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Sample records for air quality soil

  1. Harmonization of environmental quality objectives for air, water and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Plassche, E.J. van de

    1994-12-31

    Environmental quality objectives (EQO) are often derived for single compartments only. However, concentrations at or below EQO level for one compartment may lead to exceeding of the EQO in another compartment due to intermedia transport of the chemical. Hence, achieving concentrations lower than the EQO in e.g. air does not necessarily mean that a ``safe`` concentration in soil can be maintained because of deposition from air to soil. This means that EQOs for air, water and soil must be harmonized in such a way that they meet a coherence criterion. This criterion implies that a EQO for one compartment has to be set at a level that full protection to organisms living in other compartments is ensured. In The Netherlands a project has been started to derive harmonized EQOs for a large number of chemicals. First, EQ0s are derived for all compartments based on ecotoxicological data for single species applying extrapolation methods. Secondly, these independently derived EQOs are harmonized. For harmonization of EQOs for water, sediment and soil the equilibrium partitioning method is used. For harmonization of EQOs for water and soil with the E00s for air a procedure is used applying computed steady state concentration ratios rather than equilibrium partitioning. The model SimpleBox is used for these computations. Some results of the project mentioned above will be presented. Attention will be paid to the derivation of independent EQ0s as well as the harmonization procedures applied.

  2. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Eberwein, J. R.; Liang, L. L.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality. PMID:26556236

  3. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, P Y; Ge, C; Wang, J; Eberwein, J R; Liang, L L; Allsman, L A; Grantz, D A; Jenerette, G D

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality. PMID:26556236

  4. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, P Y; Ge, C; Wang, J; Eberwein, J R; Liang, L L; Allsman, L A; Grantz, D A; Jenerette, G D

    2015-11-10

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality.

  5. A modeling procedure to evaluate the coherence of independently derived environmental quality objectives for air, water and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Meent, D. van de . Lab. for Ecotoxicology); Bruijn, J.H.M. de . Directorate for Chemicals, Safety and Radiation Protection)

    1995-01-01

    Sets of independently derived environmental quality objectives (EQOs) for air, water, and soil may not be coherent in that maintaining the concentration at EQO level in one compartment may lead to exceeding EQO levels in other compartments. A methodology to evaluate this coherence is suggested. Starting from a steady concentration in the compartment of focus (the primary compartment), steady-state concentrations in the adjacent (secondary) compartments are estimated using a multimedia fate model. If air is the primary compartment, steady-state concentrations in water and soil close to the equilibrium concentrations can be expected, and coherence of EQOs can be evaluated easily by means of an extended equilibrium partitioning procedure. If water or soil is the primary compartment, the steady-state concentrate in air is usually well below the equilibrium concentration. Subequilibrium steady-state concentrations are sensitive to assumed model parameters. The procedure is illustrated with the results of a coherence analysis for seven chemicals for The Netherlands.

  6. Enhanced representation of soil NO emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.0.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasool, Quazi Z.; Zhang, Rui; Lash, Benjamin; Cohan, Daniel S.; Cooter, Ellen J.; Bash, Jesse O.; Lamsal, Lok N.

    2016-09-01

    Modeling of soil nitric oxide (NO) emissions is highly uncertain and may misrepresent its spatial and temporal distribution. This study builds upon a recently introduced parameterization to improve the timing and spatial distribution of soil NO emission estimates in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The parameterization considers soil parameters, meteorology, land use, and mineral nitrogen (N) availability to estimate NO emissions. We incorporate daily year-specific fertilizer data from the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) agricultural model to replace the annual generic data of the initial parameterization, and use a 12 km resolution soil biome map over the continental USA. CMAQ modeling for July 2011 shows slight differences in model performance in simulating fine particulate matter and ozone from Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) sites and NO2 columns from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite retrievals. We also simulate how the change in soil NO emissions scheme affects the expected O3 response to projected emissions reductions.

  7. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  8. Transforming air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Janet McCabe

    2005-04-01

    Earlier this year, the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee submitted to EPA 38 recommendations intended to improve air quality management in the United States. This article summarizes the evaluation process leading up to the Committee's recommendations. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Rice grain yield and quality responses to free-air CO2 enrichment combined with soil and water warming.

    PubMed

    Usui, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Tokida, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Toshihiro

    2016-03-01

    Rising air temperatures are projected to reduce rice yield and quality, whereas increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2 ]) can increase grain yield. For irrigated rice, ponded water is an important temperature environment, but few open-field evaluations are available on the combined effects of temperature and [CO2 ], which limits our ability to predict future rice production. We conducted free-air CO2 enrichment and soil and water warming experiments, for three growing seasons to determine the yield and quality response to elevated [CO2 ] (+200 μmol mol(-1) , E-[CO2 ]) and soil and water temperatures (+2 °C, E-T). E-[CO2 ] significantly increased biomass and grain yield by approximately 14% averaged over 3 years, mainly because of increased panicle and spikelet density. E-T significantly increased biomass but had no significant effect on the grain yield. E-T decreased days from transplanting to heading by approximately 1%, but days to the maximum tiller number (MTN) stage were reduced by approximately 8%, which limited the panicle density and therefore sink capacity. On the other hand, E-[CO2 ] increased days to the MTN stage by approximately 4%, leading to a greater number of tillers. Grain appearance quality was decreased by both treatments, but E-[CO2 ] showed a much larger effect than did E-T. The significant decrease in undamaged grains (UDG) by E-[CO2 ] was mainly the result of an increased percentage of white-base grains (WBSG), which were negatively correlated with grain protein content. A significant decrease in grain protein content by E-[CO2 ] accounted in part for the increased WBSG. The dependence of WBSG on grain protein content, however, was different among years; the slope and intercept of the relationship were positively correlated with a heat dose above 26 °C. Year-to-year variation in the response of grain appearance quality demonstrated that E-[CO2 ] and rising air temperatures synergistically reduce grain appearance quality of

  10. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI.

  11. Culture systems: air quality.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Poor laboratory air quality is a known hazard to the culture of human gametes and embryos. Embryologists and chemists have employed analytical methods for identifying and measuring bulk and select air pollutants to assess the risk they pose to the embryo culture system. However, contaminant concentrations that result in gamete or embryotoxicity are poorly defined. Combating the ill effects of poor air quality requires an understanding of how toxicants can infiltrate the laboratory, the incubator, and ultimately the culture media. A further understanding of site-specific air quality can then lead to the consideration of laboratory design and management strategies that can minimize the deleterious effects that air contamination may have on early embryonic development in vitro.

  12. Process air quality data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C. M.; Hogge, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Air quality sampling was conducted. Data for air quality parameters, recorded on written forms, punched cards or magnetic tape, are available for 1972 through 1975. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate several daily statistical measures of location, (2) plot time histories of data or the calculated daily statistics, (3) calculate simple correlation coefficients, and (4) plot scatter diagrams. Computer software was developed for processing air quality data to include time series analysis and goodness of fit tests. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate a larger number of daily statistical measures of location, and a number of daily monthly and yearly measures of location, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, (2) decompose the extended time series model and (3) perform some goodness of fit tests. The computer program is described, documented and illustrated by examples. Recommendations are made for continuation of the development of research on processing air quality data.

  13. State Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  14. Use of soil fumigants and air quality issues in California, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many high value cash crops use soil fumigants for profitable production.The primary fumigants used in California are 1,3-dichloropropene (Telone®), chloropicrin, metam salts (sodium or potassium), and methyl bromide. Most of these toxic chemicals and their formulations are volatile compounds (VOCs),...

  15. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI. PMID:25461063

  16. An initial assessment of spatial relationships between respiratory cases, soil metal content, air quality and deprivation indicators in Glasgow, Scotland, UK: relevance to the environmental justice agenda.

    PubMed

    Morrison, S; Fordyce, F M; Scott, E Marian

    2014-04-01

    There is growing interest in links between poor health and socio-environmental inequalities (e.g. inferior housing, crime and industrial emissions) under the environmental justice agenda. The current project assessed associations between soil metal content, air pollution (NO2/PM10) and deprivation and health (respiratory case incidence) across Glasgow. This is the first time that both chemical land quality and air pollution have been assessed citywide in the context of deprivation and health for a major UK conurbation. Based on the dataset 'averages' for intermediate geography areas, generalised linear modelling of respiratory cases showed significant associations with overall soil metal concentration (p = 0.0367) and with deprivation (p < 0.0448). Of the individual soil metals, only nickel showed a significant relationship with respiratory cases (p = 0.0056). Whilst these associations could simply represent concordant lower soil metal concentrations and fewer respiratory cases in the rural versus the urban environment, they are interesting given (1) possible contributions from soil to air particulate loading and (2) known associations between airborne metals like nickel and health. This study also demonstrated a statistically significant correlation (-0.213; p < 0.05) between soil metal concentration and deprivation across Glasgow. This highlights the fact that despite numerous regeneration programmes, the legacy of environmental pollution remains in post-industrial areas of Glasgow many decades after heavy industry has declined. Further epidemiological investigations would be required to determine whether there are any causal links between soil quality and population health/well-being. However, the results of this study suggest that poor soil quality warrants greater consideration in future health and socio-environmental inequality assessments.

  17. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  18. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  19. Energy and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orgill, M. M.; Thorp, J. M.

    Many coal, oil shale, and geothermal energy sources are located in areas where atmospheric transport and dispersion processes are dominated by the complexity of the terrain. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), responsible for developing new energy technologies that meet air-quality regulations, developed a program aimed specifically at Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) in 1978. The program uses theoretical atmospheric physics research, mathematical models, field experiments, and physical models. The goal is to develop a modeling and measurement methodology to (1) improve fundamental knowledge of transport and dispersion processes in complex terrain and (2) build on this improvement to provide a methodology for performing air quality assessments. The ASCOT team, managed by Marvin Dickerson and Paul Gudiksen of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., is composed of scientists from DOE supported research laboratories and university programs.

  20. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... reducing exposure to extremely high levels of particle pollution is available here . Fires: Current Conditions Click to ... Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke from fires | What You Can Do Health ...

  1. Air quality management in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bremauntz, Adrián

    2008-01-01

    Several significant program and policy measures have been implemented in Mexico over the past 15 yr to improve air quality. This article provides an overview of air quality management strategies in Mexico, including (1) policy initiatives such as vehicle use restrictions, air quality standards, vehicle emissions, and fuel quality standards, and (2) supporting programs including establishment of a national emission inventory, an air pollution episodes program, and the implementation of exposure and health effects studies. Trends in air pollution episodes and ambient air pollutant concentrations are described.

  2. Indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    Possible indoor air contaminants include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates, bacteria, fungi, and VOCs (volatile organic compounds). Sources comprise paints, pesticides, solvents, sealants, smoke, soils, adhesives, aerosols, dusts, cleansers, and moisture. Health effects can range from simple discomfort, tight-building syndrome symptoms, and dermatitis to much more serious maladies, such as Legionnaire's disease and cancer. Difficulties abound in dealing with IAQ problems. Government standards used in industrial settings-such as the OSHA permissible exposure limits or threshold limit values of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists-are typically designed for heavy, short-term exposures to specific hazardous substances. These frequently prove inadequate in determining the deleterious nature of an IAQ complaint in a home, office, or school where pollutant concentrations may be quite low, exposures long-term, contaminants mixed, and, with some substances, interactions and health effects unknown. Also, government authority and responsibilities in nonindustrial settings are ill-defined.

  3. Safeguarding indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, K.; Wesolowski, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    California has created and implemented the first state program devoted exclusively to the investigation of nonindustrial indoor air quality. The program is responsible for promoting and conducting research on the determining factors of healthful indoor environments and is structured to obtain information about emission sources, ventilation effects, indoor concentrations, human activity patterns, exposures, health risks, control measures and public policy options. Data are gathered by a variety of methods, including research conducted by staff members, review of the available scientific literature, participation in technical meetings, contractual agreements with outside agencies, cooperative research projects with other groups and consultation with experts. 23 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  4. Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Vincent M.

    Asserting that the air quality inside schools is often worse than outdoor pollution, leading to various health complaints and loss of productivity, this paper details factors contributing to schools' indoor air quality. These include the design, operation, and maintenance of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; building…

  5. Air Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Stak-Tracker CEM (Continuous Emission Monitor) Gas Analyzer is an air quality monitor capable of separating the various gases in a bulk exhaust stream and determining the amounts of individual gases present within the stream. The monitor is produced by GE Reuter- Stokes, a subsidiary of GE Corporate Research & Development Center. The Stak-Tracker uses a Langley Research Center software package which measures the concentration of a target gas by determining the degree to which molecules of that gas absorb an infrared beam. The system is environmental-friendly, fast and has relatively low installation and maintenance costs. It is applicable to gas turbines and various industries including glass, paper and cement.

  6. Soil- and groundwater-quality data for petroleum hydrocarbon compounds within Fuels Area C, Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, David A.; Rowe, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Ellsworth Air Force Base is an Air Combat Command located approximately 10 miles northeast of Rapid City, South Dakota. Ellsworth Air Force Base occupies about 6,000 acres within Meade and Pennington Counties, and includes runways, airfield operations, industrial areas, housing, and recreational facilities. Fuels Area C within Ellsworth Air Force Base is a fuels storage area that is used to support the mission of the base. In fall of 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, Ellsworth Air Force Base, to estimate groundwater-flow direction, select locations for permanent monitoring wells, and install and sample monitoring wells for petroleum hydrocarbon compounds within Fuels Area C. Nine monitoring wells were installed for the study within Fuels Area C during November 4–7, 2014. Soil core samples were collected during installation of eight of the monitoring wells and analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, naphthalene,m- and p-xylene, o-xylene, and gasoline- and diesel-range organic compounds. Groundwater samples were collected from seven of the nine wells (two of the monitoring wells did not contain enough water to sample or were dry) during November 19–21, 2014, and analyzed for select physical properties, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, naphthalene, m- and p-xylene, o-xylene, and gasoline- and diesel-range organic compounds. This report describes the nine monitoring well locations and presents the soil- and groundwater-quality data collected in 2014 for this study.

  7. New Federal Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stopinski, O. W.

    The report discusses the current procedures for establishing air quality standards, the bases for standards, and, finally, proposed and final National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, photochemical oxidants, and nitrogen dioxide. (Author/RH)

  8. Building Air Quality. Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Indoor Air Div.

    Building managers and owners often confront competing demands to reduce operating costs and increase revenues that can siphon funds and resources from other building management concerns such as indoor air quality (IAQ). This resource booklet, designed for use with the "Building Air Quality Guide," provides building owners and managers with an…

  9. Colorado Air Quality Control Regulations and Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver. Div. of Air Pollution Control.

    Regulations and standards relative to air quality control in Colorado are defined in this publication. Presented first are definitions of terms, a statement of intent, and general provisions applicable to all emission control regulations adopted by the Colorado Air Pollution Control Commission. Following this, three regulations are enumerated: (1)…

  10. Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Takeji

    The reduction of intake of outdoor air volume in air conditioned buildings, adopted as the strategy for saving energy, has caused sick building syndrome abroad. Such symptoms of sick building as headache, stimuli of eye and nose and lethargy, appears to result from cigarette smoke, folmaldehyde and volatile organic carbons. On the other hand, in airtight residences not only carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from domestic burning appliances but also allergens of mite, fungi, pollen and house dust, have become a subject of discussion. Moreover, asbestos and radon of carcinogen now attract a great deal of attention. Those indoor air pollutants are discussed.

  11. Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... is critical. Learn how to recognize and eliminate pollution sources in and around your home, on the ... especially vulnerable to the harmful effects of air pollution. Cleaning up pollution in their schools will help ...

  12. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  13. [Indoor air quality in schools].

    PubMed

    Cartieaux, E; Rzepka, M-A; Cuny, D

    2011-07-01

    Indoor air quality in schools has received particular attention over the past several years. Children are considered as one of the most sensitive groups to atmospheric pollution because their bodies are actively growing and they breathe higher volumes of air relative to their body weights than adults do. They also spend more time in school or group structures (preschools, day nurseries) than in any indoor environments other than the home. The analysis of children's exposure to air pollution at school requires the identification of the main pollutant sources present in these educational institutions. Both a strong contribution of outdoor pollution and a very specific pollution bound to school activities such as the use of paints, markers, glues, and manufactured ink eraser pens, exist. The ventilation in school buildings also plays an important role in air quality. A higher air exchange may improve thermal comfort and air quality. The cause of indoor air pollution is a combinatory effect of physical, chemical, and biological factors, and the adequacy of ventilation in the environment. Several pollutants have been reported to exist in classrooms such as bacteria, molds, volatile organic compounds, persistent organic pollutants and microparticles. There is a correlation between the concentrations of the pollutants and onset of health problems in schoolchildren. We observe predominantly respiratory symptoms as well as a prevalence of respiratory diseases such as asthma and allergies. This study shows that poor indoor air quality affects children's health. PMID:21621987

  14. [Indoor air quality in schools].

    PubMed

    Cartieaux, E; Rzepka, M-A; Cuny, D

    2011-07-01

    Indoor air quality in schools has received particular attention over the past several years. Children are considered as one of the most sensitive groups to atmospheric pollution because their bodies are actively growing and they breathe higher volumes of air relative to their body weights than adults do. They also spend more time in school or group structures (preschools, day nurseries) than in any indoor environments other than the home. The analysis of children's exposure to air pollution at school requires the identification of the main pollutant sources present in these educational institutions. Both a strong contribution of outdoor pollution and a very specific pollution bound to school activities such as the use of paints, markers, glues, and manufactured ink eraser pens, exist. The ventilation in school buildings also plays an important role in air quality. A higher air exchange may improve thermal comfort and air quality. The cause of indoor air pollution is a combinatory effect of physical, chemical, and biological factors, and the adequacy of ventilation in the environment. Several pollutants have been reported to exist in classrooms such as bacteria, molds, volatile organic compounds, persistent organic pollutants and microparticles. There is a correlation between the concentrations of the pollutants and onset of health problems in schoolchildren. We observe predominantly respiratory symptoms as well as a prevalence of respiratory diseases such as asthma and allergies. This study shows that poor indoor air quality affects children's health.

  15. Manual on indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues.

  16. Urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenger, Jes

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  17. Global Air Quality and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Horowitz, Larry W.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang; Cameron-Smith, Philip J.; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J.; Dalsoren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A.; Ginoux, Paul; Josse, Batrice; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; OConnor, Fiona M.; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Shindell, Drew Todd; Spracklen, Dominick V.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH4), ozone precursors (O3), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O3 precursor CH4 would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH4 and tropospheric O3. Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which increase tropospheric O3 (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH4 (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH4 volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O3 and CH4. Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O3 and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas the Representative

  18. Sustainable soil, water and air quality mankind`s ultimate challenge and opportunity in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    The House Agricultural Appropriations Sub-Committee, under the leadership of Chairman Joe Skeen and Minority Leader Marcy Kaptur, has appropriated $600,000 to the U.S. Department of Agriculture to provide demonstration funds to the Rodale Institute, the Compost Council, and N-Viro International Corporation. The demonstration project is showing the ability of compost and N-Viro Soil{trademark} technologies to utilize manure and bio-solids in such a manner as to provide both sustainable soil fertility and reduced non-point source water pollution. The two processes, i.e. compost and N-Viro Soil{trademark}, stabilize and immobilize nutrients and organics so that they are only available through the {open_quotes}slow release{close_quotes} mechanism of mineralization. Moreover, they help reduce the leaching of chemical fertilizers, thus increasing their efficiency and they reduce the need for chemical pesticides. Compost is an established biological technology. N-Viro Soil{trademark} is a new process with an established reference base and significant public recognition, that combines biological, chemical, and physical processes to pasturize organic wastes, and convert to a stable, storable product that is capable of providing {open_quotes}slow release{close_quotes} soil fertility through immobilization and mineralization. A sustainable national program of technology transfer is absolutely vital if such technologies are going to be understood, accepted, and utilized.

  19. The biofiltration of indoor air: implications for air quality.

    PubMed

    Darlington, A; Chan, M; Malloch, D; Pilger, C; Dixon, M A

    2000-03-01

    An alternative method of maintaining indoor air quality may be through the biofiltration of air recirculating within the structure rather than the traditional approach of ventilation. This approach is currently being investigated. Prior to its acceptance for dealing with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and CO2, efforts were made to determine whether the incorporation of this amount of biomass into the indoor space can have an (negative) impact on indoor air quality. A relatively large ecologically complex biofilter composed of a ca. 10 m2 bioscrubber, 30 m2 of plantings and a 3,500 litre aquarium were established in a 160 m2 'airtight' room in a recently constructed office building in downtown Toronto. This space maintained ca. 0.2 air changes per hour (ACH) compared to the 15 to 20 ACH (with a 30% refresh rate) of other spaces in the same building. Air quality parameters of concern were total VOCs (TVOCs), formaldehyde and aerial spore counts. TVOC and formaldehyde levels in the biofilter room were the same or significantly less than other spaces in the building despite a much slower refresh rate. Aerial spore levels were slightly higher than other indoor spaces but were well within reported values for 'healthy' indoor spaces. Levels appeared to be dependent on horticultural management practices within the space. Most genera of fungal spores present were common indoors and the other genera were associated with living or dead plant material or soil. From these results, the incorporation of a large amount of biomass associated with indoor biofilters does not in itself lower indoor air quality.

