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Sample records for air quality system

  1. Air quality data systems integration

    SciTech Connect

    Row, V.K.; Wilson, J.F.

    1998-12-31

    Traditionally, data used for compliance with air quality programs are obtained from various sources within the plant, on site lab, or perhaps from a product movement accounting program. For the most part, the data processing and subsequent calculations and reports were handled individually, thus generating huge spreadsheets and mounds of process data in paper format. The natural reaction to this overwhelming data management problem is to search for an off-the-shelf software package that will hopefully cover all of the plant`s needs for compliance with air quality regulations. Rather than searching for or trying to custom build a single electronic system, the authors suggest using internet browsing software to create links between existing repositories of air quality data and related information.

  2. Fundamentals of air quality systems

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, K.E.

    1999-08-01

    The book uses numerous examples to demonstrate how basic design concepts can be applied to the control of air emissions from industrial sources. It focuses on the design of air pollution control devices for the removal of gases and particles from industrial sources, and provides detailed, specific design methods for each major air pollution control system. Individual chapters provide design methods that include both theory and practice with emphasis on the practical aspect by providing numerous examples that demonstrate how air pollution control devices are designed. Contents include air pollution laws, air pollution control devices; physical properties of air, gas laws, energy concepts, pressure; motion of airborne particles, filter and water drop collection efficiency; fundamentals of particulate emission control; cyclones; fabric filters; wet scrubbers; electrostatic precipitators; control of volatile organic compounds; adsorption; incineration; absorption; control of gaseous emissions from motor vehicles; practice problems (with solutions) for the P.E. examination in environmental engineering. Design applications are featured throughout.

  3. Air quality and future energy system planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  4. Observing System Simulation Experiments for air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, R. M. A.; Lahoz, W. A.; Attié, J.-L.; Peuch, V.-H.; Curier, R. L.; Edwards, D. P.; Eskes, H. J.; Builtjes, P. J. H.

    2015-08-01

    This review paper provides a framework for the application of the Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) methodology to satellite observations of atmospheric constituents relevant for air quality. The OSSEs are experiments used to determine the potential benefit of future observing systems using an existing monitoring or forecasting system and by this can help to define optimal characteristics of future instruments. To this end observations from future instruments are simulated from a model representing the realistic state of the atmosphere and an instrument simulator. The added value of the new observations is evaluated through assimilation into another model or model version and comparison with the simulated true state and a control run. This paper provides an overview of existing air quality OSSEs focusing on ozone, CO and aerosol. Using illustrative examples from these studies we present the main elements of an air quality OSSE and associated requirements based on evaluation of the existing studies and experience within the meteorological community. The air quality OSSEs performed hitherto provide evidence of their usefulness for evaluation of future observations although most studies published do not meet all the identified requirements. Especially the evaluation of the OSSE set-up requires more attention; the differences between the assimilation model and the simulated truth should approximate differences between models and real observations. Although this evaluation is missing in many studies, it is required to ensure realistic results. Properly executed air quality OSSEs are a valuable and cost effective tool to space agencies and instrument builders when applied at the start of the development stage to ensure future observations provide added value to users of Earth Observation data.

  5. Urban air quality simulation with community multi-scale air quality (CMAQ) modeling system

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, D.; Young, J.; Gipson, G.; Schere, K.; Godowitch, J.

    1998-11-01

    In an effort to provide a state-of-the-science air quality modeling capability, US EPA has developed a new comprehensive and flexible Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. The authors demonstrate CMAQ simulations for a high ozone episode in the northeastern US during 12-15 July 1995 and discuss meteorological issues important for modeling of urban air quality.

  6. EMISSIONS PROCESSING FOR THE ETA/ CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NOAA and EPA have created an Air Quality Forecast (AQF) system. This AQF system links an adaptation of the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with the 12 kilometer ETA model running operationally at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP). One of the...

  7. COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY MODELING SYSTEM (ONE ATMOSPHERE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task supports ORD's strategy by providing responsive technical support of EPA's mission and provides credible state of the art air quality models and guidance. This research effort is to develop and improve the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system, a mu...

  8. Three-Dimensional Air Quality System (3D-AQS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel-Cox, J.; Hoff, R.; Weber, S.; Zhang, H.; Prados, A.

    2007-12-01

    The 3-Dimensional Air Quality System (3DAQS) integrates remote sensing observations from a variety of platforms into air quality decision support systems at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with a focus on particulate air pollution. The decision support systems are the Air Quality System (AQS) / AirQuest database at EPA, Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications (IDEA) system, the U.S. Air Quality weblog (Smog Blog) at UMBC, and the Regional East Atmospheric Lidar Mesonet (REALM). The project includes an end user advisory group with representatives from the air quality community providing ongoing feedback. The 3DAQS data sets are UMBC ground based LIDAR, and NASA and NOAA satellite data from MODIS, OMI, AIRS, CALIPSO, MISR, and GASP. Based on end user input, we are co-locating these measurements to the EPA's ground-based air pollution monitors as well as re-gridding to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model grid. These data provide forecasters and the scientific community with a tool for assessment, analysis, and forecasting of U.S Air Quality. The third dimension and the ability to analyze the vertical transport of particulate pollution are provided by aerosol extinction profiles from the UMBC LIDAR and CALIPSO. We present examples of a 3D visualization tool we are developing to facilitate use of this data. We also present two specific applications of 3D-AQS data. The first is comparisons between PM2.5 monitor data and remote sensing aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, which show moderate agreement but variation with EPA region. The second is a case study for Baltimore, Maryland, as an example of 3D-analysis for a metropolitan area. In that case, some improvement is found in the PM2.5 /LIDAR correlations when using vertical aerosol information to calculate an AOD below the boundary layer.

  9. Establishment of urban air quality prediction system

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Jei Tsuang; Jime-Ming Huang

    1996-12-31

    By using the data of Taipei metropolitan and Taichung city, it was found that the concentrations of the PM{sub 10} and SO{sub 2} were strongly associated with wind speed, rain, surface layer stability and their initial concentrations. Among these factors, stability in the atmospheric surface layer was not fully addressed in traditional box model. A new box model formula was derived to include the stability parameter. After analysis of exchange/removal mechanisms operating in the PBL by using this new model, we find that the near ground pollutant concentration after reaching steady state is dose to q{sub 0}l/2ul{sub e} under stable, low wind speed and rainless day, where q{sub 0} is emission rate, 1 length of a city, u wind speed and l{sub e} stability scale length. Under calm wind speed in addition to the aforementioned conditions, the air quality became most deteriorated and close to q{sub 0}/V{sub d}, where V{sub d} is dry deposition rate. This formula works well in simulating PM{sub 10} and SO{sub 2} concentration of Pancho and Taichung city. In addition, this formula also can handle most of the deteriorated days.

  10. HVAC system performance and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in the mid-seventies, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) promulgated ASHRAE Standard 90-75 Energy Conservation in New Building Design, which called for revised minimum ventilation rates and the elimination of energy-wasting HVAC systems. Most building codes which cover energy conservation in the late seventies and eighties referred to this standard. This lowering of ventilation rates, coupled with the tighter building envelope (walls, windows, doors and roof) led to a reduction in outside air, both by engineering design and by minimizing infiltration through the structure. The minimum ventilation rates are based on the assumption that average concentrations of tobacco smoke exist in all enclosed spaces (30 percent of the population being smokers at two cigarettes per hour), rather than having separate rates for smoking and nonsmoking areas, as in the 1981 revision of the Standard. If tobacco smoke is ever declared a carcinogen, it will undoubtedly prompt a review of Standard 62-1989, as well as hasten totally smoke-free buildings.

  11. On the design of distributed air quality monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, Alejandro; Ferrero, Renato; Gandino, Filippo; Montrucchio, Bartolomeo; Rebaudengo, Maurizio

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, the air quality is considered a key point, and its monitoring is not only suggested but it is even required in many countries. Since traditional standard monitors for air quality are very expensive, the use of a low-cost distributed network of sensors represents a valid complementary approach. This paper discusses the benefits of a distributed approach and analyzes the main elements that should be taken into account during the design of a distributed system for the air quality monitoring. This paper aims at representing a valuable aid for researchers and practitioners interested in the topic.

  12. An Air Quality Data Analysis System for Interrelating Effects, Standards and Needed Source Reductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ralph I.

    1973-01-01

    Makes recommendations for a single air quality data system (using average time) for interrelating air pollution effects, air quality standards, air quality monitoring, diffusion calculations, source-reduction calculations, and emission standards. (JR)

  13. Merging Air Quality and Public Health Decision Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudspeth, W. B.; Bales, C. L.

    2003-12-01

    The New Mexico Air Quality Mapper (NMAQM) is a Web-based, open source GIS prototype application that Earth Data Analysis Center is developing under a NASA Cooperative Agreement. NMAQM enhances and extends existing data and imagery delivery systems with an existing Public Health system called the Rapid Syndrome Validation Project (RSVP). RSVP is a decision support system operating in several medical and public health arenas. It is evolving to ingest remote sensing data as input to provide early warning of human health threats, especially those related to anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and airborne pathogens. The NMAQM project applies measurements of these atmospheric pollutants, derived from both remotely sensed data as well as from in-situ air quality networks, to both forecasting and retrospective analyses that influence human respiratory health. NMAQM provides a user-friendly interface for visualizing and interpreting environmentally-linked epidemiological phenomena. The results, and the systems made to provide the information, will be applicable not only to decision-makers in the public health realm, but also to air quality organizations, demographers, community planners, and other professionals in information technology, and social and engineering sciences. As an accessible and interactive mapping and analysis application, it allows environment and health personnel to study historic data for hypothesis generation and trend analysis, and then, potentially, to predict air quality conditions from daily data acquisitions. Additional spin off benefits to such users include the identification of gaps in the distribution of in-situ monitoring stations, the dissemination of air quality data to the public, and the discrimination of local vs. more regional sources of air pollutants that may bear on decisions relating to public health and public policy.

  14. THE EMISSION PROCESSING SYSTEM FOR THE ETA/CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NOAA and EPA have created an Air Quality Forecast (AQF) system. This AQF system links an adaptation of the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with the 12 kilometer ETA model running operationally at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP). One of th...

  15. An airborne remote sensing system for urban air quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, L. J.; Friedman, E. J.; Keitz, E. L.; Ward, E. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several NASA sponsored remote sensors and possible airborne platforms were evaluated. Outputs of dispersion models for SO2 and CO pollution in the Washington, D.C. area were used with ground station data to establish the expected performance and limitations of the remote sensors. Aircraft/sensor support requirements are discussed. A method of optimum flight plan determination was made. Cost trade offs were performed. Conclusions about the implementation of various instrument packages as parts of a comprehensive air quality monitoring system in Washington are presented.

  16. The microbiological quality of air improves when using air conditioning systems in cars

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Because of better comfort, air conditioning systems are a common feature in automobiles these days. However, its impact on the number of particles and microorganisms inside the vehicle - and by this its impact on the risk of an allergic reaction - is yet unknown. Methods Over a time period of 30 months, the quality of air was investigated in three different types of cars (VW Passat, VW Polo FSI, Seat Alhambra) that were all equipped with a automatic air conditioning system. Operation modes using fresh air from outside the car as well as circulating air from inside the car were examined. The total number of microorganisms and the number of mold spores were measured by impaction in a high flow air sampler. Particles of 0.5 to 5.0 μm diameter were counted by a laser particle counter device. Results Overall 32 occasions of sampling were performed. The concentration of microorganisms outside the cars was always higher than it was inside the cars. Few minutes after starting the air conditioning system the total number of microorganisms was reduced by 81.7%, the number of mold spores was reduced by 83.3%, and the number of particles was reduced by 87.8%. There were no significant differences neither between the types of cars nor between the types of operation mode of the air conditioning system (fresh air vs. circulating air). All parameters that were looked for in this study improved during utilization of the car's air conditioning system. Conclusions We believe that the risk of an allergic reaction will be reduced during use also. Nevertheless, we recommend regular maintenance of the system and replacement of older filters after defined changing intervals. PMID:20515449

  17. REFINED PHOTOLYSIS RATES FOR ADVANCED AIR QUALITY MODELING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate modeling of photochemistry is critical and fundamental to reducing the uncertainty in air quality model predictions. lmost all chemical reactions in the atmosphere are initiated by the photodissociation of a number of trace gases. irect measure of this photodissociation ...

  18. Factors controlling air quality in different European subway systems.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Mendes, Luís; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Diapouli, Evangelia; Alves, Célia A; Duarte, Márcio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier; Minguillón, María Cruz

    2016-04-01

    Sampling campaigns using the same equipment and methodology were conducted to assess and compare the air quality at three South European subway systems (Barcelona, Athens and Oporto), focusing on concentrations and chemical composition of PM2.5 on subway platforms, as well as PM2.5 concentrations inside trains. Experimental results showed that the mean PM2.5 concentrations widely varied among the European subway systems, and even among different platforms within the same underground system, which might be associated to distinct station and tunnel designs and ventilation systems. In all cases PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms were higher than those in the urban ambient air, evidencing that there is generation of PM2.5 associated with the subway systems operation. Subway PM2.5 consisted of elemental iron, total carbon, crustal matter, secondary inorganic compounds, insoluble sulphate, halite and trace elements. Of all metals, Fe was the most abundant, accounting for 29-43% of the total PM2.5 mass (41-61% if Fe2O3 is considered), indicating the existence of an Fe source in the subway system, which could have its origin in mechanical friction and wear processes between rails, wheels and brakes. The trace elements with the highest enrichment in the subway PM2.5 were Ba, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr, Sb, Sr, Ni, Sn, Co, Zr and Mo. Similar PM2.5 diurnal trends were observed on platforms from different subway systems, with higher concentrations during subway operating hours than during the transport service interruption, and lower levels on weekends than on weekdays. PM2.5 concentrations depended largely on the operation and frequency of the trains and the ventilation system, and were lower inside the trains, when air conditioning system was operating properly, than on the platforms. However, the PM2.5 concentrations increased considerably when the train windows were open. The PM2.5 levels inside the trains decreased with the trains passage in aboveground sections. PMID:26717078

  19. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  20. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin; Bergey, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    In this project, Building America research team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. This was because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four system factor categories: balance, distribution, outside air source, and recirculation filtration. Recommended system factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  1. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). Various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are reviewed. Available methods include in situ test...

  2. Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R.

    1995-12-31

    An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.

  3. Method, system and apparatus for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air

    DOEpatents

    Hartenstein, Steven D.; Tremblay, Paul L.; Fryer, Michael O.; Hohorst, Frederick A.

