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Sample records for air quality egg

  1. Influence of air composition during egg storage on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality.

    PubMed

    Reijrink, I A M; van Duijvendijk, L A G; Meijerhof, R; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2010-09-01

    Egg storage beyond 7 d is associated with an increase in incubation duration and a decrease in hatchability and chick quality. Negative effects of prolonged egg storage may be caused by changes in the embryo, by changes in egg characteristics, or by both. An adjustment in storage air composition may reduce negative effects of prolonged egg storage because it may prevent changes in the embryo and in egg characteristics. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of high CO(2) concentrations or a low O(2) concentration in the storage air on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality. Eggs were stored for 14 d in 4 different storage air compositions: normal air (control; 20.9% O(2), 0.05% CO(2), 78.1% N(2)), 0.74% CO(2) treatment (20.8% O(2), 0.74% CO(2), 77.5% N(2)), 1.5% CO(2) treatment (20.6% O(2), 1.5% CO(2), 77.0% N(2))(,) or 3.0% O(2) treatment (3.0% O(2), 0.04% CO(2), 96.0% N(2)). The storage temperature was 16 degrees C and the RH was 75%. Results showed that the change in albumen pH and albumen height between oviposition and the end of storage was less in the 0.74 and 1.5% CO(2) treatments than in the control and 3.0% O(2) treatments (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). None of the treatments affected the stage of embryonic development on d 4 of incubation, hatchability, or chick quality on the day of hatch in terms of BW, chick length, and yolk-free body mass. Although high CO(2) concentrations in the storage air had a positive effect on albumen height and albumen pH, it is concluded that the storage air compositions, studied in the current study, do not affect embryonic development, hatchability, or chick quality when eggs are stored for 14 d at a storage temperature of 16 degrees C.

  2. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems–Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Y.; Shepherd, T. A.; Li, H.; Xin, H.

    2015-01-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens’ activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  3. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Li, H; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens' activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  4. Effect of air velocity on laying hen performance and egg quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing convective cooling can improve performance and thermal comfort of commercial poultry when weather or system design limit cooling through other means such as evaporative cooling. Previous work in young hens showed increased egg production rate as feed intake is maintained under heat stres...

  5. Comparisons of egg quality traits, egg weight loss and hatchability between striped and normal duck eggs.

    PubMed

    Yuan, J; Wang, B; Huang, Z; Fan, Y; Huang, C; Hou, Z

    2013-01-01

    1. The egg quality of striped and normal duck eggs was compared to determine why striped eggs show decreased hatchability. A total of 430 eggs, obtained from a Pekin duck breeder flock aged 50-65 wks, were used in three experiments. The eggs were weighed and assigned randomly to measure egg quality traits, egg weight (EW) loss and hatchability during incubation. 2. There were no significant differences between egg types in terms of egg shape index, eggshell strength and thickness, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk colour, weight of the eggshell with or without membranes, calcium, phosphorus, copper and manganese contents in the eggshell (with the inner and outer membranes or without the inner membrane), albumen weight, dry matter of albumen, crude protein (CP) of thick albumen and pH of the thick albumen. 3. The weight of eggshells with membranes, weight of thick albumen and CP of thin albumen in striped eggs were lower than those in normal eggs. 4. The thin albumen in striped eggs was heavier than that in normal eggs. The pH of the thin albumin in striped egg was significantly higher than that in normal eggs. 5. There were no significant differences in EW loss during incubation or duckling weight between striped and normal eggs. However, the hatchability of striped eggs was lower. 6. The lower weight of the eggshell inner membrane and thick albumen, lower CP content and higher pH in the thin albumen of striped eggs might contribute to lower hatchability.

  6. Teaching Science: Air Pressure "Eggs-periments."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how teachers can introduce students to various scientific concept concerning motion, air composition, and heat by conducting an experiment: A peeled, hard-boiled egg is sucked into a bottle neck slightly smaller than the egg, after the bottle has been filled and emptied of hot water. Also discusses how students' understanding of the…

  7. Effects of egg washing and storage temperature on the quality of eggshell cuticle and eggs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Chi; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Wu, Ying-Chen; Lee, Yi-Chain; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2016-11-15

    This study investigated the quality of washed and unwashed eggs stored at 7°C (WC and UC for washed and unwashed eggs, respectively) and 25°C (WR and UR for washed and unwashed eggs, respectively) for 4weeks. The results show that the Haugh unit, albumin pH, thick albumin ratio, yolk index, air cell size, and S-ovalbumin content of UC were significantly the most superior, followed by those of WC, WR, and UR, in that order. Scanning electron microscopy and cuticle staining confirmed the damages and decreased cuticle coverage caused by washing and extended storage. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that cuticle composition changed significantly after washing and storage (P<0.05). High correlations were observed between the quality parameters evaluated. In conclusion, storage temperature critically influenced egg quality, and egg washing reduced cuticle coverage.

  8. Egg and sperm quality in fish.

    PubMed

    Bobe, Julien; Labbé, Catherine

    2010-02-01

    Fish egg quality can be defined as the ability of the egg to be fertilized and subsequently develop into a normal embryo. Similarly, sperm quality can be defined as its ability to successfully fertilize an egg and subsequently allow the development of a normal embryo. In the wild or under aquaculture conditions, the quality of fish gametes can be highly variable and is under the influence of a significant number of external factors or broodstock management practices. For these reasons, the topic of gamete quality has received increasing attention. Despite the significant efforts made towards a better understanding of the factors involved in the control of gamete quality, the picture is far from being complete and the control of gamete quality remains an issue in the aquaculture industry. Some of the factors responsible for the observed variability of gamete quality remain largely unknown or poorly understood. In addition very little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of egg and sperm quality. In the present review, the molecular and cellular characteristics of fish gametes are presented with a special interest for the mechanisms that could participate in the regulation of gamete quality. Then, after defining egg and sperm quality, and how can it can be accurately estimated or predicted, we provide an overview of the main factors that can impact gamete quality in teleosts.

  9. Quality characteristic of spray-drying egg white powders.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuang; Zhao, Songning; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Yiding; Liu, Jingbo; Xu, Menglei

    2013-10-01

    Spray drying is a useful method for developing egg process and utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects on spray drying condition of egg white. The optimized conditions were spraying flow 22 mL/min, feeding temperature 39.8 °C and inlet-air temperature 178.2 °C. Results of sulfydryl (SH) groups measurement indicated conformation structure have changed resulting in protein molecule occur S-S crosslinking phenomenon when heating. It led to free SH content decreased during spray drying process. There was almost no change of differential scanning calorimetry between fresh egg white and spray-drying egg white powder (EWP). For a given protein, the apparent SH reactivity is in turn influenced by the physico-chemical characteristics of the reactant. The phenomenon illustrated the thermal denaturation of these proteins was unrelated to their free SH contents. Color measurement was used to study browning level. EWP in optimized conditions revealed insignificant brown stain. Swelling capacity and scanning electron micrograph both proved well quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP. Results suggested spray drying under the optimized conditions present suitable and alternative method for egg processing industrial implementation. Egg food industrialization needs new drying method to extend shelf-life. The purpose of the study was to provide optimal process of healthy and nutritional instant spray-drying EWP and study quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP.

  10. Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... can protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  11. Air Quality System (AQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  12. Quality of eggs from different laying hen production systems, from indigenous breeds and specialty eggs.

    PubMed

    Lordelo, M; Fernandes, E; Bessa, R J B; Alves, S P

    2016-11-02

    Consumers are concerned about the quality of commercially available eggs. Eggs used in this study were marketed in Portugal and originated from laying hens raised in cages, barns, free-range, organic eggs, and eggs enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and from native Portuguese breeds. The eggs were analyzed for chemical and physical properties. Results indicated that yolk color was lighter in organic eggs and darker in n-3 PUFA enriched eggs. Eggs from caged hens had lower Haugh units in contrast with organic eggs. Caged hens produced eggs with a higher protein content while organic eggs had the lowest level of protein in the albumen. As might be expected, eggs enriched in n-3 PUFA had the highest n-3 PUFA content. Choosing an egg by its production system or labeling specificities may not be a guarantee of superior product quality. The layer genotype, age, diet, and the quality of the range also may affect egg properties. Due to a different layer diet, enriched eggs seem to be of superior quality.

  13. Effect of egg shell color on some egg quality in table eggs during storage at refrigerator temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days of storage at 5 °C. A total of 100 fresh eggs (60-65 g) were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in brown shell color eggs significantly (P<0.01) higher than white shell color eggs at 21 days of storage, but no significant differences were observed among groups other storage periods. The brown shell color eggs showed lower levels of specific gravity than white shell color eggs at day 7, 14, and 21, but there were no significant differences between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs at day 28. The albumen height and Haugh unit of white shell color eggs was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of white shell color eggs during the storage periods. There were no significant differences in yolk index and albumen pH between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs during the storage periods. The yolk pH of white shell color eggs was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that of brown shell color eggs at day 7, 14, and 21 of storage period. The results indicated that the white shell color eggs showed better quality than brown shell color eggs at 5 °C for the entire storage period.

  14. Effect of storage temperature on egg quality traits in table eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of storage temperature on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days. A total of 100 fresh eggs were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (5 °C and 22 °C; 10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 5 and 22 °C. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in eggs stored at 5 °C significantly (P<0.01) lower than the eggs stored at 22 °C group for the entire storage period. The eggs stored at 5 °C showed higher levels of specific gravity than eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage (P<0.01; P<0.05). The albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk index of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of eggs stored at 22 °C during the storage periods. The albumen pH of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that of eggs stored at 22 °C during storage period. The results indicated that the eggs stored at 5 °C are better off in terms of protecting quality compared to the eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage.

  15. Genetic parameters of egg defects and egg quality in layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Wolc, A; Arango, J; Settar, P; O'Sullivan, N P; Olori, V E; White, I M S; Hill, W G; Dekkers, J C M

    2012-06-01

    Genetic parameters were estimated for egg defects, egg production, and egg quality traits. Eggs from 11,738 purebred brown-egg laying hens were classified as salable or as having one of the following defects: bloody, broken, calcium deposit, dirty, double yolk, misshapen, pee-wee, shell-less, and soft shelled. Egg quality included albumen height, egg weight, yolk weight, and puncture score. Body weight, age at sexual maturity, and egg production were also recorded. Heritability estimates of liability to defects using a threshold animal model were less than 0.1 for bloody and dirty; between 0.1 and 0.2 for pee-wee, broken, misshapen, soft shelled, and shell-less; and above 0.2 for calcium deposit and double yolk. Quality and production traits were more heritable, with estimates ranging from 0.29 (puncture score) to 0.74 (egg weight). High-producing hens had a lower frequency of egg defects. High egg weight and BW were associated with an increased frequency of double yolks, and to a lesser extent, with more shell quality defects. Estimates of genetic correlations among defect traits that were related to shell quality were positive and moderate to strong (0.24-0.73), suggesting that these could be grouped into one category or selection could be based on the trait with the highest heritability or that is easiest to measure. Selection against defective eggs would be more efficient by including egg defect traits in the selection criterion, along with egg production rate of salable eggs and egg quality traits.

  16. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  17. Transforming air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Janet McCabe

    2005-04-01

    Earlier this year, the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee submitted to EPA 38 recommendations intended to improve air quality management in the United States. This article summarizes the evaluation process leading up to the Committee's recommendations. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Air Quality Analysis

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides information for air quality data analysts inside and outside EPA. Much of the information is in the form of documented analyses that support the review of the national air qualiyt standards.

  19. Effect of egg weight and position relative to incubator fan on broiler hatchability and chick quality.

    PubMed

    Elibol, O; Brake, J

    2008-09-01

    Two experiments, which included 3 incubators, were carried out to investigate the effects of egg weight and position relative to incubator (setter) fan on embryonic mortality, second quality chicks, and fertile hatchability of broiler eggs. Three egg weight groups termed small (approximately 62.4 g), average (approximately 65.4 g), and large (approximately 68.9 g) were set in either the incubator trolley most distant from the fan (FAR) or in the incubator trolley nearest the fan (NEAR) as would be the case during single-stage operation in this type of incubator. Fertile hatchability decreased in the large egg weight group due to increased percentage late embryonic mortality in experiment 1, and both percentage early and late embryonic mortality in experiment 2. Percentage late embryonic mortality and second quality chicks increased and percentage fertile hatchability decreased for eggs in the FAR position in experiment 1 only. A significant interaction of incubator position x egg weight group for late embryonic mortality, second quality chicks, and fertile hatchability was found in experiment 1, but only late embryonic mortality was so affected in experiment 2. Experiment 2 was conducted so that eggshell temperatures could be measured. Large eggs in the FAR position at transfer time (E 18) exhibited significantly higher eggshell temperatures than did the other groups probably because air velocity or air distribution was modified in the FAR position of the incubator and large eggs were most negatively influenced in the trolley in this position.

  20. Assessment of density in enriched colony cages: Egg quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enriched colony cage production systems are becoming more prevalent in the US. A study was undertaken to determine the impact of housing density on hen health, well-being, egg production and quality. Six densities were examined with 8 housing replicates per density. Egg quality was assessed at hen a...

  1. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    MedlinePlus

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Forecast Current AQI AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - ... September 2016, Busan, South Korea. More more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke ...

  2. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    MedlinePlus

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one ... exposure and protect your health. For your local air quality, visit www.airnow.gov View or print guide ...

  3. Culture systems: air quality.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Poor laboratory air quality is a known hazard to the culture of human gametes and embryos. Embryologists and chemists have employed analytical methods for identifying and measuring bulk and select air pollutants to assess the risk they pose to the embryo culture system. However, contaminant concentrations that result in gamete or embryotoxicity are poorly defined. Combating the ill effects of poor air quality requires an understanding of how toxicants can infiltrate the laboratory, the incubator, and ultimately the culture media. A further understanding of site-specific air quality can then lead to the consideration of laboratory design and management strategies that can minimize the deleterious effects that air contamination may have on early embryonic development in vitro.

  4. Air Quality Implementation Plans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    States must develop plans to attain and maintain air quality standards. These plans, known as SIPs, are submitted to EPA for approval. This web site contains information about this process and the current status of the submittals.

  5. Process air quality data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C. M.; Hogge, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Air quality sampling was conducted. Data for air quality parameters, recorded on written forms, punched cards or magnetic tape, are available for 1972 through 1975. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate several daily statistical measures of location, (2) plot time histories of data or the calculated daily statistics, (3) calculate simple correlation coefficients, and (4) plot scatter diagrams. Computer software was developed for processing air quality data to include time series analysis and goodness of fit tests. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate a larger number of daily statistical measures of location, and a number of daily monthly and yearly measures of location, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, (2) decompose the extended time series model and (3) perform some goodness of fit tests. The computer program is described, documented and illustrated by examples. Recommendations are made for continuation of the development of research on processing air quality data.

  6. State Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  7. Improving Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Usually the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate individual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed.

  8. Developing air quality forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pius; Saylor, Rick; Meagher, James

    2012-05-01

    Third International Workshop on Air Quality Forecasting Research; Potomac, Maryland, 29 November to 1 December 2011 Elevated concentrations of both near-surface ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter have been implicated in increased mortality and other human health impacts. In light of these known influences on human health, many governments around the world have instituted air quality forecasting systems to provide their citizens with advance warning of impending poor air quality so that they can take actions to limit exposure. In an effort to improve the performance of air quality forecasting systems and provide a forum for the exchange of the latest research in air quality modeling, the International Workshop on Air Quality Forecasting Research (IWAQFR) was established in 2009 and is cosponsored by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Environment Canada (EC), and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The steering committee for IWAQFR's establishment was composed of Véronique Bouchet, Mike Howe, and Craig Stoud (EC); Greg Carmichael (University of Iowa); Paula Davidson and Jim Meagher (NOAA); and Liisa Jalkanen (WMO). The most recent workshop took place in Maryland.

  9. Multipollutant air quality management.

    PubMed

    Hidy, George M; Pennell, William T

    2010-06-01

    On the basis of a recent NARSTO assessment, this review discusses the factors involved in the implementation of a risk- and results-based multipollutant air quality management strategy applicable to North America. Such a strategy could evolve from current single-pollutant regulatory practices using a series of steps that would seek to minimize risk of exposure for humans and ecosystems while providing for a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of the management process. The tools needed to support multipollutant air quality management are summarized. They include application of a formal risk analysis, accounting for atmospheric processes, ambient measurements, emissions characterization, air quality modeling of emissions to ambient concentrations, and characterization of human and ecological responses to ambient pollutant exposure. The new management strategy would expand the current practice of accountability that relates emission reductions and attainment of air quality derived from air quality criteria and standards. Conceptually, achievement of accountability would establish goals optimizing risk reduction associated with pollution management. This expanded approach takes into account the sequence of processes from emissions reduction to resulting changes in ambient concentration. Using ambient concentration as a proxy for exposure, the resulting improvement in human and ecosystem health is estimated. The degree to which this chain of processes and effects can be achieved in current practice is examined in a multipollutant context exemplified by oxidants, as indicated by ozone, particulate matter, and some hazardous air pollutants. Achievement of a multipollutant management strategy will mostly depend on improving knowledge about human and ecosystem response to pollutant exposure.

  10. Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations of egg quality traits in brown-egg dwarf layers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L C; Ning, Z H; Xu, G Y; Hou, Z C; Yang, N

    2005-08-01

    Albumen height, albumen weight (AW), eggshell color (ESC), eggshell index, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, eggshell weight (ESW), egg weight (EW), Haugh units, and yolk weight (YW) were measured in 2,272 eggs collected 3 d sequentially from 920 brown-egg dwarf layers caged individually. The restricted maximum likelihood procedure was applied to estimate heritabilities and genotypic and phenotypic correlations for these egg quality traits. Heritabilities of albumen height, AW, ESC, eggshell index, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, ESW, EW, Haugh units, and YW were 0.51, 0.59, 0.46, 0.40, 0.24, 0.34, 0.64, 0.63, 0.41, and 0.45, respectively. The genetic correlations between EW and AW, YW, and ESW were high ranging from 0.67 to 0.97, whereas those for ESC with external and internal egg quality traits were low ranging from -0.23 to 0.13. Thus although heritabilities for these traits were moderate to high, genetic correlations with ESC were low, suggesting a minor relationship between shell color and physical attributes of the shell as well as internal egg quality in brown-egg dwarf layers.

  11. Effects of egg quality and method of incubation on the hatching success of channel X blue hybrid catfish eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg quality of stripped eggs from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and method of incubation of fertilized hybrid catfish eggs on hatching success. Stripped eggs from 17 channel catfish females were evaluated in a 2 x 2 factorial...

  12. Air Quality Management Process Cycle

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  13. Air quality risk management.

    PubMed

    Williams, Martin L

    2008-01-01

    Rather than attempt to provide a comprehensive account of air quality risk assessment, as might be found in a textbook or manual, this article discusses some issues that are of current importance in the United Kingdom and the rest of Europe, with special emphasis on risk assessment in the context of policy formulation, and emerging scientific knowledge. There are two pollutants of particular concern and that both pose challenges for risk assessment and policy, and they are particulate matter (PM) and ozone. The article describes some issues for health risk assessment and finally some forward-looking suggestions for future approaches to air quality management.

  14. The AirQuality SenseBox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuth, Dustin; Nuest, Daniel; Bröring, Arne; Pebesma, Edzer

    2013-04-01

    In the past year, a group of open hardware enthusiasts and citizen scientists had large success in the crowd-funding of an open hardware-based sensor platform for air quality monitoring, called the Air Quality Egg. Via the kickstarter platform, the group was able to collect triple the amount of money than needed to fulfill their goals. Data generated by the Air Quality Egg is pushed to the data logging platform cosm.com, which makes the devices a part of the Internet of Things. The project aims at increasing the participation of citizens in the collection of data, the development of sensors, the operation of sensor stations, and, as data on cosm is publicly available, the sharing, visualization and analysis of data. Air Quality Eggs can measure NO2 and CO concentrations, as well as relative humidity and temperature. The chosen sensors are low-cost and have limited precision and accurracy. The Air Quality Egg consists of a stationary outdoor and a stationary indoor unit. Each outdoor unit will wirelessly transmit air quality measurements to the indoor unit, which forwards the data to cosm. Most recent versions of the Air Quality Egg allow a rough calibration of the gas sensors and on-the-fly conversion from raw sensor readings (impedance) to meaningful air quality data expressed in units of parts per billion. Data generated by these low-cost platforms are not intended to replace well-calibrated official monitoring stations, but rather augment the density of the total monitoring network with citizen sensors. To improve the usability of the Air Quality Egg, we present a new and more advanced concept, called the AirQuality SenseBox. We made the outdoor platform more autonomous and location-aware by adding solarpanels and rechargeable batteries as a power source. The AirQuality SenseBox knows its own position from a GPS device attached to the platform. As a mobile sensor platform, it can for instance be attached to vehicles. A low-cost and low-power wireless chipset

  15. Quality and Composition of Retail Shell Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumers are becoming more aware of their food choices. As part of this movement, sourcing and production information is often desired for agricultural products. Furthermore, products associated with added health benefits are also becoming more common in the marketplace. The US shell egg industr...

  16. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  17. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  18. Does solitary incubation enhance egg water uptake and offspring quality in a lizard that produces single-egg clutches?

    PubMed

    Warner, Daniel A; Chapman, Michelle N

    2011-03-01

    Many organisms invariably produce one offspring per reproductive bout, but experimental tests of adaptive explanations for this reproductive pattern are rare. To address this issue, we studied a lizard (Anolis sagrei) that produces one egg at a time to test the hypothesis that solitary incubation (due to single-egg clutches) eliminates competition with adjacent eggs for moisture and thus enhances offspring quality via increased egg water uptake during development. Our findings suggest that solitary incubation does not affect rates of moisture uptake by eggs or offspring size. However, egg moisture uptake and offspring size were negatively affected when eggs were adjacent to an egg that died during development. Depending on rates of infertile eggs or embryo mortality in the field, single-egg clutches may improve developmental environments and enhance offspring fitness. These results highlight the importance of considering the role of plastic embryonic responses during development in explaining reproductive patterns.

  19. Air quality management in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bremauntz, Adrián

    2008-01-01

    Several significant program and policy measures have been implemented in Mexico over the past 15 yr to improve air quality. This article provides an overview of air quality management strategies in Mexico, including (1) policy initiatives such as vehicle use restrictions, air quality standards, vehicle emissions, and fuel quality standards, and (2) supporting programs including establishment of a national emission inventory, an air pollution episodes program, and the implementation of exposure and health effects studies. Trends in air pollution episodes and ambient air pollutant concentrations are described.

  20. Egg shell quality in Japanese quail: characteristics, heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic relationships.

    PubMed

    Narinc, D; Aygun, A; Karaman, E; Aksoy, T

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate heritabilities as well as genetic and phenotypic correlations for egg weight, specific gravity, shape index, shell ratio, egg shell strength, egg length, egg width and shell weight in Japanese quail eggs. External egg quality traits were measured on 5864 eggs of 934 female quails from a dam line selected for two generations. Within the Bayesian framework, using Gibbs Sampling algorithm, a multivariate animal model was applied to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for external egg quality traits. The heritability estimates for external egg quality traits were moderate to high and ranged from 0.29 to 0.81. The heritability estimates for egg and shell weight of 0.81 and 0.76 were fairly high. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between egg shell strength with specific gravity, shell ratio and shell weight ranging from 0.55 to 0.79 were relatively high. It can be concluded that it is possible to determine egg shell quality using the egg specific gravity values utilizing its high heritability and fairly high positive correlation with most of the egg shell quality traits. As a result, egg specific gravity may be the choice of selection criterion rather than other external egg traits for genetic improvement of egg shell quality in Japanese quails.

  1. HRD & Quality: The Chicken or the Egg?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferketish, B. Jean; Hayden, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Total Quality Management is not a fad. Human resource development must be aligned with the culture of continuous improvement to make it work. Changes may be necessary in hiring, promotion, and performance appraisal. (SK)

  2. Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Vincent M.

    Asserting that the air quality inside schools is often worse than outdoor pollution, leading to various health complaints and loss of productivity, this paper details factors contributing to schools' indoor air quality. These include the design, operation, and maintenance of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; building…

  3. Air Quality System (AQS) Metadata

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency compiles air quality monitoring data in the Air Quality System (AQS). Ambient air concentrations are measured at a national network of more than 4,000 monitoring stations and are reported by state, local, and tribal

  4. Air Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Stak-Tracker CEM (Continuous Emission Monitor) Gas Analyzer is an air quality monitor capable of separating the various gases in a bulk exhaust stream and determining the amounts of individual gases present within the stream. The monitor is produced by GE Reuter- Stokes, a subsidiary of GE Corporate Research & Development Center. The Stak-Tracker uses a Langley Research Center software package which measures the concentration of a target gas by determining the degree to which molecules of that gas absorb an infrared beam. The system is environmental-friendly, fast and has relatively low installation and maintenance costs. It is applicable to gas turbines and various industries including glass, paper and cement.

  5. Effects of sub-lethal teratogen exposure during larval development on egg laying and egg quality in adult Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Alexis; Marin de Evsikova, Caralina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute high dose exposure to teratogenic chemicals alters the proper development of an embryo leading to infertility, impaired fecundity, and few viable offspring. However, chronic exposure to sub-toxic doses of teratogens during early development may also have long-term impacts on egg quality and embryo viability. Methods: To test the hypothesis that low dose exposure during early development can impact long-term reproductive health, Caenorhabditis elegans larvae were exposed to 10 teratogens during larval development, and subsequently were examined for the pattern of egg-laying and egg quality (hatched larvae and embryo viability) as gravid adults.  After the exposure, adult gravid worms were transferred to untreated plates and the numbers of eggs laid were recorded every 3 hours, and the day following exposure the numbers of hatched larvae were counted. Re sults: While fecundity and fertility were typically impaired by teratogens, unexpectedly, many teratogens initially increased egg-laying at the earliest interval compared to control but not at later intervals. However, egg quality, as assessed by embryo viability, remained the same because many of the eggs (<50%) did not hatch. Conclusions: Chronic, low dose exposures to teratogens during early larval development have subtle, long-term effects on egg laying and egg quality. PMID:28163903

  6. Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web site will educate the public about indoor environmental issues specific to educational facilities and the importance of developing and sustaining comprehensive indoor air quality management programs.

