy S; Brantley, Susan L

    2015-05-15

    Atmospheric emissions of metals from anthropogenic activities have led to deposition and contamination of soils worldwide. We quantified addition of manganese (Mn) to soils around the largest emitter of Mn in the United States (U.S.) using chemical analyses and atmospheric dispersion modeling (Second-Order Closure Integrated Puff (SCIPUFF)). Concentrations of soil-surface Mn were enriched by 9-fold relative to that of the parent material within 1 km of the facility. Elevated concentrations of Mn and chromium (Cr), another potentially toxic element that was emitted, document contamination only within 1 m of the soil surface. Total mass of Mn added per unit land area integrated over 1 m, mMn, equals ~80 mg Mn cm(-2) near the facility. Values of mMn remained above background up to tens of kilometers from the source. Air concentrations of Mn particles of 7.5-micron diameter simulated with SCIPUFF using available data for the emission rate and local meteorological conditions for 2006 were consistent with measured air concentrations. However, the Mn deposition calculated for 2006 with SCIPUFF yielded a cumulative value over the lifetime of the refinery (60 years) that is a factor of 15 lower than the Mn observed to have been added to the soils. This discrepancy can be easily explained if Mn deposition rates before 1988 were more than an order of magnitude greater than today. Such higher emissions are probable, given the changes in metal production with time and the installation of emission controls after the Clean Air Act (1970). This work shows that atmospheric dispersion models can be used with soil profiles to understand the changes in metal emissions over decadal timescales. In addition, the calculations are consistent with the Clean Air Act accounting for a 15-fold decrease in the Mn deposition to soils around the refinery per metric ton of Mn alloy produced.

  9. Air Quality Implementation Plans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    States must develop plans to attain and maintain air quality standards. These plans, known as SIPs, are submitted to EPA for approval. This web site contains information about this process and the current status of the submittals.

  10. Calidad del aire interior

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web site will educate the public about indoor environmental issues including health risks and means by which human exposures can be reduced. Content on this site will be focused on Spanish translated resources for information about indoor air quality.

  11. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  12. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Richardson, John G.

    1995-01-01

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle's rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump.

  13. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  14. Temporal solitons in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    Analysis of the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) of atmospheric air with a model that includes the entire manifold of infrared transitions in air reveals a remarkably broad and continuous anomalous-GVD region in the high-frequency wing of the carbon dioxide rovibrational band from approximately 3.5 to 4.2 μm where atmospheric air is still highly transparent and where high-peak-power sources of ultrashort midinfrared pulses are available. Within this range, anomalous dispersion acting jointly with optical nonlinearity of atmospheric air is shown to give rise to a unique three-dimensional dynamics with well-resolved soliton features in the time domain, enabling a highly efficient whole-beam soliton self-compression of such pulses to few-cycle pulse widths.

  15. Air conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  16. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  17. Walking On Air

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video features a series of time lapse sequences photographed by the Expedition 30 crew aboard the International Space Station. Set to the song "€œWalking in the Air,"€ by Howard Blake, the v...

  18. Natural Air Purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA environmental research has led to a plant-based air filtering system. Dr. B.C. Wolverton, a former NASA engineer who developed a biological filtering system for space life support, served as a consultant to Terra Firma Environmental. The company is marketing the BioFilter, a natural air purifier that combines activated carbon and other filter media with living plants and microorganisms. The filter material traps and holds indoor pollutants; plant roots and microorganisms then convert the pollutants into food for the plant. Most non-flowering house plants will work. After pollutants have been removed, the cleansed air is returned to the room through slits in the planter. Terra Firma is currently developing a filter that will also disinfect the air.

  19. Process air quality data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C. M.; Hogge, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Air quality sampling was conducted. Data for air quality parameters, recorded on written forms, punched cards or magnetic tape, are available for 1972 through 1975. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate several daily statistical measures of location, (2) plot time histories of data or the calculated daily statistics, (3) calculate simple correlation coefficients, and (4) plot scatter diagrams. Computer software was developed for processing air quality data to include time series analysis and goodness of fit tests. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate a larger number of daily statistical measures of location, and a number of daily monthly and yearly measures of location, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, (2) decompose the extended time series model and (3) perform some goodness of fit tests. The computer program is described, documented and illustrated by examples. Recommendations are made for continuation of the development of research on processing air quality data.

  20. Air cushion landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghami, K. M.; Captain, K. M.; Fish, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Static and dynamic performance of air cushion landing system is simulated in computer program that treats four primary ACLS subsystems: fan, feeding system, trunk, and cushion. Configuration of systems is sufficiently general to represent variety of practical designs.

  1. Siting Air Monitoring Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, F. L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes guidelines for consideration in selecting sites for air monitoring systems. Careful selection for spatial scale and specific sources assures that the collected data are accurately representing the situation. (Author/MA)

  2. Air Force Junior ROTC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, James A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the Junior Air Force Reserve Officers Training Corps (AFROTC) program presently being operated in 275 units across the country. It is basically a three year course in aerospace studies and leadership education. (BR)

  3. State Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  4. Air Traffic Network Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The high level requirement of the Air Traffic Network (ATN) project is to provide a mechanism for evaluating the impact of router scheduling modifications on a networks efficiency, without implementing the modifications in the live network.

  5. Improving Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Usually the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate individual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed.

  6. Investigating Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  7. Breathing zone air sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J.

    1989-08-22

    A sampling apparatus is presented which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  8. Images in the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveros, H. G.; Rosenberger, Franz

    2012-05-01

    This article discusses two 'magic tricks' in terms of underlying optical principles. The first trick is new and produces a 'ghost' in the air, and the second is the classical real image produced with two parabolic mirrors.

  9. Air transportation energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  10. Military Air Cargo Containerization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    MILITARY AIR CARGO CONTAINERIZATION GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Joseph W. Mancy, Major, USAF AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 : ."•" ’* ■- ’ DEPARTMENT OF...Approved to public release; Distribution UnHmlted ? DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 1 AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 MILITARY AIR CARGO CONTAINERIZATION GRADUATE RESEARCH...PAPER Joseph W. Mancy, Major, USAF AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 19960617 134 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The views expressed in this

  11. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    A series of fundamental problems related to jet engine air pollution and combustion were examined. These include soot formation and oxidation, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions mechanisms, pollutant dispension, flow and combustion characteristics of the NASA swirl can combustor, fuel atomization and fuel-air mixing processes, fuel spray drop velocity and size measurement, ignition and blowout. A summary of this work, and a bibliography of 41 theses and publications which describe this work, with abstracts, is included.

  12. Air Superiority Fighter Characteristics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-05

    many a dispute could have been deflated into a single paragraph if the disputants had just dared to define their terms.7 Aristotle ...meaningful. This section will expand on some key ideology concepts. The phrase "air superiority fighter" may bring to mind visions of fighter... biographies are useful in garnering airpower advocate theories as well as identifying key characteristics. Air campaign results, starting with World

  13. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  14. Multipollutant air quality management.

