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Sample records for air quality cmaq

  1. Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CMAQ is a computational tool used for air quality management. It models air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and other air toxics to help determine optimum air quality management scenarios.

  2. COMPUTATIONAL ASPECTS OF THE AIR QUALITY FORECASTING VERSION OF CMAQ (CMAQ-F)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The air quality forecast version of the Community Modeling Air Quality (CMAQ) model (CMAQ-F) was developed from the public release version of CMAQ (available from http://www.cmascenter.org), and is running operationally at the National Weather Service's National Centers for Envir...

  3. COMPUTATIONAL ASPECTS OF THE AIR QUALITY FORECASTING VERSION OF CMAQ (CMAQ-F)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The air quality forecast version of the Community Modeling Air Quality (CMAQ) model (CMAQ-F) was developed from the public release version of CMAQ (available from http://www.cmascenter.org), and is running operationally at the National Weather Service's National Centers for Envir...

  4. Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System for Air Quality Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CMAQ simultaneously models multiple air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and a variety of air toxics to help air quality managers determine the best air quality management scenarios for their communities, regions and states.

  5. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is a state-of-the-science air quality model that simulates the emission, transport and fate of numerous air pollutants, including ozone and particulate matter. The Computational Exposure Division (CED) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency develops the CMAQ model and periodically releases new versions of the model that include bug fixes and various other improvements to the modeling system. In the fall of 2016, CMAQ version 5.1.1 will be released. This new version of CMAQ will contain important bug fixes to several issues that were identified in CMAQv5.1 (the current public release version of the CMAQ model), and additionally include updates to other portions of the code. Some specific model updates include a new implementation of the wind-blown dust calculation in CMAQv5.1.1 which fixes several bugs that were identified in the current implementation of wind-blown dust in CMAQv5.1. Several other major updates to the model include an update to the calculation of aerosols; implementation of full halogen chemistry (CMAQv5.1 contains a partial implementation of halogen chemistry), which is particularly important for hemispheric applications of the CMAQ model, as halogen chemistry is need to accurately simulation the destruction of ozone over the ocean; and the new carbon bond 6 (CB6) chemical mechanism. Several annual, and numerous episodic, CMAQv5.1.1 simulations will be performed to assess the impact of these

  6. Evaluation of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is a state-of-the-science air quality model that simulates the emission, transport and fate of numerous air pollutants, including ozone and particulate matter. The Computational Exposure Division (CED) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency develops the CMAQ model and periodically releases new versions of the model that include bug fixes and various other improvements to the modeling system. In the fall of 2015, CMAQ version 5.1 was released. This new version of CMAQ will contain important bug fixes to several issues that were identified in CMAQv5.0.2 and additionally include updates to other portions of the code. Several annual, and numerous episodic, CMAQv5.1 simulations were performed to assess the impact of these improvements on the model results. These results will be presented, along with a base evaluation of the performance of the CMAQv5.1 modeling system against available surface and upper-air measurements available during the time period simulated. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, decision-support tools, and models to be applied to media-specific or receptor-specific problem areas. CED uses modeling-based approaches to characterize exposures, evaluate fate and transport, and support environmental diagnostics/forensics with input from multiple data sources. It also develops media- and receptor-specific models, proces

  7. Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The CMAQ model is a Eulerian model that produces gridded values of atmospheric concentration and deposition. Recent updates to the model are highlighted that impact estimates of dry and wet deposition of nitrogen, sulfur and base cations. Output from the CMAQ model is used in the measurement-model fusion method used to create the National Atmospheric Program's (NADP) Total Deposition (TDEP) map product. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, decision-support tools, and models to be applied to media-specific or receptor-specific problem areas. CED uses modeling-based approaches to characterize exposures, evaluate fate and transport, and support environmental diagnostics/forensics with input from multiple data sources. It also develops media- and receptor-specific models, process models, and decision support tools for use both within and outside of EPA.

  8. Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The CMAQ model is a Eulerian model that produces gridded values of atmospheric concentration and deposition. Recent updates to the model are highlighted that impact estimates of dry and wet deposition of nitrogen, sulfur and base cations. Output from the CMAQ model is used in the measurement-model fusion method used to create the National Atmospheric Program's (NADP) Total Deposition (TDEP) map product. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, decision-support tools, and models to be applied to media-specific or receptor-specific problem areas. CED uses modeling-based approaches to characterize exposures, evaluate fate and transport, and support environmental diagnostics/forensics with input from multiple data sources. It also develops media- and receptor-specific models, process models, and decision support tools for use both within and outside of EPA.

  9. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This work evaluates particle size-composition distributions simulated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model using Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) measurements at 18 sites across North America. Size-resolved measurements of particulate SO4+, with the model ranging from an underestimation to overestimation of both the peak diameter and peak particle concentration across the sites. Computing PM2.5 from the modeled size distribution parameters rather than by summing the masses in the Aitken and a

  10. COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY ( CMAQ ) MODEL - QUALITY ASSURANCE AND VERSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will be given to the EPA Exposure Modeling Workgroup on January 24, 2006. The quality assurance and version control procedures for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model are presented. A brief background of CMAQ is given, then issues related to qual...

  11. Recent Enhancements to the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation overviews recent updates to the CMAQ modeling system. The presentation will be given as part of the information exchange session on Regional Air Pollution Modeling at the UK-US Collaboration Meeting on Air Pollution Exposure Science.

  12. Recent Enhancements to the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation overviews recent updates to the CMAQ modeling system. The presentation will be given as part of the information exchange session on Regional Air Pollution Modeling at the UK-US Collaboration Meeting on Air Pollution Exposure Science.

  13. Description and evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system version 5.1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is a comprehensive multipollutant air quality modeling system developed and maintained by the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD). Recently, version 5.1 of the CMAQ model (v5.1) was ...

  14. APPLICATION AND EVALUATION OF CMAQ IN THE UNITED STATES: AIR QUALITY FORECASTING AND RETROSPECTIVE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation slides provide background on model evaluation techniques. Also included in the presentation is an operational evaluation of 2001 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) annual simulation, and an evaluation of PM2.5 for the CMAQ air quality forecast (AQF) ...

  15. PREMAQ: A NEW PRE-PROCESSOR TO CMAQ FOR AIR-QUALITY FORECASTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new pre-processor to CMAQ (PREMAQ) has been developed as part of the national air-quality forecasting system. PREMAQ combines the functionality of MCIP and parts of SMOKE in a single real-time processor. PREMAQ was specifically designed to link NCEP's Eta model with CMAQ, and...

  16. A PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE ETA- CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM FOR THE SUMMER OF 2005

    EPA Science Inventory

    This poster presents an evaluation of the Eta-CMAQ Air Quality Forecast System's experimental domain using O3 observations obtained from EPA's AIRNOW program and a suite of statistical metrics examining both discrete and categorical forecasts.

  17. Evaluation of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model Version 5.2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is a state-of-the-science air quality model that simulates the emission, transport and fate of numerous air pollutants, including ozone and particulate matter. The Computational Exposure Division (CED) of the U.S. Environmental Pr...

  18. Evaluation of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model Version 5.2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is a state-of-the-science air quality model that simulates the emission, transport and fate of numerous air pollutants, including ozone and particulate matter. The Computational Exposure Division (CED) of the U.S. Environmental Pr...

  19. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model Version 5.2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is a state-of-the-science air quality model that simulates the emission, transport and fate of numerous air pollutants, including ozone and particulate matter. The Computational Exposure Division (CED) of the U.S. Environmental Pr...

  20. Evaluation of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model Version 5.1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is a state-of-the-science air quality model that simulates the emission, transport and fate of numerous air pollutants, including ozone and particulate matter. The Computational Exposure Division (CED) of the U.S. Environmental Pr...

  1. Evaluation of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model Version 5.1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is a state-of-the-science air quality model that simulates the emission, transport and fate of numerous air pollutants, including ozone and particulate matter. The Computational Exposure Division (CED) of the U.S. Environmental Pr...

  2. APPLICATION OF BIAS AND ADJUSTMENT TECHNIQUES TO THE ETA-CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current air quality forecast system, based on linking NOAA's Eta meteorological model with EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, consistently overpredicts surface ozone concentrations, but simulates its day-to-day variability quite well. The ability of bias cor...

  3. EPA RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS -- MODELS-3/CMAQ OFFERS COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH TO AIR QUALITY MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional and global coordinated efforts are needed to address air quality problems that are growing in complexity and scope. Models-3 CMAQ contains a community multi-scale air quality modeling system for simulating urban to regional scale pollution problems relating to troposphe...

  4. Recent Enhancements to the Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s Office of Research and Development, Computational Exposure Division held a webinar on January 31, 2017 to present the recent scientific and computational updates made by EPA to the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ). Topics covered included: (1) Improveme...

  5. Incremental Testing of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System Version 4.7

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the scientific and structural updates to the latest release of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system version 4.7 (v4.7) and points the reader to additional resources for further details. The model updates were evaluated relative to obse...

  6. Updating sea spray aerosol emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sea spray aerosols (SSA) impact the particle mass concentration and gas-particle partitioning in coastal environments, with implications for human and ecosystem health. In this study, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is updated to enhance fine mode SSA emissions,...

  7. MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL AEROSOL COMPONENT 1: MODEL DESCRIPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aerosol component of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is designed to be an efficient and economical depiction of aerosol dynamics in the atmosphere. The approach taken represents the particle size distribution as the superposition of three lognormal subdis...

  8. MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL AEROSOL COMPONENT 1: MODEL DESCRIPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aerosol component of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is designed to be an efficient and economical depiction of aerosol dynamics in the atmosphere. The approach taken represents the particle size distribution as the superposition of three lognormal subdis...

  9. Overview and Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System Version 5.2

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, version 5.2 (CMAQv5.2), is currently being developed, with a planned release date in 2017. The new model includes numerous updates from the previous version of the model (CMAQv5.1). Specific updates include a new...

  10. Updating sea spray aerosol emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sea spray aerosols (SSA) impact the particle mass concentration and gas-particle partitioning in coastal environments, with implications for human and ecosystem health. In this study, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is updated to enhance fine mode SSA emissions,...

  11. Recent Enhancements to the Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s Office of Research and Development, Computational Exposure Division held a webinar on January 31, 2017 to present the recent scientific and computational updates made by EPA to the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ). Topics covered included: (1) Improveme...

  12. APPLICATION OF THE MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTI-SCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL SYSTEM TO SOS/NASHVILLE 1999

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, first released by the USEPA in 1999 (Byun and Ching. 1999), continues to be developed and evaluated. The principal components of the CMAQ system include a comprehensive emission processor known as the Sparse Matrix O...

  13. CMAQ Involvement in Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Description of Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII). Different chemical transport models are applied by different groups over North America and Europe and evaluated against observations.

  14. EMISSIONS PROCESSING FOR THE ETA/ CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NOAA and EPA have created an Air Quality Forecast (AQF) system. This AQF system links an adaptation of the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with the 12 kilometer ETA model running operationally at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP). One of the...

  15. EMISSIONS PROCESSING FOR THE ETA/ CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NOAA and EPA have created an Air Quality Forecast (AQF) system. This AQF system links an adaptation of the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with the 12 kilometer ETA model running operationally at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP). One of the...

  16. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    CMAQ model research and development is currently following two tracks at the Atmospheric Modeling Division of the USEPA. Public releases of the community model system for research and policy analysis is continuing on an annual interval with the latest release scheduled for Augus...

  17. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    CMAQ model research and development is currently following two tracks at the Atmospheric Modeling Division of the USEPA. Public releases of the community model system for research and policy analysis is continuing on an annual interval with the latest release scheduled for Augus...

  18. Implementation of a WRF-CMAQ Air Quality Modeling System in Bogotá, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedbor-Gross, R.; Henderson, B. H.; Pachon, J. E.; Davis, J. R.; Baublitz, C. B.; Rincón, A.

    2014-12-01

    Due to a continuous economic growth Bogotá, Colombia has experienced air pollution issues in recent years. The local environmental authority has implemented several strategies to curb air pollution that have resulted in the decrease of PM10 concentrations since 2010. However, more activities are necessary in order to meet international air quality standards in the city. The University of Florida Air Quality and Climate group is collaborating with the Universidad de La Salle to prioritize regulatory strategies for Bogotá using air pollution simulations. To simulate pollution, we developed a modeling platform that combines the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF), local emissions, and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model (CMAQ). This platform is the first of its kind to be implemented in the megacity of Bogota, Colombia. The presentation will discuss development and evaluation of the air quality modeling system, highlight initial results characterizing photochemical conditions in Bogotá, and characterize air pollution under proposed regulatory strategies. The WRF model has been configured and applied to Bogotá, which resides in a tropical climate with complex mountainous topography. Developing the configuration included incorporation of local topography and land-use data, a physics sensitivity analysis, review, and systematic evaluation. The threshold, however, was set based on synthesis of model performance under less mountainous conditions. We will evaluate the impact that differences in autocorrelation contribute to the non-ideal performance. Air pollution predictions are currently under way. CMAQ has been configured with WRF meteorology, global boundary conditions from GEOS-Chem, and a locally produced emission inventory. Preliminary results from simulations show promising performance of CMAQ in Bogota. Anticipated results include a systematic performance evaluation of ozone and PM10, characterization of photochemical sensitivity, and air

  19. Evaluating Emissions Inventory Improvements Using Observations and the CMAQ Model: Impacts on Air Quality Attainment Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, A.; Anderson, D. C.; He, H.; Vinciguerra, T.; Goldberg, D. L.; Ehrman, S.; Dickerson, R. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors and regulates surface ozone, which has a primary attainment standard of 70 ppb over an 8-hour average. In this analysis, we investigate the representation of emissions sectors, such as large commercial marine vessels, within the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, an EPA approved regulatory air quality model used by state agencies and research institutions to develop ozone attainment strategies. We compare model output for June, July, and August 2011 with surface ozone data from the EPA Air Quality Sites (AQS) in order to examine various model scenarios and improve the representation of emissions within CMAQ. Satellite data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for summer 2011 are used to further investigate how well CMAQ is able to capture the non-linear production of surface ozone. Additionally, we test how improvements to the model framework influence the effectiveness of a future attainment strategy for June, July and August 2018. Further work will use geostationary satellite data to develop a top-down emissions inventory that can capture the diurnal variation of important ozone precursors.

  20. Description and evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system version 5.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyat Appel, K.; Napelenok, Sergey L.; Foley, Kristen M.; Pye, Havala O. T.; Hogrefe, Christian; Luecken, Deborah J.; Bash, Jesse O.; Roselle, Shawn J.; Pleim, Jonathan E.; Foroutan, Hosein; Hutzell, William T.; Pouliot, George A.; Sarwar, Golam; Fahey, Kathleen M.; Gantt, Brett; Gilliam, Robert C.; Heath, Nicholas K.; Kang, Daiwen; Mathur, Rohit; Schwede, Donna B.; Spero, Tanya L.; Wong, David C.; Young, Jeffrey O.

    2017-04-01

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is a comprehensive multipollutant air quality modeling system developed and maintained by the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD). Recently, version 5.1 of the CMAQ model (v5.1) was released to the public, incorporating a large number of science updates and extended capabilities over the previous release version of the model (v5.0.2). These updates include the following: improvements in the meteorological calculations in both CMAQ and the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model used to provide meteorological fields to CMAQ, updates to the gas and aerosol chemistry, revisions to the calculations of clouds and photolysis, and improvements to the dry and wet deposition in the model. Sensitivity simulations isolating several of the major updates to the modeling system show that changes to the meteorological calculations result in enhanced afternoon and early evening mixing in the model, periods when the model historically underestimates mixing. This enhanced mixing results in higher ozone (O3) mixing ratios on average due to reduced NO titration, and lower fine particulate matter (PM2. 5) concentrations due to greater dilution of primary pollutants (e.g., elemental and organic carbon). Updates to the clouds and photolysis calculations greatly improve consistency between the WRF and CMAQ models and result in generally higher O3 mixing ratios, primarily due to reduced cloudiness and attenuation of photolysis in the model. Updates to the aerosol chemistry result in higher secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations in the summer, thereby reducing summertime PM2. 5 bias (PM2. 5 is typically underestimated by CMAQ in the summer), while updates to the gas chemistry result in slightly higher O3 and PM2. 5 on average in January and July. Overall, the seasonal variation in simulated PM2. 5 generally improves in CMAQv5.1 (when considering all model updates), as simulated PM2. 5

  1. CMAQ (Community Multi-Scale Air Quality) atmospheric distribution model adaptation to region of Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lázár, Dóra; Weidinger, Tamás

    2016-04-01

    For our days, it has become important to measure and predict the concentration of harmful atmospheric pollutants such as dust, aerosol particles of different size ranges, nitrogen compounds, and ozone. The Department of Meteorology at Eötvös Loránd University has been applying the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model several years ago, which is suitable for weather forecasting tasks and provides input data for various environmental models (e.g. DNDC). By adapting the CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality) model we have designed a combined ambient air-meteorological model (WRF-CMAQ). In this research it is important to apply different emission databases and a background model describing the initial distribution of the pollutant. We used SMOKE (Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions) model for construction emission dataset from EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) inventories and GEOS-Chem model for initial and boundary conditions. Our model settings were CMAQ CB05 (Carbon Bond 2005) chemical mechanism with 108 x 108 km, 36 x 36 km and 12 x 12 km grids for regions of Europe, the Carpathian Basin and Hungary respectively. i) The structure of the model system, ii) a case study for Carpathian Basin (an anticyclonic weather situation at 21th September 2012) are presented. iii) Verification of ozone forecast has been provided based on the measurements of background air pollution stations. iv) Effects of model attributes (f.e. transition time, emission dataset, parameterizations) for the ozone forecast in Hungary are also investigated.

  2. Examination of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model Performance over the North American and European Domains

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CMAQ modeling system has been used to simulate the air quality for North America and Europe for the entire year of 2006 as part of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) and the operational model performance of O3, fine particulate matte...

  3. Examination of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model Performance over the North American and European Domains

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CMAQ modeling system has been used to simulate the air quality for North America and Europe for the entire year of 2006 as part of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) and the operational model performance of O3, fine particulate matte...

  4. The air quality forecast in Beijing with Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling (CMAQ) System: model evaluation and improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.

    2013-12-01

    The MM5-SMOKE-CMAQ model system, which is developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency(U.S. EPA) as the Models-3 system, has been used for the daily air quality forecast in the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center(Beijing MEMC), as a part of the Ensemble Air Quality Forecast System for Beijing(EMS-Beijing) since the Olympic Games year 2008. In this study, we collect the daily forecast results of the CMAQ model in the whole year 2010 for the model evaluation. The results show that the model play a good model performance in most days but underestimate obviously in some air pollution episode. A typical air pollution episode from 11st - 20th January 2010 was chosen, which the air pollution index(API) of particulate matter (PM10) observed by Beijing MEMC reaches to 180 while the prediction of PM10-API is about 100. Taking in account all stations in Beijing, including urban and suburban stations, three numerical methods are used for model improvement: firstly, enhance the inner domain with 4km grids, the coverage from only Beijing to the area including its surrounding cities; secondly, update the Beijing stationary area emission inventory, from statistical county-level to village-town level, that would provide more detail spatial informance for area emissions; thirdly, add some industrial points emission in Beijing's surrounding cities, the latter two are both the improvement of emission. As the result, the peak of the nine national standard stations averaged PM10-API, which is simulated by CMAQ as daily hindcast PM10-API, reach to 160 and much near to the observation. The new results show better model performance, which the correlation coefficent is 0.93 in national standard stations average and 0.84 in all stations, the relative error is 15.7% in national standard stations averaged and 27% in all stations. The time series of 9 national standard in Beijing urban The scatter diagram of all stations in Beijing, the red is the forecast and

  5. A framework for expanding aqueous chemistry in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.1

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the development and implementation of an extendable aqueous-phase chemistry option (AQCHEM − KMT(I)) for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system, version 5.1. Here, the Kinetic PreProcessor (KPP), version 2.2.3, is used t...

  6. FIRST RESULTS FROM OPERATIONAL TESTING OF THE U.S. EPA MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTISCALE MODEL FOR AIR QUALITY (CMAQ)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Models 3 / Community Multiscale Model for Air Quality (CMAQ) has been designed for one-atmosphere assessments for multiple pollutants including ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5), and acid / nutrient deposition. In this paper we report initial results of our evalu...

  7. FIRST RESULTS FROM OPERATIONAL TESTING OF THE U.S. EPA MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTISCALE MODEL FOR AIR QUALITY (CMAQ)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Models 3 / Community Multiscale Model for Air Quality (CMAQ) has been designed for one-atmosphere assessments for multiple pollutants including ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5), and acid / nutrient deposition. In this paper we report initial results of our evalu...

  8. Performance Summary of the 2006 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Simulation for the AQMEII Project: North American Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CMAQ modeling system has been used to simulate the CONUS using 12-km by 12-km horizontal grid spacing for the entire year of 2006 as part of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International initiative (AQMEII). The operational model performance for O3 and PM2.5<...

  9. Performance Summary of the 2006 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Simulation for the AQMEII Project: North American Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CMAQ modeling system has been used to simulate the CONUS using 12-km by 12-km horizontal grid spacing for the entire year of 2006 as part of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International initiative (AQMEII). The operational model performance for O3 and PM2.5<...

  10. An assessment of atmospheric mercury in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.; Voigt, C.; Morton, J.; Spak, S. N.; Rutter, A. P.; Schauer, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of three atmospheric mercury species - gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), reactive gaseous mercury (RGHg) and particulate mercury (PHg) - has been limited to date by lack of ambient measurement data as well as by uncertainties in numerical models and emission inventories. This study employs the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model version 4.6 with mercury chemistry (CMAQ-Hg), to examine how local emissions, meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and deposition affect mercury concentration and deposition the Great Lakes Region (GLR), and two sites in Wisconsin in particular: the rural Devil's Lake site and the urban Milwaukee site. Ambient mercury exhibits significant biases at both sites. Hg0 is too low in CMAQ-Hg, with the model showing a 6% low bias at the rural site and 36% low bias at the urban site. Reactive mercury (RHg = RGHg + PHg) is over-predicted by the model, with annual average biases >250%. Performance metrics for RHg are much worse than for mercury wet deposition, ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), or sulfur dioxide (SO2). Sensitivity simulations to isolate background inflow from regional emissions suggests that oxidation of imported Hg0 dominates model estimates of RHg at the rural study site (91% of base case value), and contributes 55% to the RHg at the urban site (local emissions contribute 45%). Limited evidence on the lifetime of RHg transported to the rural site suggests that modeled dry deposition rates are too high, possibly compensating for the erroneously high RHg values.

  11. Updating sea spray aerosol emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.0.2

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The uploaded data consists of the BRACE Na aerosol observations paired with CMAQ model output, the updated model's parameterization of sea salt aerosol emission size distribution, and the model's parameterization of the sea salt emission factor as a function of sea surface temperature. This dataset is associated with the following publication:Gantt , B., J. Kelly , and J. Bash. Updating sea spray aerosol emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.0.2. Geoscientific Model Development. Copernicus Publications, Katlenburg-Lindau, GERMANY, 8: 3733-3746, (2015).

  12. A Multi-Resolution Assessment of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model v4.7 Wet Deposition Estimates for 2002 - 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper examines the operational performance of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations for 2002 - 2006 using both 36-km and 12-km horizontal grid spacing, with a primary focus on the performance of the CMAQ model in predicting wet deposition of sulfate (...

  13. A Multi-Resolution Assessment of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model v4.7 Wet Deposition Estimates for 2002 - 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper examines the operational performance of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations for 2002 - 2006 using both 36-km and 12-km horizontal grid spacing, with a primary focus on the performance of the CMAQ model in predicting wet deposition of sulfate (...

  14. Regional/Urban Air Quality Modeling Assessment over China Using the Models-3/CMAQ System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, J. S.; Jang, C. C.; Streets, D. G.; Li, Z.; Wang, L.; Zhang, Q.; Woo, J.; Wang, B.

    2004-12-01

    China is the world's most populous country with a fast growing economy that surges in energy comsumption. It has become the second largest energy consumer after the United States although the per capita level is much lower than those found in developed or developing countries. Air pollution has become one of the most important problems of megacities such as Beijing and Shanghai and has serious impacts on public health, causes urban and regional haze. The Models-3/CMAQ modeling application that has been conducted to simulate multi-pollutants in China is presented. The modeling domains cover East Asia (36-kmx36-km) including Japan, South Korea, Korea DPR, Indonesia, Thailand, India and Mongolia, East China (12-kmx12-km) and Beijing/Tianjing, Shanghai (4-kmx4-km). For this study, the Asian emission inventory based on the emission estimates of the year 2000 that supported the NASA TRACE-P program is used. However, the TRACE-P emission inventory was developed for a different purpose such as global modeling. TRACE-P emission inventory may not be practical in urban area. There is no China national emission inventory available. Therefore, TRACE-P emission inventory is used on the East Asia and East China domains. The 8 districts of Beijing and Shanghai local emissions inventory are used to replace TRACE-P in 4-km domains. The meteorological data for the Models-3/CMAQ run are extracted from MM5. The model simulation is performed during the period January 1-20 and July 1-20, 2001 that presented the winter and summer time for China areas. The preliminary model results are shown O3 concentrations are in the range of 80 -120 ppb in the urban area. Lower urban O3 concentrations are shown in Beijing areas, possibly due to underestimation of urban man-made VOC emissions in the TRACE-P inventory and local inventory. High PM2.5 (70ug/m3 in summer and 150ug/m3 in winter) were simulated over metropolitan & downwind areas with significant secondary constituents. More comprehensive

  15. PM2.5 analog forecast and Kalman filter post-processing for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djalalova, Irina; Delle Monache, Luca; Wilczak, James

    2015-10-01

    A new post-processing method for surface particulate matter (PM2.5) predictions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) developmental air quality forecasting system using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is described. It includes three main components: A real-time quality control procedure for surface PM2.5 observations; Model post-processing at each observational site using historical forecast analogs and Kalman filtering; Spreading the forecast corrections from the observation locations to the entire gridded domain.

  16. Synergy between Emissions Verification for Climate and Air Quality: Results from Modeling Analysis over the Contiguous US using CMAQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Bambha, R.; Pinto, J. P.; Zeng, T.; Michelsen, H. A.

    2013-12-01

    The synergy between emissions-verification exercises for fossil-fuel CO2 and traditional air pollutants (TAPs, e.g., NOx, SO2, CO, and PM) stems from the common physical processes underlying the generation, transport, and perturbations of their emissions. Better understanding and characterizing such a synergetic relationship are of great interest and benefit for science and policy. To this end, we have been developing a modeling framework that allows for studying CO2 along with TAPs on regional-through-urban scales. The framework is based on the EPA Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and has been implemented on a domain over the contiguous US, where abundant observational data and complete emissions information is available. In this presentation, we will show results from a comprehensive analysis of atmospheric CO2 and an array of TAPs observed from multiple networks and platforms (in situ and satellite observations) and those simulated by CMAQ over the contiguous US for a full year of 2007. We will first present the model configurations and input data used for CMAQ CO2 simulations and the results from model evaluations [1]. In light of the unique properties of CO2 compared to TAPs, we tested the sensitivity of model-simulated CO2 to different initial and boundary conditions, biosphere-atmosphere bidirectional fluxes and fossil-fuel emissions. We then examined the variability of CO2 and TAPs simulated by CMAQ and observed from the NOAA ESRL tall-tower network, the EPA AQS network, and satellites (e.g., SCIAMACHY and OMI) at various spatial and temporal scales. Finally, we diagnosed in CMAQ the roles of fluxes and transport in regulating the covariance between CO2 and TAPs manifested in both surface concentrations and column-integrated densities. We will discuss the implications from these results on how to understand trends and characteristics fossil-fuel emissions by exploiting and combining currently available observational and modeling

  17. PM2.5 analog forecast and Kalman filter post-processing for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djalalova, Irina; Delle Monache, Luca; Wilczak, James

    2015-05-01

    A new post-processing method for surface particulate matter (PM2.5) predictions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) developmental air quality forecasting system using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is described. It includes three main components: • A real-time quality control procedure for surface PM2.5 observations; • Model post-processing at each observational site using historical forecast analogs and Kalman filtering; • Spreading the forecast corrections from the observation locations to the entire gridded domain. The methodology is tested using 12 months of CMAQ forecasts of hourly PM2.5, from December 01, 2009 through November 30, 2010. The model domain covers the contiguous USA, and model data are verified against U.S. Environmental Prediction Agency AIRNow PM2.5 observations measured at 716 stations over the CMAQ domain. The model bias is found to have a strong seasonal dependency, with a large positive bias in winter and a small bias in the summer months, and also to have a strong diurnal cycle. Five different post-processing techniques are compared, including a seven-day running mean subtraction, Kalman-filtering, analogs, and combinations of analogs and Kalman filtering. The most accurate PM2.5 forecasts have been found to be produced when using historical analogs of the hourly Kalman-filtered forecasts, referred to as KFAN. The choice of meteorological variables used in the hourly analog search is also found to have a significant effect. A monthly error analysis is computed, in each case using the remaining 11 months of the data set for the analog searches. The improvement of KFAN errors over the raw CMAQ model errors ranges from 50 to 75% for MAE and from 40 to 60% for the correlation coefficient. Since the post-processing analysis is only done at the locations where observations are available, the spreading of post-processing correction information over nearby model grid points is necessary to make

  18. Evaluation of CMAQ and CAMx Ensemble Air Quality Forecasts during the 2015 MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E.; Kim, S.; Bae, C.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, B. U.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of Air quality forecasts during the 2015 MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign was evaluated. An forecast system has been operated to support the campaign's daily aircraft route decisions for airborne measurements to observe long-range transporting plume. We utilized two real-time ensemble systems based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE)-Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) modeling framework and WRF-SMOKE- Community Multi_scale Air Quality (CMAQ) framework over northeastern Asia to simulate PM10 concentrations. Global Forecast System (GFS) from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) was used to provide meteorological inputs for the forecasts. For an additional set of retrospective simulations, ERA Interim Reanalysis from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) was also utilized to access forecast uncertainties from the meteorological data used. Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) and National Institute of Environment Research (NIER) Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS) emission inventories are used for foreign and domestic emissions, respectively. In the study, we evaluate the CMAQ and CAMx model performance during the campaign by comparing the results to the airborne and surface measurements. Contributions of foreign and domestic emissions are estimated using a brute force method. Analyses on model performance and emissions will be utilized to improve air quality forecasts for the upcoming KORUS-AQ field campaign planned in 2016.

  19. REVIEW OF THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS, COMPUTATIONAL ALGORITHMS, AND OTHER COMPONENTS OF THE MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODELING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article describes the governing equations, computational algorithms, and other components entering into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. This system has been designed to approach air quality as a whole by including state-of-the-science capabiliti...

  20. REVIEW OF THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS, COMPUTATIONAL ALGORITHMS, AND OTHER COMPONENTS OF THE MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODELING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article describes the governing equations, computational algorithms, and other components entering into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. This system has been designed to approach air quality as a whole by including state-of-the-science capabiliti...

  1. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model Version 5.1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The AMAD will performed two CMAQ model simulations, one with the current publically available version of the CMAQ model (v5.0.2) and the other with the new version of the CMAQ model (v5.1). The results of each model simulation are compared to observations and the performance of t...

  2. High-resolution modeling and evaluation of ozone air quality of Osaka using MM5-CMAQ system.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Kundan Lal; Kondo, Akira; Kaga, Akikazu; Inoue, Yoshio

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution modeling approach is increasingly being considered as a necessary step for improving the monitoring and predictions of regional air quality. This is especially true for highly urbanized region with complex terrain and land-use. This study uses Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model coupled with MM5 mesoscale model for a comprehensive analysis to assess the suitability of such high-resolution modeling system in predicting ozone air quality in the complex terrains of Osaka, Japan. The 1-km and 3-km grid domains were nested inside a 9-km domain and the domain with 1-km grid covered the Osaka region. High-resolution Grid Point Value-Mesoscale Model (GPV-MSM) data were used after suitable validation. The simulated ozone concentrations were validated and evaluated using statistical metrics using performance criteria set for ozone. Daily maxima of ozone were found better simulated by the 1-km grid domain than the coarser 9-km and 3-km domains, with the maximum improvement in the mean absolute gross error about 3 ppbv. In addition, 1-km grid results fared better than other grids at most of the observation stations that showed noticeable differences in gross error as well as correlation. These results amply justify the use of the integrated high-resolution MMS-CMAQ modeling system in the highly urbanized region, such as the Osaka region, which has complex terrain and land-use.

  3. Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling for Regional and Hemispheric Scales

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CMAQ model is a Eulerian model that produces gridded values of atmospheric concentration and deposition. Recent updates to the model are highlighted that impact estimates of dry and wet deposition of nitrogen, sulfur and base cations. Output from the CMAQ model is used in t...

  4. Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling for Regional and Hemispheric Scales

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CMAQ model is a Eulerian model that produces gridded values of atmospheric concentration and deposition. Recent updates to the model are highlighted that impact estimates of dry and wet deposition of nitrogen, sulfur and base cations. Output from the CMAQ model is used in t...

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model Version 5.1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The AMAD will perform two annual CMAQ model simulations, one with the current publically available version of the CMAQ model (v5.0.2) and the other with the beta version of the new model (v5.1). The results of each model simulation will then be compared to observations and the pe...

  6. Enhanced representation of soil NO emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.0.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasool, Quazi Z.; Zhang, Rui; Lash, Benjamin; Cohan, Daniel S.; Cooter, Ellen J.; Bash, Jesse O.; Lamsal, Lok N.

    2016-09-01

    Modeling of soil nitric oxide (NO) emissions is highly uncertain and may misrepresent its spatial and temporal distribution. This study builds upon a recently introduced parameterization to improve the timing and spatial distribution of soil NO emission estimates in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The parameterization considers soil parameters, meteorology, land use, and mineral nitrogen (N) availability to estimate NO emissions. We incorporate daily year-specific fertilizer data from the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) agricultural model to replace the annual generic data of the initial parameterization, and use a 12 km resolution soil biome map over the continental USA. CMAQ modeling for July 2011 shows slight differences in model performance in simulating fine particulate matter and ozone from Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) sites and NO2 columns from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite retrievals. We also simulate how the change in soil NO emissions scheme affects the expected O3 response to projected emissions reductions.

  7. Enhanced Representation of Soil NO Emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model Version 5.0.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasool, Quazi Z.; Zhang, Rui; Lash, Benjamin; Cohan, Daniel S.; Cooter, Ellen J.; Bash, Jesse O.; Lamsal, Lok N.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling of soil nitric oxide (NO) emissions is highly uncertain and may misrepresent its spatial and temporal distribution. This study builds upon a recently introduced parameterization to improve the timing and spatial distribution of soil NO emission estimates in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The parameterization considers soil parameters, meteorology, land use, and mineral nitrogen (N) availability to estimate NO emissions. We incorporate daily year-specific fertilizer data from the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) agricultural model to replace the annual generic data of the initial parameterization, and use a 12km resolution soil biome map over the continental USA. CMAQ modeling for July 2011 shows slight differences in model performance in simulating fine particulate matter and ozone from Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) sites and NO2 columns from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite retrievals. We also simulate how the change in soil NO emissions scheme affects the expected O3 response to projected emissions reductions.

  8. Enhanced Representation of Soil NO Emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model Version 5.0.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasool, Quazi Z.; Zhang, Rui; Lash, Benjamin; Cohan, Daniel S.; Cooter, Ellen J.; Bash, Jesse O.; Lamsal, Lok N.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling of soil nitric oxide (NO) emissions is highly uncertain and may misrepresent its spatial and temporal distribution. This study builds upon a recently introduced parameterization to improve the timing and spatial distribution of soil NO emission estimates in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The parameterization considers soil parameters, meteorology, land use, and mineral nitrogen (N) availability to estimate NO emissions. We incorporate daily year-specific fertilizer data from the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) agricultural model to replace the annual generic data of the initial parameterization, and use a 12km resolution soil biome map over the continental USA. CMAQ modeling for July 2011 shows slight differences in model performance in simulating fine particulate matter and ozone from Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) sites and NO2 columns from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite retrievals. We also simulate how the change in soil NO emissions scheme affects the expected O3 response to projected emissions reductions.

  9. Aerosol Health Impact Source Attribution Studies with the CMAQ Adjoint Air Quality Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, M. D.

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an air pollutant consisting of a mixture of solid and liquid particles suspended in the atmosphere. Knowledge of the sources and distributions of PM2.5 is important for many reasons, two of which are that PM2.5 has an adverse effect on human health and also an effect on climate change. Recent studies have suggested that health benefits resulting from a unit decrease in black carbon (BC) are four to nine times larger than benefits resulting from an equivalent change in PM2.5 mass. The goal of this thesis is to quantify the role of emissions from different sectors and different locations in governing the total health impacts, risk, and maximum individual risk of exposure to BC both nationally and regionally in the US. We develop and use the CMAQ adjoint model to quantify the role of emissions from all modeled sectors, times, and locations on premature deaths attributed to exposure to BC. From a national analysis, we find that damages resulting from anthropogenic emissions of BC are strongly correlated with population and premature death. However, we find little correlation between damages and emission magnitude, suggesting that controls on the largest emissions may not be the most efficient means of reducing damages resulting from BC emissions. Rather, the best proxy for locations with damaging BC emissions is locations where premature deaths occur. Onroad diesel and nonroad vehicle emissions are the largest contributors to premature deaths attributed to exposure to BC, while onroad gasoline emissions cause the highest deaths per amount emitted. Additionally, emissions in fall and winter contribute to more premature deaths (and more per amount emitted) than emissions in spring and summer. From a regional analysis, we find that emissions from outside each of six urban areas account for 7% to 27% of the premature deaths attributed to exposure to BC within the region. Within the region encompassing New York City and Philadelphia

  10. AN OPERATIONAL EVALUATION OF THE ETA-CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in collaboration with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are developing an Air Quality Forecasting Program that will eventually result in an operational Nationwide Air Quality Forecasting System. The initial pha...

  11. AN OPERATIONAL EVALUATION OF THE ETA-CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in collaboration with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are developing an Air Quality Forecasting Program that will eventually result in an operational Nationwide Air Quality Forecasting System. The initial pha...

  12. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system against size-resolved measurements of inorganic particle composition across sites in North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work evaluates particle size-composition distributions simulated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model using Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) measurements at 18 sites across North America. Size-resolved measurements of particulate SO4<...

  13. EVALUATION OF THE COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL VERSION 4.5: UNCERTAINTIES AND SENSITIVITIES IMPACTING MODEL PERFORMANCE: PART I - OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines ozone (O3) predictions from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 4.5 and discusses potential factors influencing the model results. Daily maximum 8-hr average O3 levels are largely underpredicted when observed O...

  14. Vegetation Exposure to Ozone over the Continental United States: Assessment of Exposure Indices by the Eta-CMAQ Air Quality Forecast Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study presents the first evaluation of the performance of the Eta-CMAQ air quality forecast model to predict a variety of widely used seasonal mean and cumulative O3 exposure indices associated with vegetation using the U.S. AIRNow O3 observations.

  15. Vegetation Exposure to Ozone over the Continental United States: Assessment of Exposure Indices by the Eta-CMAQ Air Quality Forecast Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study presents the first evaluation of the performance of the Eta-CMAQ air quality forecast model to predict a variety of widely used seasonal mean and cumulative O3 exposure indices associated with vegetation using the U.S. AIRNow O3 observations.

  16. APPLICATION OF A NEW LAND-SURFACE, DRY DEPOSITION, AND PBL MODEL IN THE MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTI-SCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Like most air quality modeling systems, CMAQ divides the treatment of meteorological and chemical/transport processes into separate models run sequentially. A potential drawback to this approach is that it creates the illusion that these processes are minimally interdependent an...

  17. APPLICATION OF A NEW LAND-SURFACE, DRY DEPOSITION, AND PBL MODEL IN THE MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTI-SCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Like most air quality modeling systems, CMAQ divides the treatment of meteorological and chemical/transport processes into separate models run sequentially. A potential drawback to this approach is that it creates the illusion that these processes are minimally interdependent an...

  18. EVALUATION OF THE COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL VERSION 4.5: UNCERTAINTIES AND SENSITIVITIES IMPACTING MODEL PERFORMANCE: PART I - OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines ozone (O3) predictions from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 4.5 and discusses potential factors influencing the model results. Daily maximum 8-hr average O3 levels are largely underpredicted when observed O...

  19. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system against size-resolved measurements of inorganic particle composition across sites in North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work evaluates particle size-composition distributions simulated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model using Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) measurements at 18 sites across North America. Size-resolved measurements of particulate SO4<...

  20. Air quality forecast of PM10 in Beijing with Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling (CMAQ) system: emission and improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Xu, W.; Shi, A.; Li, Y.; Zhao, X.; Wang, Z.; Li, J.; Wang, L.