  7. Ozone, Air Quality, and Asthma (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Ozone, Air Quality, and Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Ozone, Air Quality, ... can also affect lung function. continue How Poor Air Quality Affects People With Asthma Air pollution is a ...

  8. New Federal Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stopinski, O. W.

    The report discusses the current procedures for establishing air quality standards, the bases for standards, and, finally, proposed and final National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, photochemical oxidants, and nitrogen dioxide. (Author/RH)

  9. Building Air Quality. Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Indoor Air Div.

    Building managers and owners often confront competing demands to reduce operating costs and increase revenues that can siphon funds and resources from other building management concerns such as indoor air quality (IAQ). This resource booklet, designed for use with the "Building Air Quality Guide," provides building owners and managers with an…

  10. [Air quality and climate change].

    PubMed

    Loft, Steffen

    2009-10-26

    Air quality, health and climate change are closely connected. Ozone depends on temperature and the greenhouse gas methane from cattle and biomass. Pollen presence depends on temperature and CO2. The effect of climate change on particulate air pollution is complex, but the likely net effect is greater health risks. Reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions by reduced livestock production and use of combustion for energy production, transport and heating will also improve air quality. Energy savings in buildings and use of CO2 neutral fuels should not deteriorate indoor and outdoor air quality.

  11. Indoor air quality medicolegal issues.

    PubMed

    Ross, C S; Lockey, J E

    1994-08-01

    The regulatory and legal communities have begun only recently to address the medicolegal issues surrounding indoor air quality. No single governmental agency is responsible for indoor air quality issues. The focus of the federal government's indoor air quality programs is on the gathering and dissemination of information rather than on the regulation of indoor air pollution. State and local regulatory controls vary but may include antismoking ordinances, building codes, and contractor certification programs. Numerous lawsuits involving various parties and legal theories have been filed on the basis of illness allegedly related to indoor air quality. Further regulatory and legal review of indoor air problems will likely occur in the near future, particularly as a result of the characterization of environmental tobacco smoke as a class A carcinogen.

  12. Studies on the effectiveness of oral pellet vaccine in improving egg production and egg quality in desi chicken

    PubMed Central

    Reetha, T. Lurthu; Rajeswar, J. Johnson; Harikrishnan, T. J.; Sukumar, K.; Srinivasan, P.; Kirubakaran, J. John

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of Newcastle disease (ND) oral pellet vaccine in egg production and egg quality in desi chicken. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. A total of 48-day-old desi chicks obtained from a private hatchery in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, were maintained under cage system of rearing up to 52 weeks of age as per standard management practices. All the 48 chicks were divided into six groups having eight chicks in each group were subjected to different treatment regimes. All the birds were challenged at 52 weeks of age with 0.5 ml dose of 104.0 egg infectious dose 50 virulent ND field virus. 10 eggs from each group were randomly collected during the last 3 days of 8 weeks interval period from 28 to 52 weeks of age and were used to measure the egg quality parameters. The production performance of each group was assessed at 4 weeks interval period from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Results: In all the six treatment groups with respect to egg production, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Similarly, in egg weight, egg shape index and specific gravity, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 28 to 52 weeks of age. Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that the administration of ND oral pellet vaccine to desi chicken does not affect the egg production performance, egg weight, egg shape index, and specific gravity of egg. PMID:27651681

  13. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Cayan, H.; Erener, G.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  14. Colorado Air Quality Control Regulations and Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver. Div. of Air Pollution Control.

    Regulations and standards relative to air quality control in Colorado are defined in this publication. Presented first are definitions of terms, a statement of intent, and general provisions applicable to all emission control regulations adopted by the Colorado Air Pollution Control Commission. Following this, three regulations are enumerated: (1)…

  15. Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CMAQ is a computational tool used for air quality management. It models air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and other air toxics to help determine optimum air quality management scenarios.

  16. Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Takeji

    The reduction of intake of outdoor air volume in air conditioned buildings, adopted as the strategy for saving energy, has caused sick building syndrome abroad. Such symptoms of sick building as headache, stimuli of eye and nose and lethargy, appears to result from cigarette smoke, folmaldehyde and volatile organic carbons. On the other hand, in airtight residences not only carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from domestic burning appliances but also allergens of mite, fungi, pollen and house dust, have become a subject of discussion. Moreover, asbestos and radon of carcinogen now attract a great deal of attention. Those indoor air pollutants are discussed.

  17. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  18. [Indoor air quality in schools].

    PubMed

    Cartieaux, E; Rzepka, M-A; Cuny, D

    2011-07-01

    Indoor air quality in schools has received particular attention over the past several years. Children are considered as one of the most sensitive groups to atmospheric pollution because their bodies are actively growing and they breathe higher volumes of air relative to their body weights than adults do. They also spend more time in school or group structures (preschools, day nurseries) than in any indoor environments other than the home. The analysis of children's exposure to air pollution at school requires the identification of the main pollutant sources present in these educational institutions. Both a strong contribution of outdoor pollution and a very specific pollution bound to school activities such as the use of paints, markers, glues, and manufactured ink eraser pens, exist. The ventilation in school buildings also plays an important role in air quality. A higher air exchange may improve thermal comfort and air quality. The cause of indoor air pollution is a combinatory effect of physical, chemical, and biological factors, and the adequacy of ventilation in the environment. Several pollutants have been reported to exist in classrooms such as bacteria, molds, volatile organic compounds, persistent organic pollutants and microparticles. There is a correlation between the concentrations of the pollutants and onset of health problems in schoolchildren. We observe predominantly respiratory symptoms as well as a prevalence of respiratory diseases such as asthma and allergies. This study shows that poor indoor air quality affects children's health.

  19. Laying performance and egg quality of blue-shelled layers as affected by different housing systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, X L; Zheng, J X; Ning, Z H; Qu, L J; Xu, G Y; Yang, N

    2009-07-01

    Blue-shelled eggs are gaining popularity as the consumption demand diversifies in some countries. This study was carried out to investigate the laying performance and egg quality of the blue-shelled egg layers as well as the effects of different housing systems on egg production and quality traits. One thousand pullets from Dongxiang blue-shelled layers were divided into 2 even groups and kept in different housing systems (outdoor vs. cage). Daily laying performance was recorded from 20 to 60 wk of age. External and internal egg quality traits were examined at 26, 34, 42, and 50 wk. Yolk cholesterol concentration and whole egg cholesterol content were measured at 40 wk of age. Average laying rate from 20 to 60 wk for the cage (54.7%) was significantly higher than that of outdoor layers (39.3%). Among all of the egg quality traits, only eggshell color was affected by housing system. Interaction between housing system and layer age was found in egg weight, eggshell color, eggshell ratio, yolk color, and yolk weight. Meanwhile, cholesterol concentration in yolk was 8.64 +/- 0.40 mg/g in the outdoor eggs, which was significantly lower than that of eggs from the cage birds (10.32 +/- 0.48 mg/g; P < 0.05). Whole egg cholesterol content in the outdoor eggs (125.23 +/- 6.32 mg/egg) was also significantly lower than that of eggs from the caged layers (158.01 +/- 8.62 mg/egg). The results demonstrated that blue-shelled layers have lower productivity in the outdoor system than in the cage system. Blue-shelled layers have lower egg weight, larger yolk proportion, and lower cholesterol content compared with commercial layers. In a proper marketing system, lower productivity could be balanced by a higher price for the better quality of blue-shelled eggs.

  20. Dietary fatty acid enrichment increases egg size and quality of yellow seahorse Hippocampus kuda.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, M; Masdeu, M; Hale, P; Sibbons, C M; Holt, W V

    2014-02-01

    Seahorses populations in the wild have been declining and to restore them a better knowledge of seahorse reproduction is required. This study examines the effect of dietary quality on seahorse fecundity and egg quality. Two different diets were tested with Hippocampus kuda females: frozen mysis (control) and frozen mysis enriched with a liposome spray containing essential fatty acids. Diets were given to females (two groups of five) over a seven week period. After this period, males (fed the control diet) and females were paired and the eggs dropped by the females were collected. Fatty acid profile were analysed and eggs were counted and measured. Results showed that females fed on enriched mysis had larger eggs and that these had a higher content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids. The size of the egg was especially affected in the first spawn, where egg size for females fed the enriched diet was significantly higher than the egg size from control females. This effect was reduced in the following spawning where no significant differences were found. Egg size is an important quality descriptor as seahorse juveniles originating from smaller eggs and/or eggs of poor quality will have less chances of overcoming adverse conditions in the wild and consequently have lower survival and growth rates. This study shows that enriching frozen mysis with polyunsaturated fatty acids increases egg size and egg quality of H. kuda.

  1. Instrumentation for air quality measurements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenstein, M.

    1973-01-01

    Comparison of the new generation of air quality monitoring instruments with some more traditional methods. The first generation of air quality measurement instruments, based on the use of oxidant coulometric cells, nitrogen oxide colorimetry, carbon monoxide infrared analyzers, and other types of detectors, is compared with new techniques now coming into wide use in the air monitoring field and involving the use of chemiluminescent reactions, optical absorption detectors, a refinement of the carbon monoxide infrared analyzer, electrochemical cells based on solid electrolytes, and laser detectors.

  2. Short preincubations during egg storage increase hatchability and chick quality in long-stored broiler eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have investigated the efficacy of the SPIDES (short pre-incubations during egg storage) regimen in restoration of hatchability of broiler eggs during 21-day cool storage. Prolonged cool storage reduced hatchability of stored eggs from 92% to 71%. Alternatively, the SPIDES treatment, which consi...

  3. Effect of a commercial housing system on egg quality during extended storage.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Karcher, D M; Abdo, Z

    2014-05-01

    Egg producers in the United States are utilizing a variety of commercial egg production systems to provide consumer choice and meet legislative requirements. Consumer egg grades in the United States were developed for conventional cage production, and it is unclear what effect alternative production systems might have on egg quality during retail and consumer home storage. The current study was undertaken to determine what changes in egg quality characteristics occur during extended cold storage for commercially produced conventional cage, enriched colony cage, and cage-free aviary eggs. During 12 wk of cold storage, egg weight, albumen height, Haugh unit, static compression shell strength, vitelline membrane strength and deformation, yolk index, shell dynamic stiffness, and whole egg total solids were monitored. Overall, aviary and enriched eggs were significantly (P < 0.05) heavier than conventional cage. Albumen height and Haugh unit (P < 0.05) were significantly greater for conventional cage than enriched eggs. Static compression shell strength was greatest (P < 0.05) for enriched eggs compared with aviary. No overall housing system effects for yolk measurements, shell dynamic stiffness, or whole egg total solids were observed. Albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk quality measurements were all greatest at 0 and lowest at 12 wk of storage (P < 0.05). The rate of quality change among the housing systems for each measured attribute at 4, 6, and 12 wk was determined. Other than differences in the change of egg weight at 4 wk, no significant differences in the rate of quality decline were found among the housing systems. The results of the current study indicate that current US egg quality standards should effectively define quality for commercially produced conventional cage, enriched colony cage, and cage-free aviary eggs.

  4. Manual on indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues.

  5. Inactivation of salmonella in shell eggs by hot water immersion and its effect on quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal inactivation kinetics of heat resistant strains of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs processed by hot water immersion were determined, and the effects of the processing on egg quality were evaluated. Shell eggs were inoculated with a composite of heat resistant Salmonella Enteritidis (SE)...

  6. Application of Removable Coatings and Storage Time on Internal Quality of Broiler Hatching Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research suggests treating hatching eggs with various removable coating formulations prior to extended egg storage resulted in better hatchability than non-coated controls. It is thought that coatings may preserve internal egg quality resulting in higher hatchability. This study involved fo...

  7. Correlation of quality measurements to visible-near infrared spectra of pasteurized egg

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A twelve week study was conducted on the egg albumen from both pasteurized and non-pasteurized shell eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy. Correlation of the chemical changes detected in the spectra to the measurement of Haugh units (measure of interior egg quality) was carried out using ch...

  8. Chemometric correlation of shelf life, quality measurements, and visible-near infrared spectra of pasteurized eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A twelve week study was conducted on the egg albumen from both pasteurized and non-pasteurized shell eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy. Correlation of the chemical changes detected in the spectra to the measurement of Haugh units (measure of interior egg quality) was carried out using pr...

  9. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  10. Urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenger, Jes

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  11. Global Air Quality and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Horowitz, Larry W.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang; Cameron-Smith, Philip J.; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J.; Dalsoren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A.; Ginoux, Paul; Josse, Batrice; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; OConnor, Fiona M.; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Shindell, Drew Todd; Spracklen, Dominick V.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH4), ozone precursors (O3), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O3 precursor CH4 would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH4 and tropospheric O3. Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which increase tropospheric O3 (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH4 (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH4 volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O3 and CH4. Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O3 and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas the Representative

  12. Global air quality and climate.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Arlene M; Naik, Vaishali; Spracklen, Dominick V; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Prather, Michael; Bergmann, Dan; Cameron-Smith, Philip J; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J; Dalsøren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A; Ginoux, Paul; Horowitz, Larry W; Josse, Béatrice; Lamarque, Jean-François; MacKenzie, Ian A; Nagashima, Tatsuya; O'Connor, Fiona M; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T; Shindell, Drew T; Skeie, Ragnhild B; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang

    2012-10-07

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH(4)), ozone precursors (O(3)), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O(3) precursor CH(4) would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH(4) and tropospheric O(3). Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions, which increase tropospheric O(3) (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH(4) (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH(4) volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O(3) and CH(4). Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O(3) and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas

  13. Chemical Compositions of Egg Yolks and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Prebiotic, Probiotic, and Synbiotic Diets.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shirley Gee Hoon; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Yong, Su Ting; Wong, Hee Kum; Ho, Yin Wan

    2015-08-01

    A 16-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO), a probiotic, PrimaLac®, and their combination as a synbiotic on the chemical compositions of egg yolks and the egg quality of laying hens. One hundred and sixty 16-wk-old Hisex Brown pullets were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet + 1% IMO (PRE), (iii) basal diet + 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO), and (iv) basal diet + 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN). PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation not only significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the egg yolk cholesterol (24- and 28-wk-old) and total saturated fatty acids (SFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), but also significantly (P < 0.05) increased total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), total omega 6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid levels in the eggs (28-wk-old). However, the total lipids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the egg yolks were similar among all dietary treatments in the 24-, 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old hens. Egg quality (Haugh unit, relative weights of the albumen and yolk, specific gravity, shell thickness, and yolk color) was not affected by PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation. The results indicate that supplementations with IMO and PrimaLac® alone or in combination as a synbiotic might be useful for improving the cholesterol content and modifying the fatty acid compositions of egg yolk without affecting the quality of eggs from laying hens between 24 and 36 wk of age.

  14. Frozen Egg Products for Air Force Missile Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-01

    Residual 40 .1028 French toast (comm.) Scrambled eggs (comm. ) French toast ( sour dough ) Western egg &ham, dry minced onion 6 mo. Puffy omelet...on - 30 sec. off. Heat for 4 on cycles. Acceptable Ingredients Bread - Columbo: Sour French Oruweat: English muffin toasting bread Oroweat...storage of 6 months at -18*C. 2/ — Oroweat whole wheat bread. 3/ — Oroweat English Muffin toasting bread. — Columbo sour French bread. c

  15. The discrimination of fish egg quality and viability by using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigaki, Mika; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2014-03-01

    Sexual reproductive body can be produced from a fertilized ovum. Once the ovum is fertilized with sperm, it runs through the cell division, differentiates to all kinds of cells, and goes to make a complete body. However, not all of them are viable and some of them stop to ontogenesis showing the developmental abnormality. In order to discriminate the egg quality, we apply Raman spectroscopy for fish egg. After the measurement, these Raman data are checked up with the information about the eggs can survive or not, and we examine what factors are important in egg components to distinguish between "good quality" and "not good quality". We present the results of assessment of egg quality, and investigate whether Raman spectroscopy can be used to a discriminate of egg quality.

  16. Local Air Quality Conditions and Forecasts

    MedlinePlus

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Map Center Forecast AQI Current AQI Current Ozone Current PM ... Ozone Loop PM Loop AQI: Good (0 - 50) Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air pollution poses little ...

  17. Rare earth element-enriched yeast improved egg production and egg quality in laying hens in the late period of peak egg production.

    PubMed

    Cai, L; Nyachoti, C M; Hancock, J D; Lee, J Y; Kim, Y H; Lee, D H; Kim, I H

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rare earth element-enriched yeast (RY) on egg production, coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD), egg quality, excreta gas emission and excreta microbiota of laying hens. A total of 216 ISA brown laying hens of 52 weeks of age were used in a 5-week feeding trial and data were collected every week. Birds were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments each with six replicates and 12 hens per replicate. Each cage (38 cm width × 50 cm length × 40 cm height) contained one hen. Treatments consisted of corn-soya bean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 500 or 1000 mg/kg of RY. From weeks 55 to 56, inclusion of RY linearly increased (p < 0.05) egg production. The CTTAD of nitrogen was increased (linear, p < 0.05) with increasing dietary level of RY. In week 55, yolk height and Haugh units were increased linearly (p < 0.05) with increasing dietary RY content. However, no significant effects were observed in terms of excreta emissions and excreta microbiota in laying hens. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with RY improved egg production and CTTAD of nitrogen and slightly improved egg quality in laying hens of the late period of peak egg production.

  18. Effects of a dried Bacillus subtilis culture on egg quality.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Xu, C L; Ji, C; Ma, Q; Hao, K; Jin, Z Y; Li, K

    2006-02-01

    The effects of a dried Bacillus subtilis culture on the egg qualities of layers were studied. Nine hundred and sixty 25-wk-old Lohmann Brown layers were randomly divided into 5 groups with 192 layers in each group. Layers in group 1 were fed a control diet. The remaining groups received the control diet that contained either 20 mg of zinc bacitracin/kg and 4 mg of colistin sulfate/kg or 500, 1,000, or 1,500 mg of B. subtilis culture/ kg, respectively. The results showed improvements in egg production, feed consumption, and feed conversion (P < 0.05) of layers when 500 mg of B. subtilis culture/kg was added to the diets. The results also showed some special improvements in this group, including increases in eggshell thickness, yolk color, and Haugh unit, and decreases in yolk cholesterol concentration (P < 0.05). However, excessive doses of B. subtilis culture did not improve the performance of layers.

  19. Air-quality-model update

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.; Walton, J.J.

    1982-01-15

    The Livermore Regional Air Quality Model (LIRAQ) has been updated and improved. This report describes the changes that have been made in chemistry, species treatment, and boundary conditions. The results of smog chamber simulations that were used to verify the chemistry as well as simulations of the entire air quality model for two prototype days in the Bay Area are reported. The results for the prototype day simulations are preliminary due to the need for improvement in meteorology fields, but they show the dependence and sensitivity of high hour ozone to changes in selected boundary and initial conditions.

  20. Indoor Air Quality Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    In an effort to provide Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) management guidance, Anne Arundel County Public Schools was selected by the Maryland State Department of Education to develop a program that could be used by other school systems. A major goal was to produce a handbook that was "user friendly." Hence, its contents are a mix of history,…

  1. Indoor Air Quality and Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern over the quality of indoor (i.e., residential) as well as outdoor (i.e., environmental) air is increasing. Accordingly, owners of companion animals may approach their veterinarian about the potential for airborne irritants, allergens, pollutants, or infectious agents to n...

  2. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  3. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  4. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  5. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  6. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  7. Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect on laying performance and egg quality resulting from total substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber sunflower meal (SFM; Helianthus annus L.) meal in diet of hens. ISA Brown layers, 28 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were kept in a free-range environment and fed 2 wheat middling-based diets consisting of a control diet, which contained SBM (153 g/kg of diet), and a test diet containing low-fiber SFM (160 g/kg of diet) as the main protein source. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Low-fiber SFM was obtained by a combination of sieving and air classification processes. Feed consumption was recorded daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were collected weekly to evaluate egg components and quality. The total substitution of SBM with low-fiber SFM had no adverse effect on growth performance of laying hens. Egg production and none of egg quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P < 0.05) and percentage of large-size eggs (P < 0.05) that were improved in hens fed the low-fiber SFM diet. Including low-fiber SFM decreased serum and egg yolk total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.001), and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Our results suggest that the replacement of conventional soybean with low-fiber sunflower meal may be a valid alternative in diets for laying hens to improve egg quality and to develop low-cholesterol eggs.

  8. Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System for Air Quality Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CMAQ simultaneously models multiple air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and a variety of air toxics to help air quality managers determine the best air quality management scenarios for their communities, regions and states.

  9. 78 FR 10589 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... by California as a revision to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD...

  10. 78 FR 53270 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... permitting rules submitted by California as a revision to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  11. Camelina meal increases egg n-3 fatty acid content without altering egg quality or production in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed plant rich in n-3 and n-6-fatty acids and extruding defatted seed meal results in high protein meal (~40%) containing residual n-3 fatty acids. We examined the effects of feeding extruded defatted camelina seed meal to commercial laying hens on egg production, quality, ...

  12. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Clean Air Is Good Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarneiri, Michele A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effect of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on student health, the cost of safeguarding good IAQ, the cause of poor IAQ in schools, how to tell whether a school has an IAQ problem, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can help schools improve indoor air quality though the use of their free "Indoor Air Quality Tools for…

  13. Genetic parameters of egg quality traits on different pedigree layers with special focus on dynamic stiffness.

    PubMed

    Blanco, A E; Icken, W; Ould-Ali, D; Cavero, D; Schmutz, M

    2014-10-01

    Egg quality traits are of utmost importance in layer breeding programs due to their effect on profitability in the egg production industry and on the production of quality chicks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze and estimate genetic parameters of different quality traits: egg weight, breaking strength, dynamic stiffness (Kdyn), egg shape index, eggshell thickness, and albumen height. Eggs were obtained from 4 pure lines of birds. Two different tests were performed: a white breeding program, with eggs from a male and female line of a white egg layer program that were analyzed at 67 to 70 wk of age, and a brown breeding program, with eggs from a male and female line of a brown egg layer program that were analyzed at 32 to 36 wk of age. In general, heritabilities were moderate to high for all traits (h² = 0.23 to 0.71). A high genetic correlation was estimated in both tests between breaking strength and Kdyn (rg = +0.40 to +0.61). Shell thickness was also positively correlated with breaking strength (rg = +0.50 to +0.63) and Kdyn (rg = +0.28 to +0.69). These moderate relationships demonstrate that the strength of an egg not only relies on the shell thickness but also on the quality and uniformity of eggshell construction. Dynamic stiffness might be preferred for breeding purposes due to its lower negative genetic correlation with egg weight and its higher heritability (h² = 0.35 to 0.70) compared with breaking strength (h² = 0.23 to 0.35). Breaking strength and Kdyn were positively correlated with shape index, which confirms that round eggs will show higher shell stability. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor egg shape to maintain an optimal form.

  14. Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P < 0.001) and yolk percentage (P < 0.05) as well as yolk cholesterol and β-carotene contents (P < 0.001), which were improved in hens fed the LFA diet. Including LFA increased serum β-carotene and reduced serum cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.001). Our results suggest that partially replacing conventional SBM as protein source with low-fiber alfalfa meal in the laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits.

  15. Effect of fermented earthworm cast on egg production and egg quality as well as removal of odor in feces from egg laying hens.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jae-Sung; Park, Byung-Sung

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of feeding fermented earthworm casts (EEC) to layers on egg-laying performance, blood lipid profiles, cecal microflora, and fecal odor removing performance. A total of 200 Hyline Brown layer chicks at 33-week-old were used in this study. They were randomly assigned to two numerically equal groups with 100 replications per treatment for 10 weeks. All the birds were caged individually. The control group was not treated with EEC. The EEC group was treated with top dressing containing 3.5% EEC. The present study revealed that egg production and egg weight were increased after feeding diet containing EEC at the top dressing level. Haugh unit, eggshell thickness, and eggshell breaking strength of EEC group were higher than those of control group. Egg yolk was determined for fatty acid profiling. It was found that EEC group had higher ratio of unsaturated- to saturated fatty acid as compared to control group. Lower ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids were found in the egg yolk of EEC group. Plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol contents were lower in the EEC group. However, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol content was higher in the EEC group as compared to that in control group. The number of cecal Lactobacillus was increased while the population of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria decreased in the EEC group. Fecal ammonia and hydrogen sulfide contents were lower in the EEC group as compared to those in control group. Taken together, these results suggested that EEC could improve egg production and egg quality. In addition, it could remove odour from laying-hen manure.

  16. Effects of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of individual commercial layers.

    PubMed

    Shim, M Y; Song, E; Billard, L; Aggrey, S E; Pesti, G M; Sodsee, P

    2013-10-01

    The effects of a series of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of laying hens from 18 through 74 wk of age were investigated. One hundred forty-four pullets (Bovans) were randomly assigned to individual cages with separate feeders including 3 different protein level series of isocaloric diets. Diets were separated into 4 phases of 18-22, 23-32, 33-44, and 45-74 wk of age. The high protein (H) series contained 21.62, 19.05, 16.32, and 16.05% CP, respectively. Medium protein (M) and low protein (L) series were 2 and 4% lower in balanced dietary protein. The results clearly demonstrated that the balanced dietary protein level was a limiting factor for BW, ADFI, egg weight, hen day egg production (HDEP), and feed per kilogram of eggs. Feeding with the L series resulted in lower ADFI and HDEP (90.33% peak production) and more feed per kilogram of eggs compared with the H or M series (HDEP; 93.23 and 95.68% peak production, monthly basis). Egg weight responded in a linear manner to balanced dietary protein level (58.78, 55.94, and 52.73 g for H, M, and L, respectively). Feed intake of all hens, but especially those in the L series, increased considerably after wk 54 when the temperature of the house decreased due to winter conditions. Thus, hens fed the L series seemed particularly dependent on house temperature to maintain BW, ADFI, and HDEP. For egg quality parameters, percent yolk, Haugh units, and egg specific gravity were similar regardless of diets. Haugh units were found to be greatly affected by the variation of housing temperature (P = 0.025). Maximum performance cannot always be expected to lead to maximum profits. Contrary to the idea of a daily amino acid requirement for maximum performance, these results may be used to determine profit-maximizing levels of balanced dietary protein based on the cost of protein and returns from different possible protein levels that may be fed.