    PubMed

    Hidy, George M; Pennell, William T

    2010-06-01

    On the basis of a recent NARSTO assessment, this review discusses the factors involved in the implementation of a risk- and results-based multipollutant air quality management strategy applicable to North America. Such a strategy could evolve from current single-pollutant regulatory practices using a series of steps that would seek to minimize risk of exposure for humans and ecosystems while providing for a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of the management process. The tools needed to support multipollutant air quality management are summarized. They include application of a formal risk analysis, accounting for atmospheric processes, ambient measurements, emissions characterization, air quality modeling of emissions to ambient concentrations, and characterization of human and ecological responses to ambient pollutant exposure. The new management strategy would expand the current practice of accountability that relates emission reductions and attainment of air quality derived from air quality criteria and standards. Conceptually, achievement of accountability would establish goals optimizing risk reduction associated with pollution management. This expanded approach takes into account the sequence of processes from emissions reduction to resulting changes in ambient concentration. Using ambient concentration as a proxy for exposure, the resulting improvement in human and ecosystem health is estimated. The degree to which this chain of processes and effects can be achieved in current practice is examined in a multipollutant context exemplified by oxidants, as indicated by ozone, particulate matter, and some hazardous air pollutants. Achievement of a multipollutant management strategy will mostly depend on improving knowledge about human and ecosystem response to pollutant exposure.

  15. Air injection system diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Kotzan, J.M.; Labus, G.E.

    1992-05-19

    This patent describes a method for diagnosing failures in an air control system that controls a quantity of air admitted into an exhaust path of an internal combustion engine. It comprises sensing the oxygen content of the exhaust gas of the engine at predetermined time intervals at a first predetermined point in the exhaust path of the engine, the oxygen content normally oscillating between a rich oxygen condition and a lean oxygen condition in the absence of air injected into the exhaust path above the first predetermined point; injecting a quantity of air into the exhaust path of the engine at a second predetermined point in the exhaust port, the second predetermined point being above the first predetermined point; counting the number of intervals at which the sensed oxygen content indicates a rich oxygen condition over a predetermined period of time; comparing the counted number of rich oxygen intervals to a predetermined threshold value, the threshold value being greater than a counted number of rich oxygen intervals over the predetermined period of time resulting from the normal oscillations between rich and lean oxygen conditions in the absence of air injected into the exhaust path; indicating the existence of a fault in the air control system when the number of rich oxygen intervals does not exceed the predetermined threshold value.

  16. Developing air quality forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pius; Saylor, Rick; Meagher, James

    2012-05-01

    Third International Workshop on Air Quality Forecasting Research; Potomac, Maryland, 29 November to 1 December 2011 Elevated concentrations of both near-surface ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter have been implicated in increased mortality and other human health impacts. In light of these known influences on human health, many governments around the world have instituted air quality forecasting systems to provide their citizens with advance warning of impending poor air quality so that they can take actions to limit exposure. In an effort to improve the performance of air quality forecasting systems and provide a forum for the exchange of the latest research in air quality modeling, the International Workshop on Air Quality Forecasting Research (IWAQFR) was established in 2009 and is cosponsored by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Environment Canada (EC), and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The steering committee for IWAQFR's establishment was composed of Véronique Bouchet, Mike Howe, and Craig Stoud (EC); Greg Carmichael (University of Iowa); Paula Davidson and Jim Meagher (NOAA); and Liisa Jalkanen (WMO). The most recent workshop took place in Maryland.

  17. Air Force Research Initiation Program 1986 Technical Report Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    by the pump could be accurately determined by multiplying the rotational speed of its drive shaft by a constant depending on the size of tubing used...emission. (t-t*) = elapsed time since emission Q - concentration of the puff at emission. u - wind speed at a height of lOm. xx- standard deviation oi Q...provided in Appendix A. The AFTOX variables assumed to have known uncertainties are: a) the source strength, Q; b) the wind speed , u; c) the

  18. 77 FR 1513 - Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing TIME AND DATE: 9 a.m., Tuesday, January 10, 2012... hearing is to examine current regulations and oversight practices for air shows and air races,...

  19. The Air Advisor: The Face of US Air Force Engagement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Senior Leader Perspective July–August 2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 4 The Air Advisor The Face of US Air Force Engagement Maj Gen Timothy M...The Air Advisor: The Face of US Air Force Engagement 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Institute,Air & Space Power Journal

  20. Stochastic estimates of exposure and cancer risk from carbon tetrachloride released to the air from the rocky flats plant.

    PubMed

    Rood, A S; McGavran, P D; Aanenson, J W; Till, J E

    2001-08-01

    Carbon tetrachloride is a degreasing agent that was used at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado to clean product components and equipment. The chemical is considered a volatile organic compound and a probable human carcinogen. During the time the plant operated (1953-1989), most of the carbon tetrachloride was released to the atmosphere through building exhaust ducts. A smaller amount was released to the air via evaporation from open-air burn pits and ground-surface discharge points. Airborne releases from the plant were conservatively estimated to be equivalent to the amount of carbon tetrachloride consumed annually by the plant, which was estimated to be between 3.6 and 180 Mg per year. This assumption was supported by calculations that showed that most of the carbon tetrachloride discharged to the ground surface would subsequently be released to the atmosphere. Atmospheric transport of carbon tetrachloride from the plant to the surrounding community was estimated using a Gaussian Puff dispersion model (RATCHET). Time-integrated concentrations were estimated for nine hypothetical but realistic exposure scenarios that considered variation in lifestyle, location, age, and gender. Uncertainty distributions were developed for cancer slope factors and atmospheric dispersion factors. These uncertainties were propagated through to the final risk estimate using Monte Carlo techniques. The geometric mean risk estimates varied from 5.2 x 10(-6) for a hypothetical rancher or laborer working near the RFP to 3.4 x 10(-9) for an infant scenario. The distribution of incremental lifetime cancer incidence risk for the hypothetical rancher was between 1.3 x 10(-6) (5% value) and 2.1 x 10(-5) (95% value). These estimates are similar to or exceed estimated cancer risks posed by releases of radionuclides from the site.

  1. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  2. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  3. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  4. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  5. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  6. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  7. Air diverter for supercharger

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.A.

    1986-10-28

    An engine supercharger is described which consists of a turbine housing, a main turbine wheel of the radial-inflow type located within the turbine housing, a compressor housing having an air entrance passageway, and a compressor wheel of the centrifugal type located within the compressor housing. It also includes a main shaft of annular construction interconnecting the turbine wheel and the compressor wheel whereby the two wheels rotate as a unit, an auxiliary turbine wheel of the axial flow type located downstream from the main turbine wheel, and a fan of the axial flow type located upstream from the compressor wheel. An auxiliary shaft extends within the main shaft between the auxiliary turbine and fan whereby the auxiliary turbine and fan rotate as a unit. An annular air collector chamber means is located immediately downstream from the fan in surrounding relation to the aforementioned entrance passageway for diverting some of the fan air from the compressor wheel. The fan comprises a hub and blades radiating outwardly therefrom. The air collector chamber is defined in part by an annular wall having a free edge located within the fan blade axial profile whereby the annular wall intercepts air discharged from outer tip areas of the fan blades to divert same away from the compressor wheel into the collector chamber.

  8. Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) which logs all air pollution complaints received by Region 7. It contains information about the complaint along with how the complaint was addressed. The Air and Waste Management Division is the primary managing entity for this database. This work falls under objectives for EPA's 2003-2008 Strategic Plan (Goal 1) for Clean Air & Global Climate Change, which are to achieve healthier outdoor air.

  9. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  10. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  11. Quantitative Evaluation of an Air-monitoring Network Using Atmospheric Transport Modeling and Frequency of Detection Methods.