  20. Air-quality-model update

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.; Walton, J.J.

    1982-01-15

    The Livermore Regional Air Quality Model (LIRAQ) has been updated and improved. This report describes the changes that have been made in chemistry, species treatment, and boundary conditions. The results of smog chamber simulations that were used to verify the chemistry as well as simulations of the entire air quality model for two prototype days in the Bay Area are reported. The results for the prototype day simulations are preliminary due to the need for improvement in meteorology fields, but they show the dependence and sensitivity of high hour ozone to changes in selected boundary and initial conditions.

  1. PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES FOR SETTING NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverrse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-bas...

  2. Soils and environmental quality, Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Pierzynski, G.M.; Sims, J.T.; Vance, G.F.

    2000-07-01

    The contents of this book include the following: introduction to environmental quality; soil nitrogen and environmental quality; soil phosphorus and environmental quality; soil sulfur and environmental quality; trace elements; organic chemicals in the environment; biogeochemical cycles and soil management; remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater; global climate change and acid rain; and risk assessment.

  3. Indoor Air Quality and Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern over the quality of indoor (i.e., residential) as well as outdoor (i.e., environmental) air is increasing. Accordingly, owners of companion animals may approach their veterinarian about the potential for airborne irritants, allergens, pollutants, or infectious agents to n...

  4. Indoor Air Quality Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    In an effort to provide Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) management guidance, Anne Arundel County Public Schools was selected by the Maryland State Department of Education to develop a program that could be used by other school systems. A major goal was to produce a handbook that was "user friendly." Hence, its contents are a mix of history, philosophy,…

  5. Cabin air quality: an overview.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Russell B

    2002-03-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing complaints from cockpit crew, cabin crew, and passengers that the cabin air quality of commercial aircraft is deficient. A myriad of complaints including headache, fatigue, fever, and respiratory difficulties among many others have been registered, particularly by flight attendants on long-haul routes. There is also much concern today regarding the transmission of contagious disease inflight, particularly tuberculosis. The unanswered question is whether these complaints are really due to poor cabin air quality or to other factors inherent intlight such as lowered barometric pressure, hypoxia, low humidity, circadian dysynchrony, work/rest cycles, vibration, etc. This paper will review some aspects relevant to cabin air quality such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), particulates, and microorganisms, as well as the cabin ventilation system, to discern possible causes and effects of illness contracted inflight. The paper will conclude with recommendations on how the issue of cabin air quality may be resolved.

  6. Building ventilation and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Hollowell, C.D.; Berk, J.V.; Boegel, M.L.; Miksch, R.R.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Traynor, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor contaminants and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Four indoor air contaminants - carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide from gas appliances; formaldehyde from particleboard, plywood, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and gas appliances; and radon from building materials, soil, and ground water - are currently receiving considerable attention in the context of potential health risks associated with reduced infiltration and ventilation rates. These air contaminants in conventional and energy efficient buildings were measured and analyzed with a view to assessing their potential health risks and various control strategies capable of lowering pollutant concentrations. Preliminary findings suggest that further intensive studies are needed in order to develop criteria for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality without compromising energy efficiency.

  7. Evaluation-of soil enzyme activities as soil quality indicators in sludge-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Dindar, Efsun; Şağban, Fatma Olcay Topaç; Başkaya, Hüseyin Savaş

    2015-07-01

    Soil enzymatic activities are commonly used as biomarkers of soil quality. Several organic and inorganic compounds found in municipal wastewater sludges can possibly be used as fertilizers. Monitoring and evaluating the quality of sludge amended soils with enzyme activities accepted as a beneficial practice with respect to sustainable soil management. In the present study, variation of some enzyme activities (Alkaline phosphatase, dehydrogenase, urease and beta-glucosidase activities) in soils amended with municipal wastewater sludge at different application rates (50, 100 and 200 t ha(-1) dry sludge) was evaluated. Air dried sludge samples were applied to soil pots and sludge-soil mixtures were incubated during a period of three months at 28 degrees C. The results of the study showed that municipal wastewater sludge amendment apparently increased urease, dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and P-glucosidase activities in soil by 48-70%, 14-47%, 33-66% and 9-14%, respectively. The maximum activity was generally observed in sludge amended soil with dose of 200 t ha(-1). Urease activity appeared to be a better indicator of soil enhancement with wastewater sludge, as its activity was more strongly increased by sludge amendment. Accordingly, urease activity is suggested to be soil quality indicator best suited for measuring existing conditions and potential changes in sludge-amended soil.

  8. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  9. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  10. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  11. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  12. Megacities, air quality and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Molina, Luisa T.; Gauss, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The rapid urbanization and growing number of megacities and urban complexes requires new types of research and services that make best use of science and available technology. With an increasing number of humans now living in urban sprawls, there are urgent needs of examining what the rising number of megacities means for air pollution, local climate and the effects these changes have on global climate. Such integrated studies and services should assist cities in facing hazards such as storm surge, flooding, heat waves, and air pollution episodes, especially in changing climates. While important advances have been made, new interdisciplinary research studies are needed to increase our understanding of the interactions between emissions, air quality, and regional and global climates. Studies need to address both basic and applied research and bridge the spatial and temporal scales connecting local emissions and air pollution and local weather, global atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reviews the current status of studies of the complex interactions between climate, air quality and megacities, and identifies the main gaps in our current knowledge as well as further research needs in this important field of research.

  13. Visual air quality simulation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molenar, John V.; Malm, William C.; Johnson, Christopher E.

    Visual air quality is primarily a human perceptual phenomenon beginning with the transfer of image-forming information through an illuminated, scattering and absorbing atmosphere. Visibility, especially the visual appearance of industrial emissions or the degradation of a scenic view, is the principal atmospheric characteristic through which humans perceive air pollution, and is more sensitive to changing pollution levels than any other air pollution effect. Every attempt to quantify economic costs and benefits of air pollution has indicated that good visibility is a highly valued and desired environmental condition. Measurement programs can at best approximate the state of the ambient atmosphere at a few points in a scenic vista viewed by an observer. To fully understand the visual effect of various changes in the concentration and distribution of optically important atmospheric pollutants requires the use of aerosol and radiative transfer models. Communication of the output of these models to scientists, decision makers and the public is best done by applying modern image-processing systems to generate synthetic images representing the modeled air quality conditions. This combination of modeling techniques has been under development for the past 15 yr. Initially, visual air quality simulations were limited by a lack of computational power to simplified models depicting Gaussian plumes or uniform haze conditions. Recent explosive growth in low cost, high powered computer technology has allowed the development of sophisticated aerosol and radiative transfer models that incorporate realistic terrain, multiple scattering, non-uniform illumination, varying spatial distribution, concentration and optical properties of atmospheric constituents, and relative humidity effects on aerosol scattering properties. This paper discusses these improved models and image-processing techniques in detail. Results addressing uniform and non-uniform layered haze conditions in both

  14. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Clean Air Is Good Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarneiri, Michele A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effect of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on student health, the cost of safeguarding good IAQ, the cause of poor IAQ in schools, how to tell whether a school has an IAQ problem, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can help schools improve indoor air quality though the use of their free "Indoor Air Quality Tools for…

  15. Air quality in the home

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, R.

    1982-03-01

    The average person breathes indoor air 75% or more of the day. Yet existing regulations are based solely on outdoor concentrations. Indoor levels of many contaminants are typically higher than outdoors, and common household items such as gas stoves, paint, cigarettes, bath towels, fireplaces, cleaning chemicals, even glued furniture joints and the walls themselves, can produce significant amounts of regulated substances. Efforts are now under way to create a total-exposure air-quality model that will improve epidemiologic studies of human health. 4 figures.

  16. SPATIAL PREDICTION OF AIR QUALITY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site-specific air quality monitoring data have been used extensively in both scientific and regulatory programs. As such, these data provide essential information to the public, environmental managers, and the atmospheric research community. Currently, air quality management prac...

  17. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away...

  18. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away...

  19. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away...

  20. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away...

  1. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  2. Indoor air quality and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.

    During the last two decades there has been increasing concern within the scientific community over the effects of indoor air quality on health. Changes in building design devised to improve energy efficiency have meant that modern homes and offices are frequently more airtight than older structures. Furthermore, advances in construction technology have caused a much greater use of synthetic building materials. Whilst these improvements have led to more comfortable buildings with lower running costs, they also provide indoor environments in which contaminants are readily produced and may build up to much higher concentrations than are found outside. This article reviews our current understanding of the relationship between indoor air pollution and health. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a range of sources. The health impacts from indoor exposure to combustion products from heating, cooking, and the smoking of tobacco are examined. Also discussed are the symptoms associated with pollutants emitted from building materials. Of particular importance might be substances known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which arise from sources including paints, varnishes, solvents, and preservatives. Furthermore, if the structure of a building begins to deteriorate, exposure to asbestos may be an important risk factor for the chronic respiratory disease mesothelioma. The health effects of inhaled biological particles can be significant, as a large variety of biological materials are present in indoor environments. Their role in inducing illness through immune mechanisms, infectious processes, and direct toxicity is considered. Outdoor sources can be the main contributors to indoor concentrations of some contaminants. Of particular significance is Radon, the radioactive gas that arises from outside, yet only presents a serious health risk when found inside buildings. Radon and its decay products are now recognised as important indoor pollutants, and their effects are

  3. Evaluation of soil quality indicators in paddy soils under different crop rotation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Bini, Claudio; Haefele, Stephan; Abooei, Monireh

    2013-04-01

    Evaluation of soil quality indicators in paddy soils under different crop rotation systems Soil quality, by definition, reflects the capacity to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and promote plant and animal health. Soil quality assessment is an essential issue in soil management for agriculture and natural resource protection. This study was conducted to detect the effects of four crop rotation systems (rice-rice-rice, soya-rice-rice, fallow-rice and pea-soya-rice) on soil quality indicators (soil moisture, porosity, bulk density, water-filled pore space, pH, extractable P, CEC, OC, OM, microbial respiration, active carbon) in paddy soils of Verona area, Northern Italy. Four adjacent plots which managed almost similarly, over five years were selected. Surface soil samples were collected from each four rotation systems in four times, during growing season. Each soil sample was a composite of sub-samples taken from 3 points within 350 m2 of agricultural land. A total of 48 samples were air-dried and passed through 2mm sieve, for some chemical, biological, and physical measurements. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS. Statistical results revealed that frequency distribution of most data was normal. The lowest CV% was related to pH. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and comparison test showed that there are significant differences in soil quality indicators among crop rotation systems and sampling times. Results of multivariable regression analysis revealed that soil respiration had positively correlation coefficient with soil organic matter, soil moisture and cation exchange capacity. Overall results indicated that the rice rotation with legumes such as bean and soybean improved soil quality over a long time in comparison to rice-fallow rotation, and this is reflected in rice yield. Keywords: Soil quality, Crop Rotation System, Paddy Soils, Italy

  4. Air permeability and trapped-air content in two soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, D.A.; Rubin, J.

    1989-01-01

    To improve understanding of hysteretic air permeability relations, a need exists for data on the water content dependence of air permeability, matric pressure, and air trapping (especially for wetting-drying cycles). To obtain these data, a special instrument was designed. The instrument is a combination of a gas permeameter (for air permeability determination), a suction plate apparatus (for retentivity curve determination), and an air pycnometer (for trapped-air-volume determination). This design allowed values of air permeability, matric pressure, and air trapping to be codetermined, i.e., determined at the same values of water content using the same sample and the same inflow-outflow boundaries. Such data were obtained for two nonswelling soils. -from Authors

  5. Uncertainty in Air Quality Modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Douglas G.

    1984-01-01

    Under the direction of the AMS Steering Committee for the EPA Cooperative Agreement on Air Quality Modeling, a small group of scientists convened to consider the question of uncertainty in air quality modeling. Because the group was particularly concerned with the regulatory use of models, its discussion focused on modeling tall stack, point source emissions.The group agreed that air quality model results should be viewed as containing both reducible error and inherent uncertainty. Reducible error results from improper or inadequate meteorological and air quality data inputs, and from inadequacies in the models. Inherent uncertainty results from the basic stochastic nature of the turbulent atmospheric motions that are responsible for transport and diffusion of released materials. Modelers should acknowledge that all their predictions to date contain some associated uncertainty and strive also to quantify uncertainty.How can the uncertainty be quantified? There was no consensus from the group as to precisely how uncertainty should be calculated. One subgroup, which addressed statistical procedures, suggested that uncertainty information could be obtained from comparisons of observations and predictions. Following recommendations from a previous AMS workshop on performance evaluation (Fox. 1981), the subgroup suggested construction of probability distribution functions from the differences between observations and predictions. Further, they recommended that relatively new computer-intensive statistical procedures be considered to improve the quality of uncertainty estimates for the extreme value statistics of interest in regulatory applications.A second subgroup, which addressed the basic nature of uncertainty in a stochastic system, also recommended that uncertainty be quantified by consideration of the differences between observations and predictions. They suggested that the average of the difference squared was appropriate to isolate the inherent uncertainty that

  6. Ground cloud air quality effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brubaker, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of the ground cloud associated with launching of a large rocket on air quality are discussed. The ground cloud consists of the exhaust emitted by the rocket during the first 15 to 25 seconds following ignition and liftoff, together with a large quantity of entrained air, cooling water, dust and other debris. Immediately after formation, the ground cloud rises in the air due to the buoyant effect of its high thermal energy content. Eventually, at an altitude typically between 0.7 and 3 km, the cloud stabilizes and is carried along by the prevailing wind at that altitude. For the use of heavy lift launch vehicles small quantities of nitrogen oxides, primarily nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, are expected to be produced from a molecular nitrogen impurity in the fuel or liquid oxygen, or from entrainment and heating of ambient air in the hot rocket exhaust. In addition, possible impurities such as sulfur in the fuel would give rise to a corresponding amount of oxidation products such as sulfur dioxide.

  7. Minorities and substandard air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Wernette, D.R.; Nieves, L.A.

    1994-05-01

    Scientists at Argonne National Laboratory have been studying the relative potential for exposure of minority population groups to substandard outdoor air quality. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified areas that have excess levels of ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, lead, or particulate matter. These areas generally consist of counties covering many square miles, and the degree to which their residents are exposed to air pollution certainly varies. However, the differences in population groups living in these areas can imply differences in potential exposure to pollutants and may suggest directions for research and remedial action. So far, the scientists have examined these differences for African-Americans, Hispanics, and Whites (non-Hispanic).

  8. Meteorological determinants of air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turoldo, F.; Del Frate, S.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Montanari, F.; Stel, F.; Goi, D.

    2010-09-01

    Air quality is the result of complex phenomena, among which the major role is played by human emissions of pollutants. Atmospheric processes act as determinants, e.g., modulating, dumping or amplifying the effects of emissions as an orchestra's director does with musical instruments. In this work, a series of small-scale and meso-scale meteorological determinants of air-quality are presented as they are observed in an area characterized by complex orography (Friuli Venezia Giulia, in the north-eastern side of Italy). In particular, attention is devoted to: i) meso-scale flows favouring the persistence of high concentrations of particulate matter; ii) meso-scale periodic flows (breezes) favouring high values of particulate matter; iii) local-scale thermodynamic behaviour favouring high atmospheric values of nitrogen oxides. The effects of these different classes of determinants are shown through comparisons between anthropic emissions (mainly traffic) and ground-based measurements. The relevance of complex orography (relatively steep relieves near to the sea) is shown for the meso-scale flows and, in particular, for local-scale periodic flows, which favour the increase of high pollutants concentrations mainly in summer, when the breezes regime is particularly relevant. Part of these results have been achieved through the ETS - Alpine Space EU project iMONITRAF!

  9. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

  10. EPA Pushing Improved Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how, in response to the growing problem of poor air quality in schools, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set new voluntary air-quality guidelines for schools. Addresses common air-related irritants; successful efforts at Guerrero Elementary School in Mesa, Arizona; preventive maintenance; and a sample of the EPA's…

  11. PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON PLANTS AND ECOSYSTEMS AS A BASIS FOR SETTING NATIONAL AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-base...

  12. Indoor air quality: A psychosocial perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Boxer, P.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The incidence of indoor air quality problems has increased dramatically over the past decade. Investigation of these problems has yielded a definitive cause in only one third of the cases. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in the development and propagation of symptoms attributed to poor indoor air quality. Guidelines for managing indoor air quality problems from the organizational perspective are based upon psychosocial principles and elements of risk perception.

  13. The Economic Value of Air Quality Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson-Sumo, Tasha

    Both long-term and daily air quality forecasts provide an essential component to human health and impact costs. According the American Lung Association, the estimated current annual cost of air pollution related illness in the United States, adjusted for inflation (3% per year), is approximately $152 billion. Many of the risks such as hospital visits and morality are associated with poor air quality days (where the Air Quality Index is greater than 100). Groups such as sensitive groups become more susceptible to the resulting conditions and more accurate forecasts would help to take more appropriate precautions. This research focuses on evaluating the utility of air quality forecasting in terms of its potential impacts by building on air quality forecasting and economical metrics. Our analysis includes data collected during the summertime ozone seasons between 2010 and 2012 from air quality models for the Washington, DC/Baltimore, MD region. The metrics that are relevant to our analysis include: (1) The number of times that a high ozone or particulate matter (PM) episode is correctly forecasted, (2) the number of times that high ozone or PM episode is forecasted when it does not occur and (3) the number of times when the air quality forecast predicts a cleaner air episode when the air was observed to have high ozone or PM. Our collection of data included available air quality model forecasts of ozone and particulate matter data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s AIRNOW as well as observational data of ozone and particulate matter from Clean Air Partners. We evaluated the performance of the air quality forecasts with that of the observational data and found that the forecast models perform well for the Baltimore/Washington region and the time interval observed. We estimate the potential amount for the Baltimore/Washington region accrues to a savings of up to 5,905 lives and 5.9 billion dollars per year. This total assumes perfect compliance with

  14. Lichen recolonization following air quality improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Showman, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Air quality improvement near a coal-fired power plant led to recolonization of Parmelia caperata (L.) Ach. in a pollution-induced void area. Recolonization was first observed about four years after pollution abatement. Least-affected sites were slowest to recover. After eight years of improved air quality, the distribution of P. caperata has returned to near normal. Lichen biomonitoring is useful not only to detect the effects of poor air quality but to document air quality improvements as well. 5 references, 4 figures.

  15. Urban soil moisture affecting local air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, Sarah; Ament, Felix; Eschenbach, Annette

    2015-04-01

    of urban land use is not found to be definite. Air temperature (Ta) anomalies of the suburban sites from the inner city site are analysed for several periods and seasons. During daytime a significant annual mean deviation is observed above unsealed, vegetated surfaces from a sealed site during selected relevant days. Remarkably, about a fifth of the variance of the diurnal Ta span, i.e. increase of Ta during the day, is found to be explained by normalized Θ for selected meteorological situations. In this contribution this observed relation between topsoil moisture and air temperature increase during daytime at suburban sites will be presented after describing the local conditions and soil hydrological heterogeneities at the observed urban sites.

  16. Soil and soil environmental quality monitoring in China: a review.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yanguo; Wu, Jin; Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Jiao, Xudong; Song, Liuting

    2014-08-01

    Over the past few decades, numerous concerns have been raised in China over the issue of environmental sustainability. Various soil survey and monitoring programs have been carried out in China to study soil quality, and to provide a scientific basis for environment policy making. This paper provides an overview of past and current soil quality surveys and monitoring activities in China. This paper includes a summary of concerns over background concentrations of elements in soil, and soil environmental standards and guidelines in China. Levels of pollution in urban soil, agricultural soil, and soil in mining and smelting areas were compared using the concentrations and pollution indexes. In addition to soil surveys, soil monitoring is essential to study the data and to examine the effects of contaminants in soils. However, the current soil quality monitoring system was insufficient to accurately determine the soil quality status of soils across China. For accurate soil monitoring in China, it will be necessary to set up routine monitoring systems at various scales (national, provincial, and local scales), taking into consideration monitoring indicators and quality assurance. This is currently an important priority for the environmental protection administration of China.