  17. Asthma and domestic air quality.

    PubMed

    Jones, A P

    1998-09-01

    In recent years, there has been a global increase in the prevalence of asthma. This has coincided with many modifications to the home environment, resulting in changes to the quality of indoor air. This article considers the links between indoor air pollution and asthma. Exposure to a range of pollutants is examined. Airborne allergens such as those from house dust mites and cockroaches, domestic pets and moulds and fungal spores may be important. Pollution from particulate materials associated with bio-fuel combustion and smoking is discussed, as is the role of chemical vapours and gases including nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds. The efficacy of various environmental controls to limit the impact of these pollutants is explored. It is concluded that indoor air pollution may be an important risk for asthma and the health impacts of building design and management require greater recognition and further research.

  18. Alterations in calcium oscillatory activity in vitrified mouse eggs impact on egg quality and subsequent embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo Yeun; Yoon, Sook-Young; Cha, Soo Kyoung; Kwak, Ki Hoon; Fissore, Rafael A; Parys, Jan B; Yoon, Tae Ki; Lee, Dong Ryul

    2011-05-01

    Cryopreservation of mature eggs is a useful technique that can be applied in assisted reproductive technology. However, the method has some limitations, such as cryodamage induced by biophysical modifications during the cryopreservation process. To assess these biophysical damage, we analyzed the relationship between intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) oscillatory activity via type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R1) distribution after vitrification and efficiency of cryopreservation according to cryoprotectant (CPA) composition. In immunostaining, results of IP(3)R1 with eggs after the vitrification performed using ethylene glycol (EG) alone or EG + dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as CPAs, CPA-treated, and fresh eggs displayed a homogeneous IP(3)R1 distribution which is spread uniformly throughout cytoplasm with clusters on the cortex. However, after vitrification and warming process, more than 60% of eggs displayed a heterogeneous distribution which is non-uniform distribution with patches and disconnection of IP(3)R1. In 90-min incubation for recovery from cryodamage, eggs from the EG + DMSO group recovered from with a heterogeneous IP(3)R1 distribution to the homogeneous distribution, but not in EG alone group. In ICSI experiments, vitrified eggs in the EG-alone group presented significantly low blastocyst formation compared to those of the fresh and EG + DMSO groups. These results suggest that the vitrification process influences IP(3)R1 distribution, and subsequently, [Ca2+]i oscillatory activity and embryonic development. Accordingly, we propose that IP(3)R1 distribution and [Ca2+]i oscillatory activity are correlated with egg quality and developmental potential after vitrification, and may thus be applied as an effective indicator to evaluate the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation methods.

  19. Ozone, Air Quality, and Asthma (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Poor Air Quality Affects People With Asthma Air pollution is a problem for everyone — not just people ... asthma. Studies have shown that high levels of air pollution can be associated with decreased lung function and ...

  20. Federal Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Federal Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality (CIAQ), which meets three times a year, was established by Congress to coordinate the activities of the Federal Government on issues relating to Indoor Air Quality.

  1. Mold and Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Mold and Indoor Air Quality in Schools Mold and Moisture in Schools Webinar ... premier resource on this issue is the Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools kit. Our schools-related resources ...

  2. SPATIAL PREDICTION OF AIR QUALITY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site-specific air quality monitoring data have been used extensively in both scientific and regulatory programs. As such, these data provide essential information to the public, environmental managers, and the atmospheric research community. Currently, air quality management prac...

  3. Fundamentals of Indoor Air Quality in Buildings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module provides the fundamentals to understanding indoor air quality. It provides a rudimentary framework for understanding how indoor and outdoor sources of pollution affect the indoor air quality of buildings.

  4. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away...

  5. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away...

  6. Indoor Air Quality in Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Steve M.

    This paper presents air quality and ventilation data from an existing chemical laboratory facility and discusses the work practice changes implemented in response to deficiencies in ventilation. General methods for improving air quality in existing laboratories are presented and investigation techniques for characterizing air quality are…

  7. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  8. Regulation of egg quality and lipids metabolism by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ding, Zhao-Peng; Wang, Shi-Wen; Shen, Wei; Min, Ling-Jiang; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2016-04-01

    This investigation was designed to explore the effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NP) on egg quality and the mechanism of decreasing of yolk lipids. Different concentration of ZnO NP and ZnSO4 were used to treat hens for 24 weeks. The body weight and egg laying frequency were recorded and analyzed. Albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk color score were analyzed by an Egg Multi Tester. Breaking strength was determined by an Egg Force Reader. Egg shell thickness was measured using an Egg Shell Thickness Gouge. Shell color was detected by a spectrophotometer. Egg shape index was measured by Egg Form Coefficient Measuring Instrument. Albumen and yolk protein was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Amino acids were determined by an amino acids analyzer. Trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, and P (mg/kg wet mass) were determined in digested solutions using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. TC and TG were measured using commercial analytical kits. Yolk triglyceride, total cholesterol, pancreatic lipase, and phospholipids were determined by appropriate kits. β-carotene was determined by spectrophotometry. Lipid metabolism was also investigated with liver, plasma, and ovary samples. ZnO NP did not change the body weight of hens during the treatment period. ZnO NP slowed down egg laying frequency at the beginning of egg laying period but not at later time. ZnO NP did not affect egg protein or water contents, slightly decreased egg physical parameters (12 to 30%) and trace elements (20 to 35%) after 24 weeks treatment. However, yolk lipids content were significantly decreased by ZnO NP (20 to 35%). The mechanism of Zinc oxide nanoparticles decreasing yolk lipids was that they decreased the synthesis of lipids and increased lipid digestion. These data suggested ZnO NP affected egg quality and specifically regulated lipids metabolism in hens through altering the function of hen's ovary and liver.

  9. Impact of commercial housing system and nutrition on egg quality parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. egg industry is exploring alternative housing systems for laying hens. However, limited published research related to cage-free aviary systems and enriched colony cages exists related to production, egg quality, and hen nutrition. The laying hen’s nutritional needs and resulting productivit...

  10. Indoor air quality and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.

    During the last two decades there has been increasing concern within the scientific community over the effects of indoor air quality on health. Changes in building design devised to improve energy efficiency have meant that modern homes and offices are frequently more airtight than older structures. Furthermore, advances in construction technology have caused a much greater use of synthetic building materials. Whilst these improvements have led to more comfortable buildings with lower running costs, they also provide indoor environments in which contaminants are readily produced and may build up to much higher concentrations than are found outside. This article reviews our current understanding of the relationship between indoor air pollution and health. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a range of sources. The health impacts from indoor exposure to combustion products from heating, cooking, and the smoking of tobacco are examined. Also discussed are the symptoms associated with pollutants emitted from building materials. Of particular importance might be substances known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which arise from sources including paints, varnishes, solvents, and preservatives. Furthermore, if the structure of a building begins to deteriorate, exposure to asbestos may be an important risk factor for the chronic respiratory disease mesothelioma. The health effects of inhaled biological particles can be significant, as a large variety of biological materials are present in indoor environments. Their role in inducing illness through immune mechanisms, infectious processes, and direct toxicity is considered. Outdoor sources can be the main contributors to indoor concentrations of some contaminants. Of particular significance is Radon, the radioactive gas that arises from outside, yet only presents a serious health risk when found inside buildings. Radon and its decay products are now recognised as important indoor pollutants, and their effects are

  11. 77 FR 73320 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality... Air Quality Management District regarding specific implementation of parts of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration program. (i) Incorporation by reference. (A) South Coast Air Quality...

  12. 77 FR 52277 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality... submitted for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) portion of the California State... the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality and visibility protection. The purpose...

  13. Microbial quality of industrial liquid egg white: assumptions on spoiling issues in egg-based chilled desserts.

    PubMed

    Techer, Clarisse; Daoud, Amina; Madec, Marie-Noëlle; Gautier, Michel; Jan, Sophie; Baron, Florence

    2015-02-01

    As a 1st step, this study aimed at investigating the microbial quality of liquid egg white in a French egg processing company. Thirty raw and 33 pasteurized liquid egg white samples were analyzed. Pasteurization was globally found efficient on mesophilic contaminants (1.7 ± 1.6 and 0.8 ± 0.9 log CFU/mL in raw and pasteurized samples, respectively), including for the control of Salmonella. However, Gram-positive enterococci were still detected in the pasteurized samples. As a 2nd step, a representative bacterial collection was built for exploring the spoilage issue in egg-based chilled desserts. Custard cream was chosen as growth medium since this food is widely used for the production of French chilled desserts. All of the 166 isolates of the bacterial collection were shown to be able to grow and to induce spoilage of the custard cream at refrigeration temperature (10 °C). Several spoilage types were highlighted in the custard cream, on the basis of changes regarding pH, consistency, production of holes or gas. As a 3rd step, bacterial enzymatic activities were explored on custard cream-based agar media. The bacterial collection was reduced to 43 isolates, based on further selection regarding the genera and the spoilage types previously highlighted. Albeit to different degrees, all these isolates were able to produce proteases. A large part of these isolates also expressed lipolytic and amylolytic activities. This study emphasizes the need to control egg white contamination and especially with Gram-positive heat-resistant Enterococi, in order to guarantee the shelf life of egg-based chilled desserts.

  14. Ground cloud air quality effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brubaker, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of the ground cloud associated with launching of a large rocket on air quality are discussed. The ground cloud consists of the exhaust emitted by the rocket during the first 15 to 25 seconds following ignition and liftoff, together with a large quantity of entrained air, cooling water, dust and other debris. Immediately after formation, the ground cloud rises in the air due to the buoyant effect of its high thermal energy content. Eventually, at an altitude typically between 0.7 and 3 km, the cloud stabilizes and is carried along by the prevailing wind at that altitude. For the use of heavy lift launch vehicles small quantities of nitrogen oxides, primarily nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, are expected to be produced from a molecular nitrogen impurity in the fuel or liquid oxygen, or from entrainment and heating of ambient air in the hot rocket exhaust. In addition, possible impurities such as sulfur in the fuel would give rise to a corresponding amount of oxidation products such as sulfur dioxide.

  15. Effect of pasteurization of shell egg on its quality characteristics under ambient storage.

    PubMed

    Shenga, E; Singh, R P; Yadav, A S

    2010-08-01

    Three thermal processes viz. dry (55°C, 2 h), moist (57°C, 5 min) and microwave (power 9, 20 sec) were studied to determine their efficacy for the pasteurization of intact chicken eggs based on the extent of inactivation of artificially inoculated Salmonella typhimurium (ST) in the yolk of shell eggs and alteration in albumen protein solubility (APS). Moist heat treatment was superior to others as it brought about 2 log cfu/ml reduction of inoculated ST in much less time than dry heating but changes in APS were not significant. Subsequent quality evaluation of normal (uninoculated) eggs subjected to moist heat pasteurization during 15 days of ambient (35°C, 36% RH) (35 ± 0.5°C, 36 ± 2% RH)storage revealed no significant effect on percent loss in egg weight, albumen pH, viscosity of albumen and yolk and thiobarbituric acid values between pasteurized and unpasteurized eggs. Pasteurization had no adverse effect on foam volume and foam stability of albumen during storage in comparison to those of raw eggs. Naturally occurring aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, staphylococci, yeast and moulds on the egg shell surface and in egg contents got markedly reduced by pasteurization of shell eggs and their multiplication also retarded during storage. Both pasteurized and raw eggs remained fairly acceptable sensorily up to 10 days of storage at ambient conditions.

  16. Effect of hesperidin dietary supplementation on hen performance, egg quality and yolk oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Goliomytis, M; Orfanou, H; Petrou, E; Charismiadou, M A; Simitzis, P E; Deligeorgis, S G

    2014-02-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with hesperidin (one or 3 g/kg of feed) for 31 d on the performance, egg quality and yolk oxidative stability of brown and white laying hens (26-wk old). 2. Supplementation with hesperidin did not affect egg production, egg weight and egg quality traits. 3. No hesperidin effect on yolk and plasma cholesterol was observed. A strain effect was found with lower total and per g yolk cholesterol of brown hens in comparison to the white ones. 4. Oxidative stability of egg yolk, expressed as ng MDA/g yolk, was significantly improved in the hesperidin groups even from the first week of supplementation. At the same time, a significant improvement in the oxidative stability of egg yolk due to the incorporation of hesperidin in hens' diet was observed after 30 and 90 d of storage at 20°C and 4°C, respectively. 5. No hesperidin by strain interaction was detected for any of the traits measured. 6. In conclusion, incorporation of hesperidin to laying hens' feed did not affect productive and egg qualitative traits. On the other hand, dietary hesperidin supplementation significantly improved oxidative stability of both fresh and stored eggs. Antioxidant properties of hesperidin seem to make it a promising natural agent for improving the shelf life of eggs.

  17. Variation in the ovocalyxin-32 gene in commercial egg-laying chickens and its relationship with egg production and egg quality traits.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J E; Soller, M; Lund, A R; Arango, J; Lipkin, E

    2012-07-01

    Avian eggshell quality is an important trait for commercial egg production, as the eggshell is the primary packaging material and antimicrobial barrier for the internal food resource. Strong eggshells are essential to ensure that eggs can reach their final destination without damage. Ovocalyxin-32 (OCX32) is a matrix protein found within the outer layers of the eggshell and in the cuticle. Numerous reports in the literature have identified association between variants in the gene encoding this protein, OCX32, and various eggshell quality traits. Thus, OCX32 is a candidate gene for selection for eggshell traits in commercial poultry populations. Sequencing of exons 2-6 of the OCX32 gene in eight elite brown and white eggshell commercial egg-laying lines revealed 28 SNPs and one SNP/indel. Eighteen of these SNPs were predicted to alter the amino acid sequence of the protein. Clusters of SNPs in complete linkage disequilibrium were found in both exons 2 and 6. A total of 19 different versions or protein-sequence haplotypes of the OCX32 protein were inferred, revealing considerable variation within commercial lines. Genotypes for 13 of the SNPs were determined for 330-1819 individuals per line. Trait association studies revealed a significant effect of OCX32 on shell color in white egg lines and line-specific significant effects on albumen height, early egg weight, puncture score, and yolk weight. Three of the lines showed a significant change in OCX32 frequency over time, indicating selection pressure for certain variants of this gene during the breeding program.

  18. Environmental control: operating room air quality.

    PubMed

    Bartley, J M

    1993-01-01

    1. OR staff members should familiarize themselves with basic air handling system terminology to better manage their own environment (eg, HVAC, air changes, air balancing, HEPA filtration). A working relationship with building engineers is an important skill for the OR nurse. 2. Knowledge of the standards on which air quality in the OR is based should assist in the process of planning for improved design--as well as in monitoring existing air quality. 3. Current standards balance energy savings with air changes and high levels of filtration to achieve optimum outcomes. Recommendations from design and engineering authorities (even for implant surgery) are based on average air changes and HEPA filtration, not laminar air flow. 4. The daily, operational role of the OR staff in maintaining high air quality includes managing traffic, using low-lint barrier materials, monitoring air quality indicators, and investigating unusual variances with the engineering staff for appropriate follow-up (eg, filter changes).

  19. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    PubMed Central

    Bagh, Jessy; Panigrahi, B.; Panda, N.; Pradhan, C. R.; Mallik, B. K.; Majhi, B.; Rout, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age). The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05) among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD) production or hen-housed egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white and gray in the

  20. Salmonid-egg floating boxes as bioindication for riverine water quality and stocking success.

    PubMed

    Pander, J; Geist, J

    2010-06-01

    The salmonid-egg floating box provides an easy bioindication tool for an assessment of water quality, as demonstrated here for the reintroduction of Europe's largest salmonid species, the huchen Hucho hucho.

  1. Indoor air quality and human health

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.

    1985-01-01

    The air inside buildings can contain various threats to human health: cigarette smoke, fumes from fires and cookers, microbes, gases, allergens and fumes produced by household products or building materials. Higher standards of insulation and draught-proofing and more use of air conditioning can increase the problems. This book provides a summary of indoor air quality problems in homes, offices and public buildings. Contents: Preface; Introduction; Formaledhyde and other household contaminants; Radon; Particulates; Combustion products; Involuntary smoking; Energy-efficient buildings and indoor air quality; Control of indoor air pollutants; Indoor air quality problems in office buildings; Legal and regulatory issues; Appendices; Sources and suggested reading; Glossary; Index.

  2. EPA Pushing Improved Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how, in response to the growing problem of poor air quality in schools, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set new voluntary air-quality guidelines for schools. Addresses common air-related irritants; successful efforts at Guerrero Elementary School in Mesa, Arizona; preventive maintenance; and a sample of the EPA's…

  3. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

  4. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality.

    PubMed

    Hammershøj, M; Steenfeldt, S

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk colour, egg albumen, sensory properties, fatty acid and carotenoid composition of the egg yolk. 2. A total of 5 dietary treatments were tested for 5 weeks, consisting of a basal organic feed plus 120 g/hen.d of the following forage materials: 1) maize silage (control), 2) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced increased significantly with the kale treatment. 4. The egg shell strength tended to be higher with the kale treatment, and egg yolk colour was significantly more red with the kale treatment and more yellow with basil and kale treatments. The albumen DM content and albumen gel strength were lowest with the thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and β-carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange xanthophyll, tended to be higher in kale and eggs from hens receiving kale. 5. In conclusion, forage material, especially basil and kale, resulted in increased egg production and eggs of high and differentiable quality.

  5. Effects of Chinese herbal mixture on performance, egg quality and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Li, X L; He, W L; Wang, Z B; Xu, T S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Chinese herbal mixture (CHM) in laying hen diets on performance, egg quality and egg nutrition components, as well as selected blood biochemical parameters. A total of 270 Lohmann Brown laying hens, 24 week of age, were randomly distributed into three dietary treatments and fed for 6 week. The CHM was used at the levels of 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% in the diets of the control and two treatment groups respectively. Each dietary treatment was divided into five replicates, comprising of 18 hens each. Hens were housed in a 3-tier battery system. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Blood samples and eggs were collected at the end of the experiment. The results showed that dietary treatments did not affect egg weight, mortality, eggshell thickness, albumen height, Haugh units, eggshell-breaking strength and egg-shape index. Dietary supplementation of CHM significantly improved (p < 0.05) laying rate and the lowest feed conversion ratio were observed with 1.0% CHM supplementation diets. CHM supplementation decreased (p < 0.05) cracked-egg rate, egg yolk cholesterol, blood serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and increased blood serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). No differences in serum total protein, serum albumen, serum glucose and aspartate amino transferase (AST) were observed in hens fed CHM. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with CHM improved egg production and egg quality and reduced serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. Dietary supplementation of 1.0% CHM in layer diets may be a feasible means of producing eggs with lower cholesterol and higher egg yolk phospholipid contents for health conscious consumers.

  6. 77 FR 12482 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule... Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)...

  7. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality...

  8. Egg Speckling Patterns Do Not Advertise Offspring Quality or Influence Male Provisioning in Great Tits

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Fayet, Annette L.; Kilner, Rebecca M.; Hinde, Camilla A.

    2012-01-01

    Many passerine birds lay white eggs with reddish brown speckles produced by protoporphyrin pigment. However, the function of these spots is contested. Recently, the sexually selected eggshell coloration (SSEC) hypothesis proposed that eggshell color is a sexually selected signal through which a female advertises her quality (and hence the potential quality of her future young) to her male partner, thereby encouraging him to contribute more to breeding attempts. We performed a test of the SSEC hypothesis in a common passerine, the great tit Parus major. We used a double cross-fostering design to determine whether males change their provisioning behavior based on eggshell patterns they observe at the nest. We also tested the assumption that egg patterning reflects female and/or offspring quality. Because birds differ from humans in their color and pattern perception, we used digital photography and models of bird vision to quantify egg patterns objectively. Neither male provisioning nor chick growth was related to the pattern of eggs males observed during incubation. Although heavy females laid paler, less speckled eggs, these eggs did not produce chicks that grew faster. Therefore, we conclude that the SSEC hypothesis is an unlikely explanation for the evolution of egg speckling in great tits. PMID:22815730

  9. Proteomic analysis of early-stage embryos: implications for egg quality in hapuku (Polyprion oxygeneios).

    PubMed

    Kohn, Yair Y; Symonds, Jane E; Kleffmann, Torsten; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Lokman, P Mark

    2015-12-01

    In order to develop biomarkers that may help predict the egg quality of captive hapuku (Polyprion oxygeneios) and provide potential avenues for its manipulation, the present study (1) sequenced the proteome of early-stage embryos using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification analysis, and (2) aimed to establish the predictive value of the abundance of identified proteins with regard to egg quality through regression analysis. Egg quality was determined for eight different egg batches by blastomere symmetry scores. In total, 121 proteins were identified and assigned to one of nine major groups according to their function/pathway. A mixed-effects model analysis revealed a decrease in relative protein abundance that correlated with (decreasing) egg quality in one major group (heat-shock proteins). No differences were found in the other protein groups. Linear regression analysis, performed for each identified protein separately, revealed seven proteins that showed a significant decrease in relative abundance with reduced blastomere symmetry: two correlates that have been named in other studies (vitellogenin, heat-shock protein-70) and a further five new candidate proteins (78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, elongation factor-2, GTP-binding nuclear protein Ran, iduronate 2-sulfatase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase). Notwithstanding issues associated with multiple statistical testing, we conclude that these proteins, and especially iduronate 2-sulfatase and the generic heat-shock protein group, could serve as biomarkers of egg quality in hapuku.

  10. Indoor air quality: A psychosocial perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Boxer, P.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The incidence of indoor air quality problems has increased dramatically over the past decade. Investigation of these problems has yielded a definitive cause in only one third of the cases. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in the development and propagation of symptoms attributed to poor indoor air quality. Guidelines for managing indoor air quality problems from the organizational perspective are based upon psychosocial principles and elements of risk perception.

  11. Indoor air quality: a psychosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    Boxer, P A

    1990-05-01

    The incidence of indoor air quality problems has increased dramatically over the past decade. Investigation of these problems has yielded a definitive cause in only one third of the cases. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in the development and propagation of symptoms attributed to poor indoor air quality. Guidelines for managing indoor air quality problems from the organizational perspective are based upon psychosocial principles and elements of risk perception.

  12. Air Quality Monitoring And Forecasting In China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Der A, Ronald; Mijling, Bas; De Smedt, Isabelle; Van Roozendael, Michel; Kelder, Hennie

    2010-10-01

    For the last decade the industrial activity of China has been growing at rapid pace, bringing economic wealth to its 1300 million inhabitants, but also generating an unprecedented level of air pollution. This deteriorates the air quality of the densely populated and industrialized areas such as Beijing, Shanghai and the Pearl River Delta, and increases the background pollution levels world-wide [1]. The AMFIC project aims at monitoring and forecasting the air quality in China by using satellite observations and model simulations, together with ground observations in China. The combination of these instruments and tools offers a unique possibility to investigate trends in air pollution and the effectiveness of air quality policy.

  13. The Economic Value of Air Quality Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson-Sumo, Tasha

    Both long-term and daily air quality forecasts provide an essential component to human health and impact costs. According the American Lung Association, the estimated current annual cost of air pollution related illness in the United States, adjusted for inflation (3% per year), is approximately $152 billion. Many of the risks such as hospital visits and morality are associated with poor air quality days (where the Air Quality Index is greater than 100). Groups such as sensitive groups become more susceptible to the resulting conditions and more accurate forecasts would help to take more appropriate precautions. This research focuses on evaluating the utility of air quality forecasting in terms of its potential impacts by building on air quality forecasting and economical metrics. Our analysis includes data collected during the summertime ozone seasons between 2010 and 2012 from air quality models for the Washington, DC/Baltimore, MD region. The metrics that are relevant to our analysis include: (1) The number of times that a high ozone or particulate matter (PM) episode is correctly forecasted, (2) the number of times that high ozone or PM episode is forecasted when it does not occur and (3) the number of times when the air quality forecast predicts a cleaner air episode when the air was observed to have high ozone or PM. Our collection of data included available air quality model forecasts of ozone and particulate matter data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s AIRNOW as well as observational data of ozone and particulate matter from Clean Air Partners. We evaluated the performance of the air quality forecasts with that of the observational data and found that the forecast models perform well for the Baltimore/Washington region and the time interval observed. We estimate the potential amount for the Baltimore/Washington region accrues to a savings of up to 5,905 lives and 5.9 billion dollars per year. This total assumes perfect compliance with

  14. Genetic parameters of egg quality traits in long-term pedigree recorded Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Sari, M; Tilki, M; Saatci, M

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the genetic parameters of internal and external quality traits of Japanese quail eggs. Two statistical models were used in the calculation of genetic parameters and variance components. While 286 eggs were used based on model 1, 1,524 eggs were used based on model 2. Genetic parameters of the first eggs were calculated with direct genetic effect included in the analysis as random factors by using model 1. Model 2 was used for all eggs (5 to 6 eggs from each hen for six rearing groups). As different from model 1, their permanent environmental effects were also included in the model 2. Heritability of egg weight, egg length, egg width, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness, and shell ratio among the external quality traits of the eggs was respectively found to be 0.44, 0.53, 0.51, 0.70, 0.19, 0.16, and 0.05, respectively, according to model 1. These values were found to be 0.46, 0.40, 0.74, 0.48, 0.60, 0.28, and 0.21, respectively, according to model 2. Yolk weight, yolk diameter, yolk height, yolk index, yolk ratio, albumen weight, albumen height, albumen ratio, and Haugh unit values among the internal quality traits of the egg were found to be 0.22, 0.32, 0.02, 0.16, 0.19, 0.34, 0.19, 0.17, and 0.17, respectively, according to model 1. These internal quality traits were found to be 0.27, 0.18, 0.38, 0.06, 0.20, 0.41, 0.15, 0.15, and 0.12, respectively, according to model 2. Consequently, in this study, strong genetic correlations were detected between albumen height and Haugh unit, and also between albumen height and albumen weight. Additionally, a high and positive correlation was observed between some yolk traits (yolk weight and diameter) and albumen traits (weight and height). All these genetic correlations can be used to improve egg quality with a selection according to albumen weight.

  15. Air Quality Monitoring and Sensor Technologies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientist Ron Williams presented on the features, examination, application, examples, and data quality of continuous monitoring study designs at EPA's Community Air Monitoring Training in July 2015.

  16. Impact of fowlpox-vectored Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine Vectormune® FP MG on layer hen egg production and egg quality parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of vaccination with Vectormune®FP MG on egg production and egg quality characteristics of white leghorn hens. Due to questions of the efficacy of this vaccine in preventing M. gallisepticum mediated pathology, the ability of this vaccine to protect a...