    2004-03-23

    A system, method and apparatus is provided for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air. A sensor array senses an air sample from the indoor air and analyzes the air sample to obtain signatures representative of contaminants in the air sample. When the level or type of contaminant poses a threat or hazard to the occupants, the present invention takes corrective actions which may include introducing additional fresh air. The corrective actions taken are intended to promote overall health of personnel, prevent personnel from being overexposed to hazardous contaminants and minimize the cost of operating the HVAC system. The identification of the contaminants is performed by comparing the signatures provided by the sensor array with a database of known signatures. Upon identification, the system takes corrective actions based on the level of contaminant present. The present invention is capable of learning the identity of previously unknown contaminants, which increases its ability to identify contaminants in the future. Indoor air quality is assured by monitoring the contaminants not only in the indoor air, but also in the outdoor air and the air which is to be recirculated. The present invention is easily adaptable to new and existing HVAC systems. In sum, the present invention is able to monitor and adjust the quality of indoor air in real time by sensing the level and type of contaminants present in indoor air, outdoor and recirculated air, providing an intelligent decision about the quality of the air, and minimizing the cost of operating an HVAC system.

  4. Developing air quality forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pius; Saylor, Rick; Meagher, James

    2012-05-01

    Third International Workshop on Air Quality Forecasting Research; Potomac, Maryland, 29 November to 1 December 2011 Elevated concentrations of both near-surface ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter have been implicated in increased mortality and other human health impacts. In light of these known influences on human health, many governments around the world have instituted air quality forecasting systems to provide their citizens with advance warning of impending poor air quality so that they can take actions to limit exposure. In an effort to improve the performance of air quality forecasting systems and provide a forum for the exchange of the latest research in air quality modeling, the International Workshop on Air Quality Forecasting Research (IWAQFR) was established in 2009 and is cosponsored by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Environment Canada (EC), and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The steering committee for IWAQFR's establishment was composed of Véronique Bouchet, Mike Howe, and Craig Stoud (EC); Greg Carmichael (University of Iowa); Paula Davidson and Jim Meagher (NOAA); and Liisa Jalkanen (WMO). The most recent workshop took place in Maryland.

  5. AIR CLEANING FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses air cleaning for acceptable indoor air quality. ir cleaning has performed an important role in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems for many years. raditionally, general ventilation air-filtration equipment has been used to protect cooling coils ...

  6. Downscaling modelling system for multi-scale air quality forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuterman, R.; Baklanov, A.; Mahura, A.; Amstrup, B.; Weismann, J.

    2010-09-01

    Urban modelling for real meteorological situations, in general, considers only a small part of the urban area in a micro-meteorological model, and urban heterogeneities outside a modelling domain affect micro-scale processes. Therefore, it is important to build a chain of models of different scales with nesting of higher resolution models into larger scale lower resolution models. Usually, the up-scaled city- or meso-scale models consider parameterisations of urban effects or statistical descriptions of the urban morphology, whereas the micro-scale (street canyon) models are obstacle-resolved and they consider a detailed geometry of the buildings and the urban canopy. The developed system consists of the meso-, urban- and street-scale models. First, it is the Numerical Weather Prediction (HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model) model combined with Atmospheric Chemistry Transport (the Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions) model. Several levels of urban parameterisation are considered. They are chosen depending on selected scales and resolutions. For regional scale, the urban parameterisation is based on the roughness and flux corrections approach; for urban scale - building effects parameterisation. Modern methods of computational fluid dynamics allow solving environmental problems connected with atmospheric transport of pollutants within urban canopy in a presence of penetrable (vegetation) and impenetrable (buildings) obstacles. For local- and micro-scales nesting the Micro-scale Model for Urban Environment is applied. This is a comprehensive obstacle-resolved urban wind-flow and dispersion model based on the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes approach and several turbulent closures, i.e. k -ɛ linear eddy-viscosity model, k - ɛ non-linear eddy-viscosity model and Reynolds stress model. Boundary and initial conditions for the micro-scale model are used from the up-scaled models with corresponding interpolation conserving the mass. For the boundaries a

  7. QUALITY ASSURANCE HANDBOOK FOR AIR POLLUTION MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS: VOLUME IV - METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS (REVISED - AUGUST 1994)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Procedures on installing, acceptance testing, operating, maintaining and quality assuring three types of ground-based, upper air meteorological measurement systems are described. he limitations and uncertainties in precision and accuracy measurements associated with these systems...

  8. The air quality forecast in Beijing with Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling (CMAQ) System: model evaluation and improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.

    2013-12-01

    The MM5-SMOKE-CMAQ model system, which is developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency(U.S. EPA) as the Models-3 system, has been used for the daily air quality forecast in the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center(Beijing MEMC), as a part of the Ensemble Air Quality Forecast System for Beijing(EMS-Beijing) since the Olympic Games year 2008. In this study, we collect the daily forecast results of the CMAQ model in the whole year 2010 for the model evaluation. The results show that the model play a good model performance in most days but underestimate obviously in some air pollution episode. A typical air pollution episode from 11st - 20th January 2010 was chosen, which the air pollution index(API) of particulate matter (PM10) observed by Beijing MEMC reaches to 180 while the prediction of PM10-API is about 100. Taking in account all stations in Beijing, including urban and suburban stations, three numerical methods are used for model improvement: firstly, enhance the inner domain with 4km grids, the coverage from only Beijing to the area including its surrounding cities; secondly, update the Beijing stationary area emission inventory, from statistical county-level to village-town level, that would provide more detail spatial informance for area emissions; thirdly, add some industrial points emission in Beijing's surrounding cities, the latter two are both the improvement of emission. As the result, the peak of the nine national standard stations averaged PM10-API, which is simulated by CMAQ as daily hindcast PM10-API, reach to 160 and much near to the observation. The new results show better model performance, which the correlation coefficent is 0.93 in national standard stations average and 0.84 in all stations, the relative error is 15.7% in national standard stations averaged and 27% in all stations. The time series of 9 national standard in Beijing urban The scatter diagram of all stations in Beijing, the red is the forecast and

  9. The role of Environmental Health System air quality monitors in Space Station Contingency Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas F.; Wilson, Steve; Perlot, Susan; James, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health System's air-quality monitoring strategy and instrumentation. A two-tier system has been developed, consisting of first-alert instruments that warn the crew of airborne contamination and a volatile organic analyzer that can identify volatile organic contaminants in near-real time. The strategy for air quality monitoring on SSF is designed to provide early detection so that the contamination can be confined to one module and so that crew health and safety can be protected throughout the contingency event. The use of air-quality monitors in fixed and portable modes will be presented as a means of following the progress of decontamination efforts and ensuring acceptable air quality in a module after an incident. The technology of each instrument will be reviewed briefly; the main focus of this paper, however, will be the use of air-quality monitors before, during, and after contingency incidents.

  10. HVAC SYSTEMS AS A TOOL IN CONTROLLING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a review of literature on the use of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems to control indoor air quality (IAQ). Although significant progress has been made in reducing the energy consumption of HVAC systems, their effect on indoor a...

  11. Atmospheric Boundary Layer Modeling for Combined Meteorology and Air Quality Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric Eulerian grid models for mesoscale and larger applications require sub-grid models for turbulent vertical exchange processes, particularly within the Planetary Boundary Layer (PSL). In combined meteorology and air quality modeling systems consistent PSL modeling of wi...

  12. Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Vincent M.

    Asserting that the air quality inside schools is often worse than outdoor pollution, leading to various health complaints and loss of productivity, this paper details factors contributing to schools' indoor air quality. These include the design, operation, and maintenance of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; building…

  13. Construction and application of an intelligent air quality monitoring system for healthcare environment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Tung; Liao, Chi-Jui; Liu, Jung-Chun; Den, Walter; Chou, Ying-Chyi; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

    2014-02-01

    Indoor air quality monitoring in healthcare environment has become a critical part of hospital management and policy. Manual air sampling and analysis are cost-inhibitive and do not provide real-time air quality data and response measures. In this month-long study over 14 sampling locations in a public hospital in Taiwan, we observed a positive correlation between CO(2) concentration and population, total bacteria, and particulate matter concentrations, thus monitoring CO(2) concentration as a general indicator for air quality could be a viable option. Consequently, an intelligent environmental monitoring system consisting of a CO(2)/temperature/humidity sensor, a digital plug, and a ZigBee Router and Coordinator was developed and tested. The system also included a backend server that received and analyzed data, as well as activating ventilation and air purifiers when CO(2) concentration exceeded a pre-set value. Alert messages can also be delivered to offsite users through mobile devices. PMID:24487985

  14. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of an evaluation of literature on heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). The various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are re...

  15. AirNow Information Management System - Global Earth Observation System of Systems Data Processor for Real-Time Air Quality Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haderman, M.; Dye, T. S.; White, J. E.; Dickerson, P.; Pasch, A. N.; Miller, D. S.; Chan, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    Built upon the success of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program (www.AirNow.gov), the AirNow-International (AirNow-I) system contains an enhanced suite of software programs that process and quality control real-time air quality and environmental data and distribute customized maps, files, and data feeds. The goals of the AirNow-I program are similar to those of the successful U.S. program and include fostering the exchange of environmental data; making advances in air quality knowledge and applications; and building a community of people, organizations, and decision makers in environmental management. In 2010, Shanghai became the first city in China to run this state-of-the-art air quality data management and notification system. AirNow-I consists of a suite of modules (software programs and schedulers) centered on a database. One such module is the Information Management System (IMS), which can automatically produce maps and other data products through the use of GIS software to provide the most current air quality information to the public. Developed with Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) interoperability in mind, IMS is based on non-proprietary standards, with preference to formal international standards. The system depends on data and information providers accepting and implementing a set of interoperability arrangements, including technical specifications for collecting, processing, storing, and disseminating shared data, metadata, and products. In particular, the specifications include standards for service-oriented architecture and web-based interfaces, such as a web mapping service (WMS), web coverage service (WCS), web feature service (WFS), sensor web services, and Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds. IMS is flexible, open, redundant, and modular. It also allows the merging of data grids to create complex grids that show comprehensive air quality conditions. For example, the AirNow Satellite Data Processor

  16. THE NOAA - EPA NATIONAL AIR QUALITY FORECASTING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building upon decades of collaboration in air pollution meteorology research, in 2003 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) signed formal partnership agreements to develop and implement an operationa...

  17. An application of a meteorological data assimilation system to an air quality simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, D.; Pai, P.

    1999-07-01

    The need to calculate air pollutant exposure metrics for longer time periods, i.e., seasonal and annual, has generated a need to conduct long-term simulations using regional-scale Eulerian air quality models. Hourly-resolved meteorological and micro-meteorological fields for an entire year are required as input to the air quality models. In this paper, the authors describe the application of a meteorological data assimilation system to provide high-quality fields to drive a regional air quality model. The process of assimilation blends multiple data sources (large-scale gridded data, surface and upper air observations, satellite imagery, and radar data) into a unified atmospheric representation. The authors have used an assimilation system developed at the Center for the Analysis and Prediction of Storms at the University of Oklahoma. The modeling domain covers most of North America and 1995 was chosen as the simulation year. The data used in the assimilation include the NCAR/NCEP global reanalysis fields combined with North American surface and radiosonde data. The authors will describe modifications made to the assimilation system to enable estimation of a number of air-quality related quantities not normally calculated, such as Monin-Obhukov length and friction velocity. While the system supports a state-of-the-art three-dimensional cloud and hydrometeor field analysis based on background fields, surface observations, satellite, and radar; a simpler approach was developed in this study to estimate cloud fractional coverage based on the gridded relative humidity values.

  18. Technology Needs Assessment of an Atmospheric Observation System for Multidisciplinary Air Quality/Meteorology Missions, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarado, U. R.; Bortner, M. H.; Grenda, R. N.; Brehm, W. F.; Frippel, G. G.; Alyea, F.; Kraiman, H.; Folder, P.; Krowitz, L.

    1982-01-01

    The technology advancements that will be necessary to implement the atmospheric observation systems are considered. Upper and lower atmospheric air quality and meteorological parameters necessary to support the air quality investigations were included. The technology needs were found predominantly in areas related to sensors and measurements of air quality and meteorological measurements.

  19. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  20. Development of a GIS-based decision support system for urban air quality management in the city of Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbir, Tolga; Mangir, Nizamettin; Kara, Melik; Simsir, Sedef; Eren, Tuba; Ozdemir, Seda

    2010-02-01

    A decision support system has been developed for urban air quality management in the metropolitan area of Istanbul. The system is based on CALMET/CALPUFF dispersion modeling system, digital maps, and related databases to estimate the emissions and spatial distribution of air pollutants with the help of a GIS software. The system estimates ambient air pollution levels at high temporal and spatial resolutions and enables mapping of emissions and air quality levels. Mapping and scenario results can be compared with air quality limits. Impact assessment of air pollution abatement measures can also be carried out.

  1. Development of a Micro-scale Air Monitoring and Modeling System for a Urban District Air Quality Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Seung Heon; Woo, Jung-Hun; Ryoo, Rina; Jung, Bujeon; Seo, Jun Seong; Kim, Jae-Jin; Boem Lim, Sang; Kim, Hyungseok

    2010-05-01

    As the city is urbanized, its landscape is getting more complex due to the construction of high-rise buildings. The smaller scale wind-field in an urban district may change frequently due to the complex terrain, the diverse landuse, and high-rise buildings. It also leads to dynamic changes of air pollution in that area. The conventional urban scale air quality management system, however, is too coarse to effectively manage such a small area. In this study, we set up a micro-scale air quality management testbed near Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea. A ubiquities sensor monitoring network, high resolution emission database, and CFD-based air quality modeling system were developed, and then applied to the testbed. A sensor data management system using wireless technology and multi-modal scientific visualization module were combined in support of the management system. The sensor based monitoring system shows reasonably good performance for wind speed, temperature, and carbon dioxide from inter-comparison study against conventional large format analyzers. The sensor data have been successfully collected using a wireless sensor data collection network during a 6months operation period from July, 2009. The fire pollution event simulation using the CFD model reveals the effect of high rise buildings in the testbed.

  2. Transforming air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Janet McCabe

    2005-04-01

    Earlier this year, the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee submitted to EPA 38 recommendations intended to improve air quality management in the United States. This article summarizes the evaluation process leading up to the Committee's recommendations. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Implementation of a WRF-CMAQ Air Quality Modeling System in Bogotá, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedbor-Gross, R.; Henderson, B. H.; Pachon, J. E.; Davis, J. R.; Baublitz, C. B.; Rincón, A.