  17. Air Quality Index (AQI) -- A Guide to Air Quality and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the AQI value, the greater the level of air pollution and the greater the health concern. For example, ... to 50. Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air pollution poses little or no risk. "Moderate" AQI is ...

  18. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... as conditions caused by outdoor impacts (such as climate change). Many reports and studies indicate that the following ... Air Duct Cleaning Asthma Health, Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Flood Cleanup Home Remodel Indoor airPLUS Mold Radon ...

  19. 78 FR 30829 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Air Quality Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Air... current national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone, lead, and particulate matter. EPA is..., Control Strategies Section, Air Programs Branch (AR-18J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 77...

  20. 76 FR 72097 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, National parks, Wilderness areas. Dated: November 8, 2011. Lisa... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air... establishes air quality designations for most areas in the United States for the 2008 lead (Pb)...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. Indoor air quality investigation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, R.E.; Williams, P.L.

    1996-10-01

    Over the past 10 to 15 years, an increasing number of complaints about discomfort and health effects related to indoor air quality (IAQ) have been reported. The increase in complaints has been accompanied by an increase in requests for IAQ investigations. This study presents an overview of the many IAQ investigation protocols published since 1984. For analysis, the protocols are divided into four categories: solution-oriented, building diagnostics, industrial hygiene, and epidemiology. In general, the protocols begin with general observations, proceed to collect more specific data as indicated, and end with conclusions and recommendations. A generic IAQ protocol is presented that incorporates the common aspects of the various protocols. All of the current protocols place heavy emphasis on the ventilation system during the investigation. A major problem affecting all of the current protocols is the lack of generally accepted IAQ standards. IN addition, the use of questionnaires, occupant interviews, and personal diaries (as well as the point in the investigation at which they are administered) differs among the protocols. Medical evaluations and verification procedures also differ among the protocols.

  3. Air quality monitor and acid rain networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, H.

    1980-01-01

    The air quality monitor program which consists of two permanent air monitor stations (PAMS's) and four mobile shuttle pollutant air monitor stations (SPAMS's) is evaluated. The PAMS measures SO sub X, NO sub X particulates, CO, O3, and nonmethane hydrocarbons. The SPAMS measures O3, SO2, HCl, and particulates. The collection and analysis of data in the rain monitor program are discussed.

  4. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where..., explosive, noxious, and harmful gases, dusts, smoke, and fumes. (2) The air in areas of bleeder entries...

  5. Effect of climate change on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Winner, Darrell A.

    Air quality is strongly dependent on weather and is therefore sensitive to climate change. Recent studies have provided estimates of this climate effect through correlations of air quality with meteorological variables, perturbation analyses in chemical transport models (CTMs), and CTM simulations driven by general circulation model (GCM) simulations of 21st-century climate change. We review these different approaches and their results. The future climate is expected to be more stagnant, due to a weaker global circulation and a decreasing frequency of mid-latitude cyclones. The observed correlation between surface ozone and temperature in polluted regions points to a detrimental effect of warming. Coupled GCM-CTM studies find that climate change alone will increase summertime surface ozone in polluted regions by 1-10 ppb over the coming decades, with the largest effects in urban areas and during pollution episodes. This climate penalty means that stronger emission controls will be needed to meet a given air quality standard. Higher water vapor in the future climate is expected to decrease the ozone background, so that pollution and background ozone have opposite sensitivities to climate change. The effect of climate change on particulate matter (PM) is more complicated and uncertain than for ozone. Precipitation frequency and mixing depth are important driving factors but projections for these variables are often unreliable. GCM-CTM studies find that climate change will affect PM concentrations in polluted environments by ±0.1-1 μg m -3 over the coming decades. Wildfires fueled by climate change could become an increasingly important PM source. Major issues that should be addressed in future research include the ability of GCMs to simulate regional air pollution meteorology and its sensitivity to climate change, the response of natural emissions to climate change, and the atmospheric chemistry of isoprene. Research needs to be undertaken on the effect of climate

  6. FORECASTING AIR QUALITY OVER THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased awareness of national air quality issues on the part of the media and the general public have recently led to more demand for short-term (1-2 day) air quality forecasts for use in assessing potential health impacts (e.g., on children, the elderly, and asthmatics) and po...

  7. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  11. Air Quality Measurements for Science and Policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality measurements and the methods used to conduct them are vital to advancing our knowledge of the source-to-receptor-to-health effects continuum1-3. This information then forms the basis for evaluating and managing air quality to protect human health and welfa...

  12. Indoor Air Quality: A Guide for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Indoor air quality is a major concern for educators involved in the development of new school facilities, or the remodeling and maintenance of existing ones. This guide addresses the issue of air quality, the health concerns involved, and procedures for minimizing the impact of pollutants in the school environment. It defines common indoor air…

  13. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  14. Source Emissions in Multipollutant Air Quality Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activities and natural processes that emit pollutants into the ambient atmosphere are the underlying cause of all air quality problems. In a technical sense, we refer to these activities and processes as pollutant sources. Although air quality management is usually concerne...

  15. Breaking the Mold on Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEA Today, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Indoor air quality is a growing problem in aging school buildings. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offers an Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools kit which is being used at schools nationwide to improve school maintenance. Profiles an aging school in Connecticut in which teachers were becoming ill to illustrate the use of the kit to…

  16. Fundamentals of air quality systems

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, K.E.

    1999-08-01

    The book uses numerous examples to demonstrate how basic design concepts can be applied to the control of air emissions from industrial sources. It focuses on the design of air pollution control devices for the removal of gases and particles from industrial sources, and provides detailed, specific design methods for each major air pollution control system. Individual chapters provide design methods that include both theory and practice with emphasis on the practical aspect by providing numerous examples that demonstrate how air pollution control devices are designed. Contents include air pollution laws, air pollution control devices; physical properties of air, gas laws, energy concepts, pressure; motion of airborne particles, filter and water drop collection efficiency; fundamentals of particulate emission control; cyclones; fabric filters; wet scrubbers; electrostatic precipitators; control of volatile organic compounds; adsorption; incineration; absorption; control of gaseous emissions from motor vehicles; practice problems (with solutions) for the P.E. examination in environmental engineering. Design applications are featured throughout.

  17. Air Quality Monitoring: Risk-Based Choices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Air monitoring is secondary to rigid control of risks to air quality. Air quality monitoring requires us to target the credible residual risks. Constraints on monitoring devices are severe. Must transition from archival to real-time, on-board monitoring. Must provide data to crew in a way that they can interpret findings. Dust management and monitoring may be a major concern for exploration class missions.

  18. Air quality risk assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Craig, Lorraine; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This article provides (1) a synthesis of the literature on the linkages between air pollution and human health, (2) an overview of quality management approaches in Canada, the United States, and the European Union (EU), and (3) future directions for air quality research. Numerous studies examining short-term effects of air pollution show significant associations between ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) and other air pollutants and increases in premature mortality and hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. Several well-designed epidemiological studies confirmed the adverse long-term effects of PM on both mortality and morbidity. Epidemiological studies also document significant associations between ozone (O3), sulfur (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and adverse health outcomes; however, the effects of gaseous pollutants are less well documented. Subpopulations that are more susceptible to air pollution include children, the elderly, those with cardiorespiratory disease, and socioeconomically deprived individuals. Canada-wide standards for ambient air concentrations of PM2.5 and O3 were set in 2000, providing air quality targets to be achieved by 2010. In the United States, the Clean Air Act provides the framework for the establishment and review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for criteria air pollutants and the establishment of emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants. The 1996 European Union's enactment of the Framework Directive for Air Quality established the process for setting Europe-wide limit values for a series of pollutants. The Clean Air for Europe program was established by the European Union to review existing limit values, emission ceilings, and abatement protocols, as set out in the current legislation. These initiatives serve as the legislative framework for air quality management in North America and Europe.

  19. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality. PMID:26628762

  20. Enhancing indoor air quality -The air filter advantage.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality. PMID:26628762

  1. Breathing Easy over Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greim, Clifton; Turner, William

    1991-01-01

    School systems should test the air in every school building for the presence and level of contaminants such as radon and asbestos and whether the ventilation system is circulating the proper amount of air. Periodic maintenance is required for all mechanical systems. (MLF)

  2. USWRP Workshop on Air Quality Forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Dabberdt, Walter F.; Carroll, Mary Anne; Appleby, William; Baumgardner, Darrel; Carmichael, Gregory; Davidson, Paula; Doran, J. C.; Dye, Timothy G.; Grimmond, Susan; Middleton, Paulette; Neff, William; Zhang, Yang

    2006-02-01

    There has recently been increased emphasis on air quality forecasting (AQF) and the research and development activities that are required to improve AQF skill and implement an operational AQF capability. In November 2001, the US Weather Research Program (USWRP) charged Prospectus Develop Team 11 with identification of the meteorological research needs for improved air quality forecasting (Dabberdt et al. 2004a). Subsequently, the Interagency Working Group (IWG) of the USWRP tentatively adopted Air Quality as one of its principal scientific foci. In addition, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have made substantial progress towards developing an operational air quality forecast system. With these activities as background, the lead scientist of the USWRP requested that a community workshop be conducted to further define and prioritize AQF research needs and opportunities. The results of the workshop would then be used in the development of an Implementation Plan that the IWG would use to prioritize and support research directed at improving air quality knowledge, monitoring and forecasting capabilities, and evaluating new air quality forecast products. The resulting USWRP Air Quality Forecasting Workshop was held April 29 – May 1, 2003, in Houston, Texas. This report summarizes the findings and recommendations.

  3. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    PubMed

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  4. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    MedlinePlus

    ... is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce your ... human health. Ozone forms when two types of pollutants (VOCs and NOx) react in sunlight. These pollutants ...

  5. Soil quality demonstrations for building economically and environmentally sustainable soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil quality, soil health, and soil sustainability are widely used terms but are difficult to define and illustrate, especially to a non-technical audience. A packet of a dozen demonstrations for the field and classroom was compiled and titled ‘Building a Sustainable Soil’. In this packet, new meth...

  6. Application of the Wind Erosion Prediction System in the AIRPACT regional air quality modeling framework

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion of soil is a major concern of the agricultural community as it removes the most fertile part of the soil and thus degrades soil productivity. Furthermore, dust emissions due to wind erosion contribute to poor air quality, reduce visibility, and cause perturbations to regional radiation ...

  7. Call for improving air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    The European Environmental Bureau (EEB), a federation of citizen organizations, has called for stricter policies in Europe to protect human health and the environment. "Air pollution emanates from sources all around us, be they cars, industrial plants, shipping, agriculture, or waste. The [European Union] must propose ambitious legislation to address all of these sources if it is to tackle the grave public health consequences of air pollution," EEB secretary general Jeremy Wates said on 8 January.

  8. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Columbia EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, National parks, Wilderness areas. Dated: April 30, 2012. Lisa P... for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Implementation of the 2008 National...

  9. Air quality and future energy system planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  10. Monitoring Air Quality with Leaf Yeasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, D. H. S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Proposes that leaf yeast serve as quick, inexpensive, and effective techniques for monitoring air quality. Outlines procedures and provides suggestions for data analysis. Includes results from sample school groups who employed this technique. (ML)

  11. Urban air quality estimation study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamante, J. M.; Englar, T. S., Jr.; Jazwinski, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    Possibilities are explored for applying estimation theory to the analysis, interpretation, and use of air quality measurements in conjunction with simulation models to provide a cost effective method of obtaining reliable air quality estimates for wide urban areas. The physical phenomenology of real atmospheric plumes from elevated localized sources is discussed. A fluctuating plume dispersion model is derived. Individual plume parameter formulations are developed along with associated a priori information. Individual measurement models are developed.

  12. MANAGING INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN THE USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of managing indoor air quality (IAQ) in the U.S. In contrast to outdoor air, which is regulated through various federal and state statutes, there is no unified and comprehensive governmental regulation of IAQ. Therefore, IAQ is managed through variou...

  13. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... been implemented by regulation, 40 CFR 93, Subpart B. All EIAP documents must address applicable... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL...

  14. Air quality management in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    William Chameides; Daniel Greenbaum; Raymond Wassel; K. John Holmes; Karl Gustavson; Amanda Staudt

    2005-07-01

    In 2004, the National Research Council released Air Quality Management in the United States, a report prepared in response to a congressional request for an independent evaluation of the overall effectiveness of the Clean Air Act. Based on that report, this article summarizes the committee's findings and recommendations. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Improving Regional Air Quality with Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-05-01

    This model documentation is designed to assist State and local governments in pursuing wind energy purchases as a control measure under regional air quality plans. It is intended to support efforts to draft State Implementation Plans (SIPs), including wind energy purchases, to ensure compliance with the standard for ground-level ozone established under the Clean Air Act.

  16. Defining the quality of soil organic matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils represent the largest terrestrial pool of carbon (C) and hold approximately two-thirds of all C held in these ecosystems. However, not all C in soils is of equal quality. Some fractions of the organic forms, i.e., soil organic carbon (SOC) have long residence times while ...

  17. Soil quality under mixed grassland - Cropland environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native grassland environments (i.e. prairies) are typically characterized by soils with high quality. Historical cultivation of prairies has led to soil resources that are now in a compromised state of health. The loss of soil organic matter that led to large biopores and a favorable rooting envir...

  18. Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, John W., Ed.

    To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers, the second in a series, from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of individual pollutant measurements to…

  19. Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, John W., Ed.

    To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of some relatively new applications of proven techniques to discussions…

  20. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  1. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  3. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  12. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  20. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  1. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  6. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.96 Section 52.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Air Quality... deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  15. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  20. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  1. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  3. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  6. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  15. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  20. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  1. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.1689 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1689 Section 52.1689 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. Cabin air quality. Aerospace Medical Association.

    PubMed

    Thibeault, C

    1997-01-01

    Cabin Air Quality has generated considerable public and workers' concern and controversy in the last few years. To clarify the situation, AsMA requested the Passenger Health Subcommittee of the Air Transport Medicine Committee to review the situation and prepare a position statement. After identifying the various sources of confusion, we review the scientifically accepted facts in the different elements involved in Cabin Air Quality: pressurization, ventilation, contaminants, humidity and temperature. At the same time, we identify areas that need more research and make recommendations accordingly.

  10. The State of Ambient Air Quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, M. M.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Khwaja, H. A.; Siddique, A.; Nayebare, S. R.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient air pollution in major cities of Saudi Arabia is a substantial environmental and health concern. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia by the analysis of respirable particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), trace metals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb), and water-soluble ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, C2O42-, and NH42+). Sulfur and BC mass concentration ranged 0.99 - 7.39 μg/m3 and 0.70 - 3.09 μg/m3, respectively, while the PM2.5 mass concentration ranged 23 - 186 μg/m3. Maximum BC contribution to PM2.5 was 5.6%. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations were well above the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 μg/m3. Air Quality Index (AQI) indicates that there were 8% days of moderate air quality, 28% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, 55% days of unhealthy air quality, and 9% days of very unhealthy air quality during the study period. Sulfate SO42- dominated the identifiable components. The major contributors to PM2.5 were soil and crustal material; vehicle emissions (black carbon factor); and fuel oil combustion in industries (sulfur factor), according to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This study highlights the importance of focusing control strategies not only on reducing PM concentration, but also on the reduction of toxic components of the PM, to most effectively protect human health and the environment.

  11. There's Something in the Air: Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Edward A.

    1994-01-01

    Part 1 of this article, the first in a three-part series of articles that discuss indoor air quality (IAQ) issues affecting schools, provides a general overview of IAQ and discusses the three major health problems associated with IAQ: sick building syndrome, building-related illness, and multiple chemical sensitivity. (MLF)

  12. Relative air permeability as function of saturation in soil venting

    SciTech Connect

    Stylianou, C.; DeVantier, B.A.

    1995-04-01

    Traditionally, soil remediation involved soil flushing, or excavation followed by landfilling or treatment. In recent years, recognizing the major environmental problem of soil contamination by VOCs, soil vapor extraction (SVE, also known as soil venting) has been applied as a form of in situ remediation. A key parameter in modeling soil-venting systems is relative air permeability, determined as a function of liquid saturation. The focus of the present study was to characterize the relationship of the relative air permeability as a function of air saturation in soil-venting systems. A new laboratory apparatus was used to simulate the soil venting and measure the air permeability of soil samples. Sand samples wetted with mixtures of water and gasoline at different ratios were used. It was revealed that the prediction of relative air permeability for moist noncohesive soil can be made in terms of intrinsic permeability and air-filled porosity alone, and not the type of liquid present in the pores. Comparisons of measured data with existing relations for relative air permeability as a function of total liquid saturation were made to determine the most accurate and practical forms for engineering applications. For the sand sample used, the evaluation revealed that compared to the existing relations, a derived second-order polynomial expression provides a good estimate of relative air permeability and does not require estimation of soil-water-retention curve parameters.

  13. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues...

  14. Indoor air quality in Brazilian universities.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Sonia R; Bankoff, Antônia D P; Sanchez, Andrea

    2014-07-11

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3) in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively). The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  15. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements...

  16. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections...

  17. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements...

  18. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements...

  19. 30 CFR 250.302 - Definitions concerning air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions concerning air quality. 250.302... Definitions concerning air quality. For purposes of §§ 250.303 and 250.304 of this part: Air pollutant means..., pursuant to section 109 of the Clean Air Act, national primary or secondary ambient air quality...

  20. What is IAQ. [Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, G.

    1992-01-01

    Does indoor air quality (IAQ) affect you The answer is an emphatic YES Problems affecting indoor air quality can range from a stinky rest room to Sick Building Syndrome. IAQ goes beyond avoiding odors through sufficient ventilation. Many health issues are also involved. IAQ problems are generally complex with no single source causing them. Rather, they result from a combination of several sources that require an organized, but flexible, plan of attack. The purpose of this paper is to define the terms associated with the subject of IAQ, provide some history on the subject, and finally describe my experiences with the continuing process of assessing and remediating problems associated with poor indoor air quality in a new laboratory building.

  1. Commissioning to avoid indoor air quality problems

    SciTech Connect

    Sterling, E.M.; Collett, C.W. ); Turner, S. ); Downing, C.C. )

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports on indoor air quality (IAQ) which has become a pervasive problem plaguing the building industry worldwide. Poor IAQ in commercial and office buildings is primarily related to new building technology, new materials and equipment and energy management operating systems. Occupants of buildings with air quality problems suffer from a common series of symptoms. As early as 1982, ASHRAE, realizing the significance of the problem, produced an IAQ position statement that identified strategies for solving IAQ problems. Many of those strategies have now been implemented, including Standard 62-1989, Ventilation for Acceptable Air Quality; Standard 90.1, Energy Efficient Design of New Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings; the 100 series of energy standards; and Guideline 1, Guideline for Commissioning of HVAC Systems.

  2. Developing Interoperable Air Quality Community Portals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falke, S. R.; Husar, R. B.; Yang, C. P.; Robinson, E. M.; Fialkowski, W. E.

    2009-04-01

    Web portals are intended to provide consolidated discovery, filtering and aggregation of content from multiple, distributed web sources targeted at particular user communities. This paper presents a standards-based information architectural approach to developing portals aimed at air quality community collaboration in data access and analysis. An important characteristic of the approach is to advance beyond the present stand-alone design of most portals to achieve interoperability with other portals and information sources. We show how using metadata standards, web services, RSS feeds and other Web 2.0 technologies, such as Yahoo! Pipes and del.icio.us, helps increase interoperability among portals. The approach is illustrated within the context of the GEOSS Architecture Implementation Pilot where an air quality community portal is being developed to provide a user interface between the portals and clearinghouse of the GEOSS Common Infrastructure and the air quality community catalog of metadata and data services.

  3. Emerging Latin American air quality regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hosmer, A.W.; Vitale, E.M.; Guerrero, C.R.; Solorzano-Vincent, L.

    1998-12-31

    Latin America is the most urbanized region in the developing world. In recent years, significant economic growth has resulted in population migration from rural areas to urban centers, as well as in a substantial rise in the standard of living within the Region. These changes have impacted the air quality of Latin American countries as increased numbers of industrial facilities and motor vehicles release pollutants into the air. With the advent of new free trade agreements such as MERCOSUR and NAFTA, economic activity and associated pollutant levels can only be expected to continue to expand in the future. In order to address growing air pollution problems, many Latin America countries including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, and Mexico have passed, or will soon pass, new legislation to develop and strengthen their environmental frameworks with respect to air quality. As a first step toward understanding the impacts that this increased environmental regulation will have, this paper will examine the regulatory systems in six Latin American countries with respect to ambient air quality and for each of these countries: review a short history of the air quality problems within the country; outline the legal and institutional framework including key laws and implementing institutions; summarize in brief the current status of the country in terms of program development and implementation; and identify projected future trends. In addition, the paper will briefly review the international treaties that have bearing on Latin American air quality. Finally, the paper will conclude by identifying and exploring emerging trends in individual countries and the region as a whole.