  17. Influence of Zeolite on fatty acid composition and egg quality in Tunisian Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The health benefits of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are generally recognized. Unfortunately, in most Mediterranean countries, the recommended daily intake of these compounds is rarely met. Therefore, enrichment of commonly occurring foods can boost intake of these fatty acids. In this regard, eggs are an interesting target, as they form an integral part of the diet. Result Zeolite (Clinoptilolites) was added to Laying Hens feed at concentrations 1% or 2% and was evaluated for its effects on performance of the production and on egg quality. The Laying Hens were given access to 110 g of feed mixtures daily that was either a basal diet or a ‘zeolite diet’ (the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 1% or 2%). It was found that zeolite treatment had a positive and significatif (p < 0.05) effect on some parameters that were measured like egg height and eggshell strength. While dietary zeolite supplementation tended to/or has no significant effects on total egg, eggshell, yolk and albumen weights. It was found also that zeolite mainly increases level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in egg. Conclusion This study showed the significance of using zeolite, as a feed additive for Laying Hens, as part of a comprehensive program to control egg quality and to increase level of polyunsaturated fatty acids on egg. PMID:22676421

  18. Comparative evaluation of air cell and eggshell temperature measurement methodologies used in broiler hatching eggs during late incubation.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E D; Zhai, W; Gerard, P D

    2012-07-01

    The current study was conducted to compare and contrast the uses of 2 devices (temperature transponder or infrared thermometer) and their locations (inner air cell membrane or outer eggshell surface) in Ross × Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs. The air cells of 14 embryonated and 10 nonembryonated eggs were implanted with temperature transponders on d 13.5 of incubation. Likewise, for these same eggs, eggshell surface temperature was detected with the use of transponders and an infrared thermometer. Temperatures were recorded every 12 h between 14.5 and 18 d of incubation, and graphs and corresponding regression values were used to track the temperatures over these time periods. The temperature readings using all methods in embryonated and nonembryonated eggs were positively correlated. In nonembryonated eggs, temperatures in the air cell and on the eggshell surface using transponders were higher than those on the eggshell surface using an infrared thermometer. Mean air cell temperature readings of embryonated eggs using transponders were higher than those of the eggshell, as determined with the use of transponders or an infrared thermometer. Furthermore, the differences in air cell temperature using transponders and eggshell temperature using an infrared thermometer in embryonated eggs increased with embryonic age. These readings confirmed increased embryo heat production during the incubational period examined. It was further concluded that when compared with actual embryo body temperatures determined in previous studies, the use of transponders in the air cells of broiler hatching eggs detected a higher and closer temperature than eggshell surface temperature. It is suggested that the air cell transponders in embryonated eggs circumvented the confounding effects of the thermal barrier properties of the eggshell and the flow of air across its surface.

  19. The effect of replacing soya bean oil with glycerol in diets on performance, egg quality and egg fatty acid composition in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Cufadar, Y; Göçmen, R; Kanbur, G

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to replace soya bean oil with glycerol in laying hen diets and assess the change's effect on performance, parameters of egg quality and the egg fatty acid profile. A total of 60 44-week-old Hy-Line W36 laying hens were distributed according to a completely randomised experimental design into four treatments consisting of glycerol substitutions for soya bean oil dietary at varying inclusion levels (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%), with five replicates of three birds each. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on BW change, egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight and egg mass of laying hens. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on egg specific gravity, eggshell breaking strength, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, egg shape index, albumen index, yolk index, haugh unit, albumen pH, yolk pH and egg yolk colour values. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic and linolenic acid contents of the egg yolk. The linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of the egg yolk significantly decreased with the higher levels of dietary glycerol supplementation (P<0.05). The results of this study show that it is possible to replace 75% of soya bean oil (4.5% in diet) with glycerol.

  20. Air Quality Index (AQI) -- A Guide to Air Quality and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the AQI value, the greater the level of air pollution and the greater the health concern. For example, ... to 50. Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air pollution poses little or no risk. "Moderate" AQI is ...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. Effect of Dietary Sodium Nitrate Consumption on Egg Production, Egg Quality Characteristics and Some Blood Indices in Native Hens of West Azarbaijan Province

    PubMed Central

    Safary, H.; Daneshyar, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sodium nitrate consumption on egg quality and quantity, and some blood parameters of native breeder hens of West Azerbaijan province. One hundred native hens were used from wk 25 to 32 of age. These birds were divided into two groups. One group was fed the control diet (CD) but the other fed the same diet supplemented with 4.2 g/kg sodium nitrate (ND). After 2 wks of adaptation, eggs were collected daily and egg mass and egg production were measured weekly for five weeks. To assess the egg quality parameters, two eggs from each replicate pen were collected for three consecutive days each week. At the end of experimental period (wk 32 of age), blood samples of 5 birds per replicate were collected from the wing vein into anticoagulant tubes. Dietary sodium nitrate didn’t affect the egg production, shell stiffness, shell thickness and Haugh unit (p>0.05) but it decreased the both egg production and egg mass during the last three weeks (wks 30, 31 and 32) (p<0.05). Furthermore, a treatment effect was observed for yolk colour (p<0.05). Both the egg production and egg mass were increased over time (p<0.05). No significant treatment×time interaction was observed for egg weight, egg production and egg mass (p>0.05). No effect of time or treatment×time were observed for shell stiffness (p>0.05). Over time, shell thickness was decreased while Haugh unit increased (p<0.05). None of the blood TP and TG or the activity of ALT, AST and LDH enzymes were affected by dietary consumption of sodium nitrate at wk 32 of age (p>0.05). Sodium nitrite decreased both the TAC and TC at wk 32 of age (p<0.001). It was concluded that the lower body antioxidant capacity of nitrate fed birds resulted in the lower performance (egg weight, egg production and egg mass). PMID:25049524

  3. 78 FR 30770 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Air Quality Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Air... National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter (PM). EPA is approving a... Implementation Plan at 35 Illinois Administrative Code part 243, which updates National Ambient Air...

  4. Biological air filter for air-quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ras, Niels; Krooneman, Janneke; Ogink, Nico; Willers, Hans; D'Amico, Arnaldo; di Natale, Corrado; Godia, F.; Albiol, J.; Perez, J.; Martinez, N.; Dixon, Mike; Llewellyn, David; Eckhard, Fir; Zona, G.; Fachecci, L.; Kraakman, Bart; Demey, Dries; Michel, Noelle; Darlington, Alan

    2005-10-01

    Biological air filtration is a promising technique for air-quality control in closed environments in space and on Earth, and it offers several advantages over existing techniques. However, to apply it in these environments, specific criteria have to be met. A concept for biological air filtration in closed environments was developed and tested by an international team of specialists. Several model systems for closed environments in space and on Earth were used as a source of contaminated air. Conventional and new analytical techniques were used to determine odour composition and removal efficiency of the filter, including an "electronic nose". The results show that the developed biological air filter is suitable for treating contaminated air in closed environments. The developed electronic nose was shown to be a promising method for air-quality monitoring.

  5. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... 21, 2012 Part III Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 50, 51 and 81 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area Classifications Approach, Attainment Deadlines...

  6. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... consolidation of Ohio's Ambient Air Quality Standards (AAQS) into Ohio's State Implementation Plan (SIP)...

  7. 78 FR 19990 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule... air quality standards in a new chapter of rules and adjusted the rule references accordingly...

  8. 75 FR 65572 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule... of Ohio's Ambient Air Quality Standards (AAQS) into Ohio's State Implementation Plan (SIP) under...

  9. 78 FR 30829 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Air Quality Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Air Quality Standards Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... current national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone, lead, and particulate matter. EPA...

  10. Air quality monitor and acid rain networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, H.

    1980-01-01

    The air quality monitor program which consists of two permanent air monitor stations (PAMS's) and four mobile shuttle pollutant air monitor stations (SPAMS's) is evaluated. The PAMS measures SO sub X, NO sub X particulates, CO, O3, and nonmethane hydrocarbons. The SPAMS measures O3, SO2, HCl, and particulates. The collection and analysis of data in the rain monitor program are discussed.

  11. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  13. Breaking the Mold on Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEA Today, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Indoor air quality is a growing problem in aging school buildings. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offers an Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools kit which is being used at schools nationwide to improve school maintenance. Profiles an aging school in Connecticut in which teachers were becoming ill to illustrate the use of the kit to…

  14. Communicating Instantaneous Air Quality Data: Pilot Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Communicating Instantaneous Air Quality Data: Pilot ProjectEPA is launching a pilot project to test a new tool for making instantaneous outdoor air quality data useful for the public. The new “sensor scale” is designed to be used with sensors

  15. Air Quality Measurements for Science and Policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality measurements and the methods used to conduct them are vital to advancing our knowledge of the source-to-receptor-to-health effects continuum1-3. This information then forms the basis for evaluating and managing air quality to protect human health and welfa...

  16. FORECASTING AIR QUALITY OVER THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased awareness of national air quality issues on the part of the media and the general public have recently led to more demand for short-term (1-2 day) air quality forecasts for use in assessing potential health impacts (e.g., on children, the elderly, and asthmatics) and po...

  17. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  20. Indoor Air Quality: Maryland Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, College Park. Office of Administration and Finance.

    Less than adequate indoor air quality in schools can lead to a higher risk of health problems, an increase in student and teacher absenteeism, diminished learning, and even hazardous conditions. An indoor air quality program that addresses the planning, design, maintenance, and operation of public school buildings should be implemented at the…

  1. Source Emissions in Multipollutant Air Quality Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activities and natural processes that emit pollutants into the ambient atmosphere are the underlying cause of all air quality problems. In a technical sense, we refer to these activities and processes as pollutant sources. Although air quality management is usually concerne...

  2. Egg Intake and Dietary Quality among Overweight and Obese Mexican-American Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Vega-López, Sonia; Pignotti, Giselle A. P.; Todd, Michael; Keller, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), were measured in habitually sedentary overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI) = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2) Mexican-American postpartum women (28 ± 6 years) and compared between egg consumers (n = 82; any egg intake reported in at least one of three 24-h dietary recalls) and non-consumers (n = 57). Egg consumers had greater intake of energy (+808 kJ (193 kcal) or 14%; p = 0.033), protein (+9 g or 17%; p = 0.031), total fat (+9 g or 19%; p = 0.039), monounsaturated fat (+4 g or 24%; p = 0.020), and several micronutrients than non-consumers. Regarding HEI-2010 scores, egg consumers had a greater total protein foods score than non-consumers (4.7 ± 0.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0; p = 0.004), and trends for greater total fruit (2.4 ± 1.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.070) and the total composite HEI-2010 score (56.4 ± 12.6 vs. 52.3 ± 14.4; p = 0.082). Findings suggest that egg intake could contribute to greater nutrient intake and improved dietary quality among postpartum Mexican-American women. Because of greater energy intake among egg consumers, recommendations for overweight/obese individuals should include avoiding excessive energy intake and incorporating eggs to a nutrient-dense, fiber-rich dietary pattern. PMID:26445060

  3. Air Quality Monitoring: Risk-Based Choices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Air monitoring is secondary to rigid control of risks to air quality. Air quality monitoring requires us to target the credible residual risks. Constraints on monitoring devices are severe. Must transition from archival to real-time, on-board monitoring. Must provide data to crew in a way that they can interpret findings. Dust management and monitoring may be a major concern for exploration class missions.

  4. Treated fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as substitute for soybean meal in diet of early phase laying hens: egg-laying performance and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary dehulled-micronized fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) seed on egg production, egg weight, feed conversion ratio, eggshell quality, and egg yolk color. In this trial, 18-wk-old laying hens in the early phase of production (ISA Brown) were randomly assigned to 2 groups and fed durum wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean or micronized-dehulled fava bean meal as the main protein source. Eggs were collected and weighed daily. Laying performance, egg quality, and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 wk. The only significant effect detected was for feed intake (P<0.05), which was lower in hens fed the diet containing fava bean than for hens fed soybean meal, without however any negative effects on feed efficiency. None of the egg quality parameters studied were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color score that was reduced in hens fed the fava bean diet (P<0.05). We conclude that dehulled-micronized fava beans in the diet did not have a negative influence on productive performance or egg quality of young brown hens.

  5. Air quality risk assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Craig, Lorraine; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This article provides (1) a synthesis of the literature on the linkages between air pollution and human health, (2) an overview of quality management approaches in Canada, the United States, and the European Union (EU), and (3) future directions for air quality research. Numerous studies examining short-term effects of air pollution show significant associations between ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) and other air pollutants and increases in premature mortality and hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. Several well-designed epidemiological studies confirmed the adverse long-term effects of PM on both mortality and morbidity. Epidemiological studies also document significant associations between ozone (O3), sulfur (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and adverse health outcomes; however, the effects of gaseous pollutants are less well documented. Subpopulations that are more susceptible to air pollution include children, the elderly, those with cardiorespiratory disease, and socioeconomically deprived individuals. Canada-wide standards for ambient air concentrations of PM2.5 and O3 were set in 2000, providing air quality targets to be achieved by 2010. In the United States, the Clean Air Act provides the framework for the establishment and review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for criteria air pollutants and the establishment of emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants. The 1996 European Union's enactment of the Framework Directive for Air Quality established the process for setting Europe-wide limit values for a series of pollutants. The Clean Air for Europe program was established by the European Union to review existing limit values, emission ceilings, and abatement protocols, as set out in the current legislation. These initiatives serve as the legislative framework for air quality management in North America and Europe.

  6. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District...

  7. The effects of nanosilver on egg quality traits in laying Japanese quail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzinpour, Amjad; Karashi, Naser

    2013-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles could prove to be a valuable alternative raw material for antibiotics and disinfectants as it is relatively free of adverse effects. Nanosilver is now been put to practical use in commonly used items, such as, clothes, electric home appliances, and electronic industry, but has not been widely applied in the medical or pharmacological fields. This study was designed to investigate the effects of nanosilver on egg quality traits in laying Japanese quail in completely randomized design with four treatments and six repetitions at 0, 4, 8 and 12 ppm of silver nanoparticle levels. Eggs collected daily and egg parameters, including egg weight, length, width; yolk weight and eggshell thickness were examined. The effect of the different silver nanoparticle levels was determined using the General Linear Model of SAS procedure, whilst differences between the groups were determined using least significant difference test. Results indicated that silver nanoparticles at all levels caused significantly reduce of yolk weight and hen-day egg production for each week than the control treatment ( P < 0.05), whilst silver nanoparticle had no significant effect on egg weight, egg length and width and eggshell thickness.

  8. Effects of energy concentration of the diet on productive performance and egg quality of brown egg-laying hens differing in initial body weight.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bonilla, A; Novoa, S; García, J; Mohiti-Asli, M; Frikha, M; Mateos, G G

    2012-12-01

    The influence of AME(n) concentration of the diet on productive performance and egg quality traits was studied in Hy-Line brown egg-laying hens differing in initial BW from 24 to 59 wk of age. Eight treatments were arranged factorially with 4 diets varying in energy content (2,650, 2,750, 2,850, and 2,950 kcal of AME(n)/kg) and 2 initial BW of the hens (1,733 vs. 1,606 g). Each treatment was replicated 5 times (13 hens per replicate), and all diets had similar nutrient content per unit of energy. No interactions between energy content of the diet and initial BW of the hens were detected for any trait. An increase in energy concentration of the diet increased (linear, P < 0.05; quadratic P < 0.05) egg production, egg mass, energy efficiency (kcal of AME(n)/g of egg), and BW gain (P < 0.05) but decreased ADFI (linear, P < 0.001) and feed conversion ratio per kilogram of eggs (linear, P < 0.01; quadratic P < 0.01). An increase in energy content of the diet reduced Haugh units and the proportion of shell in the egg (P < 0.01). Feed intake (114.6 vs. 111.1 g/hen per day), AME(n) intake (321 vs. 311 kcal/hen per day), egg weight (64.2 vs. 63.0 g), and egg mass (58.5 vs. 57.0 g) were higher for the heavier than for the lighter hens (P < 0.01), but feed conversion ratio per kilogram of eggs and energy efficiency were not affected. Eggs from the heavier hens had a higher proportion of yolk and lower proportion of albumen (P < 0.01) and shell (P < 0.05) than eggs from the lighter hens. Consequently, the yolk-to-albumen ratio was higher (P < 0.001) for the heavier hens. It is concluded that brown egg-laying hens respond with increases in egg production and egg mass to increases in AME(n) concentration of the diet up to 2,850 kcal/kg. Heavy hens had higher feed intake and produced heavier eggs and more egg mass than light hens. However, feed and energy efficiency were better for the lighter hens.

  9. Air Quality | Air Quality Planning & Standards | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-06-08

    Air pollution comes from many different sources: stationary sources such as factories, power plants, and smelters and smaller sources such as dry cleaners and degreasing operations; mobile sources such as cars, buses, planes, trucks, and trains; and naturally occurring sources such as windblown dust, and volcanic eruptions, all contribute to air pollution.

  10. Effects of egg storage on hatchability, chick quality, performance and immunocompetence parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Goliomytis, Michael; Tsipouzian, Theofania; Hager-Theodorides, Ariadne L

    2015-09-01

    Pre-incubation egg storage is a necessity for the poultry industry. This study evaluated the effects of pre-incubation storage length of broiler eggs on hatchability, 1-day-old chick quality, subsequent performance, and immunocompetence. To this end, a total of 360 hatching eggs were stored for 4, 12, or 16 d prior to incubation. Hatchability and chick quality were assessed at hatch, and growth performance and immunocompetence parameters were assessed during a 35 d rearing period. Hatchability of set and fertile eggs, and embryonic mortality, were not affected by egg storage. On the contrary, 1-day-old chick BW and length were linearly negatively correlated with egg storage length (P-linear<0.05). Nevertheless, BW corrected for egg weight prior to setting was unaffected, and corrected chick length was positively affected by storage length. One-day-old chick Tona score, navel quality, and post-hatch growth performance (BW at 7 and 35 d, cumulative feed intake, and feed conversion ratio at 35 d) were unaffected by egg storage (P, P-linear>0.05). Lymphoid organ weights at 2 and 35 d, the titre of maternal anti-NDV antibodies, most of the thymocyte subpopulations defined by CD3, CD4, and CD8 cell surface expression in the thymus of 2-d-old chicks, cellular responses to the PHA skin test, humoral responses to primary SRBC, and NDV immunizations were also not influenced by length of storage (P, P-linear>0.05). On the contrary, the length of egg storage was found to negatively influence the abundance of CD3+CD4-CD8- thymocytes that represent the majority of γδ-T cells in the thymus of 2-day-old chicks, as well as the humoral response to booster NDV immunization of the birds. In brief, pre-incubation storage of broiler hatching eggs for up to 16 d did not affect most developmental and growth parameters investigated, except for BW and length at hatch. Egg storage was found to suppress some aspects of the immunocompetence of the birds, particularly aspects of acquired

  11. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality. PMID:26628762

  12. Quantitative characteristics of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) egg quality throughout the reproductive season.

    PubMed

    Skaalsvik, Tormod H; Bolla, Sylvie L; Thornqvist, Per-Ove; Babiak, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of egg quality is an important aspect in finfish hatchery management, but guidelines for such assessment are scarce, especially for marine fish production. In the present work, potential indicators of egg and larval quality were measured in 39 batches of eggs of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) throughout the reproductive season. The paternal influence on offspring was minimized by using the same cryopreserved semen for all fertilizations; consequently, maternal effects were emphasized. The progression of the spawning season and ovarian fluid parameters, including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), osmolality, and the amount of fluid were registered. The behavior of the broodfish at egg collection was registered and the eggs were analyzed for cortisol content. Fertilization and hatching rates as well as larvae survival were calculated, and larval standard length and myotome height were measured. Furthermore, the occurrence of major types of larval deformities was registered. The myotome height was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by the spawning season progress. Cortisol content in the eggs was decreasing with the progressing spawning season and correlated positively with the occurrence of yolk-sac edema. The ovarian fluid pH and EC were significantly related to fertilization and hatching rates. High fertilization and hatching success was associated with pH greater than 7.9 and EC less than 2.5 mS/cm. Low fertilization rates (< 50%) resulted in further low hatchability from such egg batches. Ovarian fluid EC was significantly and positively related to increased occurrence of yolk-sac edema. High quantity of ovarian fluid in egg batches was associated with reduced egg quality in terms of fertilization and hatching rates and occurrence of yolk-sac edema. A cumulative effect of ovarian fluid pH, EC, osmolality, and quantity explained up to 62% of the total variation in fertilization rates. The findings from the present study indicate that

  13. Deep learning architecture for air quality predictions.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Peng, Ling; Hu, Yuan; Shao, Jing; Chi, Tianhe

    2016-11-01

    With the rapid development of urbanization and industrialization, many developing countries are suffering from heavy air pollution. Governments and citizens have expressed increasing concern regarding air pollution because it affects human health and sustainable development worldwide. Current air quality prediction methods mainly use shallow models; however, these methods produce unsatisfactory results, which inspired us to investigate methods of predicting air quality based on deep architecture models. In this paper, a novel spatiotemporal deep learning (STDL)-based air quality prediction method that inherently considers spatial and temporal correlations is proposed. A stacked autoencoder (SAE) model is used to extract inherent air quality features, and it is trained in a greedy layer-wise manner. Compared with traditional time series prediction models, our model can predict the air quality of all stations simultaneously and shows the temporal stability in all seasons. Moreover, a comparison with the spatiotemporal artificial neural network (STANN), auto regression moving average (ARMA), and support vector regression (SVR) models demonstrates that the proposed method of performing air quality predictions has a superior performance.

  14. The endocrine interface of environmental and egg factors affecting chick quality.

    PubMed

    Decuypere, E; Bruggeman, V

    2007-05-01

    Day-old chicks are the endproduct of the hatchery industry and form important starting material for the broiler farms. The major objective is to obtain a high hatchability of marketable chicks and a low spread of hatch. For the farmers, these chicks have to perform well, which is translated in high viability, high growth rate, high breast meat yield, and low feed conversion. A good-quality 1-d-old chick is hence a crucial hinge between the hatchery and the broiler farm. Moreover, maximal hatchability is not always synonymous with maximal posthatch viability and growth potential of the chick. Quantitative and qualitative scoring of chick quality is assessed. We will briefly discuss some recently developed scoring systems, which will convert differences in qualitative parameters into a quantitative score. Preincubation factors such as egg storage duration and age of broiler breeders, as well as incubation conditions, affect day-old chick quality and subsequent broiler performance. Heat production and metabolism, hormonal balances of thyroid hormones and corticosterone, and gas exchange (O(2), CO(2)) are of fundamental importance for embryonic development and survival during incubation. Results from our studies indicated that embryos with higher pCO(2) levels in the air cell and higher triiodothyronine-thyroxine ratios at internal pipping or in the newly hatched chicks had higher hatchability, chick quality, and posthatch chick growth until 7 d of age. Incubation factors such as temperature, turning conditions, or gaseous environment also affect development, change concentrations of hormones related to metabolism and growth of the embryo, and in this way affect 1-d-old chick quality. Moreover, the spread of the hatch process is affected by incubation conditions as well as by the aforementioned preincubation factors. Depending on the spread of the hatching curve together with the place in the sequence of hatching (early or late) and in interaction with quality of the

  15. Breathing Easy over Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greim, Clifton; Turner, William

    1991-01-01

    School systems should test the air in every school building for the presence and level of contaminants such as radon and asbestos and whether the ventilation system is circulating the proper amount of air. Periodic maintenance is required for all mechanical systems. (MLF)

  16. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    PubMed

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  17. Genetic parameters of body weight, egg production, and shell quality traits in the Shan Ma laying duck (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Lin, R L; Chen, H P; Rouvier, R; Marie-Etancelin, C

    2016-11-01

    Three hundred and four female ducks of the Chinese indigenous Shan Ma breed, progeny of 11 sires and 104 dams, were used to study laying traits. Among them, 264 ducks were used to study the egg shell quality traits of eggs laid at 300 days of age. The mean age at first egg was 109 days with an average egg weight of 49.6 ± 3.7 g. Between 210 and 300 days of age, egg weight increased from 65.0 ± 3.9 g to 67.0 ± 4.2 g and the mean of the number of eggs laid up to 300 days was 161 ± 15.0. Egg length was 59.57 ± 3.01 mm and egg width was 45.02 ± 1.98 mm, leading to a shape index of 1.32 ± 0.08. Egg shell thickness was about 0.31 mm whatever the shell region, and the breaking strength was 28.80 ± 8.29 N. The heritability's estimated using restricted maximum likelihood ( REML: ) methodology were high for egg weights (ranging from 0.43 to 0.61), intermediate for the number of eggs laid (ranging from 0.38 to 0.43), and low for the age at first egg (0.13). Heritability's for egg shell quality traits varied from 0.20 for the breaking strength to 0.44 for egg length, with in-between values of 0.28 for shell thickness and 0.34 for the shape index. The number of eggs laid was not genetically correlated with the age at first egg or egg weight, but was correlated with body weight (rg = +0.54 ± 0.23). High positive correlations were found between egg weight and body weight traits, and both of these traits (except egg weight at first egg) were highly and positively correlated with egg length and width. Breaking strength was genetically correlated with egg shell thickness (rg = +0.54 ± 0.19) and the shape index (rg = +0.71 ± 0.23). These results suggest that an efficient selection strategy could be implemented to improve the egg production of the pure Shan Ma duck line.

  18. A genome-wide SNP scan reveals novel loci for egg production and quality traits in white leghorn and brown-egg dwarf layers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbo; Li, Dongfeng; Liu, Jianfeng; Chen, Sirui; Qu, Lujiang; Zheng, Jiangxia; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning

    2011-01-01

    Availability of the complete genome sequence as well as high-density SNP genotyping platforms allows genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in chickens. A high-density SNP array containing 57,636 markers was employed herein to identify associated variants underlying egg production and quality traits within two lines of chickens, i.e., White Leghorn and brown-egg dwarf layers. For each individual, age at first egg (AFE), first egg weight (FEW), and number of eggs (EN) from 21 to 56 weeks of age were recorded, and egg quality traits including egg weight (EW), eggshell weight (ESW), yolk weight (YW), eggshell thickness (EST), eggshell strength (ESS), albumen height(AH) and Haugh unit(HU) were measured at 40 and 60 weeks of age. A total of 385 White Leghorn females and 361 brown-egg dwarf dams were selected to be genotyped. The genome-wide scan revealed 8 SNPs showing genome-wise significant (P<1.51E-06, Bonferroni correction) association with egg production and quality traits under the Fisher's combined probability method. Some significant SNPs are located in known genes including GRB14 and GALNT1 that can impact development and function of ovary, but more are located in genes with unclear functions in layers, and need to be studied further. Many chromosome-wise significant SNPs were also detected in this study and some of them are located in previously reported QTL regions. Most of loci detected in this study are novel and the follow-up replication studies may be needed to further confirm the functional significance for these newly identified SNPs.