    2014-12-01

    Due to a continuous economic growth Bogotá, Colombia has experienced air pollution issues in recent years. The local environmental authority has implemented several strategies to curb air pollution that have resulted in the decrease of PM10 concentrations since 2010. However, more activities are necessary in order to meet international air quality standards in the city. The University of Florida Air Quality and Climate group is collaborating with the Universidad de La Salle to prioritize regulatory strategies for Bogotá using air pollution simulations. To simulate pollution, we developed a modeling platform that combines the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF), local emissions, and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model (CMAQ). This platform is the first of its kind to be implemented in the megacity of Bogota, Colombia. The presentation will discuss development and evaluation of the air quality modeling system, highlight initial results characterizing photochemical conditions in Bogotá, and characterize air pollution under proposed regulatory strategies. The WRF model has been configured and applied to Bogotá, which resides in a tropical climate with complex mountainous topography. Developing the configuration included incorporation of local topography and land-use data, a physics sensitivity analysis, review, and systematic evaluation. The threshold, however, was set based on synthesis of model performance under less mountainous conditions. We will evaluate the impact that differences in autocorrelation contribute to the non-ideal performance. Air pollution predictions are currently under way. CMAQ has been configured with WRF meteorology, global boundary conditions from GEOS-Chem, and a locally produced emission inventory. Preliminary results from simulations show promising performance of CMAQ in Bogota. Anticipated results include a systematic performance evaluation of ozone and PM10, characterization of photochemical sensitivity, and air

  4. EVALUATING ADVECTION SCHEMES FOR USE IN THE NEXT GENERATION OF AIR QUALITY MODELING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple air quality model prototype for EPA's third-generation modeling system, the Models-3 system, was recently implemented to test several design concepts. he prototype uses a time-splitting approach and process modules can be exchanged easily, without any restructuring of th...

  5. LINKING ETA MODEL WITH THE COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODELING SYSTEM: OZONE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype surface ozone concentration forecasting model system for the Eastern U.S. has been developed. The model system is consisting of a regional meteorological and a regional air quality model. It demonstrated a strong prediction dependence on its ozone boundary conditions....

  6. Air quality monitoring system using lichens as bioindicators in Central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Estrabou, Cecilia; Filippini, Edith; Soria, Juan Pablo; Schelotto, Gabriel; Rodriguez, Juan Manuel

    2011-11-01

    Air quality studies with bioindicators have not been well developed in South America. In the city of Córdoba, there are not permanent air pollutant measurements by equipment. In order to develop an air quality biomonitoring system using lichens, we applied a systematic sampling in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. A total of 341 plots were sampled in the area of the city which is a square of 24 × 24 km. In each sample plot we selected three phorophytes and estimated the frequency and cover of lichen species growing at 1.5 m on trunks. We also calculated the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) using lichen frequencies. Maps with number of lichen species, cover values, and IAP were performed. The lichen community was described with nine species where Physcia undulata and Physcia endochryscea were the most frequent. Moreover, these two species were dominant in the community with the highest cover index. The central area of the city is considered a lichen desert with poor air quality. The southeast and northwest areas of the city showed the highest IAP values and number of species. In general, the city shows fair air quality and few areas with good and very good air quality. PMID:21336488

  7. Systemic effects of urban form on air pollution and environmental quality

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, P.C.

    1997-12-31

    The form and design of cities and towns have a direct impact on the quality of the natural environment, particularly air and water quality. This paper illustrates some of the dynamic relationships between the form of urban environments and air and water pollution. Recent research suggests how urban form affects environmental quality in at least three ways: (a) how suburban development and its dependency on the private motor vehicle increases air pollution, (b) how exterior building materials help to generate urban heat islands and ozone precursors, and (c) how conventional stormwater drainage systems transport polluted urban runoff into waterways. Today`s aging urban infrastructure provides an important and timely opportunity to re-examine the design of cities and towns with a goal of enhancing overall environmental quality. Many miles of roads, freeways, bridges, and stormwater culverts and pipes are in poor condition and need to be repaired or replaced, while many cities are now failing to meet air and water quality standards designed to protect human and environmental health. This paper also explores seven urban planning and design concepts that could reduce the magnitude of air and water pollution in urban environments and help to improve the health of both cities and their residents.

  8. RAQ-A Random Forest Approach for Predicting Air Quality in Urban Sensing Systems.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ruiyun; Yang, Yu; Yang, Leyou; Han, Guangjie; Move, Oguti Ann

    2016-01-01

    Air quality information such as the concentration of PM2.5 is of great significance for human health and city management. It affects the way of traveling, urban planning, government policies and so on. However, in major cities there is typically only a limited number of air quality monitoring stations. In the meantime, air quality varies in the urban areas and there can be large differences, even between closely neighboring regions. In this paper, a random forest approach for predicting air quality (RAQ) is proposed for urban sensing systems. The data generated by urban sensing includes meteorology data, road information, real-time traffic status and point of interest (POI) distribution. The random forest algorithm is exploited for data training and prediction. The performance of RAQ is evaluated with real city data. Compared with three other algorithms, this approach achieves better prediction precision. Exciting results are observed from the experiments that the air quality can be inferred with amazingly high accuracy from the data which are obtained from urban sensing. PMID:26761008

  9. RAQ–A Random Forest Approach for Predicting Air Quality in Urban Sensing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ruiyun; Yang, Yu; Yang, Leyou; Han, Guangjie; Move, Oguti Ann

    2016-01-01

    Air quality information such as the concentration of PM2.5 is of great significance for human health and city management. It affects the way of traveling, urban planning, government policies and so on. However, in major cities there is typically only a limited number of air quality monitoring stations. In the meantime, air quality varies in the urban areas and there can be large differences, even between closely neighboring regions. In this paper, a random forest approach for predicting air quality (RAQ) is proposed for urban sensing systems. The data generated by urban sensing includes meteorology data, road information, real-time traffic status and point of interest (POI) distribution. The random forest algorithm is exploited for data training and prediction. The performance of RAQ is evaluated with real city data. Compared with three other algorithms, this approach achieves better prediction precision. Exciting results are observed from the experiments that the air quality can be inferred with amazingly high accuracy from the data which are obtained from urban sensing. PMID:26761008

  10. Impact of High Resolution Land-Use Data in Meteorology and Air Quality Modeling Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate land use information is important in meteorology for land surface exchanges, in emission modeling for emission spatial allocation, and in air quality modeling for chemical surface fluxes. Currently, meteorology, emission, and air quality models often use outdated USGS Gl...

  11. EPA third-generation air quality modeling system: Models-3 user manual. Standard tutorial

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Models-3 is a flexible software system designed to simplify the development and use of environmental assessment and other decision support tools. It is designed for applications ranging from regulatory and policy analysis to understanding the complex interactions of atmospheric chemistry and physics. The initial version of Models-3 contains a Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system for urban to regional scale air quality simulation of tropospheric ozone, acid deposition, visibility, and fine particles. Models-3 and CMAQ in combination form a powerful third generation air quality modeling and assessment system that enables a user to execute air quality simulation models and visualize their results. Models-3/CMAQ also assists the model developer to assemble, test, and evaluate science process components and their impact on chemistry-transport model predictions by facilitating the interchange of science codes, transparent use of multiple computing platforms, and access of data across the network. The Models-3/CMAQ provides flexibility to change key model specifications such as grid resolution and chemistry mechanism without rewriting the code. Models-3/CMAQ is intended to serve as a community framework for continual advancement and use of environmental assessment tools. This User Manual Tutorial serves as a guide to show the steps necessary to implement an application in Models-3/CMAQ.

  12. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models and Decisions Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estes, S. M.; Haynes, J. A.; Omar, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    Health and Air Quality providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will demonstrate the need for collaborations between multi-disciplinary research groups to develop the full potential of utilizing Earth Observations in studying health. Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth's environment from space, which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the public health and air quality research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will provide an overview of projects dealing with infectious diseases, water borne diseases and air quality and how many environmental variables effect human health. This presentation will provide a venue where the results of both research and practice using satellite earth observations to study weather and it's role in public health research.

  13. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models and Decisions Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Sue; Haynes, John; Omar, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Health and Air Quality providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will demonstrate the need for collaborations between multi-disciplinary research groups to develop the full potential of utilizing Earth Observations in studying health. Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth's environment from space, which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the public health and air quality research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will provide an overview of projects dealing with infectious diseases, water borne diseases and air quality and how many environmental variables effect human health. This presentation will provide a venue where the results of both research and practice using satellite earth observations to study weather and it's role in public health research.

  14. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models and Decisions Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Sue; Haynes, John; Omar, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Health and Air Quality providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will demonstrate the need for collaborations between multi-disciplinary research groups to develop the full potential of utilizing Earth Observations in studying health. Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth's environment from space, which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the public health and air quality research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will provide an overview of projects dealing with infectious diseases, water borne diseases and air quality and how many environmental variables effect human health. This presentation will provide a venue where the results of both research and practice using satellite earth observations to study weather and it's role in public health research.

  15. Development of a PC-based system for regional air quality modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, K.T.; Cuq, F.

    1996-12-31

    Several large urban areas throughout the world are plagued by severe air quality problems. One of the most common problems in photochemical smog of ozone which is formed under sunlight by chemical reactions between nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. These primary pollutants are emitted by a wide range of emission sources, most notably mobile sources such as automobiles, stationary point sources such as power plants and oil refineries, and stationary area sources such as residential heating. A sophisticated three-dimensional Eulerian grid model is frequently used to predict the air quality impacts of existing or proposed emission sources, or to assess the effectiveness of emission control measures. Until recently, regional air quality modelling is computer-intensive and requires the use of a mainframe or a supercomputer. Large advances in computer technology in recent years have resulted in inexpensive personal computers and workstations approaching the speed of the supercomputers of a few years ago. This paper describes the development of a state-of-the-art modeling system named SMART (System for Modeling Atmospheric Release and Transport) which is suitable for a wide range of regional air quality impact analyses yet capable of running on these inexpensive computers.

  16. State Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  17. Process air quality data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C. M.; Hogge, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Air quality sampling was conducted. Data for air quality parameters, recorded on written forms, punched cards or magnetic tape, are available for 1972 through 1975. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate several daily statistical measures of location, (2) plot time histories of data or the calculated daily statistics, (3) calculate simple correlation coefficients, and (4) plot scatter diagrams. Computer software was developed for processing air quality data to include time series analysis and goodness of fit tests. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate a larger number of daily statistical measures of location, and a number of daily monthly and yearly measures of location, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, (2) decompose the extended time series model and (3) perform some goodness of fit tests. The computer program is described, documented and illustrated by examples. Recommendations are made for continuation of the development of research on processing air quality data.

  18. Applications of the three-dimensional air quality system to western U.S. air quality: IDEA, smog blog, smog stories, airquest, and the remote sensing information gateway.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Raymond; Zhang, Hai; Jordan, Nikisa; Prados, Ana; Engel-Cox, Jill; Huff, Amy; Weber, Stephanie; Zell, Erica; Kondragunta, Shobha; Szykman, James; Johns, Brad; Dimmick, Fred; Wimmers, Anthony; Al-Saadi, Jay; Kittaka, Chieko

    2009-08-01

    A system has been developed to combine remote sensing and ground-based measurements of aerosol concentration and aerosol light scattering parameters into a three-dimensional view of the atmosphere over the United States. Utilizing passive and active remote sensors from space and the ground, the system provides tools to visualize particulate air pollution in near real time and archive the results for retrospective analyses. The main components of the system (Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications [IDEA], the U.S. Air Quality Weblog [Smog Blog], Smog Stories, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's AIRQuest decision support system, and the Remote Sensing Information Gateway [RSIG]) are described, and the relationship of how data move from one system to another is outlined. To provide examples of how the results can be used to analyze specific pollution episodes, three events (two fires and one wintertime low planetary boundary layer haze) are discussed. Not all tools are useful at all times, and the limitations, including the sparsity of some data, the interference caused by overlying clouds, etc., are shown. Nevertheless, multiple sources of data help a state, local, or regional air quality analyst construct a more thorough picture of a daily air pollution situation than what one would obtain with only surface-based sensors. PMID:19728492

  19. Characterization of urban air quality using GIS as a management system.

    PubMed

    Puliafito, E; Guevara, M; Puliafito, C

    2003-01-01

    Keeping the air quality acceptable has become an important task for decision makers as well as for non-governmental organizations. Particulate and gaseous emissions of pollutant from industries and auto-exhausts are responsible for rising discomfort, increasing airway diseases, decreasing productivity and the deterioration of artistic and cultural patrimony in urban centers. A model to determine the air quality in urban areas using a geographical information system will be presented here. This system permits the integration, handling, analysis and simulation of spatial and temporal data of the ambient concentration of the main pollutant. It allows the users to characterize and recognize areas with a potential increase or improvement in its air pollution situation. It is also possible to compute past or present conditions by changing basic input information as traffic flow, or stack emission rates. Additionally the model may be used to test the compliance of local standard air quality, to study the environmental impact of new industries or to determine the changes in the conditions when the vehicle circulation is increased. PMID:12535599

  20. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI. PMID:25461063

  1. IAQPC: AN INDOOR AIR QUALITY SIMULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an Indoor Air Quality Simulator for Personal Computers (IAQPC), developed in response to the growing need for quick accurate predictions of indoor air contamination levels. eating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers need ways to determin...

  2. Monitoring Air Quality over China: Evaluation of the modeling system of the PANDA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouarar, Idir; Katinka Petersen, Anna; Brasseur, Guy; Granier, Claire; Xie, Ying; Wang, Xuemei; Fan, Qi; Wang, Lili

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution has become a pressing problem in Asia and specifically in China due to rapid increase in anthropogenic emissions related to growth of China's economic activity and increasing demand for energy in the past decade. Observed levels of particulate matter and ozone regularly exceed World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guidelines in many parts of the country leading to increased risk of respiratory illnesses and other health problems. The EU-funded project PANDA aims to establish a team of European and Chinese scientists to monitor air pollution over China and elaborate air quality indicators in support of European and Chinese policies. PANDA combines state-of-the-art air pollution modeling with space and surface observations of chemical species to improve methods for monitoring air quality. The modeling system of the PANDA project follows a downscaling approach: global models such as MOZART and MACC system provide initial and boundary conditions to regional WRF-Chem and EMEP simulations over East Asia. WRF-Chem simulations at higher resolution (e.g. 20km) are then performed over a smaller domain covering East China and initial and boundary conditions from this run are used to perform simulations at a finer resolution (e.g. 5km) over specific megacities like Shanghai. Here we present results of model simulations for January and July 2010 performed during the first year of the project. We show an intercomparison of the global (MACC, EMEP) and regional (WRF-Chem) simulations and a comprehensive evaluation with satellite measurements (NO2, CO) and in-situ data (O3, CO, NOx, PM10 and PM2.5) at several surface stations. Using the WRF-Chem model, we demonstrate that model performance is influenced not only by the resolution (e.g. 60km, 20km) but also the emission inventories used (MACCity, HTAPv2), their resolution and diurnal variation, and the choice of initial and boundary conditions (e.g. MOZART, MACC analysis).