    PubMed

    Rood, Arthur S; Sondrup, A Jeffrey; Ritter, Paul D

    2016-04-01

    A methodology has been developed to quantify the performance of an air-monitoring network in terms of frequency of detection. Frequency of detection is defined as the fraction of "events" that result in a detection at either a single sampler or network of samplers. An "event" is defined as a release to the atmosphere of a specified amount of activity over a finite duration that begins on a given day and hour of the year. The methodology uses an atmospheric transport model to predict air concentrations of radionuclides at the samplers for a given release time and duration. Another metric of interest determined by the methodology is called the network intensity, which is defined as the fraction of samplers in the network that have a positive detection for a given event. The frequency of detection methodology allows for evaluation of short-term releases that include effects of short-term variability in meteorological conditions. The methodology was tested using the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho National Laboratory Site ambient air-monitoring network consisting of 37 low-volume air samplers in 31 different locations covering a 17,630 km region. Releases from six major facilities distributed over an area of 1,435 km were modeled and included three stack sources and eight ground-level sources. A Lagrangian Puff air dispersion model (CALPUFF) was used to model atmospheric transport. The model was validated using historical Sb releases and measurements. Relevant 1-wk release quantities from each emission source were calculated based on a dose of 1.9×10 mSv at a public receptor (0.01 mSv assuming release persists over a year). Important radionuclides were Am, Cs, Pu, Pu, Sr, and tritium. Results show the detection frequency was over 97.5% for the entire network considering all sources and radionuclides. Network intensity results ranged from 3.75% to 62.7%. Evaluation of individual samplers indicated some samplers were poorly located and added little to the overall

  12. AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1958-05-27

    A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

  13. Air Sparging Design Paradigm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-12

    that the air distribution in the aquifer is non-uniform about the air injection, exhibiting tendencies to flow along the axis defined by MP6 , MP12...MW2 MW9 MW7 MW1 MW3 MP9, N9 MP11, N11 MP5, N5 MP7, N7 MP12, N12 MP6 , N6 MP3, N3MP1, N1 - Multi-level sampler and neutron access tube - Air...MP9 and MP12. This hypothesis is supported by the high saturations at MP3, MP6 , MP9 and MP12 in the upper part of the aquifer (3 to 4 m BGS) and low

  14. Fireman's Air Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Together with NASA's Johnson Space Center, A-T-O Inc.'s Scott Aviation has developed light-weight firefighter's air tanks. New backpack system weighs only 20 pounds for 30 minute air supply, 13 pounds less than conventional firefighting tanks. They are pressurized at 4,500 psi, (twice current tanks). Made of aluminum liner wrapped by resin-impregnated glass fibers, eliminating corrosion as well as lightening the load. Redesigned face mask permits better vision. Warning device to tell fireman he is running out of air is personalized so it can't be heard by others reducing confusion in an already hectic environment. Structural Composites Inc., The Boeing Co., and Martin- Marietta Corp. have developed uses for this technology.

  15. Liquid air cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosevear, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  16. Air Sampling Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Metal Works' Accu-Vol is a high-volume air sampling system used by many government agencies to monitor air quality for pollution control purposes. Procedure prevents possible test-invalidating contamination from materials other than particulate pollutants, caused by manual handling or penetration of windblown matter during transit, a cassette was developed in which the filter is sealed within a metal frame and protected in transit by a snap-on aluminum cover, thus handled only under clean conditions in the laboratory.

  17. Dental Compressed Air Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    I AL-TR-IWI-0uuu AD-A249 954 DENTAL COMPRESSED AIMYTM R Curtis D. Weyrmuch, Mejor, USAP, D Samuel P.Dvs iueatclpi SF.O N AEROSPACE MwaEDIN mwr~ComA G...FUNDING NUMBERS Dental Compressed Air Systems PE - 87714F PR - 7350 TA - 22 D. Weyrauch WU - XX Samuel P. Davis George W. Gaines 7. PERFORMING...words) The purpose of this report is to update guidelines on dental compressed air systems (DCA). Much of the information was obtained from a survey

  18. AIR Model Preflight Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, H.; Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) ER-2 preflight analysis, one of the first attempts to obtain a relatively complete measurement set of the high-altitude radiation level environment, is described in this paper. The primary thrust is to characterize the atmospheric radiation and to define dose levels at high-altitude flight. A secondary thrust is to develop and validate dosimetric techniques and monitoring devices for protecting aircrews. With a few chosen routes, we can measure the experimental results and validate the AIR model predictions. Eventually, as more measurements are made, we gain more understanding about the hazardous radiation environment and acquire more confidence in the prediction models.

  19. MSFC hot air collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, K.

    1978-01-01

    A description of the hot air collector is given that includes a history of development, a history of the materials development, and a program summary. The major portion of the solar energy system cost is the collector. Since the collector is the heart of the system and the most costly subsystem, reducing the cost of producing collectors in large quantities is a major goal. This solar collector is designed to heat air and/or water cheaply and efficiently through the use of solar energy.

  20. Space Derived Air Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    COPAMS, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Air Monitoring System, derives from technology involved in building unmanned spacecraft. The Nimbus spacecraft carried experimental sensors to measure temperature, pressure, ozone, and water vapor, and instruments for studying solar radiation and telemetry. The process which relayed these findings to Earth formed the basis for COPAMS. The COPAMS system consists of data acquisition units which measure and record pollution level, and sense wind speed and direction, etc. The findings are relayed to a central station where the information is computerized. The system is automatic and supplemented by PAQSS, PA Air Quality Surveillance System.

  1. Air quality risk management.

    PubMed

    Williams, Martin L

    2008-01-01

    Rather than attempt to provide a comprehensive account of air quality risk assessment, as might be found in a textbook or manual, this article discusses some issues that are of current importance in the United Kingdom and the rest of Europe, with special emphasis on risk assessment in the context of policy formulation, and emerging scientific knowledge. There are two pollutants of particular concern and that both pose challenges for risk assessment and policy, and they are particulate matter (PM) and ozone. The article describes some issues for health risk assessment and finally some forward-looking suggestions for future approaches to air quality management.

  2. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  3. Air Proportional Counter

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Jr, J A

    1950-12-05

    A multiple wire counter utilizing air at atmospheric pressure as the ionizing medium and having a window of a nylon sheet of less than 0.5 mil thickness coated with graphite. The window is permeable to alpha particles so that the counter is well adapted to surveying sources of alpha radiation.

  4. Immunotoxicity of air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, J.A.; Gardner, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The most common ubiquitous air pollutants, as well as some point source (e.g. metals) air pollutants, decrease the function of pulmonary host defense mechanisms against infection. Most of this knowledge is based on animal studies and involves cellular antibacterial defenses such as alveolar macrophages and mucociliary clearance. Information on viral infectivity is more sparse. Since there is no routine treatment for viral infections which have a relatively high rate of occurrence, this gap in knowledge is of concern. Given the major gaps in knowledge, resaonably accurate assessment of the immunotoxicity of air pollutants is not possible. When the limited data base is reviewed relative to ambient levels of the common pollutants, it appears that acute exposures to O3 and H2SO4 and chronic exposures to NO2 are the major exposures of concern for immunotoxic effects. It is critical to point out, however, that until information is available for chronic exposures to low levels of metals and for exposures to common organic vapors, the immunotoxicity of air pollutants cannot be assessed adequately.

  5. [Forward medical air evacuation].