    2014-10-01

    The MM5-SMOKE-CMAQ model system, which was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) as the MODELS-3 system, has been used for daily air quality forecasts in the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center (Beijing MEMC), as a part of the Ensemble air quality Modeling forecast System for Beijing (EMS-Beijing) since the 2008 Olympic Games. According to the daily forecast results for the entire duration of 2010, the model shows good performance in the PM10 forecast on most days but clearly underestimates PM10 concentration during some air pollution episodes. A typical air pollution episode from 11-20 January 2010 was chosen, in which the observed air pollution index of particulate matter (PM10-API) reached 180 while the forecast PM10-API was about 100. In this study, three numerical methods are used for model improvement: first, by enhancing the inner domain with 3 km resolution grids, and expanding the coverage from only Beijing to an area including Beijing and its surrounding cities; second, by adding more regional point source emissions located at Baoding, Landfang and Tangshan, to the south and east of Beijing; third, by updating the area source emissions, including the regional area source emissions in Baoding and Tangshan and the local village/town-level area source emissions in Beijing. The last two methods are combined as the updated emissions method. According to the model sensitivity testing results by the CMAQ model, the updated emissions method and expanded model domain method can both improve the model performance separately. But the expanded model domain method has better ability to capture the peak values of PM10 than the updated emissions method due to better reproduction of the pollution transport process in this episode. As a result, the hindcast results ("New(CMAQ)"), which are driven by the updated emissions in the expanded model domain, show a much better model performance in the national standard station

  1. Updating sea spray aerosol emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.0.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantt, B.; Kelly, J. T.; Bash, J. O.

    2015-11-01

    Sea spray aerosols (SSAs) impact the particle mass concentration and gas-particle partitioning in coastal environments, with implications for human and ecosystem health. Model evaluations of SSA emissions have mainly focused on the global scale, but regional-scale evaluations are also important due to the localized impact of SSAs on atmospheric chemistry near the coast. In this study, SSA emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model were updated to enhance the fine-mode size distribution, include sea surface temperature (SST) dependency, and reduce surf-enhanced emissions. Predictions from the updated CMAQ model and those of the previous release version, CMAQv5.0.2, were evaluated using several coastal and national observational data sets in the continental US. The updated emissions generally reduced model underestimates of sodium, chloride, and nitrate surface concentrations for coastal sites in the Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) near Tampa, Florida. Including SST dependency to the SSA emission parameterization led to increased sodium concentrations in the southeastern US and decreased concentrations along parts of the Pacific coast and northeastern US. The influence of sodium on the gas-particle partitioning of nitrate resulted in higher nitrate particle concentrations in many coastal urban areas due to increased condensation of nitric acid in the updated simulations, potentially affecting the predicted nitrogen deposition in sensitive ecosystems. Application of the updated SSA emissions to the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) study period resulted in a modest improvement in the predicted surface concentration of sodium and nitrate at several central and southern California coastal sites. This update of SSA emissions enabled a more realistic simulation of the atmospheric chemistry in coastal environments where marine air mixes with urban pollution.

  2. THE EMISSION PROCESSING SYSTEM FOR THE ETA/CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NOAA and EPA have created an Air Quality Forecast (AQF) system. This AQF system links an adaptation of the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with the 12 kilometer ETA model running operationally at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP). One of th...

  3. THE EMISSION PROCESSING SYSTEM FOR THE ETA/CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NOAA and EPA have created an Air Quality Forecast (AQF) system. This AQF system links an adaptation of the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with the 12 kilometer ETA model running operationally at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP). One of th...

  4. AN OPERATIONAL EVALUATION OF THE ETA - CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in partnership with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are developing an operational, nationwide Air Quality Forecasting (AQF) system. An experimental phase of this program, which couples NOAA's Et...

  5. AN OPERATIONAL EVALUATION OF THE ETA - CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in partnership with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are developing an operational, nationwide Air Quality Forecasting (AQF) system. An experimental phase of this program, which couples NOAA's Et...

  6. Computationally efficient air quality forecasting tool: implementation of STOPS v1.5 model into CMAQ v5.0.2 for a prediction of Asian dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Wonbae; Choi, Yunsoo; Percell, Peter; Souri, Amir Hossein; Song, Chang-Keun; Kim, Soon-Tae; Kim, Jhoon

    2016-10-01

    This study suggests a new modeling framework using a hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian-based modeling tool (the Screening Trajectory Ozone Prediction System, STOPS) for a prediction of an Asian dust event in Korea. The new version of STOPS (v1.5) has been implemented into the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.0.2. The STOPS modeling system is a moving nest (Lagrangian approach) between the source and the receptor inside the host Eulerian CMAQ model. The proposed model generates simulation results that are relatively consistent with those of CMAQ but within a comparatively shorter computational time period. We find that standard CMAQ generally underestimates PM10 concentrations during the simulation period (February 2015) and fails to capture PM10 peaks during Asian dust events (22-24 February 2015). The underestimation in PM10 concentration is very likely due to missing dust emissions in CMAQ rather than incorrectly simulated meteorology, as the model meteorology agrees well with the observations. To improve the underestimated PM10 results from CMAQ, we used the STOPS model with constrained PM concentrations based on aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), reflecting real-time initial and boundary conditions of dust particles near the Korean Peninsula. The simulated PM10 from the STOPS simulations were improved significantly and closely matched the surface observations. With additional verification of the capabilities of the methodology on emission estimations and more STOPS simulations for various time periods, the STOPS model could prove to be a useful tool not just for the predictions of Asian dust but also for other unexpected events such as wildfires and oil spills.

  7. LINKING ETA MODEL WITH THE COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODELING SYSTEM: OZONE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype surface ozone concentration forecasting model system for the Eastern U.S. has been developed. The model system is consisting of a regional meteorological and a regional air quality model. It demonstrated a strong prediction dependence on its ozone boundary conditions....

  8. LINKING ETA MODEL WITH THE COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODELING SYSTEM: OZONE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype surface ozone concentration forecasting model system for the Eastern U.S. has been developed. The model system is consisting of a regional meteorological and a regional air quality model. It demonstrated a strong prediction dependence on its ozone boundary conditions....

  9. 3D Air Quality and the Clean Air Interstate Rule: Lagrangian Sampling of CMAQ Model Results to Aid Regional Accountability Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Szykman, Jim; Pierce, Robert B.; Gilliland, A. B.; Engel-Cox, Jill; Weber, Stephanie; Kittaka, Chieko; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Scheffe, Rich; Dimmick, Fred; hide

    2008-01-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) is expected to reduce transport of air pollutants (e.g. fine sulfate particles) in nonattainment areas in the Eastern United States. CAIR highlights the need for an integrated air quality observational and modeling system to understand sulfate as it moves in multiple dimensions, both spatially and temporally. Here, we demonstrate how results from an air quality model can be combined with a 3d monitoring network to provide decision makers with a tool to help quantify the impact of CAIR reductions in SO2 emissions on regional transport contributions to sulfate concentrations at surface monitors in the Baltimore, MD area, and help improve decision making for strategic implementation plans (SIPs). We sample results from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model using ensemble back trajectories computed with the NASA Langley Research Center trajectory model to provide Lagrangian time series and vertical profile information, that can be compared with NASA satellite (MODIS), EPA surface, and lidar measurements. Results are used to assess the regional transport contribution to surface SO4 measurements in the Baltimore MSA, and to characterize the dominant source regions for low, medium, and high SO4 episodes.

  10. Description and initial simulation of a dynamic bidirectional air-surface exchange model for mercury in Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bash, Jesse O.

    2010-03-01

    Emissions of elemental mercury (Hg0) from natural processes are estimated to be as large as or larger than anthropogenic emissions and thus represent a critical process which must be accurately described in the modeling of the transport and fate of mercury. Recent ecosystem-scale measurements indicate that a fraction of recently deposited mercury is recycled back into the atmosphere quickly, and that an atmospheric compensation point exists at background ambient concentrations. Modeled Hg0 emissions from natural sources are typically uncoupled from dry deposition estimates and unconstrained by air-biosphere gradient processes. A module has been developed for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to parameterize concentration-dependent processes of bidirectional mercury exchange. The Hg0 air-surface exchange was modeled as a function of a dynamic compensation point. The compensation point is modeled as a function of sources and sinks of Hg0 in vegetation and soil media using partitioning coefficients. A box model simulation was run for five months and a CMAQ simulation with bidirectional (BIDI) and without bidirectional (BASE) mercury exchange was run for the month of July 2002. The BASE case modeling scenario estimated that 8.5% of the total mercury (Hg0 + Hg2 + PHg) deposited to terrestrial systems and 47.8% of the total mercury deposition to aquatic systems was re-emitted as Hg0, while the re-emission ratios were 70.4% and 52.5% in the base case. The BIDI case was in better agreement with recent estimates of mercury cycling using stable isotopic mass balance experiments.

  11. The air quality forecast of PM10 in Beijing with Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling (CMAQ) system: emission and improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Xu, W.; Shi, A.; Li, Y.; Zhao, X.; Wang, Z.; Li, J.; Wang, L.

    2014-05-01

    The MM5-SMOKE-CMAQ model system, which was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) as the Models-3 system, has been used for daily air quality forecasts in the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center (Beijing MEMC), as a part of the Ensemble Air Quality Forecast System for Beijing (EMS-Beijing) since the Olympic Games 2008. According to the daily forecast results for the entire duration of 2010, the model shows good model performances in the PM10 forecast on most days but clearly underestimates some air pollution episodes. A typical air pollution episode from 11-20 January 2010 was chosen, where the observed air pollution index of particulate matter (PM10-API) reached to 180 while the forecast's PM10-API was about 100. In this study, three numerical methods are used for model improvement: first, enhance the inner domain with 3 km resolution grids: the coverage is expanded from only Beijing to the area including Beijing and its surrounding cities; second, add more regional point source emissions located at Baoding, Landfang and Tangshan, which is to the south and east of Beijing; third, update the area source emissions, which includes the regional area source emissions in Baoding and Tangshan and the local village-town level area source emissions in Beijing. As a result, the hindcast shows a much better model performance in the national standard station-averaged PM10-API, whereas the daily hindcast PM10-API reaches 180 and is much closer to the observation and has a correlation coefficient of 0.93. The correlation coefficient of the PM10-API in all Beijing MEMC stations between the hindcast and observation is 0.82, obviously higher than the forecast's 0.54, and the FAC2 increases from 56% in the forecast to 84% in the hindcast, while the NMSE decreases from 0.886 to 0.196. The hindcast also has better model performance in PM10 hourly concentrations during the typical air pollution episode, the correlation coefficient

  12. 78 FR 67442 - Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program Interim Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Federal Highway Administration Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program Interim Guidance... Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) Program (Interim Guidance). The Interim Guidance revises CMAQ....gov/environment/air_quality/cmaq/policy_and_guidance/2008_guidance/ guidance/. DATES: This...

  13. Improvements to the WRF-CMAQ modeling system for fine-scale air quality simulations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite significant reductions in atmospheric pollutants such as ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) over the past several decades, air pollution continues to pose a threat to the health of humans and sensitive ecosystems. A number of areas across...

  14. MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL AEROSOL COMPONENT 2. MODEL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (atmospheric suspensions of solid of liquid materials, i.e., aerosols) continue to be a major concern for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High particulate matter (PM) concentrations are associated not only with adv...

  15. Improvements to the WRF-CMAQ modeling system for fine-scale air quality simulations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite significant reductions in atmospheric pollutants such as ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) over the past several decades, air pollution continues to pose a threat to the health of humans and sensitive ecosystems. A number of areas across...

  16. MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL AEROSOL COMPONENT 2. MODEL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (atmospheric suspensions of solid of liquid materials, i.e., aerosols) continue to be a major concern for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High particulate matter (PM) concentrations are associated not only with adv...

  17. Assessment of the effects of horizontal grid resolution on long-term air quality trends using coupled WRF-CMAQ simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Chuen-Meei; Hogrefe, Christian; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Xing, Jia; Wong, David; Gilliam, Robert; Pouliot, George; Wei, Chao

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the adequacy of using a relatively coarse horizontal resolution (i.e. 36 km) to simulate long-term trends of pollutant concentrations and radiation variables with the coupled WRF-CMAQ model. WRF-CMAQ simulations over the continental United State are performed over the 2001 to 2010 time period at two different horizontal resolutions of 12 and 36 km. Both simulations used the same emission inventory and model configurations. Model results are compared both in space and time to assess the potential weaknesses and strengths of using coarse resolution in long-term air quality applications. The results show that the 36 km and 12 km simulations are comparable in terms of trends analysis for both pollutant concentrations and radiation variables. The advantage of using the coarser 36 km resolution is a significant reduction of computational cost, time and storage requirement which are key considerations when performing multiple years of simulations for trend analysis. However, if such simulations are to be used for local air quality analysis, finer horizontal resolution may be beneficial since it can provide information on local gradients. In particular, divergences between the two simulations are noticeable in urban, complex terrain and coastal regions.

  18. A multi-resolution assessment of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model v4.7 wet deposition estimates for 2002-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, K. W.; Foley, K. M.; Bash, J. O.; Pinder, R. W.; Dennis, R. L.; Allen, D. J.; Pickering, K.

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the operational performance of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations for 2002-2006 using both 36-km and 12-km horizontal grid spacing, with a primary focus on the performance of the CMAQ model in predicting wet deposition of sulfate (SO4=), ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-). Performance of the wet deposition estimates from the model is determined by comparing CMAQ predicted concentrations to concentrations measured by the National Acid Deposition Program (NADP), specifically the National Trends Network (NTN). For SO4= wet deposition, the CMAQ model estimates were generally comparable between the 36-km and 12-km simulations for the eastern US, with the 12-km simulation giving slightly higher estimates of SO4= wet deposition than the 36-km simulation on average. The result is a slightly larger normalized mean bias (NMB) for the 12-km simulation; however both simulations had annual biases that were less than ±15 % for each of the five years. The model estimated SO4= wet deposition values improved when they were adjusted to account for biases in the model estimated precipitation. The CMAQ model underestimates NH4+ wet deposition over the eastern US, with a slightly larger underestimation in the 36-km simulation. The largest underestimations occur in the winter and spring periods, while the summer and fall have slightly smaller underestimations of NH4+ wet deposition. The underestimation in NH4+ wet deposition is likely due in part to the poor temporal and spatial representation of ammonia (NH3) emissions, particularly those emissions associated with fertilizer applications and NH3 bi-directional exchange. The model performance for estimates of NO3- wet deposition are mixed throughout the year, with the model largely underestimating NO3- wet deposition in the spring and summer in the eastern US, while the model has a relatively small bias in the fall and winter. Model estimates of NO3- wet deposition tend to be slightly

  19. Evaluation of a seven-year air quality simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongliang; Chen, Gang; Hu, Jianlin; Chen, Shu-Hua; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Kleeman, Michael; Ying, Qi

    2014-03-01

    The performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)/Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) system in the eastern United States is analyzed based on results from a seven-year modeling study with a 4-km spatial resolution. For 2-m temperature, the monthly averaged mean bias (MB) and gross error (GE) values are generally within the recommended performance criteria, although temperature is over-predicted with MB values up to 2K. Water vapor at 2-m is well-predicted but significant biases (>2 g kg(-1)) were observed in wintertime. Predictions for wind speed are satisfactory but biased towards over-prediction with 0

  20. Eta-CMAQ Air Quality Forecasts for O3 and Related Species Using Three Different Photochemical Mechanisms (CB4, CB05, SAPRC-99): Comparisons with Measurements During the 2004 ICARTT Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we compare the CB4, CB05 and SAPRC-99 mechanisms by examining the impact of these different chemical mechanisms on the Eta-CMAQ air quality forecast model simulations for O3 and its related precursors over the eastern US through comparisons with the inte...

  1. Eta-CMAQ Air Quality Forecasts for O3 and Related Species Using Three Different Photochemical Mechanisms (CB4, CB05, SAPRC-99): Comparisons with Measurements During the 2004 ICARTT Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we compare the CB4, CB05 and SAPRC-99 mechanisms by examining the impact of these different chemical mechanisms on the Eta-CMAQ air quality forecast model simulations for O3 and its related precursors over the eastern US through comparisons with the inte...

  2. ONE-ATMOSPHERE DYNAMICS DESCRIPTION IN THE MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTI-SCALE QUALITY (CMAQ) MODELING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper proposes a general procedure to link meteorological data with air quality models, such as U.S. EPA's Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. CMAQ is intended to be used for studying multi-scale (urban and regional) and multi-pollutant (ozon...

  3. ONE-ATMOSPHERE DYNAMICS DESCRIPTION IN THE MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTI-SCALE QUALITY (CMAQ) MODELING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper proposes a general procedure to link meteorological data with air quality models, such as U.S. EPA's Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. CMAQ is intended to be used for studying multi-scale (urban and regional) and multi-pollutant (ozon...

  4. Investigating the Impact of Marine Ship Emissions on Regional Air Quality using OMI Satellite NO2 Observations and the CMAQ Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, A.; Canty, T. P.; He, H.; Vinciguerra, T.; Lamsal, L. N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Cohen, M.; Montgomery, L. N.; Dreessen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Commercial marine vessels (CMVs) emit significant amounts of NOx, an ozone precursor, which may contribute to negative health consequences for people living in areas near shipping lanes. In coastal US states, many metropolitan areas such as Baltimore and New York City are located near ports with CMVs. Many studies estimate that ships account for ~15-30% of the global anthropogenic NOx emissions. EPA developed emissions inventories are widely used by states to construct model scenarios for testing air quality attainment strategies. Currently, CMV emissions are generated by simply applying growth factors to aggregated emissions data from much earlier years. Satellite retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) have been successfully used to improve the veracity of marine emissions by incorporating observational data from the inventory year. In this study we use OMI NO2 observations and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model outputs to improve the EPA marine emission estimates for the Mid-Atlantic region. Back trajectories from the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory HYSPLIT model are used to identify days with minimal continental influence on OMI tropospheric column NO2 over shipping lanes. We perform sensitivity analyses to quantify the impact of marine emissions on air quality and suggest strategies to better meet the EPA mandated ozone standard.

  5. A photosynthesis-based two-leaf canopy stomatal conductance model for meteorology and air quality modeling with WRF/CMAQ PX LSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Limei; Pleim, Jonathan; Song, Conghe; Band, Larry; Walker, John T.; Binkowski, Francis S.

    2017-02-01

    A coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model with single-layer sunlit and shaded leaf canopy scaling is implemented and evaluated in a diagnostic box model with the Pleim-Xiu land surface model (PX LSM) and ozone deposition model components taken directly from the meteorology and air quality modeling system - WRF/CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecast model and Community Multiscale Air Quality model). The photosynthesis-based model for PX LSM (PX PSN) is evaluated at a FLUXNET site for implementation against different parameterizations and the current PX LSM approach with a simple Jarvis function (PX Jarvis). Latent heat flux (LH) from PX PSN is further evaluated at five FLUXNET sites with different vegetation types and landscape characteristics. Simulated ozone deposition and flux from PX PSN are evaluated at one of the sites with ozone flux measurements. Overall, the PX PSN simulates LH as well as the PX Jarvis approach. The PX PSN, however, shows distinct advantages over the PX Jarvis approach for grassland that likely result from its treatment of C3 and C4 plants for CO2 assimilation. Simulations using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) leaf area index (LAI) rather than LAI measured at each site assess how the model would perform with grid averaged data used in WRF/CMAQ. MODIS LAI estimates degrade model performance at all sites but one site having exceptionally old and tall trees. Ozone deposition velocity and ozone flux along with LH are simulated especially well by the PX PSN compared to significant overestimation by the PX Jarvis for a grassland site.

  6. Advances in Linked Air Quality, Farm Management and Biogeochemistry Models to Address Bidirectional Ammonia Flux in CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent increases in anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen to air, land and water media pose a growing threat to human health and ecosystems. Modeling of air-surface N flux is one area in need of improvement. Implementation of a linked air quality and cropland management system is de...

  7. "Advances in Linked Air Quality, Farm Management and Biogeochemistry Models to Address Bidrectional Ammonia Flux in CMAQ"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent increases in anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen to air, land and water media pose a growing threat to human health and ecosystems. Modeling of air-surface N flux is one area in need of improvement. Implementation of a linked air quality and cropland management system is de...

  8. Advances in Linked Air Quality, Farm Management and Biogeochemistry Models to Address Bidirectional Ammonia Flux in CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent increases in anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen to air, land and water media pose a growing threat to human health and ecosystems. Modeling of air-surface N flux is one area in need of improvement. Implementation of a linked air quality and cropland management system is de...

  9. FINE SCALE AIR QUALITY MODELING USING DISPERSION AND CMAQ MODELING APPROACHES: AN EXAMPLE APPLICATION IN WILMINGTON, DE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterization of spatial variability of air pollutants in an urban setting at fine scales is critical for improved air toxics exposure assessments, for model evaluation studies and also for air quality regulatory applications. For this study, we investigate an approach that su...

  10. FINE SCALE AIR QUALITY MODELING USING DISPERSION AND CMAQ MODELING APPROACHES: AN EXAMPLE APPLICATION IN WILMINGTON, DE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterization of spatial variability of air pollutants in an urban setting at fine scales is critical for improved air toxics exposure assessments, for model evaluation studies and also for air quality regulatory applications. For this study, we investigate an approach that su...

  11. "Advances in Linked Air Quality, Farm Management and Biogeochemistry Models to Address Bidrectional Ammonia Flux in CMAQ"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent increases in anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen to air, land and water media pose a growing threat to human health and ecosystems. Modeling of air-surface N flux is one area in need of improvement. Implementation of a linked air quality and cropland management system is de...

  12. CMAQ MODELING FOR AIR TOXICS AT FINE SCALES: A PROTOTYPE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic air pollutants (TAPs) or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) exhibit considerable spatial and temporal variability across urban areas. Therefore, the ability of chemical transport models (CTMs), e.g. Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ), to reproduce the spatial and tempor...

  13. CMAQ MODELING FOR AIR TOXICS AT FINE SCALES: A PROTOTYPE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic air pollutants (TAPs) or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) exhibit considerable spatial and temporal variability across urban areas. Therefore, the ability of chemical transport models (CTMs), e.g. Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ), to reproduce the spatial and tempor...

  14. On the Use of Principal Component and Spectral Density Analysis to Evaluate the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 5 year (2002-2006) simulation of CMAQ covering the eastern United States is evaluated using principle component analysis in order to identify and characterize statistically significant patterns of model bias. Such analysis is useful in that in can identify areas of poor model ...

  15. On the Use of Principal Component and Spectral Density Analysis to Evaluate the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 5 year (2002-2006) simulation of CMAQ covering the eastern United States is evaluated using principle component analysis in order to identify and characterize statistically significant patterns of model bias. Such analysis is useful in that in can identify areas of poor model ...

  16. Evaluation of the Mesoscale Meteorological Model (MM5)-Community Multi-Scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) performance in hindcast and forecast of ground-level ozone.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Le Hoang; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the first attempt to apply the Mesoscale Meteorological Model (MM5)-Community Multi-Scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) model system to simulate ground-level ozone (O3) over the continental Southeast Asia (CSEA) region for both hindcast and forecast purposes. Hindcast simulation was done over the CSEA domain for two historical O3 episodes, January 26-29, 2004 (January episode, northeast monsoon) and March 24-26, 2004 (March episode, southwest monsoon). Experimental forecast was done for next-day hourly O3 during January 2006 over the central part of Thailand (CENTHAI). Available data from 20 ambient monitoring stations in Thailand and 3 stations in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, were used for the episode analysis and for the model performance evaluation. The year 2000 anthropogenic emission inventory prepared by the Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research at the University of Iowa was projected to the simulation year on the basis of the regional average economic growth rate. Hourly emission in urban areas was prepared using ambient carbon monoxide concentration as a surrogate for the emission intensity. Biogenic emissions were estimated based on data from the Global Emissions Inventory Activity. Hindcast simulations (CSEA) were performed with 0.5 degree x 0.5 degree resolution, whereas forecast simulations (CENTHAI) were done with 0.1 degree x 0.1 degree hourly emission input data. MM5-CMAQ model system performance during the selected episodes satisfactorily met U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criteria for O3 for most simulated days. The experiment forecast for next-day hourly O3 in January 2006 yielded promising results. Modeled plumes of ozone in both hindcast and forecast cases agreed with the main wind fields and extended over considerable downwind distances from large urban areas.

  17. APPLICATION OF FINE SCALE AIR TOXICS MODELING WITH CMAQ TO HAPEM5

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a preliminary demonstration of the EPA neighborhood scale modeling paradigm for air toxics by linking concentration from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to the fifth version of the Hazardous Pollutant Exposure Model (HAPEM5). For t...

  18. APPLICATION OF FINE SCALE AIR TOXICS MODELING WITH CMAQ TO HAPEM5

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a preliminary demonstration of the EPA neighborhood scale modeling paradigm for air toxics by linking concentration from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to the fifth version of the Hazardous Pollutant Exposure Model (HAPEM5). For t...

  19. TESTING PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY SENSITIVITIES IN THE U.S. EPA COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY MODELING SYSTEM (CMAQ)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Uncertainties in key elements of emissions and meteorology inputs to air quality models (AQMs) can range from 50 to 100% with some areas of emissions uncertainty even higher (Russell and Dennis, 2000). Uncertainties in the chemical mechanisms are thought to be smaller (Russell an...

  20. TESTING PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY SENSITIVITIES IN THE U.S. EPA COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY MODELING SYSTEM (CMAQ)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Uncertainties in key elements of emissions and meteorology inputs to air quality models (AQMs) can range from 50 to 100% with some areas of emissions uncertainty even higher (Russell and Dennis, 2000). Uncertainties in the chemical mechanisms are thought to be smaller (Russell an...

  1. The air quality forecast about PM2.5 before and during APEC 2014 in Beijing by WRF-CMAQ model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qizhong; Xu, Wenshuai; Wang, Zifa

    2015-04-01

    In the past year 2014, the APEC meeting was hold in Beijing, where the particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration is high and worried. In such a heavily air-polluted environment, people want access to reasonable air quality predictions, that the government can take necessary short-term emissions reduction measures to improve air quality. According to Wu et al. (2014), the enhanced model domain and the updated emissions inventory will improve the model performance of particulate matter concentration obviously, a new model system, with the enhanced 9km-domain and latest emission inventory in WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ model, was established in October 2014, before APEC. As a result, the model system plays good performance in the whole October: 1) the model catches four air pollution episodes in October, and has a high correlation coefficient of 0.89, 2) the daily forecast of PM2.5 concentration reaches 277 \\unit{{μ}g m-3} and close to the observed value (320 \\unit{{μ}g m-3}), but still a little underestimated, 3) the mean bias(MB) of the forecast to observed is 1.03 \\unit{{μ}g m-3} and the normalized mean bias(NMB) is 24.9{%}, 4) the normalized mean square error (NMSE) between the forecast and observed is 0.137 in October. The forecast results, with well performance, indicate the emissions inventory used in the model system is reasonable as baseline scenario, which scenario without any emission-sources reduction. From 3 to 12 November, the emission-sources reduction measures(e.g. the traffic restriction, factory cut production and closures) are carried step by step in Beijing and its surrounding areas. Those measures information is collected and used in the SMOKE model with growth/project module, to prepared as a reduced emissions inventory as APEC scenario. The same WRF-CMAQ model system, but be driven by the emission inventory of APEC scenario, was added from 3 November, to forecast the air quality under such emission-sources reduction measures, and evaluate the effect of

  2. Sensitivity of air quality simulation to smoke plume rise

    Treesearch

    Yongqiang Liu; Gary Achtemeier; Scott Goodrick

    2008-01-01

    Plume rise is the height smoke plumes can reach. This information is needed by air quality models such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to simulate physical and chemical processes of point-source fire emissions. This study seeks to understand the importance of plume rise to CMAQ air quality simulation of prescribed burning to plume rise. CMAQ...

  3. CMAQ Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    For more than a decade, EPA and states have used EPA’s Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System, a powerful computational tool for air quality management. Learn more about CMAQv5.2 by browsing our fact sheet.

  4. Using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to estimate public health impacts of PM2.5 from individual power plants.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Jonathan J; Dong, Xinyi; Spengler, John D; Fu, Joshua S; Levy, Jonathan I

    2014-07-01

    We estimated PM2.5-related public health impacts/ton emitted of primary PM2.5, SO2, and NOx for a set of power plants in the Mid-Atlantic and Lower Great Lakes regions of the United States, selected to include varying emission profiles and broad geographic representation. We then developed a regression model explaining variability in impacts per ton emitted using the population distributions around each plant. We linked outputs from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model v 4.7.1 with census data and concentration-response functions for PM2.5-related mortality, and monetized health estimates using the value-of-statistical-life. The median impacts for the final set of plants were $130,000/ton for primary PM2.5 (range: $22,000-230,000), $28,000/ton for SO2 (range: $19,000-33,000), and $16,000/ton for NOx (range: $7100-26,000). Impacts of NOx were a median of 34% (range: 20%-75%) from ammonium nitrate and 66% (range: 25%-79%) from ammonium sulfate. The latter pathway is likely from NOx enhancing atmospheric oxidative capacity and amplifying sulfate formation, and is often excluded. Our regression models explained most of the variation in impact/ton estimates using basic population covariates, and can aid in estimating impacts averted from interventions such as pollution controls, alternative energy installations, or demand-side management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using SEVIRI fire observations to drive smoke plumes in the CMAQ air quality model: a case study over Antalya in 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldassarre, G.; Pozzoli, L.; Schmidt, C. C.; Unal, A.; Kindap, T.; Menzel, W. P.; Whitburn, S.; Coheur, P.-F.; Kavgaci, A.; Kaiser, J. W.

    2015-07-01

    Among the atmospheric emission sources, wildfires are episodic events characterized by large spatial and temporal variability. Therefore, accurate information on gaseous and aerosol emissions from fires for specific regions and seasons is critical for air quality forecasts. The Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) in geostationary orbit provides fire observations over Africa and the Mediterranean with a temporal resolution of 15 min. It thus resolves the complete fire life cycle and captures the fires' peak intensities, which is not possible in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire emission inventories like the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS). We evaluate two different operational fire radiative power (FRP) products derived from SEVIRI, by studying a large forest fire in Antalya, Turkey, in July-August 2008. The EUMETSAT Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) has higher FRP values during the fire episode than the Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA). It is also in better agreement with the co-located, gridded MODIS FRP. Both products miss small fires that frequently occur in the region and are detected by MODIS. Emissions are derived from the FRP products. They are used along-side GFAS emissions in smoke plume simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. In comparisons with MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), CO and NH3 observations show that including the diurnal variability of fire emissions improves the spatial distribution and peak concentrations of the simulated smoke plumes associated with this large fire. They also show a large discrepancy between the currently available operational FRP products, with the LSA SAF being the most appropriate.

  6. Assessment of the impacts of aromatic VOC emissions and yields of SOA on SOA concentrations with the air quality model RAMS-CMAQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jialin; Zhang, Meigen; Wu, Fangkun; Sun, Yele; Tang, Guiqian

    2017-06-01

    The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentration is generally underestimated by models. Recent studies suggest that the underprediction is related to underestimations of aromatic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions and SOA yields in current models. Here, the impacts of these two factors in China were investigated with the regional air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ, referring to field observations during the episode from October 14 to November 14, 2014. Comparisons between the observed and modeled SOA of four sensitivity simulation cases indicated the significant impacts of the two underestimated factors on the SOA output. By considering these two aspects, the simulated mean SOA concentrations significantly increased by nearly 4 times with a good representation of the intensively temporal variations of concentrations, which were largely controlled by photochemical processes rather than meteorological conditions. The improvement in SOA compensated for the underestimations by approximately 23.5% and contributed to the mean fraction of SOA to organic aerosol (OA) by increasing the fraction from less than 7% to more than 25%, which was closer to the observed result. These results suggested a more reasonable and more realistic representation of SOA formation in the model after allowing for the two factors. Due to the better simulation of SOA, predictions of OA were correspondingly improved when the correlation coefficient increased from 0.57 to 0.73 and other bias parameters were reduced, which indicated the improved ability of our model to trace the temporal variations of OA. Based on the improved simulation throughout the episode, the mean SOA concentration was obviously higher in eastern China than in the west. The highest concentration appeared in the Sichuan Basin and Pearl River Delta (PRD) areas, with values of 6-11 μg/m3 and 8-17 μg/m3, respectively. Over the wide regions of central and eastern China, the dominant component in SOA was formed from

  7. Multi-year downscaling application of two-way coupled WRF v3.4 and CMAQ v5.0.2 over east Asia for regional climate and air quality modeling: model evaluation and aerosol direct effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Chaopeng; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Yang; Tang, Youhua; Tong, Daniel; He, Kebin

    2017-06-01

    In this study, a regional coupled climate-chemistry modeling system using the dynamical downscaling technique was established by linking the global Community Earth System Model (CESM) and the regional two-way coupled Weather Research and Forecasting - Community Multi-scale Air Quality (WRF-CMAQ) model for the purpose of comprehensive assessments of regional climate change and air quality and their interactions within one modeling framework. The modeling system was applied over east Asia for a multi-year climatological application during 2006-2010, driven with CESM downscaling data under Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 (RCP4.5), along with a short-term air quality application in representative months in 2013 that was driven with a reanalysis dataset. A comprehensive model evaluation was conducted against observations from surface networks and satellite observations to assess the model's performance. This study presents the first application and evaluation of the two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ model for climatological simulations using the dynamical downscaling technique. The model was able to satisfactorily predict major meteorological variables. The improved statistical performance for the 2 m temperature (T2) in this study (with a mean bias of -0.6 °C) compared with the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-models might be related to the use of the regional model WRF and the bias-correction technique applied for CESM downscaling. The model showed good ability to predict PM2. 5 in winter (with a normalized mean bias (NMB) of 6.4 % in 2013) and O3 in summer (with an NMB of 18.2 % in 2013) in terms of statistical performance and spatial distributions. Compared with global models that tend to underpredict PM2. 5 concentrations in China, WRF-CMAQ was able to capture the high PM2. 5 concentrations in urban areas. In general, the two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ model performed well for both climatological and air quality applications. The coupled

  8. Analysis of regional meteorology and surface ozone during the TexAQS II field program and an evaluation of the NMM-CMAQ and WRF-Chem air quality models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczak, James M.; Djalalova, Irina; McKeen, Stuart; Bianco, Laura; Bao, Jian-Wen; Grell, Georg; Peckham, Steven; Mathur, Rohit; McQueen, Jeff; Lee, Pius

    2009-04-01

    This study examines meteorological conditions associated with regional surface ozone using data collected during the summer Second Texas Air Quality Experiment, and the ability of the Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model-Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (NMM-CMAQ) and the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) models to simulate the observed meteorology and surface ozone. The surface ozone data consist of 118 sites that are part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Aerometric Information Retrieval Now (AIRNow) network, while the meteorological data came from a network of eleven 915-MHz wind profilers with RASS temperatures and supporting surface meteorological stations. High and low 8-h maximum ozone occurrences most frequently develop as regional events, with similar ozone concentration patterns across all of east Texas, allowing for a separate analysis of high- and low-ozone day conditions. The ability of the NMM-CMAQ and WRF-Chem models to simulate the meteorologically distinct high- and low-ozone events is analyzed. Histograms of surface ozone show that both the NMM-CMAQ and WRF-Chem models underpredict the full range found in the observations. For low ozone values, the analysis indicates that the models have a positive bias because of too large of an ozone inflow boundary condition value over the Gulf of Mexico. In contrast, the models have a negative bias for very high ozone values that occur mostly in Houston and Dallas, which suggests that the urban emissions and/or chemistry is misrepresented in the models.

  9. Modeling ozone and aerosol formation and transport in the pacific northwest with the community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Susan M; Lamb, Brian K; Chen, Jack; Claiborn, Candis; Finn, Dennis; Otterson, Sally; Figueroa, Cristiana; Bowman, Clint; Boyer, Mike; Wilson, Rob; Arnold, Jeff; Aalbers, Steven; Stocum, Jeffrey; Swab, Christopher; Stoll, Matt; Dubois, Mike; Anderson, Mary

    2006-02-15

    The Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system was used to investigate ozone and aerosol concentrations in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) during hot summertime conditions during July 1-15, 1996. Two emission inventories (El) were developed: emissions for the first El were based upon the National Emission Trend 1996 (NET96) database and the BEIS2 biogenic emission model, and emissions for the second El were developed through a "bottom up" approach that included biogenic emissions obtained from the GLOBEIS model. The two simulations showed that elevated PM2.5 concentrations occurred near and downwind of the Interstate-5 corridor along the foothills of the Cascade Mountains and in forested areas of central Idaho. The relative contributions of organic and inorganic aerosols varied by region, but generally organic aerosols constituted the largest fraction of PM2.5. In wilderness areas near the 1-5 corridor, organic carbon from anthropogenic sources contributed approximately 50% of the total organic carbon with the remainder from biogenic precursors, while in wilderness areas in Idaho, biogenic organic carbon accounted for 80% of the total organic aerosol. Regional analysis of the secondary organic aerosol formation in the Columbia River Gorge, Central Idaho, and the Olympics/Puget Sound showed that the production rate of secondary organic carbon depends on local terpene concentrations and the local oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere, which was strongly influenced by anthropogenic emissions. Comparison with observations from 12 IMPROVE sites and 21 ozone monitoring sites showed that results from the two El simulations generally bracketed the average observed PM parameters and that errors calculated for the model results were within acceptable bounds. Analysis across all statistical parameters indicated that the NW-AIRQUEST El solution performed better at predicting PM2.5, PM1, and beta(ext) even though organic carbon PM was over-predicted, and the NET96 El

  10. Data for Figures and Tables in Journal Article Assessment of the Effects of Horizontal Grid Resolution on Long-Term Air Quality Trends using Coupled WRF-CMAQ Simulations, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.02.036

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The dataset represents the data depicted in the Figures and Tables of a Journal Manuscript with the following abstract: The objective of this study is to determine the adequacy of using a relatively coarse horizontal resolution (i.e. 36 km) to simulate long-term trends of pollutant concentrations and radiation variables with the coupled WRF-CMAQ model. WRF-CMAQ simulations over the continental United State are performed over the 2001 to 2010 time period at two different horizontal resolutions of 12 and 36 km. Both simulations used the same emission inventory and model configurations. Model results are compared both in space and time to assess the potential weaknesses and strengths of using coarse resolution in long-term air quality applications. The results show that the 36 km and 12 km simulations are comparable in terms of trends analysis for both pollutant concentrations and radiation variables. The advantage of using the coarser 36 km resolution is a significant reduction of computational cost, time and storage requirement which are key considerations when performing multiple years of simulations for trend analysis. However, if such simulations are to be used for local air quality analysis, finer horizontal resolution may be beneficial since it can provide information on local gradients. In particular, divergences between the two simulations are noticeable in urban, complex terrain and coastal regions.This dataset is associated with the following publication

  11. ADAPTATION AND APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODELING SYSTEM FOR REAL-TIME AIR QUALITY FORECASTING DURING THE SUMMER OF 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to forecast local and regional air pollution events is challenging since the processes governing the production and sustenance of atmospheric pollutants are complex and often non-linear. Comprehensive atmospheric models, by representing in as much detail as possible t...

  12. ADAPTATION AND APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODELING SYSTEM FOR REAL-TIME AIR QUALITY FORECASTING DURING THE SUMMER OF 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to forecast local and regional air pollution events is challenging since the processes governing the production and sustenance of atmospheric pollutants are complex and often non-linear. Comprehensive atmospheric models, by representing in as much detail as possible t...

  13. LINKING AIR TOXIC CONCENTRATIONS FROM CMAQ TO THE HAPEM5 EXPOSURE MODEL AT NEIGHORHOOD SCALES FOR THE PHILADELPHIA AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a preliminary demonstration of the EPA neighborhood scale modeling paradigm for air toxics by linking concentration from the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to the fifth version of the Hazardous Pollutant Exposure Model (HAPEM5). For ...

  14. LINKING AIR TOXIC CONCENTRATIONS FROM CMAQ TO THE HAPEM5 EXPOSURE MODEL AT NEIGHORHOOD SCALES FOR THE PHILADELPHIA AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a preliminary demonstration of the EPA neighborhood scale modeling paradigm for air toxics by linking concentration from the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to the fifth version of the Hazardous Pollutant Exposure Model (HAPEM5). For ...

  15. Assessment of the effects of horizontal grid resolution on long-term air quality trends using coupled WRF-CMAQ simulations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study is to determine the adequacy of using a relatively coarse horizontal resolution (i.e. 36 km) to simulate long-term trends of pollutant concentrations and radiation variables with the coupled WRF-CMAQ model. WRF-CMAQ simulations over the continental Uni...

  16. SENSITIVITY OF OZONE AND AEROSOL PREDICTIONS TO THE TRANSPORT ALGORITHMS IN THE MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTI-SCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODELING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Models-3 CMAQ system is intended to provide a community modeling paradigm that allows continuous improvement of the one-atmosphere modeling capability in a unified fashion. CMAQ's modular design promotes incorporation of several sets of science process modules representing ...

  17. EVALUATION OF THE COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL VERSION 4.5: UNCERTAINTIES AND SENSITIVITIES IMPACTING MODEL PERFORMANCE: PART II - PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an analysis of the CMAQ v4.5 model performance for particulate matter and its chemical components for the simulated year 2001. This is part two is two part series of papers that examines the model performance of CMAQ v4.5.

  18. Assessment of the effects of horizontal grid resolution on long-term air quality trends using coupled WRF-CMAQ simulations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study is to determine the adequacy of using a relatively coarse horizontal resolution (i.e. 36 km) to simulate long-term trends of pollutant concentrations and radiation variables with the coupled WRF-CMAQ model. WRF-CMAQ simulations over the continental Uni...

  19. EVALUATION OF THE COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL VERSION 4.5: UNCERTAINTIES AND SENSITIVITIES IMPACTING MODEL PERFORMANCE: PART II - PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an analysis of the CMAQ v4.5 model performance for particulate matter and its chemical components for the simulated year 2001. This is part two is two part series of papers that examines the model performance of CMAQ v4.5.