  4. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  6. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  10. 40 CFR 51.320 - Annual air quality data report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual air quality data report. 51.320... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Reports Air Quality Data Reporting § 51.320 Annual air quality data report. The requirements for reporting air quality data...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the...

  14. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the...

  15. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 51.320 - Annual air quality data report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual air quality data report. 51.320... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Reports Air Quality Data Reporting § 51.320 Annual air quality data report. The requirements for reporting air quality data...

  20. 40 CFR 51.320 - Annual air quality data report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual air quality data report. 51.320... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Reports Air Quality Data Reporting § 51.320 Annual air quality data report. The requirements for reporting air quality data...

  1. 40 CFR 51.320 - Annual air quality data report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual air quality data report. 51.320... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Reports Air Quality Data Reporting § 51.320 Annual air quality data report. The requirements for reporting air quality data...

  2. 40 CFR 51.320 - Annual air quality data report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual air quality data report. 51.320... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Reports Air Quality Data Reporting § 51.320 Annual air quality data report. The requirements for reporting air quality data...

  3. Investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During the study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2,400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures--caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors--have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality.

  4. Indoor Air Quality: Is Increased Ventilation the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Shirley

    1989-01-01

    Explains how indoor air quality is affected by pollutants in the air and also by temperature, humidity, and ventilation. Increased ventilation alone seldom solves the "sick building syndrome." Lists ways to improve indoor air quality and optimize energy efficiency. (MLF)

  5. The effect of soil on cork quality.

    PubMed

    Pestana, Miguel N; Gomes, Alberto A

    2014-01-01

    The present work aimed to contribute for a better knowledge regarding soil features as cork quality indicators for stoppers. Cork sampling was made in eight Cork oak stands (montados de sobreiro) located in the Plio-Plistocene sedimentary formations of Península de Setúbal in southern Tagus River region. The samples used to classify the cork as stopper for wine bottles were obtained in eight cork oak stands, covering soils of different types of sandstones of the Plio-plistocene. In each stand, we randomly chose five circular plots with 30 m radius and five trees per plot with same stripping conditions determined by: dendrometric features (HD- height stipping, PBH- perimeter at breaster height), trees vegetative condition (defoliation degree); stand features (density, percentage canopy cover); site conditions (soil type and orientation). In the center of each plot a pit was open to characterize the soil profile and to classify the soil. Cork quality for stoppers was evaluated according to porosity, pores/per cm(2) and cork boards thickness. The soil was characterized according to morphological soil profile features (lithology, soil profound, and soil horizons) and chemical soil surface horizon features (organic matter, pH, macro, and micronutrients availability). Based on the variables studied and using the numerical taxonomy, we settled relationships between the cork quality and some soil features. The results indicate: (1) high correlation between the cork caliber and boron, cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchange acidity, and exchangeable magnesium, potassium, calcium, and sodium in soils of theirs cork oaks; (2) the cork porosity is correlated with the number of pores/cm(2) and magnesium soil content; (3) the other soil features have a lower correlation with the caliber, porosity, and the number of pores per cm(2). PMID:25353015

  6. The effect of soil on cork quality

    PubMed Central

    Pestana, Miguel N.; Gomes, Alberto A.

    2014-01-01

    The present work aimed to contribute for a better knowledge regarding soil features as cork quality indicators for stoppers. Cork sampling was made in eight Cork oak stands (montados de sobreiro) located in the Plio-Plistocene sedimentary formations of Península de Setúbal in southern Tagus River region. The samples used to classify the cork as stopper for wine bottles were obtained in eight cork oak stands, covering soils of different types of sandstones of the Plio-plistocene. In each stand, we randomly chose five circular plots with 30 m radius and five trees per plot with same stripping conditions determined by: dendrometric features (HD- height stipping, PBH- perimeter at breaster height), trees vegetative condition (defoliation degree); stand features (density, percentage canopy cover); site conditions (soil type and orientation). In the center of each plot a pit was open to characterize the soil profile and to classify the soil. Cork quality for stoppers was evaluated according to porosity, pores/per cm2 and cork boards thickness. The soil was characterized according to morphological soil profile features (lithology, soil profound, and soil horizons) and chemical soil surface horizon features (organic matter, pH, macro, and micronutrients availability). Based on the variables studied and using the numerical taxonomy, we settled relationships between the cork quality and some soil features. The results indicate: (1) high correlation between the cork caliber and boron, cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchange acidity, and exchangeable magnesium, potassium, calcium, and sodium in soils of theirs cork oaks; (2) the cork porosity is correlated with the number of pores/cm2 and magnesium soil content; (3) the other soil features have a lower correlation with the caliber, porosity, and the number of pores per cm2. PMID:25353015

  7. The effect of soil on cork quality.

    PubMed

    Pestana, Miguel N; Gomes, Alberto A

    2014-01-01

    The present work aimed to contribute for a better knowledge regarding soil features as cork quality indicators for stoppers. Cork sampling was made in eight Cork oak stands (montados de sobreiro) located in the Plio-Plistocene sedimentary formations of Península de Setúbal in southern Tagus River region. The samples used to classify the cork as stopper for wine bottles were obtained in eight cork oak stands, covering soils of different types of sandstones of the Plio-plistocene. In each stand, we randomly chose five circular plots with 30 m radius and five trees per plot with same stripping conditions determined by: dendrometric features (HD- height stipping, PBH- perimeter at breaster height), trees vegetative condition (defoliation degree); stand features (density, percentage canopy cover); site conditions (soil type and orientation). In the center of each plot a pit was open to characterize the soil profile and to classify the soil. Cork quality for stoppers was evaluated according to porosity, pores/per cm(2) and cork boards thickness. The soil was characterized according to morphological soil profile features (lithology, soil profound, and soil horizons) and chemical soil surface horizon features (organic matter, pH, macro, and micronutrients availability). Based on the variables studied and using the numerical taxonomy, we settled relationships between the cork quality and some soil features. The results indicate: (1) high correlation between the cork caliber and boron, cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchange acidity, and exchangeable magnesium, potassium, calcium, and sodium in soils of theirs cork oaks; (2) the cork porosity is correlated with the number of pores/cm(2) and magnesium soil content; (3) the other soil features have a lower correlation with the caliber, porosity, and the number of pores per cm(2).

  8. A novel, fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI) for air quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Gharibi, Hamed; Yunesian, Masud; Tayefeh Mahmoudi, Maryam; Lotfi, Saeedeh

    2011-04-01

    The ever increasing level of air pollution in most areas of the world has led to development of a variety of air quality indices for estimation of health effects of air pollution, though the indices have their own limitations such as high levels of subjectivity. Present study, therefore, aimed at developing a novel, fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI ) to handle such limitations. The index developed by present study is based on fuzzy logic that is considered as one of the most common computational methods of artificial intelligence. In addition to criteria air pollutants (i.e. CO, SO 2, PM 10, O 3, NO 2), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and 1,3-butadiene were also taken into account in the index proposed, because of their considerable health effects. Different weighting factors were then assigned to each pollutant according to its priority. Trapezoidal membership functions were employed for classifications and the final index consisted of 72 inference rules. To assess the performance of the index, a case study was carried out employing air quality data at five different sampling stations in Tehran, Iran, from January 2008 to December 2009, results of which were then compared to the results obtained from USEPA air quality index (AQI). According to the results from present study, fuzzy-based air quality index is a comprehensive tool for classification of air quality and tends to produce accurate results. Therefore, it can be considered useful, reliable, and suitable for consideration by local authorities in air quality assessment and management schemes. Fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI).

  9. The AirQuality SenseBox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuth, Dustin; Nuest, Daniel; Bröring, Arne; Pebesma, Edzer

    2013-04-01

    In the past year, a group of open hardware enthusiasts and citizen scientists had large success in the crowd-funding of an open hardware-based sensor platform for air quality monitoring, called the Air Quality Egg. Via the kickstarter platform, the group was able to collect triple the amount of money than needed to fulfill their goals. Data generated by the Air Quality Egg is pushed to the data logging platform cosm.com, which makes the devices a part of the Internet of Things. The project aims at increasing the participation of citizens in the collection of data, the development of sensors, the operation of sensor stations, and, as data on cosm is publicly available, the sharing, visualization and analysis of data. Air Quality Eggs can measure NO2 and CO concentrations, as well as relative humidity and temperature. The chosen sensors are low-cost and have limited precision and accurracy. The Air Quality Egg consists of a stationary outdoor and a stationary indoor unit. Each outdoor unit will wirelessly transmit air quality measurements to the indoor unit, which forwards the data to cosm. Most recent versions of the Air Quality Egg allow a rough calibration of the gas sensors and on-the-fly conversion from raw sensor readings (impedance) to meaningful air quality data expressed in units of parts per billion. Data generated by these low-cost platforms are not intended to replace well-calibrated official monitoring stations, but rather augment the density of the total monitoring network with citizen sensors. To improve the usability of the Air Quality Egg, we present a new and more advanced concept, called the AirQuality SenseBox. We made the outdoor platform more autonomous and location-aware by adding solarpanels and rechargeable batteries as a power source. The AirQuality SenseBox knows its own position from a GPS device attached to the platform. As a mobile sensor platform, it can for instance be attached to vehicles. A low-cost and low-power wireless chipset

  10. Uncertainty in Regional Air Quality Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digar, Antara

    Effective pollution mitigation is the key to successful air quality management. Although states invest millions of dollars to predict future air quality, the regulatory modeling and analysis process to inform pollution control strategy remains uncertain. Traditionally deterministic ‘bright-line’ tests are applied to evaluate the sufficiency of a control strategy to attain an air quality standard. A critical part of regulatory attainment demonstration is the prediction of future pollutant levels using photochemical air quality models. However, because models are uncertain, they yield a false sense of precision that pollutant response to emission controls is perfectly known and may eventually mislead the selection of control policies. These uncertainties in turn affect the health impact assessment of air pollution control strategies. This thesis explores beyond the conventional practice of deterministic attainment demonstration and presents novel approaches to yield probabilistic representations of pollutant response to emission controls by accounting for uncertainties in regional air quality planning. Computationally-efficient methods are developed and validated to characterize uncertainty in the prediction of secondary pollutant (ozone and particulate matter) sensitivities to precursor emissions in the presence of uncertainties in model assumptions and input parameters. We also introduce impact factors that enable identification of model inputs and scenarios that strongly influence pollutant concentrations and sensitivity to precursor emissions. We demonstrate how these probabilistic approaches could be applied to determine the likelihood that any control measure will yield regulatory attainment, or could be extended to evaluate probabilistic health benefits of emission controls, considering uncertainties in both air quality models and epidemiological concentration-response relationships. Finally, ground-level observations for pollutant (ozone) and precursor

  11. The effect of soil on cork quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestana, Miguel; Gomes, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    The present work aimed to contribute for a better knowledge regarding soil features as cork quality indicators for stoppers. Cork sampling was made in eight Cork oak stands (montados de sobreiro) located in different Plio-Plistocene sedimentary formations of Península de Setúbal and Carbonic shistes from paleozoic periods in Saw Grândola, both in southern Tagus River region The samples used to classify the cork as stopper for wine bottles were obtained in eight cork oak stands located in “Península de Setúbal”, south of the River Tagus, covering soils of different types of sandstones of the Plio-plistocene In each stand, we randomly chose five circular plots with 30 m radius. Five trees with same stripping conditions determined by the dendrometric features: HD (height stipping, PBH (perimeter at breaster height), and percentage canopy cover, trees vegetative condition (defoliation degree) stand features (density), and site conditions (soil type and orientation). In the center of each plot a pit was open to characterize the soil profile and to classify the soil of each plot sampling. Cork quality for stoppers was evaluated according to porosity, pores/per cm 2 and thickness. The soil was characterized according to morphological soil profile features (lithology, soil profound and soil horizons) and chemical soil surface horizon features (organic matter, pH, macro and micronutrients availability). Based on the variables studied and using the numerical taxonomy, we settled relationships between the cork quality and some soil features. The results indicate: (1) high correlation between the cork caliber and boron, caption exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchange acidity and exchangeable magnesium, potassium, calcium and sodium in soils of theirs cork oaks; (2) the cork porosity is correlated with the number of pores/cm2 and magnesium; (3) the other soil features have a lower correlation with the caliber, porosity and the number of pores per cm2.

  12. Indoor air quality investigation on commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Lee, S C; Poon, C S; Li, X D; Luk, F

    1999-09-01

    Sixteen flights had been investigated for indoor air quality (IAQ) on Cathay Pacific aircraft from June 1996 to August 1997. In general, the air quality on Cathay Pacific aircraft was within relevant air quality standards because the average age of aircraft was less than 2 years. Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on all flights measured were below the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) standard (30,000 ppm). The CO2 level was substantially higher during boarding and de-boarding than cruise due to low fresh air supply. Humidity on the aircraft was low, especially for long-haul flights. Minimum humidity during cruise was below the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) minimum humidity standard (20%). The average temperature was within a comfortable temperature range of 23 +/- 2 degrees C. The vertical temperature profile on aircraft was uniform and below the International Standard Organization (ISO) standard. Carbon monoxide levels were below the FAA standard (50 ppm). Trace amount of ozone detected ranged from undetectable to 90 ppb, which was below the FAA standard. Particulate level was low for most non-smoking flights, but peaks were observed during boarding and de-boarding. The average particulate level in smoking flights (138 micrograms/m3) was higher than non-smoking flights (7.6 micrograms/m3). The impact on IAQ by switching from low-mode to high-mode ventilation showed a reduction in CO2 levels, temperature, and relative humidity.

  13. Effects of pumice mining on soil quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Ruíz, A.; Cruz-Ruíz, E.; Vaca, R.; Del Aguila, P.; Lugo, J.

    2016-01-01

    Mexico is the world's fourth most important maize producer; hence, there is a need to maintain soil quality for sustainable production in the upcoming years. Pumice mining is a superficial operation that modifies large areas in central Mexico. The main aim was to assess the present state of agricultural soils differing in elapsed time since pumice mining (0-15 years) in a representative area of the Calimaya region in the State of Mexico. The study sites in 0, 1, 4, 10, and 15 year old reclaimed soils were compared with an adjacent undisturbed site. Our results indicate that gravimetric moisture content, water hold capacity, bulk density, available phosphorus, total nitrogen, soil organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and phosphatase and urease activity were greatly impacted by disturbance. A general trend of recovery towards the undisturbed condition with reclamation age was found after disturbance, the recovery of soil total N being faster than soil organic C. The soil quality indicators were selected using principal component analysis (PCA), correlations and multiple linear regressions. The first three components gathered explain 76.4 % of the total variability. The obtained results revealed that the most appropriate indicators to diagnose the quality of the soils were urease, available phosphorus and bulk density and minor total nitrogen. According to linear score analysis and the additive index, the soils showed a recuperation starting from 4 years of pumice extraction.

  14. INDOOR AIR QUALITY MODELING (CHAPTER 58)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discussses indoor air quality (IAQ) modeling. Such modeling provides a way to investigate many IAQ problems without the expense of large field experiments. Where experiments are planned, IAQ models can be used to help design experiments by providing information on exp...

  15. Managing Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolums, Jennifer

    This publication examines the causes and effects of poor indoor air quality and provides information for reducing exposure to indoor contaminants in schools. It discusses the various indoor pollutants found in schools, including dust, chemical agents, gases, and volatile organic compounds; where they are found in schools; and their health effects…

  16. Indoor Air Quality Basics for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    This fact sheet details important information on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in school buildings, problems associated with IAQ, and various prevention and problem-solving strategies. Most people spend 90 percent of their time indoors, therefore the Environmental Protection Agency ranks IAQ in the top four environmental risks to the public. The…

  17. The Bottom Line For Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how the right type of flooring can help schools reduce indoor-air-quality problems. Using vinyl composition flooring to handle moisture and reduce fungi growth is examined as are the benefits of vinyl cushion tufted textile flooring for cost effectiveness, learning environment improvement, installation, and effectiveness in emergencies.…

  18. Shuttle applications in tropospheric air quality observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E.; Gupta, J.; Carmichael, J.

    1978-01-01

    The role which might be played by the space shuttle in obtaining data which describes the air quality of the north-eastern United States was investigated. The data requirements of users, a model for statistical interpretation of the observations, the influence of orbit parameters on the spatial and temporal sampling and an example of application of the the model were considered.

  19. Integration of air and water quality issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental sustainability of dairy farms is dependent upon a number of air and water quality issues. Atmospheric emissions include hazardous compounds such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide along with greenhouse gases and their implications with global climate change. Runoff of sediment, phosph...

  20. OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING FOR AIR QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper outlines recent developments in using optical remote sensing (ORS) instruments for air quality monitoring both for gaseous pollutants and airborne particulate matter (PM). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been using open-path Fourier transform infrared...

  1. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

  2. Indoor Air Quality Guidelines for Pennsylvania Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Robert S., Jr.

    This report provides information and practical guidance on how to prevent indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in schools, and it describes how to implement a practical plan of action using a minimal amount of resources. It includes general guidelines to prevent or help resolve IAQ problems, guidelines on specific indoor contaminants, recommendations…

  3. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  4. Sensor selection for outdoor air quality monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, K. L.; Herr, John R.; Pisano, A. P.

    2014-06-01

    Gas chemical monitoring for next-generation robotics applications such as fire fighting, explosive gas detection, ubiquitous urban monitoring, and mine safety require high performance, reliable sensors. In this work, we discuss the performance requirements of fixed-location, mobile vehicle, and personal sensor nodes for outdoor air quality sensing. We characterize and compare the performance of a miniature commercial electrochemical and a metal oxide gas sensor and discuss their suitability for environmental monitoring applications. Metal oxide sensors are highly cross-sensitive to factors that affect chemical adsorption (e.g., air speed, pressure) and require careful enclosure design or compensation methods. In contrast, electrochemical sensors are less susceptible to environmental variations, have very low power consumption, and are well matched for mobile air quality monitoring.

  5. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  8. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality rules identified in paragraph (a) of this section, and the Lane Regional Air Pollution...

  11. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  12. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  14. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  17. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  18. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for...

  19. Relay cropping for improved air and water quality.

    PubMed

    Schepers, James S; Francis, Dennis D; Shanahan, John F

    2005-01-01

    Using plants to extract excess nitrate from soil is important in protecting against eutrophication of standing water, hypoxic conditions in lakes and oceans, or elevated nitrate concentrations in domestic water supplies Global climate change issues have raised new concerns about nitrogen (N) management as it relates to crop production even though there may not be an immediate threat to water quality. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are frequently considered the primary cause of global climate change, but under anaerobic conditions, animals can contribute by expelling methane (CH4) as do soil microbes. In terms of the potential for global climate change, CH4 is approximately 25 times more harmful than CO2. This differential effect is minuscule compared to when nitrous oxide (N2O) is released into the atmosphere because it is approximately 300 times more harmful than CO2. N2O losses from soil have been positively correlated with residual N (nitrate, NO3-) concentrations in soil. It stands to reason that phytoremediation via nitrate scavenger crops is one approach to help protect air quality, as well as soil and water quality. Winter wheat was inserted into a seed corn/soybean rotation to utilize soil nitrate and thereby reduce the potential for nitrate leaching and N2O emissions. The net effect of the 2001-2003 relay cropping sequence was to produce three crops in two years, scavenge 130 kg N/ha from the root zone, produce an extra 2 Mg residue/ha, and increase producer profitability by approximately 250 dollars/ha. PMID:15948582

  20. Indoor air quality and health in schools*

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana Maria da Conceição; Cardoso, Massano

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether indoor air quality in schools is associated with the prevalence of allergic and respiratory diseases in children. Methods: We evaluated 1,019 students at 51 elementary schools in the city of Coimbra, Portugal. We applied a questionnaire that included questions regarding the demographic, social, and behavioral characteristics of students, as well as the presence of smoking in the family. We also evaluated the indoor air quality in the schools. Results: In the indoor air of the schools evaluated, we identified mean concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) above the maximum reference value, especially during the fall and winter. The CO2 concentration was sometimes as high as 1,942 ppm, implying a considerable health risk for the children. The most prevalent symptoms and respiratory diseases identified in the children were sneezing, rales, wheezing, rhinitis, and asthma. Other signs and symptoms, such as poor concentration, cough, headache, and irritation of mucous membranes, were identified. Lack of concentration was associated with CO2 concentrations above the maximum recommended level in indoor air (p = 0.002). There were no other significant associations. Conclusions: Most of the schools evaluated presented with reasonable air quality and thermal comfort. However, the concentrations of various pollutants, especially CO2, suggest the need for corrective interventions, such as reducing air pollutant sources and improving ventilation. There was a statistically significant association between lack of concentration in the children and exposure to high levels of CO2. The overall low level of pollution in the city of Coimbra might explain the lack of other significant associations. PMID:25029649

  1. Achieving indoor air quality through contaminant control

    SciTech Connect

    Katzel, J.