  3. Toward an integrated quasi-operational air quality analysis and prediction system for South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshyaripour, Gholam Ali; Brasseur, Guy; Petersen, Katinka; Bouarar, Idiir; Andrade, Maria de Fatima

    2015-04-01

    Recent industrialization and urbanization in South America (SA) have notably exacerbated the air pollution with adverse impacts on human health and socio-economic systems. Consequently, there is a strong demand for developing ever-better assessment mechanisms to monitor the air quality at different temporal and spatial scales and minimize its damages. Based on previous achievements (e.g., MACC project in Europe and PANDA project in East Asia) we aim to design and implement an integrated system to monitor, analyze and forecast the air quality in SA along with its impacts upon public health and agriculture. An initiative will be established to combine observations (both satellite and in-situ) with advanced numerical models in order to provide a robust scientific basis for short- and long-term decision-making concerning air quality issues in SA countries. The main objectives of the project are defined as 3E: Enhancement of the air quality monitoring system through coupling models and observations, Elaboration of comprehensive indicators and assessment tools to support policy-making, Establishment of efficient information-exchange platforms to facilitate communication among scientists, authorities, stockholders and the public. Here we present the results of the initial stage, where a coarse resolution (50×50 km) set up of Weather Research and Forecast model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to simulate the air quality in SA considering anthropogenic, biomass-burning (based on MACCity, FINN inventories, respectively) and biogenic emissions (using MEGAN model). According to the availability of the observation data for Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, August 2012 is selected as the simulation period. Nested domains with higher resolution (15×15 km) are also embedded within the parent domain over the megacities (Sao Paolo and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil and Buenos Aires in Argentina), which account for the major anthropogenic emission sources located along coastal regions

  4. Air Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Stak-Tracker CEM (Continuous Emission Monitor) Gas Analyzer is an air quality monitor capable of separating the various gases in a bulk exhaust stream and determining the amounts of individual gases present within the stream. The monitor is produced by GE Reuter- Stokes, a subsidiary of GE Corporate Research & Development Center. The Stak-Tracker uses a Langley Research Center software package which measures the concentration of a target gas by determining the degree to which molecules of that gas absorb an infrared beam. The system is environmental-friendly, fast and has relatively low installation and maintenance costs. It is applicable to gas turbines and various industries including glass, paper and cement.

  5. Real Time Air Quality Forecasting System for a Large Industrial Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radonjic, Z.; Chambers, D.; Telenta, B.; Janjic, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Forecasts of air quality are provided using a weather forecasting model coupled with an air dispersion model. The advanced mesoscale WRF- NMM (Weather Research and Forecasting - Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model) is set up to provide meteorological forecasts initially over a larger domain with resolution 3 by 3 km which is subsequently nested down to a smaller domain of 1 by 1 km horizontal resolution around a copper smelter in Serbia. The refined meteorological forecast is used as input to drive the CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system to predict hour by hour concentrations of the facility's key pollutant (SO2). CALMET/CALPUFF is the U.S. EPA's regulatory model for long-range transport and on a case by case basis is applied in complex terrain and shore-line settings. The CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system is accepted as a regulatory model for short-range applications in several jurisdictions in Canada. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate the good performance of the weather model in forecasting mode with fine resolution and in complex terrain, as well as the comparison of predicted SO2 air concentrations with measurements taken at four nearby air quality ambient monitoring stations. The forecasts of SO2 concentrations are used by the facility to adjust the production schedule to avoid high level concentrations in the city and maximize production during favourable meteorological conditions. Since the facility is located in a valley, during stagnant meteorological conditions there is a potential for the build up of high concentrations of SO2. With the use of this air quality forecasting system, the facility can avoid the worst meteorological situations and reduce concentrations in the populated areas.

  6. Enhanced separation of water quality parameters in the DAF (Dissolved Air Flotation) system using ozone.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoung-Ho; Song, Won-Chul; Kim, Hye-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hyeon

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) has been used in water and wastewater treatment because it has an excellent separation capability. It was found that the separation capability of the DAF system could be even more enhanced by ozone. Ozone was applied as a substitute for air in the DAF system, so that the system was named as the DOF (Dissolved Ozone Flotation) system. Ozone not only enhances coagulation as is well known, but also provides larger micro-bubble volume because the solubility of ozone in water is much higher than that of air. Ozone enhanced the separation rate of SS by 13.6%, and turbidity by 21% in the DOF system compared to the DAF system. T-P was also removed 7.7% more in the DOF system. 41.5% of color and 7.4% of COD(Cr) were enhanced in their removal rate. Coliform and heterotrophic bacteria were removed 54% and 57.3% more in the DOF system. Separation capability of the DOF system was greatly enhanced for most of the water quality parameters because ozone provides strong oxidation power with large volume of micro-bubbles. PMID:18048988

  7. Douglas Battery Mfg. Co. achieves outstanding air quality, energy savings - with dust collection/recirculating system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    Douglas Battery Manufacturing Company of Winston-Salem, NC has engineered a filtration system that not only delivers excellent air quality - it also reduces heating costs in the plant, since the filtered air is recirculated through the work area after it leaves the dust-collection unit. Douglas engineers reviewed several alternatives, including pulse jet baghouses, before selecting a Tenkay aspirated cartridge dust collection from Farr Company, El Segundo, CA. At present, Douglas is operating four Tenkay collectors. The average air to filter surface ratio of a Farr cartridge is 1.5:1. Two of the units handle 21,500 cfm each, the others handle 25,000 cfm each. Testing by U.S. EPA Reference Method 12 confirmed that the unit's emissions are significantly lower than those established by federal New Source Performance Standards.

  8. [A method for resolving spectra shift in the urban air quality monitoring system (DOAS)].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi-Sheng; Wei, Qing-Nong; Feng, Wei-Wei; Zhan, Kai; Wang, Feng-Ping

    2009-06-01

    In the urban air quality monitoring system, there is spectra shift which is caused by environment factors on the optical part (temperature and optic fiber position), or by the self-change of Xe-lamp. Relative spectra shift will occur if the shift of lamp-spectrum and air-spectrum is inconsistent which has direct influences on the accuracy of the measurement results. So the match of wavelength between lamp-spectrum and air-spectrum should be considered when we retrieve pollutants concentration measurement of trace gas in the atmosphere through DOAS method. Based on the study of the unique structures for Xe-lamp emitting spectrum, a method for the calibration of two signal spectra using Xe-lamp emitting peak and least square fitting is given. The results show that, the impact of spectrum shift can be reduced by this method for retrieving results. PMID:19810506

  9. Selecting HVAC Systems for Schools To Balance the Needs for Indoor Air Quality, Energy Conservation and Maintenance. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.; Kunz, Walter S., Jr.

    Although poor air quality in a school can have multiple causes, the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system plays a major role. Suggestions that architects, facilities managers, school board members, and administrators can use in selecting HVAC systems are discussed. Focus is on the performance criteria for classroom systems, and…

  10. FUNCTIONALITY OF AN INTEGRATED EMISSION PREPROCESSING SYSTEM FOR AIR QUALITY MODELING: THE MODELS-3 EMISSION PREPROCESSOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional preparation of emission inventories for air quality modeling is typically an extended process using computer routines to reformat, quality check, chemically speciate, and temporally and spatially allocate data. rocessing of emission inventories for regional modeling ...

  11. User manual for the EPA third-generation air quality modeling system (Models-3 version 3.0). Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    Models-3 is a flexible third generation software modeling system designed to simplify the development and use of the environmental assessment and other decision support tools. It is designed for applications ranging from regulatory and policy analysis to understanding the complex interactions of atmospheric chemistry and physics. This version of Models-3 contains a Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) system for urban to regional scale air quality simulation of tropospheric ozone, acid deposition, visibility and fine particulate. Models-3 and CMAQ in combination form a powerful third generation air quality modeling and assessment system. Third generation models treat multiple pollutants simultaneously up to continental scales and incorporate feedback between chemical and meteorological components.

  12. User manual for the EPA third-generation air quality modeling system (Models-3 version 3.0)

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    Models-3 is a flexible third generation software modeling system designed to simplify the development and use of the environmental assessment and other decision support tools. It is designed for applications ranging from regulatory and policy analysis to understanding the complex interactions of atmospheric chemistry and physics. This version of Models-3 contains a Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) system for urban to regional scale air quality simulation of tropospheric ozone, acid deposition, visibility and fine particulate. Models-3 and CMAQ in combination form a powerful third generation air quality modeling and assessment system. Third generation models treat multiple pollutants simultaneously up to continental scales and incorporate feedback between chemical and meteorological components.

  13. A WebGIS-based system for analyzing and visualizing air quality data for Shanghai Municipality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Manyi; Liu, Chaoshun; Gao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    An online visual analytical system based on Java Web and WebGIS for air quality data for Shanghai Municipality was designed and implemented to quantitatively analyze and qualitatively visualize air quality data. By analyzing the architecture of WebGIS and Java Web, we firstly designed the overall scheme for system architecture, then put forward the software and hardware environment and also determined the main function modules for the system. The visual system was ultimately established with the DIV + CSS layout method combined with JSP, JavaScript, and some other computer programming languages based on the Java programming environment. Moreover, Struts, Spring, and Hibernate frameworks (SSH) were integrated in the system for the purpose of easy maintenance and expansion. To provide mapping service and spatial analysis functions, we selected ArcGIS for Server as the GIS server. We also used Oracle database and ESRI file geodatabase to store spatial data and non-spatial data in order to ensure the data security. In addition, the response data from the Web server are resampled to implement rapid visualization through the browser. The experimental successes indicate that this system can quickly respond to user's requests, and efficiently return the accurate processing results.

  14. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  15. Assessing Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Molly

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Science and Math Investigative Learning Experiences (SMILE) program. Presents an air quality problem as an example of an integrated challenge problem activity developed by the SMILE program. Explains the process of challenge problems and provides a list of the National Science Education Standards addressed by challenge problems.…

  16. REGULATORY AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appendix W to 40CFR Part 51 (Guideline on Air Quality Models) specifies the models to be used for purposes of permitting, PSD, and SIPs. Through a formal regulatory process this modeling guidance is periodically updated to reflect current science. In the most recent action, thr...

  17. Dual fan, dual-duct system meets air quality, energy-efficiency needs

    SciTech Connect

    Schuler, M.

    1996-03-01

    Canada`s Space Centre in Saint-Hubert Quebec is a 300,000 ft{sup 2} (27,871 m{sup 2}) complex that houses the headquarters of the Canadian Space Agency, the Canadian Astronaut Training Centre, mission ground control installations, research facilities, offices and the required support facilities. A comfortable, pleasant research environment was a primary concern for the Space Centre, given its elite clientele. The objectives were high indoor-air quality, design flexibility, energy efficiency and low capital costs. Dual duct systems which are the heart of the mechanical concept allowed the designers to meet these objectives. The Space Centre`s offices, laboratories and conference center are all served by dual-duct systems. All operate using an air economizer cycle. Gas boilers provide them with hot water for heating and steam for humidification while centrifugal chillers provide chilled water for cooling. This article describes the design.

  18. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Li, H; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens' activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  19. AQUIS: A PC-based air quality and permit information system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.E.; Huber, C.C.; Tschanz, J. ); Ryckman, J.S. Jr. )

    1992-01-01

    The Air Quality Utility Information System (AQUIS) was developed to calculate and track emissions, permits, and related information. The system runs on IBM-compatible personal computers using dBASE IV. AQUIS tracks more than 900 data items distributed among various source categories and allows the user to enter specific information on permit control devices, stacks, and related regulatory requirements. The system is currently operating at seven US Air Force Materiel Command facilities, large industrial operations involved in the repair and maintenance of aircraft. Environmental management personnel are responsible for the compliance status of as many as l,000 sources at each facility. The usefulness of the system has been enhanced by providing a flexible reporting capability that permits users who are unfamiliar with database structure to design and prepare reports containing specified information. In addition to the standard six pollutants, AQUIS calculates compound-specific emissions and allows users to enter their own emission estimates. This capability will be useful in developing air toxics inventories and control plans.

  20. AQUIS: A PC-based air quality and permit information system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.E.; Huber, C.C.; Tschanz, J.; Ryckman, J.S. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    The Air Quality Utility Information System (AQUIS) was developed to calculate and track emissions, permits, and related information. The system runs on IBM-compatible personal computers using dBASE IV. AQUIS tracks more than 900 data items distributed among various source categories and allows the user to enter specific information on permit control devices, stacks, and related regulatory requirements. The system is currently operating at seven US Air Force Materiel Command facilities, large industrial operations involved in the repair and maintenance of aircraft. Environmental management personnel are responsible for the compliance status of as many as l,000 sources at each facility. The usefulness of the system has been enhanced by providing a flexible reporting capability that permits users who are unfamiliar with database structure to design and prepare reports containing specified information. In addition to the standard six pollutants, AQUIS calculates compound-specific emissions and allows users to enter their own emission estimates. This capability will be useful in developing air toxics inventories and control plans.

  1. Evaluation of the United States National Air Quality Forecast Capability experimental real-time predictions in 2010 using Air Quality System ozone and NO2 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, T.; Kim, H.-C.; Lee, P.; Tong, D.; Pan, L.; Tang, Y.; Huang, J.; McQueen, J.; Tsidulko, M.; Stajner, I.

    2013-05-01

    The National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC) project provides the US with operational and experimental real-time ozone predictions using two different versions of the three-dimensional Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System. Routine evaluation using near-real-time AIRNow ozone measurements through 2011 showed better performance of the operational ozone predictions. In this work, quality-controlled and -assured Air Quality System (AQS) ozone and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) observations are used to evaluate the experimental predictions in 2010, with a view towards their improvement. It is found that both ozone and NO2 are overestimated over the contiguous US (CONUS), with annual biases of +5.6 ppbv and +5.1 ppbv, respectively. The annual root mean square errors (RMSEs) are 15.4 ppbv for ozone and 13.4 ppbv for NO2. For both species the over-predictions are most pronounced in the summer. The locations of the AQS monitoring sites are also utilized to stratify comparisons by the degree of urbanization. Comparisons for six predefined US regions show the highest annual biases for ozone predictions in Southeast (+10.5 ppbv) and for NO2 in the Lower Middle (+8.1 ppbv) and Pacific Coast (+7.1 ppbv) regions. The spatial distributions of the NO2 biases in July and August show distinctively high values in Los Angeles, Houston, and New Orleans areas. In addition to the standard statistics metrics, daily maximum eight-hour ozone categorical statistics are calculated using the current US ambient air quality standard (75 ppbv) and another lower threshold (70 ppbv). Using the 75 ppbv standard, the hit rate and proportion of correct over CONUS for the entire year are 0.64 and 0.96, respectively. Summertime biases show distinctive weekly patterns for ozone and NO2. Diurnal comparisons show that ozone overestimation is most severe in the morning, from 07:00 to 10:00 local time. For NO2, the morning predictions agree with the AQS observations reasonably well, but

  2. Indoor air quality impacts of residential HVAC systems. Phase 2.a report: Baseline and preliminary simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Emmerich, S.J.; Persily, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    NIST is performing whole building airflow and contaminant dispersal computer simulations with the program CONTAM93 to assess the ability of modifications of central forced-air heating and cooling systems to control pollutant sources relevant to the residential environment. The report summarizes the results of Phase II.A of this project, which consisted of three major efforts: baseline simulations of contaminant levels without indoor air quality (IAQ) controls, design of the IAQ control retrofits, and preliminary simulations of contaminant levels with the IAQ control retrofits. In Phase II.B of the study, all of the baseline cases will be modified to incorporate the IAQ control retrofits. The retrofit results will then be compared to the baseline results to evaluate the effectiveness of the retrofits.