  20. COMMUNITY SCALE AIR TOXICS MODELING WITH CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration and movement for an urban air toxics control strategy is toward a community, exposure and risk-based modeling approach, with emphasis on assessments of areas that experience high air toxic concentration levels, the so-called "hot spots". This strategy will requir...

  1. COMMUNITY SCALE AIR TOXICS MODELING WITH CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration and movement for an urban air toxics control strategy is toward a community, exposure and risk-based modeling approach, with emphasis on assessments of areas that experience high air toxic concentration levels, the so-called "hot spots". This strategy will requir...

  2. An assessment of atmospheric mercury in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model at an urban site and a rural site in the Great Lakes Region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.; Voigt, C.; Morton, J.; Spak, S. N.; Rutter, A. P.; Schauer, J. J.

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative analysis of three atmospheric mercury species - gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), reactive gaseous mercury (RGHg) and particulate mercury (PHg) - has been limited to date by lack of ambient measurement data as well as by uncertainties in numerical models and emission inventories. This study employs the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model version 4.6 with mercury chemistry (CMAQ-Hg), to examine how local emissions, meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and deposition affect mercury concentration and deposition the Great Lakes Region (GLR), and two sites in Wisconsin in particular: the rural Devil's Lake site and the urban Milwaukee site. Ambient mercury exhibits significant biases at both sites. Hg0 is too low in CMAQ-Hg, with the model showing a 6% low bias at the rural site and 36% low bias at the urban site. Reactive mercury (RHg = RGHg + PHg) is over-predicted by the model, with annual average biases >250%. Performance metrics for RHg are much worse than for mercury wet deposition, ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), or sulfur dioxide (SO2). Sensitivity simulations to isolate background inflow from regional emissions suggests that oxidation of imported Hg0 dominates model estimates of RHg at the rural study site (91% of base case value), and contributes 55% to the RHg at the urban site (local emissions contribute 45%).

  3. CMAQ's Support of EPA's Mission

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    At Federal, State, and Local agencies, CMAQ is often used when developing regulatory policies because it represents the state-of-the-science in air quality modeling. See how CMAQ supports the EPA mission of protecting human health and the environment.

  4. OPERATIONAL AND DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF THE OZONE FORECASTS BY THE ETA-CMAQ MODEL SUITE DURING THE 2002 NEW ENGLAND AIR QUALITY STUDY (NEAQS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (O3), a secondary pollutant, is created in part by emissions from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. It is necessary for local air quality agencies to accurately forecast ozone concentrations to warn the public of unhealthy air and to encourage people to volunta...

  5. USING CMAQ-AIM TO EVALUATE THE GAS-PARTICLE PARTITIONING TREATMENT IN CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multi-scale Air Quality model (CMAQ) aerosol component utilizes a modal representation, where the size distribution is represented as a sum of three lognormal modes. Though the aerosol treatment in CMAQ is quite advanced compared to other operational air quality mo...

  6. USING CMAQ-AIM TO EVALUATE THE GAS-PARTICLE PARTITIONING TREATMENT IN CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multi-scale Air Quality model (CMAQ) aerosol component utilizes a modal representation, where the size distribution is represented as a sum of three lognormal modes. Though the aerosol treatment in CMAQ is quite advanced compared to other operational air quality mo...

  7. PERFORMANCE AND DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF OZONE PREDICTIONS BY THE ETA-COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM DURING THE 2002 NEW ENGLAND AIR QUALITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A real-time air quality forecasting system (Eta-CMAQ model suite) has been developed by linking the NCEP Eta model to the U.S. EPA CMAQ model. This work presents results from the application of the Eta-CMAQ modeling system for forecasting O3 over the northeastern U.S d...

  8. PERFORMANCE AND DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF OZONE PREDICTIONS BY THE ETA-COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM DURING THE 2002 NEW ENGLAND AIR QUALITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A real-time air quality forecasting system (Eta-CMAQ model suite) has been developed by linking the NCEP Eta model to the U.S. EPA CMAQ model. This work presents results from the application of the Eta-CMAQ modeling system for forecasting O3 over the northeastern U.S d...

  9. Development of an Agricultural Fertilizer Modeling System for Bi-Directional Ammonia Fluxes in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) plays an important role in fine-mode aerosol formation. Accurate estimates of ammonia from both human and natural emissions can reduce uncertainties in air quality modeling. The majority of ammonia anthropogenic emissions come from the agricul...

  10. Development of an Agricultural Fertilizer Modeling System for Bi-Directional Ammonia Fluxes in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) plays an important role in fine-mode aerosol formation. Accurate estimates of ammonia from both human and natural emissions can reduce uncertainties in air quality modeling. The majority of ammonia anthropogenic emissions come from the agricul...

  11. NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE AIR QUALITY MODELING IN HOUSTON USING URBAN CANOPY PARAMETERS IN MM5 AND CMAQ WITH IMPROVED CHARACTERIZATION OF MESOSCALE LAKE-LAND BREEZE CIRCULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advanced capability of air quality simulation models towards accurate performance at finer scales will be needed for such models to serve as tools for performing exposure and risk assessments in urban areas. It is recognized that the impact of urban features such as street and t...

  12. NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE AIR QUALITY MODELING IN HOUSTON USING URBAN CANOPY PARAMETERS IN MM5 AND CMAQ WITH IMPROVED CHARACTERIZATION OF MESOSCALE LAKE-LAND BREEZE CIRCULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advanced capability of air quality simulation models towards accurate performance at finer scales will be needed for such models to serve as tools for performing exposure and risk assessments in urban areas. It is recognized that the impact of urban features such as street and t...

  13. Extending the Applicability of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model to Hemispheric Scales: Motivation, Challenges, and Progress

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adaptation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to simulate O3, particulate matter, and related precursor distributions over the northern hemisphere is presented. Hemispheric simulations with CMAQ and the Weather Research and Forecasting (...

  14. Extending the Applicability of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model to Hemispheric Scales: Motivation, Challenges, and Progress

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adaptation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to simulate O3, particulate matter, and related precursor distributions over the northern hemisphere is presented. Hemispheric simulations with CMAQ and the Weather Research and Forecasting (...

  15. EVALUATION OF THE CMAQ - AIM MODEL AGAINST SIZE AND CHEMICALLY-RESOLVED IMPACTOR DATA AT A COASTAL URBAN SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    CMAQ-UCD (formerly known as CMAQ-AIM), is a fully dynamic, sectional aerosol model which has been coupled to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) host air quality model. Aerosol sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, sodium, and chloride model outputs are compared against MOUDI data...

  16. EVALUATION OF THE CMAQ - AIM MODEL AGAINST SIZE AND CHEMICALLY-RESOLVED IMPACTOR DATA AT A COASTAL URBAN SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    CMAQ-UCD (formerly known as CMAQ-AIM), is a fully dynamic, sectional aerosol model which has been coupled to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) host air quality model. Aerosol sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, sodium, and chloride model outputs are compared against MOUDI data...

  17. Eta-CMAQ air quality forecasts for O3 and related species using three different photochemical mechanisms (CB4, CB05, SAPRC-99): comparisons with measurements during the 2004 ICARTT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Mathur, R.; Sarwar, G.; Kang, D.; Tong, D.; Pouliot, G.; Pleim, J.

    2010-03-01

    A critical module of air quality models is the photochemical mechanism. In this study, the impact of the three photochemical mechanisms (CB4, CB05, SAPRC-99) on the Eta-Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model's forecast performance for O3, and its related precursors has been assessed over the eastern United States with observations obtained by aircraft (NOAA P-3 and NASA DC-8) flights, ship and two surface networks (AIRNow and AIRMAP) during the 2004 International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) study. The results show that overall none of the mechanisms performs systematically better than the others. On the other hand, at the AIRNow surface sites, CB05 has the best performance with the normalized mean bias (NMB) of 3.9%, followed by CB4 (NMB=-5.7%) and SAPRC-99 (NMB=10.6%) for observed O3≥75 ppb, whereas CB4 has the best performance with the least overestimation for observed O3<75 ppb. On the basis of comparisons with aircraft P-3 measurements, there were consistent overestimations of O3, NOz, PAN and NOy and consistent underestimations of CO, HNO3, NO2, NO, SO2 and terpenes for all three mechanisms although the NMB values for each species and mechanisms were different. The results of aircraft DC-8 show that CB05 predicts the H2O2 mixing ratios most closely to the observations (NMB=10.8%), whereas CB4 and SAPRC-99 overestimated (NMB=74.7%) and underestimated (NMB=-25.5%) H2O2 mixing ratios significantly, respectively. For different air mass flows over the Gulf of Maine on the basis of the ship data, the three mechanisms have relatively better performance for O3, isoprene and SO2 for the clean marine or continental flows but relatively better performance for CO, NO2 and NO for southwesterly/westerly offshore flows. The results of the O3-NOz slopes over the ocean indicate that SAPRC-99 has the highest upper limits of the ozone production efficiency (ɛN) (5.8), followed by CB05 (4.5) and CB4 (4.0) although they

  18. Eta-CMAQ air quality forecasts for O3 and related species using three different photochemical mechanisms (CB4, CB05, SAPRC-99): comparisons with measurements during the 2004 ICARTT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Mathur, R.; Sarwar, G.; Kang, D.; Tong, D.; Pouliot, G.; Pleim, J.

    2009-10-01

    A critical module of air quality models is the photochemical mechanism. In this study, the impact of three photochemical mechanisms (CB4, CB05, SAPRC-99) on the Eta-Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model's forecast performance for O3, and its related precursors has been assessed over the eastern United States with the observations obtained by aircraft (NOAA P-3 and NASA DC-8) flights, ship and two surface networks (AIRNow and AIRMAP) during the 2004 International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) study. The results at the AIRNow surface sites show that for the observed O3≥75 ppb, CB05 has the best performance with the normalized mean bias (NMB) of 3.9%, followed by CB4 (NMB=-5.7%) and SAPRC-99 (NMB=10.6%), whereas CB4 has the best performance with the least overestimation for the observed O3<75 ppb. On the basis of comparisons with aircraft P-3 measurements, there were consistent overestimations of O3, NOz, PAN and NOy and consistent underestimations of CO, HNO3, NO2, NO, SO2 and terpenes for all three mechanisms although the NMB values for each species and mechanisms were different. The results of aircraft DC-8 show that CB05 predicts the H2O2 mixing ratios most closely to the observations (NMB=10.8%), whereas CB4 and SAPRC-99 overestimated (NMB=74.7%) and underestimated (NMB=-25.5%) H2O2 significantly, respectively. For different air mass flows over the Gulf of Maine on the basis of the ship data, the three mechanisms have relatively better performance for O3, isoprene and SO2 for the clean marine or continental flows but relatively better performance for CO, NO2 and NO for southwest/west offshore flows. The results of the O3-NOz slope over the ocean indicate that SAPRC-99 has the highest upper limits of the ozone production efficiency (ɛN) (5.8), followed by CB05 (4.5) and CB4 (4.0) although they are much lower than that inferred from the observation (11.8), being consistent with the fact that on average

  19. Developing Oxidized Nitrogen Atmospheric Deposition Source Attribution from CMAQ for Air-Water Trading for Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, R. L.; Napelenok, S. L.; Linker, L. C.; Dudek, M.

    2012-12-01

    Estuaries are adversely impacted by excess reactive nitrogen, Nr, from many point and nonpoint sources, including atmospheric deposition to the watershed and the estuary itself as a nonpoint source. For effective mitigation, trading among sources of Nr is being considered. The Chesapeake Bay Program is working to bring air into its trading scheme, which requires some special air computations. Airsheds are much larger than watersheds; thus, wide-spread or national emissions controls are put in place to achieve major reductions in atmospheric Nr deposition. The tributary nitrogen load reductions allocated to the states to meet the TMDL target for Chesapeake Bay are large and not easy to attain via controls on water point and nonpoint sources. It would help the TMDL process to take advantage of air emissions reductions that would occur with State Implementation Plans that go beyond the national air rules put in place to help meet national ambient air quality standards. There are still incremental benefits from these local or state-level controls on atmospheric emissions. The additional air deposition reductions could then be used to offset water quality controls (air-water trading). What is needed is a source to receptor transfer function that connects air emissions from a state to deposition to a tributary. There is a special source attribution version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality model, CMAQ, (termed DDM-3D) that can estimate the fraction of deposition contributed by labeled emissions (labeled by source or region) to the total deposition across space. We use the CMAQ DDM-3D to estimate simplified state-level delta-emissions to delta-atmospheric-deposition transfer coefficients for each major emission source sector within a state, since local air regulations are promulgated at the state level. The CMAQ 4.7.1 calculations are performed at a 12 km grid size over the airshed domain covering Chesapeake Bay for 2020 CAIR emissions. For results, we first present

  20. Application of MM5/CMAQ for modelling urban air pollution a case study for London, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitwiroon, N.; Fragkou, E.; Sokhi, R. S.; San Jose, R.; Pérez Camaño, J. L.; Middleton, D.

    2003-04-01

    Urban air pollution has been particularly studied for the last few decades because of its recognised environmental dangers and health implications. The complexity of the urban surface characteristics and turbulence patterns has dictated the use of numerical models by environmental research agencies and regulators in order to predict and manage urban air pollution. However, most of these models are not specifically adapted to urban applications and normally do not include detailed urban parameterisation, such as for surface roughness or urban heat fluxes. Flow structure and dispersion of air pollutants within cities, however, are influenced by urban features such as increased surface roughness. This paper presents a study using MM5 and CMAQ to assess the effect of urban boundary layer features on meteorological parameters, and hence London's air quality. MM5 is a non-hydrostatic (version 3), terrain-following sigma-coordinate model designed to simulate mesoscale and regional-scale atmospheric circulation. This paper employs an improved surface roughness treatment on meteorological profiles and pollution dispersion. A surface roughness scale has been developed for London and the surrounding region. The land cover data was derived from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) data, with a spatial resolution of 25 × 25 m. These z_o values are employed with MM5 for modelling meteorological parameters over London, covering an inner domain area of 49 × 49 km. The outputs of MM5 have been coupled to CMAQ photochemical model to predict concentrations of particles, NO_2 and O_3 for London and the surrounding regions at a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 km. The predicted concentrations have been compared with monitored data obtained from a range of national air quality monitoring sites including Central London (Bloomsbury, Brent), East London (Bexley) and West London (Hillingdon). Comparison of hourly model predictions with measured data is made for pollution levels for

  1. Understanding sources of organic aerosol during CalNex-2010 using the CMAQ-VBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations utilizing the traditional organic aerosol (OA) treatment (CMAQ-AE6) and a volatility basis set (VBS) treatment for OA (CMAQ-VBS) were evaluated against measurements collected at routine monitoring networks (Chemical Specia...

  2. Understanding sources of organic aerosol during CalNex-2010 using the CMAQ-VBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations utilizing the traditional organic aerosol (OA) treatment (CMAQ-AE6) and a volatility basis set (VBS) treatment for OA (CMAQ-VBS) were evaluated against measurements collected at routine monitoring networks (Chemical Specia...

  3. Diagnostic Analysis of Ozone Concentrations Simulated by Two Regional-Scale Air Quality Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ) and the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF/Chem) use different approaches to simulate the interaction of meteorology and chemistry, this study compares the CMAQ and WRF/Chem air quality simu...

  4. Diagnostic Analysis of Ozone Concentrations Simulated by Two Regional-Scale Air Quality Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ) and the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF/Chem) use different approaches to simulate the interaction of meteorology and chemistry, this study compares the CMAQ and WRF/Chem air quality simu...

  5. On Regional Modeling to Support Air Quality Policies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine the use of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model in simulating the changes in the extreme values of air quality that are of interest to the regulatory agencies. Year-to-year changes in ozone air quality are attributable to variations in the prevailing mete...

  6. On Regional Modeling to Support Air Quality Policies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine the use of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model in simulating the changes in the extreme values of air quality that are of interest to the regulatory agencies. Year-to-year changes in ozone air quality are attributable to variations in the prevailing mete...

  7. A BAYESIAN STATISTICAL APPROACHES FOR THE EVALUATION OF CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research focuses on the application of spatial statistical techniques for the evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The upcoming release version of the CMAQ model was run for the calendar year 2001 and is in the process of being evaluated by EPA an...

  8. WRF-CMAQ Two-way Coupled System with Aerosol Feedback: Software Development and Preliminary Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality models such as the EPA Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) require meteorological data as part of the input to drive the chemistry and transport simulation. The Meteorology-Chemistry Interface Processor (MCIP) is used to convert meteorological data into CMAQ-ready...

  9. WRF-CMAQ Two-way Coupled System with Aerosol Feedback: Software Development and Preliminary Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality models such as the EPA Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) require meteorological data as part of the input to drive the chemistry and transport simulation. The Meteorology-Chemistry Interface Processor (MCIP) is used to convert meteorological data into CMAQ-ready...

  10. Evaluation of Observation-Fused Regional Air Quality Model Results for Population Air Pollution Exposure Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Li, Jingyi; Ying, Qi; Sherman, Seth; Perkins, Neil; Rajeshwari, Sundaram; Mendola, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to predict ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations during 2001 to 2010 in 15 hospital referral regions (HRRs) using a 36-km horizontal resolution domain. An inverse distance weighting based method was applied to produce exposure estimates based on observation-fused regional pollutant concentration fields using the differences between observations and predictions at grid cells where air quality monitors were located. Although the raw CMAQ model is capable of producing satisfying results for O3 and PM2.5 based on EPA guidelines, using the observation data fusing technique to correct CMAQ predictions leads to significant improvement of model performance for all gaseous and particulate pollutants. Regional average concentrations were calculated using five different methods: 1) inverse distance weighting of observation data alone, 2) raw CMAQ results, 3) observation-fused CMAQ results, 4) population-averaged raw CMAQ results and 5) population-averaged fused CMAQ results. It shows that while O3 (as well as NOx) monitoring networks in the HRR regions are dense enough to provide consistent regional average exposure estimation based on monitoring data alone, PM2.5 observation sites (as well as monitors for CO, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 components) are usually sparse and the difference between the average concentrations estimated by the inverse distance interpolated observations, raw CMAQ and fused CMAQ results can be significantly different. Population-weighted average should be used to account spatial variation in pollutant concentration and population density. Using raw CMAQ results or observations alone might lead to significant biases in health outcome analyses. PMID:24747248

  11. Evaluation of observation-fused regional air quality model results for population air pollution exposure estimation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Li, Jingyi; Ying, Qi; Sherman, Seth; Perkins, Neil; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Mendola, Pauline

    2014-07-01

    In this study, Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to predict ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations during 2001 to 2010 in 15 hospital referral regions (HRRs) using a 36-km horizontal resolution domain. An inverse distance weighting based method was applied to produce exposure estimates based on observation-fused regional pollutant concentration fields using the differences between observations and predictions at grid cells where air quality monitors were located. Although the raw CMAQ model is capable of producing satisfying results for O3 and PM2.5 based on EPA guidelines, using the observation data fusing technique to correct CMAQ predictions leads to significant improvement of model performance for all gaseous and particulate pollutants. Regional average concentrations were calculated using five different methods: 1) inverse distance weighting of observation data alone, 2) raw CMAQ results, 3) observation-fused CMAQ results, 4) population-averaged raw CMAQ results and 5) population-averaged fused CMAQ results. It shows that while O3 (as well as NOx) monitoring networks in the HRRs are dense enough to provide consistent regional average exposure estimation based on monitoring data alone, PM2.5 observation sites (as well as monitors for CO, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 components) are usually sparse and the difference between the average concentrations estimated by the inverse distance interpolated observations, raw CMAQ and fused CMAQ results can be significantly different. Population-weighted average should be used to account for spatial variation in pollutant concentration and population density. Using raw CMAQ results or observations alone might lead to significant biases in health outcome analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Photochemical modeling of the Ozark isoprene volcano: MEGAN, BEIS, and their impacts on air quality predictions.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Annmarie G; Baker, Kirk R

    2011-05-15

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) contribute substantially to atmospheric carbon, exerting influence on air quality and climate. Two widely used models, the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and the Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS) are employed to generate emissions for application in the CMAQ air quality model. Predictions of isoprene, monoterpenes, ozone, formaldehyde, and secondary organic carbon (SOC) are compared to surface and aloft measurements made during an intensive study in the Ozarks, a large isoprene emitting region. MEGAN and BEIS predict spatially similar emissions but magnitudes differ. The total VOC reactivity of the emissions, as developed for the CB05 gas-phase chemical mechanism, is a factor of 2 different between the models. Isoprene estimates by CMAQ-MEGAN are higher and more variable than surface and aloft measurements, whereas CMAQ-BEIS predictions are lower. CMAQ ozone predictions are similar and compare well with measurements using either MEGAN or BEIS. However, CMAQ-MEGAN overpredicts formaldehyde. CMAQ-BEIS SOC predictions are lower than observational estimates for every sample. CMAQ-MEGAN underpredicts SOC ∼ 80% of the time, despite overprediction of precursor VOCs. CMAQ-MEGAN isoprene predictions improve when prognostically predicted solar radiation is replaced with the GEWEX satellite product. CMAQ-BEIS does not exhibit similar photosensitivity.

  13. Recent Advances in WRF Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA uses WRF in conjunction with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) for air quality regulation and research. Over the years we have added physics options and geophysical datasets to the WRF system to enhance model capabilities especially for extended retrospective...

  14. Recent Advances in WRF Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA uses WRF in conjunction with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) for air quality regulation and research. Over the years we have added physics options and geophysical datasets to the WRF system to enhance model capabilities especially for extended retrospective...

  15. Persistence of initial conditions in continental scale air quality simulations

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigates the effect of initial conditions (IC) for pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere and soil on simulated air quality for two continental-scale Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model applications. One of these applications was performed for springt...

  16. CONCENTRATIONS OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS IN THE U.S. SIMULATED BY AN AIR QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the US National Air Toxics Assessment, we have applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model, CMAQ, to study the concentrations of twenty gas-phase, toxic, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the atmosphere over the continental United States. We modified the Carbo...

  17. CONCENTRATIONS OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS IN THE U.S. SIMULATED BY AN AIR QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the US National Air Toxics Assessment, we have applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model, CMAQ, to study the concentrations of twenty gas-phase, toxic, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the atmosphere over the continental United States. We modified the Carbo...

  18. U.S. EPA MODELS-3/CMAQ - STATUS AND APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An advanced third-generation air quality modeling system has been developed by the Atmospheric Modeling Division of the U.S. EPA. The air quality simulation model at the heart of the system is known as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model. It is comprehensive in ...

  19. U.S. EPA MODELS-3/CMAQ - STATUS AND APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An advanced third-generation air quality modeling system has been developed by the Atmospheric Modeling Division of the U.S. EPA. The air quality simulation model at the heart of the system is known as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model. It is comprehensive in ...

  20. The Meteorology-Chemistry Interface Processor (MCIP) for the CMAQ Modeling System: Updates through MCIPv3.4.1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system is a state-of-the science regional air quality modeling system. The CMAQ modeling system has been primarily developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and it has been publically and freely available for more...

  1. Improved meteorology from an updated WRF/CMAQ modeling system with MODIS vegetation and albedo

    EPA Science Inventory

    Realistic vegetation characteristics and phenology from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products improve the simulation for the meteorology and air quality modeling system WRF/CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting model and Community Multiscale Air Qual...

  2. Improved meteorology from an updated WRF/CMAQ modeling system with MODIS vegetation and albedo

    EPA Science Inventory

    Realistic vegetation characteristics and phenology from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products improve the simulation for the meteorology and air quality modeling system WRF/CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting model and Community Multiscale Air Qual...

  3. Understanding the impact of recent advances in isoprene photooxidation on simulations of regional air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality) us model in combination with observations for INTEX-NA/ICARTT (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment–North America/International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation) 2004 are used to evalua...

  4. Understanding the impact of recent advances in isoprene photooxidation on simulations of regional air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality) us model in combination with observations for INTEX-NA/ICARTT (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment–North America/International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation) 2004 are used to evalua...

  5. Air quality real-time forecast before and during the G-20 Summit 2016 in Hangzhou with the WRF-CMAQ and WRF/Chem systems: Evaluation and Emission Reduction Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2016 G-20 Hangzhou summit, the eleventh annual meeting of the G-20 heads of government, will be held during September 3-5, 2016 in Hangzhou, China. For a successful summit, it is important to ensure good air quality. To achieve this goal, governments of Hangzhou and its surr...

  6. Air quality real-time forecast before and during the G-20 Summit 2016 in Hangzhou with the WRF-CMAQ and WRF/Chem systems: Evaluation and Emission Reduction Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2016 G-20 Hangzhou summit, the eleventh annual meeting of the G-20 heads of government, will be held during September 3-5, 2016 in Hangzhou, China. For a successful summit, it is important to ensure good air quality. To achieve this goal, governments of Hangzhou and its surr...

  7. USING MM5 VERSION 2 WITH CMAQ AND MODELS-3, A USER'S GUIDE AND TUTORIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meteorological data are important in many of the processes simulated in the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and the Models-3 framework. The first meteorology model that has been selected and evaluated with CMAQ is the Fifth-Generation Pennsylvania State University...

  8. SIMULATION OF SULFATE AEROSOL IN EAST ASIA USING MODELS-3/CMAQ WITH RAMS METEOROLOGICAL DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study attempts to address a few challenges in utilizing the flexibility of the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. We apply the CMAQ system with the meteorological data provided by the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and to a...

  9. SIMULATION OF SULFATE AEROSOL IN EAST ASIA USING MODELS-3/CMAQ WITH RAMS METEOROLOGICAL DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study attempts to address a few challenges in utilizing the flexibility of the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. We apply the CMAQ system with the meteorological data provided by the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and to a...

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF AIR QUALITY MODELING SIMULATIONS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentrations of five hazardous air pollutants were simulated using the Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Annual simulations were performed over the continental United States for the entire year of 2001 to support human exposure estimates. Results a...

  11. DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF AIR QUALITY MODELING SIMULATIONS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentrations of five hazardous air pollutants were simulated using the Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Annual simulations were performed over the continental United States for the entire year of 2001 to support human exposure estimates. Results a...

  12. Model Representation of Secondary Organic Aerosol in CMAQ v4.7

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous scientific upgrades to the representation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are incorporated into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Additions include several recently identified SOA precursors: benzene, isoprene, and sesquiterpenes; and pathwa...

  13. Model Representation of Secondary Organic Aerosol in CMAQ v4.7

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous scientific upgrades to the representation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are incorporated into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Additions include several recently identified SOA precursors: benzene, isoprene, and sesquiterpenes; and pathwa...

  14. A COMPARISON OF CMAQ-BASED AEROSOL PROPERTIES WITH IMPROVE, MODIS, AND AERONET DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compare select aerosol Properties derived from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model-simulated aerosol mass concentrations with routine data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer...

  15. A COMPARISON OF CMAQ-BASED AEROSOL PROPERTIES WITH IMPROVE, MODIS, AND AERONET DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compare select aerosol Properties derived from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model-simulated aerosol mass concentrations with routine data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer...

  16. ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY SIMULATION USING THE CMAQ MODEL: FORMULATION DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF WET DEPOSITION RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system has recently been adapted to simulate the emission, transport, transformation and deposition of atmospheric mercury in three distinct forms; elemental mercury gas, reactive gaseous mercury, and particulate mercury. Emis...

  17. Evaluation of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model Version 5.2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is a state-of-the-science air quality model that simulates the emission, transport and fate of numerous air pollutants, including ozone and particulate matter. The Computational Exposure Division (CED) of the U.S. Environmental Pr...

  18. Evaluation of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model Version 5.2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is a state-of-the-science air quality model that simulates the emission, transport and fate of numerous air pollutants, including ozone and particulate matter. The Computational Exposure Division (CED) of the U.S. Environmental Pr...

  19. Overview and Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model Version 5.2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is a state-of-the-science air quality model that simulates the emission, transport and fate of numerous air pollutants, including ozone and particulate matter. The Computational Exposure Division (CED) of the U.S. Environmental Pr...

  20. Overview and Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model Version 5.2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is a state-of-the-science air quality model that simulates the emission, transport and fate of numerous air pollutants, including ozone and particulate matter. The Computational Exposure Division (CED) of the U.S. Environmental Pr...

  1. A NASA Lightning Parameterization for CMAQ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William; Khan, Maudood; Biazar, Arastoo; Newchurch, Mike; McNider, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Many state and local air quality agencies use the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to determine compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Because emission reduction scenarios are tested using CMAQ with an aim of determining the most efficient and cost effective strategies for attaining the NAAQS, it is very important that trace gas concentrations derived by CMAQ are accurate. Overestimating concentrations can literally translate into billions of dollars lost by commercial and government industries forced to comply with the standards. Costly health, environmental and socioeconomic problems can result from concentration underestimates. Unfortunately, lightning modeling for CMAQ is highly oversimplified. This leads to very poor estimates of lightning-produced nitrogen oxides "NOx" (= NO + NO2) which directly reduces the accuracy of the concentrations of important CMAQ trace gases linked to NOx concentrations such as ozone and methane. Today it is known that lightning is the most important NOx source in the upper troposphere with a global production rate estimated to vary between 2-20 Tg(N)/yr. In addition, NOx indirectly influences our climate since it controls the concentration of ozone and hydroxyl radicals (OH) in the atmosphere. Ozone is an important greenhouse gas and OH controls the oxidation of various greenhouse gases. We describe a robust NASA lightning model, called the Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) that combines state-of-the-art lightning measurements, empirical results from field studies, and beneficial laboratory results to arrive at a realistic representation of lightning NOx production for CMAQ. NASA satellite lightning data is used in conjunction with ground-based lightning detection systems to assure that the best representation of lightning frequency, geographic location, channel length, channel altitude, strength (i.e., channel peak current), and

  2. A NASA Lightning Parameterization for CMAQ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William; Khan, Maudood; Biazar, Arastoo; Newchurch, Mike; McNider, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Many state and local air quality agencies use the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to determine compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Because emission reduction scenarios are tested using CMAQ with an aim of determining the most efficient and cost effective strategies for attaining the NAAQS, it is very important that trace gas concentrations derived by CMAQ are accurate. Overestimating concentrations can literally translate into billions of dollars lost by commercial and government industries forced to comply with the standards. Costly health, environmental and socioeconomic problems can result from concentration underestimates. Unfortunately, lightning modeling for CMAQ is highly oversimplified. This leads to very poor estimates of lightning-produced nitrogen oxides "NOx" (= NO + NO2) which directly reduces the accuracy of the concentrations of important CMAQ trace gases linked to NOx concentrations such as ozone and methane. Today it is known that lightning is the most important NOx source in the upper troposphere with a global production rate estimated to vary between 2-20 Tg(N)/yr. In addition, NOx indirectly influences our climate since it controls the concentration of ozone and hydroxyl radicals (OH) in the atmosphere. Ozone is an important greenhouse gas and OH controls the oxidation of various greenhouse gases. We describe a robust NASA lightning model, called the Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) that combines state-of-the-art lightning measurements, empirical results from field studies, and beneficial laboratory results to arrive at a realistic representation of lightning NOx production for CMAQ. NASA satellite lightning data is used in conjunction with ground-based lightning detection systems to assure that the best representation of lightning frequency, geographic location, channel length, channel altitude, strength (i.e., channel peak current), and

  3. THE 2006 CMAQ RELEASE AND PLANS FOR 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2006 release of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model (Version 4.6) includes upgrades to several model components as well as new modules for gas-phase chemistry and boundary layer mixing. Capabilities for simulation of hazardous air pollutants have been expanded ...

  4. THE 2006 CMAQ RELEASE AND PLANS FOR 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2006 release of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model (Version 4.6) includes upgrades to several model components as well as new modules for gas-phase chemistry and boundary layer mixing. Capabilities for simulation of hazardous air pollutants have been expanded ...

  5. Towards the Next Generation Air Quality Modeling System ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is one of the most widely used air quality model worldwide; it is employed for both research and regulatory applications at major universities and government agencies for improving understanding of the formation and transport of air pollutants. It is noted, however, that air quality issues and climate change assessments need to be addressed globally recognizing the linkages and interactions between meteorology and atmospheric chemistry across a wide range of scales. Therefore, an effort is currently underway to develop the next generation air quality modeling system (NGAQM) that will be based on a global integrated meteorology and chemistry system. The model for prediction across scales-atmosphere (MPAS-A), a global fully compressible non-hydrostatic model with seamlessly refined centroidal Voronoi grids, has been chosen as the meteorological driver of this modeling system. The initial step of adapting MPAS-A for the NGAQM was to implement and test the physics parameterizations and options that are preferred for retrospective air quality simulations (see the work presented by R. Gilliam, R. Bullock, and J. Herwehe at this workshop). The next step, presented herein, would be to link the chemistry from CMAQ to MPAS-A to build a prototype for the NGAQM. Furthermore, the techniques to harmonize transport processes between CMAQ and MPAS-A, methodologies to connect the chemis

  6. Development and application of air quality models at the U.S. EPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overview of the development and application of air quality models at the U.S. EPA, particularly focused on the development and application of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model developed within the Computation Exposure Division (CED) of the National Exposure Resear...

  7. CHANGES TO THE CHEMICAL MECHANISMS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS IN CMAQ VERSION 4.6

    EPA Science Inventory

    The extended abstract describes a presentation to the 2006 conference of the Community Modeling and Analysis System. The presentation introduces two new mechanisms for the atmospheric photochemistry of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) to be used in regional air quality models. It ...

  8. CHANGES TO THE CHEMICAL MECHANISMS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS IN CMAQ VERSION 4.6

    EPA Science Inventory

    The extended abstract describes a presentation to the 2006 conference of the Community Modeling and Analysis System. The presentation introduces two new mechanisms for the atmospheric photochemistry of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) to be used in regional air quality models. It ...

  9. Incorporating principal component analysis into air quality ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The efficacy of standard air quality model evaluation techniques is becoming compromised as the simulation periods continue to lengthen in response to ever increasing computing capacity. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a statistical approach called Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with the intent of motivating its use by the evaluation community. One of the main objectives of PCA is to identify, through data reduction, the recurring and independent modes of variations (or signals) within a very large dataset, thereby summarizing the essential information of that dataset so that meaningful and descriptive conclusions can be made. In this demonstration, PCA is applied to a simple evaluation metric – the model bias associated with EPA's Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model when compared to weekly observations of sulfate (SO42−) and ammonium (NH4+) ambient air concentrations measured by the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet). The advantages of using this technique are demonstrated as it identifies strong and systematic patterns of CMAQ model bias across a myriad of spatial and temporal scales that are neither constrained to geopolitical boundaries nor monthly/seasonal time periods (a limitation of many current studies). The technique also identifies locations (station–grid cell pairs) that are used as indicators for a more thorough diagnostic evaluation thereby hastening and facilitating understanding of the prob

  10. Human-model hybrid Korean air quality forecasting system.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lim-Seok; Cho, Ara; Park, Hyunju; Nam, Kipyo; Kim, Deokrae; Hong, Ji-Hyoung; Song, Chang-Keun

    2016-09-01

    The Korean national air quality forecasting system, consisting of the Weather Research and Forecasting, the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions, and the Community Modeling and Analysis (CMAQ), commenced from August 31, 2013 with target pollutants of particulate matters (PM) and ozone. Factors contributing to PM forecasting accuracy include CMAQ inputs of meteorological field and emissions, forecasters' capacity, and inherent CMAQ limit. Four numerical experiments were conducted including two global meteorological inputs from the Global Forecast System (GFS) and the Unified Model (UM), two emissions from the Model Intercomparison Study Asia (MICS-Asia) and the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-B) for the Northeast Asia with Clear Air Policy Support System (CAPSS) for South Korea, and data assimilation of the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC). Significant PM underpredictions by using both emissions were found for PM mass and major components (sulfate and organic carbon). CMAQ predicts PM2.5 much better than PM10 (NMB of PM2.5: -20~-25%, PM10: -43~-47%). Forecasters' error usually occurred at the next day of high PM event. Once CMAQ fails to predict high PM event the day before, forecasters are likely to dismiss the model predictions on the next day which turns out to be true. The best combination of CMAQ inputs is the set of UM global meteorological field, MICS-Asia and CAPSS 2010 emissions with the NMB of -12.3%, the RMSE of 16.6μ/m(3) and the R(2) of 0.68. By using MACC data as an initial and boundary condition, the performance skill of CMAQ would be improved, especially in the case of undefined coarse emission. A variety of methods such as ensemble and data assimilation are considered to improve further the accuracy of air quality forecasting, especially for high PM events to be comparable to for all cases. The growing utilization of the air quality forecast induced the public strongly to demand that the accuracy of the

  11. Application of Watershed Deposition Tool to Estimate from CMAQ Simulations of the Atmospheric Deposition of Nitrogen to Tampa Bay and Its Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA has developed Watershed Deposition Tool (WDT) to calculate from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model output the nitrogen, sulfur, and mercury deposition rates to watersheds and their sub-basins. The CMAQ model simulates from first principles the transport, ...

  12. Application of Watershed Deposition Tool to Estimate from CMAQ Simulations of the Atmospheric Deposition of Nitrogen to Tampa Bay and Its Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA has developed Watershed Deposition Tool (WDT) to calculate from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model output the nitrogen, sulfur, and mercury deposition rates to watersheds and their sub-basins. The CMAQ model simulates from first principles the transport, ...

  13. Modeling and Measurements to Improve Bidirectional Exchange in CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonia, NH3, is an emerging atmospheric pollutant of interest. It is an aerosol precursor and growing constituent of nitrogen deposition. In this presentation, the bidirectional exchange model for NH¬3 in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model will be reviewed and...

  14. A BAYESIAN STATISTICAL APPROACH FOR THE EVALUATION OF CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bayesian statistical methods are used to evaluate Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations of sulfate aerosol over a section of the eastern US for 4-week periods in summer and winter 2001. The observed data come from two U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data ...

  15. A BAYESIAN STATISTICAL APPROACH FOR THE EVALUATION OF CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bayesian statistical methods are used to evaluate Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations of sulfate aerosol over a section of the eastern US for 4-week periods in summer and winter 2001. The observed data come from two U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data ...

  16. COMPARISON OF SPATIAL PATTERNS OF POLLUTANT DISTRIBUTION WITH CMAQ PREDICTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate the Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system in reproducing the spatial patterns of aerosol concentrations over the country on timescales of months and years, the spatial patterns of model output are compared with those derived from observation...

  17. MODELS-3/CMAQ APPLICATIONS WHICH ILLUSTRATE CAPABILITY AND FUNCTIONALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Models-3/CMAQ developed by the U.S. Environmental Protections Agency (USEPA) is a third generation multiscale, multi-pollutant air quality modeling system within a high-level, object-oriented computer framework (Models-3). It has been available to the scientific community ...

  18. MODELS-3/CMAQ APPLICATIONS WHICH ILLUSTRATE CAPABILITY AND FUNCTIONALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Models-3/CMAQ developed by the U.S. Environmental Protections Agency (USEPA) is a third generation multiscale, multi-pollutant air quality modeling system within a high-level, object-oriented computer framework (Models-3). It has been available to the scientific community ...

  19. COMPARISON OF SPATIAL PATTERNS OF POLLUTANT DISTRIBUTION WITH CMAQ PREDICTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate the Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system in reproducing the spatial patterns of aerosol concentrations over the country on timescales of months and years, the spatial patterns of model output are compared with those derived from observation...

  20. Statistical Properties of Differences between Low and High Resolution CMAQ Runs with Matched Initial and Boundary Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The difficulty in assessing errors in numerical models of air quality is a major obstacle to improving their ability to predict and retrospectively map air quality. In this paper, using simulation outputs from the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ), the statistic...

  1. One way coupling of CMAQ and a road source dispersion model for fine scale air pollution predictions

    PubMed Central

    Beevers, Sean D.; Kitwiroon, Nutthida; Williams, Martin L.; Carslaw, David C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we have coupled the CMAQ and ADMS air quality models to predict hourly concentrations of NOX, NO2 and O3 for London at a spatial scale of 20 m × 20 m. Model evaluation has demonstrated reasonable agreement with measurements from 80 monitoring sites in London. For NO2 the model evaluation statistics gave 73% of the hourly concentrations within a factor of two of observations, a mean bias of −4.7 ppb and normalised mean bias of −0.17, a RMSE value of 17.7 and an r value of 0.58. The equivalent results for O3 were 61% (FAC2), 2.8 ppb (MB), 0.15 (NMB), 12.1 (RMSE) and 0.64 (r). Analysis of the errors in the model predictions by hour of the week showed the need for improvements in predicting the magnitude of road transport related NOX emissions as well as the hourly emissions scaling in the model. These findings are consistent with recent evidence of UK road transport NOX emissions, reported elsewhere. The predictions of wind speed using the WRF model also influenced the model results and contributed to the daytime over prediction of NOX concentrations at the central London background site at Kensington and Chelsea. An investigation of the use of a simple NO–NO2–O3 chemistry scheme showed good performance close to road sources, and this is also consistent with previous studies. The coupling of the two models raises an issue of emissions double counting. Here, we have put forward a pragmatic solution to this problem with the result that a median double counting error of 0.42% exists across 39 roadside sites in London. Finally, whilst the model can be improved, the current results show promise and demonstrate that the use of a combination of regional scale and local scale models can provide a practical modelling tool for policy development at intergovernmental, national and local authority level, as well as for use in epidemiological studies. PMID:23471172

  2. USING CMAQ FOR EXPOSURE MODELING AND CHARACTERIZING THE SUB-GRID VARIABILITY FOR EXPOSURE ESTIMATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric processes and the associated transport and dispersion of atmospheric pollutants are known to be highly variable in time and space. Current air quality models that characterize atmospheric chemistry effects, e.g. the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ), provide vo...