    1995-07-10

    Federal laws outlining industry`s responsibilities in creating a healthy, hazard-free workspace are well known. OSHA`s laws on interior air pollution establish threshold limit values (TLVs) and permissible exposure limits (PELs) for more than 500 potentially hazardous substances found in manufacturing operations. Until now, OSHA has promulgated regulations only for the manufacturing environment. However, its recently-proposed indoor air quality (IAQ) ruling, if implemented, will apply to all workspaces. It regulates IAQ, including environmental tobacco smoke, and requires employers to write and implement IAQ compliance plans.

  2. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR Chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  3. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR Chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR Chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  7. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  8. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  9. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  10. Rural southeast Texas air quality measurements during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study.

    PubMed

    Schade, Gunnar W; Khan, Siraj; Park, Changhyoun; Boedeker, Ian

    2011-10-01

    The authors conducted air quality measurements of the criteria pollutants carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and ozone together with meteorological measurements at a park site southeast of College Station, TX, during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study II (TexAQS). Ozone, a primary focus of the measurements, was above 80 ppb during 3 days and above 75 ppb during additional 8 days in summer 2006, suggestive of possible violations of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in this area. In concordance with other air quality measurements during the TexAQS II, elevated ozone mixing ratios coincided with northerly flows during days after cold front passages. Ozone background during these days was as high as 80 ppb, whereas southerly air flows generally provided for an ozone background lower than 40 ppb. Back trajectory analysis shows that local ozone mixing ratios can also be strongly affected by the Houston urban pollution plume, leading to late afternoon ozone increases of as high as 50 ppb above background under favorable transport conditions. The trajectory analysis also shows that ozone background increases steadily the longer a southern air mass resides over Texas after entering from the Gulf of Mexico. In light of these and other TexAQS findings, it appears that ozone air quality is affected throughout east Texas by both long-range and regional ozone transport, and that improvements therefore will require at least a regionally oriented instead of the current locally oriented ozone precursor reduction policies.

  11. Quality screening for air quality monitoring data in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Weifeng; Li, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter data obtained from the national air quality monitoring network in China has become an essential and critical data source for many current and forthcoming studies as well as the formulation and implementation of air pollution regulatory policies on particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10). However, the quality control of this data is dubitable and can affect many future studies and policies. This study identifies and elucidates two significant quality control issues with the data. They are PM2.5 levels exceeding concurrent co-located PM10 levels and the registration of same concentrations for consecutive hours at some stations. Future studies utilizing particulate matter data need to acknowledge and address these issues to ensure accurate and reliable results.

  12. Quality screening for air quality monitoring data in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Weifeng; Li, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter data obtained from the national air quality monitoring network in China has become an essential and critical data source for many current and forthcoming studies as well as the formulation and implementation of air pollution regulatory policies on particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10). However, the quality control of this data is dubitable and can affect many future studies and policies. This study identifies and elucidates two significant quality control issues with the data. They are PM2.5 levels exceeding concurrent co-located PM10 levels and the registration of same concentrations for consecutive hours at some stations. Future studies utilizing particulate matter data need to acknowledge and address these issues to ensure accurate and reliable results. PMID:27376986

  13. Effects of pumice mining on soil quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Ruíz, A.; Cruz-Ruíz, E.; Vaca, R.; Del Aguila, P.; Lugo, J.

    2015-04-01

    México is the worl's fourth most important maize producer; hence, there is a need to maintain soil quality for a sustainable production in the upcoming years. Pumice mining, a superficial operation, modifies large areas in Central Mexico. The main aim was to assess the present state of agricultural soils differing in elapsed-time since pumice mining (0-15 years), in a representative area of the Calimaya region in the State of Mexico. The study sites in 0, 1, 4, 10 and 15 year-old reclaimed soils were compared with adjacent undisturbed site. Our results indicate that soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and microbial quotients were greatly impacted by disturbance. A general trend of recovery towards the undisturbed condition with reclamation age was found after disturbance. Recovery of soil total nitrogen was faster than soil organic carbon. Principal components analysis was applied. The first three components together explain 71.72 % of the total variability. First factor reveals strong associations between total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and pH. The second factor reveals high loading of urease and catalase. The obtained results revealed that the most appropriate indicators to diagnose the quality of the soils were: total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and soil organic carbon.

  14. Pesticides in western Canadian mountain air and soil.

    PubMed

    Daly, Gillian L; Lei, Ying D; Teixeira, Camilla; Muir, Derek C G; Wania, Frank

    2007-09-01

    The distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCP; in past and current use) in the mountains of western Canada was determined by sampling air, soil, and lichen along three elevational transects in 2003-2004. Two transects west of the Continental Divide were located in Mount Revelstoke and Yoho National Park, while the Observation Peak transect in Banff National Park is east of the divide. XAD-based passive air samplers, yielding annually averaged air concentrations, were deployed, and soils were collected at all 22 sampling sites, whereas lichen were only sampled in Revelstoke. Back trajectory analysis showed limited air mass transport from the Prairies to the east, but a high frequency of air arriving from the southwest, which includes agricultural regions in British Columbia and Washington State. Endosulfan, dieldrin, and a-hexachlorocyclohexane were the most prevalent OCPs in air and soil; hexachlorobenzene was only abundant in air; chlorothalonil, dacthal, and pentachloronitrobenzene were also consistently present. OCP air concentrations were similar across the three transects, suggesting efficient atmospheric mixing on a local and regional scale. Soil concentrations and soil/air concentration ratios of many OCPs were significantly higher west of the Continental Divide. The soil and lichen concentrations of most OCPs increased with altitude in Revelstoke, and displayed maxima at intermediate elevations at Yoho and Observation Peak. These distribution patterns can be understood as being determined by the balance between atmospheric deposition to, and retention within, the soils. Higher deposition, due to more precipitation falling at lower temperatures, likely occurs west of the divide and at higher elevations. Higher retention, due to higher soil organic matter content, is believed to occur in soils below the tree line. Highest pesticide concentrations are thus found intemperate mountain soils that are rich in organic matter and receive large amounts of cold

  15. [Aircraft cabin air quality: exposure to ozone].

    PubMed

    Uva, António De Sousa

    2002-01-01

    Ozone is the principal component involved in photochemical pollution of the air. As an irritant of the respiratory system, its effects on the health of those exposed to it are characterised essentially by coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain or tightness and alterations to the pulmonary mechanical function. Additionally, a higher frequency and severity of asthmatic exacerbation and the occurrence of eye irritation are linked to environmental exposure to O3. In the early 1960s the first studies on the exposure to O3 in aircraft cabins appeared, prompted by the occurrence of clinical complaints of irritation of the respiratory tract in crewmembers and passengers. The symptoms had hitherto been attributed to the action of other factors, such as the ventilation system and low level of humidity in the air. An updating is done by author of some factors related to the quality of air inside aircraft cabins, namely the exposure to ozone in crewmembers and passengers.

  16. South coast air quality management district

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    The first of several state-of-the-art sampling instruments to monitor acid fog in the South Coast Air Basin on an on-going basis has been in stalled in Rubidoux by the South Coast Air Quality Management District. The automated equipment, called the Caltech Active Strand Collector (CASC), is part of a long-term acid fog monitoring program developed by AQMD. The collecting process involves drawing a fog-laden air sample into the collector where fog droplets strike a series of teflon strands and run down to a collection trough. The sample is then sent to AQMD's laboratory to determine acidity and chemical composition. The monitoring equipment will be moved to Pomona later this winter, and to Crestline in the spring. Following this initial evaluation period, additional CASC units will be sited in the region.

  17. TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION AND AIR SPARGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sparging, also called "in situ air stripping and in situ volatilization" injects air into the saturated zone to strip away volatile organic compounds (VOCs) dissolved in groundwater and adsorbed to soil. hese volatile contaminants transfer in a vapor phase to the unsaturated ...

  18. Sample storage-induced changes in the quantity and quality of soil labile organic carbon

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shou-Qin; Cai, Hui-Ying; Chang, Scott X.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of sample storage methods on the quantity and quality of labile soil organic carbon are not fully understood even though their effects on basic soil properties have been extensively studied. We studied the effects of air-drying and frozen storage on cold and hot water soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Cold- and hot-WSOC in air-dried and frozen-stored soils were linearly correlated with those in fresh soils, indicating that storage proportionally altered the extractability of soil organic carbon. Air-drying but not frozen storage increased the concentrations of cold-WSOC and carbohydrate in cold-WSOC, while both increased polyphenol concentrations. In contrast, only polyphenol concentration in hot-WSOC was increased by air-drying and frozen storage, suggesting that hot-WSOC was less affected by sample storage. The biodegradability of cold- but not hot-WSOC was increased by air-drying, while both air-drying and frozen storage increased humification index and changed specific UV absorbance of both cold- and hot-WSOC, indicating shifts in the quality of soil WSOC. Our results suggest that storage methods affect the quantity and quality of WSOC but not comparisons between samples, frozen storage is better than air-drying if samples have to be stored, and storage should be avoided whenever possible when studying the quantity and quality of both cold- and hot-WSOC. PMID:26617054

  19. Sample storage-induced changes in the quantity and quality of soil labile organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shou-Qin; Cai, Hui-Ying; Chang, Scott X.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.

    2015-11-01

    Effects of sample storage methods on the quantity and quality of labile soil organic carbon are not fully understood even though their effects on basic soil properties have been extensively studied. We studied the effects of air-drying and frozen storage on cold and hot water soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Cold- and hot-WSOC in air-dried and frozen-stored soils were linearly correlated with those in fresh soils, indicating that storage proportionally altered the extractability of soil organic carbon. Air-drying but not frozen storage increased the concentrations of cold-WSOC and carbohydrate in cold-WSOC, while both increased polyphenol concentrations. In contrast, only polyphenol concentration in hot-WSOC was increased by air-drying and frozen storage, suggesting that hot-WSOC was less affected by sample storage. The biodegradability of cold- but not hot-WSOC was increased by air-drying, while both air-drying and frozen storage increased humification index and changed specific UV absorbance of both cold- and hot-WSOC, indicating shifts in the quality of soil WSOC. Our results suggest that storage methods affect the quantity and quality of WSOC but not comparisons between samples, frozen storage is better than air-drying if samples have to be stored, and storage should be avoided whenever possible when studying the quantity and quality of both cold- and hot-WSOC.

  20. Altitude characteristics of selected air quality analyzers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. H.; Strong, R.; Tommerdahl, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of altitude (pressure) on the operation and sensitivity of various air quality analyzers frequently flown on aircraft were analyzed. Two ozone analyzers were studied at altitudes from 600 to 7500 m and a nitrogen oxides chemiluminescence detector and a sulfur dioxide flame photometric detector were studied at altitudes from 600 to 3000 m. Calibration curves for altitude corrections to the sensitivity of the instruments are presented along with discussion of observed instrument behavior.

  1. Land use information and air quality planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Wallace E.; Lewis, John E.

    1975-01-01

    The pilot national land use information system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site project has provided an improved technique for estimating emissions, diffusion, and impact patterns of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter. Implementation of plans to control air quality requires land use information, which, until this time, has been inadequate. The pilot system, however, provided data for updating information on the sources of point and area emissions of SO2 and particulate matter affecting the Norfolk-Portsmouth area of Virginia for the 1971-72 winter (Dec.-Jan.-Feb.) and the annual 1972 period, and for a future annual period 1985. This emission information is used as input to the Air Quality Display Model of the Environmental Protection Agency to obtain diffusion and impact patterns for the three periods previously mentioned. The results are: (1) During the 1971-72 winter, estimated S02 amounts over an area with a SW-NE axis in the central section of Norfolk exceeded both primary and secondary levels; (2) future annual levels of SO2, estimated by anticipated residential development and point-source changes, are not expected to cause serious deterioration of the region's present air quality; and (3) for the 1971-72 winter and annual 1972 period the diffusion results showed that both primary and secondary standards for particulate matter are regularly exceeded in central Norfolk and Portsmouth. In addition, on the basis of current control programs, the 1985 levels of particulate matter are expected to exceed the presently established secondary air quality standards through central Norfolk and Portsmouth and in certain areas of Virginia Beach.

  2. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    PubMed Central

    Jurado, Sonia R.; Bankoff, Antônia D. P.; Sanchez, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 μg/m3) in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively). The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem. PMID:25019268

  3. Biogenic organic emissions, air quality and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    Living organisms produce copious amounts of a diverse array of metabolites including many volatile organic compounds that are released into the atmosphere. These compounds participate in numerous chemical reactions that influence the atmospheric abundance of important air pollutants and short-lived climate forcers including organic aerosol, ozone and methane. The production and release of these organics are strongly influenced by environmental conditions including air pollution, temperature, solar radiation, and water availability and they are highly sensitive to stress and extreme events. As a result, releases of biogenic organics to the atmosphere have an impact on, and are sensitive to, air quality and climate leading to potential feedback couplings. Their role in linking air quality and climate is conceptually clear but an accurate quantitative representation is needed for predictive models. Progress towards this goal will be presented including numerical model development and assessments of the predictive capability of the Model of Emission of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). Recent studies of processes controlling the magnitude and variations in biogenic organic emissions will be described and observations of their impact on atmospheric composition will be shown. Recent advances and priorities for future research will be discussed including laboratory process studies, long-term measurements, multi-scale regional studies, global satellite observations, and the development of a next generation model for simulating land-atmosphere chemical exchange.

  4. Urban Air Quality Forecasting in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Menard, Sylvain; Cousineau, Sophie; Stroud, Craig; Moran, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Environment and Climate Change Canada has been providing air quality (AQ) forecasts for major Canadian urban centers since 2001. Over this period, the Canadian AQ Forecast Program has expanded and evolved. It currently uses the Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS) modelling framework. At the heart of the RAQDPS is the GEM-MACH model, an on-line coupled meteorology‒chemistry model configured for a North American domain with 10 km horizontal grid spacing and 80 vertical levels. A statistical post-processing model (UMOS-AQ) is then applied to the RAQDPS hourly forecasts for locations with AQ monitors to reduce point forecast bias and error. These outputs provide the primary guidance from which operational meteorologists disseminate Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) forecasts to the public for major urban centres across Canada. During the 2015 summer Pan Am and Parapan Am Games, which were held in Ontario, Canada, an experimental version of the RAQDPS at 2.5 km horizontal grid spacing was run for a domain over the greater Toronto area. Currently, there is ongoing research to develop and assess AQ systems run at 1 km resolution. This presentation will show analyses of operational AQ forecast performance for several pollutants over the last few years in major Canadian urban centres such as Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, and Calgary. Trends in observed pollution along with short- and long-term development plans for urban AQ forecasting will also be presented.

  5. Analysis of air quality management with emphasis on transportation sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T. D.; Divita, E.; Lees, L.

    1980-01-01

    The current environment and practices of air quality management were examined for three regions: Denver, Phoenix, and the South Coast Air Basin of California. These regions were chosen because the majority of their air pollution emissions are related to mobile sources. The impact of auto exhaust on the air quality management process is characterized and assessed. An examination of the uncertainties in air pollutant measurements, emission inventories, meteorological parameters, atmospheric chemistry, and air quality simulation models is performed. The implications of these uncertainties to current air quality management practices is discussed. A set of corrective actions are recommended to reduce these uncertainties.

  6. Office Building Occupant's Guide to Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... building ventilation systems; moisture and humidity; and occupant perceptions and susceptibilities. In addition, there are many other factors that affect comfort or perception of indoor air quality. Controlling indoor air quality ...

  7. Prediction Models are Basis for Rational Air Quality Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Anders; Bach, Wilfrid

    1973-01-01

    An air quality control scheme employing meteorological diffusion, time averaging and frequency, and cost-benefit models is discussed. The methods outlined provide a constant feedback system for air quality control. Flow charts and maps are included. (BL)

  8. New Zealand traffic and local air quality.

    PubMed

    Irving, Paul; Moncrieff, Ian

    2004-12-01

    Since 1996 the New Zealand Ministry of Transport (MOT) has been investigating the effects of road transport on local air quality. The outcome has been the government's Vehicle Fleet Emissions Control Strategy (VFECS). This is a programme of measures designed to assist with the improvement in local air quality, and especially in the appropriate management of transport sector emissions. Key to the VFECS has been the development of tools to assess and predict the contribution of vehicle emissions to local air pollution, in a given urban situation. Determining how vehicles behave as an emissions source, and more importantly, how the combined traffic flows contribute to the total emissions within a given airshed location was an important element of the programme. The actual emissions output of a vehicle is more than that determined by a certified emission standard, at the point of manufacture. It is the engine technology's general performance capability, in conjunction with the local driving conditions, that determines its actual emissions output. As vehicles are a mobile emissions source, to understand the effect of vehicle technology, it is necessary to work with the average fleet performance, or "fleet-weighted average emissions rate". This is the unit measure of performance of the general traffic flow that could be passing through a given road corridor or network, as an average, over time. The flow composition can be representative of the national fleet population, but also may feature particular vehicle types in a given locality, thereby have a different emissions 'signature'. A summary of the range of work that has been completed as part of the VFECS programme is provided. The NZ Vehicle Fleet Emissions Model and the derived data set available in the NZ Traffic Emission Rates provide a significant step forward in the consistent analysis of practical, sustainable vehicle emissions policy and air-quality management in New Zealand.

  9. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  12. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  13. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  14. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  15. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  16. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  17. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  19. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  1. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  3. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  4. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  5. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  6. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  7. Parent's Guide to School Indoor Air Quality. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is air pollution, indoors or out. Good indoor air quality (IAQ) contributes to a favorable learning environment for students, protects health, and supports the productivity of school personnel. In schools in poor repair, leaky roofs and crumbling walls have caused additional indoor air quality problems, including contamination with…

  8. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more pol...

  9. Soil contamination evaluations: Earthworms as indicators of soil quality

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, G.; Wilbom, D.

    1995-12-31

    Earthworms have frequently been evaluated in the field and laboratory as representatives of the soil community that are indicative of their habitat`s quality. Within a landscape or at a contaminated site, soil quality, or soil health, has become increasingly critical to cleanup-related issues that revolve around questions of ``how clean is clean`` and the bioaccumulation of soil contaminants. Through an overview of numerous field and laboratory studies, the role that earthworms have played in evaluating soil contamination will be reviewed with a particular focus on evaluations of the bioaccumulation potential of chemicals in soil. Within ecological contexts, earthworms can provide information regarding immediately observable adverse affects related, for example, to acute toxicity. Additionally, earthworms can provide information directly related to the bioaccumulation potential of a chemical and trophic transfer of environmental chemicals, especially through the food-chain. Within the decision-making process, soil contamination evaluations must consider future land-use, as well as current and future expressions of adverse biological and ecological effects under field conditions, potentially following remediation. Through integrated field and laboratory studies using earthworms, the authors have been able to identify adversely affected soil communities and have been able to provide information for assessing adverse ecological effects potentially caused by contaminants. Field surveys and on-site or in situ biological testing with earthworms, however, can not alone identify causes of effects. As such, standardized biological tests have been routinely completed in the laboratory so linkages between expression of effects and contaminants could be more readily addressed in conjunction with appropriate chemical data from the field.