    PubMed

    Czerniak, Erik; Le Dorze, Patrick Causse; Hersan, Olivier; Pohl, Jean-Baptiste; Angot, Emmanuel

    2014-09-01

    The medical chain which assures the treatment of casualties from the theatre of operations back to France comprises several links connected by medical air transport. Whether it is tactical or strategic, it forms an integral part of the treatment pathway and offers casualties the best possible conditions for medical treatment with a high degree of safety, speed and traceability.

  6. Ames Air Revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Roger Z.

    2015-01-01

    This is an informal presentation presented to the University of Colorado, Boulder Bioastronautics group seminar. It highlights the key focal areas of the Air Revitalization Group research over the past year, including progress on the CO2 Removal and Compression System, testing of CDRA drying bed configurations, and adsorption research.

  7. The Air up There

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    To engage students in a real-world issue (Bransford, Brown, and Cocking 2000) that affects their communities, the author designed an entire unit to investigate air pollution in their home state, Connecticut. The unit's goal is to understand how the use of resources, such as fossil fuels, might affect their quality of life. Through this unit,…

  8. Air weapon fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Rooney, N

    1998-01-01

    AIMS: To describe characteristics of a series of people accidentally and deliberately killed by air powered weapons. METHODS: Five cases of fatal airgun injury were identified by forensic pathologists and histopathologists. The circumstances surrounding the case, radiological examination, and pathological findings are described. The weapon characteristics are also reported. RESULTS: Three of the victims were adult men, one was a 16 year old boy, and one an eight year old child. Four of the airguns were .22 air rifles, the other a .177 air rifle. Two committed suicide, one person shooting himself in the head, the other in the chest. In both cases the guns were fired at contact range. Three of the cases were classified as accidents: in two the pellet penetrated into the head and in one the chest. CONCLUSIONS: One person each year dies from an air powered weapon injury in the United Kingdom. In addition there is considerable morbidity from airgun injuries. Fatalities and injuries are most commonly accidents, but deliberately inflicted injuries occur. Airguns are dangerous weapons when inappropriately handled and should not be considered as toys. Children should not play with airguns unsupervised. Images PMID:9797730

  9. Air Travel Health Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... improved health Before your flightOne key to air travel is to prepare ahead of time. If you are carrying on a bag, make ... need to change if your eating and sleeping times will change at your destination.If you have diabetes or epilepsy, you should travel with your ID card. For instance, the American ...

  10. Air Blast Calculations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    library. A Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equation of state is used for each explosive considered, and a Sesame tabular equation of state is used to model the...explosives investigated (TNT, C4, PBXN-109, and NM) and the CTH material library parameters were used for each. Air was modeled using the Sesame tabular

  11. AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Be...

  12. The air afterglow revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, F.

    1972-01-01

    The air afterglow, 0 + NO2 chemiluminescence, is discussed in terms of fluorescence, photodissociation, and quantum theoretical calculations of NO2. The experimental results presented include pressure dependence, M-dependence, spectral dependence of P and M, temperature dependence, and infrared measurements. The NO2 energy transfer model is also discussed.

  13. Clean Air by Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Gary N.

    1995-01-01

    Planning new construction is an opportunity to recognize indoor environmental quality (IEQ) issues. Provides an overview of some common IEQ issues associated with construction projects. A building's heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is by far the single most common cause of IEQ problems and complaints. (MLF)

  14. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  15. Wartime Air Traffic Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    sets overboard mnd reported their accidental loss.5 Fortunately. such aviation pioneers as Lt Col Henry H. ("Hap") Arnold and Capt Harold M. McClelland...operability is t he responsibility of the entire base populace. All "blue- suiters " must be mentally and physically prepared to fight the air base war. Winston

  16. Air-Supported Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto. School Planning and Building Research Section.

    This study has been prepared to set out some of the benefits and the problems involved in the use of air-supported structures. Also indicated are the types of inquiries that should be made when the use of such structures is being considered. Technical and engineering details, such as the properties of various fabrics, are not included. (Author)

  17. Understanding Our Environment: Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSpezio, Michael

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit uses the contemporary dilemma of acid rain as a vehicle for teaching weather and the characteristics of air and atmosphere. The project involves a…

  18. Sticking with air

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, S.N.

    2005-06-01

    A decision to replace more than 300 aging damper actuators at Independence Plant in Newark, Arkensas forced Entergy to make a choice between pneumatic and electric actuator designs. The dampers route air flow through separate dedicated compartments to ensure proper firing of pulverised coal. The reasons that pneumatics was chosen are discussed in this article. 4 figs.

  19. Images in the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riveros, H. G.; Rosenberger, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two "magic tricks" in terms of underlying optical principles. The first trick is new and produces a "ghost" in the air, and the second is the classical real image produced with two parabolic mirrors. (Contains 2 figure and 6 photos.)

  20. Oregon Air Ambulance Services.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    A 85 aboard unpressurized aircraft. These two patients, both of whom suffered from a bowel obstruction , were transported aboard unpressurized...services can safely transport patients with conditions (i.e. bowel obstruction , facial fractures, pneumothorax, intracranial air) which are clearly

  1. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, S.C.

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  2. Air quality management in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bremauntz, Adrián

    2008-01-01

    Several significant program and policy measures have been implemented in Mexico over the past 15 yr to improve air quality. This article provides an overview of air quality management strategies in Mexico, including (1) policy initiatives such as vehicle use restrictions, air quality standards, vehicle emissions, and fuel quality standards, and (2) supporting programs including establishment of a national emission inventory, an air pollution episodes program, and the implementation of exposure and health effects studies. Trends in air pollution episodes and ambient air pollutant concentrations are described.

  3. Care for Your Air: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Understand indoor air in homes, schools, and offices. Most of us spend much of our time indoors. The air that we breathe in our homes, in schools, and in offices can put us at risk for health problems.

  4. Alaskan Air Defense and Early Warning Systems Clear Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Alaskan Air Defense and Early Warning Systems - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  5. Air-Coupled Vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, D.; Solodov, I.; Busse, G.

    Sound and ultrasound in air are the products of a multitude of different processes and thus can be favorable or undesirable phenomena. Development of experimental tools for non-invasive measurements and imaging of airborne sound fields is of importance for linear and nonlinear nondestructive material testing as well as noise control in industrial or civil engineering applications. One possible solution is based on acousto-optic interaction, like light diffraction imaging. The diffraction approach usually requires a sophisticated setup with fine optical alignment barely applicable in industrial environment. This paper focuses on the application of the robust experimental tool of scanning laser vibrometry, which utilizes commercial off-the-shelf equipment. The imaging technique of air-coupled vibrometry (ACV) is based on the modulation of the optical path length by the acoustic pressure of the sound wave. The theoretical considerations focus on the analysis of acousto-optical phase modulation. The sensitivity of the ACV in detecting vibration velocity was estimated as ~1 mm/s. The ACV applications to imaging of linear airborne fields are demonstrated for leaky wave propagation and measurements of ultrasonic air-coupled transducers. For higher-intensity ultrasound, the classical nonlinear effect of the second harmonic generation was measured in air. Another nonlinear application includes a direct observation of the nonlinear air-coupled emission (NACE) from the damaged areas in solid materials. The source of the NACE is shown to be strongly localized around the damage and proposed as a nonlinear "tag" to discern and image the defects.