  19. Air Quality Planning Unit | Ground-level Ozone | New England ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    Looking for answers about a specific air quality issue? Here's a list of topics and programs related to air quality and Air Quality Planning (AQP) staff who can answer questions and provide information about them.

  20. Air Quality Planning Unit | Ground-level Ozone | New England ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-02-16

    Looking for answers about a specific air quality issue? Here's a list of topics and programs related to air quality and Air Quality Planning (AQP) staff who can answer questions and provide information about them.

  1. Ambient air quality in Slovak Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Violova, A.; Cremonini, M.G.; Lombardo, P.; Stenhouse, I.A.; Kocan, A.

    1998-07-01

    The National Government of the Slovak Republic is committed to develop an integrated strategy that will take into account global, regional and local aspects of the national emissions of pollutants. Priority is given to ambient air quality, with particular reference to human health protection. Only limited information on ambient air concentrations of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) was available in Slovakia. A comprehensive ambient air quality project has been recently funded by the European Union Phare Programme. The project was performed under the technical supervision of the Slovak Ministry of the Environment and aimed at monitoring the ambient air quality with respect to Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals (HMs), identifying and evaluating main potential pollution sources, and defining general strategies to reduce impacts.

  2. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Building materials and furnishings as diverse as: Deteriorated asbestos-containing insulation Newly installed flooring, upholstery or carpet ... more about indoor air pollutants and sources of: Asbestos Biological Pollutants Carbon Monoxide (CO) Formaldehyde/Pressed Wood ...

  3. Indoor Air Quality in Apartments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Apartments can have the same indoor air problems as single-family homes because many of the pollution sources, such as the interior building materials, furnishings, and household products, are similar.

  4. Call for improving air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    The European Environmental Bureau (EEB), a federation of citizen organizations, has called for stricter policies in Europe to protect human health and the environment. "Air pollution emanates from sources all around us, be they cars, industrial plants, shipping, agriculture, or waste. The [European Union] must propose ambitious legislation to address all of these sources if it is to tackle the grave public health consequences of air pollution," EEB secretary general Jeremy Wates said on 8 January.

  5. Air quality and future energy system planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  6. Associations between novel polymorphisms at the 5'-UTR region of the prolactin gene and egg production and quality in chickens.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, T K; Chatterjee, R N; Sharma, R P; Niranjan, M; Rajkumar, U

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to characterize polymorphisms at the 5'-UTR region of the prolactin gene, and determine their association with egg production and egg quality traits in White Leghorn chickens. The study was conducted on four strains of White Leghorn chickens, namely IWH, IWI, IWK, and layer control. Overall, there were three alleles (designated A, B, and C) and five genotypes, with genotypic frequencies of 0.09, 0.75, 0.07, 0.02, and 0.07 for AA, AB, AC, BB, and BC, respectively. There were significant differences among genotypes for egg production up to 52 and 64 wk of age, with maximal egg yields for genotypes AA and AC (144.5 ± 5.06 and 143.2 ± 4.67 eggs, respectively). Furthermore, there were significant differences among genotypes for egg quality traits, including egg weight and Haugh unit at 40 wk of age, Haugh unit at 52 wk, and yolk color index and Haugh unit at 64 wk. Birds with AA or AC genotypes had the best egg quality traits. On the contrary, these genotypes had the lowest prolactin expression, whereas this expression was highest in birds with the BB genotype. In conclusion, polymorphisms at the 5'-UTR of prolactin gene were significantly associated with egg production and egg quality traits in White Leghorn chickens.

  7. Installing Portable Classrooms With Good Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Ray

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of modular classrooms and improvements made in indoor air quality, including the pros and cons of portables, challenges districts face when planning and installing portables, and cost considerations. Concluding comments highlight system costs and maintenance required. (GR)

  8. Publications about Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Publications and resources that relate to indoor air quality in schools, and design tools for schools. These publications cover a wide range of issues, including IAQ management, student performance, asthma, mold and moisture, and radon.

  9. Indoor Air Quality and Ice Arenas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    All recreational facilities including ice arenas should use good ventilation practices especially where children are present. It is critical that indoor air quality is protected particularly when using fuel-burning equipment indoors.

  10. Indoor Air Quality and Energy Efficiency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA completed an extensive modeling study to assess the compatibilities and trade-offs between energy, indoor air quality, and thermal comfort objectives for HVAC systems and to formulate strategies for superior performance across all areas.

  11. Spatial Allocator for air quality modeling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Spatial Allocator is a set of tools that helps users manipulate and generate data files related to emissions and air quality modeling without requiring the use of a commercial Geographic Information System.

  12. Cooperative Agreement Funding for Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Indoor Environments Division has created partnership with public and private sector entities to help encourage the public to take action to minimize their risk and mitigate indoor air quality problems.

  13. Bois Forte Indoor Air Quality Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Bois Forte Indoor Air Quality Program acted swiftly and aggressively to tackle mold and moisture problems in its community members’ homes after several residents became ill as a result of environmental exposures.

  14. Coordinator's Guide for Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    IAQ Tools for Schools Action Kit - IAQ Coordinator's Guide. This guidance is designed to present practical and often low-cost actions you can take to identify and address existing or potential air quality problems.

  15. Monitoring Air Quality with Leaf Yeasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, D. H. S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Proposes that leaf yeast serve as quick, inexpensive, and effective techniques for monitoring air quality. Outlines procedures and provides suggestions for data analysis. Includes results from sample school groups who employed this technique. (ML)

  16. EVALUATING AND USING AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grid-based models are being used to assess the magnitude of the pollution problem and to design emission control strategies to achieve compliance with the relevant air quality standards in the United States.

  17. Pulsed UV light inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis on eggshells and its effects on egg quality.

    PubMed

    Keklik, Nene M; Demirci, Ali; Patterson, Paul H; Puri, Virendra M

    2010-08-01

    The majority of Salmonella Enteritidis outbreaks have been related to the consumption of raw or undercooked eggs or egg-containing foods. Therefore, the U.S. Department of Agriculture mandates egg washing for all graded eggs by use of a detergent solution and sanitizer. These agencies and the egg industry have been investigating alternative decontamination techniques, which could better serve the public, minimize costs, and benefit both the public and the industry. Pulsed UV light is an emerging technology that is used to inactivate microorganisms quickly. In this study, the effectiveness of pulsed UV light was evaluated for the decontamination of eggshells. Eggs inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis on the top surface at the equator were treated with pulsed UV light 1 to 30 s, at a distance of 9.5 and 14.5 cm from the UV lamp in a laboratory-scale, pulsed UV light chamber. Three eggs were used per treatment in each repetition, except for quality measurements, which involved six eggs per treatment in each repetition. A maximum log reduction of 5.3 CFU/cm2 was obtained after a 20-s treatment at 9.5 cm below the UV lamp at a total dose of 23.6+/-0.1 J/cm2, without any visual damage to the egg. After a 30-s treatment at 9.5 and 14.5 cm, the temperature of eggshell surfaces increased by 16.3 and 13.3 degrees C, respectively. Energy usage increased up to 35.3+/-0.1 and 24.8+/-0.1 J/cm2, after 30-s treatments at 9.5 and 14.5 cm, respectively. The effect of pulsed UV light treatments on egg quality was also evaluated. Pulsed UV-light treatments for 3, 10, and 20s at either 9.5 or 14.5 cm did not change the albumen height, eggshell strength, or cuticle presence significantly (P<0.05). This study demonstrated that pulsed UV light has potential to decontaminate eggshell surfaces.

  18. The effects of egg and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides addition on gluten-free sorghum bread quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of whole egg addition (as is) at 20, 25, or 30% (flour basis) on sorghum bread quality was evaluated. The use of the antistaling agent diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides (DATEM) at 0.5% (flour basis) at each of the egg addition levels was also studied. Evaluated quality facto...

  19. Nutritional quality of eggs from hens fed distillers dried grains with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted with laying hens where either 10% or 20% regular-fat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (R-DDGS) or low-fat DDGS (L-DDGS) were incorporated into the feed. Production parameters and the effect of DDGS on egg nutritional quality, focusing on yolk lipids, were evaluate...

  20. Urban air quality estimation study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamante, J. M.; Englar, T. S., Jr.; Jazwinski, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    Possibilities are explored for applying estimation theory to the analysis, interpretation, and use of air quality measurements in conjunction with simulation models to provide a cost effective method of obtaining reliable air quality estimates for wide urban areas. The physical phenomenology of real atmospheric plumes from elevated localized sources is discussed. A fluctuating plume dispersion model is derived. Individual plume parameter formulations are developed along with associated a priori information. Individual measurement models are developed.

  1. Air quality management in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    William Chameides; Daniel Greenbaum; Raymond Wassel; K. John Holmes; Karl Gustavson; Amanda Staudt

    2005-07-01

    In 2004, the National Research Council released Air Quality Management in the United States, a report prepared in response to a congressional request for an independent evaluation of the overall effectiveness of the Clean Air Act. Based on that report, this article summarizes the committee's findings and recommendations. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Guide for Indoor Air Quality Surveys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    Influencing Indoor Air Quality ................... 5 Carbon Dioxide and Fresh Air ........................ 6 Relative Humidity...037, A Procedural Guide on Sick Building Syndrome (Liebhaber, 1987), and supplements AFOEHL Report 90-169, Recommended Carbon Dioxide and Relative...symptoms. The causes most implicated in the literature include comfort parameters such as carbon dioxide (C02) concentration, relative humidity

  3. MANAGING INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN THE USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of managing indoor air quality (IAQ) in the U.S. In contrast to outdoor air, which is regulated through various federal and state statutes, there is no unified and comprehensive governmental regulation of IAQ. Therefore, IAQ is managed through variou...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  6. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.96 Section 52.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Air Quality... deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  9. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.1689 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1689 Section 52.1689 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  15. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  1. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  3. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  12. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  13. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  15. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  20. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  1. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  3. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  7. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  15. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  19. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  20. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  3. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  14. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. Effects of cerium oxide supplementation to laying hen diets on performance, egg quality, some antioxidant enzymes in serum and lipid oxidation in egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Bölükbaşı, S C; Al-Sagan, A A; Ürüşan, H; Erhan, M K; Durmuş, O; Kurt, N

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary cerium oxide levels (0, 100, 200, 300 or 400 mg/kg) on the laying performance, egg quality, some blood serum parameters and egg lipid peroxidation of laying hen. In total, one hundred and twenty 22-week-old brown Lohman LSL laying hens were randomly assigned to five groups equally (n = 24). Each treatment was replicated six times. Dietary supplementation of cerium oxide had no significant effect on feed intake and egg weight. The addition of cerium oxide to the laying hens' feed improved feed conversion ratio and increased (p < 0.05) egg production. Quality criteria of egg for except shell breaking strength were not affected by supplementing cerium oxide. In particular, supplementation of 200 and 300 mg/kg cerium oxide to the laying hens feed led to a significant (p < 0. 01) increase in egg shell breaking strength. Calcium and phosphorus concentration of serum increased significantly (p < 0.05) with supplementation of 100 mg/kg cerium oxide to laying hen diets. It was also observed that serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration decreased significantly with supplementation of cerium oxide in diets. Inclusion of cerium oxide resulted in a significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values in egg yolk in this study. It can be concluded that the addition of cerium oxide had positive effects on egg production, feed conversion ratio and egg shelf life. Based on the results of this study, it could be advised to supplement laying hens feed with cerium oxide as feed additives.

  20. 76 FR 72097 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... IQ Intelligence Quotient NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NTTAA National Technology... systems (including their brains) arising from Pb exposure may include intelligence quotient (IQ)...

  1. Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, John W., Ed.

    To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers, the second in a series, from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of individual pollutant measurements to…

  2. Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, John W., Ed.

    To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of some relatively new applications of proven techniques to discussions…

  3. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more polluted than ambient air, the USEPA lists poor IAQ as a major environmental concern. In the sections that follow, health effects associated with commonly encountered ambient air pollutants and indoor contaminants will be broken down by agent class. In some cases, exposure may be acute, with one or more pets (and owners) experiencing signs within a relatively short period. However, most exposures are episodic or chronic, making it difficult to definitively link poor IAQ to respiratory or other adverse health outcomes. Age or underlying immunologic, cardiac, or respiratory disease may further complicate the clinical picture, as those patients may be more sensitive to (and affected by) lower concentrations than prove problematic for healthy housemates. Because pets, like their owners, spend most of their lives indoors, we will discuss how certain home conditions can worsen indoor air quality and will briefly discuss measures to improve IAQ for owners and their pets. In this overview presentation, health effects associated with commonly encountered ambient air pollutants and indoor contaminants will be broken down by agent class. Because pets, like their owners, spend most of their lives indoo

  4. Evaluating the effectiveness of air quality interventions.

    PubMed

    van Erp, Annemoon M M; O'Keefe, Robert; Cohen, Aaron J; Warren, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Evaluating the extent to which air quality regulations improve public health--sometimes referred to as accountability--is part of an emerging effort to assess the effectiveness of environmental regulatory policies. Air quality has improved substantially in the United States and Western Europe in recent decades, with far less visible pollution and decreasing concentrations of several major pollutants. In large part, these gains were achieved through increasingly stringent air quality regulations. The costs associated with compliance and, importantly, the need to ensure that the regulations are achieving the intended public health benefits underscore the importance of accountability research. To date, accountability research has emphasized measuring the effects of actions already taken to improve air quality. Such research may also contribute to estimating the burden of disease that might be avoided in the future if certain actions are taken. The Health Effects Institute (HEI) currently funds eight ongoing studies on accountability, which cover near-term interventions to improve air quality including (1) a ban on the sale of coal, (2) replacing old wood stoves with cleaner ones, (3) decreasing sulfur content in fuel, (4) measures to reduce traffic, and (5) longer term, wide-ranging actions or events (such as complex changes associated with the reunification of Germany). HEI is also funding the development of methods and research to assess regulations that are implemented incrementally over extended periods of time, such as Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, which reduces sulfur dioxide emissions from power plants in the eastern United States.

  5. Efficacy of antimicrobial pullulan-based coating to improve internal quality and shelf-life of chicken eggs during storage.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Mohamed K; Sharoba, Ashraf M; Khalaf, Hassan H; El-Tanahy, Hassan H; Cutter, Catherine N

    2015-05-01

    There has been a growing interest in the use of natural materials as a delivery mechanism for antimicrobials and coatings in foods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pullulan coatings to improve internal quality and shelf-life of fresh eggs during 10 wk of storage at 25 and 4 °C. Three treatments of eggs were evaluated as follows; non-coated (control; C), coated with pullulan (P), and coated with pullulan containing nisin (N). The effects of the pullulan coatings on microbiological qualities, physical properties, and freshness parameters were investigated and compared with non-coated eggs. For non-coated eggs, as storage time increased, yolk index, albumen index, and Haugh unit value decreased and weight loss increased. However, pullulan coatings (P or N) minimized weight loss (<1.5%) and preserved the albumen and yolk quality of eggs (with a final B grade) 3 wk longer than non-coated eggs at 25 °C. At 4 °C, both P- and N-coated eggs went from AA to A grade after 9 wk and maintained the grade for 10 wk (4 wk longer than that of non-coated eggs). This study is the first to demonstrate that pullulan coatings can preserve the internal quality, prolong the shelf-life, and minimize weight loss of fresh eggs.

  6. Dietary Protein Sources Affect Internal Quality of Raw and Cooked Shell Eggs under Refrigerated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X. C.; Zhang, H. J.; Wu, S. G.; Yue, H. Y.; Wang, J.; Li, J.; Qi, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; cottonseed protein, CSP; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM) on the internal quality of refrigerated eggs. A total of 360 laying hens (32 wk of age) were randomly allotted to six treatment groups (five replicates per treatment) and fed diets containing SBM, CSP, or DRM individually or in combination with equal crude protein content (SBM-CSP, SBM-DRM, and CSP-DRM) as the protein ingredient(s). A 6×3 factorial arrangement was employed with dietary types and storage time (0 d, 2 wk, and 4 wk) as the main effects. After 12 wk of diet feeding, a total of 270 eggs were collected for egg quality determination. The egg Haugh unit (HU) in the CSP, SBM-DRM, and DRM groups were significantly lower than those in the SBM and SBM-CSP groups. The hardness and springiness of the cooked yolk in the CSP group were significantly higher than those in the other treatment groups. A lower HU, lower yolk index and higher albumen pH were observed in the DRM group compared to the SBM and SBM-CSP groups when the eggs were stored to 4 wk, and the HU was improved in the CSP-DRM group compared to the DRM group (p<0.05). Higher yolk hardness was observed in the CSP group compared to the other groups during storage (p<0.05), but the hardness of the cooked yolk in the SBM-CSP and CSP-DRM groups showed no difference in comparison to the SBM group. In conclusion, CSP may ameliorate the negative effects of DRM on the HU of refrigerated eggs, and SBM or DRM may alleviate the adverse effects of CSP on yolk hardness. PMID:26580286

  7. Indoor Air Quality and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    Numerous contaminants in indoor air and their potential to cause or exacerbate asthma continue to be a subject of public health concern. Many agents are causally associated with or can exacerbate asthma, particularly in children. For formaldehyde, an established respiratory irritant based on numerous studies, the evidence for an association with asthma is still considered only limited or suggestive. However, there is no evidence that indicates increased sensitivity to sensory irritation to formaldehyde in people often regarded as susceptible such as asthmatics. Acrolein, but not formaldehyde, was significantly associated with asthma in a large cohort of children. This prompted an evaluation of this highly irritating chemical that had never previously been considered in the context of the indoor air/childhood asthma issue. Because acrolein is more potent than formaldehyde as a respiratory irritant and ubiquitous in indoor air, it is plausible that previous studies on potential risk factors and childhood asthma may be confounded by formaldehyde acting as an unrecognized proxy for acrolein. PMID:28250718

  8. 30 CFR 250.302 - Definitions concerning air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions concerning air quality. 250.302... Definitions concerning air quality. For purposes of §§ 250.303 and 250.304 of this part: Air pollutant means..., pursuant to section 109 of the Clean Air Act, national primary or secondary ambient air quality...

  9. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements...

  10. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements...

  11. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements...

  12. Application of chitosan for improvement of quality and shelf life of table eggs under tropical room conditions.

    PubMed

    Suresh, P V; Raj, K Rathina; Nidheesh, T; Pal, Gaurav Kumar; Sakhare, P Z

    2015-10-01

    The current investigation was conducted to study the effectiveness of chitosan coating in preserving the internal quality of table eggs stored under tropical room conditions of 32 ± 1 °C and 60-70 % r. h. Internal, physical and microbiological quality of eggs coated with chitosan was evaluated during 5-week storage at different temperature (22 ± 1 and 32 ± 1 °C). Chitin was extracted from shrimp processing raw byproducts and deacetylated to high quality chitosan. The prepared chitosan was analyzed for its characteristic properties. The chitosan with a viscosity of 2206 mPa.S was used to prepare the coating solution. The weight loss, Haugh unit, and yolk index values suggested that coating of eggs with shrimp α-chitosan increased the shelf life of eggs by almost 4-week at 22 ± 1 °C and 3-week at 32 ± 1 °C compared with controls (non chitosan coated and acetic acid coated) eggs. Three-time repeated coating was more effective in preserving the internal quality and preventing weight loss than with single-time coating of chitosan on egg. Therefore, three-time coating of eggs with 2206 mPa.S chitosan offer a protective barrier for preserving the internal quality of eggs stored at tropical room conditions and concomitantly prevent contamination with microorganisms.

  13. Predicting optimal conditions to minimize quality deterioration while maximizing safety and functional properties of irradiated egg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Hyejeong; Jung, Yeonkuk; Lee, Kyung Haeng; Song, Hyun Pa; Kim, Keehyuk; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-08-01

    Irradiation is an excellent method for improving the safety and functional properties of egg. However, the internal quality of egg can be deteriorated due to a rapid decrease in Haugh units. In this study, the optimal conditions for maintaining the quality and maximizing the safety and functional properties of egg were determined when combination of irradiation and chitosan coating was treated using response surface methodology (RSM). Independent degradation parameters—irradiation dose (0-2 kGy) and concentration of chitosan coating (0-2%) were assigned (-2,-1, 0, 1, 2), and 10 intervals were set on the basis of central composite design for the degradation experiment. The dependant variables within a confidence level less than 5% were Haugh units, foaming ability, foam stability, and number of Salmonella typhimurium. The predicted maximum values of Haugh units and foaming ability were 82.7 (irradiation dose 0.0006 kGy and concentration of chitosan solution 1.03%) and 62.2 mm (1.99 kGy and 0.86%), respectively. S. typhimurium inoculated on the egg surface was not detected after 1.86 kGy and 0.48%. Based on superimposing four-dimensional RSM with respect to freshness (Haugh units), functional property (foaming capacity and foam stability), and reduction of S. typhimurium, the predicted optimum ranges for irradiation dose and chitosan solution concentration were 0.35-0.65 kGy and 0.25-0.85%, respectively. The predicted optimum values were obtained from 0.45 kGy and 0.525%. This methodology can be used to predict egg quality and safety when different combination treatments were applied.

  14. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the...

  17. 40 CFR 51.320 - Annual air quality data report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual air quality data report. 51.320... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Reports Air Quality Data Reporting § 51.320 Annual air quality data report. The requirements for reporting air quality data...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  20. 40 CFR 51.320 - Annual air quality data report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual air quality data report. 51.320... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Reports Air Quality Data Reporting § 51.320 Annual air quality data report. The requirements for reporting air quality data...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  2. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.96 Section 52.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Air Quality... deterioration of air quality. The introductory paragraph to 18 AAC 50.040(h) as in effect on December 9, 2010...

  3. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the...

  4. 40 CFR 51.320 - Annual air quality data report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual air quality data report. 51.320... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Reports Air Quality Data Reporting § 51.320 Annual air quality data report. The requirements for reporting air quality data...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  9. 40 CFR 51.320 - Annual air quality data report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual air quality data report. 51.320... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Reports Air Quality Data Reporting § 51.320 Annual air quality data report. The requirements for reporting air quality data...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  11. 40 CFR 51.320 - Annual air quality data report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual air quality data report. 51.320... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Reports Air Quality Data Reporting § 51.320 Annual air quality data report. The requirements for reporting air quality data...

  12. Indoor Air Quality: Is Increased Ventilation the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Shirley

    1989-01-01

    Explains how indoor air quality is affected by pollutants in the air and also by temperature, humidity, and ventilation. Increased ventilation alone seldom solves the "sick building syndrome." Lists ways to improve indoor air quality and optimize energy efficiency. (MLF)

  13. Potential of alfalfa as an alternative molt induction diet for laying hens: egg quality and consumer acceptability.

    PubMed

    Landers, K L; Howard, Z R; Woodward, C L; Birkhold, S G; Ricke, S C

    2005-05-01

    Dietary molt induction to initiate additional egg laying cycles in commercial laying hen flocks is a wide spread practice in the United States. Feed deprivation is the most commonly used method but this practice has generated several concerns which has lead to research for viable alternative approaches. From a management standpoint a single ingredient molting diet consisting of high fiber-low energy represents an easily adaptable diet for large laying hen production units. Alfalfa meal is readily available in most commercial locations and possesses many of the desirable properties of an ideal laying hen molt diet. In the current study hens at a commercial laying facility were molted by both alfalfa and feed deprivation. After the hens had reentered post-molt commercial egg production, eggs were examined for egg quality performance. Egg shell strength, albumen height, yolk height, weight, length, and yolk color were all tested using various mechanical techniques. The eggs were also sampled for testing by consumer sensory panels that assessed the desirability of the eggs' color and flavor/texture. Eggs laid by hens molted by alfalfa had a significantly lower (p<0.05) "a*" level of colorimetry. Eggs laid by hens molted with alfalfa also exhibited significantly higher (p<0.05) egg weights and length. In the consumer sensory test, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in color or flavor/texture scores in eggs from either feed deprived or alfalfa molted hens. The consumer sensory and mechanical quality attributes indicates that alfalfa shows promise as an alternative molt induction diet by providing a single diet option for extending egg production into a second egg laying cycle.

  14. Emerging Latin American air quality regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hosmer, A.W.; Vitale, E.M.; Guerrero, C.R.; Solorzano-Vincent, L.

    1998-12-31

    Latin America is the most urbanized region in the developing world. In recent years, significant economic growth has resulted in population migration from rural areas to urban centers, as well as in a substantial rise in the standard of living within the Region. These changes have impacted the air quality of Latin American countries as increased numbers of industrial facilities and motor vehicles release pollutants into the air. With the advent of new free trade agreements such as MERCOSUR and NAFTA, economic activity and associated pollutant levels can only be expected to continue to expand in the future. In order to address growing air pollution problems, many Latin America countries including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, and Mexico have passed, or will soon pass, new legislation to develop and strengthen their environmental frameworks with respect to air quality. As a first step toward understanding the impacts that this increased environmental regulation will have, this paper will examine the regulatory systems in six Latin American countries with respect to ambient air quality and for each of these countries: review a short history of the air quality problems within the country; outline the legal and institutional framework including key laws and implementing institutions; summarize in brief the current status of the country in terms of program development and implementation; and identify projected future trends. In addition, the paper will briefly review the international treaties that have bearing on Latin American air quality. Finally, the paper will conclude by identifying and exploring emerging trends in individual countries and the region as a whole.

  15. Impacts of Climate Policy on Regional Air Quality, Health, and Air Quality Regulatory Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. M.; Selin, N. E.

    2011-12-01

    Both the changing climate, and the policy implemented to address climate change can impact regional air quality. We evaluate the impacts of potential selected climate policies on modeled regional air quality with respect to national pollution standards, human health and the sensitivity of health uncertainty ranges. To assess changes in air quality due to climate policy, we couple output from a regional computable general equilibrium economic model (the US Regional Energy Policy [USREP] model), with a regional air quality model (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions [CAMx]). USREP uses economic variables to determine how potential future U.S. climate policy would change emissions of regional pollutants (CO, VOC, NOx, SO2, NH3, black carbon, and organic carbon) from ten emissions-heavy sectors of the economy (electricity, coal, gas, crude oil, refined oil, energy intensive industry, other industry, service, agriculture, and transportation [light duty and heavy duty]). Changes in emissions are then modeled using CAMx to determine the impact on air quality in several cities in the Northeast US. We first calculate the impact of climate policy by using regulatory procedures used to show attainment with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter. Building on previous work, we compare those results with the calculated results and uncertainties associated with human health impacts due to climate policy. This work addresses a potential disconnect between NAAQS regulatory procedures and the cost/benefit analysis required for and by the Clean Air Act.