  10. Acidic precipitation: considerations for an air-quality standard

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.S.; Hendrey, G.R.; Stensland, G.J.; Johnson, D.W.; Francis, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Acidic precipitation, wet or frozen deposition with a hydrogen ion concentration greatern than 2.5 ..mu..eq l/sup -1/ is a significant air pollution problem in the United States. The chief anions accounting for the hydrogen ions in rainfall are nitrate and sulfate. Agricultural systems are more likely to derive net nutritional benefits from increasing inputs of acidic rain than are forest systems when soils alone are considered. Agricultural soils may benefit because of the high N and S requirements of agricultural plants. Detrimental effects to forest soils may result if atmospheric H/sup +/ inputs significantly add to or exceed H/sup +/ production by soils. Acidification of fresh waters of southern Scandinavia, southwestern Scotland, southeastern Canada, and northeastern United States is caused by acid deposition. Areas of these regions in which this acidification occurs have in common, highly acidic precipitation with volume weighted mean annual H/sup +/ concentrations of 25 ..mu..eq l/sup -1/ or higher and slow weathering granitic or precambrian bedrock with thin soils deficient in minerals which would provide buffer capacity. Biological effects of acidification of fresh waters are detectable below pH 6.0. As lake and stream pH levels decrease below pH. 6.0, many species of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates are progressively eliminated. Generally, fisheries are impacted below pH 5.0 and are completely destroyed below pH 4.8. There are few studies that document effects of acidic precipitation on terrestrial vegetation to establish an air quality standard. It must be demonstrated that current levels of precipitation acidity alone significantly injure terrestrial vegetation. In terms of documented damanges, current research indicates that establishing a standard for precipitation for the volume weighted annual H/sup +/ concentration at 25 ..mu..eq l/sup -1/ may protect the most sensitive areas from permanent lake acidification.

  11. 40 CFR 52.2682 - Air quality surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality surveillance. 52.2682... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2682 Air quality... Pollution Control Standards and Regulations” (buffer zones—air quality sampling) are not in conformance...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52... Address: Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Pollution Control, Air Division,...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states....

  14. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52... Address: Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Pollution Control, Air Division,...

  17. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2922 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2922 Section 52.2922 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Northern Mariana Islands § 52.2922 Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of... procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for...

  19. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2682 - Air quality surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality surveillance. 52.2682... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2682 Air quality... Pollution Control Standards and Regulations” (buffer zones—air quality sampling) are not in conformance...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2682 - Air quality surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quality surveillance. 52.2682... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2682 Air quality... Pollution Control Standards and Regulations” (buffer zones—air quality sampling) are not in conformance...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2682 - Air quality surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality surveillance. 52.2682... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2682 Air quality... Pollution Control Standards and Regulations” (buffer zones—air quality sampling) are not in conformance...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention...

  8. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  9. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states....

  10. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states....

  12. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention...

  13. 40 CFR 52.986 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.986 Section 52.986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Louisiana on August 14, 1984 (as adopted... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of...

  14. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  15. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states....

  17. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention...

  19. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  20. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  1. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  2. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  3. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  4. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2682 - Air quality surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality surveillance. 52.2682... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2682 Air quality... Pollution Control Standards and Regulations” (buffer zones—air quality sampling) are not in conformance...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states....

  8. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  11. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  12. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52... Address: Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Pollution Control, Air Division,...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  14. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. Ambient air quality monitoring plan, Cumberland Steam Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, A.E. Jr.; Carter, R.V.

    1981-09-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has conducted ambient air quality monitoring at Cumberland Steam Plant since 1971. The monitoring network was operated to collect background air quality information prior to plant startup (1972) and to document ambient air quality after the plant reached full operating levels in 1973. This monitoring plan presents a new network design for Cumberland Steam Plant.

  20. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  1. Air Quality in the Central Ontario Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gbor, P. K.; Meng, F.; Singh, R.; Galvez, O.; Sloan, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Central Ontario Region (COR) is the most densely populated area in Canada. With a population of 7.3 million, it contains 23% of the total population of Canada. It extends from the extreme south west end of Ontario to the eastern end of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and includes the Niagara, Hamilton and Waterloo Regions,. The air quality of this region is frequently severely impaired in the summer months. In the larger metropolitan areas (Toronto and Hamilton) air pollution is a concern throughout the year. Local health authorities attribute about 1000 premature deaths per year in the GTA alone to air pollution. Average air pollution levels in Ontario have decreased significantly during the past 30 years, despite significant growth in both population and industry. The concentrations of SO2 and CO have decreased by over 80% and the concentration of NOX has decreased by about 50% over the past 26 years. Currently, the concentrations of NOX, CO, SO2 and VOCs in the COR are well below the Provincial and Federal air quality criteria. Ozone, PM2.5 and PM10, however, remain above the Provincial guidelines, so smog still remains a problem. The pollutants in the atmosphere of the COR are caused by both local emissions and long range transport. The COR contributes over 50% of the NOx, VOC and CO emissions in Ontario. Over 58% of NOX and CO emissions in the COR are due to mobile sources while about 50% of VOC and PM emissions are due to area sources. The proximity of the COR to the Canada-U.S. border makes it vulnerable to long range transport of pollutants stemming from the much larger population in the United States. The Canadian government, industries and non-governmental organizations are all taking steps to help reduce the level of pollution in Canada. The Canadian federal government also participates in extensive consultations and cooperative programs with the United States designed to reduce the mutually detrimental effects of cross-border pollution. These

  2. Indoor air quality: The legal landscape II

    SciTech Connect

    Neet, J.O. Jr.; Smith, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    Today`s office environment is as different from its predecessor as an automobile is from a horse and buggy. A 1950s office typically contained tile floors, painted walls, plaster ceilings, carbon paper, and plentiful fresh air circulating through windows that were usually open when weather permitted. In the 1990s, the decor has shifted to carpeted floors, synthetic wall coverings, ceiling tile and multiple copiers. Sophisticated building materials and motorized office products can emit unwelcome constituents into the indoor air, yet ventilation is limited by windows that do not open. One result of these changes has been an unprecedented and ever-increasing concern about indoor air quality (IAQ). Some studies rank indoor air pollution as today`s number one environmental health risk. Increased media attention to the topic has increased public awareness, which has increased litigation and regulatory activity in the area. This paper explores the legal landscape of IAQ in the US, ranging from legislative to regulatory activity on both the federal and state levels, and from civil litigation to actions brought before administrative boards. Along the way, the paper defines and discusses such IAQ problems as building-related illness (BRI) and sick building syndrome (SBS), examining the magnitude of the problems and their possible causes. Finally, the paper provides suggestions to those potentially liable for alleged injuries from indoor air pollution, including architects, builders, contractors, building product manufacturers, building owners and managers, building sellers, employers, and engineering and environmental consultants. This paper is an update of a paper presented at the Air and Waste Management Association`s Annual Meeting in 1992.

  3. Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality: State of the science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aneja, Viney P.; Blunden, Jessica; Roelle, Paul A.; Schlesinger, William H.; Knighton, Raymond; Niyogi, Dev; Gilliam, Wendell; Jennings, Greg; Duke, Clifford S.

    The first Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality: State of the Science was held at the Bolger Center in Potomac, Maryland from 4 to 8 June 2006. This international conference assembled approximately 350 people representing 25 nations from 5 continents, with disciplines ranging from atmospheric chemistry to soil science. The workshop was designed as an open forum in which participants could openly exchange the most current knowledge and learn about numerous international perspectives regarding agricultural air quality. Participants represented many stakeholder groups concerned with the growing need to assess agricultural impacts on the atmosphere and to develop beneficial policies to improve air quality. The workshop focused on identifying methods to improve emissions inventories and best management practices for agriculture. Workshop participants also made recommendations for technological and methodological improvements in current emissions measurement and modeling practices. The workshop commenced with a session on agricultural emissions and was followed by international perspectives from the United States, Europe, Australia, India, and South America. This paper summarizes the findings and issues of the workshop and articulates future research needs. These needs were identified in three general areas: (1) improvement of emissions measurement; (2) development of appropriate emission factors; and (3) implementation of best management practices (BMPs) to minimize negative environmental impacts. Improvements in the appropriate measurements will inform decisions regarding US farming practices. A need was demonstrated for a national/international network to monitor atmospheric emissions from agriculture and their subsequent depositions to surrounding areas. Information collected through such a program may be used to assess model performance and could be critical for evaluating any future regulatory policies or BMPs. The workshop concluded that efforts to maximize

  4. Three Soil Quality Demonstrations for Educating Extension Clientele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoorman, James J.

    2014-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in educating youth, Master Gardeners, and agricultural producers about soil quality. Three soil demonstrations show how soil organic matter increases water holding capacity, improves soil structure, and increases nutrient retention. Exercise one uses clay bricks and sponges to represent mineral soils and soil organic…

  5. Foliage Plants for Improving Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's research with foliage houseplants during the past 10 years has produced a new concept in indoor air quality improvement. This new and exciting technology is quite simple. Both plant leaves and roots are utilized in removing trace levels of toxic vapors from inside tightly sealed buildings. Low levels of chemicals such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde can be removed from indoor environments by plant leaves alone, while higher concentrations of numerous toxic chemicals can be removed by filtering indoor air through the plant roots surrounded by activated carbon. The activated carbon absorbs large quantities of the toxic chemicals and retains them until the plant roots and associated microorganisms degrade and assimilate these chemicals.

  6. Co-benefits of air quality and climate change policies on air quality of the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzoli, Luca; Mert Gokturk, Ozan; Unal, Alper; Kindap, Tayfun; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin is one of the regions of the world where significant impacts due to climate changes are predicted to occur in the future. Observations and model simulations are used to provide to the policy makers scientifically based estimates of the necessity to adjust national emission reductions needed to achieve air quality objectives in the context of a changing climate, which is not only driven by GHGs, but also by short lived climate pollutants, such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols. There is an increasing interest and need to design cost-benefit emission reduction strategies, which could improve both regional air quality and global climate change. In this study we used the WRF-CMAQ air quality modelling system to quantify the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to ozone and particulate matter concentrations in Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean and to understand how this contribution could change in different future scenarios. We have investigated four different future scenarios for year 2050 defined during the European Project CIRCE: a "business as usual" scenario (BAU) where no or just actual measures are taken into account; an "air quality" scenario (BAP) which implements the National Emission Ceiling directive 2001/81/EC member states of the European Union (EU-27); a "climate change" scenario (CC) which implements global climate policies decoupled from air pollution policies; and an "integrated air quality and climate policy" scenario (CAP) which explores the co-benefit of global climate and EU-27 air pollution policies. The BAP scenario largely decreases summer ozone concentrations over almost the entire continent, while the CC and CAP scenarios similarly determine lower decreases in summer ozone but extending all over the Mediterranean, the Middle East countries and Russia. Similar patterns are found for winter PM concentrations; BAP scenario improves pollution levels only in the Western EU countries, and the CAP scenario determines

  7. Evaluation of air quality in Chengdu, Sichuan Basin, China: are China's air quality standards sufficient yet?

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Jaffe, Daniel; Tang, Ya; Bresnahan, Meaghan; Song, Jie

    2015-05-01

    Air quality evaluation is important in order to inform the public about the risk level of air pollution to human health. To better assess air quality, China released its new national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS-2012) and the new method to classify air quality level (AQL) in 2012. In this study, we examined the performance of China's NAAQS-2012 and AQL classification method through applying them, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, and the US AQL classification method to evaluate air quality in Chengdu, the largest city in southwestern China. The results show that annual mean concentrations of PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, SO₂, NO₂, and O₃ at the seven urban sites were in the ranges of 138-161, 87-98, 18-32, 54-70, and 42-57 μg/m(3), respectively, and the annual mean concentrations of CO were in the range of 1.09-1.28 mg/m(3). Chengdu is located in one of the four largest regions affected by haze in China, and PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were the top air pollutants, with annual concentrations over 2 times of their standards in NAAQS-2012 and over 7 times of the WHO guidelines. Annual mean concentrations of the pollutants were much lower at the background site (LYS) than at the urban sites, but the annual mean concentrations of PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ at LYS were 3.5 and 5.7 times of the WHO guidelines, respectively. These suggest that severe air pollution in Chengdu was largely associated with local emissions but also related to regional air pollution. The compliance rates of PM₁₀ , PM₂.₅, SO₂, and O₃ met China's NAAQS-2012 standards four times more frequently than they met the WHO guidelines, as NAAQS-2012 uses the loosest interim target (IT) standards of WHO for these four pollutants. Air pollution in Chengdu was estimated and stated to be less severe using China's classification than using the US classification, as China uses weaker concentration breakpoints and benign descriptions of AQL. Furthermore, China's AQL classification method

  8. Evaluation of air quality in Chengdu, Sichuan Basin, China: are China's air quality standards sufficient yet?

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Jaffe, Daniel; Tang, Ya; Bresnahan, Meaghan; Song, Jie

    2015-05-01

    Air quality evaluation is important in order to inform the public about the risk level of air pollution to human health. To better assess air quality, China released its new national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS-2012) and the new method to classify air quality level (AQL) in 2012. In this study, we examined the performance of China's NAAQS-2012 and AQL classification method through applying them, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, and the US AQL classification method to evaluate air quality in Chengdu, the largest city in southwestern China. The results show that annual mean concentrations of PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, SO₂, NO₂, and O₃ at the seven urban sites were in the ranges of 138-161, 87-98, 18-32, 54-70, and 42-57 μg/m(3), respectively, and the annual mean concentrations of CO were in the range of 1.09-1.28 mg/m(3). Chengdu is located in one of the four largest regions affected by haze in China, and PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were the top air pollutants, with annual concentrations over 2 times of their standards in NAAQS-2012 and over 7 times of the WHO guidelines. Annual mean concentrations of the pollutants were much lower at the background site (LYS) than at the urban sites, but the annual mean concentrations of PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ at LYS were 3.5 and 5.7 times of the WHO guidelines, respectively. These suggest that severe air pollution in Chengdu was largely associated with local emissions but also related to regional air pollution. The compliance rates of PM₁₀ , PM₂.₅, SO₂, and O₃ met China's NAAQS-2012 standards four times more frequently than they met the WHO guidelines, as NAAQS-2012 uses the loosest interim target (IT) standards of WHO for these four pollutants. Air pollution in Chengdu was estimated and stated to be less severe using China's classification than using the US classification, as China uses weaker concentration breakpoints and benign descriptions of AQL. Furthermore, China's AQL classification method

  9. Air quality VI details environmental progress

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-31

    A report is given of the International Conference on Air Quality VI where key topics discussed were control of mercury, trace elements, sulphur trioxide and particulates. This year a separate track was added on greenhouse gas reduction, with panels on greenhouse gas policy and markets, CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration, and monitoring, mitigation and verification. In keynote remarks, NETL Director Carl Bauer noted that emissions have gone down since 1990 even though coal consumption has increased. The conference provided an overview of the state-of-the-science regarding key pollutants and CO{sub 2}, the corresponding regulatory environment, and the technology readiness of mitigation techniques. 1 photo.

  10. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-10-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-10-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  12. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-01-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  13. Soil quality indicators in Urban watersheds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damame, D. B.; Longo, R. M.; Nardi, L. A. A.; Fengler, F. H.

    2015-12-01

    Soil quality can be defined as the ability of this function within the boundaries of an ecosystem can be assessed three different aspects: physical, biological and chemical. As no indicator alone able to quantify the quality of the soil and should relate various attributes. In this context, this study aimed to characterize soil quality in urban sub basins to the northwest of the city of Campinas / SP-Brazil. These are characterized by strong urbanization, with the presence of rural areas and fragmented native vegetation. Disturbed soil samples were collected along the area in which the parameters were analyzed: potential acidity, pH, organic matter, potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) base saturation (SB) and cation exchange capacity (CTC). Data were discussed by cluster analysis using Ward clustering strategy and using as the similarity coefficient between pairs Euclidean distance. Thus, one can divide the points collected from three different groups: Group 1 consists of 91% of the points belonging to the urban and rural use; group 2 showed about 73% of the points belonging to vegetated areas; Group 3 had 82% of points distributed between rural and vegetated areas. In terms of soil quality, it follows that on average the group 1 had the worst scores. Group 2 presented the best characteristics, except for K, higher in group 3, which can be attributed to chemical fertilizer used in agricultural areas. Knowing also that the acceptable limits for pH, in tropical soils vary between 5.5 and 6.8 is observed that the groups 2 and 3 were within this range, only the group 1 presented below this standard. In terms of soil quality indicators, group 2 stood out positively, with good quality, group 3 was between the two groups, with median values of quality, while the group 1 showed the most deterioration of the research group, It can be attributed to the fact that 54.5% of the points in this group have urban wear, indicating the need for recovery.

  14. Soil Water Retention as Indicator for Soil Physical Quality - Examples from Two SoilTrEC European Critical Zone Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseva, Svetla; Kercheva, Milena; Shishkov, Toma; Dimitrov, Emil; Nenov, Martin; Lair, Georg J.; Moraetis, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Soil water retention is of primary importance for majority of soil functions. The characteristics derived from Soil Water Retention Curve (SWRC) are directly related to soil structure and soil water regime and can be used as indicators for soil physical quality. The aim of this study is to present some parameters and relationships based on the SWRC data from the soil profiles characterising the European SoilTrEC Critical Zone Observatories Fuchsenbigl and Koiliaris. The studied soils are representative for highly productive soils managed as arable land in the frame of soil formation chronosequence at "Marchfeld" (Fuchsenbigl CZO), Austria and heavily impacted soils during centuries through intensive grazing and farming, under severe risk of desertification in context of climatic and lithological gradient at Koiliaris, Crete, Greece. Soil water retention at pF ≤ 2.52 was determined using the undisturbed soil cores (100 cm3 and 50 cm3) by a suction plate method. Water retention at pF = 4.2 was determined by a membrane press method and at pF ≥ 5.6 - by adsorption of water vapour at controlled relative humidity, both using ground soil samples. The soil physical quality parameter (S-parameter) was defined as the slope of the water retention curve at its inflection point (Dexter, 2006), determined with the obtained parameters of van Genuhten (1980) water retention equation. The S-parameter values were categorised to assess soil physical quality as follows: S < 0.020 very poor, 0.020 ≤ S < 0.035 poor, 0.035 ≤ S < 0.050 good, S ≥ 0.050 very good (Dexter, 2004). The results showed that most of the studied topsoil horizons have good physical quality according to both the S-parameter and the Plant-Available Water content (PAW), with the exception of the soils from croplands at CZO Fuxenbigl (F4, F5) which are with poor soil structure. The link between the S-parameter and the indicator of soil structure stability (water stable soil aggregates with size 1-3 mm) is not

  15. Could houseplants improve indoor air quality in schools?

    PubMed

    Pegas, P N; Alves, C A; Nunes, T; Bate-Epey, E F; Evtyugina, M; Pio, C A

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies performed by the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) indicated that plants and associated soil microorganisms may be used to reduce indoor pollutant levels. This study investigated the ability of plants to improve indoor air quality in schools. A 9-wk intensive monitoring campaign of indoor and outdoor air pollution was carried out in 2011 in a primary school of Aveiro, Portugal. Measurements included temperature, carbon dioxide (CO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbonyls, and particulate matter (PM₁₀) without and with plants in a classroom. PM₁₀ samples were analyzed for the water-soluble inorganic ions, as well for carbonaceous fractions. After 6 potted plants were hung from the ceiling, the mean CO₂ concentration decreased from 2004 to 1121 ppm. The total VOC average concentrations in the indoor air during periods of occupancy without and with the presence of potted plants were, respectively, 933 and 249 μg/m³. The daily PM₁₀ levels in the classroom during the occupancy periods were always higher than those outdoors. The presence of potted plants likely favored a decrease of approximately 30% in PM₁₀ concentrations. Our findings corroborate the results of NASA studies suggesting that plants might improve indoor air and make interior breathing spaces healthier. PMID:23095155

  16. Air emissions assessment and air quality permitting for a municipal waste landfill treating municipal sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, J.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a case study into the air quality permitting of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in the San Francisco Bay Area undergoing a proposed expansion in operations to increase the life of the landfill. The operations of this facility include MSW landfilling, the treatment and disposal of municipal sewage sludge, the aeration of petroleum-contaminated soils, the construction of a new on-site plant to manufacture soil amendment products from waste wood and other organic material diverted from the landfill, and the installation of a vaporator to create steam from leachate for injection into the landfill gas flare. The emissions assessment for each project component relied upon interpretation of source tests from similar operations, incorporation of on-site measurements into emissions models and mass balances, and use of AP-42 procedures for emissions sources such as wind-blown dust, material handling and transfer operations, and fugitive landfill gas. Air permitting issues included best available control technology (BACT), emission offset thresholds, new source performance standards (NSPS), potential air toxics health risk impacts, and compliance with federal Title V operating permit requirements. With the increasing difficulties of siting new landfills, increasing pressures to reduce the rate of waste placement into existing landfills, and expanding regulatory requirements on landfill operations, experiences similar to those described in this paper are likely to increase in the future as permitting scenarios become more complex.