  3. Application and evaluation of high-resolution WRF-CMAQ with simple urban parameterization

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2-way coupled WRF-CMAQ meteorology and air quality modeling system is evaluated for high-resolution applications by comparing to a regional air quality field study (Discover-AQ). The model was modified to better account for the effects of urban environments. High-resolution...

  4. Application and evaluation of high-resolution WRF-CMAQ with simple urban parameterization.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2-way coupled WRF-CMAQ meteorology and air quality modeling system is evaluated for high-resolution applications by comparing to a regional air quality field study (Discover-AQ). The model was modified to better account for the effects of urban environments. High-resolution...

  5. Application and evaluation of high-resolution WRF-CMAQ with simple urban parameterization.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2-way coupled WRF-CMAQ meteorology and air quality modeling system is evaluated for high-resolution applications by comparing to a regional air quality field study (Discover-AQ). The model was modified to better account for the effects of urban environments. High-resolution...

  6. Application and evaluation of high-resolution WRF-CMAQ with simple urban parameterization

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2-way coupled WRF-CMAQ meteorology and air quality modeling system is evaluated for high-resolution applications by comparing to a regional air quality field study (Discover-AQ). The model was modified to better account for the effects of urban environments. High-resolution...

  7. Towards the Next Generation Air Quality Modeling System: Current Progress on Implementing Chemistry into MPAS-A

    EPA Science Inventory

    The community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is one of the most widely used air quality model worldwide; it is employed for both research and regulatory applications at major universities and government agencies for improving under...

  8. IMPLEMENTATION OF AN URBAN CANOPY PARAMETERIZATION IN MM5 FOR MESO-GAMMA-SCALE AIR QUALITY MODELING APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is extending its Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System to provide detailed gridded air quality concentration fields and sub-grid variability characterization at neighborhood scales and in urban areas...

  9. IMPLEMENTATION OF AN URBAN CANOPY PARAMETERIZATION IN MM5 FOR MESO-GAMMA-SCALE AIR QUALITY MODELING APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is extending its Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System to provide detailed gridded air quality concentration fields and sub-grid variability characterization at neighborhood scales and in urban areas...

  10. Air Quality System (AQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  11. Incorporating principal component analysis into air quality model evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Brian; Bash, Jesse; Foley, Kristen; Pleim, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of standard air quality model evaluation techniques is becoming compromised as the simulation periods continue to lengthen in response to ever increasing computing capacity. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a statistical approach called Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with the intent of motivating its use by the evaluation community. One of the main objectives of PCA is to identify, through data reduction, the recurring and independent modes of variations (or signals) within a very large dataset, thereby summarizing the essential information of that dataset so that meaningful and descriptive conclusions can be made. In this demonstration, PCA is applied to a simple evaluation metric - the model bias associated with EPA's Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model when compared to weekly observations of sulfate (SO42-) and ammonium (NH4+) ambient air concentrations measured by the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet). The advantages of using this technique are demonstrated as it identifies strong and systematic patterns of CMAQ model bias across a myriad of spatial and temporal scales that are neither constrained to geopolitical boundaries nor monthly/seasonal time periods (a limitation of many current studies). The technique also identifies locations (station-grid cell pairs) that are used as indicators for a more thorough diagnostic evaluation thereby hastening and facilitating understanding of the probable mechanisms responsible for the unique behavior among bias regimes. A sampling of results indicates that biases are still prevalent in both SO42- and NH4+ simulations that can be attributed to either: 1) cloud processes in the meteorological model utilized by CMAQ, which are found to overestimated convective clouds and precipitation, while underestimating larger-scale resolved clouds that are less likely to precipitate, and 2) biases associated with Midwest NH3 emissions which may be partially ameliorated

  12. Investigating the urban heat island effect on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughner, C. P.; Allen, D. J.; Dickerson, R. R.; Pickering, K. E.; Shou, Y.; Zhang, D.

    2009-12-01

    Urbanization impacts meteorology and air quality in and downwind of cities. An urban heat island can increase the temperature in and downwind of cities. An increase in temperature may worsen air quality by increasing the amount of photochemically produced ozone. During an air pollution episode on July 9, 2007, in which 8-hour maximum ozone and 24-hour average PM2.5 concentrations reached 125ppb and 40μg/m3 respectively, the Washington, DC urban heat island propagated downwind over Columbia, MD and then Baltimore, MD further amplifying the temperature in and downwind of Baltimore. With the use of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with an urban canopy model (WRF/UCM) and EPA’s Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, the air quality is analyzed within the urban heat island. In addition, the interactions between the Chesapeake Bay breeze, the urban heat island, and the air chemistry are analyzed.

  13. A FRAMEWORK FOR FINE-SCALE COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS AIR QUALITY MODELING AND ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses a framework for fine-scale CFD modeling that may be developed to complement the present Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system which itself is a computational fluid dynamics model. A goal of this presentation is to stimulate discussions on w...

  14. Influence of Boundary Conditions on Regional Air Quality Simulations-Analysis of AQMEII Phase 3 Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation focuses on the dynamic evaluation of the CMAQ model over the continental United States using multi-decadal simulations for the period from 1990 to 2010 to examine how well the changes in observed ozone air quality induced by variations in meteorology and/or emis...

  15. 77 FR 4510 - Air Quality Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Attainment Plan for the Kentucky Portion of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... representative period of meteorology is crucial for evaluating baseline air quality conditions and projecting... best period of meteorology available for conducting the CMAQ modeling. As noted above, the VISTAS and... variability of meteorology and emissions (over a five-year period). This EPA attainment test approach should...

  16. INTERDEPENDENCIES OF MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL SIMULATIONS IN AN AIR QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this work, we use the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to examine the effect of several control strategies on simultaneous concentrations of ozone, PM2.5, and three important HAPs: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and benzene.

  17. A FRAMEWORK FOR FINE-SCALE COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS AIR QUALITY MODELING AND ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses a framework for fine-scale CFD modeling that may be developed to complement the present Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system which itself is a computational fluid dynamics model. A goal of this presentation is to stimulate discussions on w...

  18. Influence of Boundary Conditions on Regional Air Quality Simulations-Analysis of AQMEII Phase 3 Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation focuses on the dynamic evaluation of the CMAQ model over the continental United States using multi-decadal simulations for the period from 1990 to 2010 to examine how well the changes in observed ozone air quality induced by variations in meteorology and/or emis...

  19. INTERDEPENDENCIES OF MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL SIMULATIONS IN AN AIR QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this work, we use the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to examine the effect of several control strategies on simultaneous concentrations of ozone, PM2.5, and three important HAPs: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and benzene.

  20. Improving Air Quality Forecasts with AURA Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newchurch, M. J.; Biazer, A.; Khan, M.; Koshak, W. J.; Nair, U.; Fuller, K.; Wang, L.; Parker, Y.; Williams, R.; Liu, X.

    2008-01-01

    Past studies have identified model initial and boundary conditions as sources of reducible errors in air-quality simulations. In particular, improving the initial condition improves the accuracy of short-term forecasts as it allows for the impact of local emissions to be realized by the model and improving boundary conditions improves long range transport through the model domain, especially in recirculating anticyclones. During the August 2006 period, we use AURA/OMI ozone measurements along with MODIS and CALIPSO aerosol observations to improve the initial and boundary conditions of ozone and Particulate Matter. Assessment of the model by comparison of the control run and satellite assimilation run to the IONS06 network of ozonesonde observations, which comprise the densest ozone sounding campaign ever conducted in North America, to AURA/TES ozone profile measurements, and to the EPA ground network of ozone and PM measurements will show significant improvement in the CMAQ calculations that use AURA initial and boundary conditions. Further analyses of lightning occurrences from ground and satellite observations and AURA/OMI NO2 column abundances will identify the lightning NOx signal evident in OMI measurements and suggest pathways for incorporating the lightning and NO2 data into the CMAQ simulations.

  1. Improving Air Quality Forecasts with AURA Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newchurch, M. J.; Biazer, A.; Khan, M.; Koshak, W. J.; Nair, U.; Fuller, K.; Wang, L.; Parker, Y.; Williams, R.; Liu, X.

    2008-01-01

    Past studies have identified model initial and boundary conditions as sources of reducible errors in air-quality simulations. In particular, improving the initial condition improves the accuracy of short-term forecasts as it allows for the impact of local emissions to be realized by the model and improving boundary conditions improves long range transport through the model domain, especially in recirculating anticyclones. During the August 2006 period, we use AURA/OMI ozone measurements along with MODIS and CALIPSO aerosol observations to improve the initial and boundary conditions of ozone and Particulate Matter. Assessment of the model by comparison of the control run and satellite assimilation run to the IONS06 network of ozonesonde observations, which comprise the densest ozone sounding campaign ever conducted in North America, to AURA/TES ozone profile measurements, and to the EPA ground network of ozone and PM measurements will show significant improvement in the CMAQ calculations that use AURA initial and boundary conditions. Further analyses of lightning occurrences from ground and satellite observations and AURA/OMI NO2 column abundances will identify the lightning NOx signal evident in OMI measurements and suggest pathways for incorporating the lightning and NO2 data into the CMAQ simulations.

  2. US EPA 2012 Air Quality Fused Surface for the Conterminous U.S. Map Service

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web service contains a polygon layer that depicts fused air quality predictions for 2012 for census tracts in the conterminous United States. Fused air quality predictions (for ozone and PM2.5) are modeled using a Bayesian space-time downscaling fusion model approach described in a series of three published journal papers: 1) (Berrocal, V., Gelfand, A. E. and Holland, D. M. (2012). Space-time fusion under error in computer model output: an application to modeling air quality. Biometrics 68, 837-848; 2) Berrocal, V., Gelfand, A. E. and Holland, D. M. (2010). A bivariate space-time downscaler under space and time misalignment. The Annals of Applied Statistics 4, 1942-1975; and 3) Berrocal, V., Gelfand, A. E., and Holland, D. M. (2010). A spatio-temporal downscaler for output from numerical models. J. of Agricultural, Biological,and Environmental Statistics 15, 176-197) is used to provide daily, predictive PM2.5 (daily average) and O3 (daily 8-hr maximum) surfaces for 2012. Summer (O3) and annual (PM2.5) means calculated and published. The downscaling fusion model uses both air quality monitoring data from the National Air Monitoring Stations/State and Local Air Monitoring Stations (NAMS/SLAMS) and numerical output from the Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ). Currently, predictions at the US census tract centroid locations within the 12 km CMAQ domain are archived. Predictions at the CMAQ grid cell centroids, or any desired set of locations co

  3. "Advances in Coupled Air Quality, Farm Management and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A cropland farm management modeling system for regional air quality and field-scale applications of bi-directional ammonia exchange was presented at ITM XXI. The goal of this research is to improve estimates of nitrogen deposition to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and ambient ammonium aerosol particle concentrations injurious to human health. These concepts have been implemented and have been released as options in CMAQ 5.01. This presentation will summarize the integration of these two models and will present model performance results relative to wet deposition measurements, ambient ammonium aerosol and ambient ammonia observations. Results indicate a shift in the timing of current U.S. agricultural emission inventories and improved CMAQ model performance. Comparison to annual wet deposition observations suggests remaining bias may be attributable primarily to precipitation model errors. Preliminary results of CMAQ deposition and ambient ammonia response to interannual variability in farm management activities will also be presented. The USEPA Office of Air and Radiation is currently considering the recommendation of the coupled model for use in standard setting activities and applications are being developed in collaboration with USEPA Office of Water and Regional Offices. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Atmospheric Modeling and Analysis Division (AMAD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the envi

  4. Air quality modeling for accountability research: Operational, dynamic, and diagnostic evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneman, Lucas R. F.; Liu, Cong; Hu, Yongtao; Mulholland, James A.; Russell, Armistead G.

    2017-10-01

    Photochemical grid models play a central role in air quality regulatory frameworks, including in air pollution accountability research, which seeks to demonstrate the extent to which regulations causally impacted emissions, air quality, and public health. There is a need, however, to develop and demonstrate appropriate practices for model application and evaluation in an accountability framework. We employ a combination of traditional and novel evaluation techniques to assess four years (2001-02, 2011-12) of simulated pollutant concentrations across a decade of major emissions reductions using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. We have grouped our assessments in three categories: Operational evaluation investigates how well CMAQ captures absolute concentrations; dynamic evaluation investigates how well CMAQ captures changes in concentrations across the decade of changing emissions; diagnostic evaluation investigates how CMAQ attributes variability in concentrations and sensitivities to emissions between meteorology and emissions, and how well this attribution compares to empirical statistical models. In this application, CMAQ captures O3 and PM2.5 concentrations and change over the decade in the Eastern United States similarly to past CMAQ applications and in line with model evaluation guidance; however, some PM2.5 species-EC, OC, and sulfate in particular-exhibit high biases in various months. CMAQ-simulated PM2.5 has a high bias in winter months and low bias in the summer, mainly due to a high bias in OC during the cold months and low bias in OC and sulfate during the summer. Simulated O3 and PM2.5 changes across the decade have normalized mean bias of less than 2.5% and 17%, respectively. Detailed comparisons suggest biased EC emissions, negative wintertime SO42- sensitivities to mobile source emissions, and incomplete capture of OC chemistry in the summer and winter. Photochemical grid model-simulated O3 and PM2.5 responses to emissions and

  5. A Reduced Form Model for Ozone Based on Two Decades of CMAQ Simulations for the Continental United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Reduced Form Model (RFM) is a mathematical relationship between the inputs and outputs of an air quality model, permitting estimation of additional modeling without costly new regional-scale simulations. A 21-year Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) simulation for the con...

  6. ASSESSMENT OF ETA-CMAQ FORECASTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER DISTRIBUTIONS THROUGH COMPARISONS WITH SURFACE NETWORK AND SPECIALIZED MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An air-quality forecasting (AQF) system based on the National Weather Service (NWS) National Centers for Environmental Prediction's (NCEP's) Eta model and the U.S. EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System is used to simulate the distributions of tropospheric ...

  7. A Reduced Form Model for Ozone Based on Two Decades of CMAQ Simulations for the Continental United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Reduced Form Model (RFM) is a mathematical relationship between the inputs and outputs of an air quality model, permitting estimation of additional modeling without costly new regional-scale simulations. A 21-year Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) simulation for the con...

  8. ASSESSMENT OF ETA-CMAQ FORECASTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER DISTRIBUTIONS THROUGH COMPARISONS WITH SURFACE NETWORK AND SPECIALIZED MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An air-quality forecasting (AQF) system based on the National Weather Service (NWS) National Centers for Environmental Prediction's (NCEP's) Eta model and the U.S. EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System is used to simulate the distributions of tropospheric ...

  9. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  10. Air Quality Modeling of Ozone Radical Precursors in Houston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappenglueck, B.; Czader, B.; Li, X.

    2013-05-01

    The Houston-Galveston area has one of the highest ozone concentrations in the U.S., often exceeding the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone. Photochemical modeling of ozone formation in the Houston area generally underestimates the concentrations of free radical precursors contributing to ozone formation. Here we present modeling results using the Weather Research Forecast - Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF-CMAQ) modeling system for the Houston-Galveston area. Meteorological parameters predicted by WRF are well simulated most of the time, including planetary boundary layer heights. Air quality simulations for the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria area using the combined WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ system showed overall good results for ozone and many other trace gases. HONO morning peaks are no longer underpredicted, on some occasions they are slightly overpredicted, which can be linked to NO2 overprediction. However, CMAQ mispredicts other trace gases like HO2, H2O2 and CH3OOH concentrations. The WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ system was also used to elucidate the relative importance of various photolysis processes as radical sources in the Houston atmosphere. Morning HOx formation is dominated by HONO while ozone contributes the most during midday. HONO contribution to HOx formation is more pronounced at the surface layer where most of it is formed. On the other hand, radical production from ozone is more important at elevated levels where higher concentrations of ozone are observed. Formaldehyde contributes up to 40% and also peaks during mid-day, but on days when high morning concentrations of formaldehyde are observed its contribution to HOx in the morning exceeds that of ozone. Photolysis of H2O2 is a minor contributor to radical levels. The process analysis tool available in CMAQ was utilized to analyze photochemical processes leading to ozone production and chemical transformations along trajectories linking a site at the Houston Ship Channel and the University of

  11. Understanding sources of organic aerosol during CalNex-2010 using the CMAQ-VBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, Matthew C.; Baker, Kirk R.; Hayes, Patrick L.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Koo, Bonyoung; Pye, Havala O. T.

    2016-03-01

    Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations utilizing the traditional organic aerosol (OA) treatment (CMAQ-AE6) and a volatility basis set (VBS) treatment for OA (CMAQ-VBS) were evaluated against measurements collected at routine monitoring networks (Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE)) and those collected during the 2010 California at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaign to examine important sources of OA in southern California. Traditionally, CMAQ treats primary organic aerosol (POA) as nonvolatile and uses a two-product framework to represent secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. CMAQ-VBS instead treats POA as semivolatile and lumps OA using volatility bins spaced an order of magnitude apart. The CMAQ-VBS approach underpredicted organic carbon (OC) at IMPROVE and CSN sites to a greater degree than CMAQ-AE6 due to the semivolatile POA treatment. However, comparisons to aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements collected at Pasadena, CA, indicated that CMAQ-VBS better represented the diurnal profile and primary/secondary split of OA. CMAQ-VBS SOA underpredicted the average measured AMS oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, a surrogate for SOA) concentration by a factor of 5.2, representing a considerable improvement to CMAQ-AE6 SOA predictions (factor of 24 lower than AMS). We use two new methods, one based on species ratios (SOA/ΔCO and SOA/Ox) and another on a simplified SOA parameterization, to apportion the SOA underprediction for CMAQ-VBS to slow photochemical oxidation (estimated as 1.5 × lower than observed at Pasadena using -log(NOx : NOy)), low intrinsic SOA formation efficiency (low by 1.6 to 2 × for Pasadena), and low emissions or excessive dispersion for the Pasadena site (estimated to be 1.6 to 2.3 × too low/excessive). The first and third factors are common to CMAQ-AE6, while the intrinsic SOA formation efficiency for that model is

  12. Understanding sources of organic aerosol during CalNex-2010 using the CMAQ-VBS

    DOE PAGES

    Woody, Matthew C.; Baker, Kirk R.; Hayes, Patrick L.; ...

    2016-03-29

    Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations utilizing the traditional organic aerosol (OA) treatment (CMAQ-AE6) and a volatility basis set (VBS) treatment for OA (CMAQ-VBS) were evaluated against measurements collected at routine monitoring networks (Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE)) and those collected during the 2010 California at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaign to examine important sources of OA in southern California. Traditionally, CMAQ treats primary organic aerosol (POA) as nonvolatile and uses a two-product framework to represent secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. CMAQ-VBS instead treats POA asmore » semivolatile and lumps OA using volatility bins spaced an order of magnitude apart. The CMAQ-VBS approach underpredicted organic carbon (OC) at IMPROVE and CSN sites to a greater degree than CMAQ-AE6 due to the semivolatile POA treatment. However, comparisons to aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements collected at Pasadena, CA, indicated that CMAQ-VBS better represented the diurnal profile and primary/secondary split of OA. CMAQ-VBS SOA underpredicted the average measured AMS oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, a surrogate for SOA) concentration by a factor of 5.2, representing a considerable improvement to CMAQ-AE6 SOA predictions (factor of 24 lower than AMS). We use two new methods, one based on species ratios (SOA/ΔCO and SOA/Ox) and another on a simplified SOA parameterization, to apportion the SOA underprediction for CMAQ-VBS to slow photochemical oxidation (estimated as 1.5 ×  lower than observed at Pasadena using −log(NOx : NOy)), low intrinsic SOA formation efficiency (low by 1.6 to 2 ×  for Pasadena), and low emissions or excessive dispersion for the Pasadena site (estimated to be 1.6 to 2.3 ×  too low/excessive). The first and third factors are common to CMAQ-AE6, while the intrinsic SOA formation

  13. Real-Time Bias-Adjusted O3 and PM2.5 Air Quality Index Forecasts and their Performance Evaluations over the Continental United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Air Quality Forecast Capacity (NAQFC) system, which links NOAA's North American Mesoscale (NAM) meteorological model with EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, provided operational ozone (O3) and experimental fine particular matter (PM2...

  14. VERIFICATION OF SURFACE LAYER OZONE FORECASTS IN THE NOAA/EPA AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM IN DIFFERENT REGIONS UNDER DIFFERENT SYNOPTIC SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An air quality forecast (AQF) system has been established at NOAA/NCEP since 2003 as a collaborative effort of NOAA and EPA. The system is based on NCEP's Eta mesoscale meteorological model and EPA's CMAQ air quality model (Davidson et al, 2004). The vision behind this system is ...

  15. VERIFICATION OF SURFACE LAYER OZONE FORECASTS IN THE NOAA/EPA AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM IN DIFFERENT REGIONS UNDER DIFFERENT SYNOPTIC SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An air quality forecast (AQF) system has been established at NOAA/NCEP since 2003 as a collaborative effort of NOAA and EPA. The system is based on NCEP's Eta mesoscale meteorological model and EPA's CMAQ air quality model (Davidson et al, 2004). The vision behind this system is ...

  16. Real-Time Bias-Adjusted O3 and PM2.5 Air Quality Index Forecasts and their Performance Evaluations over the Continental United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Air Quality Forecast Capacity (NAQFC) system, which links NOAA's North American Mesoscale (NAM) meteorological model with EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, provided operational ozone (O3) and experimental fine particular matter (PM2...

  17. MODELING ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTIONS ON OZONE AIR QUALITY IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES: OFFSETTING INCREASES IN ENERGY USE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study is to examine changes in ambient ozone concentrations estimated by a photochemical air quality model in response to the NOx emission reductions imposed on the utility sector. To accomplish this task, CMAQ air quality model simulations were performe...

  18. Observations and modeling of air quality trends over 1990-2010 across the northern hemisphere: China, the United States and Europe

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trends in air quality across the Northern Hemisphere over a 21-year period (1990–2010) were simulated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) multiscale chemical transport model driven by meteorology from Weather Research and Forecasting WRF) simulations and internally ...

  19. MODELING ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTIONS ON OZONE AIR QUALITY IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES: OFFSETTING INCREASES IN ENERGY USE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study is to examine changes in ambient ozone concentrations estimated by a photochemical air quality model in response to the NOx emission reductions imposed on the utility sector. To accomplish this task, CMAQ air quality model simulations were performe...

  20. Observations and modeling of air quality trends over 1990-2010 across the northern hemisphere: China, the United States and Europe

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trends in air quality across the Northern Hemisphere over a 21-year period (1990–2010) were simulated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) multiscale chemical transport model driven by meteorology from Weather Research and Forecasting WRF) simulations and internally ...

  1. Regionalized PM2.5 Community Multiscale Air Quality model performance evaluation across a continuous spatiotemporal domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Jeanette M.; Xu, Yadong; Vizuete, William; Serre, Marc L.

    2017-01-01

    The regulatory Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is a means to understanding the sources, concentrations and regulatory attainment of air pollutants within a model's domain. Substantial resources are allocated to the evaluation of model performance. The Regionalized Air quality Model Performance (RAMP) method introduced here explores novel ways of visualizing and evaluating CMAQ model performance and errors for daily Particulate Matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) concentrations across the continental United States. The RAMP method performs a non-homogenous, non-linear, non-homoscedastic model performance evaluation at each CMAQ grid. This work demonstrates that CMAQ model performance, for a well-documented 2001 regulatory episode, is non-homogeneous across space/time. The RAMP correction of systematic errors outperforms other model evaluation methods as demonstrated by a 22.1% reduction in Mean Square Error compared to a constant domain wide correction. The RAMP method is able to accurately reproduce simulated performance with a correlation of r = 76.1%. Most of the error coming from CMAQ is random error with only a minority of error being systematic. Areas of high systematic error are collocated with areas of high random error, implying both error types originate from similar sources. Therefore, addressing underlying causes of systematic error will have the added benefit of also addressing underlying causes of random error.

  2. Regionalized PM2.5 Community Multiscale Air Quality model performance evaluation across a continuous spatiotemporal domain.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Jeanette M; Xu, Yadong; Vizuete, William; Serre, Marc L

    2017-01-01

    The regulatory Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is a means to understanding the sources, concentrations and regulatory attainment of air pollutants within a model's domain. Substantial resources are allocated to the evaluation of model performance. The Regionalized Air quality Model Performance (RAMP) method introduced here explores novel ways of visualizing and evaluating CMAQ model performance and errors for daily Particulate Matter ≤ 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) concentrations across the continental United States. The RAMP method performs a non-homogenous, non-linear, non-homoscedastic model performance evaluation at each CMAQ grid. This work demonstrates that CMAQ model performance, for a well-documented 2001 regulatory episode, is non-homogeneous across space/time. The RAMP correction of systematic errors outperforms other model evaluation methods as demonstrated by a 22.1% reduction in Mean Square Error compared to a constant domain wide correction. The RAMP method is able to accurately reproduce simulated performance with a correlation of r = 76.1%. Most of the error coming from CMAQ is random error with only a minority of error being systematic. Areas of high systematic error are collocated with areas of high random error, implying both error types originate from similar sources. Therefore, addressing underlying causes of systematic error will have the added benefit of also addressing underlying causes of random error.

  3. Evaluation of a regional air-quality model with bidirectional NH3 exchange coupled to an agroecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bash, J. O.; Cooter, E. J.; Dennis, R. L.; Walker, J. T.; Pleim, J. E.

    2013-03-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) is the primary atmospheric base and an important precursor for inorganic particulate matter and when deposited NH3 contributes to surface water eutrophication, soil acidification and decline in species biodiversity. Flux measurements indicate that the air-surface exchange of NH3 is bidirectional. However, the effects of bidirectional exchange, soil biogeochemistry and human activity are not parameterized in air quality models. The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Community Multiscale Air-Quality (CMAQ) model with bidirectional NH3 exchange has been coupled with the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) agroecosystem model. The coupled CMAQ-EPIC model relies on EPIC fertilization timing, rate and composition while CMAQ models the soil ammonium (NH4+) pool by conserving the ammonium mass due to fertilization, evasion, deposition, and nitrification processes. This mechanistically coupled modeling system reduced the biases and error in NHx (NH3 + NH4+) wet deposition and in ambient aerosol concentrations in an annual 2002 Continental US (CONUS) domain simulation when compared to a 2002 annual simulation of CMAQ without bidirectional exchange. Fertilizer emissions estimated in CMAQ 5.0 with bidirectional exchange exhibits markedly different seasonal dynamics than the US EPA's National Emissions Inventory (NEI), with lower emissions in the spring and fall and higher emissions in July.

  4. Transforming air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Janet McCabe

    2005-04-01

    Earlier this year, the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee submitted to EPA 38 recommendations intended to improve air quality management in the United States. This article summarizes the evaluation process leading up to the Committee's recommendations. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Air Quality Modeling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In this technical support document (TSD) EPA describes the air quality modeling performed to support the Environmental Protection Agency’s Transport Rule proposal (now known as the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule).

  6. Air Quality Analysis

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides information for air quality data analysts inside and outside EPA. Much of the information is in the form of documented analyses that support the review of the national air qualiyt standards.

  7. Remote Sensing Characterization of the Urban Landscape for Improvement of Air Quality Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Khan, Maudood

    2005-01-01

    The urban landscape is inherently complex and this complexity is not adequately captured in air quality models, particularly the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model that is used to assess whether urban areas are in attainment of EPA air quality standards, primarily for ground level ozone. This inadequacy of the CMAQ model to sufficiently respond to the heterogeneous nature of the urban landscape can impact how well the model predicts ozone pollutant levels over metropolitan areas and ultimately, whether cities exceed EPA ozone air quality standards. We are exploring the utility of high-resolution remote sensing data and urban growth projections as improved inputs to the meteorology component of the CMAQ model focusing on the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area as a case study. These growth projections include "business as usual" and "smart growth" scenarios out to 2030. The growth projections illustrate the effects of employing urban heat island mitigation strategies, such as increasing tree canopy and albedo across the Atlanta metro area, in moderating ground-level ozone and air temperature, compared to "business as usual" simulations in which heat island mitigation strategies are not applied. The National Land Cover Dataset at 30m resolution is being used as the land use/land cover input and aggregated to the 4km scale for the MM5 mesoscale meteorological model and the (CMAQ) modeling schemes. Use of these data has been found to better characterize low densityhburban development as compared with USGS 1 km land use/land cover data that have traditionally been used in modeling. Air quality prediction for fiture scenarios to 2030 is being facilitated by land use projections using a spatial growth model. Land use projections were developed using the 2030 Regional Transportation Plan developed by the Atlanta Regional Commission, the regional planning agency for the area. This allows the state Environmental Protection agency to evaluate how these

  8. Remote Sensing Characterization of the Urban Landscape for Improvement of Air Quality Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Khan, Maudood

    2005-01-01

    The urban landscape is inherently complex and this complexity is not adequately captured in air quality models, particularly the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model that is used to assess whether urban areas are in attainment of EPA air quality standards, primarily for ground level ozone. This inadequacy of the CMAQ model to sufficiently respond to the heterogeneous nature of the urban landscape can impact how well the model predicts ozone pollutant levels over metropolitan areas and ultimately, whether cities exceed EPA ozone air quality standards. We are exploring the utility of high-resolution remote sensing data and urban growth projections as improved inputs to the meteorology component of the CMAQ model focusing on the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area as a case study. These growth projections include "business as usual" and "smart growth" scenarios out to 2030. The growth projections illustrate the effects of employing urban heat island mitigation strategies, such as increasing tree canopy and albedo across the Atlanta metro area, in moderating ground-level ozone and air temperature, compared to "business as usual" simulations in which heat island mitigation strategies are not applied. The National Land Cover Dataset at 30m resolution is being used as the land use/land cover input and aggregated to the 4km scale for the MM5 mesoscale meteorological model and the (CMAQ) modeling schemes. Use of these data has been found to better characterize low densityhburban development as compared with USGS 1 km land use/land cover data that have traditionally been used in modeling. Air quality prediction for fiture scenarios to 2030 is being facilitated by land use projections using a spatial growth model. Land use projections were developed using the 2030 Regional Transportation Plan developed by the Atlanta Regional Commission, the regional planning agency for the area. This allows the state Environmental Protection agency to evaluate how these

  9. Comparison of exposure estimation methods for air pollutants: ambient monitoring data and regional air quality simulation.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Mercedes A; Fuentes, Montserrat; Zhang, Yang; Burr, Michael J; Bell, Michelle L

    2012-07-01

    Air quality modeling could potentially improve exposure estimates for use in epidemiological studies. We investigated this application of air quality modeling by estimating location-specific (point) and spatially-aggregated (county level) exposure concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) and ozone (O(3)) for the eastern U.S. in 2002 using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and a traditional approach using ambient monitors. The monitoring approach produced estimates for 370 and 454 counties for PM(2.5) and O(3), respectively. Modeled estimates included 1861 counties, covering 50% more population. The population uncovered by monitors differed from those near monitors (e.g., urbanicity, race, education, age, unemployment, income, modeled pollutant levels). CMAQ overestimated O(3) (annual normalized mean bias=4.30%), while modeled PM(2.5) had an annual normalized mean bias of -2.09%, although bias varied seasonally, from 32% in November to -27% in July. Epidemiology may benefit from air quality modeling, with improved spatial and temporal resolution and the ability to study populations far from monitors that may differ from those near monitors. However, model performance varied by measure of performance, season, and location. Thus, the appropriateness of using such modeled exposures in health studies depends on the pollutant and metric of concern, acceptable level of uncertainty, population of interest, study design, and other factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of exposure estimation methods for air pollutants: Ambient monitoring data and regional air quality simulation

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Mercedes A.; Fuentes, Montserrat; Zhang, Yang; Burr, Michael J.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    Air quality modeling could potentially improve exposure estimates for use in epidemiological studies. We investigated this application of air quality modeling by estimating location-specific (point) and spatially-aggregated (county level) exposure concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) for the eastern U.S. in 2002 using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and a traditional approach using ambient monitors. The monitoring approach produced estimates for 370 and 454 counties for PM2.5 and O3, respectively. Modeled estimates included 1861 counties, covering 50% more population. The population uncovered by monitors differed from those near monitors (e.g., urbanicity, race, education, age, unemployment, income, modeled pollutant levels). CMAQ overestimated O3 (annual normalized mean bias = 4.30%), while modeled PM2.5 had an annual normalized mean bias of −2.09%, although bias varied seasonally, from 32% in November to −27% in July. Epidemiology may benefit from air quality modeling, with improved spatial and temporal resolution and the ability to study populations far from monitors that may differ from those near monitors. However, model performance varied by measure of performance, season, and location. Thus, the appropriateness of using such modeled exposures in health studies depends on the pollutant and metric of concern, acceptable level of uncertainty, population of interest, study design, and other factors. PMID:22579357

  11. Browse CMAQ Applications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The CMAQ system has been used to address major environmental issues. Below are examples of how the CMAQ system provides information to help communities, states and countries determine the most effective strategies for reducing exposure to pollution.

  12. CMAQ Community Survey Results

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 2016, CMAQ users worldwide participated in a survey circulated by the University of North Carolina's Community Modeling and Analysis System (CMAS) center. The aggregated results allow us to better understand the attributes of the CMAQ user community.

  13. Watershed Deposition Tool for air quality impacts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The WDT is a software tool for mapping deposition estimates from the CMAQ model to watersheds. It provides users with the linkage of air and water needed for the total maximum daily load (TMDL) and related nonpoint-source watershed analyses.

  14. SENSITIVITY OF THE CMAQ MERCURY MODEL TO GAS-PHASE OXIDATION CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simulations of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for mercury have shown the vast majority of the mercury deposited in the United States to be in the form of oxidized mercury. However, most of this simulated oxidized mercury was the result of atmospheric oxidatio...

  15. Dynamic evaluation of two decades of WRF-CMAQ ozone simulations over the contiguous United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dynamic evaluation of the fully coupled Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)– Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model ozone simulations over the contiguous United States (CONUS) using two decades of simulations covering the period from 1990 to 2010 is conducted to ...

  16. Dynamic Evaluation of Two Decades of CMAQ Simulations over the Continental United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation focuses on the dynamic evaluation of the CMAQ model over the continental United States using multi-decadal simulations for the period from 1990 to 2010 to examine how well the changes in observed ozone air quality induced by variations in meteorology and/or emis...

  17. Dynamic Evaluation of Two Decades of CMAQ Simulations over the Continental United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation focuses on the dynamic evaluation of the CMAQ model over the continental United States using multi-decadal simulations for the period from 1990 to 2010 to examine how well the changes in observed ozone air quality induced by variations in meteorology and/or emis...

  18. INVESTIGATION AND IMPLICATIONS OF SUB GRID VARIABILITY OF CMAQ MODELED CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This poster introduces a method called SGV adjusted concentrations (SAC) for introducing sub-grid variability (inherent in air quality grid models) into CMAQ for various applications C MAQ was run at 36-, 12-, 4-, and 1 km-grid sizes for July 2001 for the Delaware domain. The S...

  19. AN AGGREGATION AND EPISODE SELECTION SCHEME FOR EPA'S MODELS-3 CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of an episode selection and aggregation approach, designed to support distributional estimation for use with the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, is described. The approach utilized cluster analysis of the 700 hPa u and v wind field compo...

  20. LINKING THE CMAQ AND HYSPLIT MODELING SYSTEM INTERFACE PROGRAM AND EXAMPLE APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new software tool has been developed to link the Eulerian-based Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system with the Lagrangian-based HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model. Both models require many of the same hourly meteorological...

  1. LINKING THE CMAQ AND HYSPLIT MODELING SYSTEM INTERFACE PROGRAM AND EXAMPLE APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new software tool has been developed to link the Eulerian-based Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system with the Lagrangian-based HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model. Both models require many of the same hourly meteorological...

  2. SENSITIVITY OF THE CMAQ MERCURY MODEL TO GAS-PHASE OXIDATION CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simulations of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for mercury have shown the vast majority of the mercury deposited in the United States to be in the form of oxidized mercury. However, most of this simulated oxidized mercury was the result of atmospheric oxidatio...

  3. AN AGGREGATION AND EPISODE SELECTION SCHEME FOR EPA'S MODELS-3 CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of an episode selection and aggregation approach, designed to support distributional estimation for use with the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, is described. The approach utilized cluster analysis of the 700 hPa u and v wind field compo...

  4. The Effect of Lateral Boundary Values on Atmospheric Mercury Simulations with the CMAQ Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simulation results from three global-scale models of atmospheric mercury have been used to define three sets of initial condition and boundary condition (IC/BC) data for regional-scale model simulations over North America using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. ...

  5. The Effect of Lateral Boundary Values on Atmospheric Mercury Simulations with the CMAQ Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simulation results from three global-scale models of atmospheric mercury have been used to define three sets of initial condition and boundary condition (IC/BC) data for regional-scale model simulations over North America using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. ...

  6. CMAQ Model Output

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CMAQ and CMAQ-VBS model outputThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Woody , M., K. Baker , P. Hayes, J. Jimenez, B. Koo, and H. Pye. Understanding sources of organic aerosol during CalNex-2010 using the CMAQ-VBS. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. Copernicus Publications, Katlenburg-Lindau, GERMANY, 16: 4081-4100, (2016).

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AGGREGATION AND EPISODE SELECTION SCHEME TO SUPPORT THE MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of an episode selection and aggregation approach, designed to support distributional estimation of use with the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, is described. The approach utilized cluster analysis of the 700-hPa east-west and north-south...

  8. Development and application of air quality models at the US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview of the development and application of air quality models at the U.S. EPA, particularly focused on the development and application of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model developed within the Computation Exposure Division (CED) of the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). This presentation will provide a simple overview of air quality model development and application geared toward a non-technical student audience. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, decision-support tools, and models to be applied to media-specific or receptor-specific problem areas. CED uses modeling-based approaches to characterize exposures, evaluate fate and transport, and support environmental diagnostics/forensics with input from multiple data sources. It also develops media- and receptor-specific models, process models, and decision support tools for use both within and outside of EPA.

  9. Development and application of air quality models at the US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview of the development and application of air quality models at the U.S. EPA, particularly focused on the development and application of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model developed within the Computation Exposure Division (CED) of the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). This presentation will provide a simple overview of air quality model development and application geared toward a non-technical student audience. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, decision-support tools, and models to be applied to media-specific or receptor-specific problem areas. CED uses modeling-based approaches to characterize exposures, evaluate fate and transport, and support environmental diagnostics/forensics with input from multiple data sources. It also develops media- and receptor-specific models, process models, and decision support tools for use both within and outside of EPA.

  10. Use of air quality modeling results as exposure estimates in health studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, H. A.; Ivey, C.; Friberg, M.; Zhai, X.; Balachandran, S.; Hu, Y.; Russell, A. G.; Mulholland, J. A.; Tolbert, P. E.; Sarnat, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollutant measurements from regulatory monitoring networks are commonly utilized in combination with spatial averaging techniques to develop air quality metrics for use in epidemiologic studies. While these data provide useful indicators for air pollution in a region, their temporal and spatial information are limited. The growing availability of spatially resolved health data sets (i.e., resident and county level patient records) provides an opportunity to develop and apply corresponding spatially resolved air quality metrics as enhanced exposure estimates when investigating the impact of air pollution on health outcomes. Additionally, the measured species concentrations from monitoring networks cannot directly identify specific emission sources or characterize pollutant mixtures. However, these observations in combination with chemical transport models (e.g., CMAQ) and source apportionment methods (e.g., CMB and PMF) can be used to characterize pollutant mixtures, sources and species impacting both individual locations and wider areas. Extensive analysis using a combination of air quality modeling approaches and observations may be beneficial for health studies whose goal is to assess the health impacts of pollutant mixtures, in both spatially resolved and time-series health analyses. As part of the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology (SCAPE) unique methods have been developed to effectively analyze air pollution and air quality modeling data to better understand how emission sources combine to impact air quality and to provide air quality metrics for use in health assessments. This presentation will discuss the air quality modeling techniques being utilized in SCAPE investigations that are aimed at providing enhanced exposure metrics for use in spatially resolved (state of Georgia) and time-series epidemiologic analyses (St. Louis and Atlanta). To generate spatially resolved daily air quality estimates of species concentrations and source

  11. Persistence of initial conditions in continental scale air quality ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This study investigates the effect of initial conditions (IC) for pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere and soil on simulated air quality for two continental-scale Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model applications. One of these applications was performed for springtime and the second for summertime. Results show that a spin-up period of ten days commonly used in regional-scale applications may not be sufficient to reduce the effects of initial conditions to less than 1% of seasonally-averaged surface ozone concentrations everywhere while 20 days were found to be sufficient for the entire domain for the spring case and almost the entire domain for the summer case. For the summer case, differences were found to persist longer aloft due to circulation of air masses and even a spin-up period of 30 days was not sufficient to reduce the effects of ICs to less than 1% of seasonally-averaged layer 34 ozone concentrations over the southwestern portion of the modeling domain. Analysis of the effect of soil initial conditions for the CMAQ bidirectional NH3 exchange model shows that during springtime they can have an important effect on simulated inorganic aerosols concentrations for time periods of one month or longer. The effects are less pronounced during other seasons. The results, while specific to the modeling domain and time periods simulated here, suggest that modeling protocols need to be scrutinized for a given application and that it cannot be assum

  12. An air quality modeling approach to satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, E.; Christopher, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    We simulate visible and near-infrared reflectance of the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) for cases of high aerosol loading with haze and smoke over the eastern United States. The simulations are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE), and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models to reproduce meteorological conditions, background emissions, and chemical transport of air pollutants. Geostationary satellite-derived biomass burning emissions are also included as an input to CMAQ to fully represent aerosol loadings. Radiance is computed from the discrete ordinate atmospheric radiative transfer model. We show that the model simulations create a realistic set of reflectance in various aerosol scenarios. The simulated reflectance provides distinct spectral features of aerosols during the simulated satellite scene acquisition, which is compared to and verified with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color imagery. We also present a simple technique to synthesize green band reflectance, which will not be available on GOES-R ABI, using the model-simulated blue and red band reflectance. The model-based spectral signatures provide a simple way to select relevant and to deselect irrelevant spectral information from multispectral data. This study is an example of the use of air quality modeling in improving products and techniques for Earth observing missions.