  3. The Maintenance of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Systems and Indoor Air Quality in Schools: A Guide for School Facility Managers. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    To help maintain good indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools, guidance for the development and implementation of an effective program for maintenance and operation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are discussed. Frequently, a building's occupants will complain about IAQ when the temperature or humidity are at uncomfortable…

  4. Evaluation of the United States National Air Quality Forecast Capability experimental real-time predictions in 2010 using Air Quality System ozone and NO2 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, T.; Kim, H.-C.; Lee, P.; Tong, D.; Pan, L.; Tang, Y.; Huang, J.; McQueen, J.; Tsidulko, M.; Stajner, I.

    2013-10-01

    The National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC) project provides the US with operational and experimental real-time ozone predictions using two different versions of the three-dimensional Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Routine evaluation using near-real-time AIRNow ozone measurements through 2011 showed better performance of the operational ozone predictions. In this work, quality-controlled and -assured Air Quality System (AQS) ozone and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) observations are used to evaluate the experimental predictions in 2010. It is found that both ozone and NO2 are overestimated over the contiguous US (CONUS), with annual biases of +5.6 and +5.1 ppbv, respectively. The annual root mean square errors (RMSEs) are 15.4 ppbv for ozone and 13.4 ppbv for NO2. For both species the overpredictions are most pronounced in the summer. The locations of the AQS monitoring sites are also utilized to stratify comparisons by the degree of urbanization. Comparisons for six predefined US regions show the highest annual biases for ozone predictions in Southeast (+10.5 ppbv) and for NO2 in the Lower Middle (+8.1 ppbv) and Pacific Coast (+7.1 ppbv) regions. The spatial distributions of the NO2 biases in August show distinctively high values in the Los Angeles, Houston, and New Orleans areas. In addition to the standard statistics metrics, daily maximum eight-hour ozone categorical statistics are calculated using the current US ambient air quality standard (75 ppbv) and another lower threshold (70 ppbv). Using the 75 ppbv standard, the hit rate and proportion of correct over CONUS for the entire year are 0.64 and 0.96, respectively. Summertime biases show distinctive weekly patterns for ozone and NO2. Diurnal comparisons show that ozone overestimation is most severe in the morning, from 07:00 to 10:00 local time. For NO2, the morning predictions agree with the AQS observations reasonably well, but nighttime concentrations are overpredicted by around

  5. Neuro-fuzzy and neural network systems for air quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnevale, Claudio; Finzi, Giovanna; Pisoni, Enrico; Volta, Marialuisa

    In order to define efficient air quality plans, Regional Authorities need suitable tools to evaluate both the impact of emission reduction strategies on pollution indexes and the costs of such emission reductions. The air quality control can be formalized as a two-objective nonlinear mathematical problem, integrating source-receptor models and the estimate of emission reduction costs. Both aspects present several complex elements. In particular the source-receptor models cannot be implemented through deterministic modelling systems, that would bring to a computationally unfeasible mathematical problem. In this paper we suggest to identify source-receptor statistical models (neural network and neuro-fuzzy) processing the simulations of a deterministic multi-phase modelling system (GAMES). The methodology has been applied to ozone and PM10 concentrations in Northern Italy. The results show that, despite a large advantage in terms of computational costs, the selected source-receptor models are able to accurately reproduce the simulation of the 3D modelling system.

  6. Indoor Air Quality Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    In an effort to provide Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) management guidance, Anne Arundel County Public Schools was selected by the Maryland State Department of Education to develop a program that could be used by other school systems. A major goal was to produce a handbook that was "user friendly." Hence, its contents are a mix of history, philosophy,…

  7. Community Multiscale Air Quality Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA developed the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) system to apply a “one atmosphere” multiscale and multi-pollutant modeling approach based mainly on the “first principles” description of the atmosphere. The multiscale capability is supported by the governing di...

  8. Performance and diagnostic evaluation of ozone predictions by the Eta-Community Multiscale Air Quality Forecast System during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shaocai; Mathur, Rohit; Kang, Daiwen; Schere, Kenneth; Eder, Brian; Pleim, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    A real-time air quality forecasting system (Eta-Community Multiscale Air Quality [CMAQ] model suite) has been developed by linking the National Centers for Environmental Estimation Eta model to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) CMAQ model. This work presents results from the application of the Eta-CMAQ modeling system for forecasting ozone (O3) over the Northeastern United States during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS). Spatial and temporal performance of the Eta-CMAQ model for O3 was evaluated by comparison with observations from the EPA Air Quality System (AQS) network. This study also examines the ability of the model to simulate the processes governing the distributions of tropospheric O3 on the basis of the intensive datasets obtained at the four Atmospheric Investigation, Regional Modeling, Analysis, and Estimation (AIRMAP) and Harvard Forest (HF) surface sites. The episode analysis reveals that the model captured the buildup of O3 concentrations over the northeastern domain from August 11 and reproduced the spatial distributions of observed O3 very well for the daytime (8:00 p.m.) of both August 8 and 12 with most of normalized mean bias (NMB) within +/- 20%. The model reproduced 53.3% of the observed hourly O3 within a factor of 1.5 with NMB of 29.7% and normalized mean error of 46.9% at the 342 AQS sites. The comparison of modeled and observed lidar O3 vertical profiles shows that whereas the model reproduced the observed vertical structure, it tended to overestimate at higher altitude. The model reproduced 64-77% of observed NO2 photolysis rate values within a factor of 1.5 at the AIRMAP sites. At the HF site, comparison of modeled and observed O3/nitrogen oxide (NOx) ratios suggests that the site is mainly under strongly NOx-sensitive conditions (>53%). It was found that the modeled lower limits of the O3 production efficiency values (inferred from O3-CO correlation) are close to the observations. PMID:17063868

  9. Air quality forecast of PM10 in Beijing with Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling (CMAQ) system: emission and improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Xu, W.; Shi, A.; Li, Y.; Zhao, X.; Wang, Z.; Li, J.; Wang, L.

    2014-10-01

    The MM5-SMOKE-CMAQ model system, which was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) as the MODELS-3 system, has been used for daily air quality forecasts in the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center (Beijing MEMC), as a part of the Ensemble air quality Modeling forecast System for Beijing (EMS-Beijing) since the 2008 Olympic Games. According to the daily forecast results for the entire duration of 2010, the model shows good performance in the PM10 forecast on most days but clearly underestimates PM10 concentration during some air pollution episodes. A typical air pollution episode from 11-20 January 2010 was chosen, in which the observed air pollution index of particulate matter (PM10-API) reached 180 while the forecast PM10-API was about 100. In this study, three numerical methods are used for model improvement: first, by enhancing the inner domain with 3 km resolution grids, and expanding the coverage from only Beijing to an area including Beijing and its surrounding cities; second, by adding more regional point source emissions located at Baoding, Landfang and Tangshan, to the south and east of Beijing; third, by updating the area source emissions, including the regional area source emissions in Baoding and Tangshan and the local village/town-level area source emissions in Beijing. The last two methods are combined as the updated emissions method. According to the model sensitivity testing results by the CMAQ model, the updated emissions method and expanded model domain method can both improve the model performance separately. But the expanded model domain method has better ability to capture the peak values of PM10 than the updated emissions method due to better reproduction of the pollution transport process in this episode. As a result, the hindcast results ("New(CMAQ)"), which are driven by the updated emissions in the expanded model domain, show a much better model performance in the national standard station

  10. The air quality forecast of PM10 in Beijing with Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling (CMAQ) system: emission and improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Xu, W.; Shi, A.; Li, Y.; Zhao, X.; Wang, Z.; Li, J.; Wang, L.

    2014-05-01

    The MM5-SMOKE-CMAQ model system, which was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) as the Models-3 system, has been used for daily air quality forecasts in the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center (Beijing MEMC), as a part of the Ensemble Air Quality Forecast System for Beijing (EMS-Beijing) since the Olympic Games 2008. According to the daily forecast results for the entire duration of 2010, the model shows good model performances in the PM10 forecast on most days but clearly underestimates some air pollution episodes. A typical air pollution episode from 11-20 January 2010 was chosen, where the observed air pollution index of particulate matter (PM10-API) reached to 180 while the forecast's PM10-API was about 100. In this study, three numerical methods are used for model improvement: first, enhance the inner domain with 3 km resolution grids: the coverage is expanded from only Beijing to the area including Beijing and its surrounding cities; second, add more regional point source emissions located at Baoding, Landfang and Tangshan, which is to the south and east of Beijing; third, update the area source emissions, which includes the regional area source emissions in Baoding and Tangshan and the local village-town level area source emissions in Beijing. As a result, the hindcast shows a much better model performance in the national standard station-averaged PM10-API, whereas the daily hindcast PM10-API reaches 180 and is much closer to the observation and has a correlation coefficient of 0.93. The correlation coefficient of the PM10-API in all Beijing MEMC stations between the hindcast and observation is 0.82, obviously higher than the forecast's 0.54, and the FAC2 increases from 56% in the forecast to 84% in the hindcast, while the NMSE decreases from 0.886 to 0.196. The hindcast also has better model performance in PM10 hourly concentrations during the typical air pollution episode, the correlation coefficient

  11. Technology Solutions Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    A. Rudd and D. Bergey

    2015-08-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs.

  12. Further investigations of automated surface observing system (ASOS) winds used in air quality modeling applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brower, R.P.; Jones, W.B.; Sherwell, J.

    1999-07-01

    Since 1992, a significant shift in the way standard surface meteorological data are observed and collected has occurred across the country. The National Weather Service, the Federal Aviation Administration, and the Department of Defense have been deploying the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) at nearly one thousand sites. Prior to ASOS, manual observation and recordation were the norm. With the advent of ASOS, an unprecedented level of meteorological data is now available; observations of standard meteorological variables are available almost real-time at more sites. However, with ASOS, meteorological data are being gathered in a fundamentally different way. New automated instruments sample, analyze, and record meteorological observations without human intervention. Many of these meteorological observations are key inputs to predictive air quality models. Reliable estimates of plume transport and dispersion require reliable and available meteorological data. The effect of the ASOS method of data collection on the dispersion modeling community is not clear. Because the hourly data now being reported at most stations across the country are being gathered in a fundamentally different way than previously, it is prudent to examine the differences between hourly meteorological observations gathered before and after ASOS. A preliminary analysis1 of pre-ASOS and ASOS data suggested that the differences in the observations could impact the data's application to air quality models. This expanded study examines more thoroughly the differences between wind data gathered before and after ASOS implementation in order to identify potential ramifications for air quality modeling. Pre-ASOS and ASOS data, from five stations in and around Maryland that represent the diversity of urbanization and topography of the region and that have a reasonably long record of ASOS observations, are examined.

  13. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... reducing exposure to extremely high levels of particle pollution is available here . Fires: Current Conditions Click to ... Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke from fires | What You Can Do Health ...

  14. A Community-Scale Modeling System to Assess Port-Related Air Quality Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-port air pollution has been identified by numerous organizations as a potential public health concern. Based upon multiple near-road and near-source monitoring studies, both busy roadways and large emission sources at the ports may impact local air quality within several hun...

  15. Development of On-line Wildfire Emissions for the Operational Canadian Air Quality Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, R.; Menard, S.; Chen, J.; Anselmo, D.; Paul-Andre, B.; Gravel, S.; Moran, M. D.; Davignon, D.

    2013-12-01

    An emissions processing system has been developed to incorporate near-real-time emissions from wildfires and large prescribed burns into Environment Canada's real-time GEM-MACH air quality (AQ) forecast system. Since the GEM-MACH forecast domain covers Canada and most of the USA, including Alaska, fire location information is needed for both of these large countries. Near-real-time satellite data are obtained and processed separately for the two countries for organizational reasons. Fire location and fuel consumption data for Canada are provided by the Canadian Forest Service's Canadian Wild Fire Information System (CWFIS) while fire location and emissions data for the U.S. are provided by the SMARTFIRE (Satellite Mapping Automated Reanalysis Tool for Fire Incident Reconciliation) system via the on-line BlueSky Gateway. During AQ model runs, emissions from individual fire sources are injected into elevated model layers based on plume-rise calculations and then transport and chemistry calculations are performed. This 'on the fly' approach to the insertion of emissions provides greater flexibility since on-line meteorology is used and reduces computational overhead in emission pre-processing. An experimental wildfire version of GEM-MACH was run in real-time mode for the summers of 2012 and 2013. 48-hour forecasts were generated every 12 hours (at 00 and 12 UTC). Noticeable improvements in the AQ forecasts for PM2.5 were seen in numerous regions where fire activity was high. Case studies evaluating model performance for specific regions, computed objective scores, and subjective evaluations by AQ forecasters will be included in this presentation. Using the lessons learned from the last two summers, Environment Canada will continue to work towards the goal of incorporating near-real-time intermittent wildfire emissions within the operational air quality forecast system.

  16. Initial Application of the MM5-MEGAN-SMOKE-CMAQ System for Simulating Air Quality in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Souza, L. S.; Adelman, Z.; Moraes, N. O.; Da Silva, R. M.; Landau, L.; Pimentel, L. G.