  6. 17. VIEW OF AIR LOCK ENTRY DOOR. BANKS OF AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF AIR LOCK ENTRY DOOR. BANKS OF AIR FILTERS ARE VISIBLE TO THE SIDES OF THE DOORS. THE BUILDING WAS DIVIDED INTO ZONES BY AIRLOCK DOORS AND AIR FILTERS. AIR PRESSURE DIFFERENTIALS WERE MAINTAINED IN THE ZONES, SUCH THAT AIRFLOW WAS PROGRESSIVELY TOWARD AREAS WITH THE HIGHEST POTENTIAL FOR CONTAMINATION. (9/24/91) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. 26. "AIR INSTALLATIONS; EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, CALIFORNIA; HIGH SPEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. "AIR INSTALLATIONS; EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, CALIFORNIA; HIGH SPEED TEST TRACK." Drawing No. 10-259. One inch to 400 feet plan of original 10,000-foot sled track. No date. No D.O. series number. No headings as above. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. Something in the Air: Air Pollution in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villaire, Ted

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the danger of unhealthy air in the school environment, describing common problems and how parents and schools can respond. The article focuses on the dangers of mold, pesticides, diesel exhaust, and radon. The three sidebars describe how to promote indoor air quality at school, note how to determine whether the school's air is making…

  9. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  10. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Clean Air Is Good Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarneiri, Michele A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effect of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on student health, the cost of safeguarding good IAQ, the cause of poor IAQ in schools, how to tell whether a school has an IAQ problem, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can help schools improve indoor air quality though the use of their free "Indoor Air Quality Tools for…

  11. Properties of air and combustion products of fuel with air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Thermodynamic and transport properties have been calculated for air, the combustion products of natural gas and air, and combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air. Properties calculated include: ratio of specific heats, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy.

  12. Air-cooled, hydrogen-air fuel cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelekhin, Alexander B. (Inventor); Bushnell, Calvin L. (Inventor); Pien, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An air-cooled, hydrogen-air solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell with a membrane electrode assembly operatively associated with a fluid flow plate having at least one plate cooling channel extending through the plate and at least one air distribution hole extending from a surface of the cathode flow field into the plate cooling channel.

  13. State of the Air 2015

    MedlinePlus

    ... USA Information for Citizens and Communities National Ambient Air Quality Standards Protect the Environment: Act Locally What You Can Do Healthy Air News Facebook Twitter Google Plus Instagram © American Lung ...

  14. Air Emissions Monitoring for Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Operating permits document how air pollution sources will demonstrate compliance with emission limits and also how air pollution sources will monitor, either periodically or continuously, their compliance with emission limits and all other requirements.

  15. Air Emissions Factors and Quantification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Emissions factors are used in developing air emissions inventories for air quality management decisions and in developing emissions control strategies. This area provides technical information on and support for the use of emissions factors.

  16. Air Mobile Utility Distribution Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    WATER PIPES, AIR TRANSPORTABLE EQUIPMENT, POLYVINYL CHLORIDE, GLASS REINFORCED PLASTICS , FUEL HOSES, HOSES....PIPES, *PIPING SYSTEMS, INSULATION, FABRICATION, CORROSION INHIBITION, FEASIBILITY STUDIES, AIR FORCE FACILITIES, POLYURETHANE RESINS, PLASTICS

  17. Clean Air Technology Center Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Technology Center provides resources for emerging and existing air pollution prevention and control technologies and provides public access to data and information on their use, effectiveness and cost.

  18. Air Pollution over the States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1972

    1972-01-01

    State plans for implementing air quality standards are evaluated together with problems in modeling procedures and enforcement. Monitoring networks, standards, air quality regions, and industrial problems are also discussed. (BL)

  19. EPA Activities for Cleaner Air

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Activities in San Joaquin Valley to reduce air pollution, meet federal health standards for ozone and particulates, fund clean tech and health research, and enforce compliance with facility-specific operating permits for industrial air pollution sources.

  20. Metal-air battery assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, R.K.; Van Voorhees, S.L.; Ferrel, T.

    1988-05-01

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the present technical status of the zinc-air, aluminum/air and iron/air batteries and assess their potential for use in an electric vehicle. In addition, this report will outline proposed research and development priorities for the successful development of metal-air batteries for electric vehicle application. 39 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  2. Basic Information about Air Emissions Monitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site is about types of air emissions monitoring and the Clean Air Act regulations, including Ambient Air Quality Monitoring, Stationary Source Emissions Monitoring, and Continuous Monitoring Systems.

  3. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  4. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  5. Air cathode structure manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Momyer, William R.; Littauer, Ernest L.

    1985-01-01

    An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

  6. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema

    Friesen, Cody

    2016-07-12

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  7. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  8. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…

  9. Next-generation air monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. EPA is evaluating and developing a range of next-generation air monitoring (NGAM) technologie...

  10. Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Vincent M.

    Asserting that the air quality inside schools is often worse than outdoor pollution, leading to various health complaints and loss of productivity, this paper details factors contributing to schools' indoor air quality. These include the design, operation, and maintenance of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; building…

  11. AIR STRUCTURES FOR SCHOOL SPORTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROBERTSON, NAN

    AIR STRUCTURES ARE FABRIC BUILDINGS BLOWN UP AND HELD UP BY AIR PRESSURE. EXPERIMENTS WITH SUCH STRUCTURES WERE CONDUCTED AS EARLY AS 1917. IN 1948 THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE SOUGHT A NEW WAY OF HOUSING LARGE RADAR ANTENNAE PLANNED FOR THE ARCTIC. AS AN OUTCOME OF THEIR SEARCH, BIRDAIR STRUCTURES, INC., WHICH IS NOW ONE OF SEVERAL COMPANIES…

  12. Air Structures for School Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Nan

    Air structures are fabric buildings blown up and held up by air pressure. Experiments with such structures were conducted as early as 1917. In 1948 the United States Air Force sought a new way of housing large radar antennae planned for the arctic. As an outcome of their search, Birdair Structures, Inc., which is now one of several companies…

  13. Improving IAQ Via Air Filtration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Provides tips on using air filtration to control indoor air quality in educational facilities, including dedicated spaces with unique air quality conditions such as in libraries, museums and archival storage areas, kitchens and dining areas, and laboratories. The control of particulate contaminants, gaseous contaminants, and moisture buildup are…

  14. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils'…

  15. Overview of Emerging Air Sensors

    EPA Science Inventory

    These slides will be presented at the 2014 National Ambient Air Monitoring Conference in Atlanta, GA during August 11-15, 2014. The goal is to provide an overview of air sensor technology and the audience will be primarily state air monitoring agencies and EPA Regions.

  16. Improved high volume air sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    Sampler permits size separations of particles by directing sampled air through cross-sectional area sufficiently large that air velocity is reduced to point where particles or larger size will settle out. Sampler conducts air downward and through slots around periphery of unit into relatively open interior of house.

  17. Air Quality System (AQS) Metadata

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency compiles air quality monitoring data in the Air Quality System (AQS). Ambient air concentrations are measured at a national network of more than 4,000 monitoring stations and are reported by state, local, and tribal

  18. Air Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of air pollution and air purification treatments is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons found in the air are discussed. Methods of removing these pollutants at their source are presented with cut-away diagrams of the facilities and technical…

  19. Congress and the Air Force.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-04-01

    know where to go to find out that information. The "Congress and the Air Force" Internet web page serves as a " one - stop shop" where Air Force personnel...Congress. The need for a " one - stop " guide is clear. The literature on this topic is not readily accessible by the Air Force member out in the field who

  20. Transpired Air Collectors - Ventilation Preheating

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, C.