  17. A smart indoor air quality sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jin

    2006-03-01

    The indoor air quality (IAQ) has an important impact on public health. Currently, the indoor air pollution, caused by gas, particle, and bio-aerosol pollutants, is considered as the top five environmental risks to public health and has an estimated cost of $2 billion/year due to medical cost and lost productivity. Furthermore, current buildings are especially vulnerable for chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agent contamination because the central air conditioning and ventilation system serve as a nature carrier to spread the released agent from one location to the whole indoor environment within a short time period. To assure the IAQ and safety for either new or existing buildings, real time comprehensive IAQ and CBW measurements are needed. With the development of new sensing technologies, economic and reliable comprehensive IAQ and CBW sensors become promising. However, few studies exist that examine the design and evaluation issues related to IAQ and CBW sensor network. In this paper, relevant research areas including IAQ and CBW sensor development, demand control ventilation, indoor CBW sensor system design, and sensor system design for other areas such as water system protection, fault detection and diagnosis, are reviewed and summarized. Potential research opportunities for IAQ and CBW sensor system design and evaluation are discussed.

  18. Indoor air quality investigations at five classrooms.

    PubMed

    Lee, S C; Chang, M

    1999-06-01

    Five classrooms, air-conditioned or naturally ventilated, at five different schools were chosen for comparison of indoor and outdoor air quality. Temperature, relative humidity (RH), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter with diameter less than 10 microns (PM10), formaldehyde (HCHO), and total bacteria counts were monitored at indoor and outdoor locations simultaneously. Respirable particulate matter was found to be the worst among parameters measured in this study. The indoor and outdoor average PM10 concentrations exceeded the Hong Kong standards, and the maximum indoor PM10 level was even at 472 micrograms/m3. Air cleaners could be used in classrooms to reduce the high PM10 concentration. Indoor CO2 concentrations often exceeded 1,000 microliters/l indicating inadequate ventilation. Lowering the occupancy and increasing breaks between classes could alleviate the high CO2 concentrations. Though the maximum indoor CO2 level reached 5,900 microliters/l during class at one of the sites, CO2 concentrations were still at levels that pose no health threats.

  19. Conservation Tillage Impacts on Soil Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hake, K.

    2012-04-01

    As recent as the 1970's in University lecture halls cotton production was vilified for being "hard on the soil". This stigma is still perpetuated today in the popular press, deserving a close scrutiny of its origin and its reality as soil quality is an essential but unappreciated component of cotton's unique tolerance to heat and drought. The objective of expanding food, feed and fiber production to meet the global demand, during forecast climate disruption requires that scientists improve both the above and below ground components of agriculture. The latter has been termed the "final frontier" for its inaccessibility and complexity. The shift to conservation tillage in the U.S.A. over the previous three decades has been dramatic in multiple crops. Cotton and its major rotation crops (corn, soybean, and wheat) can be grown for multiple years without tillage using herbicides instead to control weeds. Although pesticide resistant insects and weeds (especially to Bt proteins and glyphosate) are a threat to Integrated Pest Management and conservation tillage that need vigilance and proactive management, the role of modern production tools in meeting agricultural objectives to feed and clothe the world is huge. The impact of these tools on soil quality will be reviewed. In addition ongoing research efforts to create production practices to further improve soil quality and meet the growing challenges of heat and drought will be reviewed.

  20. 78 FR 19990 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... the relocated air quality standard rules. This action was published at 75 FR 65572 as a direct final... previously approved, most notably including revisions that EPA had proposed to disapprove (see 70 FR 36901... Register on October 26, 2010 (75 FR 65572), on page 65574 in the second column, the paragraph numbered...

  1. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead... Management (IDEM) on November 24, 2010, to revise the Indiana State Implementation Plan (SIP) for lead...

  2. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Program: Benefits of Improving Air Quality in the School Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools (IAQ TfS) Program to help schools prevent, identify, and resolve their IAQ problems. This publication describes the program and its advantages, explaining that through simple, low-cost measures, schools can: reduce IAQ-related health risks and…

  3. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

    2012-09-20

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected

  4. Understanding the relationships between air quality and human health

    SciTech Connect

    S.T. Rao

    2006-09-15

    Although there has been substantial progress in improving ambient air quality in the United States, atmospheric concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) continue to exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in many locations. Consequently, a large portion of the U.S. population continues to be exposed to unhealthful levels of ozone and fine particles. This issue of EM, entitled 'Understanding the relationships between air quality and human health' presents a series of articles that focus on the relationships between air quality and human health - what we know so far and the challenges that remain. Their titles are: Understanding the effects of air pollution on human health; Assessing population exposures in studies of human health effects of PM2.5; Establishing a national environmental public health tracking network; Linking air quality and exposure models; and On alert: air quality forecasting and health advisory warnings.

  5. Zero Tillage cotton systems and soil quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landers, J. N.; de Freitas, P. L.

    2012-04-01

    Monocropping in cotton production systems negates the benefits of zero tillage. With cotton in a 3-year rotation including other summer and cover crops, such as soybeans and intensive-rooting Brachiaria spp., research on sandy soils in Bahia improved soil fertility, structure and biological activity. Cotton is a deep tap-rooted crop, sensitive to physical and chemical impediments to root development; this has engendered a paradigm of heavy soil preparation operations to remove these. But, ZT can overcome such obstacles, allowing the cotton crop to benefit from cost reductions and a number of other benefits, especially erosion control.. Soil quality has three principal dimensions. Maximum yields only occur when soil fertility, structure and biological activity are in balance. Under Zero Tillage management of Brazilian soils, the processes of nutrient availability, nutrient cycling and efficiency result from increasing SOM and higher CEC. ZT system fertility is also strongly influenced by total annual aerial and root biomass generation; C:N ratios of the biomass, changes in aeration in residue breakdown processes (for roots, dependent on internal drainage), reduced fixation of Phosphorus fertilizers, the possibility of surface application of P and K, use of deep-rooted cover crops to re-cycle nutrients and deleterious effects of over-liming. Soil physical parameters undergo a transformation : greater water holding capacity, a small increase in bulk density (ameliorated by a reversal of soil aggregate breakdown inherent to conventional tillage by the binding action of root exudates and fungal hyphae), enhanced particle aggregate size protects SOM from oxidation; old root holes create semi-permanent macro-pores which facilitate rooting, aeration and rainfall infiltration.. Soil life of all types benefits from ZT management and contributes to soil fertility and structural improvements, plus enhancing certain biological controls of pathogenic organisms and allelopathic

  6. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  7. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air...

  10. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air...

  12. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and...

  14. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting...

  16. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the...

  17. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new...

  3. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of...

  4. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention...

  12. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the...

  13. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention...

  1. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and...

  4. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  5. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention...

  7. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required...

  9. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to §...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air...

  12. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to §...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air...

  16. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR OZONE AND RELATED PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires periodic (5-year) update revision of criteria and National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Ozone. The previous revision of the criteria contained in the Air Quality Criteria Document (AQCD) for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants was co...

  17. Canada/United States Air Quality Agreement: Progress report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This report builds on the 1992 and 1994 Canada/United States Air Quality Agreement Progress Reports. The report reviews the acid rain control programs, emissions forecasts, and scientific research in both countries; discusses new areas of concern, such as ground-level ozone (smog) and air toxics; and includes the first five-year review of the Air Quality Agreement.

  18. 75 FR 40762 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air Quality...

  19. QUANTIFYING SUBGRID POLLUTANT VARIABILITY IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to properly assess human risk due to exposure to hazardous air pollutants or air toxics, detailed information is needed on the location and magnitude of ambient air toxic concentrations. Regional scale Eulerian air quality models are typically limited to relatively coar...

  20. Metrics for the Evaluation the Utility of Air Quality Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumo, T. M.; Stockwell, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    Global warming is expected to lead to higher levels of air pollution and therefore the forecasting of both long-term and daily air quality is an important component for the assessment of the costs of climate change and its impact on human health. Some of the risks associated with poor air quality days (where the Air Pollution Index is greater than 100), include hospital visits and mortality. Accurate air quality forecasting has the potential to allow sensitive groups to take appropriate precautions. This research builds metrics for evaluating the utility of air quality forecasting in terms of its potential impacts. Our analysis of air quality models focuses on the Washington, DC/Baltimore, MD region over the summertime ozone seasons between 2010 and 2012. The metrics that are relevant to our analysis include: (1) The number of times that a high ozone or particulate matter (PM) episode is correctly forecasted, (2) the number of times that high ozone or PM episode is forecasted when it does not occur and (3) the number of times when the air quality forecast predicts a cleaner air episode when the air was observed to have high ozone or PM. Our evaluation of the performance of air quality forecasts include those forecasts of ozone and particulate matter and data available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s AIRNOW. We also examined observational ozone and particulate matter data available from Clean Air Partners. Overall the forecast models perform well for our region and time interval.

  1. Quality of indoor residential air and health

    PubMed Central

    Dales, Robert; Liu, Ling; Wheeler, Amanda J.; Gilbert, Nicolas L.

    2008-01-01

    About 90% of our time is spent indoors where we are exposed to chemical and biological contaminants and possibly to carcinogens. These agents may influence the risk of developing nonspecific respiratory and neurologic symptoms, allergies, asthma and lung cancer. We review the sources, health effects and control strategies for several of these agents. There are conflicting data about indoor allergens. Early exposure may increase or may decrease the risk of future sensitization. Reports of indoor moulds or dampness or both are consistently associated with increased respiratory symptoms but causality has not been established. After cigarette smoking, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and radon are the most common causes of lung cancer. Homeowners can improve the air quality in their homes, often with relatively simple measures, which should provide health benefits. PMID:18625986

  2. Reaching agreements on indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, S.M.

    1992-08-01

    The phrases sick building syndrome and indoor air quality (IAQ) are in common use today because of a heightened public awareness of various environmental issues. IAQ complaints must be diplomatically resolved because employers and building owners and managers now face a potential impact on their bottom-lines. The office's IAQ was first questioned when 12 of the 47 employees reported complaints particular to the time they spent in the office building. Three employees were so severely affected, they developed respective cases of rhinitis, conjunctivitis and sinus infection. When the tenant presented this information to the building owner, he was told that there was not an IAQ problem within the building. This article summarizes an unfortunate, yet typical, aspect of IAQ problems. It also offers a more efficient method for evaluating and resolving all IAQ problems.

  3. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  4. Passive ventilation for residential air quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Axley, J.

    1999-07-01

    Infiltration has long served the residential ventilation needs in North America. In Northern Europe it has been augmented by purpose-provided natural ventilation systems--so-called passive ventilation systems--to better control moisture problems in dwellings smaller than their North American counterparts and in a generally wetter climate. The growing concern for energy consumption, and the environmental impacts associated with it, has however led to tighter residential construction standards on both continents and as a result problems associated with insufficient background ventilation have surfaced. Can European passive ventilation systems be adapted for use in North American dwellings to provide general background ventilation for air quality control? This paper attempts to answer this question. The configuration, specifications and performance of the preferred European passive ventilation system--the passive stack ventilation (PSV) system--will be reviewed; innovative components and system design strategies recently developed to improve the traditional PSV system performance will be outlined; and alternative system configurations will be presented that may better serve the climatic extremes and more urban contexts of North America. While these innovative and alternative passive ventilation systems hold great promise for the future, a rational method to size the components of these systems to achieve the control and precision needed to meet the conflicting constraints of new ventilation and air tightness standards has not been forthcoming. Such a method will be introduced in this paper and an application of this method will be presented.

  5. DESCRIPTION OF ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT PROCESSES IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Key differences among many types of air quality models are the way atmospheric advection and turbulent diffusion processes are treated. Gaussian models use analytical solutions of the advection-diffusion equations. Lagrangian models use a hypothetical air parcel concept effecti...

  6. Observational Needs for Four-Dimensional Air Quality Characterization

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface-based monitoring programs provide the foundation for associating air pollution and causal effects in human health studies, and they support the development of air quality standards and the preparation of emission reduction strategies. While surface oriented networks remai...

  7. Air distribution and size changes in the remediated zone after air sparging for soil particle movement.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yih-Jin

    2008-10-30

    In an unconsolidated porous medium, soil particles can be mobilized by physical perturbation. In model systems of fluids flowing over spherical particles attached to flat surfaces, the hydrodynamic shear force depends on the fluid viscosity, particle radius, and flow velocity. Soil particles can be reasonably expected to be transported by flowing water during air sparging when the particle-size distribution does not fit the densest possible particle arrangement. If soil particles are transported during air sparging, then the distribution of the porosity and reservoir permeability will change. The remediated zone changes because of the changes in soil characteristics. This study applied some mathematical models to elucidate the mobilization process of soil particles during in situ air sparging. The changes in the characteristics of the soil and the swept volume of injected air during air sparging were also investigated. The results demonstrated that particle movement reduced the radius of influence (ROI) and the swept volume of injected air. In this case study, the maximum reducing rates in ROI and the swept volume were 24% and 26% for the zone where the gas saturation exceeded 10%.

  8. Coal mining activities change plant community structure due to air pollution and soil degradation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Bhanu; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Singh, Siddharth

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of coal mining activities on the community structures of woody and herbaceous plants. The response of individual plants of community to defilement caused by coal mining was also assessed. Air monitoring, soil physico-chemical and phytosociological analyses were carried around Jharia coalfield (JCF) and Raniganj coalfield. The importance value index of sensitive species minified and those of tolerant species enhanced with increasing pollution load and altered soil quality around coal mining areas. Although the species richness of woody and herbaceous plants decreased with higher pollution load, a large number of species acclimatized to the stress caused by the coal mining activities. Woody plant community at JCF was more affected by coal mining than herbaceous community. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that structure of herbaceous community was mainly driven by soil total organic carbon, soil nitrogen, whereas woody layer community was influenced by sulphur dioxide in ambient air, soil sulphate and soil phosphorus. The changes in species diversity observed at mining areas indicated an increase in the proportion of resistant herbs and grasses showing a tendency towards a definite selection strategy of ecosystem in response to air pollution and altered soil characteristics.

  9. Characterization of air quality data for the southern California air quality study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, K.; Seinfeld, J.H.; Hopke, P.K.; Grosjean, D.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents research based on data acquired during the Southern California Air Quality Study (SCAQS). Various techniques were applied to identify the sources of acidity in the South Coast Air Basin of California. These Techniques included graphical analysis, box modeling, deterministic modeling, and receptor modeling. A fog model was developed to study the contribution of fog to acidic species formation and removal. A trajectory model was also used to examine the vertical distribution of acidity and the implications with respect to fog acidity. Receptor models with different complexity were used: principal component analysis, stepwise multiple regression, target transformation factor analysis, and potential source contribution function analysis.

  10. Evaluating NOx emission inventories for regulatory air quality modeling using satellite and air quality model data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemball-Cook, Susan; Yarwood, Greg; Johnson, Jeremiah; Dornblaser, Bright; Estes, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of NOx emissions in the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality's (TCEQ) State Implementation Plan (SIP) modeling inventories of the southeastern U.S. We used retrieved satellite tropospheric NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) together with NO2 columns from the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) to make top-down NOx emissions estimates using the mass balance method. Two different top-down NOx emissions estimates were developed using the KNMI DOMINO v2.0 and NASA SP2 retrievals of OMI NO2 columns. Differences in the top-down NOx emissions estimates made with these two operational products derived from the same OMI radiance data were sufficiently large that they could not be used to constrain the TCEQ NOx emissions in the southeast. The fact that the two available operational NO2 column retrievals give such different top-down NOx emissions results is important because these retrievals are increasingly being used to diagnose air quality problems and to inform efforts to solve them. These results reflect the fact that NO2 column retrievals are a blend of measurements and modeled data and should be used with caution in analyses that will inform policy development. This study illustrates both benefits and challenges of using satellite NO2 data for air quality management applications. Comparison with OMI NO2 columns pointed the way toward improvements in the CAMx simulation of the upper troposphere, but further refinement of both regional air quality models and the NO2 column retrievals is needed before the mass balance and other emission inversion methods can be used to successfully constrain NOx emission inventories used in U.S. regulatory modeling.

  11. Improving ammonia emissions in air quality modelling for France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Meleux, Frédérik; Beekmann, Matthias; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Génermont, Sophie; Cellier, Pierre; Létinois, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    We have implemented a new module to improve the representation of ammonia emissions from agricultural activities in France with the objective to evaluate the impact of such emissions on the formation of particulate matter modelled with the air quality model CHIMERE. A novel method has been set up for the part of ammonia emissions originating from mineral fertilizer spreading. They are calculated using the one dimensional 1D mechanistic model “VOLT'AIR” which has been coupled with data on agricultural practices, meteorology and soil properties obtained at high spatial resolution (cantonal level). These emissions display high spatiotemporal variations depending on soil pH, rates and dates of fertilization and meteorological variables, especially soil temperature. The emissions from other agricultural sources (animal housing, manure storage and organic manure spreading) are calculated using the national spatialised inventory (INS) recently developed in France. The comparison of the total ammonia emissions estimated with the new approach VOLT'AIR_INS with the standard emissions provided by EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) used currently in the CHIMERE model shows significant differences in the spatiotemporal distributions. The implementation of new ammonia emissions in the CHIMERE model has a limited impact on ammonium nitrate aerosol concentrations which only increase at most by 10% on the average for the considered spring period but this impact can be more significant for specific pollution episodes. The comparison of modelled PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and ammonium nitrate aerosol with observations shows that the use of the new ammonia emission method slightly improves the spatiotemporal correlation in certain regions and reduces the negative bias on average by 1 μg m-3. The formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol depends not only on ammonia concentrations but also on nitric acid availability, which

  12. Air quality interventions and spatial dynamics of air pollution in Delhi and its surroundings

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naresh; Foster, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines the spatial distribution of air pollution in response to recent air quality regulations in Delhi, India. Air pollution was monitored at 113 sites spread across Delhi and its surrounding areas from July–December 2003. From the analysis of these data three important findings emerge. First, air pollution levels in Delhi and its surroundings were significantly higher than that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Second, air quality regulations in the city adversely affected the air quality of the areas surrounding Delhi. Third, industries and trucks were identified as the major contributors of both fine and coarse particles. PMID:23105916

  13. Control of aromatic-waste air streams by soil bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.E.; Canter, L.W.

    1991-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater resources is a serious environmental problem which is continuing to increase in occurrence in the United States. It has been reported that leaking underground gasoline storage tanks may pose the most serious threat of all sources of groundwater contamination. Gasolines are comprised of a variety of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The aromatic portion consists primarily of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX compounds). BTEX compounds are also among the most frequency identified substances at Superfund sites. Pump and treat well systems are the most common and frequently used technique for aquifer restoration. Treatment is often in the form of air stripping to remove the volatile components from the contaminated water. Additionally, soil ventilation processes have been used to remove volatile components from the vadose zone. Both air stripping and soil ventilation produce a waste gas stream containing volatile compounds which is normally treated by carbon adsorption or incineration. Both treatment processes require a substantial capital investment and continual operation and maintenance expenditures. The objective of the study was to examine the potential of using soil bioreactors to treat a waste gas stream produced by air stripping or soil ventilation process. Previous studies have shown that various hydrocarbons can be successfully treated with soils. The study examined the removal of BTEX compounds within soil columns and the influence of soil type, inlet concentration, and inlet flow rate on the removal efficiency.

  14. 76 FR 41742 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Control of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ..., 1997 (62 FR 38652), EPA amended the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for PM to add a new... impairments, soiling, and materials damage. On October 17, 2006 (71 FR 61236), EPA revised the primary and..., such as garages; and (3) to heat building space or water by means of distribution, typically...

  15. Valuation of improved air quality in Utah County, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, C. Arden; Miner, F. Dean

    1988-05-01

    A contingent valuation approach was used to estimate maximum willingness-to-pay for improved air quality in Utah County. Respondents demonstrated a high rate of concern over poor air quality and averaged a willingness-to-pay of 37 per month per household. Noniterative openended questions were used successfully. No information bias was observed but benchmark values did influence bids. Willingness-to-pay for improved air quality was large for both sexes and across all income groups, ages, and occupations.

  16. Poor air quality in homes of Medicare recipients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Morin, Philip C; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Abraham, Jerrold L; Weinstock, Ruth S

    2014-06-01

    Poor air quality has been associated with chronic illness such as diabetes. This can be of particular importance for older adults with diabetes and other chronic conditions who spend most of their time indoors. The purpose of this study was to assess home air quality and residents' awareness and concerns about air quality in rural underserved areas of upstate New York. Implications for home care clinicians are discussed. PMID:24887272

  17. Monitoring Air Quality from Space using AURA Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, James F.; Chance, Kelly V.; Fishman, Jack; Torres, Omar; Veefkind, Pepijn

    2003-01-01

    Measurements from the Earth Observing System (EOS) AURA mission will provide a unique perspective on air quality monitoring. Ozone, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and aerosols from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and carbon monoxide from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) will be simultaneously measured with the spatial resolution and coverage needed for improving our understanding of air quality. AURA data products useful for air quality monitoring will be given.