  16. Evaluation of Muscodor cinnamomi as an egg biofumigant for the reduction of microorganisms on eggshell surfaces and its effect on egg quality.

    PubMed

    Suwannarach, Nakarin; Kaewyana, Chariya; Yodmeeklin, Arpaporn; Kumla, Jaturong; Matsui, Kenji; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2017-03-06

    The presence of microorganisms on the eggshell surface is a factor of consideration in determining egg quality. These microorganisms can contribute to egg spoilage and can infect the egg. In this study, 18 morphotypes of microorganisms were isolated from eggshells. Morphological, biochemical, physiological and molecular analyses were used to identify these morphotypes into 7 species; Bacillus drentensis, Staphylococcus arlettae, Stap. cohnii, Stap. kloosii, Stap. saprophyticus, Stap. sciuri and Stap. xylosus. The potential of Muscodor cinnamomi to reduce the presence of microorganisms on eggshells by biological fumigation was investigated. The result showed that 16 strains of the tested microorganisms were inactivated after the exposure of the fungal volatile organic compounds. The most abundant compound was 2-methylpropanoic acid, followed by 3-methylbutan-1-ol. Our results indicated that a 24-h period of fumigation of 100g rye grain culture of M. cinnamomi was the minimum dose that could significantly reduce the number of microorganisms on the eggshell surface. Fumigated eggs from both box and cabinet fumigation trials showed significantly lower microbial numbers on the eggshell than non-fumigated eggs during the storage period of 14days. It was found that the values of the yolk index, albumen index and the Haugh unit of the eggs decreased during this storage time. However, those values of the fumigated eggs from both fumigation trials were found to be significantly higher than the non-fumigated eggs after the 24-h fumigation period and following storage for 5, 7 and 14days. However, the values of the albumen index were not found to have significantly increased over 5days of the box trial. This study is the first to report on mycofumigation activity for the purposes of reducing the presence of microorganisms on the surface of eggshells.

  17. Effects of dietary selenium source, storage time, and temperature on the quality of quail eggs.

    PubMed

    Baylan, Mikail; Canogullari, Sibel; Ayasan, Tugay; Copur, Gulsen

    2011-11-01

    We report the effects of time of storage, temperature, and supplementation with sodium selenite- and selenium-enriched yeast on the quality of quail eggs. For this study, 90 10-week-old female Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with similar body size were caged individually and randomly divided into five groups of 18 quails each. One group was fed a normal diet and served as control. A second group was supplemented with 0.2 mg/kg sodium selenite (In-Se) and three groups supplemented with 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg/kg of a commercially available selenium-enriched yeast (O-Se1, O-Se2, and O-Se3, respectively). The eggs were collected at third and fourth weeks of the experiment and were stored at 4°C and 20°C for 0, 15, 30, and 45 days. Extension of the storage time to 45 days at 20°C resulted in significant deterioration of egg quality. The albumen Haugh unit (HU), pH, albumen index, yolk index, and egg weight loss were the most important parameters influenced by the nature of the selenium sources, storage time, and temperature. Storage time and temperature were also significant for egg weight loss, HU, and albumen and yolk indexes. The results show that supplementation with selenium yeast significantly affected shell weight, shell thickness, HU, albumen index, yolk index, and pH. The HU decreased with increased storage time and temperature. Higher levels of Se-yeast administration resulted in greater HU compared to the selenite and control groups.

  18. Influence of egg storage time and preincubation warming profile on embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality.

    PubMed

    Reijrink, I A M; Berghmans, D; Meijerhof, R; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2010-06-01

    When eggs are stored beyond 7 d, hatchability and chick quality decrease. The cause of the negative effects of prolonged egg storage is not clear. The negative effects may be caused by a decrease in embryo viability due to an increase in cell death. The optimal time and curve of preincubation warming (the preincubation warming profile) may be different for eggs stored over short and long periods of time because embryo viability is dependent on egg storage time. The aim of this study was to investigate whether preincubation warming profiles affect embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality when eggs are stored for a short or prolonged time. Two experiments were conducted. In both experiments, a 2x2 completely randomized design was used with 2 storage times (4 and 14 d at 17 degrees C in experiment I and 4 and 13 d at 19 degrees C in experiment II) and 2 preincubation warming profiles (within 4 or 24 h from storage temperature to 37.8 degrees C). In experiment I, results suggested that the effect of preincubation warming profile on hatchability was dependent on storage time. However, because a low number of eggs were used in this experiment, these differences were not significant. In experiment II, the interaction between storage time and preincubation warming profile was observed for embryonic mortality during the first 2 d of incubation and hatchability (P=0.006 and P=0.01, respectively). When storage time was 13 d, embryonic mortality during the first 2 d of incubation decreased by 4.4% and hatchability increased by 5.7% when the 24-h preincubation warming profile was used instead of the 4-h preincubation warming profile. However, no effect of preincubation warming profile was observed when storage time was 4 d. In both experiments, chick quality decreased when storage time increased but was not affected by preincubation warming profile. We concluded that a slow preincubation warming profile is beneficial for hatchability when storage time is prolonged

  19. Genome-wide association study for egg production and quality in layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Wolc, A; Arango, J; Jankowski, T; Dunn, I; Settar, P; Fulton, J E; O'Sullivan, N P; Preisinger, R; Fernando, R L; Garrick, D J; Dekkers, J C M

    2014-06-01

    Discovery of genes with large effects on economically important traits has for many years been of interest to breeders. The development of SNP panels which cover the whole genome with high density and, more importantly, that can be genotyped on large numbers of individuals at relatively low cost, has opened new opportunities for genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The objective of this study was to find genomic regions associated with egg production and quality traits in layers using analysis methods developed for the purpose of whole genome prediction. Genotypes on over 4500 birds and phenotypes on over 13,000 hens from eight generations of a brown egg layer line were used. Birds were genotyped with a custom 42K Illumina SNP chip. Recorded traits included two egg production and 11 egg quality traits (puncture score, albumen height, yolk weight and shell colour) at early and late stages of production, as well as body weight and age at first egg. Egg weight was previously analysed by Wolc et al. (2012). The Bayesian whole genome prediction model--BayesB (Meuwissen et al. 2001) was used to locate 1 Mb regions that were most strongly associated with each trait. The posterior probability of a 1 Mb window contributing to genetic variation was used as the criterion for suggesting the presence of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) in that window. Depending upon the trait, from 1 to 7 significant (posterior probability >0.9) 1 Mb regions were found. The largest QTL, a region explaining 32% of genetic variance, was found on chr4 at 78 Mb for body weight but had pleiotropic effects on other traits. For the other traits, the largest effects were much smaller, explaining <7% of genetic variance, with regions on chromosomes 2, 12 and 17 explaining above 5% of genetic variance for albumen height, shell colour and egg production, respectively. In total, 45 of 1043 1 Mb windows were estimated to have a non-zero effect with posterior probability > 0.9 for one or more traits.

  20. Air Quality Monitoring and Forecasting in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijling, Bas; van der A, Ronald; Wang, Pucai

    2010-05-01

    Within the ESA-MOST Dragon 2 Programme, the AMFIC project consists of an integrated system for monitoring and forecasting tropospheric pollutants over China. Satellite data, in situ measurements and chemical transport model results are used to generate consistent air quality information over China. The system includes a data archive of the recent years, near real time data, and air quality forecasts for several days ahead, which can be find on http://www.amfic.eu. Air pollutants covered are nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, methane and aerosol. The AMFIC system has been used to evaluate the effect of the air quality measures which were taken by the Chinese authorities related to the Olympic Games and Paralympics in Beijing. Industrial activities and traffic in and around the city were reduced drastically to improve air quality. To compensate for the atypical meteorological conditions during the Olympic events, tropospheric NO2 column observations from GOME-2 and OMI are interpreted against simulations from the CHIMERE regional chemistry transport model. When compared with the pre-Olympic concentration levels, we find a NO2 reduction of 60% over Beijing and significant reductions in surrounding areas. After the Olympic period, NO2 concentrations slowly return to their pre-Olympic level. The satellite observations and model simulations of tropospheric NO2 column concentrations are also used to constrain NOx emissions over China by using data assimilation techniques. We will present the preliminary results of these efforts. The periodical update of the bottom-up emission inventory is expected to reveal emission trends and improve the air quality forecasts for China.

  1. Interaction of hen production type, age, and temperature on laying pattern and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Tumová, E; Gous, R M

    2012-05-01

    The effect of production type (layer vs. broiler breeder), age (onset and end of laying cycle), and temperature (20 and 28°C) on various aspects of the egg production process and quality was evaluated. Highly significant differences were detected between laying hens and broiler breeders (P ≤ 0.001) in all production parameters. Similarly, age significantly affected rate of lay (P ≤ 0.001; 75.4% for young vs. 62.6% for old), mean sequence length (P ≤ 0.001; 7.7 d for young vs. 2.6 d for old), and time of oviposition (P ≤ 0.001). However, there was no effect of temperature on rate of lay, sequence length, or feed intake. Significant interactions between hen type and age were apparent in rate of lay (P ≤ 0.001), sequence length (P ≤ 0.001), and time of oviposition (P ≤ 0.001). A significant interaction between production type and age (P ≤ 0.015) was evident in egg weight, but egg component proportions were dependent only on hen type. Egg shape index was significantly affected by age (P ≤ 0.004), by temperature (P ≤ 0.028), and an interaction between type and age (P ≤ 0.001). Specific gravity declined with age (P ≤ 0.035) and increasing temperature (P ≤ 0.013).

  2. Indoor air quality investigation on commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Lee, S C; Poon, C S; Li, X D; Luk, F

    1999-09-01

    Sixteen flights had been investigated for indoor air quality (IAQ) on Cathay Pacific aircraft from June 1996 to August 1997. In general, the air quality on Cathay Pacific aircraft was within relevant air quality standards because the average age of aircraft was less than 2 years. Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on all flights measured were below the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) standard (30,000 ppm). The CO2 level was substantially higher during boarding and de-boarding than cruise due to low fresh air supply. Humidity on the aircraft was low, especially for long-haul flights. Minimum humidity during cruise was below the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) minimum humidity standard (20%). The average temperature was within a comfortable temperature range of 23 +/- 2 degrees C. The vertical temperature profile on aircraft was uniform and below the International Standard Organization (ISO) standard. Carbon monoxide levels were below the FAA standard (50 ppm). Trace amount of ozone detected ranged from undetectable to 90 ppb, which was below the FAA standard. Particulate level was low for most non-smoking flights, but peaks were observed during boarding and de-boarding. The average particulate level in smoking flights (138 micrograms/m3) was higher than non-smoking flights (7.6 micrograms/m3). The impact on IAQ by switching from low-mode to high-mode ventilation showed a reduction in CO2 levels, temperature, and relative humidity.

  3. Effect of dietary protein sources on production performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaocui; Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jing; Wu, Shugeng; Qi, Guanghai

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; low-gossypol cottonseed meal, LCSM; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM) on laying performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens. Methods A total of 432 32-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The birds were fed diets containing SBM, LCSM100, or DRM100 individually or in combination with an equal amount of crude protein (CP) (LCSM50, DRM50, and LCSM50-DRM50). The experimental diets, which were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.11 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (CP, 16.5%), had similar digestible amino acid profile. The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks. Results The daily egg mass was decreased in the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups (p<0.05) in weeks 41 to 44. The LCSM50 group did not affect egg production compared to the SBM group in weeks 41 to 44 (p>0.05) and showed increased yolk color at the end of the trial (p<0.05). Compared to the SBM group, the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups showed decreased albumen weight (p<0.05), CP weight in the albumen (p<0.05) and CP weight in the whole egg (p<0.05) at 44 weeks. Plasma total protein (TP) levels were lower in the LCSM100 group than in the SBM group at 44 weeks (p<0.05); however, TP, albumin, and globulin levels were not significantly different between the LCSM50 group and the SBM group or between the DRM50 group and the SBM group (p>0.05). Conclusion Together, our results suggest that the LCSM100 or DRM100 diets may produce the adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality after feeding for 8 more weeks. The 100.0 g/kg LCSM diet or the148.7 g/kg DRM diet has no adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality. PMID:27608634

  4. Managing Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolums, Jennifer

    This publication examines the causes and effects of poor indoor air quality and provides information for reducing exposure to indoor contaminants in schools. It discusses the various indoor pollutants found in schools, including dust, chemical agents, gases, and volatile organic compounds; where they are found in schools; and their health effects…

  5. Indoor Air Quality Basics for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    This fact sheet details important information on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in school buildings, problems associated with IAQ, and various prevention and problem-solving strategies. Most people spend 90 percent of their time indoors, therefore the Environmental Protection Agency ranks IAQ in the top four environmental risks to the public. The…

  6. Indoor Air Quality Guidelines for Pennsylvania Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Robert S., Jr.

    This report provides information and practical guidance on how to prevent indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in schools, and it describes how to implement a practical plan of action using a minimal amount of resources. It includes general guidelines to prevent or help resolve IAQ problems, guidelines on specific indoor contaminants, recommendations…

  7. Flood Cleanup to Protect Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    During a flood cleanup, the indoor air quality in your home or office may appear to be the least of your problems. However, failure to remove contaminated materials and to reduce moisture and humidity can present serious long-term health risks.

  8. OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING FOR AIR QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper outlines recent developments in using optical remote sensing (ORS) instruments for air quality monitoring both for gaseous pollutants and airborne particulate matter (PM). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been using open-path Fourier transform infrared...

  9. The Bottom Line For Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how the right type of flooring can help schools reduce indoor-air-quality problems. Using vinyl composition flooring to handle moisture and reduce fungi growth is examined as are the benefits of vinyl cushion tufted textile flooring for cost effectiveness, learning environment improvement, installation, and effectiveness in emergencies.…

  10. Shuttle applications in tropospheric air quality observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E.; Gupta, J.; Carmichael, J.

    1978-01-01

    The role which might be played by the space shuttle in obtaining data which describes the air quality of the north-eastern United States was investigated. The data requirements of users, a model for statistical interpretation of the observations, the influence of orbit parameters on the spatial and temporal sampling and an example of application of the the model were considered.

  11. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

  12. PROMOTING AIR QUALITY THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the promotion of improved air quality through environmental technology verifications (ETVs). In 1995, the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development began the ETV Program in response to President Clinton's "Bridge to a Sustainable Future" and Vice Presiden...

  13. Integration of air and water quality issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental sustainability of dairy farms is dependent upon a number of air and water quality issues. Atmospheric emissions include hazardous compounds such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide along with greenhouse gases and their implications with global climate change. Runoff of sediment, phosph...

  14. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  15. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made...

  17. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality rules identified in paragraph (a) of this section, and the Lane Regional Air Pollution...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (c)(1) Insofar as the Prevention of...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  1. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made...

  4. 30 CFR 250.302 - Definitions concerning air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions concerning air quality. 250.302... Pollution Prevention and Control § 250.302 Definitions concerning air quality. For purposes of §§ 250.303... secondary ambient air quality standards. Attainment area means, for any air pollutant, an area which...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  7. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made...

  9. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  10. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made...

  15. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  17. The effect of soy isoflavones on egg quality and bone mineralisation during the late laying period of quail.

    PubMed

    Sahin, N; Onderci, M; Balci, T A; Cikim, G; Sahin, K; Kucuk, O

    2007-06-01

    1. Soy isoflavones play a role in calcium and bone metabolism. Poor egg quality, skeletal abnormalities and architectural deterioration of bone tissue are common problems under hot climate conditions and with increased age in poultry. 2. In this study, we investigated the effects of soy isoflavone supplementation on egg production, egg quality, bone mineral density (BMD), levels of osteocalcin (OC), vitamin D, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) during the late laying period. 3. The birds (n = 180; 28 weeks old) were randomly assigned to 6 treatment groups consisting of 6 replicates of 5 birds each in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments (temperatures, soy isoflavone concentration). Birds were kept in wire cages in a temperature-controlled room at either 22 degrees C (thermo-neutral, TN) or 34 degrees C (heat stress, HS) for 8 h/d (09:00 to 17:00 h; until the end of the study) and fed either on a basal (control) diet or on the basal diet supplemented with either 400 or 800 mg of soy isoflavones/kg of diet. 4. Heat exposure reduced feed intake, egg production, egg quality, BMD, OC, vitamin D, Ca, P and ALP when the basal diet was given. Feed intake, egg production and egg weight were not affected, while eggshell thickness and eggshell weight increased in soy isoflavone-supplemented quails reared under TN conditions. However, feed intake, egg production, egg weight, eggshell thickness, eggshell weight and Haugh units were positively influenced by soy isoflavone supplementation in HS groups for quail during the late laying period. Bone mineral density, serum OC, vitamin D, Ca, P levels and ALP activity were significantly improved by soy isoflavone supplementation in both the TN and HS groups in quail during the late laying period. 5. Soy isoflavone supplementation of basal diet significantly improved egg quality and bone mineralisation in quail during the late laying period.

  18. Designer laying hen diets to improve egg fatty acid profile and maintain sensory quality

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Gibson, Robert A; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of eggs is highly reflective of the diet of the laying hen; therefore, nutritionally important fatty acids can be increased in eggs in order to benefit human health. To explore the factors affecting the hen's metabolism and deposition of fatty acids of interest, the current research was divided into two studies. In Study 1, the fatty acid profile of eggs from Bovan White hens fed either 8%, 14%, 20%, or 28% of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids), and an additional treatment of 14% LA containing double the amount of saturated fat (SFA) was determined. Omega-6 fatty acids and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the yolk were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and oleic acid (OA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly decreased with an increasing dietary LA content. In Study 2, the fatty acid and sensory profiles were determined in eggs from Shaver White hens fed either (1) 15% or 30% of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (of total fatty acids), and (2) low (0.5), medium (1), or high (2) ratios of SFA: LA+OA. Increasing this ratio resulted in marked increases in lauric acid, ALA, EPA, DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with decreases in LA and arachidonic acid. Increasing the dietary ALA content from 15% to 30% (of total fatty acids) did not overcome the DHA plateau observed in the yolk. No significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) in aroma or flavor between cooked eggs from the different dietary treatments were observed among trained panelists (n = 8). The results showed that increasing the ratio of SFA: LA+OA in layer diets has a more favorable effect on the yolk fatty acid profile compared to altering the LA content at the expense of OA, all while maintaining sensory quality. PMID:24804037

  19. Designer laying hen diets to improve egg fatty acid profile and maintain sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Gibson, Robert A; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2013-07-01

    The fatty acid composition of eggs is highly reflective of the diet of the laying hen; therefore, nutritionally important fatty acids can be increased in eggs in order to benefit human health. To explore the factors affecting the hen's metabolism and deposition of fatty acids of interest, the current research was divided into two studies. In Study 1, the fatty acid profile of eggs from Bovan White hens fed either 8%, 14%, 20%, or 28% of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids), and an additional treatment of 14% LA containing double the amount of saturated fat (SFA) was determined. Omega-6 fatty acids and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the yolk were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and oleic acid (OA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly decreased with an increasing dietary LA content. In Study 2, the fatty acid and sensory profiles were determined in eggs from Shaver White hens fed either (1) 15% or 30% of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (of total fatty acids), and (2) low (0.5), medium (1), or high (2) ratios of SFA: LA+OA. Increasing this ratio resulted in marked increases in lauric acid, ALA, EPA, DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with decreases in LA and arachidonic acid. Increasing the dietary ALA content from 15% to 30% (of total fatty acids) did not overcome the DHA plateau observed in the yolk. No significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) in aroma or flavor between cooked eggs from the different dietary treatments were observed among trained panelists (n = 8). The results showed that increasing the ratio of SFA: LA+OA in layer diets has a more favorable effect on the yolk fatty acid profile compared to altering the LA content at the expense of OA, all while maintaining sensory quality.

  20. Effects of environmental temperature and dietary manganese on egg production performance, egg quality, and some plasma biochemical traits of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y W; Xie, J J; Li, W X; Lu, L; Zhang, L Y; Ji, C; Lin, X; Liu, H C; Odle, J; Luo, X G

    2015-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of environmental temperature and dietary Mn on egg production performance, egg quality, and some plasma biochemical traits of broiler breeders. A completely randomized factorial design involved 2 environmental temperatures (a normal temperature, 21 ± 1°C, and a high temperature, 32 ± 1°C) × 3 dietary Mn treatments (a Mn-unsupplemented corn–soybean meal basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 120 mg of Mn/kg of diet as either MnSO4·H2O or manganese proteinate). There were 6 treatments with 6 replicates (4 birds per replicate). High temperature decreased egg weight (P < 0.0001), laying rate (P < 0.0001), egg yield (P < 0.0001), feed intake (P < 0.0001), egg:feed ratio (P < 0.0001), eggshell strength (P < 0.05) and thickness (P < 0.0001), plasma triiodothyronine level (P < 0.05), and alkaline phosphatase activity (P < 0.04) whereas it increased rectal temperature (P < 0.0001); plasma malondialdehyde level (P < 0.02); and activities (P < 0.002) of lactic dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase. Broiler breeders fed the diets supplemented with Mn regardless of source had greater (P < 0.05) eggshell strength and lower (P ≤ 0.05) plasma triiodothyronine level and protein carbonyl content than those fed the control diet. The broiler breeders fed the diet supplemented with the organic Mn had greater (P < 0.01) eggshell thickness than those fed the control diet. There were interactions (P < 0.05) between environmental temperature and dietary Mn in laying rate, egg yield, feed intake, and egg:feed ratio. Under normal temperature, dietary Mn did not affect the above 4 parameters; however, under high temperature, broiler breeders fed the diet supplemented with the organic Mn showed greater (P < 0.03) improvements in these 4 parameters than those fed the control diet. The results from this study indicated that high temperature significantly impaired egg production performance and

  1. Design and implementation air quality monitoring robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuanhua; Li, Jie; Qi, Chunxue

    2017-01-01

    Robot applied in environmental protection can break through the limitations in working environment, scope and mode of the existing environmental monitoring and pollution abatement equipments, which undertake the innovation and improvement in the basin, atmosphere, emergency and pollution treatment facilities. Actually, the relevant technology is backward with limited research and investment. Though the device companies have achieved some results in the study on the water quality monitoring, pipeline monitoring and sewage disposal, this technological progress on the whole is still much slow, and the mature product has not been formed. As a result, the market urges a demand of a new type of device which is more suitable for environmental protection on the basis of robot successfully applied in other fields. This paper designs and realizes a tracked mobile robot of air quality monitoring, which can be used to monitor air quality for the pollution accident in industrial parks and regular management.

  2. Effects of reducing dietary protein, methionine, choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 during the late stages of the egg production cycle on performance and eggshell quality.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, K

    2003-09-01

    A series of four experiments was conducted to determine whether-shell quality during the late stages of egg production can be improved by using diets that are effective in reducing egg size. The experiments involved dietary manipulation of protein, methionine, choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12. In experiment 1, reducing dietary protein in combination of reducing the dietary methionine and choline or this diet without supplemental folic acid and vitamin B12 resulted in reduced egg weight and improved shell quality. However, egg production also was drastically reduced. In experiment 2, reducing the dietary level of methionine, without adding supplemental choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality, but egg production was reduced as well. In this experiment reducing the dietary methionine without supplemental folic acid and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality with no adverse effect on egg production. In experiment 3, reducing the dietary level of methionine and choline or reducing the dietary level of choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality without adverse effects on egg production. On the other hand, reducing dietary methionine, folic acid, vitamin B12, and supplemental choline reduced egg weight and improved shell quality but lowered egg production. In experiment 4, reducing dietary methionine together with reducing choline and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality with no adverse effect on egg production. The results of this series of experiments generally indicate that certain manipulations of the combination of methionine, choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 have the potential to reduce egg weight and improve shell quality without affecting egg production during the latter stages of the egg production cycle.

  3. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  5. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  6. 40 CFR 93.160 - Mitigation of air quality impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mitigation of air quality impacts. 93... quality impacts. (a) Any measures that are intended to mitigate air quality impacts must be identified and..., the revised text is set forth as follows: § 93.160 Mitigation of air quality impacts. (e)...

  7. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  8. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR Chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR Chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR Chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  12. Baseline air quality study at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, M.J.; Charboneau, R.

    1980-10-01

    Air quality and meteorological data collected at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are presented. The data represent baseline values for the pre-construction phase of a proposed coal-gasification test facility. Air quality data were characterized through continuous monitoring of gaseous pollutants, collection of meteorological data, data acquisition and reduction, and collection and analysis of discrete atmospheric samples. Seven air quality parameters were monitored and recorded on a continuous real-time basis: sulfur dioxide, ozone, total hydrocarbons, nonreactive hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide. A 20.9-m tower was erected near Argonne's mobile air monitoring laboratory, which was located immediately downwind of the proposed facility. The tower was instrumented at three levels to collect continuous meteorological data. Wind speed was monitored at three levels; wind direction, horizontal and vertical, at the top level; ambient temperature at the top level; and differential temperature between all three levels. All continuously-monitored parameters were digitized and recorded on magnetic tape. Appropriate software was prepared to reduce the data. Statistical summaries, grphical displays, and correlation studies also are presented.

  13. The Egg in the Bottle Revisited: Air Pressure and Amontons' Law (Charles' Law).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adcock, Louis H.