    2006-06-22

    Many commercial and industrial buildings have high ventilation rates. Although all that fresh air is great for indoor air quality, heating it can be very expensive. This short (2-page) fact sheet describes a technology available to use solar energy to preheat ventilation air and dramatically reduce utility bills.

  1. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  2. The AIRES Optical Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    AIRES (Airborne InfraRed Echelle Spectrometer) is the facility spectrometer for SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy). AIRES is a long-slit (approximately 160 in) spectrometer designed to cover the 17 to 210-micron range with good sensitivity using three spectroscopic arrays. Initially, only the 30-130 micron, mid-wavelength array will be available. The instrument has a cryogenic K-mirror to perform field rotation and a slit-viewing camera (lambda < 28 microns, FOV = 160 in diameter) to image source morphology and verify telescope pointing. AIRES employs a large echelle grating to achieve a spectral resolving power (lambda/delta lambda) of approximately 1.0 x 10(exp 6)/lambda (sub mu), where lambda (sub mu) is the wavelength in microns. Hyperfine, Inc. has ruled and tested the AIRES' echelle; its wave-front error is 0.028 waves RMS (root mean square) at 10.6 microns. The instrument is housed in a liquid-helium cryostat which is constrained in diameter (approximately 1 m) and length (approximately 2 m) by the observatory. Hence, the length of the echelle (approximately 1.1 m) and the focal length of its collimator (approximately 5.2 m) severely drive the optical design and packaging. The final design uses diamond-turned aluminum optics and has up to 19 reflections inside the cryostat, depending on the optical path. This design was generated, optimized, and toleranced using Code V. The predicted performance is nearly diffraction-limited at 17 microns; the error budget is dominated by design residuals. Light loss due to slit rotation and slit curvature has been minimized. A thorough diffraction analysis with GLAD (G-Level Analysis Drawer) was used to size the mirrors and baffles; the internal light loss is shown to be a strong function of slit width.

  3. Urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenger, Jes

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  4. Air regenerating and conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grishayenkov, B. G.

    1975-01-01

    Various physicochemical methods of regenerating and conditioning air for spacecraft are described with emphasis on conditions which affect efficiency of the system. Life support systems used in closed, hermetically sealed environments are discussed with references to actual application in the Soviet Soyuz and Voskhod manned spacecraft. Temperature and humidity control, removal of carbon dioxide, oxygen regeneration, and removal of bacteria and viruses are among the factors considered.

  5. Deployable Engine Air Brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    On approach, next-generation aircraft are likely to have airframe noise levels that are comparable to or in excess of engine noise. ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) is developing a novel quiet engine air brake (EAB), a device that generates "equivalent drag" within the engine through stream thrust reduction by creating a swirling outflow in the turbofan exhaust nozzle. Two Phase II projects were conducted to mature this technology: (1) a concept development program (CDP) and (2) a system development program (SDP).

  6. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality. PMID:26628762

  7. Air transparent soundproof window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-01

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  8. Air transparent soundproof window

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  9. Wind driven air pump

    SciTech Connect

    Beisel, V.A.

    1983-05-31

    An improved pump for lifting water from an underground source utilizes a wind motor for driving an oil-less air compressor eliminating oil contamination of ground water which is forced to the surface. The wind motor is movable to face the wind by means of a novel swivel assembly which also eliminates the formation and freezing of condensate within the airline from the compressor. The propeller blades of the wind motor and the tail section are formed from a pair of opposed convex air foil shaped surfaces which provide the propeller blades and the tail section with fast sensitivity to slight changes in wind direction and speed. A novel well tower for supporting the wind motor and compressor and for lifting the water from the underground source is an optional modification which requires no welding and eliminates the problem of condensate freezing in the airline going to the well. The wind driven air pump disclosed is lightweight, can be easily installed, is relatively inexpensive to produce and is virtually maintenance-free and capable of operating in winds exceeding 100 miles per hour.

  10. Air System Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  11. Biological air filter for air-quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ras, Niels; Krooneman, Janneke; Ogink, Nico; Willers, Hans; D'Amico, Arnaldo; di Natale, Corrado; Godia, F.; Albiol, J.; Perez, J.; Martinez, N.; Dixon, Mike; Llewellyn, David; Eckhard, Fir; Zona, G.; Fachecci, L.; Kraakman, Bart; Demey, Dries; Michel, Noelle; Darlington, Alan

    2005-10-01

    Biological air filtration is a promising technique for air-quality control in closed environments in space and on Earth, and it offers several advantages over existing techniques. However, to apply it in these environments, specific criteria have to be met. A concept for biological air filtration in closed environments was developed and tested by an international team of specialists. Several model systems for closed environments in space and on Earth were used as a source of contaminated air. Conventional and new analytical techniques were used to determine odour composition and removal efficiency of the filter, including an "electronic nose". The results show that the developed biological air filter is suitable for treating contaminated air in closed environments. The developed electronic nose was shown to be a promising method for air-quality monitoring.

  12. Solid-Sorbent Air Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galen, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    Portable unit takes eight 24-hour samples. Volatile organic compounds in air collected for analysis by portable, self-contained sampling apparatus. Sampled air drawn through sorbent material, commercial porous polymer of 2, 3-diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide. High-boiling-point organic compounds adsorbed onto polymer, while low-boiling-point organics pass through and returned to atmosphere. Sampler includes eight sample tubes filled with polymeric sorbent. Organic compounds in atmosphere absorbed when air pumped through sorbent. Designed for checking air in spacecraft, sampler adaptable to other applications as leak detection, gas-mixture analysis, and ambient-air monitoring.

  13. Air Risk Information Support Center

    SciTech Connect

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J.

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  14. Quantitative Assessment of Detection Frequency for the INL Ambient Air Monitoring Network

    SciTech Connect

    Sondrup, A. Jeffrey; Rood, Arthur S.

    2014-11-01

    A quantitative assessment of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) air monitoring network was performed using frequency of detection as the performance metric. The INL air monitoring network consists of 37 low-volume air samplers in 31 different locations. Twenty of the samplers are located on INL (onsite) and 17 are located off INL (offsite). Detection frequencies were calculated using both BEA and ESER laboratory minimum detectable activity (MDA) levels. The CALPUFF Lagrangian puff dispersion model, coupled with 1 year of meteorological data, was used to calculate time-integrated concentrations at sampler locations for a 1-hour release of unit activity (1 Ci) for every hour of the year. The unit-activity time-integrated concentration (TICu) values were calculated at all samplers for releases from eight INL facilities. The TICu values were then scaled and integrated for a given release quantity and release duration. All facilities modeled a ground-level release emanating either from the center of the facility or at a point where significant emissions are possible. In addition to ground-level releases, three existing stacks at the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, and Material and Fuels Complex were also modeled. Meteorological data from the 35 stations comprising the INL Mesonet network, data from the Idaho Falls Regional airport, upper air data from the Boise airport, and three-dimensional gridded data from the weather research forecasting model were used for modeling. Three representative radionuclides identified as key radionuclides in INL’s annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants evaluations were considered for the frequency of detection analysis: Cs-137 (beta-gamma emitter), Pu-239 (alpha emitter), and Sr-90 (beta emitter). Source-specific release quantities were calculated for each radionuclide, such that the maximum inhalation dose at any publicly accessible sampler or the National

  15. Ozone, Air Quality, and Asthma (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Ozone, Air Quality, and Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Ozone, Air Quality, ... can also affect lung function. continue How Poor Air Quality Affects People With Asthma Air pollution is a ...