  13. The Impact of Physical Atmosphere on Air Quality and the Utility of Satellite Observations in Air Quality Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour Biazar, A.; McNider, R. T.; Park, Y. H.; Doty, K.; Khan, M. N.; Dornblaser, B.

    2012-12-01

    Physical atmosphere significantly impacts air quality as it regulates production, accumulation, and transport of atmospheric pollutants. Consequently, air quality simulations are greatly influenced by the uncertainties that emanates from the simulation of physical atmosphere. Since air quality model predictions are increasingly being used in health studies, regulatory applications, and policy making, reducing such uncertainties in model simulations is of outmost importance. This paper describes some of the critical aspects of physical atmosphere affecting air quality models that can be improved by utilizing satellite observations. Retrievals of skin temperature, surface albedo, surface insolation, cloud top temperature and cloud reflectance obtained from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) by NASA/MSFC GOES Product Generation System (GPGS) have been utilized to improve the air quality simulations used in the State Implementation Plan (SIP) attainment demonstrations. Satellite observations of ground temperature are used to recover surface moisture and heat capacity and thereby improving model simulation of air temperature. Observations of clouds are utilized to improve the photochemical reaction rates within the photochemical model and also to assimilate clouds in the meteorological model. These techniques have been implemented and tested in some of the widely used air quality decision modeling systems such as MM5/WRF/CMAQ/CAMx. The results from these activities show significant improvements in air quality simulations.

  14. Culture systems: air quality.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Poor laboratory air quality is a known hazard to the culture of human gametes and embryos. Embryologists and chemists have employed analytical methods for identifying and measuring bulk and select air pollutants to assess the risk they pose to the embryo culture system. However, contaminant concentrations that result in gamete or embryotoxicity are poorly defined. Combating the ill effects of poor air quality requires an understanding of how toxicants can infiltrate the laboratory, the incubator, and ultimately the culture media. A further understanding of site-specific air quality can then lead to the consideration of laboratory design and management strategies that can minimize the deleterious effects that air contamination may have on early embryonic development in vitro.

  15. Air Quality Implementation Plans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    States must develop plans to attain and maintain air quality standards. These plans, known as SIPs, are submitted to EPA for approval. This web site contains information about this process and the current status of the submittals.

  16. Improving Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Usually the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate individual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed.

  17. Process air quality data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C. M.; Hogge, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Air quality sampling was conducted. Data for air quality parameters, recorded on written forms, punched cards or magnetic tape, are available for 1972 through 1975. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate several daily statistical measures of location, (2) plot time histories of data or the calculated daily statistics, (3) calculate simple correlation coefficients, and (4) plot scatter diagrams. Computer software was developed for processing air quality data to include time series analysis and goodness of fit tests. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate a larger number of daily statistical measures of location, and a number of daily monthly and yearly measures of location, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, (2) decompose the extended time series model and (3) perform some goodness of fit tests. The computer program is described, documented and illustrated by examples. Recommendations are made for continuation of the development of research on processing air quality data.

  18. State Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  19. State Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  20. New Methods for Air Quality Model Evaluation with Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.; Harkey, M.

    2015-12-01

    Despite major advances in the ability of satellites to detect gases and aerosols in the atmosphere, there remains significant, untapped potential to apply space-based data to air quality regulatory applications. Here, we showcase research findings geared toward increasing the relevance of satellite data to support operational air quality management, focused on model evaluation. Particular emphasis is given to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument aboard the NASA Aura satellite, and evaluation of simulations from the EPA Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. This work is part of the NASA Air Quality Applied Sciences Team (AQAST), and is motivated by ongoing dialog with state and federal air quality management agencies. We present the response of satellite-derived NO2 to meteorological conditions, satellite-derived HCHO:NO2 ratios as an indicator of ozone production regime, and the ability of models to capture these sensitivities over the continental U.S. In the case of NO2-weather sensitivities, we find boundary layer height, wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity to be the most important variables in determining near-surface NO2 variability. CMAQ agreed with relationships observed in satellite data, as well as in ground-based data, over most regions. However, we find that the southwest U.S. is a problem area for CMAQ, where modeled NO2 responses to insolation, boundary layer height, and other variables are at odds with the observations. Our analyses utilize a software developed by our team, the Wisconsin Horizontal Interpolation Program for Satellites (WHIPS): a free, open-source program designed to make satellite-derived air quality data more usable. WHIPS interpolates level 2 satellite retrievals onto a user-defined fixed grid, in effect creating custom-gridded level 3 satellite product. Currently, WHIPS can process the following data products: OMI NO2 (NASA retrieval); OMI NO2 (KNMI retrieval); OMI

  1. Co-benefits of air quality and climate change policies on air quality of the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzoli, Luca; Mert Gokturk, Ozan; Unal, Alper; Kindap, Tayfun; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin is one of the regions of the world where significant impacts due to climate changes are predicted to occur in the future. Observations and model simulations are used to provide to the policy makers scientifically based estimates of the necessity to adjust national emission reductions needed to achieve air quality objectives in the context of a changing climate, which is not only driven by GHGs, but also by short lived climate pollutants, such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols. There is an increasing interest and need to design cost-benefit emission reduction strategies, which could improve both regional air quality and global climate change. In this study we used the WRF-CMAQ air quality modelling system to quantify the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to ozone and particulate matter concentrations in Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean and to understand how this contribution could change in different future scenarios. We have investigated four different future scenarios for year 2050 defined during the European Project CIRCE: a "business as usual" scenario (BAU) where no or just actual measures are taken into account; an "air quality" scenario (BAP) which implements the National Emission Ceiling directive 2001/81/EC member states of the European Union (EU-27); a "climate change" scenario (CC) which implements global climate policies decoupled from air pollution policies; and an "integrated air quality and climate policy" scenario (CAP) which explores the co-benefit of global climate and EU-27 air pollution policies. The BAP scenario largely decreases summer ozone concentrations over almost the entire continent, while the CC and CAP scenarios similarly determine lower decreases in summer ozone but extending all over the Mediterranean, the Middle East countries and Russia. Similar patterns are found for winter PM concentrations; BAP scenario improves pollution levels only in the Western EU countries, and the CAP scenario determines

  2. Air quality [Chapter 8

    Treesearch

    R. C. Musselman

    1994-01-01

    Air quality is monitored continuously at GLEES. Air pollutants are considered an important component of the atmosphere that can have an effect on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Atmospheric deposition of gases, wet deposition of chemicals in precipitation including snow and rain, and dry deposition of chemicals are all monitored at GLEES. Although GLEES is a...

  3. Developing air quality forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pius; Saylor, Rick; Meagher, James

    2012-05-01

    Third International Workshop on Air Quality Forecasting Research; Potomac, Maryland, 29 November to 1 December 2011 Elevated concentrations of both near-surface ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter have been implicated in increased mortality and other human health impacts. In light of these known influences on human health, many governments around the world have instituted air quality forecasting systems to provide their citizens with advance warning of impending poor air quality so that they can take actions to limit exposure. In an effort to improve the performance of air quality forecasting systems and provide a forum for the exchange of the latest research in air quality modeling, the International Workshop on Air Quality Forecasting Research (IWAQFR) was established in 2009 and is cosponsored by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Environment Canada (EC), and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The steering committee for IWAQFR's establishment was composed of Véronique Bouchet, Mike Howe, and Craig Stoud (EC); Greg Carmichael (University of Iowa); Paula Davidson and Jim Meagher (NOAA); and Liisa Jalkanen (WMO). The most recent workshop took place in Maryland.

  4. “Fine-Scale Application of the coupled WRF-CMAQ System to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The DISCOVER-AQ project (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality), is a joint collaboration between NASA, U.S. EPA and a number of other local organizations with the goal of characterizing air quality in urban areas using satellite, aircraft, vertical profiler and ground based measurements (http://discover-aq.larc.nasa.gov). In July 2011, the DISCOVER-AQ project conducted intensive air quality measurements in the Baltimore, MD and Washington, D.C. area in the eastern U.S. To take advantage of these unique data, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to simulate the meteorology and air quality in the same region using 12-km, 4-km and 1-km horizontal grid spacings. The goal of the modeling exercise is to demonstrate the capability of the coupled WRF-CMAQ modeling system to simulate air quality at fine grid spacings in an urban area. Development of new data assimilation techniques and the use of higher resolution input data for the WRF model have been implemented to improve the meteorological results, particularly at the 4-km and 1-km grid resolutions. In addition, a number of updates to the CMAQ model were made to enhance the capability of the modeling system to accurately represent the magnitude and spatial distribution of pollutants at fine model resolutions. Data collected during the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ campa

  5. Multipollutant air quality management.

    PubMed

    Hidy, George M; Pennell, William T

    2010-06-01

    On the basis of a recent NARSTO assessment, this review discusses the factors involved in the implementation of a risk- and results-based multipollutant air quality management strategy applicable to North America. Such a strategy could evolve from current single-pollutant regulatory practices using a series of steps that would seek to minimize risk of exposure for humans and ecosystems while providing for a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of the management process. The tools needed to support multipollutant air quality management are summarized. They include application of a formal risk analysis, accounting for atmospheric processes, ambient measurements, emissions characterization, air quality modeling of emissions to ambient concentrations, and characterization of human and ecological responses to ambient pollutant exposure. The new management strategy would expand the current practice of accountability that relates emission reductions and attainment of air quality derived from air quality criteria and standards. Conceptually, achievement of accountability would establish goals optimizing risk reduction associated with pollution management. This expanded approach takes into account the sequence of processes from emissions reduction to resulting changes in ambient concentration. Using ambient concentration as a proxy for exposure, the resulting improvement in human and ecosystem health is estimated. The degree to which this chain of processes and effects can be achieved in current practice is examined in a multipollutant context exemplified by oxidants, as indicated by ozone, particulate matter, and some hazardous air pollutants. Achievement of a multipollutant management strategy will mostly depend on improving knowledge about human and ecosystem response to pollutant exposure.

  6. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Utilizing Operational and Improved Remote Sensing Measurements to Assess Air Quality Monitoring Model Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Chuen-Meei

    Air quality model forecasts from Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) are often used to support air quality applications such as regulatory issues and scientific inquiries on atmospheric science processes. In urban environments, these models become more complex due to the inherent complexity of the land surface coupling and the enhanced pollutants emissions. This makes it very difficult to diagnose the model, if the surface parameter forecasts such as PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm) are not accurate. For this reason, getting accurate boundary layer dynamic forecasts is as essential as quantifying realistic pollutants emissions. In this thesis, we explore the usefulness of vertical sounding measurements on assessing meteorological and air quality forecast models. In particular, we focus on assessing the WRF model (12km x 12km) coupled with the CMAQ model for the urban New York City (NYC) area using multiple vertical profiling and column integrated remote sensing measurements. This assessment is helpful in probing the root causes for WRF-CMAQ overestimates of surface PM2.5 occurring both predawn and post-sunset in the NYC area during the summer. In particular, we find that the significant underestimates in the WRF PBL height forecast is a key factor in explaining this anomaly. On the other hand, the model predictions of the PBL height during daytime when convective heating dominates were found to be highly correlated to lidar derived PBL height with minimal bias. Additional topics covered in this thesis include mathematical method using direct Mie scattering approach to convert aerosol microphysical properties from CMAQ into optical parameters making direct comparisons with lidar and multispectral radiometers feasible. Finally, we explore some tentative ideas on combining visible (VIS) and mid-infrared (MIR) sensors to better separate aerosols into fine and coarse modes.

  8. Diagnostic Air Quality Model Evaluation of Source-Specific ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004–February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate the results of a numerical air quality model. Previous analyses of these measurements demonstrated excellent mass closure for the variety of contributing sources. In this study, a carbon-apportionment version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was used to track primary organic and elemental carbon emissions from 15 independent sources such as mobile sources and biomass burning in addition to four precursor-specific classes of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) originating from isoprene, terpenes, aromatics, and sesquiterpenes. Conversion of the source-resolved model output into organic tracer concentrations yielded a total of 2416 data pairs for comparison with observations. While emission source contributions to the total model bias varied by season and measurement location, the largest absolute bias of −0.55 μgC/m3 was attributed to insufficient isoprene SOA in the summertime CMAQ simulation. Biomass combustion was responsible for the second largest summertime model bias (−0.46 μgC/m3 on average). Several instances of compensating errors were also evident; model underpredictions in some sectors were masked by overpredictions in others. The National Exposure Research L

  9. Air Quality Management Process Cycle

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  10. Understanding sources of organic aerosol during CalNex-2010 using the CMAQ-VBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, M. C.; Baker, K. R.; Hayes, P. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Koo, B.; Pye, H. O. T.

    2015-10-01

    Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations utilizing the volatility basis set (VBS) treatment for organic aerosols (CMAQ-VBS) were evaluated against measurements collected at routine monitoring networks (Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE)) and those collected during the 2010 California at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaign to examine important sources of organic aerosol (OA) in southern California. CMAQ-VBS (OA lumped by volatility, semivolatile POA) underpredicted total organic carbon (OC) at CSN (-25.5 % Normalized Median Bias (NMdnB)) and IMPROVE (-63.9 % NMdnB) locations and total OC was underpredicted to a greater degree compared to the CMAQ-AE6 (9.9 and -55.7 % NMdnB, respectively; semi-explicit OA treatment, SOA lumped by parent hydrocarbon, nonvolatile POA). However, comparisons to aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements collected at Pasadena, CA indicated that CMAQ-VBS better represented the diurnal profile and the primary/secondary split of OA. CMAQ-VBS secondary organic aerosol (SOA) underpredicted the average measured AMS oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, a surrogate of SOA) concentration by a factor of 5.2 (4.7 μg m-3 measured vs. 0.9 μg m-3 modeled), a considerable improvement to CMAQ-AE6 SOA predictions, which were approximately 24× lower than the average AMS OOA concentration. We use two new methods, based on species ratios and on a simplified SOA parameterization from the observations, to apportion the SOA underprediction for CMAQ-VBS to too slow photochemical oxidation (estimated as 1.5× lower than observed at Pasadena using - log (NOx: NOy)), low intrinsic SOA formation efficiency (low by 1.6 to 2× for Pasadena), and too low emissions or too high dispersion for the Pasadena site (estimated to be 1.6 to 2.3× too low/high). The first and third factors will be similar for CMAQ-AE6, while the intrinsic SOA formation

  11. Operational air quality forecast guidance for the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajner, Ivanka; Lee, Pius; Tong, Daniel; Pan, Li; McQueen, Jeff; Huang, Jinaping; Djalalova, Irina; Wilczak, James; Huang, Ho-Chun; Wang, Jun; Stein, Ariel; Upadhayay, Sikchya

    2016-04-01

    NOAA provides operational air quality predictions for ozone and wildfire smoke over the United States (U.S.) and predictions of airborne dust over the contiguous 48 states at http://airquality.weather.gov. These predictions are produced using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Community Model for Air Quality (CMAQ) and NOAA's HYSPLIT model (Stein et al., 2015) with meteorological inputs from the North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM). The current efforts focus on improving test predictions of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from CMAQ. Emission inputs for ozone and PM2.5 predictions include inventory information from the U.S. EPA and recently added contributions of particulate matter from intermittent wildfires and windblown dust that rely on near real-time information. Current testing includes refinement of the vertical grid structure in CMAQ and inclusion of contributions of dust transport from global sources into the U.S. domain using the NEMS Global Aerosol Capability (NGAC). The addition of wildfire smoke and dust contributions in CMAQ reduced model underestimation of PM2.5 in summertime. Wintertime overestimation of PM2.5 was reduced by suppressing emissions of soil particles when the terrain is covered by snow or ice. Nevertheless, seasonal biases and biases in the diurnal cycle of PM2.5 are still substantial. Therefore, a new bias correction procedure based on an analog ensemble approach was introduced (Djalalova et al., 2015). It virtually eliminates biases in monthly means or in the diurnal cycle, but it also reduces day-to-day variability in PM2.5 predictions. Refinements to the bias correction procedure are being developed. Upgrades for the representation of wildfire smoke emissions within the domain and from global sources are in testing. Another area of active development includes approaches to scale emission inventories for nitrogen oxides in order to reproduce recent changes observed by the AirNow surface monitoring network and by

  12. Air quality risk management.

    PubMed

    Williams, Martin L

    2008-01-01

    Rather than attempt to provide a comprehensive account of air quality risk assessment, as might be found in a textbook or manual, this article discusses some issues that are of current importance in the United Kingdom and the rest of Europe, with special emphasis on risk assessment in the context of policy formulation, and emerging scientific knowledge. There are two pollutants of particular concern and that both pose challenges for risk assessment and policy, and they are particulate matter (PM) and ozone. The article describes some issues for health risk assessment and finally some forward-looking suggestions for future approaches to air quality management.

  13. The Use of Regulatory Air Quality Models to Develop Successful Ozone Attainment Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canty, T. P.; Salawitch, R. J.; Dickerson, R. R.; Ring, A.; Goldberg, D. L.; He, H.; Anderson, D. C.; Vinciguerra, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently proposed lowering the 8-hr ozone standard to between 65-70 ppb. Not all regions of the U.S. are in attainment of the current 75 ppb standard and it is expected that many regions currently in attainment will not meet the future, lower surface ozone standard. Ozone production is a nonlinear function of emissions, biological processes, and weather. Federal and state agencies rely on regulatory air quality models such as the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) to test ozone precursor emission reduction strategies that will bring states into compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). We will describe various model scenarios that simulate how future limits on emission of ozone precursors (i.e. NOx and VOCs) from sources such as power plants and vehicles will affect air quality. These scenarios are currently being developed by states required to submit a State Implementation Plan to the EPA. Projections from these future case scenarios suggest that strategies intended to control local ozone may also bring upwind states into attainment of the new NAAQS. Ground based, aircraft, and satellite observations are used to ensure that air quality models accurately represent photochemical processes within the troposphere. We will highlight some of the improvements made to the CMAQ and CAMx model framework based on our analysis of NASA observations obtained by the OMI instrument on the Aura satellite and by the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign.

  14. The Influence on CMAQ Modeled Wet and Dry Deposition of Advances in the CMAQ Systems for Meteorology and Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Process level improvements in the CMAQ system have been made to WRF meteorology, national ammonia emission profiles, and CMAQ ammonia air-surface exchange. An incremental study was conducted to quantify the impact of individual and combined changes on modeled inorganic depositio...

  15. The Influence on CMAQ Modeled Wet and Dry Deposition of Advances in the CMAQ Systems for Meteorology and Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Process level improvements in the CMAQ system have been made to WRF meteorology, national ammonia emission profiles, and CMAQ ammonia air-surface exchange. An incremental study was conducted to quantify the impact of individual and combined changes on modeled inorganic depositio...

  16. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  17. Recent Advances in Modeling of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Land Surface in the Coupled WRF-CMAQ Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in the land surface model (LSM) and planetary boundary layer (PBL) components of the WRF-CMAQ coupled meteorology and air quality modeling system are described. The aim of these modifications was primarily to improve the modeling of ground level concentrations of trace c...

  18. RESULTS OF PHOTOCHEMICAL SIMULATIONS OF SUBGRID SCALE POINT SOURCE EMISSIONS WITH THE MODELS-3 CMAQ MODELING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) / Plume-in-Grid (PinG) model was applied on a domain encompassing the greater Nashville, Tennessee region. Model simulations were performed for selected days in July 1995 during the Southern Oxidant Study (SOS) field study program wh...

  19. Development and evaluation of a physics-based windblown dust emission scheme implemented in the CMAQ modeling system

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new windblown dust emission treatment was incorporated in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. This new model treatment has been built upon previously developed physics-based parameterization schemes from the literature. A distinct and novel feature of t...

  20. Recent Advances in Modeling of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Land Surface in the Coupled WRF-CMAQ Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in the land surface model (LSM) and planetary boundary layer (PBL) components of the WRF-CMAQ coupled meteorology and air quality modeling system are described. The aim of these modifications was primarily to improve the modeling of ground level concentrations of trace c...

  1. Annual Application and Evaluation of the Online Coupled WRF‐CMAQ System over North America under AQMEII Phase 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present an application of the online coupled WRF-CMAQ modeling system to two annual simulations over North America performed under Phase 2 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII). Operational evaluation shows that model performance is comparable t...

  2. RESULTS OF PHOTOCHEMICAL SIMULATIONS OF SUBGRID SCALE POINT SOURCE EMISSIONS WITH THE MODELS-3 CMAQ MODELING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) / Plume-in-Grid (PinG) model was applied on a domain encompassing the greater Nashville, Tennessee region. Model simulations were performed for selected days in July 1995 during the Southern Oxidant Study (SOS) field study program wh...

  3. Annual Application and Evaluation of the Online Coupled WRF‐CMAQ System over North America under AQMEII Phase 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present an application of the online coupled WRF-CMAQ modeling system to two annual simulations over North America performed under Phase 2 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII). Operational evaluation shows that model performance is comparable t...

  4. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  5. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  6. CMAQ Model Evaluation Framework

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CMAQ is tested to establish the modeling system’s credibility in predicting pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter. Evaluation of CMAQ has been designed to assess the model’s performance for specific time periods and for specific uses.

  7. Dynamic Evaluation of Two Decades of WRF-CMAQ Ozone Simulations over the Contiguous United States (2017 MAC-MAQ Conference Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dynamic evaluation of two decades of ozone simulations performed with the fully coupled Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)–Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model over the contiguous United States is conducted to assess how well the changes in observed ozone air ...

  8. Simulation of GOES-R ABI aerosol radiances using WRF-CMAQ: a case study approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, S. A.

    2014-04-01

    In anticipation of the upcoming GOES-R launch we simulate visible and near-infrared reflectances of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) for cases of high aerosol loading containing regional haze and smoke over the eastern United States. The simulations are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE), and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models. Geostationary, satellite-derived, biomass-burning emissions are also included as an input to CMAQ. Using the CMAQ aerosol concentrations and Mie calculations, radiance is computed from the discrete ordinate atmospheric radiative transfer model. We present detailed methods for deriving aerosol extinction from WRF and CMAQ outputs. Our results show that the model simulations create a realistic set of reflectances in various aerosol scenarios. The simulated reflectances provide distinct spectral features of aerosols which are then compared to data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We also present a simple technique to synthesize green band reflectance (which will not be available on the ABI), using the model-simulated blue and red band reflectance. This study is an example of the use of air quality modeling in improving products and techniques for Earth-observing missions.

  9. Simulation of GOES-R ABI aerosol radiances using WRF-CMAQ: a case study approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, S. A.

    2013-07-01

    The primary focus of this paper is to simulate visible and near-infrared reflectances of the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) for cases of high aerosol loading containing regional haze and smoke over the eastern United States. The simulations are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE), and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models. Geostationary satellite-derived biomass burning emissions are also included as an input to CMAQ. Using the CMAQ aerosol concentrations and Mie calculations, radiance is computed from the discrete ordinate atmospheric radiative transfer model. We present detailed methods for deriving aerosol extinction from WRF and CMAQ outputs. Our results show that the model simulations create a realistic set of reflectance in various aerosol scenarios. The simulated reflectance provides distinct spectral features of aerosols which is then compared to data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We also present a simple technique to synthesize green band reflectance (which will not be available on the ABI), using the model-simulated blue and red band reflectance. This study is an example of the use of air quality modeling in improving products and techniques for Earth observing missions.

  10. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as state, local, and tribal air pollution control agencies. Its component data sets have been collected over the years from approximately 10,000 monitoring sites, of which approximately 5,000 are currently active. OAR's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) and other internal and external users, rely on this data to assess air quality, assist in Attainment/Non-Attainment designations, evaluate State Implementation Plans for Non-Attainment Areas, perform modeling for permit review analysis, and other air quality management functions. Air quality information is also used to prepare reports for Congress as mandated by the Clean Air Act. This data covers air quality data collected after 1980, when the Clean Air Act requirements for monitoring were significantly modified. Air quality data from the Agency's early years (1970s) remains available (see OAR PRIMARY DATA ASSET: Ambient Air Quality Data -- Historical), but because of technical and definitional differences the two data assets are not directly comparable. The Clean Air Act of 1970 provided initial authority for monitoring air quality for Conventional Air Pollutants (CAPs) for which EPA has promulgated National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Requirements for monitoring visibility-related parameters were added in 1977. Requiremen

  11. Development of the High-Order Decoupled Direct Method in Three Dimensions for Particulate Matter: Enabling Advanced Sensitivity Analysis in Air Quality Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    The high-order decoupled direct method in three dimensions for particular matter (HDDM-3D/PM) has been implemented in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to enable advanced sensitivity analysis. The major effort of this work is to develop high-order DDM sensitivity...

  12. Development of the High-Order Decoupled Direct Method in Three Dimensions for Particulate Matter: Enabling Advanced Sensitivity Analysis in Air Quality Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    The high-order decoupled direct method in three dimensions for particular matter (HDDM-3D/PM) has been implemented in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to enable advanced sensitivity analysis. The major effort of this work is to develop high-order DDM sensitivity...

  13. Hybrid Air Quality Modeling Approach For Use in the Near ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Near-road EXposures to Urban air pollutant Study (NEXUS) investigated whether children with asthma living in close proximity to major roadways in Detroit, MI, (particularly near roadways with high diesel traffic) have greater health impacts associated with exposure to air pollutants than those living farther away. A major challenge in such health and exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characterization. Air quality modeling can provide spatially and temporally varying exposure estimates for examining relationships between traffic-related air pollutants and adverse health outcomes. This paper presents a hybrid air quality modeling approach and its application in NEXUS in order to provide spatial and temporally varying exposure estimates and identification of the mobile source contribution to the total pollutant exposure. Model-based exposure metrics, associated with local variations of emissions and meteorology, were estimated using a combination of the AERMOD and R-LINE dispersion models, local emission source information from the National Emissions Inventory, detailed road network locations and traffic activity, and meteorological data from the Detroit City Airport. The regional background contribution was estimated using a combination of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and the Space/Time Ordinary Kriging (STOK) model. To capture the near-road pollutant gradients, refined “mini-grids” of model recep

  14. Agriculture: Agriculture and Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on air emissions from agricultural practices, types of agricultural burning, air programs that may apply to agriculture, reporting requirements, and links to state and other federal air-quality information.

  15. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... 0 - 50) Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air pollution poses little or no risk. AQI: Moderate (51 - ... number of people who are unusually sensitive to air pollution. AQI: Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups (101 - 150) Although ...

  16. Impact of inherent meteorology uncertainty on air quality ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    It is well established that there are a number of different classifications and sources of uncertainties in environmental modeling systems. Air quality models rely on two key inputs, namely, meteorology and emissions. When using air quality models for decision making, it is important to understand how uncertainties in these inputs affect the simulated concentrations. Ensembles are one method to explore how uncertainty in meteorology affects air pollution concentrations. Most studies explore this uncertainty by running different meteorological models or the same model with different physics options and in some cases combinations of different meteorological and air quality models. While these have been shown to be useful techniques in some cases, we present a technique that leverages the initial condition perturbations of a weather forecast ensemble, namely, the Short-Range Ensemble Forecast system to drive the four-dimensional data assimilation in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with a key focus being the response of ozone chemistry and transport. Results confirm that a sizable spread in WRF solutions, including common weather variables of temperature, wind, boundary layer depth, clouds, and radiation, can cause a relatively large range of ozone-mixing ratios. Pollutant transport can be altered by hundreds of kilometers over several days. Ozone-mixing ratios of the ensemble can vary as much as 10–20 ppb

  17. Linking Meteorology, Air Quality Models and Observations to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Epidemiologic studies are critical in establishing the association between exposure to air pollutants and adverse health effects. Results of epidemiologic studies are used by U.S. EPA in developing air quality standards to protect the public from the health effects of air pollutants. A major challenge in environmental epidemiology is adequate exposure characterization. Numerous health studies have used measurements from a few central-site ambient monitors to characterize air pollution exposures. Relying solely on central-site ambient monitors does not account for the spatial-heterogeneity of ambient air pollution patterns, the temporal variability in ambient concentrations, nor the influence of infiltration and indoor sources. Central-site monitoring becomes even more problematic for certain air pollutants that exhibit significant spatial heterogeneity. Statistical interpolation techniques and passive monitoring methods can provide additional spatial resolution in ambient concentration estimates. In addition, spatio-temporal models, which integrate GIS data and other factors, such as meteorology, have also been developed to produce more resolved estimates of ambient concentrations. Models, such as the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, estimate ambient concentrations by combining information on meteorology, source emissions, and chemical-fate and transport. Hybrid modeling approaches, which integrate regional scale models with local scale dispersion

  18. The Atlanta Urban Heat Island Mitigation and Air Quality Modeling Project: How High-Resoution Remote Sensing Data Can Improve Air Quality Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Crosson, William L.; Khan, Maudood N.

    2006-01-01

    The Atlanta Urban Heat Island and Air Quality Project had its genesis in Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land use Analysis: Temperature and Air quality) that began in 1996. Project ATLANTA examined how high-spatial resolution thermal remote sensing data could be used to derive better measurements of the Urban Heat Island effect over Atlanta. We have explored how these thermal remote sensing, as well as other imaged datasets, can be used to better characterize the urban landscape for improved air quality modeling over the Atlanta area. For the air quality modeling project, the National Land Cover Dataset and the local scale Landpro99 dataset at 30m spatial resolutions have been used to derive land use/land cover characteristics for input into the MM5 mesoscale meteorological model that is one of the foundations for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to assess how these data can improve output from CMAQ. Additionally, land use changes to 2030 have been predicted using a Spatial Growth Model (SGM). SGM simulates growth around a region using population, employment and travel demand forecasts. Air quality modeling simulations were conducted using both current and future land cover. Meteorological modeling simulations indicate a 0.5 C increase in daily maximum air temperatures by 2030. Air quality modeling simulations show substantial differences in relative contributions of individual atmospheric pollutant constituents as a result of land cover change. Enhanced boundary layer mixing over the city tends to offset the increase in ozone concentration expected due to higher surface temperatures as a result of urbanization.

  19. Dynamic evaluation of two decades of WRF-CMAQ ozone ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dynamic evaluation of the fully coupled Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)– Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model ozone simulations over the contiguous United States (CONUS) using two decades of simulations covering the period from 1990 to 2010 is conducted to assess how well the changes in observed ozone air quality are simulated by the model. The changes induced by variations in meteorology and/or emissions are also evaluated during the same timeframe using spectral decomposition of observed and modeled ozone time series with the aim of identifying the underlying forcing mechanisms that control ozone exceedances and making informed recommendations for the optimal use of regional-scale air quality models. The evaluation is focused on the warm season's (i.e., May–September) daily maximum 8-hr (DM8HR) ozone concentrations, the 4th highest (4th) and average of top 10 DM8HR ozone values (top10), as well as the spectrally-decomposed components of the DM8HR ozone time series using the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter. Results of the dynamic evaluation are presented for six regions in the U.S., consistent with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) climatic regions. During the earlier 11-yr period (1990–2000), the simulated and observed trends are not statistically significant. During the more recent 2000–2010 period, all trends are statistically significant and WRF-CMAQ captures the observed trend in most regions. Given large n

  20. The NASA Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM): Application to Air Quality Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William; Peterson, Harold; Khan, Maudood; Biazar, Arastoo; Wang, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    Recent improvements to the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) and its application to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system are discussed. The LNOM analyzes Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) and National Lightning Detection Network(TradeMark)(NLDN) data to estimate the raw (i.e., unmixed and otherwise environmentally unmodified) vertical profile of lightning NO(x) (= NO + NO2). The latest LNOM estimates of lightning channel length distributions, lightning 1-m segment altitude distributions, and the vertical profile of lightning NO(x) are presented. The primary improvement to the LNOM is the inclusion of non-return stroke lightning NOx production due to: (1) hot core stepped and dart leaders, (2) stepped leader corona sheath, K-changes, continuing currents, and M-components. The impact of including LNOM-estimates of lightning NO(x) for an August 2006 run of CMAQ is discussed.

  1. Current Applications of OMI Tropospheric NO2 Data for Air Quality and a Look to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Bucsela, E.; Allen, D.; Prados, A.; Gleason, J.; Kondragunta, S.

    2010-01-01

    Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Tropospheric NO2 products are being used to enhance the ability to monitor changes in NO2 air quality, update emission inventories, and evaluate regional air quality models. Trends in tropospheric column NO2 have been examined over the eastern United States in relation to emissions changes mandated by regulatory actions. Decreases of 20 to 40 percent over the period 2005 to 2008 were noted, largely in response to major emission reductions at power plants. The OMI data have been used to identify regions in which the opposite trend has been found. We have also used OMI NO2 in efforts to improve emission inventories for NOx emissions from soil. Lightning NOx emissions have been added to CMAQ, the US Environmental Protection Agency's regional air quality model. Evaluation of the resulting NO2 columns in the model is being conducted using the OMI NO2 observations. Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) together with the OMI NO2 data comprise a valuable tool for monitoring and predicting air quality. Looking to the future, we expect that the combination of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) (morning) and OMI (afternoon) data sets obtained through use of the same retrieval algorithms will substantially increase the possibility of successful integration of satellite information into regional air quality forecast models. Farther down the road, we anticipate the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) platform to supply data possibly on an hourly basis, allowing much more comprehensive analysis of air quality from space.

  2. Photochemical Air Quality Modeling for California By U.S. EPA and Carb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, J.; Cai, C.; Baker, K. R.; Avise, J.; Kaduwela, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Multiple areas of California have been designated as nonattainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microns). Air quality modeling plays a key role in developing emission control strategies for attaining the NAAQS in these regions and for estimating the incremental costs and benefits of meeting new NAAQS levels. The complex terrain, meteorology, emissions, and chemistry in California present challenges to such air quality modeling. In this study, we improve understanding of modeling approaches for California by comparing and evaluating predictions of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model as configured by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Both simulations were conducted at 4-km horizontal resolution and cover the May-June 2010 period when special study measurements were made. Despite differences in emissions, meteorology, boundary conditions, and chemical mechanisms, the CMAQ predictions by EPA and CARB were generally similar with good model performance for ozone at key monitors. Differences in predictions for PM2.5 components were identified in some locations and attributed to differences in emissions and other platform elements. Our results suggest areas where model development would be beneficial.

  3. Air quality management in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bremauntz, Adrián

    2008-01-01

    Several significant program and policy measures have been implemented in Mexico over the past 15 yr to improve air quality. This article provides an overview of air quality management strategies in Mexico, including (1) policy initiatives such as vehicle use restrictions, air quality standards, vehicle emissions, and fuel quality standards, and (2) supporting programs including establishment of a national emission inventory, an air pollution episodes program, and the implementation of exposure and health effects studies. Trends in air pollution episodes and ambient air pollutant concentrations are described.

  4. A Seasonal Modeling Study of Air Quality in Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, N. J.; Jin, L.; Harley, R. A.; Wilczak, J. M.; Bao, J.; Michelson, S. A.

    2008-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone has been a continuing research and regulatory concern due to its adverse health effects and its importance in atmospheric chemistry. Photochemical air quality models integrate scientific understanding of how pollutants evolve in the atmosphere at regional or larger scales and have played an important role in developing air quality management plans. Current practice to develop control strategies for ozone precursors is based on simulating short ozone episodes with the 'worst case' weather conditions. There are concerns about the representativeness of such episodes, and about models being tuned to perform well by adjusting input data and model parameters. In our research, we seek a more comprehensive evaluation of air quality model performance, and new insights into questions such as appropriate air pollution control strategies and inter-basin transport of ozone and its precursors, through application of an air quality model to Central California for an entire summer season. Ozone air pollution problems in Central California are severe and not improving. Here we report results from application of the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality model (CMAQ) to the Central California Ozone Study period in 2000 (June to Oct.). Gridded meteorological and emission inputs are developed to reflect variability occurring on diurnal, weekly, and seasonal time scales. Driven by these inputs we assess model skills at predicting 1-h and 8-h average ozone concentrations, as well as ozone precursors, across a range of days and locations, with wide air quality variations seen in both space and time over the entire summer season. We compare modeled and observed ozone responses to changes in meteorological fields (temperature and flow patterns) and emissions. The model shows consistent performance in the San Joaquin Valley in terms of characterizing observed ozone variabilities during different pollution episodes and across the summer season. Ozone sensitivity regimes are

  5. About Us - CMAQ

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Our team comes from all over the world, with members representing nine different countries in North America, Europe, and Asia with diverse educational backgrounds. The CMAQ team is part of the EPA's Office of Research and Development.

  6. Atmospheric mercury simulation using the CMAQ model: formulation description and analysis of wet deposition results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, O. Russell; Brehme, Katherine A.

    The community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) modeling system has been adapted to simulate the emission, transport, transformation and deposition of atmospheric mercury (Hg) in three distinct forms: elemental Hg gas, reactive gaseous Hg, and particulate Hg. Emissions of Hg are currently defined from information published in the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury Study Report to Congress. The atmospheric transport of these three forms of Hg is simulated in the same manner as for all other substances simulated by the CMAQ model to date. Transformations of Hg are simulated with four new chemical reactions within the standard CMAQ gaseous chemistry framework and a highly modified cloud chemistry mechanism which includes a compound-specific speciation for oxidized forms of Hg, seven new aqueous-phase Hg reactions, six aqueous Hg chemical equilibria, and a two-way mechanism for the sorption of dissolved oxidized Hg to elemental carbon particles. The CMAQ Hg model simulates the partitioning of reactive gaseous Hg between air and cloud water based on the Henry's constant for mercuric chloride. Henry's equilibrium is assumed for elemental Hg also. Particulate Hg is assumed to be incorporated into the aqueous medium during cloud nucleation. Wet and dry deposition is simulated for each of the three forms of Hg. Wet deposition rate is calculated based on precipitation information from the CMAQ meteorological processor and the physicochemical Hg speciation in the cloud chemistry mechanism. Dry deposition rate is calculated based on dry deposition velocity and air concentration information for each of the three forms of Hg. The horizontal modeling domain covers the central and eastern United States and adjacent southern Canada. An analysis of simulated Hg wet deposition versus weekly observations is performed. The results are described for two evaluation periods: 4 April-2 May 1995, and 20 June-18 July 1995.

  7. Use of Air Quality Observations by the National Air Quality Forecast Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajner, I.; McQueen, J.; Lee, P.; Stein, A. F.; Kondragunta, S.; Ruminski, M.; Tong, D.; Pan, L.; Huang, J. P.; Shafran, P.; Huang, H. C.; Dickerson, P.; Upadhayay, S.

    2015-12-01

    The National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC) operational predictions of ozone and wildfire smoke for the United States (U.S.) and predictions of airborne dust for continental U.S. are available at http://airquality.weather.gov/. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operational North American Mesoscale (NAM) weather predictions are combined with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to produce the ozone predictions and test fine particulate matter (PM2.5) predictions. The Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model provides smoke and dust predictions. Air quality observations constrain emissions used by NAQFC predictions. NAQFC NOx emissions from mobile sources were updated using National Emissions Inventory (NEI) projections for year 2012. These updates were evaluated over large U.S. cities by comparing observed changes in OMI NO2 observations and NOx measured by surface monitors. The rate of decrease in NOx emission projections from year 2005 to year 2012 is in good agreement with the observed changes over the same period. Smoke emissions rely on the fire locations detected from satellite observations obtained from NESDIS Hazard Mapping System (HMS). Dust emissions rely on a climatology of areas with a potential for dust emissions based on MODIS Deep Blue aerosol retrievals. Verification of NAQFC predictions uses AIRNow compilation of surface measurements for ozone and PM2.5. Retrievals of smoke from GOES satellites are used for verification of smoke predictions. Retrievals of dust from MODIS are used for verification of dust predictions. In summary, observations are the basis for the emissions inputs for NAQFC, they are critical for evaluation of performance of NAQFC predictions, and furthermore they are used in real-time testing of bias correction of PM2.5 predictions, as we continue to work on improving modeling and emissions important for representation of PM2.5.