    2011-12-01

    Most of the recent air quality modeling studies in Brazil have been focused on the main Metropolitan Areas (MAs) located in the south-central region of the country. Studies over Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are the most frequent and are usually focused on ozone and its precursors. Other MAs that have been the subject of air quality studies include Porto Alegre and Curitiba in the south and Belo Horizonte and Vitoria in the southeast. According to the last official figures from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE - www.ibge.gov.br), Brazil has 36 metropolitan areas with more than 250,000 inhabitants and less than 30% of them have publically-accessible air quality management programs. In this study we examine ozone and its precursors on a national level using a modeling system composed of MM5-MEGAN-SMOKE-CMAQ. The goal of this study is to identify areas with emissions and ozone concentrations that may require air quality management programs. MM5 provided hourly meteorological estimates. SMOKE was used to process global emission data from EDGAR version 3.2 for anthropogenic sources and GFED for biomass burning sources. MEGAN was used to estimate biogenic emissions. The modeling system was run on a 37x37 km grid with 32 vertical levels for august 2005 for a domain that covers all of Brazil. The model period was selected to identify air pollution over the Amazonian area during one of the most intense dry seasons of the past 40 years. Analysis was conducted on the air quality predictions over Amazonia and in the northeast of Brazil to study the influence of different inventory sectors in MAs in these regions. The global emission inventories were assimilated to provide a national emission profile that was able to reproduce important air quality trends, such as peak concentrations in Sao Paulo for almost all pollutants and high ozone for Rio de Janeiro. In northern Brazil, both emissions and ozone peaks were simulated in the region known as the "arch

  17. Episode simulation of Asian dust storms with an air quality modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Cui; Zhang, Meigen; Han, Zhiwei; Liu, Yanju

    2011-05-01

    A dust deflation module was developed and coupled with the air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ to simultaneously treat all the major tropospheric aerosols (i.e., organic and black carbons, sulfate, nitrate, ammonia, soil dust, and sea salt). Then the coupled system was applied to East Asia to simulate Asian dust aerosol generation, transport and dry/wet removal processes during 14-25 March 2002 when two strong dust storms occurred consecutively. To evaluate model performance and to analyze the observed features of dust aerosols over the East Asian region, model results were compared to concentrations of suspended particulate matter of 10 µm or less (PM10; 1-h intervals) at four remote Japanese stations and daily air pollution index (API) values for PM10 at four large Chinese cities. The modeled values were generally in good agreement with observed data, and the model reasonably reproduced two dust storm outbreaks and generally predicted the dust onset and cessation times at each observation site. In addition, hourly averaged values of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) were calculated and compared with observations at four Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations to assess the model's capability of estimating dust aerosol column burden. Analysis shows that modeled and observed AOT values were generally comparable and that the contribution of dust aerosols to AOT was significant only with regard to their source regions and their transport paths.

  18. Building America Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts, Tyler, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    ?Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy.

  19. 59 FR- Indoor Air Quality

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-09-16

    ... 5, 1994, OSHA issued a notice of proposed rulemaking addressing indoor air quality issues, including... to clarify that it is not proposing to regulate smoking or indoor air quality in private homes, and... which a final standard would preempt state and local regulation of smoking and other indoor air...

  20. Visual air quality simulation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molenar, John V.; Malm, William C.; Johnson, Christopher E.

    Visual air quality is primarily a human perceptual phenomenon beginning with the transfer of image-forming information through an illuminated, scattering and absorbing atmosphere. Visibility, especially the visual appearance of industrial emissions or the degradation of a scenic view, is the principal atmospheric characteristic through which humans perceive air pollution, and is more sensitive to changing pollution levels than any other air pollution effect. Every attempt to quantify economic costs and benefits of air pollution has indicated that good visibility is a highly valued and desired environmental condition. Measurement programs can at best approximate the state of the ambient atmosphere at a few points in a scenic vista viewed by an observer. To fully understand the visual effect of various changes in the concentration and distribution of optically important atmospheric pollutants requires the use of aerosol and radiative transfer models. Communication of the output of these models to scientists, decision makers and the public is best done by applying modern image-processing systems to generate synthetic images representing the modeled air quality conditions. This combination of modeling techniques has been under development for the past 15 yr. Initially, visual air quality simulations were limited by a lack of computational power to simplified models depicting Gaussian plumes or uniform haze conditions. Recent explosive growth in low cost, high powered computer technology has allowed the development of sophisticated aerosol and radiative transfer models that incorporate realistic terrain, multiple scattering, non-uniform illumination, varying spatial distribution, concentration and optical properties of atmospheric constituents, and relative humidity effects on aerosol scattering properties. This paper discusses these improved models and image-processing techniques in detail. Results addressing uniform and non-uniform layered haze conditions in both

  1. A regional air quality forecasting system over Europe: the MACC-II daily ensemble production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marécal, V.; Peuch, V.-H.; Andersson, C.; Andersson, S.; Arteta, J.; Beekmann, M.; Benedictow, A.; Bergström, R.; Bessagnet, B.; Cansado, A.; Chéroux, F.; Colette, A.; Coman, A.; Curier, R. L.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Drouin, A.; Elbern, H.; Emili, E.; Engelen, R. J.; Eskes, H. J.; Foret, G.; Friese, E.; Gauss, M.; Giannaros, C.; Guth, J.; Joly, M.; Jaumouillé, E.; Josse, B.; Kadygrov, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; Krajsek, K.; Kuenen, J.; Kumar, U.; Liora, N.; Lopez, E.; Malherbe, L.; Martinez, I.; Melas, D.; Meleux, F.; Menut, L.; Moinat, P.; Morales, T.; Parmentier, J.; Piacentini, A.; Plu, M.; Poupkou, A.; Queguiner, S.; Robertson, L.; Rouïl, L.; Schaap, M.; Segers, A.; Sofiev, M.; Tarasson, L.; Thomas, M.; Timmermans, R.; Valdebenito, Á.; van Velthoven, P.; van Versendaal, R.; Vira, J.; Ung, A.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes the pre-operational analysis and forecasting system developed during MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and continued in the MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate: Interim Implementation) European projects to provide air quality services for the European continent. This system is based on seven state-of-the art models developed and run in Europe (CHIMERE, EMEP, EURAD-IM, LOTOS-EUROS, MATCH, MOCAGE and SILAM). These models are used to calculate multi-model ensemble products. The paper gives an overall picture of its status at the end of MACC-II (summer 2014) and analyses the performance of the multi-model ensemble. The MACC-II system provides daily 96 h forecasts with hourly outputs of 10 chemical species/aerosols (O3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, NO, NH3, total NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds) and PAN+PAN precursors) over eight vertical levels from the surface to 5 km height. The hourly analysis at the surface is done a posteriori for the past day using a selection of representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. The performance of the system is assessed daily, weekly and every 3 months (seasonally) through statistical indicators calculated using the available representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. Results for a case study show the ability of the ensemble median to forecast regional ozone pollution events. The seasonal performances of the individual models and of the multi-model ensemble have been monitored since September 2009 for ozone, NO2 and PM10. The statistical indicators for ozone in summer 2014 show that the ensemble median gives on average the best performances compared to the seven models. There is very little degradation of the scores with the forecast day but there is a marked diurnal cycle, similarly to the individual models, that can be related partly to the prescribed diurnal variations of anthropogenic emissions in the models

  2. A regional air quality forecasting system over Europe: the MACC-II daily ensemble production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marécal, V.; Peuch, V.-H.; Andersson, C.; Andersson, S.; Arteta, J.; Beekmann, M.; Benedictow, A.; Bergström, R.; Bessagnet, B.; Cansado, A.; Chéroux, F.; Colette, A.; Coman, A.; Curier, R. L.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Drouin, A.; Elbern, H.; Emili, E.; Engelen, R. J.; Eskes, H. J.; Foret, G.; Friese, E.; Gauss, M.; Giannaros, C.; Guth, J.; Joly, M.; Jaumouillé, E.; Josse, B.; Kadygrov, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; Krajsek, K.; Kuenen, J.; Kumar, U.; Liora, N.; Lopez, E.; Malherbe, L.; Martinez, I.; Melas, D.; Meleux, F.; Menut, L.; Moinat, P.; Morales, T.; Parmentier, J.; Piacentini, A.; Plu, M.; Poupkou, A.; Queguiner, S.; Robertson, L.; Rouïl, L.; Schaap, M.; Segers, A.; Sofiev, M.; Thomas, M.; Timmermans, R.; Valdebenito, Á.; van Velthoven, P.; van Versendaal, R.; Vira, J.; Ung, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the pre-operational analysis and forecasting system developed during MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and continued in MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate: Interim Implementation) European projects to provide air quality services for the European continent. The paper gives an overall picture of its status at the end of MACC-II (summer 2014). This system is based on seven state-of-the art models developed and run in Europe (CHIMERE, EMEP, EURAD-IM, LOTOS-EUROS, MATCH, MOCAGE and SILAM). These models are used to calculate multi-model ensemble products. The MACC-II system provides daily 96 h forecasts with hourly outputs of 10 chemical species/aerosols (O3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, NO, NH3, total NMVOCs and PAN + PAN precursors) over 8 vertical levels from the surface to 5 km height. The hourly analysis at the surface is done a posteriori for the past day using a selection of representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. The performances of the system are assessed daily, weekly and 3 monthly (seasonally) through statistical indicators calculated using the available representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. Results for a case study show the ability of the median ensemble to forecast regional ozone pollution events. The time period of this case study is also used to illustrate that the median ensemble generally outperforms each of the individual models and that it is still robust even if two of the seven models are missing. The seasonal performances of the individual models and of the multi-model ensemble have been monitored since September 2009 for ozone, NO2 and PM10 and show an overall improvement over time. The change of the skills of the ensemble over the past two summers for ozone and the past two winters for PM10 are discussed in the paper. While the evolution of the ozone scores is not significant, there are improvements of PM10 over the past two winters

  3. A Low-Cost Sensing System for Cooperative Air Quality Monitoring in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Brienza, Simone; Galli, Andrea; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Air quality in urban areas is a very important topic as it closely affects the health of citizens. Recent studies highlight that the exposure to polluted air can increase the incidence of diseases and deteriorate the quality of life. Hence, it is necessary to develop tools for real-time air quality monitoring, so as to allow appropriate and timely decisions. In this paper, we present uSense, a low-cost cooperative monitoring tool that allows knowing, in real-time, the concentrations of polluting gases in various areas of the city. Specifically, users monitor the areas of their interest by deploying low-cost and low-power sensor nodes. In addition, they can share the collected data following a social networking approach. uSense has been tested through an in-field experimentation performed in different areas of a city. The obtained results are in line with those provided by the local environmental control authority and show that uSense can be profitably used for air quality monitoring. PMID:26016912

  4. A low-cost sensing system for cooperative air quality monitoring in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Brienza, Simone; Galli, Andrea; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Air quality in urban areas is a very important topic as it closely affects the health of citizens. Recent studies highlight that the exposure to polluted air can increase the incidence of diseases and deteriorate the quality of life. Hence, it is necessary to develop tools for real-time air quality monitoring, so as to allow appropriate and timely decisions. In this paper, we present uSense, a low-cost cooperative monitoring tool that allows knowing, in real-time, the concentrations of polluting gases in various areas of the city. Specifically, users monitor the areas of their interest by deploying low-cost and low-power sensor nodes. In addition, they can share the collected data following a social networking approach. uSense has been tested through an in-field experimentation performed in different areas of a city. The obtained results are in line with those provided by the local environmental control authority and show that uSense can be profitably used for air quality monitoring. PMID:26016912

  5. Field assessment of the Village Green Project: an autonomous community air quality monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wan; Hagler, Gayle S W; Williams, Ronald W; Sharpe, Robert N; Weinstock, Lewis; Rice, Joann

    2015-05-19

    Continuous, long-term, and time-resolved measurement of outdoor air pollution has been limited by logistical hurdles and resource constraints. Measuring air pollution in more places is desired to address community concerns regarding local air quality impacts related to proximate sources, to provide data in areas lacking regional air monitoring altogether, or to support environmental awareness and education. This study integrated commercially available technologies to create the Village Green Project (VGP), a durable, solar-powered air monitoring park bench that measures real-time ozone, PM2.5, and meteorological parameters. The data are wirelessly transmitted via cellular modem to a server, where automated quality checks take place before data are provided to the public nearly instantaneously. Over 5500 h of data were successfully collected during the first ten months of pilot testing in Durham, North Carolina, with about 13 days (5.5%) of downtime because of low battery power. Additional data loss (4-14% depending on the measurement) was caused by infrequent wireless communication interruptions and instrument maintenance. The 94.5% operational time via solar power was within 1.5% of engineering calculations using historical solar data for the location. The performance of the VGP was evaluated by comparing the data to nearby air monitoring stations operating federal equivalent methods (FEM), which exhibited good agreement with the nearest benchmark FEMs for hourly ozone (r(2) = 0.79) and PM2.5 (r(2) = 0.76). PMID:25905923

  6. Regional Air Quality Under Climate Change Using a Nested Global-Regional Modeling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, J.; Racherla, P.; Lynn, B.; Adams, P.; Pandis, S.

    2006-12-01

    Strong links between climate, particulate matter and ozone make it likely that climate change will have impacts on air quality. This study examines the effects that climate change will have on concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone in the Eastern US. The changes examined are between the present day and the 2050s. This is accomplished by developing the Global-Regional Climate Air Pollution Modeling System (GRE-CAPS). GRE-CAPS couples a general circulation model (GCM) / global chemical transport model (CTM), a regional meteorological model, and a regional chemical transport model. Present and future climates are simulated by the GISS-II' GCM with an embedded gas-phase and aerosol chemistry model. Meteorology generated by the GCM is downscaled to the regional modeling domain using the MM5 regional climate model. The downscaled meteorology is passed to the regional chemical transport model PMCAMx. In addition to the downscaled meteorology, chemical boundary conditions for the regional model are derived from the global model. The coupled model system is evaluated for the present day by comparing model-predicted concentrations of O3 and PM2.5 to measured concentrations during the last decade. This comparison between typical present- day measurements and model predictions is made for three modeled present-day Julys (both PM2.5 and O3) and three modeled Januaries (PM2.5). Future concentrations (using the IPCC A2 scenario) are compared to present-day concentrations. Concentrations in specific sites and statistical distributions of concentrations will be examined.

  7. The Role of Unmanned Aerial Systems-Sensors in Air Quality Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) and miniaturized sensors for a variety of scientific and security purposes has rapidly increased. UASs include aerostats (tethered balloons) and remotely controlled, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including lighter-than-air vessels, fix...

  8. Ozone-vegetation interaction in the Earth system: implications for air quality, ecosystems and agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, A. P. K.; Lombardozzi, D.; Val Martin, M.; Heald, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Surface ozone is one of the most significant air pollutants due to its damaging effects not only on human health, but also on vegetation and crop productivity. Chronic ozone exposure has been shown to reduce photosynthesis and interfere with gas exchange in plants, which in turn affect the surface energy balance, carbon sink and other biogeochemical fluxes. Ozone damage on vegetation can thus have major ramifications on climate and atmospheric composition, including possible feedbacks onto ozone itself (see figure) that are not well understood. The damage of ozone on crops has been well documented, but a mechanistic understanding is not well established. Here we present several results pertaining to ozone-vegetation interaction. Using the Community Earth System Model, we find that inclusion of ozone damage on plants reduces the global land carbon sink by up to 5%, while simulated ozone is modified by -20 to +4 ppbv depending on the relative importance of competing mechanisms in different regions. We also perform a statistical analysis of multidecadal global datasets of crop yields, agroclimatic variables and ozone exposures to characterize the spatial variability of crop sensitivity to ozone and temperature extremes, specifically accounting for the confounding effect of ozone-temperature covariation. We find that several crops exhibit stronger sensitivity to ozone than found by previous field studies, with a strong anticorrelation between the sensitivity and average ozone levels that reflects biological adaptive ozone resistance. Our results show that a more complete understanding of ozone-vegetation interaction is necessary to derive more realistic future projections of climate, air quality and agricultural production, and thereby to formulate optimal strategies to safeguard public health and food security.