    1998-01-01

    Presents instructions for putting a hard-boiled egg inside a bottle whose opening is slightly smaller than the egg's circumference, and for getting the egg out of the bottle. Also describes variations of the demonstration such as cooling the flask or using a banana. Cites incorrect and correct explanations of the demonstrated phenomenon. Contains…

  14. Indoor air quality and health in schools*

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana Maria da Conceição; Cardoso, Massano

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether indoor air quality in schools is associated with the prevalence of allergic and respiratory diseases in children. Methods: We evaluated 1,019 students at 51 elementary schools in the city of Coimbra, Portugal. We applied a questionnaire that included questions regarding the demographic, social, and behavioral characteristics of students, as well as the presence of smoking in the family. We also evaluated the indoor air quality in the schools. Results: In the indoor air of the schools evaluated, we identified mean concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) above the maximum reference value, especially during the fall and winter. The CO2 concentration was sometimes as high as 1,942 ppm, implying a considerable health risk for the children. The most prevalent symptoms and respiratory diseases identified in the children were sneezing, rales, wheezing, rhinitis, and asthma. Other signs and symptoms, such as poor concentration, cough, headache, and irritation of mucous membranes, were identified. Lack of concentration was associated with CO2 concentrations above the maximum recommended level in indoor air (p = 0.002). There were no other significant associations. Conclusions: Most of the schools evaluated presented with reasonable air quality and thermal comfort. However, the concentrations of various pollutants, especially CO2, suggest the need for corrective interventions, such as reducing air pollutant sources and improving ventilation. There was a statistically significant association between lack of concentration in the children and exposure to high levels of CO2. The overall low level of pollution in the city of Coimbra might explain the lack of other significant associations. PMID:25029649

  15. Quality screening for air quality monitoring data in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Weifeng; Li, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter data obtained from the national air quality monitoring network in China has become an essential and critical data source for many current and forthcoming studies as well as the formulation and implementation of air pollution regulatory policies on particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10). However, the quality control of this data is dubitable and can affect many future studies and policies. This study identifies and elucidates two significant quality control issues with the data. They are PM2.5 levels exceeding concurrent co-located PM10 levels and the registration of same concentrations for consecutive hours at some stations. Future studies utilizing particulate matter data need to acknowledge and address these issues to ensure accurate and reliable results.

  16. Effects of dietary methionine on performance, egg quality and glutathione redox system in egg-laying ducks.

    PubMed

    Fouad, A M; Ruan, D; Lin, Y C; Zheng, C T; Zhang, H X; Chen, W; Wang, S; Xia, W G; Li, Y

    2016-12-01

    In this study, 6 dietary DL-methionine (Met) levels (2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5 and 5.0 g/kg) were tested to estimate the dietary Met requirements of Longyan ducks from 19 to 46 weeks of age, and to investigate its effect on the glutathione redox system. In total, 1080 Longyan ducks aged 19 weeks were allocated randomly to the 6 dietary treatments, where each treatment comprised 6 replicate pens with 30 ducks per pen. Met had no effects on egg production, yolk weight, yolk colour or the glutathione redox system, but the egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were improved significantly by dietary Met supplementation. As the dietary Met concentration increased, the eggshell thickness and breaking strength decreased significantly, whereas the albumen weight increased significantly. According to broken-line regression analysis, the optimum Met requirements for egg weight, egg mass, FCR and albumen weight are 686, 661, 658 and 731 mg/bird/d, respectively, with a dietary crude protein level of 170 g/kg.

  17. Determination of Air Quality. Proceedings of the ACS Symposium on Determination of Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamantov, Gleb, Ed.; Shults, W. D., Ed.

    Composed of data submitted by a variety of experts in the field, this book provides an introduction to air pollution control. It contains the proceedings of the American Chemical Society Symposium on Determination of Air Quality held in Los Angeles, California, April 1-2, 1971. Contributions from chemists, physicians, engineers, administrators,…

  18. Rural southeast Texas air quality measurements during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study.

    PubMed

    Schade, Gunnar W; Khan, Siraj; Park, Changhyoun; Boedeker, Ian

    2011-10-01

    The authors conducted air quality measurements of the criteria pollutants carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and ozone together with meteorological measurements at a park site southeast of College Station, TX, during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study II (TexAQS). Ozone, a primary focus of the measurements, was above 80 ppb during 3 days and above 75 ppb during additional 8 days in summer 2006, suggestive of possible violations of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in this area. In concordance with other air quality measurements during the TexAQS II, elevated ozone mixing ratios coincided with northerly flows during days after cold front passages. Ozone background during these days was as high as 80 ppb, whereas southerly air flows generally provided for an ozone background lower than 40 ppb. Back trajectory analysis shows that local ozone mixing ratios can also be strongly affected by the Houston urban pollution plume, leading to late afternoon ozone increases of as high as 50 ppb above background under favorable transport conditions. The trajectory analysis also shows that ozone background increases steadily the longer a southern air mass resides over Texas after entering from the Gulf of Mexico. In light of these and other TexAQS findings, it appears that ozone air quality is affected throughout east Texas by both long-range and regional ozone transport, and that improvements therefore will require at least a regionally oriented instead of the current locally oriented ozone precursor reduction policies.

  19. Melatonin implantation improved the egg-laying rate and quality in hens past their peak egg-laying age

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yaxiong; Yang, Minghui; Zhu, Kuanfeng; Wang, Liang; Song, Yukun; Wang, Jing; Qin, Wenxiang; Xu, Zhiyuan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Guoshi

    2016-01-01

    The egg-laying rates of hens approximately 470 days of age exhibited a positive correlation to blood melatonin levels. The hens with an egg-laying rate <30%, 30~90% and ≥90% had blood melatonin levels of 5.8 ± 2.6, 74.0 ± 32.9 and 445.9 ± 115.3 ng/ml, respectively. When 10 mg of melatonin was implanted into the hens at 300, 360, 470 and 550 days of age, the egg-laying rates increased 4.63 ± 0.46%, 8.38 ± 1.45%, 4.93 ± 0.85% and 7.93 ± 0.91%, respectively, compared to that of the controls. Melatonin implantation in hens at 300–470 days of age was observed to enhance egg production and reduce the rate of appearance of sharpei eggs. Melatonin (10 mg) implanted in hens 360 days of age did not influence the blood levels of progesterone (P4) or the gene expression levels of ovarian follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), oestradiol receptor alpha (ERα), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) or melatonin receptor 1 (MT1). In contrast, melatonin significantly elevated the serum oestradiol-17β (E2) content, down-regulated the gene expression of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone receptor (GnIHR), and enhanced the expression of melatonin receptor 2 (MT2). This result indicates that the improved egg-laying rate by melatonin was the result of increased serum oestradiol and decreased ovarian GnIHR. These alterations may be mediated by MT2 activation. PMID:28008984

  20. Melatonin implantation improved the egg-laying rate and quality in hens past their peak egg-laying age.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yaxiong; Yang, Minghui; Zhu, Kuanfeng; Wang, Liang; Song, Yukun; Wang, Jing; Qin, Wenxiang; Xu, Zhiyuan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Guoshi

    2016-12-23

    The egg-laying rates of hens approximately 470 days of age exhibited a positive correlation to blood melatonin levels. The hens with an egg-laying rate <30%, 30~90% and ≥90% had blood melatonin levels of 5.8 ± 2.6, 74.0 ± 32.9 and 445.9 ± 115.3 ng/ml, respectively. When 10 mg of melatonin was implanted into the hens at 300, 360, 470 and 550 days of age, the egg-laying rates increased 4.63 ± 0.46%, 8.38 ± 1.45%, 4.93 ± 0.85% and 7.93 ± 0.91%, respectively, compared to that of the controls. Melatonin implantation in hens at 300-470 days of age was observed to enhance egg production and reduce the rate of appearance of sharpei eggs. Melatonin (10 mg) implanted in hens 360 days of age did not influence the blood levels of progesterone (P4) or the gene expression levels of ovarian follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), oestradiol receptor alpha (ERα), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) or melatonin receptor 1 (MT1). In contrast, melatonin significantly elevated the serum oestradiol-17β (E2) content, down-regulated the gene expression of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone receptor (GnIHR), and enhanced the expression of melatonin receptor 2 (MT2). This result indicates that the improved egg-laying rate by melatonin was the result of increased serum oestradiol and decreased ovarian GnIHR. These alterations may be mediated by MT2 activation.

  1. Impact of commercial housing systems and nutrient and energy intake on laying hen performance and egg quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Karcher, D M; Jones, D R; Abdo, Z; Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    The US egg industry is exploring alternative housing systems for laying hens. However, limited published research related to cage-free aviary systems and enriched colony cages exists related to production, egg quality, and hen nutrition. The laying hen's nutritional requirements and resulting productivity are well established with the conventional cage system, but diminutive research is available in regards to alternative housing systems. The restrictions exist with limited availability of alternative housing systems in research settings and the considerable expense for increased bird numbers in a replicate due to alternative housing system design. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the impact of nutrient and energy intake on production and egg quality parameters from laying hens housed at a commercial facility. Lohmann LSL laying hens were housed in three systems: enriched colony cage, cage-free aviary, and conventional cage at a single commercial facility. Daily production records were collected along with dietary changes during 15 production periods (28-d each). Eggs were analyzed for shell strength, shell thickness, Haugh unit, vitelline membrane properties, and egg solids each period. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coupled with a principal components analysis (PCA) approach was utilized to assess the impact of nutritional changes on production parameters and monitored egg quality factors. The traits of hen-day production and mortality had a response only in the PCA 2 direction. This finds that as house temperature and Met intake increases, there is an inflection point at which hen-day egg production is negatively effected. Dietary changes more directly influenced shell parameters, vitelline membrane parameters, and egg total solids as opposed to laying hen housing system. Therefore, further research needs to be conducted in controlled research settings on laying hen nutrient and energy intake in the alternative housing systems

  2. South coast air quality management district

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    The first of several state-of-the-art sampling instruments to monitor acid fog in the South Coast Air Basin on an on-going basis has been in stalled in Rubidoux by the South Coast Air Quality Management District. The automated equipment, called the Caltech Active Strand Collector (CASC), is part of a long-term acid fog monitoring program developed by AQMD. The collecting process involves drawing a fog-laden air sample into the collector where fog droplets strike a series of teflon strands and run down to a collection trough. The sample is then sent to AQMD's laboratory to determine acidity and chemical composition. The monitoring equipment will be moved to Pomona later this winter, and to Crestline in the spring. Following this initial evaluation period, additional CASC units will be sited in the region.

  3. Building ventilation and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Hollowell, C.D.; Berk, J.V.; Boegel, M.L.; Miksch, R.R.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Traynor, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor contaminants and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Four indoor air contaminants - carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide from gas appliances; formaldehyde from particleboard, plywood, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and gas appliances; and radon from building materials, soil, and ground water - are currently receiving considerable attention in the context of potential health risks associated with reduced infiltration and ventilation rates. These air contaminants in conventional and energy efficient buildings were measured and analyzed with a view to assessing their potential health risks and various control strategies capable of lowering pollutant concentrations. Preliminary findings suggest that further intensive studies are needed in order to develop criteria for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality without compromising energy efficiency.

  4. Transcriptomic Profiling of Egg Quality in Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Sheds Light on Genes Involved in Ubiquitination and Translation.

    PubMed

    Żarski, Daniel; Nguyen, Thaovi; Le Cam, Aurélie; Montfort, Jérôme; Dutto, Gilbert; Vidal, Marie Odile; Fauvel, Christian; Bobe, Julien

    2017-02-01

    Variable and low egg quality is a major limiting factor for the development of efficient aquaculture production. This stems from limited knowledge on the mechanisms underlying egg quality in cultured fish. Molecular analyses, such as transcriptomic studies, are valuable tools to identify the most important processes modulating egg quality. However, very few studies have been devoted to this aspect so far. Within this study, the microarray-based transcriptomic analysis of eggs (of different quality) of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) was performed. An Agilent oligo microarray experiment was performed on labelled mRNA extracted from 16 batches of eggs (each batch obtained from a different female) of sea bass, in which over 24,000 published probe arrays were used. We identified 39 differentially expressed genes exhibiting a differential expression between the groups of low (fertilization rate < 60 %) and high (fertilization rate > 60 %) quality. The mRNA levels of eight genes were further analyzed by quantitative PCR. Seven genes were confirmed by qPCR to be differentially expressed in eggs of low and high quality. This study confirmed the importance of some of the genes already reported to be potential molecular quality indicators (mainly rnf213 and irf7), but we also found new genes (mainly usp5, mem-prot, plec, cenpf), which had not yet been reported to be quality-dependent in fish. These results suggest the importance of genes involved in several important processes, such as protein ubiquitination, translation, DNA repair, and cell structure and architecture; these probably being the mechanisms that contribute to egg developmental competence in sea bass.

  5. Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In February 2006, EPA released the final document, Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Other Photochemical Oxidants. Tropospheric or surface-level ozone (O3) is one of six major air pollutants regulated by National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) under the U.S. Clean Air Act. As mandated by the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must periodically review the scientific bases (or criteria) for the various NAAQS by assessing newly available scientific information on a given criteria air pollutant. This document, Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Other Photochemical Oxidants, is an updated revision of the 1996 Ozone Air Quality Criteria Document (O3 AQCD) that provided scientific bases for the current O3 NAAQS set in 1997. The Clean Air Act mandates periodic review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six common air pollutants, also referred to as criteria pollutants, including ozone.

  6. Effect of Ultra-sonication Treatment on the Quality Characteristics of Baked Eggs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The effect of ultra-sonication on quality characteristics and flavor of baked eggs was studied. One hundred and twenty eggs were cooked and assigned to six treatments groups (n=20 each) that were then soaked in saline solution at various concentrations (5, 10 and 18%) with/or without further ultra-sonication treatment at 35 kHz for 1 h. The pH values were lower in the ultra-sonicated samples in comparison with the non-ultra-sonicated samples (p<0.05). The values for texture traits were higher in the samples soaked in 10% saline solution with ultra-sonication in comparison with other remaining treatments or control (p<0.05). The sodium content in samples soaked in 10% saline solution with ultra-sonication was similar to that of the ones soaked in 18% saline solution without ultra-sonication. The higher flavor scores were also given for the ultra-sonicated samples in comparison with the control or non-ultra-sonicated ones. These results suggest that the application of ultra-sonication may produce a faster sodium penetration into baked eggs, simultaneously improves some textural traits (e.g., hardness) as well as flavor of the products. PMID:27621685

  7. Increasing persistency in lay and stabilising egg quality in longer laying cycles. What are the challenges?

    PubMed Central

    Bain, M. M.; Nys, Y.; Dunn, I.C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the past 50 years, selection starting initially at the breed level and then using quantitative genetics coupled with a sophisticated breeding pyramid, has resulted in a very productive hybrid for a variety of traits associated with egg production.One major trait currently being developed further is persistency of lay and the concept of the “long life” layer. Persistency in lay however cannot be achieved without due consideration of how to sustain egg quality and the health and welfare of the birds in longer laying cycles. These multiple goals require knowledge and consideration of the bird’s physiology, nutritional requirements, which vary depending on age and management system, reproductive status and choice of the selection criteria applied.The recent advent of molecular genetics offers considerable hope that these multiple elements can be balanced for the good of all in the industry including the hens.The “long life” layer, which will be capable of producing 500 eggs in a laying cycle of 100 weeks, is therefore on the horizon, bringing with it the benefits of a more efficient utilisation of diminishing resources, including land, water, raw materials for feed as well as a reduction in waste, and an overall reduced carbon footprint. PMID:26982003

  8. Analysis of air quality management with emphasis on transportation sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T. D.; Divita, E.; Lees, L.

    1980-01-01

    The current environment and practices of air quality management were examined for three regions: Denver, Phoenix, and the South Coast Air Basin of California. These regions were chosen because the majority of their air pollution emissions are related to mobile sources. The impact of auto exhaust on the air quality management process is characterized and assessed. An examination of the uncertainties in air pollutant measurements, emission inventories, meteorological parameters, atmospheric chemistry, and air quality simulation models is performed. The implications of these uncertainties to current air quality management practices is discussed. A set of corrective actions are recommended to reduce these uncertainties.

  9. Altitude characteristics of selected air quality analyzers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. H.; Strong, R.; Tommerdahl, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of altitude (pressure) on the operation and sensitivity of various air quality analyzers frequently flown on aircraft were analyzed. Two ozone analyzers were studied at altitudes from 600 to 7500 m and a nitrogen oxides chemiluminescence detector and a sulfur dioxide flame photometric detector were studied at altitudes from 600 to 3000 m. Calibration curves for altitude corrections to the sensitivity of the instruments are presented along with discussion of observed instrument behavior.

  10. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    PubMed Central

    Jurado, Sonia R.; Bankoff, Antônia D. P.; Sanchez, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 μg/m3) in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively). The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem. PMID:25019268

  11. Incorporating principal component analysis into air quality ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The efficacy of standard air quality model evaluation techniques is becoming compromised as the simulation periods continue to lengthen in response to ever increasing computing capacity. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a statistical approach called Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with the intent of motivating its use by the evaluation community. One of the main objectives of PCA is to identify, through data reduction, the recurring and independent modes of variations (or signals) within a very large dataset, thereby summarizing the essential information of that dataset so that meaningful and descriptive conclusions can be made. In this demonstration, PCA is applied to a simple evaluation metric – the model bias associated with EPA's Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model when compared to weekly observations of sulfate (SO42−) and ammonium (NH4+) ambient air concentrations measured by the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet). The advantages of using this technique are demonstrated as it identifies strong and systematic patterns of CMAQ model bias across a myriad of spatial and temporal scales that are neither constrained to geopolitical boundaries nor monthly/seasonal time periods (a limitation of many current studies). The technique also identifies locations (station–grid cell pairs) that are used as indicators for a more thorough diagnostic evaluation thereby hastening and facilitating understanding of the prob

  12. Biogenic organic emissions, air quality and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    Living organisms produce copious amounts of a diverse array of metabolites including many volatile organic compounds that are released into the atmosphere. These compounds participate in numerous chemical reactions that influence the atmospheric abundance of important air pollutants and short-lived climate forcers including organic aerosol, ozone and methane. The production and release of these organics are strongly influenced by environmental conditions including air pollution, temperature, solar radiation, and water availability and they are highly sensitive to stress and extreme events. As a result, releases of biogenic organics to the atmosphere have an impact on, and are sensitive to, air quality and climate leading to potential feedback couplings. Their role in linking air quality and climate is conceptually clear but an accurate quantitative representation is needed for predictive models. Progress towards this goal will be presented including numerical model development and assessments of the predictive capability of the Model of Emission of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). Recent studies of processes controlling the magnitude and variations in biogenic organic emissions will be described and observations of their impact on atmospheric composition will be shown. Recent advances and priorities for future research will be discussed including laboratory process studies, long-term measurements, multi-scale regional studies, global satellite observations, and the development of a next generation model for simulating land-atmosphere chemical exchange.

  13. [Soil contamination with Toxocara sp. eggs in squares and public places from the city of La Plata. Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Fonrouge, R; Guardis, M V; Radman, N E; Archelli, S M

    2000-01-01

    This study consisted of a stratified sampling, randomly taken, of the soil from the squares and parks of the city of La Plata, Province of Buenos Aires, in order to establish the prevalence of contamination caused by Toxocara sp. A total 242 soil samples was examined. From each sample a 10 grams aliquot was taken, washed in a 0.2% Tween 80 solution, and processed using the technique of concentration by flotation with sugar solution. There was a prevalence of 13.2%. In each positive sample, the quantity of eggs varied from 1 to 4. Toxocara sp. eggs were observed in 15 out of 22 squares and parks investigated. The sampling design and the processing method employed were satisfactory for the recovering and identification of Toxocara sp. eggs.

  14. Office Building Occupant's Guide to Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us An Office Building Occupants Guide to Indoor Air Quality Indoor Environments Division (6609J) Washington, DC 20460 EPA- ...

  15. Prediction Models are Basis for Rational Air Quality Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Anders; Bach, Wilfrid

    1973-01-01

    An air quality control scheme employing meteorological diffusion, time averaging and frequency, and cost-benefit models is discussed. The methods outlined provide a constant feedback system for air quality control. Flow charts and maps are included. (BL)

  16. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM), released in 2002, is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  17. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model Forms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  18. Citizen Science Opportunities for Monitoring Air Quality Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Citizen Science Opportunities for Monitoring Air Quality fact sheet provides information on what citizen science is and the tools and resources available for citizen scientists interested in monitoring air quality.

  19. Urban Air Quality Forecasting in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Menard, Sylvain; Cousineau, Sophie; Stroud, Craig; Moran, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Environment and Climate Change Canada has been providing air quality (AQ) forecasts for major Canadian urban centers since 2001. Over this period, the Canadian AQ Forecast Program has expanded and evolved. It currently uses the Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS) modelling framework. At the heart of the RAQDPS is the GEM-MACH model, an on-line coupled meteorology‒chemistry model configured for a North American domain with 10 km horizontal grid spacing and 80 vertical levels. A statistical post-processing model (UMOS-AQ) is then applied to the RAQDPS hourly forecasts for locations with AQ monitors to reduce point forecast bias and error. These outputs provide the primary guidance from which operational meteorologists disseminate Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) forecasts to the public for major urban centres across Canada. During the 2015 summer Pan Am and Parapan Am Games, which were held in Ontario, Canada, an experimental version of the RAQDPS at 2.5 km horizontal grid spacing was run for a domain over the greater Toronto area. Currently, there is ongoing research to develop and assess AQ systems run at 1 km resolution. This presentation will show analyses of operational AQ forecast performance for several pollutants over the last few years in major Canadian urban centres such as Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, and Calgary. Trends in observed pollution along with short- and long-term development plans for urban AQ forecasting will also be presented.

  20. Quantification of the heat exchange of chicken eggs.

    PubMed

    Van Brecht, A; Hens, H; Lemaire, J L; Aerts, J M; Degraeve, P; Berckmans, D

    2005-03-01

    In the incubation process of domestic avian eggs, the development of the embryo is mainly influenced by the physical microenvironment around the egg. Only small spatiotemporal deviations in the optimal incubator air temperature are allowed to optimize hatchability and hatchling quality. The temperature of the embryo depends on 3 factors: (1) the air temperature, (2) the exchange of heat between the egg and its microenvironment and (3) the time-variable heat production of the embryo. Theoretical estimates on the heat exchange between an egg and its physical microenvironment are approximated using equations that assume an approximate spherical shape for eggs. The objective of this research was to determine the heat transfer between the eggshell and its microenvironment and then compare this value to various theoretical estimates. By using experimental data, the overall and the convective heat transfer coefficients were determined as a function of heat production, air humidity, air speed, and air temperature. Heat transfer was not affected by air humidity but solely by air temperature, embryonic heat generation, and air speed and flow around eggs. Also, heat transfer in forced-air incubators occurs mainly by convective heat loss, which is dependent on the speed of airflow. A vertical airflow is more efficient than a horizontal airflow in transferring heat from the egg. We showed that describing an egg as a sphere underestimated convective heat transfer by 33% and was, therefore, too simplistic to accurately assess actual heat transfer from real eggs.

  1. Effect of estrogen on egg production, shell quality and calcium metabolism in molted hens.

    PubMed

    Qin, X; Klandorf, H

    1995-01-01

    Force-molted White Leghorn laying hens were implanted with 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 3 Compudose 200 pellets (24 mg 17 beta estradiol/pellet). Plasma estradiol increased with increasing E2 dosages in a linear manner and decreased over time in a quadratic manner (P < 0.01). E2 treatment had a nonlinear effect on total plasma calcium. Oviduct weight, shell thickness and egg weight were not significantly affected by exogenous estradiol whereas tibial bone ash percentage was increased at only one dose (P < 0.05:0.5 pellet group). Physiological supplementation with estradiol does not improve shell quality.

  2. Air quality impacts of electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hartgen, D.T.; Murthy, M.; Cheung, N.N.Y.; Patten, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    The potential air quality impacts of electric vehicles in North Carolina are evaluated considering both air pollution reductions from less use of internal combustion engine vehicles and also additional air pollution at electric power plants. Using a consumer survey of 260 households, estimates of EV sales at $20,000 per vehicle, $15,000 and $10,000 are first made. EV purchases are classified as to whether they would be additional (new to family) or replacements of conventional cars. For additional vehicles, the extra pollution is computed as mileage driven, times KWH/mile, times power plant pollution rates. This pollution is then attributed directly to power plants, using NC pollution rates and the NC fuel mix. For replacement vehicles, EV pollution added to power plants is offset by direct pollution savings from ICE vahicles. Pollution effects are computed for each observation and displayed on a GIS of the state. Results show that EV air pollution effects are highly dependent on the assumptions made about the fraction of additional vs. replacement vehicles, and future power plant emission rates. The study concludes that EV effects on air pollution are highly uncertain.

  3. Changes in egg quality traits during the last phase of production: is there potential for an extended laying cycle?

    PubMed

    Molnár, A; Maertens, L; Ampe, B; Buyse, J; Kempen, I; Zoons, J; Delezie, E

    2016-12-01

    1. A field study was conducted to investigate the deterioration of eggshell quality at the end of lay and examine the potential to extend the production cycle. A total of 1200 eggs were assessed originating from commercial farms in Belgium: eggs were random sampled at the collection belt at 57-65 weeks of age and at the end of the production cycle (74-92 weeks). 2. Based on a linear mixed model, egg quality was estimated for an average flock at 60 weeks of age and changes in quality traits were predicted until the end of the laying cycle. 3. Egg weight increased by 0.07 g every week from 60 weeks of age onwards and shape index decreased by 0.04 unit weekly (P < 0.001). Haugh unit values decreased weekly by 0.38 units whereas relative yolk weight was unaffected after 60 weeks of age. Relative albumen weight showed a weekly increase of 0.02% and relative shell decreased by 0.02% weekly until the end of lay. 4. Shell quality traits were also influenced by age: shell index decreased by 0.013 g weekly, shell thickness was calculated to be 0.23 µm thinner every week, deformation increased by 0.06 µm weekly from 60 weeks to the end of the laying cycle. Variability of the deformation of eggs indicated more heterogeneous shell quality at the end of the production cycle. Dynamic stiffness increased from 60 weeks of age on. 5. Laying hens were depopulated on average at 80 weeks of age (varying from 74-92 weeks). Although ageing had a significant effect on most of the egg quality traits, egg quality was still acceptable at the end of lay, indicating the potential to extend the laying cycle.

  4. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more pol...