  8. Model development of dust emission and heterogeneous chemistry within the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system and its application over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, X.; Fu, J. S.; Huang, K.; Tong, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model has been further developed in terms of simulating natural wind-blown dust in this study, with a series of modifications aimed at improving the model's capability to predict the emission, transport, and chemical reactions of dust aerosols. The default parameterization of threshold friction velocity constants in the CMAQ are revised to avoid double counting of the impact of soil moisture based on the re-analysis of field experiment data; source-dependent speciation profiles for dust emission are derived based on local measurements for the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts in East Asia; and dust heterogeneous chemistry is implemented to simulate the reactions involving dust aerosol. The improved dust module in the CMAQ was applied over East Asia for March and April from 2006 to 2010. Evaluation against observations has demonstrated that simulation bias of PM10 and aerosol optical depth (AOD) is reduced from -55.42 and -31.97 % in the original CMAQ to -16.05 and -22.1 % in the revised CMAQ, respectively. Comparison with observations at the nearby Gobi stations of Duolun and Yulin indicates that applying a source-dependent profile helps reduce simulation bias for trace metals. Implementing heterogeneous chemistry is also found to result in better agreement with observations for sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfate (SO42-), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrous oxides (NOx), and nitrate (NO3-). Investigation of a severe dust storm episode from 19 to 21 March 2010 suggests that the revised CMAQ is capable of capturing the spatial distribution and temporal variations of dust aerosols. Model evaluation indicates potential uncertainties within the excessive soil moisture fraction used by meteorological simulation. The mass contribution of fine mode aerosol in dust emission may be underestimated by 50 %. The revised revised CMAQ provides a useful tool for future studies to investigate the emission, transport, and impact of wind-blown dust over East

  9. Model development of dust emission and heterogeneous chemistry within the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system and its application over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xinyi; Fu, Joshua S.; Huang, Kan; Tong, Daniel; Zhuang, Guoshun

    2016-07-01

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model has been further developed in terms of simulating natural wind-blown dust in this study, with a series of modifications aimed at improving the model's capability to predict the emission, transport, and chemical reactions of dust. The default parameterization of initial threshold friction velocity constants are revised to correct the double counting of the impact of soil moisture in CMAQ by the reanalysis of field experiment data; source-dependent speciation profiles for dust emission are derived based on local measurements for the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts in East Asia; and dust heterogeneous chemistry is also implemented. The improved dust module in the CMAQ is applied over East Asia for March and April from 2006 to 2010. The model evaluation result shows that the simulation bias of PM10 and aerosol optical depth (AOD) is reduced, respectively, from -55.42 and -31.97 % by the original CMAQ to -16.05 and -22.1 % by the revised CMAQ. Comparison with observations at the nearby Gobi stations of Duolun and Yulin indicates that applying a source-dependent profile helps reduce simulation bias for trace metals. Implementing heterogeneous chemistry also results in better agreement with observations for sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfate (SO42-), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrous oxides (NOx), and nitrate (NO3-). The investigation of a severe dust storm episode from 19 to 21 March 2010 suggests that the revised CMAQ is capable of capturing the spatial distribution and temporal variation of dust. The model evaluation also indicates potential uncertainty within the excessive soil moisture used by meteorological simulation. The mass contribution of fine-mode particles in dust emission may be underestimated by 50 %. The revised CMAQ model provides a useful tool for future studies to investigate the emission, transport, and impact of wind-blown dust over East Asia and elsewhere.

  10. Performance and diagnostic evaluation of ozone predictions by the Eta-Community Multiscale Air Quality Forecast System during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shaocai; Mathur, Rohit; Kang, Daiwen; Schere, Kenneth; Eder, Brian; Pleim, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    A real-time air quality forecasting system (Eta-Community Multiscale Air Quality [CMAQ] model suite) has been developed by linking the National Centers for Environmental Estimation Eta model to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) CMAQ model. This work presents results from the application of the Eta-CMAQ modeling system for forecasting ozone (O3) over the Northeastern United States during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS). Spatial and temporal performance of the Eta-CMAQ model for O3 was evaluated by comparison with observations from the EPA Air Quality System (AQS) network. This study also examines the ability of the model to simulate the processes governing the distributions of tropospheric O3 on the basis of the intensive datasets obtained at the four Atmospheric Investigation, Regional Modeling, Analysis, and Estimation (AIRMAP) and Harvard Forest (HF) surface sites. The episode analysis reveals that the model captured the buildup of O3 concentrations over the northeastern domain from August 11 and reproduced the spatial distributions of observed O3 very well for the daytime (8:00 p.m.) of both August 8 and 12 with most of normalized mean bias (NMB) within +/- 20%. The model reproduced 53.3% of the observed hourly O3 within a factor of 1.5 with NMB of 29.7% and normalized mean error of 46.9% at the 342 AQS sites. The comparison of modeled and observed lidar O3 vertical profiles shows that whereas the model reproduced the observed vertical structure, it tended to overestimate at higher altitude. The model reproduced 64-77% of observed NO2 photolysis rate values within a factor of 1.5 at the AIRMAP sites. At the HF site, comparison of modeled and observed O3/nitrogen oxide (NOx) ratios suggests that the site is mainly under strongly NOx-sensitive conditions (>53%). It was found that the modeled lower limits of the O3 production efficiency values (inferred from O3-CO correlation) are close to the observations.

  11. Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Vincent M.

    Asserting that the air quality inside schools is often worse than outdoor pollution, leading to various health complaints and loss of productivity, this paper details factors contributing to schools' indoor air quality. These include the design, operation, and maintenance of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; building…

  12. Air Quality System (AQS) Metadata

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency compiles air quality monitoring data in the Air Quality System (AQS). Ambient air concentrations are measured at a national network of more than 4,000 monitoring stations and are reported by state, local, and tribal

  13. Dynamic evaluation of a regional air quality model: Assessing the emissions-induced weekly ozone cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Thomas; Hogrefe, Christian; Trivikrama Rao, S.; Porter, P. Steven; Ku, Jia-Yeong

    2010-09-01

    Air quality models are used to predict changes in pollutant concentrations resulting from envisioned emission control policies. Recognizing the need to assess the credibility of air quality models in a policy-relevant context, we perform a dynamic evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system for the "weekend ozone effect" to determine if observed changes in ozone due to weekday-to-weekend (WDWE) reductions in precursor emissions can be accurately simulated. The weekend ozone effect offers a unique opportunity for dynamic evaluation, as it is a widely documented phenomenon that has persisted since the 1970s. In many urban areas of the Unites States, higher ozone has been observed on weekends than weekdays, despite dramatically reduced emissions of ozone precursors (nitrogen oxides [NO x] and volatile organic compounds [VOCs]) on weekends. More recent measurements, however, suggest shifts in the spatial extent or reductions in WDWE ozone differences. Using 18 years (1988-2005) of observed and modeled ozone and temperature data across the northeastern United States, we re-examine the long-term trends in the weekend effect and confounding factors that may be complicating the interpretation of this trend and explore whether CMAQ can replicate the temporal features of the observed weekend effect. The amplitudes of the weekly ozone cycle have decreased during the 18-year period in our study domain, but the year-to-year variability in weekend minus weekday (WEWD) ozone amplitudes is quite large. Inter-annual variability in meteorology appears to influence WEWD differences in ozone, as well as WEWD differences in VOC and NO x emissions. Because of the large inter-annual variability, modeling strategies using a single episode lasting a few days or a few episodes in a given year may not capture the WEWD signal that exists over longer time periods. The CMAQ model showed skill in predicting the absolute values of ozone concentrations during the

  14. Managing Air Quality - Program Implementation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes elements for the set of activities to ensure that control strategies are put into effect and that air quality goals and standards are fulfilled, permitting programs, and additional resources related to implementation under the Clean Air Act.

  15. Air Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Stak-Tracker CEM (Continuous Emission Monitor) Gas Analyzer is an air quality monitor capable of separating the various gases in a bulk exhaust stream and determining the amounts of individual gases present within the stream. The monitor is produced by GE Reuter- Stokes, a subsidiary of GE Corporate Research & Development Center. The Stak-Tracker uses a Langley Research Center software package which measures the concentration of a target gas by determining the degree to which molecules of that gas absorb an infrared beam. The system is environmental-friendly, fast and has relatively low installation and maintenance costs. It is applicable to gas turbines and various industries including glass, paper and cement.

  16. Dynamic evaluation of CMAQ part I: Separating the effects of changing emissions and changing meteorology on ozone levels between 2002 and 2005 in the eastern US

    EPA Science Inventory

    A dynamic evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system version 5.0.1 was conducted to evaluate the model's ability to predict changes in ozone levels between 2002 and 2005, a time period characterized by emission reductions associated with the EPA's N...

  17. Assessment of long-term WRF–CMAQ simulations for understanding direct aerosol effects on radiation "brightening" in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term simulations with the coupled WRF–CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting–Community Multi-scale Air Quality) model have been conducted to systematically investigate the changes in anthropogenic emissions of SO2 and NOx over the past 16 years (1995–2010) ...

  18. Validation of the WRF-CMAQ Two-Way Model with Aircraft Data and High Resolution MODIS Data in the CA 2008 Wildfire Case

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new WRF-CMAQ two-way coupled model was developed to provide a pathway for chemical feedbacks from the air quality model to the meteorological model. The essence of this interaction is focused on the direct radiative effects of scattering and absorbing aerosols in the tropospher...

  19. Assessment of long-term WRF–CMAQ simulations for understanding direct aerosol effects on radiation "brightening" in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term simulations with the coupled WRF–CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting–Community Multi-scale Air Quality) model have been conducted to systematically investigate the changes in anthropogenic emissions of SO2 and NOx over the past 16 years (1995–2010) ...

  20. Validation of the WRF-CMAQ Two-Way Model with Aircraft Data and High Resolution MODIS Data in the CA 2008 Wildfire Case

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new WRF-CMAQ two-way coupled model was developed to provide a pathway for chemical feedbacks from the air quality model to the meteorological model. The essence of this interaction is focused on the direct radiative effects of scattering and absorbing aerosols in the tropospher...

  1. Dynamic evaluation of CMAQ part I: Separating the effects of changing emissions and changing meteorology on ozone levels between 2002 and 2005 in the eastern US

    EPA Science Inventory

    A dynamic evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system version 5.0.1 was conducted to evaluate the model's ability to predict changes in ozone levels between 2002 and 2005, a time period characterized by emission reductions associated with the EPA's N...

  2. Ozone and NOx chemistry in the eastern US: evaluation of CMAQ/CB05 with satellite (OMI) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canty, T. P.; Hembeck, L.; Vinciguerra, T. P.; Anderson, D. C.; Goldberg, D. L.; Carpenter, S. F.; Allen, D. J.; Loughner, C. P.; Salawitch, R. J.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2015-02-01

    Regulatory air quality models, such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ), are used by federal and state agencies to guide policy decisions that determine how to best achieve adherence with National Ambient Air Quality Standards for surface ozone. We use observations of ozone and its important precursor NO2 to test the representation of the photochemistry and emission of ozone precursors within CMAQ. Observations of tropospheric column NO2 from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), retrieved by two independent groups, show that the model overestimates urban NO2 and underestimates rural NO2 under all conditions examined for July and August 2011 in the US Northeast. The overestimate of the urban to rural ratio of tropospheric column NO2 for this baseline run of CMAQ (CB05 mechanism, mobile NOx emissions from the National Emissions Inventory; isoprene emissions from MEGAN v2.04) suggests this model may under estimate the importance of interstate transport of NOx. This CMAQ simulation leads to a considerable overestimate of the 2 month average of 8 h daily maximum surface ozone in the US Northeast, as well as an overestimate of 8 h ozone at AQS sites during days when the state of Maryland experienced NAAQS exceedances. We have implemented three changes within CMAQ motivated by OMI NO2 as well as aircraft observations obtained in July 2011 during the NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign: (a) the modeled lifetime of organic nitrates within CB05 has been reduced by a factor of 10, (b) emissions of NOx from mobile sources has been reduced by a factor of 2, and (c) isoprene emissions have been reduced by using MEGAN v2.10 rather than v2.04. Compared to the baseline simulation, the CMAQ run using all three of these changes leads to a considerably better simulation of the ratio of urban to rural column NO2, better agreement with the 2 month average of daily 8 h maximum ozone in the US Northeast, fewer number of false positives of an ozone exceedance throughout the domain

  3. Ozone and NOx chemistry in the eastern US: evaluation of CMAQ/CB05 with satellite (OMI) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canty, T. P.; Hembeck, L.; Vinciguerra, T. P.; Anderson, D. C.; Goldberg, D. L.; Carpenter, S. F.; Allen, D. J.; Loughner, C. P.; Salawitch, R. J.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2015-10-01

    Regulatory air quality models, such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ), are used by federal and state agencies to guide policy decisions that determine how to best achieve adherence with National Ambient Air Quality Standards for surface ozone. We use observations of ozone and its important precursor NO2 to test the representation of the photochemistry and emission of ozone precursors within CMAQ. Observations of tropospheric column NO2 from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), retrieved by two independent groups, show that the model overestimates urban NO2 and underestimates rural NO2 under all conditions examined for July and August 2011 in the US Northeast. The overestimate of the urban to rural ratio of tropospheric column NO2 for this baseline run of CMAQ (CB05 mechanism, mobile NOx emissions from the National Emissions Inventory; isoprene emissions from MEGAN v2.04) suggests this model may underestimate the importance of interstate transport of NOx. This CMAQ simulation leads to a considerable overestimate of the 2-month average of 8 h daily maximum surface ozone in the US Northeast, as well as an overestimate of 8 h ozone at AQS sites during days when the state of Maryland experienced NAAQS exceedances. We have implemented three changes within CMAQ motivated by OMI NO2 as well as aircraft observations obtained in July 2011 during the NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign: (a) the modeled lifetime of organic nitrates within CB05 has been reduced by a factor of 10, (b) emissions of NOx from mobile sources has been reduced by a factor of 2, and (c) isoprene emissions have been reduced by using MEGAN v2.10 rather than v2.04. Compared to the baseline simulation, the CMAQ run using all three of these changes leads to considerably better simulation of column NO2 in both urban and rural areas, better agreement with the 2-month average of daily 8 h maximum ozone in the US Northeast, fewer number of false positives of an ozone exceedance throughout the domain

  4. A Five- Year CMAQ Model Performance for Wildfires and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Biomass burning has been identified as an important contributor to the degradation of air quality because of its impact on ozone and particulate matter. Two components of the biomass burning inventory, wildfires and prescribed fires are routinely estimated in the national emissions inventory. However, there is a large amount of uncertainty in the development of these emission inventory sectors. We have completed a 5 year set of CMAQ model simulations (2008-2012) in which we have simulated regional air quality with and without the wildfire and prescribed fire inventory. We will examine CMAQ model performance over regions with significant PM2.5 and Ozone contribution from prescribed fires and wildfires. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, decision-support tools, and models to be applied to media-specific or receptor-specific problem areas. CED uses modeling-based approaches to characterize exposures, evaluate fate and transport, and support environmental diagnostics/forensics with input from multiple data sources. It also develops media- and receptor-specific models, process models, and decision support tools for use both within and outside of EPA.

  5. Improved meteorology from an updated WRF/CMAQ modeling ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Realistic vegetation characteristics and phenology from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products improve the simulation for the meteorology and air quality modeling system WRF/CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting model and Community Multiscale Air Quality model) that employs the Pleim-Xiu land surface model (PX LSM). Recently, PX LSM WRF/CMAQ has been updated in vegetation, soil, and boundary layer processes resulting in improved 2 m temperature (T) and mixing ratio (Q), 10 m wind speed, and surface ozone simulations across the domain compared to the previous version for a period around August 2006. Yearlong meteorology simulations with the updated system demonstrate that MODIS input helps reduce bias of the 2 m Q estimation during the growing season from April to September. Improvements follow the green-up in the southeast from April and move toward the west and north through August. From October to March, MODIS input does not have much influence on the system because vegetation is not as active. The greatest effects of MODIS input include more accurate phenology, better representation of leaf area index (LAI) for various forest ecosystems and agricultural areas, and realistically sparse vegetation coverage in the western drylands. Despite the improved meteorology, MODIS input causes higher bias for the surface O3 simulation in April, August, and October in areas where MODIS LAI is much less than the base LAI. Thus, improvement

  6. A Five- Year CMAQ Model Performance for Wildfires and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Biomass burning has been identified as an important contributor to the degradation of air quality because of its impact on ozone and particulate matter. Two components of the biomass burning inventory, wildfires and prescribed fires are routinely estimated in the national emissions inventory. However, there is a large amount of uncertainty in the development of these emission inventory sectors. We have completed a 5 year set of CMAQ model simulations (2008-2012) in which we have simulated regional air quality with and without the wildfire and prescribed fire inventory. We will examine CMAQ model performance over regions with significant PM2.5 and Ozone contribution from prescribed fires and wildfires. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, decision-support tools, and models to be applied to media-specific or receptor-specific problem areas. CED uses modeling-based approaches to characterize exposures, evaluate fate and transport, and support environmental diagnostics/forensics with input from multiple data sources. It also develops media- and receptor-specific models, process models, and decision support tools for use both within and outside of EPA.

  7. Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web site will educate the public about indoor environmental issues specific to educational facilities and the importance of developing and sustaining comprehensive indoor air quality management programs.

  8. Modeling the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study using CMAQ-MADRID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipping, E. M.; Kumar, N.; Pun, B.; Wu, S.; Seigneur, C.

    2003-12-01

    A scientifically rigorous treatment of particulate matter within the framework of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is provided by CMAQ-MADRID (Model for Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization, and Dissolution). CMAQ-MADRID is used to simulate the fate and transport of ambient gases and particulate matter (PM) during the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) study. The configuration of CMAQ-MADRID used for this study comprises the Regional Acid Deposition Mechanism v.2 (RADM2) gas-phase chemistry mechanism, a sectional PM solver incorporating the ISORROPIA inorganic thermodynamics module and the AER/EPRI/Caltech (AEC) secondary organic aerosol (SOA) module, and the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) cloud chemistry module. Boundary conditions for gas- and particle-phase species are prescribed by an outer domain simulated using the Regional Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition REMSAD (whose domain comprises most of North America). Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate sulfate boundary conditions for the REMSAD domain are provided by the Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation Transport (GOCART) model. Concentrations of sulfur dioxide and particulate sulfate at the CMAQ boundary are scaled to observations from monitoring stations of the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network. The performance of CMAQ-MADRID is evaluated by comparing predictions with field measurements of the principal components contributing to visibility degradation: salts of ammonium with sulfate and nitrate, organic mass, elemental carbon and "other" particulate matter constituents, e.g. dust, sea salt and metal oxides. Model performance with respect to sulfate predictions, including model performance for its gas-phase precursor, sulfur dioxide, is explored across the thirty-seven stations comprising the BRAVO Network. The performance of CMAQ

  9. Persistence of initial conditions in continental scale air quality simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogrefe, Christian; Roselle, Shawn J.; Bash, Jesse O.

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the effect of initial conditions (IC) for pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere and soil on simulated air quality for two continental-scale Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model applications. One of these applications was performed for springtime and the second for summertime. Results show that a spin-up period of ten days commonly used in regional-scale applications may not be sufficient to reduce the effects of initial conditions to less than 1% of seasonally-averaged surface ozone concentrations everywhere while 20 days were found to be sufficient for the entire domain for the spring case and almost the entire domain for the summer case. For the summer case, differences were found to persist longer aloft due to circulation of air masses and even a spin-up period of 30 days was not sufficient to reduce the effects of ICs to less than 1% of seasonally-averaged layer 34 ozone concentrations over the southwestern portion of the modeling domain. Analysis of the effect of soil initial conditions for the CMAQ bidirectional NH3 exchange model shows that during springtime they can have an important effect on simulated inorganic aerosols concentrations for time periods of one month or longer. The effects are less pronounced during other seasons. The results, while specific to the modeling domain and time periods simulated here, suggest that modeling protocols need to be scrutinized for a given application and that it cannot be assumed that commonly-used spin-up periods are necessarily sufficient to reduce the effects of initial conditions on model results to an acceptable level. What constitutes an acceptable level of difference cannot be generalized and will depend on the particular application, time period and species of interest. Moreover, as the application of air quality models is being expanded to cover larger geographical domains and as these models are increasingly being coupled with other modeling systems to better represent

  10. Quantifying Co-benefits of Renewable Energy through Integrated Electricity and Air Quality Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, D.

    2016-12-01

    This work focuses on the coordination of electricity sector changes with air quality and health improvement strategies through the integration of electricity and air quality models. Two energy models are used to calculate emission perturbations associated with changes in generation technology (20% generation from solar photovoltaics) and demand (future electricity use under a warmer climate). Impacts from increased solar PV penetration are simulated with the electricity model GridView, in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Generation results are used to scale power plant emissions from an inventory developed by the Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium (LADCO). Perturbed emissions and are used to calculate secondary particulate matter with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. We find that electricity NOx and SO2 emissions decrease at a rate similar to the total fraction of electricity supplied by solar. Across the Eastern U.S. region, average PM2.5 is reduced 5% over the summer, with highest reduction in regions and on days of greater PM2.5. A similar approach evaluates the air quality impacts of elevated electricity demand under a warmer climate. Meteorology is selected from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) and input to a building energy model, eQUEST, to assess electricity demand as a function of ambient temperature. The associated generation and emissions are calculated on a plant-by-plant basis by the MyPower power sector model. These emissions are referenced to the 2011 National Emissions Inventory to be modeled in CMAQ for the Eastern U.S. and extended to health impact evaluation with the Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP). All results focus on the air quality and health consequences of energy system changes, considering grid-level changes to meet climate and air quality goals.

  11. Impact of biogenic emissions on air quality over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagaris, Efthimios; Sotiropoulou, Rafaella-Eleni P.; Gounaris, Nikos; Andronopoulois, Spyros

    2013-04-01

    The impact of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions on air quality over Europe is assessed for a summer month (i.e., July, 2006) using Models-3 (i.e., CMAQ, MM5, SMOKE) modeling system. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) v4.7 Modeling System with the Carbon Bond mechanism (CB05) is used for the regional air quality modeling. Meteorological fields are derived using the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5). Emissions are processed by the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE v2.6) modeling system for converting the resolution of the emission inventory data to the resolution needed by the air quality model. TNO has provided a gridded anthropogenic emissions database for the year 2006 over Europe in a 0.1 × 0.1 degrees resolution. The Biogenic Emission Inventory System, version 3 (BEIS3) is used for processing biogenic source emissions. Gridded land use data in 1 km resolution provided by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the default summer and winter emission factors and meteorological fields are used to create hourly model-ready biogenic emissions estimates. Results suggest that biogenic emissions increase simulated daily maximum 8 hours ozone average (Max8hrO3) concentrations over Europe by 5.6% for July 2006. BVOC emissions increase Max8hrO3 concentrations more than 5ppbV in a big part of Europe while locally it is more than 10ppbV. Despite the general trend of reduction in PM2.5 concentrations (about -2% on average over Europe during July 2006) there are regions where PM2.5 concentrations are simulated higher due to BVOC emissions. This is related to the change in PM2.5 component concentrations: an increase in organic carbon concentration and a decrease in sulfate concentration are simulated (13.6% and -5.6% on average over Europe during July 2006, respectively) while changes in nitrate concentrations are noted regionally. This work was supported by the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) 2007-2013 grand No 09SYN-31-667.

  12. Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... are especially vulnerable to the harmful effects of air pollution. Cleaning up pollution in their schools will help ... nothing else matters ® . Help us fight to reduce pollution in the air we breathe. Donate

  13. [Air quality and climate change].

    PubMed

    Loft, Steffen

    2009-10-26

    Air quality, health and climate change are closely connected. Ozone depends on temperature and the greenhouse gas methane from cattle and biomass. Pollen presence depends on temperature and CO2. The effect of climate change on particulate air pollution is complex, but the likely net effect is greater health risks. Reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions by reduced livestock production and use of combustion for energy production, transport and heating will also improve air quality. Energy savings in buildings and use of CO2 neutral fuels should not deteriorate indoor and outdoor air quality.

  14. New Federal Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stopinski, O. W.

    The report discusses the current procedures for establishing air quality standards, the bases for standards, and, finally, proposed and final National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, photochemical oxidants, and nitrogen dioxide. (Author/RH)

  15. New Federal Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stopinski, O. W.

    The report discusses the current procedures for establishing air quality standards, the bases for standards, and, finally, proposed and final National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, photochemical oxidants, and nitrogen dioxide. (Author/RH)

  16. Building Air Quality. Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Indoor Air Div.

    Building managers and owners often confront competing demands to reduce operating costs and increase revenues that can siphon funds and resources from other building management concerns such as indoor air quality (IAQ). This resource booklet, designed for use with the "Building Air Quality Guide," provides building owners and managers with an…

  17. Indoor air quality medicolegal issues.

    PubMed

    Ross, C S; Lockey, J E

    1994-08-01

    The regulatory and legal communities have begun only recently to address the medicolegal issues surrounding indoor air quality. No single governmental agency is responsible for indoor air quality issues. The focus of the federal government's indoor air quality programs is on the gathering and dissemination of information rather than on the regulation of indoor air pollution. State and local regulatory controls vary but may include antismoking ordinances, building codes, and contractor certification programs. Numerous lawsuits involving various parties and legal theories have been filed on the basis of illness allegedly related to indoor air quality. Further regulatory and legal review of indoor air problems will likely occur in the near future, particularly as a result of the characterization of environmental tobacco smoke as a class A carcinogen.

  18. Air Quality Science and Regulatory Efforts Require Geostationary Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Allen, D. J.; Stehr, J. W.

    2006-01-01

    Air quality scientists and regulatory agencies would benefit from the high spatial and temporal resolution trace gas and aerosol data that could be provided by instruments on a geostationary platform. More detailed time-resolved data from a geostationary platform could be used in tracking regional transport and in evaluating mesoscale air quality model performance in terms of photochemical evolution throughout the day. The diurnal cycle of photochemical pollutants is currently missing from the data provided by the current generation of atmospheric chemistry satellites which provide only one measurement per day. Often peak surface ozone mixing ratios are reached much earlier in the day during major regional pollution episodes than during local episodes due to downward mixing of ozone that had been transported above the boundary layer overnight. The regional air quality models often do not simulate this downward mixing well enough and underestimate surface ozone in regional episodes. Having high time-resolution geostationary data will make it possible to determine the magnitude of this lower-and mid-tropospheric transport that contributes to peak eight-hour average ozone and 24-hour average PM2.5 concentrations. We will show ozone and PM(sub 2.5) episodes from the CMAQ model and suggest ways in which geostationary satellite data would improve air quality forecasting. Current regulatory modeling is typically being performed at 12 km horizontal resolution. State and regional air quality regulators in regions with complex topography and/or land-sea breezes are anxious to move to 4-km or finer resolution simulations. Geostationary data at these or finer resolutions will be useful in evaluating such models.

  19. Urban Landscape Characterization Using Remote Sensing Data For Input into Air Quality Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Crosson, William; Khan, Maudood

    2005-01-01

    The urban landscape is inherently complex and this complexity is not adequately captured in air quality models that are used to assess whether urban areas are in attainment of EPA air quality standards, particularly for ground level ozone. This inadequacy of air quality models to sufficiently respond to the heterogeneous nature of the urban landscape can impact how well these models predict ozone pollutant levels over metropolitan areas and ultimately, whether cities exceed EPA ozone air quality standards. We are exploring the utility of high-resolution remote sensing data and urban growth projections as improved inputs to meteorological and air quality models focusing on the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area as a case study. The National Land Cover Dataset at 30m resolution is being used as the land use/land cover input and aggregated to the 4km scale for the MM5 mesoscale meteorological model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling schemes. Use of these data have been found to better characterize low density/suburban development as compared with USGS 1 km land use/land cover data that have traditionally been used in modeling. Air quality prediction for future scenarios to 2030 is being facilitated by land use projections using a spatial growth model. Land use projections were developed using the 2030 Regional Transportation Plan developed by the Atlanta Regional Commission. This allows the State Environmental Protection agency to evaluate how these transportation plans will affect future air quality.

  20. Representing the Effects of Long-Range Transport and Lateral Boundary Conditions in Regional Air Pollution Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system was applied to a domain covering the northern hemisphere; meteorological information was derived from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model run on identical grid and projection configuration, while the emissio...

  1. Representing the Effects of Long-Range Transport and Lateral Boundary Conditions in Regional Air Pollution Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system was applied to a domain covering the northern hemisphere; meteorological information was derived from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model run on identical grid and projection configuration, while the emissio...

  2. Modeling the Transport and Chemical Evolution of Onshore and Offshore Emissions and their Impact on Local and Regional Air Quality Using a Variable-Grid-Resolution Air Quality Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran Alapaty

    2006-04-16

    This Annual report summarizes the research performed from 17 April 2005 through 16 April 2006. Major portions of the research in several of the project's current eight tasks have been completed. We have successfully developed the meteorological inputs using the best possible modeling configurations, resulting in improved representation of atmospheric processes. The development of the variable-grid-resolution emissions model, SMOKE-VGR, is also completed. The development of the MAQSIP-VGR has been completed and a test run was performed to ensure the functionality of this air quality model. We have incorporated new emission data base to update the offshore emissions. However, we have faced some bottleneck problems in the testing the integrity of the new database. For this reason, we have asked for a no cost extension of this project to tackle these scientific problems. Thus, the project is on a one-year delay schedule. During the reporting period, we solved all problems related to the new emission database. We are ready to move to developing the final product, implementation and testing of the variable grid technology into the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) to develop the CMAQ-VGR. During the upcoming months we will perform the first CMAQ-VGR simulations over the Houston-Galveston region to study the roles of the meteorology, offshore emissions, and chemistry-transport interactions that determine the temporal and spatial evolution of ozone and its precursors.

  3. Impacts of Energy Sector Emissions on PM2.5 Air Quality in Northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karambelas, A. N.; Kiesewetter, G.; Heyes, C.; Holloway, T.

    2015-12-01

    India experiences high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and several Indian cities currently rank among the world's most polluted cities. With ongoing urbanization and a growing economy, emissions from different energy sectors remain major contributors to air pollution in India. Emission sectors impact ambient air quality differently due to spatial distribution (typical urban vs. typical rural sources) as well as source height characteristics (low-level vs. high stack sources). This study aims to assess the impacts of emissions from three distinct energy sectors—transportation, domestic, and electricity—on ambient PM2.5­­ in northern India using an advanced air quality analysis framework based on the U.S. EPA Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Present air quality conditions are simulated using 2010 emissions from the Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interaction and Synergies (GAINS) model. Modeled PM2.5 concentrations are compared with satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2010. Energy sector emissions impacts on future (2030) PM2.5 are evaluated with three sensitivity simulations, assuming maximum feasible reduction technologies for either transportation, domestic, or electricity sectors. These simulations are compared with a business as usual 2030 simulation to assess relative sectoral impacts spatially and temporally. CMAQ is modeled at 12km by 12km and include biogenic emissions from the Community Land Model coupled with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols in Nature (CLM-MEGAN), biomass burning emissions from the Global Fires Emissions Database (GFED), and ERA-Interim meteorology generated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for 2010 to quantify the impact of modified anthropogenic emissions on ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Energy sector emissions analysis supports decision-making to improve future air quality and public health in

  4. Toward verifying fossil fuel CO2 emissions with the CMAQ model: motivation, model description and initial simulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Bambha, Ray P; Pinto, Joseph P; Zeng, Tao; Boylan, Jim; Huang, Maoyi; Lei, Huimin; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Shishi; Mao, Jiafu; Schwalm, Christopher R; Shi, Xiaoying; Wei, Yaxing; Michelsen, Hope A

    2014-04-01

    Motivated by the question of whether and how a state-of-the-art regional chemical transport model (CTM) can facilitate characterization of CO2 spatiotemporal variability and verify CO2 fossil-fuel emissions, we for the first time applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to simulate CO2. This paper presents methods, input data, and initial results for CO2 simulation using CMAQ over the contiguous United States in October 2007. Modeling experiments have been performed to understand the roles of fossil-fuel emissions, biosphere-atmosphere exchange, and meteorology in regulating the spatial distribution of CO2 near the surface over the contiguous United States. Three sets of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) fluxes were used as input to assess the impact of uncertainty of NEE on CO2 concentrations simulated by CMAQ. Observational data from six tall tower sites across the country were used to evaluate model performance. In particular, at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO), a tall tower site that receives urban emissions from Denver CO, the CMAQ model using hourly varying, high-resolution CO2 fossil-fuel emissions from the Vulcan inventory and Carbon Tracker optimized NEE reproduced the observed diurnal profile of CO2 reasonably well but with a low bias in the early morning. The spatial distribution of CO2 was found to correlate with NO(x), SO2, and CO, because of their similar fossil-fuel emission sources and common transport processes. These initial results from CMAQ demonstrate the potential of using a regional CTM to help interpret CO2 observations and understand CO2 variability in space and time. The ability to simulate a full suite of air pollutants in CMAQ will also facilitate investigations of their use as tracers for CO2 source attribution. This work serves as a proof of concept and the foundation for more comprehensive examinations of CO2 spatiotemporal variability and various uncertainties in the future. Atmospheric CO2 has long been modeled

  5. Aerosol indirect effect on the grid-scale clouds in the two-way coupled WRF–CMAQ: model description, development, evaluation and regional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Mathur, R.; Pleim, J.; Wong, D.; Gilliam, R.; Alapaty, K.; Zhao, C.; Liu, X.

    2014-01-01

    This study implemented first, second and glaciation aerosol indirect effects (AIE) on resolved clouds in the two-way coupled Weather Research and Forecasting Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF–CMAQ) modeling system by including parameterizations for both cloud drop and ice number concentrations on the basis of CMAQ-predicted aerosol distributions and WRF meteorological conditions. The performance of the newly developed WRF–CMAQ model, with alternate Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) and Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCMs (RRTMG) radiation schemes, was evaluated with observations from the Clouds and the See http://ceres.larc.nasa.gov/. Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite and surface monitoring networks (AQS, IMPROVE, CASTNET, STN, and PRISM) over the continental US (CONUS) (12 km resolution) and eastern Texas (4 km resolution) during August and September of 2006. The results at the Air Quality System (AQS) surface sites show that in August, the normalized mean bias (NMB) values for PM2.5 over the eastern US (EUS) and the western US (WUS) are 5.3% (-0.1%) and 0.4% (-5.2%) for WRF–CMAQ/CAM (WRF–CMAQ/RRTMG), respectively. The evaluation of PM2.5 chemical composition reveals that in August, WRF–CMAQ/CAM (WRF–CMAQ/RRTMG) consistently underestimated the observed SO42- by -23.0% (-27.7%), -12.5% (-18.9%) and -7.9% (-14.8%) over the EUS at the Clean Air Status Trends Network (CASTNET), Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Speciated Trends Network (STN) sites, respectively. Both configurations (WRF–CMAQ/CAM, WRF–CMAQ/RRTMG) overestimated the observed mean organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and and total carbon (TC) concentrations over the EUS in August at the IMPROVE sites. Both configurations generally underestimated the cloud field (shortwave cloud forcing, SWCF) over the CONUS in August due to the

  6. Improved meteorology from an updated WRF/CMAQ modeling system with MODIS vegetation and albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Limei; Pleim, Jonathan; Gilliam, Robert; Binkowski, Francis S.; Hogrefe, Christian; Band, Larry

    2016-03-01

    Realistic vegetation characteristics and phenology from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products improve the simulation for the meteorology and air quality modeling system WRF/CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting model and Community Multiscale Air Quality model) that employs the Pleim-Xiu land surface model (PX LSM). Recently, PX LSM WRF/CMAQ has been updated in vegetation, soil, and boundary layer processes resulting in improved 2 m temperature (T) and mixing ratio (Q), 10 m wind speed, and surface ozone simulations across the domain compared to the previous version for a period around August 2006. Yearlong meteorology simulations with the updated system demonstrate that MODIS input helps reduce bias of the 2 m Q estimation during the growing season from April to September. Improvements follow the green-up in the southeast from April and move toward the west and north through August. From October to March, MODIS input does not have much influence on the system because vegetation is not as active. The greatest effects of MODIS input include more accurate phenology, better representation of leaf area index (LAI) for various forest ecosystems and agricultural areas, and realistically sparse vegetation coverage in the western drylands. Despite the improved meteorology, MODIS input causes higher bias for the surface O3 simulation in April, August, and October in areas where MODIS LAI is much less than the base LAI. Thus, improvements may be needed in the CMAQ dry deposition model for low LAI areas where deposition on the soil surface becomes important.

  7. Air quality modeling in support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS).

    PubMed

    Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Batterman, Stuart; Bereznicki, Sarah; Burke, Janet; Dionisio, Kathie; Garcia, Val; Heist, David; Perry, Steve; Snyder, Michelle; Vette, Alan

    2014-08-27

    A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characterization. Air quality modeling can provide spatially and temporally varying exposure estimates for examining relationships between traffic-related air pollutants and adverse health outcomes. A hybrid air quality modeling approach was used to estimate exposure to traffic-related air pollutants in support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) conducted in Detroit (Michigan, USA). Model-based exposure metrics, associated with local variations of emissions and meteorology, were estimated using a combination of the American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) and Research LINE-source dispersion model for near-surface releases (RLINE) dispersion models, local emission source information from the National Emissions Inventory, detailed road network locations and traffic activity, and meteorological data from the Detroit City Airport. The regional background contribution was estimated using a combination of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) and the Space-Time Ordinary Kriging (STOK) models. To capture the near-road pollutant gradients, refined "mini-grids" of model receptors were placed around participant homes. Exposure metrics for CO, NOx, PM2.5 and its components (elemental and organic carbon) were predicted at each home location for multiple time periods including daily and rush hours. The exposure metrics were evaluated for their ability to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of multiple ambient air pollutants compared to measurements across the study area.

  8. Colorado Air Quality Control Regulations and Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver. Div. of Air Pollution Control.

    Regulations and standards relative to air quality control in Colorado are defined in this publication. Presented first are definitions of terms, a statement of intent, and general provisions applicable to all emission control regulations adopted by the Colorado Air Pollution Control Commission. Following this, three regulations are enumerated: (1)…

  9. A seasonal perspective on regional air quality in Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Ling

    California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV) suffers from serious ozone air pollution problems due to its unique trough-like geography and diverse emission sources. Control strategies for ozone precursors---nitrogen oxides (NOX) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)---need to be determined to bring SJV ozone levels into compliance with increasingly stringent health-based air quality standards. Current practice is to develop control strategies by simulating several 3 or 4-day ozone episodes with the "worst case" weather conditions. There are concerns about models being tuned to perform well by adjusting input data and parameters for specific emission and meteorological conditions, and thus control strategy analyses are not fully credible in simulating ozone responses to emission reductions. More importantly, due to diverse meteorology in central California, it is not known whether control strategies developed from the worst-case episodes are effective for different meteorology and emissions. This research seeks a more comprehensive evaluation of air quality model performance and characterization of ozone variability for the SJV through application of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) to central California for an entire summer season. Past evaluations of CMAQ have been focused on the eastern United States, with applications usually conducted for high-ozone episodes that last for a few days or weeks. This research provides a suite of benchmarked model inputs that describe variations in both time and space for central California for an entire summer season. A variety of evaluation methods and diagnostic tools have been applied first to refine model inputs and then to evaluate model performance. Gridded meteorological and emission inputs are developed to reflect variability occurring on diurnal, weekly, and seasonal time scales. Driven by these inputs, the model has stable performance for the entire modeling period without the need for ad hoc adjustment of

  10. Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Takeji

    The reduction of intake of outdoor air volume in air conditioned buildings, adopted as the strategy for saving energy, has caused sick building syndrome abroad. Such symptoms of sick building as headache, stimuli of eye and nose and lethargy, appears to result from cigarette smoke, folmaldehyde and volatile organic carbons. On the other hand, in airtight residences not only carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from domestic burning appliances but also allergens of mite, fungi, pollen and house dust, have become a subject of discussion. Moreover, asbestos and radon of carcinogen now attract a great deal of attention. Those indoor air pollutants are discussed.

  11. Impact of Tropospheric Downwash on Hong Kong Air Quality during Southeast Biomass Burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fat Lam, Yun; Yeung, Irene W. M.; He, Wenlin; Louie, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Biomass burning is recognized as an important source of air pollution, which not only affects local air quality, but also air quality at distant places. This study investigated the impacts of biomass burning emissions from Southeast Asia (SEA) and its contribution to local air pollution in Hong Kong. Biomass burning events in the spring from 2012 to 2014 were first identified by using GFED (Global Fire Emission Data) fire emissions with HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian-Integrated Trajectory) backward trajectory dispersion modeling analysis. Cross comparison between event and non-event days was performed using local air quality observation (e.g., nss-K+, PM2.5/PM10 ratio) to ensure the presence of biomass burning signatures. After that, regional air quality model, WRF-CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Community Multi-scale Air) with 4 nested domains (i.e., 27, 9, 3 and 1 km) were applied to evaluate the contribution of biomass burning during the downwash events on local air pollution. The results provide us a better understanding on how long-range transport of SEA biomass burning affects local air quality in South China.

  12. The effects of global change upon United States air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Abraham, R.; Chung, S. H.; Avise, J.; Lamb, B.; Salathé, E. P., Jr.; Nolte, C. G.; Loughlin, D.; Guenther, A.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Duhl, T.; Zhang, Y.; Streets, D. G.