  9. Satellite data driven modeling system for predicting air quality and visibility during wildfire and prescribed burn events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, U. S.; Keiser, K.; Wu, Y.; Maskey, M.; Berendes, D.; Glass, P.; Dhakal, A.; Christopher, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Alabama Forestry Commission (AFC) is responsible for wildfire control and also prescribed burn management in the state of Alabama. Visibility and air quality degradation resulting from smoke are two pieces of information that are crucial for this activity. Currently the tools available to AFC are the dispersion index available from the National Weather Service and also surface smoke concentrations. The former provides broad guidance for prescribed burning activities but does not provide specific information regarding smoke transport, areas affected and quantification of air quality and visibility degradation. While the NOAA operational air quality guidance includes surface smoke concentrations from existing fire events, it does not account for contributions from background aerosols, which are important for the southeastern region including Alabama. Also lacking is the quantification of visibility. The University of Alabama in Huntsville has developed a state-of-the-art integrated modeling system to address these concerns. This system based on the Community Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ) that ingests satellite derived smoke emissions and also assimilates NASA MODIS derived aerosol optical thickness. In addition, this operational modeling system also simulates the impact of potential prescribed burn events based on location information derived from the AFC prescribed burn permit database. A lagrangian model is used to simulate smoke plumes for the prescribed burns requests. The combined air quality and visibility degradation resulting from these smoke plumes and background aerosols is computed and the information is made available through a web based decision support system utilizing open source GIS components. This system provides information regarding intersections between highways and other critical facilities such as old age homes, hospitals and schools. The system also includes satellite detected fire locations and other satellite derived datasets

  10. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S.Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) (cover page figure) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  11. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) (cover page figure) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  12. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Englebrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program.

  13. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Caliente, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Englebrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  14. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program.

  15. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Tonopah Airport, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl, D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Tonopah Airport, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and the Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  16. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Tonopah Airport, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Tonopah Airport, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and the Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  17. APPLICATION OF THE MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTI-SCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL SYSTEM TO SOS/NASHVILLE 1999

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, first released by the USEPA in 1999 (Byun and Ching. 1999), continues to be developed and evaluated. The principal components of the CMAQ system include a comprehensive emission processor known as the Sparse Matrix O...

  18. HVAC System Automatic Controls and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Fans, motors, coils, and other control components enable a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system to function smoothly. An explanation of these control components and how they make school HVAC systems work is provided. Different systems may be compared by counting the number of controlled devices that are required. Control…

  19. New Federal Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stopinski, O. W.

    The report discusses the current procedures for establishing air quality standards, the bases for standards, and, finally, proposed and final National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, photochemical oxidants, and nitrogen dioxide. (Author/RH)

  20. Building Air Quality. Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Indoor Air Div.

    Building managers and owners often confront competing demands to reduce operating costs and increase revenues that can siphon funds and resources from other building management concerns such as indoor air quality (IAQ). This resource booklet, designed for use with the "Building Air Quality Guide," provides building owners and managers with an…

  1. ENSEMBLE and AMET: Two Systems and Approaches to a Harmonized, Simplified and Efficient Facility for Air Quality Models Development and Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The complexity of air quality modeling systems, air quality monitoring data make ad-hoc systems for model evaluation important aids to the modeling community. Among those are the ENSEMBLE system developed by the EC-Joint Research Center, and the AMET software developed by the US-...

  2. VERIFICATION OF SURFACE LAYER OZONE FORECASTS IN THE NOAA/EPA AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM IN DIFFERENT REGIONS UNDER DIFFERENT SYNOPTIC SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An air quality forecast (AQF) system has been established at NOAA/NCEP since 2003 as a collaborative effort of NOAA and EPA. The system is based on NCEP's Eta mesoscale meteorological model and EPA's CMAQ air quality model (Davidson et al, 2004). The vision behind this system is ...

  3. A novel air quality analysis and prediction system for São Paulo, Brazil to support decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshyaripour, Gholam Ali; Brasseur, Guy; Andrade, Maria Fatima; Gavidia-Calderón, Mario; Bouarar, Idir

    2016-04-01

    The extensive economic development and urbanization in southeastern Brazil (SEB) in recent decades have notably degraded the air quality with adverse impacts on human health. Since the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) accommodates the majority of the economic growth in SEB, it overwhelmingly suffers from the air pollution. Consequently, there is a strong demand for developing ever-better assessment mechanisms to monitor the air quality and to assist the decision makers to mitigate the air pollution in MASP. Here we present the results of an air quality modeling system designed for SEB with focuses on MASP. The Weather Research and Forecast model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used considering the anthropogenic, biomass-burning and biogenic emissions within a 1000×1500 km domain with resolution of 10 km. FINN and MEGAN are used for the biomass-burning and biogenic emissions, respectively. For the anthropogenic emissions we use a local bottom-up inventory for the transport sector and the HTAPv2 global inventory for all other sectors. The bottom-up inventory accounts for the traffic patterns, vehicle types and their emission factors in the area and thus could be used to evaluate the effect of changes in these parameters on air quality in MASP. The model outputs are compered to the satellite and ground-based observations for O3 and NOx. The results show that using the bottom-up or top-down inventories individually can result in a huge deviation between the predictions and observations. On the other hand, combining the inventories significantly enhances the forecast accuracy. It also provides a powerful tool to quantify the effects of traffic and vehicle emission policies on air quality in MASP.

  4. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems–Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Y.; Shepherd, T. A.; Li, H.; Xin, H.

    2015-01-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens’ activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  5. The web system for operative description of air quality in the city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, A. A.; Starchenko, A. V.; Fazliev, A. Z.

    2009-04-01

    Development and implementation of information-computational system (ICS) is described. The system is oriented on the collective usage of the calculation's facilities in order to determine the air quality on the basis of photochemical model. The ICS has been implemented on the basis of the middleware of ATMOS web-portal [1, 2]. The data and calculation layer of this ICS includes: Mathematical model of pollution transport based on transport differential equations. The model describes propagation, scattering and chemical transformation of the pollutants in the atmosphere [3]. The model may use averaged data value for city or forecast results obtained with help of the Chaser model.[4] Atmospheric boundary layer model (ABLM) [3] is used for operative numerical prediction of the meteorological parameters. These are such parameters as speed and direction of the wind, humidity and temperature of the air, which are necessary for the transport impurity model to operate. The model may use data assimilation of meteorological measurements data (including land based observations and the results of remote sensing of vertical structure of the atmosphere) or the weather forecast results obtained with help of the Semi-Lagrange model [5]. Applications for manipulation of data: An application for downloading parameters of atmospheric surface layer and remote sensing of vertical structure of the atmosphere from the web sites (http://meteo.infospace.ru and http://weather.uwyo.edu); An application for uploading these data into the ICS database; An application for transformation of the uploaded data into the internal data format of the system. At present this ICS is a part of "Climate" web site located in ATMOS portal [5]. The database is based on the data schemes providing the calculation in ICS workflow. The applications manipulated with the data are working in automatic regime. The workflow oriented on computation of physical parameters contains: The application for the calculation of

  6. Installing Portable Classrooms With Good Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Ray

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of modular classrooms and improvements made in indoor air quality, including the pros and cons of portables, challenges districts face when planning and installing portables, and cost considerations. Concluding comments highlight system costs and maintenance required. (GR)

  7. Applications of Satellite Remote Sensing Products to Enhance and Evaluate the AIRPACT Regional Air Quality Modeling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herron-Thorpe, F. L.; Mount, G. H.; Emmons, L. K.; Lamb, B. K.; Jaffe, D. A.; Wigder, N. L.; Chung, S. H.; Zhang, R.; Woelfle, M.; Vaughan, J. K.; Leung, F. T.

    2013-12-01

    The WSU AIRPACT air quality modeling system for the Pacific Northwest forecasts hourly levels of aerosols and atmospheric trace gases for use in determining potential health and ecosystem impacts by air quality managers. AIRPACT uses the WRF/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling framework, derives dynamic boundary conditions from MOZART-4 forecast simulations with assimilated MOPITT CO, and uses the BlueSky framework to derive fire emissions. A suite of surface measurements and satellite-based remote sensing data products across the AIRPACT domain are used to evaluate and improve model performance. Specific investigations include anthropogenic emissions, wildfire simulations, and the effects of long-range transport on surface ozone. In this work we synthesize results for multiple comparisons of AIRPACT with satellite products such as IASI ammonia, AIRS carbon monoxide, MODIS AOD, OMI tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide, and MISR plume height. Features and benefits of the newest version of AIRPACT's web-interface are also presented.

  8. Colorado Air Quality Control Regulations and Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver. Div. of Air Pollution Control.

    Regulations and standards relative to air quality control in Colorado are defined in this publication. Presented first are definitions of terms, a statement of intent, and general provisions applicable to all emission control regulations adopted by the Colorado Air Pollution Control Commission. Following this, three regulations are enumerated: (1)…

  9. Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Takeji

    The reduction of intake of outdoor air volume in air conditioned buildings, adopted as the strategy for saving energy, has caused sick building syndrome abroad. Such symptoms of sick building as headache, stimuli of eye and nose and lethargy, appears to result from cigarette smoke, folmaldehyde and volatile organic carbons. On the other hand, in airtight residences not only carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from domestic burning appliances but also allergens of mite, fungi, pollen and house dust, have become a subject of discussion. Moreover, asbestos and radon of carcinogen now attract a great deal of attention. Those indoor air pollutants are discussed.

  10. REVIEW OF THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS, COMPUTATIONAL ALGORITHMS, AND OTHER COMPONENTS OF THE MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODELING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article describes the governing equations, computational algorithms, and other components entering into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. This system has been designed to approach air quality as a whole by including state-of-the-science capabiliti...

  11. Application of a scenario-based modeling system to evaluate the air quality impacts of future growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahyaoğlu-Koračin, Jülide; Bassett, Scott D.; Mouat, David A.; Gertler, Alan W.

    The structure and design of future urban development can have significant adverse effects on air pollutant emissions as well as other environmental factors. When considering the future impact of growth on mobile source emissions, we generally model the increase in vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) as a function of population growth. However, diverse and poorly planned urban development (i.e., urban sprawl) can force higher rates of motor vehicle use and in return increase levels of pollutant emissions than alternative land-use scenarios. The objective of this study is to develop and implement an air quality assessment tool that takes into account the influence of alternative growth and development scenarios on air quality. The use of scenario-based techniques in land use planning has been around since the late 1940s and been tested in many different applications to aid in decision-making. In this study, we introduce the development of an advanced interactive scenario-based land use and atmospheric chemistry modeling system coupled with a GIS (Geographical Information System) framework. The modeling system is designed to be modular and includes land use/land cover information, transportation, meteorological, emissions, and photochemical modeling components. The methods and modularity of the developed system allow its application to both broad areas and applications. To investigate the impact of possible land use change and urbanization, we evaluated a set of alternative future patterns of land use developed for a study area in Southwest California. Four land use and two population variants (increases of 500k and 1M) were considered. Overall, a Regional Low-Density Future was seen to have the highest pollutant emissions, largest increase in VKT, and the greatest impact on air quality. On the other hand, a Three-Centers Future appeared to be the most beneficial alternative future land-use scenario in terms of air quality. For all cases, the increase in population was

  12. Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... is critical. Learn how to recognize and eliminate pollution sources in and around your home, on the ... especially vulnerable to the harmful effects of air pollution. Cleaning up pollution in their schools will help ...

  13. The Role of Unmanned Aerial Systems/Sensors in Air Quality Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for a variety of scientific and security purposes has rapidly increased. UASs include aerostats (tethered balloons) and remotely controlled, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including lighter-than-air vessels, fixed wing airplanes, and he...

  14. 59 FR- Indoor Air Quality

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-09-30

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Parts 1910, 1915, 1926, 1928 RIN 1218-AB37 Indoor Air.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On April 5, 1994, OSHA issued a notice of proposed rulemaking addressing indoor air quality issues, including environmental tobacco smoke in the workplace. 59 FR 15968. On June 14, 1994...

  15. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  16. Accuracy and reliability of Chile's National Air Quality Information System for measuring particulate matter: Beta attenuation monitoring issue.

    PubMed

    Toro A, Richard; Campos, Claudia; Molina, Carolina; Morales S, Raul G E; Leiva-Guzmán, Manuel A

    2015-09-01

    A critical analysis of Chile's National Air Quality Information System (NAQIS) is presented, focusing on particulate matter (PM) measurement. This paper examines the complexity, availability and reliability of monitoring station information, the implementation of control systems, the quality assurance protocols of the monitoring station data and the reliability of the measurement systems in areas highly polluted by particulate matter. From information available on the NAQIS website, it is possible to confirm that the PM2.5 (PM10) data available on the site correspond to 30.8% (69.2%) of the total information available from the monitoring stations. There is a lack of information regarding the measurement systems used to quantify air pollutants, most of the available data registers contain gaps, almost all of the information is categorized as "preliminary information" and neither standard operating procedures (operational and validation) nor assurance audits or quality control of the measurements are reported. In contrast, events that cause saturation of the monitoring detectors located in northern and southern Chile have been observed using beta attenuation monitoring. In these cases, it can only be concluded that the PM content is equal to or greater than the saturation concentration registered by the monitors and that the air quality indexes obtained from these measurements are underestimated. This occurrence has been observed in 12 (20) public and private stations where PM2.5 (PM10) is measured. The shortcomings of the NAQIS data have important repercussions for the conclusions obtained from the data and for how the data are used. However, these issues represent opportunities for improving the system to widen its use, incorporate comparison protocols between equipment, install new stations and standardize the control system and quality assurance. PMID:25796098

  17. A Humidity Control System with an Adsorption Material and Indoor Air Quality Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Yoshifumi; Ishii, Noriaki

    The present study introduces a humidity control apparatus which can hygienically and automatically maintain the appropriate humidity level of indoor air without either a water supply or drainage system. In humidification, the desiccant takes up water vapor from the outdoor air in the adsorption process, and release it indoors by desorption. Therefore, no water supply is required to humidify. An apparatus having no water supply is more hygienic, because it does not propagate bacteria and does not scatter the calcium and magnesium salts found in the water. In dehumidification, water vapor is removed from the indoor air by the desiccant and is released outdoors by desorption, eliminating the need for a drainage system. The absence of a drainage system also eliminates problems such as water leakage and installation. The performance of a system based on this new method was compared with that of conventional products, whereby the modes of dehumidification, humidification and humidification with ventilation were evaluated. In addition, the new system was tested to reveal the time-dependent charaeteristics of the concentration of indoor odor and the dust collection efficiency.