  16. Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CMAQ is a computational tool used for air quality management. It models air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and other air toxics to help determine optimum air quality management scenarios.

  17. Integrating a street-canyon model with a regional Gaussian dispersion model for improved characterisation of near-road air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallah-Shorshani, Masoud; Shekarrizfard, Maryam; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2017-03-01

    The development and use of dispersion models that simulate traffic-related air pollution in urban areas has risen significantly in support of air pollution exposure research. In order to accurately estimate population exposure, it is important to generate concentration surfaces that take into account near-road concentrations as well as the transport of pollutants throughout an urban region. In this paper, an integrated modelling chain was developed to simulate ambient Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) in a dense urban neighbourhood while taking into account traffic emissions, the regional background, and the transport of pollutants within the urban canopy. For this purpose, we developed a hybrid configuration including 1) a street canyon model, which simulates pollutant transfer along streets and intersections, taking into account the geometry of buildings and other obstacles, and 2) a Gaussian puff model, which resolves the transport of contaminants at the top of the urban canopy and accounts for regional meteorology. Each dispersion model was validated against measured concentrations and compared against the hybrid configuration. Our results demonstrate that the hybrid approach significantly improves the output of each model on its own. An underestimation appears clearly for the Gaussian model and street-canyon model compared to observed data. This is due to ignoring the building effect by the Gaussian model and undermining the contribution of other roads by the canyon model. The hybrid approach reduced the RMSE (of observed vs. predicted concentrations) by 16%-25% compared to each model on its own, and increased FAC2 (fraction of predictions within a factor of two of the observations) by 10%-34%.

  18. Remote air pollution measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion and comparison of the Raman method, the resonance and fluorescence backscatter method, long path absorption methods and the differential absorption method for remote air pollution measurement. A comparison of the above remote detection methods shows that the absorption methods offer the most sensitivity at the least required transmitted energy. Topographical absorption provides the advantage of a single ended measurement, and differential absorption offers the additional advantage of a fully depth resolved absorption measurement. Recent experimental results confirming the range and sensitivity of the methods are presented.

  19. Ambient Air Definition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  20. Hot air drum evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Black, Roger L.

    1981-01-01

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  1. Solid sorbent air sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galen, T. J.

    1986-04-01

    A fluid sampler for collecting a plurality of discrete samples over separate time intervals is described. The sampler comprises a sample assembly having an inlet and a plurality of discreet sample tubes each of which has inlet and outlet sides. A multiport dual acting valve is provided in the sampler in order to sequentially pass air from the sample inlet into the selected sample tubes. The sample tubes extend longitudinally of the housing and are located about the outer periphery thereof so that upon removal of an enclosure cover, they are readily accessible for operation of the sampler in an analysis mode.

  2. Regenerative air heater

    DOEpatents

    Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

    1980-11-26

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  3. Regenerative air heater

    DOEpatents

    Hasselquist, Paul B.; Baldner, Richard

    1982-01-01

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  4. Ag-Air Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Econ, Inc.'s agricultural aerial application, "ag-air," involves more than 10,000 aircraft spreading insecticides, herbicides, fertilizer, seed and other materials over millions of acres of farmland. Difficult for an operator to estimate costs accurately and decide what to charge or which airplane can handle which assignment most efficiently. Computerized service was designed to improve business efficiency in choice of aircraft and determination of charge rates based on realistic operating cost data. Each subscriber fills out a detailed form which pertains to his needs and then receives a custom-tailored computer printout best suited to his particular business mix.

  5. Solid sorbent air sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galen, T. J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A fluid sampler for collecting a plurality of discrete samples over separate time intervals is described. The sampler comprises a sample assembly having an inlet and a plurality of discreet sample tubes each of which has inlet and outlet sides. A multiport dual acting valve is provided in the sampler in order to sequentially pass air from the sample inlet into the selected sample tubes. The sample tubes extend longitudinally of the housing and are located about the outer periphery thereof so that upon removal of an enclosure cover, they are readily accessible for operation of the sampler in an analysis mode.

  6. Air gun wounding and current UK laws controlling air weapons.

    PubMed

    Bruce-Chwatt, Robert Michael

    2010-04-01

    Air weapons whether rifles or pistols are, potentially, lethal weapons. The UK legislation is complex and yet little known to the public. Hunting with air weapons and the laws controlling those animals that are permitted to be shot with air weapons is even more labyrinthine due to the legal power limitations on the possession of air weapons. Still relatively freely available by mail order or on the Internet, an increasing number of deaths have been reported from the misuse of air weapons or accidental discharges. Ammunition for air weapons has become increasingly sophisticated, effective and therefore increasingly dangerous if misused, though freely available being a mere projectile without a concomitant cartridge containing a propellant and an initiator.

  7. Air channel distribution during air sparging: A field experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Leeson, A.; Hinchee, R.E.; Headington, G.L.; Vogel, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    Air sparging may have the potential to improve upon conventional groundwater treatment technologies. However, judging from studies published to date and theoretical analyses, it is possible that air sparging may have a limited effect on aquifer contamination. The basic mechanisms controlling air sparging are not well understood, and current monitoring practice does not appear adequate to quantitatively evaluate the process. During this study, the effective zone of influence, defined as the areas in which air channels form, was studied as a function of flowrate and depth of injection points. This was accomplished by conducting the air sparging test in an area with shallow standing water. Air sparging points were installed at various depths, and the zone of influence was determined visually.

  8. Air modeling: Air dispersion models; regulatory applications and technological advances

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.; Liles, R.

    1995-09-01

    Air dispersion models are a useful and practical tool for both industry and regulatory agencies. They serve as tools for engineering, permitting, and regulations development. Their cost effectiveness and ease of implementation compared to ambient monitoring is perhaps their most-appealing trait. Based on the current momentum within the U.S. EPA to develop better models and contain regulatory burdens on industry, it is likely that air dispersion modeling will be a major player in future air regulatory initiatives.

  9. Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, CA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-27

    Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL /RZS 1 Ara Road Edwards AFB CA 93524-7013 AFRL -RZ-ED-VG-2011-269 9...SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL /RZS 11. SPONSOR...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Air Force Research Laboratory Ed d Ai F B CA Col Mike Platt war s r orce

  10. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keilhauer, B.; Bohacova, M.; Fraga, M.; Matthews, J.; Sakaki, N.; Tameda, Y.; Tsunesada, Y.; Ulrich, A.

    2013-06-01

    Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of Air Fluorescence Workshops commenced in 2002. At the 8th Air Fluorescence Workshop 2011, it was suggested to develop a common way of describing the nitrogen fluorescence for application to air shower observations. Here, first analyses for a common treatment of the major dependences of the emission procedure are presented. Aspects like the contributions at different wavelengths, the dependence on pressure as it is decreasing with increasing altitude in the atmosphere, the temperature dependence, in particular that of the collisional cross sections between molecules involved, and the collisional de-excitation by water vapor are discussed.