    2015-11-01

    To understand more fully the effects of global changes on ambient concentrations of ozone and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the United States (US), we conducted a comprehensive modeling effort to evaluate explicitly the effects of changes in climate, biogenic emissions, land use and global/regional anthropogenic emissions on ozone and PM2.5 concentrations and composition. Results from the ECHAM5 global climate model driven with the A1B emission scenario from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to provide regional meteorological fields. We developed air quality simulations using the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) chemical transport model for two nested domains with 220 and 36 km horizontal grid cell resolution for a semi-hemispheric domain and a continental United States (US) domain, respectively. The semi-hemispheric domain was used to evaluate the impact of projected global emissions changes on US air quality. WRF meteorological fields were used to calculate current (2000s) and future (2050s) biogenic emissions using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). For the semi-hemispheric domain CMAQ simulations, present-day global emissions inventories were used and projected to the 2050s based on the IPCC A1B scenario. Regional anthropogenic emissions were obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency National Emission Inventory 2002 (EPA NEI2002) and projected to the future using the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) energy system model assuming a business as usual scenario that extends current decade emission regulations through 2050. Our results suggest that daily maximum 8 h average ozone (DM8O) concentrations will increase in a range between 2 to 12 parts per billion (ppb) across most of the continental US. The highest increase occurs in the South, Central and Midwest regions of the US due to

  13. The effects of global change upon United States air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Abraham, R.; Avise, J.; Chung, S. H.; Lamb, B.; Salathé, E. P., Jr.; Nolte, C. G.; Loughlin, D.; Guenther, A.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Duhl, T.; Zhang, Y.; Streets, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    To understand more fully the effects of global changes on ambient concentrations of ozone and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the US, we conducted a comprehensive modeling effort to evaluate explicitly the effects of changes in climate, biogenic emissions, land use, and global/regional anthropogenic emissions on ozone and PM2.5 concentrations and composition. Results from the ECHAM5 global climate model driven with the A1B emission scenario from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to provide regional meteorological fields. We developed air quality simulations using the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) chemical transport model for two nested domains with 220 and 36 km horizontal grid cell resolution for a semi-hemispheric domain and a continental United States (US) domain, respectively. The semi-hemispheric domain was used to evaluate the impact of projected Asian emissions changes on US air quality. WRF meteorological fields were used to calculate current (2000s) and future (2050s) biogenic emissions using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). For the semi-hemispheric domain CMAQ simulations, present-day global emissions inventories were used and projected to the 2050s based on the IPCC A1B scenario. Regional anthropogenic emissions were obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency National Emission Inventory 2002 (EPA NEI2002) and projected to the future using the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) energy system model assuming a business as usual scenario that extends current decade emission regulations through 2050. Our results suggest that daily maximum 8 h average ozone (DM8O) concentrations will increase in a range between 2 to 12 ppb across most of the continental US, with the highest increase in the South, Central, and Midwest regions of the US, due to increases in temperature, enhanced

  14. Managing Air Quality - Emissions Inventories

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page describes the role of emission inventories in the air quality management process, a description of how emission inventories are developed, and where U.S. emission inventory information can be found.

  15. [Indoor air quality in schools].

    PubMed

    Cartieaux, E; Rzepka, M-A; Cuny, D

    2011-07-01

    Indoor air quality in schools has received particular attention over the past several years. Children are considered as one of the most sensitive groups to atmospheric pollution because their bodies are actively growing and they breathe higher volumes of air relative to their body weights than adults do. They also spend more time in school or group structures (preschools, day nurseries) than in any indoor environments other than the home. The analysis of children's exposure to air pollution at school requires the identification of the main pollutant sources present in these educational institutions. Both a strong contribution of outdoor pollution and a very specific pollution bound to school activities such as the use of paints, markers, glues, and manufactured ink eraser pens, exist. The ventilation in school buildings also plays an important role in air quality. A higher air exchange may improve thermal comfort and air quality. The cause of indoor air pollution is a combinatory effect of physical, chemical, and biological factors, and the adequacy of ventilation in the environment. Several pollutants have been reported to exist in classrooms such as bacteria, molds, volatile organic compounds, persistent organic pollutants and microparticles. There is a correlation between the concentrations of the pollutants and onset of health problems in schoolchildren. We observe predominantly respiratory symptoms as well as a prevalence of respiratory diseases such as asthma and allergies. This study shows that poor indoor air quality affects children's health.

  16. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  17. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  18. Temporalization of Electric Generation Emissions for Improved Representation of Peak Air Quality Episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, C. M.; Moeller, M.; Carlton, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Photochemical transport models routinely under predict peak air quality events. This deficiency may be due, in part, to inadequate temporalization of emissions from the electric generating sector. The National Emissions Inventory (NEI) reports emissions from Electric Generating Units (EGUs) by either Continuous Emission Monitors (CEMs) that report hourly values or as an annual total. The Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions preprocessor (SMOKE), used to prepare emissions data for modeling with the CMAQ air quality model, allocates annual emission totals throughout the year using specific monthly, weekly, and hourly weights according to standard classification code (SCC) and location. This approach represents average diurnal and seasonal patterns of electricity generation but does not capture spikes in emissions due to episodic use as with peaking units or due to extreme weather events. In this project we use a combination of state air quality permits, CEM data, and EPA emission factors to more accurately temporalize emissions of NOx, SO2 and particulate matter (PM) during the extensive heat wave of July and August 2006. Two CMAQ simulations are conducted; the first with the base NEI emissions and the second with improved temporalization, more representative of actual emissions during the heat wave. Predictions from both simulations are evaluated with O3 and PM measurement data from EPA's National Air Monitoring Stations (NAMS) and State and Local Air Monitoring Stations (SLAMS) during the heat wave, for which ambient concentrations of criteria pollutants were often above NAAQS. During periods of increased photochemistry and high pollutant concentrations, it is critical that emissions are most accurately represented in air quality models.

  19. Development of a response surface model of aviation's air quality impacts in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok, Akshay; Lee, In Hwan; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Waitz, Ian A.; Yim, Steve H. L.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2013-10-01

    The air quality impacts of aviation are becoming increasingly important given their impact on human health and the projected growth of aviation. In the United States, the government has set targets to manage and reduce the environmental impacts of aviation. In an environmental policy assessment context it is often necessary to rapidly evaluate many possible scenarios, and quantification of uncertainty is important. This makes direct application of comprehensive air quality models such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system impractical due to computational cost. Here we develop a response surface model (RSM) - a form of rapid surrogate model - of the impact of aviation emissions on air quality in the United States. We develop an RSM design space and populate it with results from 46 CMAQ simulations, and perform cross-validation of the resultant RSM. The RSM models present-day as well as future impacts amid changing population and non-aviation emissions sources. This enables rapid estimates of the (particulate matter) air quality and human health impacts of aviation emissions scenarios. Cross-couplings between precursor gaseous emissions and PM2.5 species are found, consistent with competition for atmospheric ammonia. We apply the RSM to quantify the human health benefits of emissions reductions in 2018. Using the RSM we estimate that in 2005, aviation landing and takeoff emissions cause ∼195 [90% CI: 80-340] early deaths, while the same emissions cause ∼350 [90% CI: 145-610] mortalities in 2018. An emissions tradespace between aviation NOx and SOx emissions is constructed. It is found that with fleet-wide desulfurization of jet fuel, a 35% reduction in aviation NOx emissions would result in maintaining the same level of aviation-attributable early deaths in 2018 relative to 2005 levels, while an 80% reduction in NOx emissions would half aviation-attributable early deaths.

  20. Air quality and climate connections.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Arlene M; Naik, Vaishali; Leibensperger, Eric M

    2015-06-01

    Multiple linkages connect air quality and climate change. Many air pollutant sources also emit carbon dioxide (CO2), the dominant anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG). The two main contributors to non-attainment of U.S. ambient air quality standards, ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM), interact with radiation, forcing climate change. PM warms by absorbing sunlight (e.g., black carbon) or cools by scattering sunlight (e.g., sulfates) and interacts with clouds; these radiative and microphysical interactions can induce changes in precipitation and regional circulation patterns. Climate change is expected to degrade air quality in many polluted regions by changing air pollution meteorology (ventilation and dilution), precipitation and other removal processes, and by triggering some amplifying responses in atmospheric chemistry and in anthropogenic and natural sources. Together, these processes shape distributions and extreme episodes of O3 and PM. Global modeling indicates that as air pollution programs reduce SO2 to meet health and other air quality goals, near-term warming accelerates due to "unmasking" of warming induced by rising CO2. Air pollutant controls on CH4, a potent GHG and precursor to global O3 levels, and on sources with high black carbon (BC) to organic carbon (OC) ratios could offset near-term warming induced by SO2 emission reductions, while reducing global background O3 and regionally high levels of PM. Lowering peak warming requires decreasing atmospheric CO2, which for some source categories would also reduce co-emitted air pollutants or their precursors. Model projections for alternative climate and air quality scenarios indicate a wide range for U.S. surface O3 and fine PM, although regional projections may be confounded by interannual to decadal natural climate variability. Continued implementation of U.S. NOx emission controls guards against rising pollution levels triggered either by climate change or by global emission growth. Improved

  1. Dynamic evaluation of CMAQ part I: Separating the effects of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A dynamic evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system version 5.0.1 was conducted to evaluate the model's ability to predict changes in ozone levels between 2002 and 2005, a time period characterized by emission reductions associated with the EPA's Nitrogen Oxides State Implementation Plan as well as significant reductions in mobile source emissions. Model results for the summers of 2002 and 2005 were compared to simulations from a previous version of CMAQ to assess the impact of model updates on predicted pollutant response. Changes to the model treatment of emissions, meteorology and chemistry had substantial impacts on the simulated ozone concentrations. While the median bias for high summertime ozone decreased in both years compared to previous simulations, the observed decrease in ozone from 2002 to 2005 in the eastern US continued to be underestimated by the model. Additional “cross” simulations were used to decompose the model predicted change in ozone into the change due to emissions, the change due to meteorology and any remaining change not explained individually by these two components. The decomposition showed that the emission controls led to a decrease in modeled high summertime ozone close to twice as large as the decrease attributable to changes in meteorology alone. Quantifying the impact of retrospective emission controls by removing the impacts of meteorology during the control period can be a valuable approac

  2. Dynamic Evaluation of Two Decades of CMAQ Simulations ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation focuses on the dynamic evaluation of the CMAQ model over the continental United States using multi-decadal simulations for the period from 1990 to 2010 to examine how well the changes in observed ozone air quality induced by variations in meteorology and/or emissions are simulated by the model. We applied spectral decomposition of the ozone time-series using the KZ filter to assess the variations in the strengths of synoptic (weather-induced variations) and baseline (long-term variation) forcings, embedded in the simulated and observed concentrations. The results reveal that CMAQ captured the year-to-year variability (more so in the later years than the earlier years) and the synoptic forcing in accordance with what the observations are showing. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, decision-support tools, and models to be applied to media-specific or receptor-specific problem areas. CED uses modeling-based approaches to characterize exposures, evaluate fate and transport, and support environmental diagnostics/forensics with input from multiple data sources. It also develops media- and receptor-specific models, process models, and decision support tools for use both within and outside of EPA.

  3. Instrumentation for air quality measurements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenstein, M.

    1973-01-01

    Comparison of the new generation of air quality monitoring instruments with some more traditional methods. The first generation of air quality measurement instruments, based on the use of oxidant coulometric cells, nitrogen oxide colorimetry, carbon monoxide infrared analyzers, and other types of detectors, is compared with new techniques now coming into wide use in the air monitoring field and involving the use of chemiluminescent reactions, optical absorption detectors, a refinement of the carbon monoxide infrared analyzer, electrochemical cells based on solid electrolytes, and laser detectors.

  4. Intercomparison of the community multiscale air quality model and CALGRID using process analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Susan M; Lamb, Brian K

    2005-08-01

    This study was designed to examine the similarities and differences between two advanced photochemical air quality modeling systems: EPA Models-3/CMAQ and CALGRID/CALMET. Both modeling systems were applied to an ozone episode that occurred along the I-5 urban corridor in western Washington and Oregon during July 11-14, 1996. Both models employed the same modeling domain and used the same detailed gridded emission inventory. The CMAQ model was run using both the CB-IV and RADM2 chemical mechanisms, while CALGRID was used with the SAPRC-97 chemical mechanism. Outputfrom the Mesoscale Meteorological Model (MM5) employed with observational nudging was used in both models. The two modeling systems, representing three chemical mechanisms and two sets of meteorological inputs, were evaluated in terms of statistical performance measures for both 1- and 8-h average observed ozone concentrations. The results showed that the different versions of the systems were more similar than different, and all versions performed well in the Portland region and downwind of Seattle but performed poorly in the more rural region north of Seattle. Improving the meteorological input into the CALGRID/CALMET system with planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameters from the Models-3/CMAQ meteorology preprocessor (MCIP) improved the performance of the CALGRID/CALMET system. The 8-h ensemble case was often the best performer of all the cases indicating that the models perform better over longer analysis periods. The 1-h ensemble case, derived from all runs, was not necessarily an improvement over the five individual cases, but the standard deviation about the mean provided a measure of overall modeling uncertainty. Process analysis was applied to examine the contribution of the individual processes to the species conservation equation. The process analysis results indicated that the two modeling systems arrive at similar solutions by very different means. Transport rates are faster and exhibit

  5. Manual on indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues.

  6. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  7. Urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenger, Jes

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  8. A comparison study between CMAQ-simulated and OMI-retrieved NO2 columns over East Asia for evaluation of NOx emission fluxes of INTEX-B, CAPSS, and REAS inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, K. M.; Lee, S.; Chang, L. S.; Song, C. H.

    2015-02-01

    Comparison between the CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model)-calculated and OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument)-retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns was carried out for 2006 over East Asia (100-150° E; 20-50° N) to evaluate the bottom-up NOx emission fluxes of INTEX-B, CAPSS, and REAS v1.11 inventories. The three emission inventories were applied to the CMAQ model simulations for the countries of China, South Korea, and Japan, respectively. For the direct comparison between the two NO2 columns, the averaging kernels (AKs) obtained from the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI)/DOMINO v2.0 daily product were applied to the CMAQ-simulated data. The analysis showed that the two tropospheric NO2 columns from the CMAQ model simulations and OMI observations (ΩCMAQ,AK and ΩOMI) had good spatial and seasonal correlation, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.71 to 0.96. In addition, the normalized mean errors (NMEs) between the ΩCMAQ,AK and ΩOMI were found to range from ~ 40 to ~ 63%. The ΩCMAQ,AK were, on annual average, ~ 28% smaller (in terms of the NMEs) than the ΩOMI, indicating that the NOx emissions used were possibly underestimated in East Asia. Large absolute differences between the ΩCMAQ,AK and ΩOMI were found, particularly over central eastern China (CEC) during winter (annual averaged mean error of ~ 4.51 × 1015 molecules cm-2). Although such differences between the ΩCMAQ,AK and ΩOMI are likely caused by the errors and biases in the NOx emissions used in the CMAQ model simulations, it can be rather difficult to quantitatively relate the differences to the accuracy of the NOx emissions, because there are also several uncertain factors in the CMAQ model, satellite-retrieved NO2 columns and AK products, and NOx and other trace gas emissions. In this context, three uncertain factors were selected and analyzed with sensitivity runs (monthly variations in NOx emissions; influences of different NOx emission fluxes; and reaction

  9. Diagnostic air quality model evaluation of source-specific primary and secondary fine particulate carbon.

    PubMed

    Napelenok, Sergey L; Simon, Heather; Bhave, Prakash V; Pye, Havala O T; Pouliot, George A; Sheesley, Rebecca J; Schauer, James J

    2014-01-01

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004-February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate the results of a numerical air quality model. Previous analyses of these measurements demonstrated excellent mass closure for the variety of contributing sources. In this study, a carbon-apportionment version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was used to track primary organic and elemental carbon emissions from 15 independent sources such as mobile sources and biomass burning in addition to four precursor-specific classes of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) originating from isoprene, terpenes, aromatics, and sesquiterpenes. Conversion of the source-resolved model output into organic tracer concentrations yielded a total of 2416 data pairs for comparison with observations. While emission source contributions to the total model bias varied by season and measurement location, the largest absolute bias of -0.55 μgC/m(3) was attributed to insufficient isoprene SOA in the summertime CMAQ simulation. Biomass combustion was responsible for the second largest summertime model bias (-0.46 μgC/m(3) on average). Several instances of compensating errors were also evident; model underpredictions in some sectors were masked by overpredictions in others.

  10. ADVANCED URBANIZED METEOROLOGICAL MODELING AND AIR QUALITY SIMULATIONS WITH CMAQ AT NEIGHBORHOOD SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present results from a study testing the new boundary layer parameterization method, the canopy drag approach (DA) which is designed to explicitly simulate the effects of buildings, street and tree canopies on the dynamic, thermodynamic structure and dispersion fields in urban...

  11. The Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System: Past, Recent Developments, and New Directions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Every year since 1966 the NCAR/ASP has hosted a summer colloquium designed for graduate students favoring subjects that represent new or rapidly developing areas of atmospheric science research. The NCAR/ASP Summer Colloquium brings together lecturers and graduate students for tw...

  12. The Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System: Past, Recent Developments, and New Directions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Every year since 1966 the NCAR/ASP has hosted a summer colloquium designed for graduate students favoring subjects that represent new or rapidly developing areas of atmospheric science research. The NCAR/ASP Summer Colloquium brings together lecturers and graduate students for tw...

  13. New framework for extending cloud chemistry in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clouds and fogs significantly impact the amount, composition, and spatial distribution of gas and particulate atmospheric species, not least of which through the chemistry that occurs in cloud droplets. Atmospheric sulfate is an important component of fine aerosol mass and in an...

  14. New framework for extending cloud chemistry in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clouds and fogs significantly impact the amount, composition, and spatial distribution of gas and particulate atmospheric species, not least of which through the chemistry that occurs in cloud droplets. Atmospheric sulfate is an important component of fine aerosol mass and in an...

  15. ADVANCED URBANIZED METEOROLOGICAL MODELING AND AIR QUALITY SIMULATIONS WITH CMAQ AT NEIGHBORHOOD SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present results from a study testing the new boundary layer parameterization method, the canopy drag approach (DA) which is designed to explicitly simulate the effects of buildings, street and tree canopies on the dynamic, thermodynamic structure and dispersion fields in urban...

  16. Global Air Quality and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH4), ozone precursors (O3), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O3 precursor CH4 would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH4 and tropospheric O3. Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which increase tropospheric O3 (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH4 (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH4 volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O3 and CH4. Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O3 and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas the Representative

  17. Global air quality and climate.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Arlene M; Naik, Vaishali; Spracklen, Dominick V; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Prather, Michael; Bergmann, Dan; Cameron-Smith, Philip J; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J; Dalsøren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A; Ginoux, Paul; Horowitz, Larry W; Josse, Béatrice; Lamarque, Jean-François; MacKenzie, Ian A; Nagashima, Tatsuya; O'Connor, Fiona M; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T; Shindell, Drew T; Skeie, Ragnhild B; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang

    2012-10-07

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH(4)), ozone precursors (O(3)), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O(3) precursor CH(4) would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH(4) and tropospheric O(3). Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions, which increase tropospheric O(3) (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH(4) (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH(4) volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O(3) and CH(4). Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O(3) and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas

  18. Comparative Evaluation of the Impact of WRF-NMM and WRF-ARW Meteorology on CMAQ Simulations for O3 and Related Species During the 2006 TexAQS/GoMACCS Campaign

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper, impact of meteorology derived from the Weather, Research and Forecasting (WRF)– Non–hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM) and WRF–Advanced Research WRF (ARW) meteorological models on the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) simulations for ozone and its related prec...

  19. Comparative Evaluation of the Impact of WRF-NMM and WRF-ARW Meteorology on CMAQ Simulations for O3 and Related Species During the 2006 TexAQS/GoMACCS Campaign

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper, impact of meteorology derived from the Weather, Research and Forecasting (WRF)– Non–hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM) and WRF–Advanced Research WRF (ARW) meteorological models on the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) simulations for ozone and its related prec...

  20. LAYER DEPENDENT ADVECTION IN CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The advection methods used in CMAQ require that the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition be satisfied for numerical stability and accuracy. In CMAQ prior to version 4.3, the ADVSTEP algorithm established CFL-safe synchronization and advection timesteps that were uniform throu...

  1. LAYER DEPENDENT ADVECTION IN CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The advection methods used in CMAQ require that the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition be satisfied for numerical stability and accuracy. In CMAQ prior to version 4.3, the ADVSTEP algorithm established CFL-safe synchronization and advection timesteps that were uniform throu...

  2. Estimating Lightning NOx Emissions for Regional Air Quality Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.; Scotty, E.; Harkey, M.

    2014-12-01

    Lightning emissions have long been recognized as an important source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) on a global scale, and an essential emission component for global atmospheric chemistry models. However, only in recent years have regional air quality models incorporated lightning NOx emissions into simulations. The growth in regional modeling of lightning emissions has been driven in part by comparisons with satellite-derived estimates of column NO2, especially from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard the Aura satellite. We present and evaluate a lightning inventory for the EPA Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Our approach follows Koo et al. [2010] in the approach to spatially and temporally allocating a given total value based on cloud-top height and convective precipitation. However, we consider alternate total NOx emission values (which translate into alternate lightning emission factors) based on a review of the literature and performance evaluation against OMI NO2 for July 2007 conditions over the U.S. and parts of Canada and Mexico. The vertical distribution of lightning emissions follow a bimodal distribution from Allen et al. [2012] calculated over 27 vertical model layers. Total lightning NO emissions for July 2007 show the highest above-land emissions in Florida, southeastern Texas and southern Louisiana. Although agreement with OMI NO2 across the domain varied significantly depending on lightning NOx assumptions, agreement among the simulations at ground-based NO2 monitors from the EPA Air Quality System database showed no meaningful sensitivity to lightning NOx. Emissions are compared with prior studies, which find similar distribution patterns, but a wide range of calculated magnitudes.

  3. National Air Quality Forecast Capability: Status and Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajner, I.; McQueen, J.; Lee, P.; Draxler, R. R.; Tong, D.; Pan, L.; Huang, J. P.; Shafran, P.; Dickerson, P.; Upadhayay, S.

    2014-12-01

    Operational air quality predictions for the United States (U. S.) are provided by National Air Quality Forecasting Capability (NAQFC), which is being built by NOAA in partnership with the U.S. EPA. NAQFC provides nationwide operational predictions of ozone, smoke from wildfires, as well as dust from dust storms for the contiguous 48 states. Predictions are produced beyond midnight of the following day at 12 km resolution and 1 hour time intervals and distributed at http://airquality.weather.gov. Ozone predictions and developmental testing of aerosol predictions combine the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operational North American Mesoscale (NAM) weather predictions with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Predictions of smoke and dust storms use the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. Routine verification of ozone and developmental aerosol predictions relies on AIRNow observations, whereas smoke and dust predictions rely on satellite retrievals. Recent updates to operational ozone prediction at NOAA have focused on mobile emissions, which were updated using the projections of mobile sources for 2012. Satellite and ground observations were used to derive NOx trends, which were compared with the emissions data used by NAQFC indicating improved agreement over large metropolitan areas in the US. Updates to the chemical mechanism are being tested for operational implementation. Recent testing of PM2.5 predictions is relying on National Emission Inventory (NEI) inputs augmented by real time sources from wildfires and dust storms. Testing of PM2.5 predictions continues to exhibit seasonal biases - overprediction in the winter and underprediction in the summer. Current efforts are focusing on inclusion of bias correction and development of linkages with global atmospheric composition predictions.

  4. Simulation of urban and regional air pollution in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntaseer Billah Ibn Azkar, M. A.; Chatani, Satoru; Sudo, Kengo

    2012-04-01

    We have developed a regional scale air quality simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) - Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) to assess the suitability of such an advanced modeling system for predicting the air quality of Bangladesh and its surrounding region. The Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (REAS) was used as the emission input in this modeling approach. Both meteorological and chemical model performance were evaluated with observations including satellite data. Comparison between simulated and observed meteorological parameters revealed that the WRF can generate the necessary meteorological inputs for CMAQ. Comparison of observed and simulated concentrations of different air pollutants revealed that CMAQ greatly underestimates the concentrations of key pollutants. Comparison with satellite observations revealed that CMAQ reproduces the spatial distribution of NO2with some underestimation in Bangladesh and India. The simulated AOD and satellite-retrieved AOD showed good temporal and spatial agreement mutually, with a correlation coefficient of 0.58. Sensitivity simulation using higher horizontal resolution emission data made by re-gridding the REAS inventory with the population distribution improved the CMAQ performance. Nevertheless, CMAQ underestimated the pollutant concentrations in Dhaka. Uncertainties in the emission inventory and in the lack of time variation in emissions input mainly contributed to the model underestimation. Model predictions show that 36-72% PM10 and 15-60% PM2.5 in Dhaka might be contributed from brick kiln emissions in monthly average of January 2004. The chemical composition of PM2.5showed that the considerable amounts of secondary aerosols in Dhaka and carbonaceous components (particularly organic carbon) are most responsible for the model underestimation. Results suggest that improvements of emission inputs and more detailed sensitivity analysis of CMAQ model are important to assess the reliability

  5. Air-quality-model update

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.; Walton, J.J.

    1982-01-15

    The Livermore Regional Air Quality Model (LIRAQ) has been updated and improved. This report describes the changes that have been made in chemistry, species treatment, and boundary conditions. The results of smog chamber simulations that were used to verify the chemistry as well as simulations of the entire air quality model for two prototype days in the Bay Area are reported. The results for the prototype day simulations are preliminary due to the need for improvement in meteorology fields, but they show the dependence and sensitivity of high hour ozone to changes in selected boundary and initial conditions.

  6. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, Erica

    Diesel freight vehicles (trucks + trains) are responsible for 20% of all U.S. nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 3% of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions - pollutants that are harmful to human health. Freight tonnage is also projected to double over the next several decades, reaching 30 billion tons by 2050, increasing freight transport activity. Air quality impacts from increased activity, trade-offs between activity and vehicle technology improvements, as well as where to make infrastructure investments that encourage sustainable freight growth, are important considerations for transportation and air quality managers. To address these questions, we build a bottom-up roadway-by-roadway freight truck inventory (WIFE) and employ it to quantify emissions impacts of swapping biodiesel blends into the Midwest diesel freight truck fleet, and investigate emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwest. We also evaluate the spatial and seasonal freight performance of WIFE modeled in a regional photochemical model (CMAQ) against satellite retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Results show that spatial and seasonal distribution of biodiesel affects regional emissions impacts. Summer high-blend deployment yields a larger annual emissions reduction than year-round low-blend deployment, however, technological improvements in vehicle emissions controls between 2009 and 2018 dwarf the impacts of biodiesel. Truck-to-rail modal shift analysis found 40% of daily freight truck VMT could be shifted to rail freight, causing a 26% net reduction in NOx emissions, and 31% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Despite significant emissions impacts, air quality modeling results showed mostly localized near roadway air quality improvements, with small regional net changes; yet, federal regulation of CO2 emissions and/or rising costs of diesel fuel could motivate shifting freight to more fuel efficient rail. Evaluation of

  7. Evaluation of surface ozone simulated by the WRF/CMAQ online modelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marougianni, Garyfalia; Katragkou, Eleni; Giannaros, Theodoros; Poupkou, Anastasia; Melas, Dimitris; Zanis, Prodromos; Feidas, Haralambos

    2013-04-01

    In this work we evaluate the online model WRF/CMAQ with respect to surface ozone and compare its performance with an off-line modelling system (WRF/CAMx) that has been operationally used by Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH) for chemical weather forecasting in the Mediterranean. The online model consists of the mesoscale meteorological model WRF3.3 and the air quality model CMAQ5.0.1 which are coupled in every time-step. The modelling domain covers Europe with a resolution of 30 Km (identical projection for meteorological and chemistry simulations to avoid interpolation errors) and CMAQ has 17 vertical layers extending up to 15 Km. Anthropogenic emissions are prepared according to the SNAP nomenclature and the biogenic emissions are provided by the Natural Emission Model (NEMO) developed by AUTH. A 2-month simulation is performed by WRF/CMAQ covering the time period of June-July 2010. Average monthly concentration values obtained from the MACCII service (IFS-Mozart) are used as chemical boundary conditions for the simulations. For the WRF simulations boundary conditions are provided by the ECMWF. The same boundaries, chemical mechanism (CBV), emissions and model set up is used in the off-line WRF/CAMx in order to allow a more direct comparison of model results. To evaluate the performance of the WRF/CMAQ online model, simulated ozone concentrations are compared against near surface ozone measurements from the EMEP network. Τhe model has been validated with the climatic observational database that has been compiled in the framework of the GEOCLIMA project (http://www.geoclima.eu/). In the evaluation analysis only those stations that fulfill the criterion of 75% data availability for near surface ozone are used. Various statistical metrics are used for the model evaluation, including correlation coefficient (R), normalized standard deviation (NSD) and modified normalized mean bias (MNMB). The final aim is to investigate whether the state-of-the-art WRF/CMAQ

  8. Comparison of boundary conditions from Global Chemistry Model (GCM) for regional air quality application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Yun Fat; Cheung, Hung Ming; Fu, Joshua; Huang, Kan

    2015-04-01

    Applying Global Chemistry Model (GCM) for regional Boundary Conditions (BC) has become a common practice to account for long-range transport of air pollutants in the regional air quality modeling. The limited domain model such as CMAQ and CAMx requires a global BC to prescribe the real-time chemical flux at the boundary grids, in order to give a realistic estimate of boundary impacts. Several GCMs have become available recently for use in regional air quality studies. In this study, three GCM models (i.e., GEOS-chem, CHASER and IFS-CB05 MACC provided by Seoul National University, Nagoya University and ECWMF, respectively) for the year of 2010 were applied in CMAQ for the East Asia domain under the framework of Model Inter-comparison Study Asia Phase III (MISC-Asia III) and task force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (HTAP) jointed experiments. Model performance evaluations on vertical profile and spatial distribution of O3 and PM2.5 have been made on those three models to better understand the model uncertainties from the boundary conditions. Individual analyses on various mega-cities (i.e., Hong Kong, Guangzhou, Taipei, Chongqing, Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin, Seoul and Tokyo) were also performed. Our analysis found that the monthly estimates of O3 for CHASER were a bit higher than GEOS-Chem and IFS-CB05 MACC, particularly in the northern part of China in the winter and spring, while the monthly averages of PM2.5 in GEOS-Chem were the lowest among the three models. The hourly maximum values of PM2.5 from those three models (GEOS-Chem, CHASER and IFS-CB05 MACC are 450, 321, 331 μg/m3, while the maximum O3 are 158, 212, 380 ppbv, respectively. Cross-comparison of CMAQ results from the 45 km resolution were also made to investigate the boundary impacts from the global GCMs. The results presented here provide insight on how global GCM selection influences the regional air quality simulation in East Asia.

  9. Indoor Air Quality Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    In an effort to provide Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) management guidance, Anne Arundel County Public Schools was selected by the Maryland State Department of Education to develop a program that could be used by other school systems. A major goal was to produce a handbook that was "user friendly." Hence, its contents are a mix of history,…

  10. Indoor Air Quality Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    In an effort to provide Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) management guidance, Anne Arundel County Public Schools was selected by the Maryland State Department of Education to develop a program that could be used by other school systems. A major goal was to produce a handbook that was "user friendly." Hence, its contents are a mix of history,…

  11. Indoor Air Quality and Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern over the quality of indoor (i.e., residential) as well as outdoor (i.e., environmental) air is increasing. Accordingly, owners of companion animals may approach their veterinarian about the potential for airborne irritants, allergens, pollutants, or infectious agents to n...

  12. Indoor Air Quality and Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern over the quality of indoor (i.e., residential) as well as outdoor (i.e., environmental) air is increasing. Accordingly, owners of companion animals may approach their veterinarian about the potential for airborne irritants, allergens, pollutants, or infectious agents to n...

  13. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  14. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  15. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  16. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  17. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  18. Managing Air Quality - Air Pollutant Types

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the types of air pollutants, including common or criteria pollutants, and hazardous air pollutants and links to additional information. Also links to resources on other air pollution issues.

  19. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Clean Air Is Good Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarneiri, Michele A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effect of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on student health, the cost of safeguarding good IAQ, the cause of poor IAQ in schools, how to tell whether a school has an IAQ problem, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can help schools improve indoor air quality though the use of their free "Indoor Air Quality Tools for…

  20. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Clean Air Is Good Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarneiri, Michele A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effect of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on student health, the cost of safeguarding good IAQ, the cause of poor IAQ in schools, how to tell whether a school has an IAQ problem, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can help schools improve indoor air quality though the use of their free "Indoor Air Quality Tools for…

  1. 78 FR 10589 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... by California as a revision to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD...

  2. Regional Air Quality Model Application of the Aqueous-Phase ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In most ecosystems, atmospheric deposition is the primary input of mercury. The total wet deposition of mercury in atmospheric chemistry models is sensitive to parameterization of the aqueous-phase reduction of divalent oxidized mercury (Hg2+). However, most atmospheric chemistry models use a parameterization of the aqueous-phase reduction of Hg2+ that has been shown to be unlikely under normal ambient conditions or use a non mechanistic value derived to optimize wet deposition results. Recent laboratory experiments have shown that Hg2+ can be photochemically reduced to elemental mercury (Hg) in the aqueous-phase by dissolved organic matter and a mechanism and the rate for Hg2+ photochemical reduction by dicarboxylic acids (DCA) has been proposed. For the first time in a regional scale model, the DCA mechanism has been applied. The HO2-Hg2+ reduction mechanism, the proposed DCA reduction mechanism, and no aqueous-phase reduction (NAR) of Hg2+ are evaluated against weekly wet deposition totals, concentrations and precipitation observations from the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 4.7.1. Regional scale simulations of mercury wet deposition using a DCA reduction mechanism evaluated well against observations, and reduced the bias in model evaluation by at least 13% over the other schemes evaluated, although summertime deposition estimates were still biased by −31.4% against observations. The use of t

  3. MODELING AIR TOXICS AND PM 2.5 CONCENTRATION FIELDS AS A MEANS FOR FACILITATING HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capability of the US EPA Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system is extended to provide gridded ambient air quality concentration fields at fine scales. These fields will drive human exposure to air toxics and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) models...

  4. Estimates of non-traditional secondary organic aerosols from aircraft SVOC and IVOC emissions using CMAQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, M. C.; West, J. J.; Jathar, S. H.; Robinson, A. L.; Arunachalam, S.

    2015-06-01

    Utilizing an aircraft-specific parameterization based on smog chamber data in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with the volatility basis set (VBS), we estimated contributions of non-traditional secondary organic aerosols (NTSOA) for aircraft emissions during landing and takeoff (LTO) activities at the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. NTSOA, formed from the oxidation of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs), is a heretofore unaccounted component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in most air quality models. We expanded a prerelease version of CMAQ with VBS implemented for the Carbon Bond 2005 (CB05) chemical mechanism to use the Statewide Air Pollution Research Center 2007 (SAPRC-07) chemical mechanism and added species representing aircraft S/IVOCs and corresponding NTSOA oxidation products. Results indicated that the maximum monthly average NTSOA contributions occurred at the airport and ranged from 2.4 ng m-3 (34 % from idle and 66 % from non-idle aircraft activities) in January to 9.1 ng m-3 (33 and 67 %) in July. This represents 1.7 % (of 140 ng m-3) in January and 7.4 % in July (of 122 ng m-3) of aircraft-attributable PM2.5 compared to 41.0-42.0 % from elemental carbon and 42.8-58.0 % from inorganic aerosols. As a percentage of PM2.5, impacts were higher downwind of the airport, where NTSOA averaged 4.6-17.9 % of aircraft-attributable PM2.5 and, considering alternative aging schemes, was as high as 24.0 % - thus indicating the increased contribution of aircraft-attributable SOA as a component of PM2.5. However, NTSOA contributions were generally low compared to smog chamber results, particularly at idle, due to the considerably lower ambient organic aerosol concentrations in CMAQ compared to those in the smog chamber experiments.

  5. Estimates of non-traditional secondary organic aerosols from aircraft SVOC and IVOC emissions using CMAQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, M. C.; West, J. J.; Jathar, S. H.; Robinson, A. L.; Arunachalam, S.

    2014-12-01

    Utilizing an aircraft-specific parameterization based on smog chamber data in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with the Volatility Basis Set (VBS), we estimated contributions of non-traditional secondary organic aerosols (NTSOA) for aircraft emissions during landing and takeoff (LTO) activities at the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. NTSOA, formed from the oxidation of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs), is a heretofore unaccounted component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in most air quality models. We expanded a prerelease version of CMAQ with VBS implemented for the Carbon Bond 2005 (CB05) chemical mechanism to use the Statewide Air Pollution Research Center 2007 (SAPRC-07) chemical mechanism, and added species representing aircraft S/IVOCs and corresponding NTSOA oxidation products. Results indicated the maximum monthly average NTSOA contributions occurred at the airport, and ranged from 2.4 ng m-3 (34% from idle and 66% from non-idle aircraft activities) in January to 9.1 ng m-3 (33 and 67%) in July. This represents 1.7% (of 140 ng m-3) in January and 7.4% in July (of 122 ng m-3) of aircraft-attributable PM2.5, compared to 41.0-42.0% from elemental carbon and 42.8-58.0% from inorganic aerosols. As a percentage of PM2.5, impacts were higher downwind of the airport, where NTSOA averaged 4.6-17.9% of aircraft-attributable PM2.5 and, considering alternative aging schemes, was high as 24.0% - thus indicating the increased contribution of aircraft-attributable SOA, as a component of PM2.5. However, NTSOA contributions were generally low compared to smog chamber results, particularly at idle, due to the considerably lower ambient organic aerosol concentrations in CMAQ, vs. those in the smog chamber experiments.

  6. Analyses of the long-range transport of nitrogeneous species through the atmosphere from the Asian continent using observational data at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, and CMAQ postanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadanaga, Y.; Bandow, H.; Uno, I.; Sera, T.; Yuba, A.; Takenaka, N.; Takami, A.; Kurokawa, J.; Hatakeyama, S.

    2010-12-01

    The long-term monitoring of air quality has been continuing at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) in Okinawa, Japan in terms of assessing the environmental impact and biogeochemical effect to the marine-surface activities by the economic growth of Asian continent. Among the monitoring data, total odd nitrogen oxides (NOy), HNO3, particulate nitrate (NO3-(p)), NH3, NH4+ and SO42- were analyzed for the period from 16 March to 13 April 2008 as well as the postanalyses of those species by the Community Muti-scale Air Quality model (CMAQ) of those species. NOy and total nitrate (TN = HNO3 + NO3-(p)) concentrations from China (CH) air mass origin were high during the observational period in both observed and model-calculated result. The long-range transport of odd nitrogen species from the Asian continent is supported with respect to both the CMAQ postanalyses and the observations. HNO3 and NO3-(p) concentrations from CH air mass origin were also high during the observational period. However, the HNO3 diurnal variation with daytime peak and nighttime lows suggests that HNO3 around the CHAAMS forms photochemically in situ or in areas relatively close to the CHAAMS. The maximum and minimum concentrations of NH3 were observed at Pacific Ocean (PO) and Middle China air mass origins, respectively, and the observed NH3 concentrations from PO air mass origin were highest. NH3 concentration calculated by the CMAQ failed to reproduce observed variation, this is because the horizontal resolution of CMAQ (-20km) is not sufficient to allocate the land surface/vegetation base NH3 emission. NH4+ and SO42- concentrations from CH air mass origin were high during the observational period for both the observation and the CMAQ calculation. As well as the case of NOy and TN, the long-range transport of ammonium and sulfur compounds from the Asian continent is also supported in terms of both the CMAQ postanalyses and the observations.

  7. Asthma and domestic air quality.

    PubMed

    Jones, A P

    1998-09-01

    In recent years, there has been a global increase in the prevalence of asthma. This has coincided with many modifications to the home environment, resulting in changes to the quality of indoor air. This article considers the links between indoor air pollution and asthma. Exposure to a range of pollutants is examined. Airborne allergens such as those from house dust mites and cockroaches, domestic pets and moulds and fungal spores may be important. Pollution from particulate materials associated with bio-fuel combustion and smoking is discussed, as is the role of chemical vapours and gases including nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds. The efficacy of various environmental controls to limit the impact of these pollutants is explored. It is concluded that indoor air pollution may be an important risk for asthma and the health impacts of building design and management require greater recognition and further research.

  8. Operational air quality forecasting system for Spain: CALIOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldasano, J. M.; Piot, M.; Jorba, O.; Goncalves, M.; Pay, M.; Pirez, C.; Lopez, E.; Gasso, S.; Martin, F.; García-Vivanco, M.; Palomino, I.; Querol, X.; Pandolfi, M.; Dieguez, J. J.; Padilla, L.

    2009-12-01

    The European Commission (EC) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) have shown great concerns to understand the transport and dynamics of pollutants in the atmosphere. According to the European directives (1996/62/EC, 2002/3/EC, 2008/50/EC), air quality modeling, if accurately applied, is a useful tool to understand the dynamics of air pollutants, to analyze and forecast the air quality, and to develop programs reducing emissions and alert the population when health-related issues occur. The CALIOPE project, funded by the Spanish Ministry of the Environment, has the main objective to establish an air quality forecasting system for Spain. A partnership of four research institutions composes the CALIOPE project: the Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), the center of investigation CIEMAT, the Earth Sciences Institute ‘Jaume Almera’ (IJA-CSIC) and the CEAM Foundation. CALIOPE will become the official Spanish air quality operational system. This contribution focuses on the recent developments and implementation of the integrated modelling system for the Iberian Peninsula (IP) and Canary Islands (CI) with a high spatial and temporal resolution (4x4 sq. km for IP and 2x2 sq. km for CI, 1 hour), namely WRF-ARW/HERMES04/CMAQ/BSC-DREAM. The HERMES04 emission model has been specifically developed as a high-resolution (1x1 sq. km, 1 hour) emission model for Spain. It includes biogenic and anthropogenic emissions such as on-road and paved-road resuspension production, power plant generation, ship and plane traffic, airports and ports activities, industrial and agricultural sectors as well as domestic and commercial emissions. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the model was performed for a reference year (2004) using data from ground-based measurement networks. The products of the CALIOPE system will provide 24h and 48h forecasts for O3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10 and PM2.5 at surface level. An operational evaluation system has been developed

  9. Local Air Quality Conditions and Forecasts

    MedlinePlus

    ... 0 - 50) Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air pollution poses little or no risk. AQI: Moderate (51 - ... number of people who are unusually sensitive to air pollution. AQI: Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups (101 - 150) Although ...