  5. Parent's Guide to School Indoor Air Quality. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is air pollution, indoors or out. Good indoor air quality (IAQ) contributes to a favorable learning environment for students, protects health, and supports the productivity of school personnel. In schools in poor repair, leaky roofs and crumbling walls have caused additional indoor air quality problems, including contamination with…

  6. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  8. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  9. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  10. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  11. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  13. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  16. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  17. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  18. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  19. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  20. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  1. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  2. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  4. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the productivity of laying hens and egg quality during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Shang, X G; Wang, F L; Li, D F; Yin, J D; Li, J Y

    2004-10-01

    Five hundred and four 40-wk-old Brown Dwarf hens (1.51 +/- 0.08 kg BW) were fed corn-soybean meal diets containing 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 56 d to measure the effects of dietary CLA on laying hen productivity and egg quality during refrigerated storage. Four hens were placed in 1 cage, and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. After feeding the experimental diets for 11 d, eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of egg yolks. From d 12 to 18, eggs from hens fed diets containing 0, 2, 4, and 6% CLA diets were stored at 4 degrees C for up to 28 d. At designated times (1, 14, or 28 d), eggs were taken, broken, and shelled to evaluate water content, pH, and ion concentration. Firmness of hard-cooked egg yolk was also determined. With increased dietary CLA, feed intake, BW gain, rate of egg production, egg weight, and feed efficiency all decreased linearly (P < 0.01). The weight of the yolk, albumen, and shell decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary CLA. Concentration of CLA in the yolk lipids increased quadratically (P < 0.01), with increasing dietary CLA. Concurrent increases (P < 0.01) in the concentration of myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids and decreases (P < 0.01) in oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and archidonic acids in egg yolk lipids were observed. Days of storage and CLA (P < 0.01) increased yolk firmness. Egg yolk water content and pH increased with storage and CLA content (P < 0.01). Corresponding decreases were observed in albumen pH. Regardless of dietary treatment, the concentrations of Na, K, and Mg in egg yolks increased with longer storage time. At 28 d of storage, there was a linear (P < 0.01) increase in Na, K, and Mg content in egg yolks as dietary CLA increased. In contrast to the egg yolk, the concentrations of Na, K, and Mg in egg albumen decreased with storage time. On d 28, there was a linear decrease (P < 0.01) in the Na content of

  5. 40 CFR 52.2682 - Air quality surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality surveillance. 52.2682... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2682 Air quality... Pollution Control Standards and Regulations” (buffer zones—air quality sampling) are not in conformance...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 51.860 - Mitigation of air quality impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mitigation of air quality impacts. 51... Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 51.860 Mitigation of air quality impacts. Link... mitigate air quality impacts must be identified and the process for implementation and enforcement of...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2682 - Air quality surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality surveillance. 52.2682... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2682 Air quality... Pollution Control Standards and Regulations” (buffer zones—air quality sampling) are not in conformance...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  12. 40 CFR 52.986 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.986 Section 52.986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Louisiana on August 14, 1984 (as adopted... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of...

  13. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  14. 40 CFR 52.60 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.60 Section 52.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 from... “Guideline on Air Quality Models (Revised)” or other models approved by EPA....

  15. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2581 Section 52.2581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(c) (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the... of Wisconsin. (e) Regulations for the prevention of the significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.346 Air quality monitoring... VIII Administrator, the State submitted a revised Air Quality Monitoring State Implementation Plan....

  17. 77 FR 4808 - Conference on Air Quality Modeling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... AGENCY Conference on Air Quality Modeling AGENCY: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of conference. SUMMARY: The EPA will be hosting the Tenth Conference on Air Quality Modeling on... preferred air quality models and to provide a forum for public review and comment on how the...

  18. 40 CFR 93.160 - Mitigation of air quality impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mitigation of air quality impacts. 93.160 Section 93.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality impacts. (a) Any measures that are intended to mitigate air quality impacts must be identified...

  19. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention...

  1. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  2. 40 CFR 52.60 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.60 Section 52.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 from... “Guideline on Air Quality Models (Revised)” or other models approved by EPA....

  3. 40 CFR 52.986 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.986 Section 52.986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Louisiana on August 14, 1984 (as adopted... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of...

  4. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.346 Air quality monitoring... VIII Administrator, the State submitted a revised Air Quality Monitoring State Implementation Plan....

  5. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states....

  6. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2581 Section 52.2581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(c) (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the... of Wisconsin. (e) Regulations for the prevention of the significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states....

  10. 40 CFR 52.2682 - Air quality surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality surveillance. 52.2682... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2682 Air quality... Pollution Control Standards and Regulations” (buffer zones—air quality sampling) are not in conformance...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Nashville, Tennessee 37243-1531, or local agencies, Knox County Air Quality Management-Department of Public... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Nashville, Tennessee 37243-1531, or local agencies, Knox County Air Quality Management-Department of Public... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 15th Floor, Nashville, TN 37243, or local agencies, Knox County Air Quality Management-Department of... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's...

  14. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 83-01, 5/6/83. (2) The PSD rules for North Coast Unified Air Quality Management District are approved... part of the State plan for California for the North Coast Unified Air Quality Management District for... Air Quality Management District, as incorporated by reference in § 52.220(c)(420), is approved...

  15. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 83-01, 5/6/83. (2) The PSD rules for North Coast Unified Air Quality Management District are approved... part of the State plan for California for the North Coast Unified Air Quality Management District for... Air Quality Management District, as incorporated by reference in § 52.220(c)(420), is approved...

  16. On Regional Modeling to Support Air Quality Policies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine the use of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model in simulating the changes in the extreme values of air quality that are of interest to the regulatory agencies. Year-to-year changes in ozone air quality are attributable to variations in the prevailing mete...

  17. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2581 Section 52.2581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(c) (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the... of Wisconsin. (e) Regulations for the prevention of the significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 93.160 - Mitigation of air quality impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mitigation of air quality impacts. 93.160 Section 93.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality impacts. (a) Any measures that are intended to mitigate air quality impacts must be identified...

  20. 40 CFR 93.160 - Mitigation of air quality impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mitigation of air quality impacts. 93.160 Section 93.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality impacts. (a) Any measures that are intended to mitigate air quality impacts must be identified...

  1. 40 CFR 52.60 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.60 Section 52.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 from... “Guideline on Air Quality Models (Revised)” or other models approved by EPA....

  2. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention...

  4. 40 CFR 93.160 - Mitigation of air quality impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Mitigation of air quality impacts. 93.160 Section 93.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality impacts. (a) Any measures that are intended to mitigate air quality impacts must be identified...

  5. 40 CFR 52.60 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.60 Section 52.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 from... “Guideline on Air Quality Models (Revised)” or other models approved by EPA....

  6. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.346 Air quality monitoring... VIII Administrator, the State submitted a revised Air Quality Monitoring State Implementation Plan....

  9. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2922 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2922 Section 52.2922 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Northern Mariana Islands § 52.2922 Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of... procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2581 Section 52.2581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(c) (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the... of Wisconsin. (e) Regulations for the prevention of the significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2581 Section 52.2581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(c) (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the... of Wisconsin. (e) Regulations for the prevention of the significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  15. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  16. 40 CFR 52.60 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.60 Section 52.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 from... “Guideline on Air Quality Models (Revised)” or other models approved by EPA....

  17. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 33984, June 6, 2013. (a) The requirements... approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation...

  18. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.346 Air quality monitoring... VIII Administrator, the State submitted a revised Air Quality Monitoring State Implementation Plan....

  19. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.346 Air quality monitoring... VIII Administrator, the State submitted a revised Air Quality Monitoring State Implementation Plan....

  20. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  3. Impact of commercial housing system on egg quality during extended storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. egg producers are utilizing a variety of commercial egg production systems to provide consumer choice and meet legislative requirements. U.S. consumer egg grades were developed for conventional cage production and it is unclear what impact alternative production systems might have on egg quali...

  4. Ovary transcriptome profiling via artificial intelligence reveals a transcriptomic fingerprint predicting egg quality in striped bass, Morone saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Robert W; Reading, Benjamin J; Sullivan, Craig V

    2014-01-01

    Inherited gene transcripts deposited in oocytes direct early embryonic development in all vertebrates, but transcript profiles indicative of embryo developmental competence have not previously been identified. We employed artificial intelligence to model profiles of maternal ovary gene expression and their relationship to egg quality, evaluated as production of viable mid-blastula stage embryos, in the striped bass (Morone saxatilis), a farmed species with serious egg quality problems. In models developed using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and supervised machine learning, collective changes in the expression of a limited suite of genes (233) representing <2% of the queried ovary transcriptome explained >90% of the eventual variance in embryo survival. Egg quality related to minor changes in gene expression (<0.2-fold), with most individual transcripts making a small contribution (<1%) to the overall prediction of egg quality. These findings indicate that the predictive power of the transcriptome as regards egg quality resides not in levels of individual genes, but rather in the collective, coordinated expression of a suite of transcripts constituting a transcriptomic "fingerprint". Correlation analyses of the corresponding candidate genes indicated that dysfunction of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome, COP9 signalosome, and subsequent control of the cell cycle engenders embryonic developmental incompetence. The affected gene networks are centrally involved in regulation of early development in all vertebrates, including humans. By assessing collective levels of the relevant ovarian transcripts via ANNs we were able, for the first time in any vertebrate, to accurately predict the subsequent embryo developmental potential of eggs from individual females. Our results show that the transcriptomic fingerprint evidencing developmental dysfunction is highly predictive of, and therefore likely to regulate, egg quality, a biologically complex trait crucial to reproductive

  5. Air Quality in the Central Ontario Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gbor, P. K.; Meng, F.; Singh, R.; Galvez, O.; Sloan, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Central Ontario Region (COR) is the most densely populated area in Canada. With a population of 7.3 million, it contains 23% of the total population of Canada. It extends from the extreme south west end of Ontario to the eastern end of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and includes the Niagara, Hamilton and Waterloo Regions,. The air quality of this region is frequently severely impaired in the summer months. In the larger metropolitan areas (Toronto and Hamilton) air pollution is a concern throughout the year. Local health authorities attribute about 1000 premature deaths per year in the GTA alone to air pollution. Average air pollution levels in Ontario have decreased significantly during the past 30 years, despite significant growth in both population and industry. The concentrations of SO2 and CO have decreased by over 80% and the concentration of NOX has decreased by about 50% over the past 26 years. Currently, the concentrations of NOX, CO, SO2 and VOCs in the COR are well below the Provincial and Federal air quality criteria. Ozone, PM2.5 and PM10, however, remain above the Provincial guidelines, so smog still remains a problem. The pollutants in the atmosphere of the COR are caused by both local emissions and long range transport. The COR contributes over 50% of the NOx, VOC and CO emissions in Ontario. Over 58% of NOX and CO emissions in the COR are due to mobile sources while about 50% of VOC and PM emissions are due to area sources. The proximity of the COR to the Canada-U.S. border makes it vulnerable to long range transport of pollutants stemming from the much larger population in the United States. The Canadian government, industries and non-governmental organizations are all taking steps to help reduce the level of pollution in Canada. The Canadian federal government also participates in extensive consultations and cooperative programs with the United States designed to reduce the mutually detrimental effects of cross-border pollution. These

  6. Effects of Octacosanol Extracted from Rice Bran on the Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Metabolites of Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kai; Long, Lei; Wang, Yuxi; Wang, Shunxi

    2016-10-01

    A 42-d study with 384 Hy-line brown laying hens was conducted to assess the effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites of laying hens. Hens were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups of 8 cages each, which were fed basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control), 9 (OCT9), 18 (OCT18), and 27 (OCT27) mg/kg diet of octacosanol isolated from rice bran, respectively. The experiment was conducted in an environmental controlled house and hens were fed twice daily for ad libitum intake. Laying performance was determined over the 42-d period, and egg quality as well as blood metabolites were estimated on d 21 and d 42. Diets in OCT18 and OCT27 increased (p<0.05) laying rate, egg weight, egg mass, egg albumen height, Haugh unit and eggshell strength on d 42, but decreased (p<0.05) feed conversion rate and levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum as compared to those of Control. Feed intake, yolk color, yolk diameter, eggshell thickness and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar (p>0.05) among treatments. Results demonstrate that supplementing 18 to 27 mg/kg diet of rice bran octacosanol can improve laying rate and egg quality and reduce blood lipid of laying hens.

  7. Effects of Octacosanol Extracted from Rice Bran on the Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Metabolites of Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Kai; Long, Lei; Wang, Yuxi; Wang, Shunxi

    2016-01-01

    A 42-d study with 384 Hy-line brown laying hens was conducted to assess the effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites of laying hens. Hens were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups of 8 cages each, which were fed basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control), 9 (OCT9), 18 (OCT18), and 27 (OCT27) mg/kg diet of octacosanol isolated from rice bran, respectively. The experiment was conducted in an environmental controlled house and hens were fed twice daily for ad libitum intake. Laying performance was determined over the 42-d period, and egg quality as well as blood metabolites were estimated on d 21 and d 42. Diets in OCT18 and OCT27 increased (p<0.05) laying rate, egg weight, egg mass, egg albumen height, Haugh unit and eggshell strength on d 42, but decreased (p<0.05) feed conversion rate and levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum as compared to those of Control. Feed intake, yolk color, yolk diameter, eggshell thickness and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar (p>0.05) among treatments. Results demonstrate that supplementing 18 to 27 mg/kg diet of rice bran octacosanol can improve laying rate and egg quality and reduce blood lipid of laying hens. PMID:27282970

  8. Effects of long-term supplementation of laying hens with high concentrations of cholecalciferol on performance and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Persia, M E; Higgins, M; Wang, T; Trample, D; Bobeck, E A

    2013-11-01

    There is current interest in increasing human vitamin D dietary intake without having to modify human eating habits. One method to increase human dietary vitamin D intake is to generate eggs with increased concentrations of vitamin D through high-concentration vitamin D feeding in the diets of laying hens. Although eggs can be produced with high concentrations of vitamin D, the consequences of these diets on hen performance and egg quality have not been validated. The objective of this research is to quantify the effects of high concentrations of cholecalciferol (D3) on laying hen performance and egg quality. Hy-Line W36 laying hens were placed on 1 of 5 experimental diets for 40 wk: 1) control (contained 2,200 IU of D3/kg of diet), 2) control + 7,500 IU of D3/kg of diet (9,700 IU of D3/kg of diet total), 3) control + 15,000 IU of D3/kg of diet (17,200 IU of D3/kg of diet total), 4) control + 22,500 IU of D3/kg of diet (24,700 IU of D3/kg of diet total), and 5) control + 100,000 IU of D3/kg of diet (102,200 IU of D3/kg of diet total). Egg production and hen mortality were monitored daily. Feed intake was determined weekly. Eggs were collected at predetermined points throughout the 40-wk period (19 to 58 wk of bird age) for assessment of egg weight, egg component weights, Haugh unit, yolk color score, specific gravity, egg mass, and feed efficiency. There were no consistent differences among the dietary treatments over the experimental period. Hens supplemented with up to 102,200 IU of D3/kg of diet resulted in no significant reductions in egg production, feed intake, feed efficiency, egg component weights, yolk color, Haugh units, and specific gravity in comparison with the control-fed hens (P > 0.05). These data suggest the addition of cholecalciferol to the diet of the laying hen at concentrations up to 102,200 IU of D3/kg of diet had no consistent negative effects on laying hen performance or egg quality.

  9. 78 FR 47191 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary National Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR18 Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO ) Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule establishes air quality designations for certain areas in the United States for...

  10. 77 FR 32493 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; San Joaquin Valley Unified Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District; Prevention of Significant Deterioration AGENCY: Environmental... submitted for the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (District) portion of...

  11. Foliage Plants for Improving Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's research with foliage houseplants during the past 10 years has produced a new concept in indoor air quality improvement. This new and exciting technology is quite simple. Both plant leaves and roots are utilized in removing trace levels of toxic vapors from inside tightly sealed buildings. Low levels of chemicals such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde can be removed from indoor environments by plant leaves alone, while higher concentrations of numerous toxic chemicals can be removed by filtering indoor air through the plant roots surrounded by activated carbon. The activated carbon absorbs large quantities of the toxic chemicals and retains them until the plant roots and associated microorganisms degrade and assimilate these chemicals.

  12. Co-benefits of air quality and climate change policies on air quality of the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzoli, Luca; Mert Gokturk, Ozan; Unal, Alper; Kindap, Tayfun; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin is one of the regions of the world where significant impacts due to climate changes are predicted to occur in the future. Observations and model simulations are used to provide to the policy makers scientifically based estimates of the necessity to adjust national emission reductions needed to achieve air quality objectives in the context of a changing climate, which is not only driven by GHGs, but also by short lived climate pollutants, such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols. There is an increasing interest and need to design cost-benefit emission reduction strategies, which could improve both regional air quality and global climate change. In this study we used the WRF-CMAQ air quality modelling system to quantify the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to ozone and particulate matter concentrations in Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean and to understand how this contribution could change in different future scenarios. We have investigated four different future scenarios for year 2050 defined during the European Project CIRCE: a "business as usual" scenario (BAU) where no or just actual measures are taken into account; an "air quality" scenario (BAP) which implements the National Emission Ceiling directive 2001/81/EC member states of the European Union (EU-27); a "climate change" scenario (CC) which implements global climate policies decoupled from air pollution policies; and an "integrated air quality and climate policy" scenario (CAP) which explores the co-benefit of global climate and EU-27 air pollution policies. The BAP scenario largely decreases summer ozone concentrations over almost the entire continent, while the CC and CAP scenarios similarly determine lower decreases in summer ozone but extending all over the Mediterranean, the Middle East countries and Russia. Similar patterns are found for winter PM concentrations; BAP scenario improves pollution levels only in the Western EU countries, and the CAP scenario determines

  13. Cleaner Air through Cooperation: Progress under the Air Quality Agreement- 2003

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Read a brochure that provides an overview of the air quality agreement between the U.S. and Canada, followed by key commitments and progress, including air quality programs and scientific cooperation between the two nations.

  14. Phase II Recommendations by the Air Quality Management Subcommittee to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The primary charge of the AQM Subcommittee was to develop recommendations to improve the air quality management system and address the air quality challenges in this country expected over the next 10 to 20 years. This report addresses those challenges.

  15. Identification of haplotypes in promoter of prolactin gene and their effect on egg production and quality traits in layer chicken.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, T K; Chatterjee, R N; Sharma, R P; Niranjan, M; Rajkumar, U; Reddy, B L N

    2011-04-01

    Expression of prolactin hormone is a crucial event in regulating egg production in chickens for which promoter plays the vital role in expressing the prolactin gene. The objective of the present study was to identify haplotypes in the prolactin promoter and their effects on egg production and egg quality traits in White Leghorn chicken. Single stranded conformation polymorphism followed by sequencing was conducted to explore polymorphism at 561 bp promoter of prolactin gene. The effect of haplotype combinations on egg production and quality traits were estimated following general linear model technique. The expression of prolactin by different haplogroups was quantified by qPCR. Total 28 haplotypes were found in White Leghorn chicken of which h1 haplotype possessed the highest frequency of 0.46 and h8, h14, h16, h25, h26, and h28 haplotypes had the lowest frequency (0.1%). The egg production up to 52 and 64 weeks of age were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) associated with haplotype combinations where the highest 52-w (52 weeks) egg production was found in animals with h1/h22 combination and the lowest production was observed in the birds with h1/h2 haplogroup. The haplotype combinations had the significant effect (p < 0.05) on Haugh Unit, yolk index and albumen weight at 40 weeks of age; Haugh Unit and albumen weight at 52 weeks of age and Haugh unit, yolk weight and yolk percentage at 64 weeks of age. The prolactin expression in h1/h22 birds was found to be the lowest and in h1/h5 birds to be the highest. The prolactin expression showed significant effect on 52-w egg production and albumin weight at 52 weeks age. In conclusion, it may be stated that the prolactin promoter was highly polymorphic and had the significant association with egg production and quality traits in White Leghorn chicken.

  16. Effect of feed grinding methods with and without expansion on prececal and total tract mineral digestibility as well as on interior and exterior egg quality in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, A; Mader, A; Ruhnke, I; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2016-01-01

    The grinding of cereals by various milling methods as well as thermal treatment of feed may influence mineral digestibility and egg quality. The present study investigated the effect of feed produced by disc mill (D) and wedge-shaped disc mill (WSD), as mash (M) or expandate (E) on apparent ileal absorption (AIA) and apparent total digestibility (ATD) of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, manganese, copper and iron, as well as on egg quality in laying hens. A total of 192 hens (Lohmann Brown) aged 19 wk, were assigned using a randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Four experimental diets were offered ad libitum. Eggs were analyzed for weight, shape index, area, shell weight per unit surface area, yolk color, air cell, blood spot, Haugh unit, albumen and yolk measures (index, weight, height, width and length), shell measures (surface area, stability, density, thickness and membrane weight), as well as percent contents of albumen, yolk, shell, and shell membrane. The ATD for phosphorus, manganese, and copper was higher in WSD compared with D treatment (P = 0.028, P = 0.028 and P = 0.016, respectively). The interaction between milling methods and thermal treatment influenced ATD of copper (P = 0.033), which was higher in WSD+M group (41.0 ± 20.2) compared with D+E group (-3.21 ± 25.1), whereas no differences were observed for D+M (1.90 ± 37.8) and WSD+E (8.02 ± 36.2) groups. Egg stability tended to be higher in E compared with M treatment (P = 0.055). Albumen weight, percentage albumen weight, and albumen: yolk were higher and percentage yolk weight was lower in D compared with WSD treatment (P = 0.043, P = 0.027, P = 0.024, and P = 0.041, respectively). Number of blood spots was higher in E than M treatment (P = 0.053). In conclusion, use of a wedge-shaped disc mill resulted in higher ATD for phosphorus, manganese, and copper than use of a disc mill; however, digestibility for majority of minerals as well as egg quality parameters was

  17. Performance, egg quality, and blood plasma chemistry of laying hens fed hempseed and hempseed oil.

    PubMed

    Neijat, M; Gakhar, N; Neufeld, J; House, J D

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of hens (feed intake, rate of lay, egg weight, and BW gain), egg quality and blood biochemistry (enzymes, electrolytes, proteins, and other plasma constituents) of laying hens fed diets containing hemp products. Forty-eight Lohmann LSL-Classic (white-egg layers; 19 wk of age) were individually caged and fed 1 of 6 wheat-barley-soybean-based diets for a period of 12 wk. The diets consisted of hempseed (HS; 10, 20, or 30%), hempseed oil (HO; 4.5 or 9.0%), or a control diet (corn oil-based). All diets were formulated to contain similar levels of crude fat (11%), energy (2,800 kcal/kg), and CP (17%). Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using the repeated measure analysis of the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. The results indicated that the inclusion of up to 30 and 9.0% HS and HO, respectively, to diets of laying hens had no significant effects on hen performance, egg quality, or plasma level of metabolites (proteins, glucose, uric acid, and cholesterol) and electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, P, and Ca). Overall plasma enzyme concentrations, particularly gamma-glutamyl transferase, were significantly (P < 0.01) lowest at the 10 and 20% levels of HS inclusion, or at the 4.5% HO level of inclusion of the hempseed products compared with the higher levels or control fed hens. Similar effects were also observed for plasma aspartate aminotransferase levels but with the HS enriched diets only (P < 0.05), particularly being lowest at the inclusion levels of 10 and 20% HS compared with the control. The results may imply a possible protective effect of HS- and HO-containing diets, particularly at 10% HS, 20% HS, and 4.5% HO levels, on liver damage/injury. In summary, both HO and HS appear to be well tolerated by laying hens as judged by markers of plasma clinical chemistry supporting the safety and efficacy of hemp products for use in laying hen rations.

  18. Indoor air quality in a dentistry clinic.

    PubMed

    Helmis, C G; Tzoutzas, J; Flocas, H A; Halios, C H; Stathopoulou, O I; Assimakopoulos, V D; Panis, V; Apostolatou, M; Sgouros, G; Adam, E

    2007-05-15

    The purpose of this work is to assess, both experimentally and theoretically the status of air quality in a dentistry clinic of the Athens University Dentistry Faculty with respect to chemical pollutants and identify the indoor sources associated with dental activities. Total VOCs, CO(2), PM(10), PM(2.5), NO(x) and SO(2) were measured over a period of approximately three months in a selected dentistry clinic. High pollution levels during the operation hours regarding CO(2), total VOCs and Particulate Matter were found, while in the non-working periods lower levels were recorded. On the contrary, NO(x) and SO(2) remained at low levels for the whole experimental period. These conditions were associated with the number of occupants, the nature of the dental clinical procedures, the materials used and the ventilation schemes, which lead to high concentrations, far above the limits that are set by international organizations and concern human exposure. The indoor environmental conditions were investigated using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model PHOENICS for inert gases simulation. The results revealed diagonal temperature stratification and low air velocities leading to pollution stratification, accompanied by accumulation of inert gaseous species in certain areas of the room. Different schemes of natural ventilation were also applied in order to examine their effect on the indoor comfort conditions for the occupants, in terms of air renewal and double cross ventilation was found to be most effective. The relative contribution of the indoor sources, which are mainly associated with indoor activities, was assessed by application of the Multi Chamber Indoor Air Quality Model (MIAQ) to the experimental data. It was found that deposition onto indoor surfaces is an important removal mechanism while a great amount of particulate matter emitted in the Clinic burdened severely the indoor air quality. The natural ventilation of the room seemed to reduce the levels of

  19. Camelina meal increases egg n-3 fatty acid content without altering quality or production in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Kakani, Radhika; Fowler, Justin; Haq, Akram-Ul; Murphy, Eric J; Rosenberger, Thad A; Berhow, Mark; Bailey, Christopher A

    2012-05-01

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed plant rich in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and extruding the seeds results in high protein meal (*40%) containing high levels of n-3 fatty acids. In this study, we examined the effects of feeding extruded defatted camelina meal to commercial laying hens, measuring egg production, quality, and fatty acid composition. Lohmann White Leghorn hens (29 weeks old) were randomly allocated to three dietary treatment groups (n = 25 per group) and data was collected over a 12 week production period. All the treatment groups were fed a corn soy based experimental diet containing 0% (control), 5, or 10% extruded camelina meal. We found no significant differences in percent hen-day egg production and feed consumed per dozen eggs. Egg shell strength was significantly higher in both camelina groups compared to the controls. Egg total n-3 fatty acid content increased 1.9- and 2.7-fold in 5 and 10% camelina groups respectively relative to the control. A similar increase in DHA content also occurred. Further camelina meal did not alter glucosinolate levels and no detectable glucosinolates or metabolic product isothiocyanates were found in the eggs from either the 5 or 10% camelina groups. These results indicate that camelina meal is a viable dietary source of n-3 fatty acids for poultry and its dietary inclusion results in eggs enriched with n-3 fatty acids.

  20. Improving Air Quality with Economic Incentive Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.