  11. Air support facilities. [interface between air and surface transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Airports are discussed in terms of the interface between the ground and air for transportation systems. The classification systems, design, facilities, administration, and operations of airports are described.

  12. Tissue tonometry is a simple, objective measure for pliability of burn scar: is it reliable?

    PubMed

    Lye, Ian; Edgar, Dale W; Wood, Fiona M; Carroll, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Objective measurement of burn scar response to treatment is important to facilitate individual patient care, research, and service development. This work examines the validity and reliability of the tonometer as a means of quantifying scar pliability. Ten burn survivors were recruited into the study. Triplicate measures were taken for each of four scar and one normal skin point. The pliability score from the Vancouver Scar Scale also was used as a comparison. The tonometer demonstrated a high degree of reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients 0.91-0.94). It also was shown to provide a valid measure of pliability by quantifying decreased tissue deformation for scar (2.04 +/- 0.45 mm) compared with normal tissue (3.02 +/- 0.92 mm; t = 4.28, P = .004) and a moderate correlation with Vancouver Scar Scale scores. The tissue tonometer provides a repeatable, objective index of burn scar pliability. Using the methods described, it is a simple, clinically useful technique for monitoring an individual's scar.

  13. Determination of Tear Production and Intraocular Pressure With Rebound Tonometry in Wild Humboldt Penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ).

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Julie D; Adkesson, Michael J; Allender, Matthew C; Jankowski, Gwen; Langan, Jennifer; Cardeña, Marco; Cárdenas-Alayza, Susana

    2017-03-01

    Tear production and intraocular pressures (IOPs) were determined in 38 and 102 wild Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti), respectively, from the Punta San Juan Marine Protected Area in Ica, Peru. Tear production was measured by Schirmer tear test, and IOP was measured with a TonoVet rebound tonometer. Adult (n = 90) and chick (n = 12) penguins were sampled from 2 different beaches (north and south facing) during 2 sampling years (2010 and 2011). Results showed a mean ± SD (range) of 9 ± 4 (2-20) mm/min for tear production and 28 ± 9 (3-49) mm Hg for IOP. Tear production in penguins differed between beach and sex, whereas IOP differed between age, year, and beach. The IOPs were negatively correlated with packed cell volume. Tear production and IOP values had greater variation in this population than it has in other avian species. Previous investigations of IOP and tear production in Spheniscus species were conducted with birds housed under professional care in artificial marine and freshwater environments. This is the first study, to our knowledge, investigating tear production and IOP in wild penguins and establishes valuable reference intervals for this species.

  14. Air-storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, T. J.

    1981-10-01

    The air storage system, the critical component making compressed air energy storage technically economically feasible, is described in three of its forms. All have geological containments and reflect economics of scale requiring fairly large plant ratings and storage capacities. All three systems also are based on good precedent experience and there are a number of willing bidders in the engineering and construction field attesting to the readiness of the technology. The salient features of each storage system type are summarized. Hard rock caverns have the widest siting opportunity with a variety of geology, are well within construction capability in good quality rock with maximum control of system design through engineering, and have the highest cost of the storage system options study. They have the potential for longest time to startup and are difficult and expensive to expand for increased storage or plant rating. The salt-solutioned cavern has limited siting opportunities, is a very economical storage system, and storage increase is possible through cavern additions.

  15. Indoor air quality medicolegal issues.

    PubMed

    Ross, C S; Lockey, J E

    1994-08-01

    The regulatory and legal communities have begun only recently to address the medicolegal issues surrounding indoor air quality. No single governmental agency is responsible for indoor air quality issues. The focus of the federal government's indoor air quality programs is on the gathering and dissemination of information rather than on the regulation of indoor air pollution. State and local regulatory controls vary but may include antismoking ordinances, building codes, and contractor certification programs. Numerous lawsuits involving various parties and legal theories have been filed on the basis of illness allegedly related to indoor air quality. Further regulatory and legal review of indoor air problems will likely occur in the near future, particularly as a result of the characterization of environmental tobacco smoke as a class A carcinogen.

  16. Air ions and aerosol science

    SciTech Connect

    Tammet, H.

    1996-03-01

    Collaboration between Gas Discharge and Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Electricity, and Aerosol Science is a factor of success in the research of air ions. The concept of air ion as of any carrier of electrical current through the air is inherent to Atmospheric Electricity under which a considerable statistical information about the air ion mobility spectrum is collected. A new model of air ion size-mobility correlation has been developed proceeding from Aerosol Science and joining the methods of neighboring research fields. The predicted temperature variation of the mobility disagrees with the commonly used Langevin rule for the reduction of air ion mobilities to the standard conditions. Concurrent errors are too big to be neglected in applications. The critical diameter distinguishing cluster ions and charged aerosol particles has been estimated to be 1.4{endash}1.8 nm. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Air handling units for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Amoroso, V; Gjestvang, R

    1989-10-01

    Air handling units should provide proper quality and conditioned air to various hospital areas. Unit capacity should be able to meet limited space functionality or load changes as well as any smoke control requirements. System components should be readily accessible and appropriate for spaces served. In summary, engineers should consider the following: Environmental design criteria for area being served Components desired Unit type required Economic issues affecting design. Using this approach, design engineers can design hospital air handling units methodically and logically.

  18. Air-Powered Projectile Launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, T.; Bjorklund, R. A.; Elliott, D. G.; Jones, L. K.

    1987-01-01

    Air-powered launcher fires plastic projectiles without using explosive propellants. Does not generate high temperatures. Launcher developed for combat training for U.S. Army. With reservoir pressurized, air launcher ready to fire. When pilot valve opened, sleeve (main valve) moves to rear. Projectile rapidly propelled through barrel, pushed by air from reservoir. Potential applications in seismic measurements, avalanche control, and testing impact resistance of windshields on vehicles.

  19. Disinfecting Filters For Recirculated Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilichi, Carmine A.

    1992-01-01

    Simple treatment disinfects air filters by killing bacteria, algae, fungi, mycobacteria, viruses, spores, and any other micro-organisms filters might harbor. Concept applied to reusable stainless-steel wire mesh filters and disposable air filters. Treatment used on filters in air-circulation systems in spacecraft, airplanes, other vehicles, and buildings to help prevent spread of colds, sore throats, and more-serious illnesses.

  20. Natural Flow Air Cooled Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanagnostopoulos, Y.; Themelis, P.

    2010-01-01

    Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. We performed experiments using a prototype based on three silicon photovoltaic modules placed in series to simulate a typical sloping building roof with photovoltaic installation. In this system the air flows through a channel on the rear side of PV panels. The potential for increasing the heat exchange from the photovoltaic panel to the circulating air by the addition of a thin metal sheet (TMS) in the middle of air channel or metal fins (FIN) along the air duct was examined. The operation of the device was studied with the air duct closed tightly to avoid air circulation (CLOSED) and the air duct open (REF), with the thin metal sheet (TMS) and with metal fins (FIN). In each case the experiments were performed under sunlight and the operating parameters of the experimental device determining the electrical and thermal performance of the system were observed and recorded during a whole day and for several days. We collected the data and form PV panels from the comparative diagrams of the experimental results regarding the temperature of solar cells, the electrical efficiency of the installation, the temperature of the back wall of the air duct and the temperature difference in the entrance and exit of the air duct. The comparative results from the measurements determine the improvement in electrical performance of the photovoltaic cells because of the reduction of their temperature, which is achieved by the naturally circulating air.