  10. Ozone, Air Quality, and Asthma (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Poor Air Quality Affects People With Asthma Air pollution is a problem for everyone — not just people ... asthma. Studies have shown that high levels of air pollution can be associated with decreased lung function and ...

  11. Fundamentals of Indoor Air Quality in Buildings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module provides the fundamentals to understanding indoor air quality. It provides a rudimentary framework for understanding how indoor and outdoor sources of pollution affect the indoor air quality of buildings.

  12. Federal Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Federal Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality (CIAQ), which meets three times a year, was established by Congress to coordinate the activities of the Federal Government on issues relating to Indoor Air Quality.

  13. SPATIAL PREDICTION OF AIR QUALITY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site-specific air quality monitoring data have been used extensively in both scientific and regulatory programs. As such, these data provide essential information to the public, environmental managers, and the atmospheric research community. Currently, air quality management prac...

  14. SPATIAL PREDICTION OF AIR QUALITY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site-specific air quality monitoring data have been used extensively in both scientific and regulatory programs. As such, these data provide essential information to the public, environmental managers, and the atmospheric research community. Currently, air quality management prac...

  15. Modeling of air pollutant removal by dry deposition to urban trees using a WRF/CMAQ/i-Tree Eco coupled system.

    PubMed

    Cabaraban, Maria Theresa I; Kroll, Charles N; Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Nowak, David J

    2013-05-01

    A distributed adaptation of i-Tree Eco was used to simulate dry deposition in an urban area. This investigation focused on the effects of varying temperature, LAI, and NO2 concentration inputs on estimated NO2 dry deposition to trees in Baltimore, MD. A coupled modeling system is described, wherein WRF provided temperature and LAI fields, and CMAQ provided NO2 concentrations. A base case simulation was conducted using built-in distributed i-Tree Eco tools, and simulations using different inputs were compared against this base case. Differences in land cover classification and tree cover between the distributed i-Tree Eco and WRF resulted in changes in estimated LAI, which in turn resulted in variations in simulated NO2 dry deposition. Estimated NO2 removal decreased when CMAQ-derived concentration was applied to the distributed i-Tree Eco simulation. Discrepancies in temperature inputs did little to affect estimates of NO2 removal by dry deposition to trees in Baltimore.

  16. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away...

  17. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away...

  18. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away...

  19. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away...

  20. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away...

  1. Air Quality Modeling in Support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    PubMed Central

    Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Batterman, Stuart; Bereznicki, Sarah; Burke, Janet; Dionisio, Kathie; Garcia, Val; Heist, David; Perry, Steve; Snyder, Michelle; Vette, Alan

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characterization. Air quality modeling can provide spatially and temporally varying exposure estimates for examining relationships between traffic-related air pollutants and adverse health outcomes. A hybrid air quality modeling approach was used to estimate exposure to traffic-related air pollutants in support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) conducted in Detroit (Michigan, USA). Model-based exposure metrics, associated with local variations of emissions and meteorology, were estimated using a combination of the American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) and Research LINE-source dispersion model for near-surface releases (RLINE) dispersion models, local emission source information from the National Emissions Inventory, detailed road network locations and traffic activity, and meteorological data from the Detroit City Airport. The regional background contribution was estimated using a combination of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) and the Space-Time Ordinary Kriging (STOK) models. To capture the near-road pollutant gradients, refined “mini-grids” of model receptors were placed around participant homes. Exposure metrics for CO, NOx, PM2.5 and its components (elemental and organic carbon) were predicted at each home location for multiple time periods including daily and rush hours. The exposure metrics were evaluated for their ability to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of multiple ambient air pollutants compared to measurements across the study area. PMID:25166917

  2. The Co-benefits of Domestic and Foreign GHG Mitigation on US Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Bowden, J.; Adelman, Z.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; West, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Authors: Yuqiang Zhang1, Jared Bowden2 , Zachariah Adelman1,2, Vaishali Naik3, Larry W. Horowitz4 , J. Jason West1 1 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 2 Institute for the Environment, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 3 UCAR/NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08540 4 NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08540 Abstract: Actions to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will reduce co-emitted air pollutants, which can immediately affect air quality; slowing climate change through GHG mitigation also influences air quality in the long term. We previously used a global model (MOZART-4) to show that global GHG mitigation will have significant co-benefits for air quality and human health. In doing so, we contrasted the Representative Concentration Pathway Scenario 4.5 (RCP4.5), treated as a GHG mitigation scenario, with its associated reference case scenario (REF). Using these same scenarios, we investigate here the air quality co-benefits due to domestic GHGs mitigation in the US alone at fine resolution, and compare these co-benefits with those resulting from foreign GHG mitigation. This work focuses on downscaling the meteorology and air pollutant chemistry to the US scale. We use the latest Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model as a Regional Climate Model (RCM) to dynamically downscale the GFDL AM3 Global Climate Model (GCM) over the US at 36 km resolution, in 2000 and 2050. The 2000 simulation will be compared with the multi-year surface observation data, satellite data, and all simulations with the GCM simulation. These simulations will be used as inputs for the newest Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Initial conditions (IC) and dynamic boundary conditions (BC) for CMAQ will be derived from the global MOZART-4 simulations. Anthropogenic emissions for the REF and RCP4.5 scenarios will be processed through SMOKE to prepare temporally- and spatially-resolved emission files

  3. Improvement of air quality according to Mobile reduction measures to establish Korean Auto-oil program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunwoo, Y.; Jo, H.; Ma, Y.; Kim, S.; Hong, K.; Lim, Y.; Javascript:Setnextpage('sponsor')

    2011-12-01

    The mobile of NOx and PM10 emission of Korea in 2007 accounted for 42%, 23%, respectively (excluded fugitive dust). Seoul highly affected mobile emission which accounted for 46%, 49%, respectively. Korean government ,therefore, established "Special Act for improvement of air quality in Seoul metropolitan area" including mobile emission reduction measures and organized research forum including reformation of fuel and cars, risk assessment, control of greenhouse gas and assessment of air quality to establish Korean Auto-oil program This study quantitatively analyses improvement of air quality in Seoul according to the reformation of fuel and supply of DPF in Korean Auto-oil program. WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ were emploied for this study. SO2, CO, NOx, PM10 and VOCs emission are based on the INTEX-B emission inventory, NH3 were from the REAS emission inventory. Korea emission is derived by CAPSS (Clean Air Policy Support System) data. The reduction through reformation of fuel and supply of DPF is calculated by reduction ratio of air pollutants with strengthen fuel quality standard and number of car supplied DPF, refer to Metropolitan Air Quality Management Office Republic of Korea (2011) in detail. The effect of air quality is quantifiably comparing modeling results which are applied/not applied on the measures. This study will be provided basic data to establish Korean Auto-oil program through quantifying and predicting to improvement of air quality according to the mobile measures. Acknowledgement This research was supported in part by the "Assessment of risk and health benefits considering exposure characteristics of fuel" project sponsored by the Korea Automobile Environmental Association.

  4. Indoor Air Quality in Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Steve M.

    This paper presents air quality and ventilation data from an existing chemical laboratory facility and discusses the work practice changes implemented in response to deficiencies in ventilation. General methods for improving air quality in existing laboratories are presented and investigation techniques for characterizing air quality are…

  5. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  6. Assessment of long-term WRF–CMAQ simulations for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Long-term simulations with the coupled WRF–CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting–Community Multi-scale Air Quality) model have been conducted to systematically investigate the changes in anthropogenic emissions of SO2 and NOx over the past 16 years (1995–2010) across the United States (US), their impacts on anthropogenic aerosol loading over North America, and subsequent impacts on regional radiation budgets. In particular, this study attempts to determine the consequences of the changes in tropospheric aerosol burden arising from substantial reductions in emissions of SO2 and NOx associated with control measures under the Clean Air Act (CAA) especially on trends in solar radiation. Extensive analyses conducted by Gan et al. (2014a) utilizing observations (e.g., SURFRAD, CASTNET, IMPROVE, and ARM) over the past 16 years (1995–2010) indicate a shortwave (SW) radiation (both all-sky and clear-sky) "brightening" in the US. The relationship of the radiation brightening trend with decreases in the aerosol burden is less apparent in the western US. One of the main reasons for this is that the emission controls under the CAA were aimed primarily at reducing pollutants in areas violating national air quality standards, most of which were located in the eastern US, while the relatively less populated areas in the western US were less polluted at the beginning of this study period. Comparisons of model results with observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD), aer

  7. Applications of Satellite Remote Sensing Products to Enhance and Evaluate the AIRPACT Regional Air Quality Modeling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herron-Thorpe, F. L.; Mount, G. H.; Emmons, L. K.; Lamb, B. K.; Jaffe, D. A.; Wigder, N. L.; Chung, S. H.; Zhang, R.; Woelfle, M.; Vaughan, J. K.; Leung, F. T.

    2013-12-01

    The WSU AIRPACT air quality modeling system for the Pacific Northwest forecasts hourly levels of aerosols and atmospheric trace gases for use in determining potential health and ecosystem impacts by air quality managers. AIRPACT uses the WRF/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling framework, derives dynamic boundary conditions from MOZART-4 forecast simulations with assimilated MOPITT CO, and uses the BlueSky framework to derive fire emissions. A suite of surface measurements and satellite-based remote sensing data products across the AIRPACT domain are used to evaluate and improve model performance. Specific investigations include anthropogenic emissions, wildfire simulations, and the effects of long-range transport on surface ozone. In this work we synthesize results for multiple comparisons of AIRPACT with satellite products such as IASI ammonia, AIRS carbon monoxide, MODIS AOD, OMI tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide, and MISR plume height. Features and benefits of the newest version of AIRPACT's web-interface are also presented.

  8. Indoor air quality and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.

    During the last two decades there has been increasing concern within the scientific community over the effects of indoor air quality on health. Changes in building design devised to improve energy efficiency have meant that modern homes and offices are frequently more airtight than older structures. Furthermore, advances in construction technology have caused a much greater use of synthetic building materials. Whilst these improvements have led to more comfortable buildings with lower running costs, they also provide indoor environments in which contaminants are readily produced and may build up to much higher concentrations than are found outside. This article reviews our current understanding of the relationship between indoor air pollution and health. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a range of sources. The health impacts from indoor exposure to combustion products from heating, cooking, and the smoking of tobacco are examined. Also discussed are the symptoms associated with pollutants emitted from building materials. Of particular importance might be substances known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which arise from sources including paints, varnishes, solvents, and preservatives. Furthermore, if the structure of a building begins to deteriorate, exposure to asbestos may be an important risk factor for the chronic respiratory disease mesothelioma. The health effects of inhaled biological particles can be significant, as a large variety of biological materials are present in indoor environments. Their role in inducing illness through immune mechanisms, infectious processes, and direct toxicity is considered. Outdoor sources can be the main contributors to indoor concentrations of some contaminants. Of particular significance is Radon, the radioactive gas that arises from outside, yet only presents a serious health risk when found inside buildings. Radon and its decay products are now recognised as important indoor pollutants, and their effects are

  9. Ground cloud air quality effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brubaker, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of the ground cloud associated with launching of a large rocket on air quality are discussed. The ground cloud consists of the exhaust emitted by the rocket during the first 15 to 25 seconds following ignition and liftoff, together with a large quantity of entrained air, cooling water, dust and other debris. Immediately after formation, the ground cloud rises in the air due to the buoyant effect of its high thermal energy content. Eventually, at an altitude typically between 0.7 and 3 km, the cloud stabilizes and is carried along by the prevailing wind at that altitude. For the use of heavy lift launch vehicles small quantities of nitrogen oxides, primarily nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, are expected to be produced from a molecular nitrogen impurity in the fuel or liquid oxygen, or from entrainment and heating of ambient air in the hot rocket exhaust. In addition, possible impurities such as sulfur in the fuel would give rise to a corresponding amount of oxidation products such as sulfur dioxide.

  10. A stochastic simulation model to predict future air quality in protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavros, E.; McKenzie, D.; Larkin, N.; Strand, T.; Lamb, B. K.

    2010-12-01

    It is widely accepted in both scientific and political communities such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), that climate is changing. Previous studies have shown that expected changes in climate will increase the severity of wild fire. It is necessary to assess the impact of global climate change on wildfire and consequent effects on air quality in order to meet existing air quality regulations such as the Regional Haze Rule, which regulates visibility in Class 1 or “pristine areas”, and the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The challenge in such an assessment lies in not only integrating disciplines (climatology, fire ecology, air chemistry), but also in bridging knowledge across temporal (hourly to decadal) and spatial scales (local to global). In response to this challenge, we are integrating a stochastic model to simulate fire events, the Fire Scenario Builder (FSB), and the BlueSky Modeling Framework, which has a strong record of successfully linking wildfire emissions to air quality. FSB integrates fuel information and meteorological data to estimate regional fire season summary statistics such as total area burned and number of fire starts. The Blue Sky Modeling Framework then simulates total fuel consumption and smoke emissions both in local air sheds and downwind. Emissions are then fed into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model through Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System (SMOKE). The goal of this research is threefold: 1) to compare emission results from the FSB-Blue Sky integration for current vs. future decades; 2) to assess model uncertainty, by comparing model output to observations, analyzing parameter sensitivity, and verifying the theoretical basis of FSB model structure; and, 3) prepare data files for analysis on air quality.

  11. Air quality benefits of universal particle filter and NOx controls on diesel trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, L.; Mcdonald, B. C.; Harley, R.

    2015-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks are a major source of black carbon/particulate matter and nitrogen oxide emissions on urban and regional scales. These emissions are relevant to both air quality and climate change. Since 2010 in the US, new engines are required to be equipped with emission control systems that greatly reduce both PM and NOx emissions, by ~98% relative to 1988 levels. To reduce emissions from the legacy fleet of older trucks that still remain on the road, regulations have been adopted in Califonia to accelerate the replacement of older trucks and thereby reduce associated emissions of PM and NOx. Use of diesel particle filters will be widespread by 2016, and universal use of catalytic converters for NOx control is required by 2023. We assess the air quality consequences of this clean-up effort in Southern California, using the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ), and comparing three scenarios: historical (2005), present day (2016), and future year (2023). Emissions from the motor vehicle sector are mapped at high spatial resolution based on traffic count and fuel sales data. NOx emissions from diesel engines in 2023 are expected to decrease by ~80% compared to 2005, while the fraction of NOx emitted as NO2 is expected to increase from 5 to 18%. Air quality model simulations will be analyzed to quantify changes in NO2, black carbon, particulate matter, and ozone, both basin-wide and near hot spots such as ports and major highways.

  12. Linkage between an advanced air quality model and a mechanistic watershed model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, K.; Herr, J.; Chen, S.-Y.; Knipping, E.

    2010-09-01

    An offline linkage between two advanced multi-pollutant air quality and watershed models is presented. The models linked are (1) the Advanced Modeling System for Transport, Emissions, Reactions and Deposition of Atmospheric Matter (AMSTERDAM) (a three-dimensional Eulerian plume-in-grid model derived from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model) and (2) the Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework (WARMF). The pollutants linked include gaseous and particulate nitrogen, sulfur and mercury compounds. The linkage may also be used to obtain meteorological fields such as precipitation and air temperature required by WARMF from the outputs of the meteorology chemistry interface processor (MCIP) that processes meteorology simulated by the fifth generation Mesoscale Model (MM5) or the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model for input to AMSTERDAM. The linkage is tested in the Catawba River basin of North and South Carolina for ammonium, nitrate and sulfate. Modeled air quality and meteorological fields transferred by the linkage can supplement the conventional measurements used to drive WARMF and may be used to help predict the impact of changes in atmospheric emissions on water quality.

  13. Environmental control: operating room air quality.

    PubMed

    Bartley, J M

    1993-01-01

    1. OR staff members should familiarize themselves with basic air handling system terminology to better manage their own environment (eg, HVAC, air changes, air balancing, HEPA filtration). A working relationship with building engineers is an important skill for the OR nurse. 2. Knowledge of the standards on which air quality in the OR is based should assist in the process of planning for improved design--as well as in monitoring existing air quality. 3. Current standards balance energy savings with air changes and high levels of filtration to achieve optimum outcomes. Recommendations from design and engineering authorities (even for implant surgery) are based on average air changes and HEPA filtration, not laminar air flow. 4. The daily, operational role of the OR staff in maintaining high air quality includes managing traffic, using low-lint barrier materials, monitoring air quality indicators, and investigating unusual variances with the engineering staff for appropriate follow-up (eg, filter changes).

  14. Air quality real-time forecast before and during the G-20 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 2016 G-20 Hangzhou summit, the eleventh annual meeting of the G-20 heads of government, will be held during September 3-5, 2016 in Hangzhou, China. For a successful summit, it is important to ensure good air quality. To achieve this goal, governments of Hangzhou and its surrounding provinces will enforce a series of emission reductions, such as a forced closure of major highly-polluting industries and also limiting car and construction emissions in the cities and surroundings during the 2016 G-20 Hangzhou summit. Air quality forecast systems consisting of the two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ and online-coupled WRF-Chem have been applied to forecast air quality in Hangzhou regularly. This study will present the results of real-time forecasts of air quality over eastern China using 12-km grid spacing and for Hangzhou area using 4-km grid spacing with these two modeling systems using emission inventories for base and 2016 G-20 scenarios before and during the 2016 G-20 Hangzhou summit. Evaluations of models’ performance for both cases for PM2.5, PM10, O3, SO2, NO2, CO, air quality index (AQI), and aerosol optical depth (AOD) are carried out by comparing them with observations obtained from satellites, such as MODIS, and surface monitoring networks. The effects of the emission reduction efforts on expected air quality improvements during the2016 G-20 Hangzhou summit will be studied in depth. This study provides insights on how air quality will be improved by a plan

  15. Air quality real-time forecast before and during the G-20 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 2016 G-20 Hangzhou summit, the eleventh annual meeting of the G-20 heads of government, will be held during September 3-5, 2016 in Hangzhou, China. For a successful summit, it is important to ensure good air quality. To achieve this goal, governments of Hangzhou and its surrounding provinces will enforce a series of emission reductions, such as a forced closure of major highly-polluting industries and also limiting car and construction emissions in the cities and surroundings during the 2016 G-20 Hangzhou summit. Air quality forecast systems consisting of the two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ and online-coupled WRF-Chem have been applied to forecast air quality in Hangzhou regularly. This study will present the results of real-time forecasts of air quality over eastern China using 12-km grid spacing and for Hangzhou area using 4-km grid spacing with these two modeling systems using emission inventories for base and 2016 G-20 scenarios before and during the 2016 G-20 Hangzhou summit. Evaluations of models’ performance for both cases for PM2.5, PM10, O3, SO2, NO2, CO, air quality index (AQI), and aerosol optical depth (AOD) are carried out by comparing them with observations obtained from satellites, such as MODIS, and surface monitoring networks. The effects of the emission reduction efforts on expected air quality improvements during the2016 G-20 Hangzhou summit will be studied in depth. This study provides insights on how air quality will be improved by a plan

  16. Air Quality Analysis for PSD

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. Air Pollution Emissions Overview | Air Quality Planning & ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-06-08

    Air pollution comes from many different sources: stationary sources such as factories, power plants, and smelters and smaller sources such as dry cleaners and degreasing operations; mobile sources such as cars, buses, planes, trucks, and trains; and naturally occurring sources such as windblown dust, and volcanic eruptions, all contribute to air pollution.

  18. Applying for and using CMAQ funds: Putting the pieces together. A Clean Cities guide

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This guide provides the basic concepts to aid in an alternative fuel vehicle market development program developing an application for Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program funding. The US Department of Energy`s Clean Cities Program is an aggressive, forward-thinking alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) market development program. The stakeholders in any Clean Cities Program subscribe to the common philosophy that, through participation in a team-oriented coalition, steady progress can be made toward achieving the critical mass necessary to propel the AFV market into the next century. An important component in the successful implementation of Clean Cities Program objectives is obtaining and directing funding to the capital-intensive AFV market development outside of the resources currently offered by the Department of Energy. Several state and local funding sources have been used over the past decade, including Petroleum Violation Escrow funds, vehicle registration fees, and state bond programs. However, federal funding is available and can be tapped to implement AFV market development programs across the nation. Historically, opportunities to use federal funding for AFV projects have been limited; however, the one remaining federal program that must be tapped into by Clean Cities Programs is the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) Improvement Program. CMAQ is a 6-year, $6 billion federal program formed by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA).

  19. Air Quality Improvements of Increased Integration of Renewables: Solar Photovoltaics Penetration Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, P.; Holloway, T.; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.; Littlefield, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) are an attractive technology because they can be locally deployed and tend to yield high production during periods of peak electric demand. These characteristics can reduce the need for conventional large-scale electricity generation, thereby reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and improving ambient air quality with regard to such pollutants as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and fine particulates. Such effects depend on the local climate, time-of-day emissions, available solar resources, the structure of the electric grid, and existing electricity production among other factors. This study examines the air quality impacts of distributed PV across the United States Eastern Interconnection. In order to accurately model the air quality impact of distributed PV in space and time, we used the National Renewable Energy Lab's (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to form three unique PV penetration scenarios in which new PV construction is distributed spatially based upon economic drivers and natural solar resources. Those scenarios are 2006 Eastern Interconnection business as usual, 10% PV penetration, and 20% PV penetration. With the GridView (ABB, Inc) dispatch model, we used historical load data from 2006 to model electricity production and distribution for each of the three scenarios. Solar PV electric output was estimated using historical weather data from 2006. To bridge the gap between dispatch and air quality modeling, we will create emission profiles for electricity generating units (EGUs) in the Eastern Interconnection from historical Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS) data. Via those emissions profiles, we will create hourly emission data for EGUs in the Eastern Interconnect for each scenario during 2006. Those data will be incorporated in the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model using the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) model. Initial results indicate that PV

  20. Indoor air quality and human health

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.

    1985-01-01

    The air inside buildings can contain various threats to human health: cigarette smoke, fumes from fires and cookers, microbes, gases, allergens and fumes produced by household products or building materials. Higher standards of insulation and draught-proofing and more use of air conditioning can increase the problems. This book provides a summary of indoor air quality problems in homes, offices and public buildings. Contents: Preface; Introduction; Formaledhyde and other household contaminants; Radon; Particulates; Combustion products; Involuntary smoking; Energy-efficient buildings and indoor air quality; Control of indoor air pollutants; Indoor air quality problems in office buildings; Legal and regulatory issues; Appendices; Sources and suggested reading; Glossary; Index.

  1. NOAA's National Air Quality Predictions and Development of Aerosol and Atmospheric Composition Prediction Components for the Next Generation Global Prediction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajner, I.; Hou, Y. T.; McQueen, J.; Lee, P.; Stein, A. F.; Tong, D.; Pan, L.; Huang, J.; Huang, H. C.; Upadhayay, S.

    2016-12-01

    NOAA provides operational air quality predictions using the National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC): ozone and wildfire smoke for the United States and airborne dust for the contiguous 48 states at http://airquality.weather.gov. NOAA's predictions of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) became publicly available in February 2016. Ozone and PM2.5 predictions are produced using a system that operationally links the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with meteorological inputs from the North American mesoscale forecast Model (NAM). Smoke and dust predictions are provided using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. Current NAQFC focus is on updating CMAQ to version 5.0.2, improving PM2.5 predictions, and updating emissions estimates, especially for NOx using recently observed trends. Wildfire smoke emissions from a newer version of the USFS BlueSky system are being included in a new configuration of the NAQFC NAM-CMAQ system, which is re-run for the previous 24 hours when the wildfires were observed from satellites, to better represent wildfire emissions prior to initiating predictions for the next 48 hours. In addition, NOAA is developing the Next Generation Global Prediction System (NGGPS) to represent the earth system for extended weather prediction. NGGPS will include a representation of atmospheric dynamics, physics, aerosols and atmospheric composition as well as coupling with ocean, wave, ice and land components. NGGPS is being developed with a broad community involvement, including community developed components and academic research to develop and test potential improvements for potentially inclusion in NGGPS. Several investigators at NOAA's research laboratories and in academia are working to improve the aerosol and gaseous chemistry representation for NGGPS, to develop and evaluate the representation of atmospheric composition, and to establish and improve the coupling with radiation and microphysics

  2. EPA Pushing Improved Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how, in response to the growing problem of poor air quality in schools, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set new voluntary air-quality guidelines for schools. Addresses common air-related irritants; successful efforts at Guerrero Elementary School in Mesa, Arizona; preventive maintenance; and a sample of the EPA's…

  3. EPA Pushing Improved Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how, in response to the growing problem of poor air quality in schools, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set new voluntary air-quality guidelines for schools. Addresses common air-related irritants; successful efforts at Guerrero Elementary School in Mesa, Arizona; preventive maintenance; and a sample of the EPA's…

  4. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

  5. Two Decades of WRF/CMAQ simulations over the continental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Confidence in the application of models for forecasting and regulatory assessments is furthered by conducting four types of model evaluation: operational, dynamic, diagnostic, and probabilistic. Operational model evaluation alone does not reveal the confidence limits that can be associated with modeled air quality concentrations. This paper presents novel approaches for performing dynamic model evaluation and for evaluating the confidence limits of ozone exceedances using the WRF/CMAQ model simulations over the continental United States for the period from 1990 to 2010. The methodology presented here entails spectral decomposition of ozone time series using the KZ filter to assess the variations in the strengths of the synoptic (i.e., weather-induced variation) and baseline (i.e., long-term variation attributable to emissions, policy, and trends) forcings embedded in the modeled and observed concentrations. A method is presented where the future year observations are estimated based on the changes in the concentrations predicted by the model applied to the current year observations. The proposed method can provide confidence limits for ozone exceedances for a given emission reduction scenario. We present and discuss these new approaches to identify the strengths of the model in representing the changes in simulated O3 air quality over the 21-year period. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates

  6. Comparison of CMAQ Modeling Study with Discover-AQ 2014 Aircraft Measurements over Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.; Pan, L.; Lee, P.; Tong, D.; Kim, H. C.; Artz, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    NASA and NCAR jointly led a recent multiple platform-based (space, air and ground) measurement intensive to study air quality and to validate satellite data. The Discover-AQ/FRAPPE field experiment took place along the Colorado Front Range in July and August, 2014. The air quality modeling team of the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory was one of the three teams that provided real-time air quality forecasting for the campaign. The U.S. EPA Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model was used with emission inventories based on the data set used by the NOAA National Air Quality Forecasting Capacity (NAQFC). By analyzing the forecast results calculated using aircraft measurements, it was found that CO emissions tended to be overestimated, while ethane emissions were underestimated. Biogenic VOCs were also underpredicted. Due to their relatively high altitude, ozone concentrations in Denver and the surrounding areas are affected by both local emissions and transported ozone. The modeled ozone was highly dependent on the meteorological predictions over this region. The complex terrain over the Rocky Mountains also contributed to the model uncertainty. This study discussed the causes of model biases, the forecast performance under different meteorology, and results from using different model grid resolutions. Several data assimilation techniques were further tested to improve the "post-analysis" performance of the modeling system for the period.

  7. 78 FR 63934 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; El Dorado County Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; El Dorado County Air... Plan (SIP) revision submitted by California for the El Dorado County Air Quality Management District... Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). We are proposing to approve the submitted SIP revision under...

  8. One-year simulation of ozone and particulate matter in China using WRF/CMAQ modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jianlin; Chen, Jianjun; Ying, Qi; Zhang, Hongliang

    2016-08-01

    China has been experiencing severe air pollution in recent decades. Although an ambient air quality monitoring network for criteria pollutants has been constructed in over 100 cities since 2013 in China, the temporal and spatial characteristics of some important pollutants, such as particulate matter (PM) components, remain unknown, limiting further studies investigating potential air pollution control strategies to improve air quality and associating human health outcomes with air pollution exposure. In this study, a yearlong (2013) air quality simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was conducted to provide detailed temporal and spatial information of ozone (O3), total PM2.5, and chemical components. Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC) was used for anthropogenic emissions and observation data obtained from the national air quality monitoring network were collected to validate model performance. The model successfully reproduces the O3 and PM2.5 concentrations at most cities for most months, with model performance statistics meeting the performance criteria. However, overprediction of O3 generally occurs at low concentration range while underprediction of PM2.5 happens at low concentration range in summer. Spatially, the model has better performance in southern China than in northern China, central China, and Sichuan Basin. Strong seasonal variations of PM2.5 exist and wind speed and direction play important roles in high PM2.5 events. Secondary components have more boarder distribution than primary components. Sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), and primary organic aerosol (POA) are the most important PM2.5 components. All components have the highest concentrations in winter except secondary organic aerosol (SOA). This study proves the ability of the CMAQ model to reproduce severe air pollution in China, identifies the directions where improvements are

  9. High Electricity Demand in the Northeast U.S.: PJM Reliability Network and Peaking Unit Impacts on Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Caroline M; Moeller, Michael D; Felder, Frank A; Henderson, Barron H; Carlton, Annmarie G

    2016-08-02

    On high electricity demand days, when air quality is often poor, regional transmission organizations (RTOs), such as PJM Interconnection, ensure reliability of the grid by employing peak-use electric generating units (EGUs). These "peaking units" are exempt from some federal and state air quality rules. We identify RTO assignment and peaking unit classification for EGUs in the Eastern U.S. and estimate air quality for four emission scenarios with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model during the July 2006 heat wave. Further, we population-weight ambient values as a surrogate for potential population exposure. Emissions from electricity reliability networks negatively impact air quality in their own region and in neighboring geographic areas. Monitored and controlled PJM peaking units are generally located in economically depressed areas and can contribute up to 87% of hourly maximum PM2.5 mass locally. Potential population exposure to peaking unit PM2.5 mass is highest in the model domain's most populated cities. Average daily temperature and national gross domestic product steer peaking unit heat input. Air quality planning that capitalizes on a priori knowledge of local electricity demand and economics may provide a more holistic approach to protect human health within the context of growing energy needs in a changing world.

  10. Impacts of Future Climate and Emission Changes on U.S. Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Penrod, Ashley; Zhang, Yang; Wang, K.; Wu, Shiang Yuh; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-06-01

    Changes in climate and emissions will affect future air quality. In this work, simulations of present (2001-2005) and future (2026-2030) regional air quality are conducted with the newly released CMAQ version 5.0 to examine the individual and combined impacts of simulated future climate and anthropogenic emission projections on air quality over the U.S. Current (2001-2005) meteorological and chemical predictions are evaluated against observational data to assess the model’s capability in reproducing the seasonal differences. Overall, WRF and CMAQ perform reasonably well. Increased temperatures (up to 3.18 °C) and decreased ventilation (up to 157 m in planetary boundary layer height) are found in both future winter and summer, with more prominent changes in winter. Increases in future temperatures result in increased isoprene and terpene emissions in winter and summer, driving the increase in maximum 8-h average O3 (up to 5.0 ppb) over the eastern U.S. in winter while decreases in NOx emissions drive the decrease in O3 over most of the U.S. in summer. Future concentrations of PM2.5 in winter and summer and many of its components including organic matter in winter, ammonium and nitrate in summer, and sulfate in winter and summer, decrease due to decreases in primary anthropogenic emissions and the concentrations of secondary anthropogenic pollutants and increased precipitation in winter. Future winter and summer dry and wet deposition fluxes are spatially variable and increase with increasing surface resistance and precipitation (e.g., NH4+ and NO3- dry and wet deposition fluxes increase in winter over much of the U.S.), respectively, and decrease with a decrease in ambient particulate concentrations (e.g., SO42- dry and wet deposition fluxes decrease over the eastern U.S. in summer and winter). Sensitivity simulations show that anthropogenic emission projections dominate over changes in climate in their impacts on the U.S. air quality in the near future. Changes

  11. The Benefits of Internalizing Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Externalities in the US Energy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Kristen E.

    The emission of pollutants from energy use has effects on both local air quality and the global climate, but the price of energy does not reflect these externalities. This study aims to analyze the effect that internalizing these externalities in the cost of energy would have on the US energy system, emissions, and human health. In this study, we model different policy scenarios in which fees are added to emissions related to generation and use of energy. The fees are based on values of damages estimated in the literature and are applied to upstream and combustion emissions related to electricity generation, industrial energy use, transportation energy use, residential energy use, and commercial energy use. The energy sources and emissions are modeled through 2055 in five-year time steps. The emissions in 2045 are incorporated into a continental-scale atmospheric chemistry and transport model, CMAQ, to determine the change in air quality due to different emissions reduction scenarios. A benefit analysis tool, BenMAP, is used with the air quality results to determine the monetary benefit of emissions reductions related to the improved air quality. We apply fees to emissions associated with health impacts, climate change, and a combination of both. We find that the fees we consider lead to reductions in targeted emissions as well as co-reducing non-targeted emissions. For fees on the electric sector alone, health impacting pollutant (HIP) emissions reductions are achieved mainly through control devices while Greenhouse Gas (GHG) fees are addressed through changes in generation technologies. When sector specific fees are added, reductions come mainly from the industrial and electricity generation sectors, and are achieved through a mix of energy efficiency, increased use of renewables, and control devices. Air quality is improved in almost all areas of the country with fees, including when only GHG fees are applied. Air quality tends to improve more in regions with

  12. Air Quality Monitoring And Forecasting In China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Der A, Ronald; Mijling, Bas; De Smedt, Isabelle; Van Roozendael, Michel; Kelder, Hennie

    2010-10-01

    For the last decade the industrial activity of China has been growing at rapid pace, bringing economic wealth to its 1300 million inhabitants, but also generating an unprecedented level of air pollution. This deteriorates the air quality of the densely populated and industrialized areas such as Beijing, Shanghai and the Pearl River Delta, and increases the background pollution levels world-wide [1]. The AMFIC project aims at monitoring and forecasting the air quality in China by using satellite observations and model simulations, together with ground observations in China. The combination of these instruments and tools offers a unique possibility to investigate trends in air pollution and the effectiveness of air quality policy.

  13. Indoor air quality: A psychosocial perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Boxer, P.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The incidence of indoor air quality problems has increased dramatically over the past decade. Investigation of these problems has yielded a definitive cause in only one third of the cases. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in the development and propagation of symptoms attributed to poor indoor air quality. Guidelines for managing indoor air quality problems from the organizational perspective are based upon psychosocial principles and elements of risk perception.

  14. Indoor air quality: a psychosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    Boxer, P A

    1990-05-01

    The incidence of indoor air quality problems has increased dramatically over the past decade. Investigation of these problems has yielded a definitive cause in only one third of the cases. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in the development and propagation of symptoms attributed to poor indoor air quality. Guidelines for managing indoor air quality problems from the organizational perspective are based upon psychosocial principles and elements of risk perception.

  15. The Economic Value of Air Quality Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson-Sumo, Tasha

    Both long-term and daily air quality forecasts provide an essential component to human health and impact costs. According the American Lung Association, the estimated current annual cost of air pollution related illness in the United States, adjusted for inflation (3% per year), is approximately $152 billion. Many of the risks such as hospital visits and morality are associated with poor air quality days (where the Air Quality Index is greater than 100). Groups such as sensitive groups become more susceptible to the resulting conditions and more accurate forecasts would help to take more appropriate precautions. This research focuses on evaluating the utility of air quality forecasting in terms of its potential impacts by building on air quality forecasting and economical metrics. Our analysis includes data collected during the summertime ozone seasons between 2010 and 2012 from air quality models for the Washington, DC/Baltimore, MD region. The metrics that are relevant to our analysis include: (1) The number of times that a high ozone or particulate matter (PM) episode is correctly forecasted, (2) the number of times that high ozone or PM episode is forecasted when it does not occur and (3) the number of times when the air quality forecast predicts a cleaner air episode when the air was observed to have high ozone or PM. Our collection of data included available air quality model forecasts of ozone and particulate matter data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s AIRNOW as well as observational data of ozone and particulate matter from Clean Air Partners. We evaluated the performance of the air quality forecasts with that of the observational data and found that the forecast models perform well for the Baltimore/Washington region and the time interval observed. We estimate the potential amount for the Baltimore/Washington region accrues to a savings of up to 5,905 lives and 5.9 billion dollars per year. This total assumes perfect compliance with

  16. Sensitivity of air quality to potential future climate change and emissions in the United States and major cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trail, M.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Liu, P.; Tsigaridis, K.; Rudokas, J.; Miller, P.; Nenes, A.; Hu, Y.; Russell, A. G.

    2014-09-01

    Simulated present and future air quality is compared for the years 2006-2010 and 2048-2052 over the contiguous United States (CONUS) using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Regionally downscaled present and future climate results are developed using GISS and the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model. Present and future emissions are estimated using MARKAL 9R model. O3 and PM2.5 sensitivities to precursor emissions for the years 2010 and 2050 are calculated using CMAQ-DDM (Direct Decoupled Method). We find major improvements in future U.S. air quality including generally decreased MDA8 (maximum daily 8-hr average O3) mixing ratios and PM2.5 concentrations and reduced frequency of NAAQS O3 standard exceedances in most major U.S. cities. The Eastern and Pacific U.S. experience the largest reductions in summertime seasonal average MDA8 (up to 12 ppb) with localized decreases in the 4th highest MDA8 of the year, decreasing by up to 25 ppb. Results from a Climate Penalty (CP) scenario isolate the impact of climate change on air quality and show that future climate change tends to increase O3 mixing ratios in some regions of the U.S., with climate change causing increases of over 10 ppb in the annual 4th highest MDA8 in Los Angeles. Seasonal average PM2.5 decreases (2-4 μg m-3) over the Eastern U.S. are accounted for by decreases in sulfate and nitrate concentrations resulting from reduced mobile and point source emissions of NOx and SOx.

  17. A direct sensitivity approach to predict hourly ozone resulting from compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard.

    PubMed

    Simon, Heather; Baker, Kirk R; Akhtar, Farhan; Napelenok, Sergey L; Possiel, Norm; Wells, Benjamin; Timin, Brian

    2013-03-05

    In setting primary ambient air quality standards, the EPA's responsibility under the law is to establish standards that protect public health. As part of the current review of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), the US EPA evaluated the health exposure and risks associated with ambient ozone pollution using a statistical approach to adjust recent air quality to simulate just meeting the current standard level, without specifying emission control strategies. One drawback of this purely statistical concentration rollback approach is that it does not take into account spatial and temporal heterogeneity of ozone response to emissions changes. The application of the higher-order decoupled direct method (HDDM) in the community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model is discussed here to provide an example of a methodology that could incorporate this variability into the risk assessment analyses. Because this approach includes a full representation of the chemical production and physical transport of ozone in the atmosphere, it does not require assumed background concentrations, which have been applied to constrain estimates from past statistical techniques. The CMAQ-HDDM adjustment approach is extended to measured ozone concentrations by determining typical sensitivities at each monitor location and hour of the day based on a linear relationship between first-order sensitivities and hourly ozone values. This approach is demonstrated by modeling ozone responses for monitor locations in Detroit and Charlotte to domain-wide reductions in anthropogenic NOx and VOCs emissions. As seen in previous studies, ozone response calculated using HDDM compared well to brute-force emissions changes up to approximately a 50% reduction in emissions. A new stepwise approach is developed here to apply this method to emissions reductions beyond 50% allowing for the simulation of more stringent reductions in ozone concentrations. Compared to previous rollback methods, this

  18. The Co-Benefits of Global and Regional Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on US Air Quality at Fine Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Bowden, J. H.; Adelman, Z.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Smith, S.; West, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs) not only slows climate change, but can also have co-benefits for improved air quality. In this study, we examine the co-benefits of global and regional GHG mitigation on US air quality at fine resolution through dynamical downscaling, using the latest Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. We will investigate the co-benefits on US air quality due to domestic GHG mitigation alone, and due to mitigation outside of the US. We also quantity the co-benefits resulting from reductions in co-emitted air pollutants versus slowing climate change and its effects on air quality. Projected climate in the 2050s from the IPCC RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios is dynamically downscaled with the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). Anthropogenic emissions projections from the RCP4.5 scenario and its reference (REF), are directly processed in SMOKE to provide temporally- and spatially-resolved CMAQ emission input files. Chemical boundary conditions (BCs) are obtained from West et al. (2013), who studied the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on global air quality and human health. Our preliminary results show that the global GHG reduction (RCP4.5 relative to REF) reduces the 1hr daily maximum ozone by 3.3 ppbv annually over entire US, as high as 6 ppbv in September. The west coast of California and the Northeast US are the regions that benefit most. By comparing different scenarios, we find that foreign countries' GHGs mitigation has a larger influence on the US ozone decreases (accounting for 77% of the total decrease), compared with 23% from domestic GHG mitigation only, highlighting the importance of methane reductions and the intercontinental transport of air pollutants. The reduction of global co-emitted air pollutants has a more pronounced effect on ozone decreasing, relative to the effect from slowing climate and its effects on air quality. We also plan to report co-benefits for PM2.5 in the US.

  19. Air Quality Monitoring and Sensor Technologies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientist Ron Williams presented on the features, examination, application, examples, and data quality of continuous monitoring study designs at EPA's Community Air Monitoring Training in July 2015.

  20. Managing Air Quality - Ongoing Evaluation of Progress

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the importance of evaluating if air quality programs are achieving the desired results to inform environmental program managers, regulated industry and the public, and provides EPA examples.