  18. Air quality impact of sponge iron industries in central India.

    PubMed

    Rao, Padma S; Kumar, A; Ansari, M F; Pipalatkar, P; Chakrabarti, T

    2009-02-01

    Emission load of particulate matter from 42 sponge iron industrial units located in clusters in the Indian State of Chhattisgarh was estimated to be 1,361 TPD. US EPA air pollution dispersion model ISCST-3 applied to predict the impact of the sponge iron industry emissions on ambient air quality showed contribution up to 546 microg/m(3) to the surrounding air basin causing the air quality exceeding the national ambient air quality standards. Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) has been suggested to all the above industrial units that would bring down the contribution to as low as 27 microg/m(3). PMID:18784898

  19. 78 FR 58460 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... California as a revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP)....

  20. Canada-wide standards and innovative transboundary air quality initiatives.

    PubMed

    Barton, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Canada's approach to air quality management is one that has brought with it opportunities for the development of unique approaches to risk management. Even with Canada's relatively low levels of pollution, science has demonstrated clearly that air quality and ecosystem improvements are worthwhile. To achieve change and address air quality in Canada, Canadian governments work together since, under the constitution, they share responsibility for the environment. At the same time, because air pollution knows no boundaries, working with the governments of other nations is essential to get results. International cooperation at all levels provides opportunities with potential for real change. Cooperation within transboundary airsheds is proving a fruitful source of innovative opportunities to reduce cross-border barriers to air quality improvements. In relation to the NERAM Colloquium objective to establish principles for air quality management based on the identification of international best practice in air quality policy development and implementation, Canada has developed, both at home and with the United States, interesting air management strategies and initiatives from which certain lessons may be taken that could be useful in other countries with similar situations. In particular, the Canada-wide strategies for smog and acid rain were developed by Canadian governments, strategies that improve and protect air quality at home, while Canada-U.S. transboundary airshed projects provide examples of international initiatives to improve air quality.

  1. Canada-wide standards and innovative transboundary air quality initiatives.

    PubMed

    Barton, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Canada's approach to air quality management is one that has brought with it opportunities for the development of unique approaches to risk management. Even with Canada's relatively low levels of pollution, science has demonstrated clearly that air quality and ecosystem improvements are worthwhile. To achieve change and address air quality in Canada, Canadian governments work together since, under the constitution, they share responsibility for the environment. At the same time, because air pollution knows no boundaries, working with the governments of other nations is essential to get results. International cooperation at all levels provides opportunities with potential for real change. Cooperation within transboundary airsheds is proving a fruitful source of innovative opportunities to reduce cross-border barriers to air quality improvements. In relation to the NERAM Colloquium objective to establish principles for air quality management based on the identification of international best practice in air quality policy development and implementation, Canada has developed, both at home and with the United States, interesting air management strategies and initiatives from which certain lessons may be taken that could be useful in other countries with similar situations. In particular, the Canada-wide strategies for smog and acid rain were developed by Canadian governments, strategies that improve and protect air quality at home, while Canada-U.S. transboundary airshed projects provide examples of international initiatives to improve air quality. PMID:18080897

  2. Enabling Mobile Air Quality App Development with an AirNow API

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dye, T.; White, J. E.; Ludewig, S. A.; Dickerson, P.; Healy, A. N.; West, J. W.; Prince, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program works with over 130 participating state, local, and federal air quality agencies to obtain, quality control, and store real-time air quality observations and forecasts. From these data, the AirNow system generates thousands of maps and products each hour. Each day, information from AirNow is published online and in other media to assist the public in making health-based decisions related to air quality. However, an increasing number of people use mobile devices as their primary tool for obtaining information, and AirNow has responded to this trend by publishing an easy-to-use Web API that is useful for mobile app developers. This presentation will describe the various features of the AirNow application programming interface (API), including Representational State Transfer (REST)-type web services, file outputs, and RSS feeds. In addition, a web portal for the AirNow API will be shown, including documentation on use of the system, a query tool for configuring and running web services, and general information about the air quality data and forecasts available. Data published via the AirNow API includes corresponding Air Quality Index (AQI) levels for each pollutant. We will highlight examples of mobile apps that are using the AirNow API to provide location-based, real-time air quality information. Examples will include mobile apps developed for Minnesota ('Minnesota Air') and Washington, D.C. ('Clean Air Partners Air Quality'), and an app developed by EPA ('EPA AirNow').

  3. Air quality progress in North American megacities: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, David D.; Singh, Hanwant B.; Molina, Luisa; Madronich, Sasha

    2011-12-01

    Air quality progress in the North American megacities of Los Angeles, New York, and Mexico City is reviewed, compared, and contrasted. Enormous progress made in North America over the last 5 decades provides a template for other megacities of the world, especially in developing countries, attempting to achieve rapid economic growth without compromising air quality. While the progress to date has been impressive, many challenges remain including the need to improve air quality while simultaneously mitigating climate change. The impact of pollutant emissions from megacities is felt long distances away from the local sources but no policy mechanisms currently exist to mitigate air quality impacts resulting from such pollution transport.

  4. 78 FR 47191 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary National Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... Columbia EO Executive Order EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register NAAQS National Ambient... CFR Part 81 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, National parks, Wilderness areas. Dated... National Ambient Air Quality Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final...

  5. Biological indicators of soil quality and soil organic matter characteristics in an agricultural management continuum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relationships among biological indicators of soil quality and soil organic matter characteristics in a claypan soil were evaluated across a continuum of long-term agricultural practices in Missouri, USA. In addition to chemical and physical soil quality indicators, dehydrogenase and phenol oxidase a...

  6. 75 FR 18061 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final... amend 30 TAC Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles. These revisions consist of the... to develop air pollution regulations and control strategies to ensure that air quality meets...

  7. 75 FR 73026 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Clean Air Interstate Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Clean Air... June 29, 2009, to revise the Indiana State Implementation Plan (SIP) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). The... Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR), for which EPA granted limited approval as an abbreviated SIP...

  8. Soil Quality of Bauxite Mining Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terezinha Gonçalves Bizuti, Denise; Dinarowski, Marcela; Casagrande, José Carlos; Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Henrique Santin Brancalion, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    The study on soil quality index (SQI) aims to assess the current state of the soil after use and estimating its recovery through sustainable management practices This type of study is being used in this work in order to check the efficiency of forest recovery techniques in areas that have been deeply degraded by bauxite mining process, and compare them with the area of native forest, through the determination of SQI. Treatments were newly mined areas, areas undergoing restoration (topsoil use with planting of native forest species), areas in rehabilitation (employment of the green carpet with topsoil and planting of native forest species) and areas of native forests, with six repetitions, in areas of ALCOA, in the municipality of Poços de Caldas/MG. To this end, we used the additive pondered model, establishing three functions: Fertility, water movement and root development, based on chemical parameters (organic matter, base saturation, aluminum saturation and calcium content); physical (macroporosity, soil density and clay content); and microbiological testing (basal respiration by the emission of CO2 ). The SQIs obtained for each treatment was 41%, 56%, 63% and 71% for newly mined areas, native forest, areas in restoration and rehabilitation, respectively. The recovering technique that most approximates the degraded soil to the soil of reference is the restoration, where there was no statistically significant difference of areas restored with native forest. It was found that for the comparison of the studied areas must take into account the nutrient cycling, that disappear with plant removal in mining areas, once the soil of native forest features low fertility and high saturation by aluminum, also taking in account recovering time.

  9. Passenger aircraft cabin air quality: trends, effects, societal costs, proposals.

    PubMed

    Hocking, M B

    2000-08-01

    As aircraft operators have sought to substantially reduce propulsion fuel cost by flying at higher altitudes, the energy cost of providing adequate outside air for ventilation has increased. This has lead to a significant decrease in the amount of outside air provided to the passenger cabin, partly compensated for by recirculation of filtered cabin air. The purpose of this review paper is to assemble the available measured air quality data and some calculated estimates of the air quality for aircraft passenger cabins to highlight the trend of the last 25 years. The influence of filter efficiencies on air quality, and a few medically documented and anecdotal cases of illness transmission aboard aircraft are discussed. Cost information has been collected from the perspective of both the airlines and passengers. Suggestions for air quality improvement are given which should help to result in a net, multistakeholder savings and improved passenger comfort.

  10. Connecting Water Quality With Air Quality Through Microbial Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueker, M. Elias

    air by increasing microbial aerosol settling rates and enhancing viability of aerosolized marine microbes. Using methods developed for the non-urban site, the role of local environment and winds in mediating water-air connections was further investigated in the urban environment. The local environment, including water surfaces, was an important source of microbial aerosols at urban sites. Large portions of the urban waterfront microbial aerosol communities were aquatic and, at a highly polluted Superfund waterfront, were closely related to bacteria previously described in environments contaminated with hydrocarbons, heavy metals, sewage and other industrial waste. Culturable urban aerosols and surface waters contained bacterial genera known to include human pathogens and asthma agents. High onshore winds strengthened this water-air connection by playing both a transport and production role. The microbial connection between water and air quality outlined by this dissertation highlights the need for information on the mechanisms that deliver surface water materials to terrestrial systems on a much larger scale. Moving from point measurements to landscape-level analyses will allow for the quantitative assessment of implications for this microbial water-air-land transfer in both urban and non-urban arenas.

  11. Air sparging in low permeability soils

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, M.C.

    1996-08-01

    Sparging technology is rapidly growing as a preferred, low cost remediation technique of choice at sites across the United States. The technology is considered to be commercially available and relatively mature. However, the maturity is based on the number of applications of the technology as opposed to the degree of understanding of the mechanisms governing the sparging process. Few well documented case studies exist on the long term operation of the technology. Sparging has generally been applied using modified monitoring well designs in uniform, coarse grained soils. The applicability of sparging for the remediation of DNAPLs in low permeability media has not been significantly explored. Models for projecting the performance of sparging systems in either soils condition are generally simplistic but can be used to provide general insight into the effects of significant changes in soil and fluid properties. The most promising sparging approaches for the remediation of DNAPLs in low permeability media are variations or enhancements to the core technology. Recirculatory sparging systems, sparging/biosparging trenches or curtains and heating or induced fracturing techniques appear to be the most promising technology variants for this type of soil. 21 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    PubMed

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel. PMID:27112132

  13. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    PubMed

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel.

  14. Air-Microfluidics: Creating Small, Low-cost, Portable Air Quality Sensors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air-microfluidics shows great promise in dramatically reducing the size, cost, and power requirements of future air quality sensors without compromising their accuracy. Microfabrication provides a suite of relatively new tools for the development of micro electro mechanical syste...

  15. Root-soil air gap and resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface of Robinia pseudoacacia.

    PubMed

    Liu, X P; Zhang, W J; Wang, X Y; Cai, Y J; Chang, J G

    2015-12-01

    During periods of water deficit, growing roots may shrink, retaining only partial contact with the soil. In this study, known mathematical models were used to calculate the root-soil air gap and water flow resistance at the soil-root interface, respectively, of Robinia pseudoacacia L. under different water conditions. Using a digital camera, the root-soil air gap of R. pseudoacacia was investigated in a root growth chamber; this root-soil air gap and the model-inferred water flow resistance at the soil-root interface were compared with predictions based on a separate outdoor experiment. The results indicated progressively greater root shrinkage and loss of root-soil contact with decreasing soil water potential. The average widths of the root-soil air gap for R. pseudoacacia in open fields and in the root growth chamber were 0.24 and 0.39 mm, respectively. The resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface in both environments increased with decreasing soil water potential. Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that soil water potential and soil temperature were the best predictors of variation in the root-soil air gap. A combination of soil water potential, soil temperature, root-air water potential difference and soil-root water potential difference best predicted the resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface.

  16. Effects of Prairie Restoration on Soil Quality Indicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterization of soil ecosystem functioning based on soil quality assessments of native prairie may provide a reference for evaluating improvement in soil quality of cultivated agroecosystems converted to perennial vegetation during prairie restoration. Our objective was to determine the effect o...

  17. Soil quality changes after topsoil addition to eroded land

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil-landscape rehabilitation within eroded fields can be accomplished by moving topsoil from depositional to eroded landscape positions. The purpose is to improve soil quality and productivity of the upper root zone in eroded areas of the field. Changes in soil quality may be estimated through chan...

  18. Soil Surface Carbon Dioxide Fluxes and Carbon Dioxide Concentrations in Soil Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkebauer, T. J.; Billesbach, D.

    2006-12-01

    We have been monitoring soil surface CO2 fluxes at three AmeriFlux sites in eastern Nebraska for several years. Recently, we have installed soil CO2 sensors at the rainfed soybean site in order to obtain profiles of CO2 concentrations in soil air (to 0.8 m depth). Supporting data include profiles of soil water content and soil temperature, aboveground biomass, leaf area index and precipitation. Soil surface fluxes had been rather small for much of the 2006 growing season (e.g., midday values of about 5 umol/m2/s) due, in large part, to the very dry conditions in eastern Nebraska and the consequent low soil water contents. However, copious rainfall in August raised soil water contents to field capacity throughout the profile. Soil air CO2 concentrations during this period also increased and reached peaks near 10% (at 0.4 and 0.8 m depth). Through analyses of relationships between surface CO2 flux and profiles of soil parameters we seek to identify biophysical factors responsible for controlling surface fluxes as well as to begin to quantify sources and sinks of CO2 within the soil profile (e.g., plant-related production of CO2 due to root exudation and respiration). The influence of precipitation events on CO2 profiles and fluxes is of particular interest.

  19. An Air Quality Data Analysis System for Interrelating Effects, Standards and Needed Source Reductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ralph I.

    1973-01-01

    Makes recommendations for a single air quality data system (using average time) for interrelating air pollution effects, air quality standards, air quality monitoring, diffusion calculations, source-reduction calculations, and emission standards. (JR)

  20. Improving Air Quality Forecasts with AURA Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newchurch, M. J.; Biazer, A.; Khan, M.; Koshak, W. J.; Nair, U.; Fuller, K.; Wang, L.; Parker, Y.; Williams, R.; Liu, X.

    2008-01-01

    Past studies have identified model initial and boundary conditions as sources of reducible errors in air-quality simulations. In particular, improving the initial condition improves the accuracy of short-term forecasts as it allows for the impact of local emissions to be realized by the model and improving boundary conditions improves long range transport through the model domain, especially in recirculating anticyclones. During the August 2006 period, we use AURA/OMI ozone measurements along with MODIS and CALIPSO aerosol observations to improve the initial and boundary conditions of ozone and Particulate Matter. Assessment of the model by comparison of the control run and satellite assimilation run to the IONS06 network of ozonesonde observations, which comprise the densest ozone sounding campaign ever conducted in North America, to AURA/TES ozone profile measurements, and to the EPA ground network of ozone and PM measurements will show significant improvement in the CMAQ calculations that use AURA initial and boundary conditions. Further analyses of lightning occurrences from ground and satellite observations and AURA/OMI NO2 column abundances will identify the lightning NOx signal evident in OMI measurements and suggest pathways for incorporating the lightning and NO2 data into the CMAQ simulations.

  1. Air quality standards must protect public health

    SciTech Connect

    Norman Edelman

    2006-06-15

    Leading medical and public health organizations are deeply concerned about the proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in December 2005. Led by the American Lung Association (ALA), these groups are fighting to force EPA to finalize stricter standards for fine and coarse particles when the final decision is announced in September 2006. The ALA disagrees strongly with the proposal to exempt coarse particles from agriculture and mining sources, and to exclude communities with populations fewer than 100,000 from protection and monitoring requirements. ALA urges EPA to set the following health-based NAAQS for PM: Annual average PM2.5 standard of 12 {mu}mg/m{sup 3}; 24 hour average PM2.5 standard of 25 {mu}mg.m{sup 3} (99th percentile); 24-hour average PM10-2.5 standard of 25-30 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (99th percentile), applied equally to all areas of the country and to all types of particles. 72 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. 78 FR 58459 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Management District, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District, South Coast Air Quality Management... Management District (AVAQMD), Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD), South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD)...

  3. 78 FR 25011 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... Management District, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District, South Coast Air Quality Management... Management District (AVAQMD), Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD), South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD)...

  4. Students' Ideas and Attitudes about Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skamp, Keith; Boyes, Eddie; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The results of a large scale (N=1001) cross-sectional (Years 6, 8 and 10) study of students' ideas about the composition of unpolluted air, the nature of air pollution, the biological consequences of air pollution, and about acid rain and the Greenhouse Effect are reported. A range of persistent alternative conceptions were identified, in some…

  5. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR LEAD (SECOND EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act mandates periodic review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six common air pollutants, also referred to as criteria pollutants, including lead. Under the review process, EPA's Office of Research and Development develops a criteria docu...

  6. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR LEAD (2006) Final Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are promulgated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to meet requirements set forth in Sections 108 and 109 of the U.S. Clean Air Act. Those two Clean Air Act sections require the EPA Administrator (1) to list w...

  7. Air Quality Criteria for Lead (First External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background:

    The Clean Air Act mandates periodic review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six common air pollutants, also referred to as criteria pollutants, including lead. Under the review process, EPA's Office of Research and Development d...

  8. Reference Guide. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the importance of good indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools is the backbone of developing an effective Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) program. Poor IAQ can lead to a large variety of health problems and potentially affect comfort, concentration, and staff/student performance. In recognition of tight school budgets, this guidance is designed…

  9. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA CARBON MONOXIDE, EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in criteria documents. The last air quality criteria document for carbon monoxide (CO) was completed by EPA in 1991. This...

  10. The Role of Exposure Science in Air Quality Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality standards and regulations are designed to protect public health and the environment. However, there are issues regarding whether the current standards and regulations should be adjusted to be more protective or to more effectively target air quality management activi...

  11. Impacts of wildfire smoke plumes on regional air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recent trends in increased frequency and severity of large fires necessitate an improved understanding of smoke plume impacts on regional-scale air quality and public health. Objective: We examine the impact of fire smoke on regional air quality between 2006 and 2013 ...

  12. Recent Advances in WRF Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA uses WRF in conjunction with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) for air quality regulation and research. Over the years we have added physics options and geophysical datasets to the WRF system to enhance model capabilities especially for extended retrospective...

  13. Impact of inherent meteorology uncertainty on air quality model predictions

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is well established that there are a number of different classifications and sources of uncertainties in environmental modeling systems. Air quality models rely on two key inputs, namely, meteorology and emissions. When using air quality models for decision making, it is impor...

  14. Light, Colour & Air Quality: Important Elements of the Learning Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathaway, Warren E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews and evaluates studies of the effects of light, color, and air quality on the learning environment. Concludes that studies suggest a role for light in establishing and maintaining physiological functions and balances and a need for improved air quality in airtight, energy efficient buildings. (JHZ)

  15. INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND INHALATION EXPOSURE - SIMULATION TOOL KIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Microsoft Windows-based indoor air quality (IAQ) simulation software package is presented. Named Simulation Tool Kit for Indoor Air Quality and Inhalation Exposure, or IAQX for short, this package complements and supplements existing IAQ simulation programs and is desi...

  16. 40 CFR 51.860 - Mitigation of air quality impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mitigation of air quality impacts. 51... Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 51.860 Mitigation of air quality impacts. Link... implement any mitigation measures which are identified as conditions for making conformity...

  17. Sensitivity of health risk estimates to air quality adjustment procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, R.G.

    1997-06-30

    This letter is a summary of risk results associated with exposure estimates using two-parameter Weibull and quadratic air quality adjustment procedures (AQAPs). New exposure estimates were developed for children and child-occurrences, six urban areas, and five alternative air quality scenarios. In all cases, the Weibull and quadratic results are compared to previous results, which are based on a proportional AQAP.

  18. INTEGRATING AIR QUALITY DATA TO INFORM HUMAN HEALTH DECISIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The August 1-2, 2005 EPA-NIEHS workshop is addressing the linkages between air quality and human health. My presentation will discuss the strengths and limitations of various databases for relating air quality to health impacts. Specifically, the need for fusing ground-based, s...

  19. Improving Indoor Air Quality in St. Cloud Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forer, Mike; Haus, El

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the St. Cloud Area School District (Minnesota), using Tools for Schools provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, managed the improvement of their school building indoor air quality (IAQ). The district goals of the IAQ Management Committee and the policy elements used to maintain high classroom air quality are…

  20. Indoor Air Quality: Tools for Schools Action Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Indoor Air Div.

    Good indoor air quality contributes to a favorable learning environment for students, productivity for teachers and staff, and a sense of comfort, health, and well-being for all school occupants. The goal of this kit is to provide clear and easily applied guidance that will help prevent Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) problems and resolve such problems…