  18. CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 7: Land use information and air quality planning. [Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Reed, W. E.; Lewis, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The pilot air quality system provided data for updating information on the sources of point and area emissions of SO2 and particulate matter affecting the Norfolk-Portsmouth area of Virginia for 1971-72 winter and the annual 1972 period. During the 1971-72 winter, estimated SO2 amounts over an area with a SW-NE axis in the central section of Norfolk exceeded both primary and secondary levels.

  19. Eastern Texas Air Quality Forecasting System to Support TexAQS-II and 8-hour Ozone Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, D. W.

    2005-12-01

    The main objective of the Second Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS-II) for 2005 and 2006 is to understand emissions and processes associated with the formation and transport of ozone and regional haze in Texas. The target research area is the more populated eastern half of the state, roughly from Interstate 35 eastward. Accurate meteorological and photochemical modeling efforts are essential to support this study and further enhance modeling efforts for establishing the State Implementation Plan (SIP) by Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). An air quality forecasting (AQF) system for Eastern Texas has been developed to provide these data and to further facilitate retrospective simulations to allow for model improvement and increased understanding of ozone episodes and emissions. We perform two-day air quality forecasting simulations with the 12-km Eastern Texas regional domain, and the 4-km Houston-Galveston area (HGA) domain utilizing a 48-CPU Beowulf Linux computer system. The dynamic boundary conditions are provided by the 36-km resolution conterminous US (CONUS) domain CMAQ simulations. Initial meteorological conditions are provided by the daily ETA forecast results. The results of individual runs are stored and made available to researchers and state and local officials via internet to study the patterns of air quality and its relationship to weather conditions and emissions. The data during the pre- and post-processing stages are in tens of gigabytes and must be managed efficiently during both the actual real-time and the subsequent computation periods. The nature of these forecasts and the time at which the initial data is available necessitates that models be executed within tight deadlines. A set of complex operational scripts is used to allow automatic operation of the data download, sequencing processors, performing graphical analysis, building database archives, and presenting on the web.

  20. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  1. Urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenger, Jes

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  2. Manual on indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues.

  3. Office Building Occupant's Guide to Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... building ventilation systems; moisture and humidity; and occupant perceptions and susceptibilities. In addition, there are many other factors that affect comfort or perception of indoor air quality. Controlling indoor air quality ...

  4. Breathing Easy over Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greim, Clifton; Turner, William

    1991-01-01

    School systems should test the air in every school building for the presence and level of contaminants such as radon and asbestos and whether the ventilation system is circulating the proper amount of air. Periodic maintenance is required for all mechanical systems. (MLF)

  5. Incorporation of the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) for dust into a regional air quality modeling system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion of soil is a major concern of the agricultural community as it removes the most fertile part of the soil and thus degrades soil productivity. Furthermore, suspension of eroded soil particles results in dust emissions into the atmosphere, contributing to poor air quality, reduced visibi...

  6. High-resolution modeling and evaluation of ozone air quality of Osaka using MM5-CMAQ system.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Kundan Lal; Kondo, Akira; Kaga, Akikazu; Inoue, Yoshio

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution modeling approach is increasingly being considered as a necessary step for improving the monitoring and predictions of regional air quality. This is especially true for highly urbanized region with complex terrain and land-use. This study uses Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model coupled with MM5 mesoscale model for a comprehensive analysis to assess the suitability of such high-resolution modeling system in predicting ozone air quality in the complex terrains of Osaka, Japan. The 1-km and 3-km grid domains were nested inside a 9-km domain and the domain with 1-km grid covered the Osaka region. High-resolution Grid Point Value-Mesoscale Model (GPV-MSM) data were used after suitable validation. The simulated ozone concentrations were validated and evaluated using statistical metrics using performance criteria set for ozone. Daily maxima of ozone were found better simulated by the 1-km grid domain than the coarser 9-km and 3-km domains, with the maximum improvement in the mean absolute gross error about 3 ppbv. In addition, 1-km grid results fared better than other grids at most of the observation stations that showed noticeable differences in gross error as well as correlation. These results amply justify the use of the integrated high-resolution MMS-CMAQ modeling system in the highly urbanized region, such as the Osaka region, which has complex terrain and land-use. PMID:19803083

  7. Global Air Quality and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Horowitz, Larry W.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang; Cameron-Smith, Philip J.; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J.; Dalsoren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A.; Ginoux, Paul; Josse, Batrice; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; OConnor, Fiona M.; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Shindell, Drew Todd; Spracklen, Dominick V.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH4), ozone precursors (O3), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O3 precursor CH4 would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH4 and tropospheric O3. Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which increase tropospheric O3 (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH4 (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH4 volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O3 and CH4. Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O3 and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas the Representative

  8. Evaluation of the air quality benefits of the subway system in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cacilda Bastos Pereira da; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Amato-Lourenço, Luis Fernando; Rodrigues-Silva, Fernando; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri

    2012-06-30

    Air pollution is a severe problem in major urban areas due to increasing numbers of vehicles, reduced road capacity and few investments in public transportation, especially in developing countries. Public transportation has a special role in avoiding congestion and consequent environmental and health impacts but is considered expensive. The objective of this paper was to analyze the benefits of the São Paulo subway in terms of the air pollution in the city through strikes events, analyzing both the health outcomes and the related economic burden. For the strike events, increases in air pollutant concentrations during the strike day was observed when compared to a similar day in terms of day of the week and meteorological conditions. Increases in mortality were also observed and the associated economic burden calculated. Despite the elevated construction and operation costs of the subway, when environment and social values are considered, cost-benefit analysis results would indicate a worthwhile investment. The consideration of these aspects is essential to sustainable transportation analyses, and in the case of the São Paulo subway, our analysis clearly demonstrated the important role of this system in the city's environmental, social and economic attributes. PMID:22446073

  9. Assessment of the AMS-MINNI system capabilities to simulate air quality over Italy for the calendar year 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mircea, M.; Ciancarella, L.; Briganti, G.; Calori, G.; Cappelletti, A.; Cionni, I.; Costa, M.; Cremona, G.; D'Isidoro, M.; Finardi, S.; Pace, G.; Piersanti, A.; Righini, G.; Silibello, C.; Vitali, L.; Zanini, G.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of AMS-MINNI modelling system for the year 2005, over Italian peninsula and major islands Sicily and Sardinia, for gas-phase species ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 μm (PM10), against surface measurements from the Italian air quality database. Statistical indicators currently used in air quality models performance assessment and recommended by European Union (EU) guidelines were calculated at rural, urban and suburban background air quality monitoring stations, on purpose of understanding the model behaviour in areas not directly affected by anthropogenic pollution sources. Results show that measured O3 concentrations are generally well reproduced by the model, with the best agreement between model and observations at rural stations. Simulated PM10 annual average concentrations are generally lower than those observed but simulated and observed variabilities are comparable at urban and suburban stations. As for NO2, the model underestimates concentrations at all stations but gives similar variability to the observed one. Overall, the values of the statistical indicators comply with the acceptance criteria requested by EU legislation and are similar with those published by previous studies for the three pollutants investigated in this study. Further work will be carried out to evaluate the impact of uncertainties in input data (meteorology, emissions and boundary conditions) and in description of gaseous and aerosol chemical and physical processes on the simulated concentrations.

  10. GUIDANCE FOR THE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL AIR QUALITY MODELING SYSTEMS FOR PARTICULATE MATTER AND VISIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter (PM) and the federal regional haze regulations place some emphasis on the assessment of fine particle (PM; 5) concentrations. Current air quality models need to be improved and evaluated against observations to a...

  11. Regional/Urban Air Quality Modeling Assessment over China Using the Models-3/CMAQ System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, J. S.; Jang, C. C.; Streets, D. G.; Li, Z.; Wang, L.; Zhang, Q.; Woo, J.; Wang, B.

    2004-12-01

    simulations in the Beijing, Shanghai areas are presented with sensitivity analysis. A comparison against available ozone and PM measurement data in Beijing, Shanghai is presented. The local emission inventory improvement in China is to be suggested to investigate. The modeling configuration of the Beijing 4-km x 4-km domain is to demonstrate the development of cost-effective control strategies for the air pollution control such as 2008 Olympic Game air quality management plan.

  12. Indoor Air Quality and Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern over the quality of indoor (i.e., residential) as well as outdoor (i.e., environmental) air is increasing. Accordingly, owners of companion animals may approach their veterinarian about the potential for airborne irritants, allergens, pollutants, or infectious agents to n...

  13. 59 FR- Indoor Air Quality

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Parts 1910, 1915, 1926, and 1928 RIN 1218-AB37 Indoor Air Quality Correction In proposed rule document 94-7619 beginning on page 15968 in the issue of...

  14. Assessment of the Village Green Project - An Autonomous Community Air Quality Monitoring System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent findings on air pollution levels in communities motivate new technologies to assess air pollution at finer spatial scale. The Village Green Project (VGP) is a novel approach using commercially-available technology for long-term community environments air pollution measure...

  15. Field Assessment of the Village Green Project: An Autonomous Community Air Quality Monitoring System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent findings on air pollution levels in communities motivate new technologies to assess air pollution at finer spatial scale. The Village Green Project (VGP) is a novel approach using commercially-available technology for long-term community environments air pollution measure...

  16. Indoor air quality impacts of residential hvac systems phase II.B report: IAQ control retrofit simulations and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Emmerich, S.J.; Persily, A.K.

    1995-09-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) performed a preliminary study of the potential for using central forced-air heating and cooling system modifications to control indoor air quality (IAQ) in residential buildings. The objective of this effort was to provide insight into the use of state-of-the-art IAQ models to evaluate such modifications, the potential of these modifications to mitigate residential IAQ problems, the pollutant sources they are most likely to impact, and their potential limitations. This study was not intended to determine definitively whether the IAQ control options studied are reliable and cost-effective. The report summarizes the results on Phase II.B of this project, which consisted of three main efforts: computer simulations of contaminant levels with IAQ control retrofits, evaluation of the effectiveness of the IAQ control retrofits, and development of recommendations for future research.

  17. Commissioning to avoid indoor air quality problems

    SciTech Connect

    Sterling, E.M.; Collett, C.W. ); Turner, S. ); Downing, C.C. )

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports on indoor air quality (IAQ) which has become a pervasive problem plaguing the building industry worldwide. Poor IAQ in commercial and office buildings is primarily related to new building technology, new materials and equipment and energy management operating systems. Occupants of buildings with air quality problems suffer from a common series of symptoms. As early as 1982, ASHRAE, realizing the significance of the problem, produced an IAQ position statement that identified strategies for solving IAQ problems. Many of those strategies have now been implemented, including Standard 62-1989, Ventilation for Acceptable Air Quality; Standard 90.1, Energy Efficient Design of New Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings; the 100 series of energy standards; and Guideline 1, Guideline for Commissioning of HVAC Systems.

  18. Electronic information sharing in air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Handel, E.D.; Mitro, S.; Smith, E.C.; Tropea, L.C. Jr.; Koorse, S.J.; Cox, E.; Ahladas, J.

    1997-12-31

    The State Advisory Board on Air Pollution (SAB) was asked by the Virginia State Air Pollution Control Board to explore issues related to electronic information sharing in air quality management and to advise the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) on ways to set the scope, priority and long-term goals for electronic information sharing in air quality management.

  19. Sensitivity of the Weather Research and Forecast/Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system to MODIS LAI, FPAR, and albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Limei; Gilliam, Robert; Binkowski, Francis S.; Xiu, Aijun; Pleim, Jonathan; Band, Larry

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to improve land surface processes in a retrospective meteorology and air quality modeling system through the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation and albedo products for more realistic vegetation and surface representation. MODIS leaf area index (LAI), fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR), and albedo are incorporated into the Pleim-Xiu land surface model (PX LSM) used in a combined meteorology and air quality modeling system. The current PX LSM intentionally exaggerates vegetation coverage and LAI in western dry lands so that its soil moisture nudging scheme is more effective in simulating surface temperature and mixing ratio. Reduced vegetation coverage from the PX LSM with MODIS input results in hotter and dryer daytime conditions with reduced ozone dry deposition velocities in much of western North America. Evaluations of the new system indicate greater error and bias in temperature, but reduced error and bias in moisture with the MODIS vegetation input. Hotter daytime temperatures and reduced dry deposition result in greater ozone concentrations in the western arid regions even with deeper boundary layer depths. MODIS albedo has much less impact on the meteorology simulations than MODIS LAI and FPAR. The MODIS vegetation and albedo input does not have much influence in the east where differences in vegetation and albedo parameters are less extreme. Evaluation results showing increased temperature errors with more accurate representation of vegetation suggests that improvements are needed in the model surface physics, particularly the soil processes in the PX LSM.

  20. Megacities, air quality and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Molina, Luisa T.; Gauss, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The rapid urbanization and growing number of megacities and urban complexes requires new types of research and services that make best use of science and available technology. With an increasing number of humans now living in urban sprawls, there are urgent needs of examining what the rising number of megacities means for air pollution, local climate and the effects these changes have on global climate. Such integrated studies and services should assist cities in facing hazards such as storm surge, flooding, heat waves, and air pollution episodes, especially in changing climates. While important advances have been made, new interdisciplinary research studies are needed to increase our understanding of the interactions between emissions, air quality, and regional and global climates. Studies need to address both basic and applied research and bridge the spatial and temporal scales connecting local emissions and air pollution and local weather, global atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reviews the current status of studies of the complex interactions between climate, air quality and megacities, and identifies the main gaps in our current knowledge as well as further research needs in this important field of research.

  1. Simulation of air quality over Central-Eastern Europe - Performance evaluation of WRF-CAMx modelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewska, Katarzyna; Juda-Rezler, Katarzyna; Reizer, Magdalena

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of presented work is to evaluate the accuracy of modelling the atmospheric transport and transformation on regional scale, performed with 25 km grid spacing. The coupled Mesoscale Weather Model - Chemical Transport Model (CTM) has been applied for Europe under European-American AQMEII project (Air Quality Modelling Evaluation International Initiative - http://aqmeii.jrc.ec.europa.eu/). The modelling domain was centered over Denmark (57.00°N, 10.00°E) with 172 x 172 grid points in x and y direction. The map projection choice was Lambert conformal. In the applied modelling system the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) from ENVIRON International Corporation (Novato, California) was coupled off-line to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), developed by National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). WRF-CAMx simulations have been carried out for 2006. The anthropogenic emisions database has been provided by TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) under AQMEII initiative. Area and line emissions were proceeded by emission model EMIL (Juda-Rezler et al., 2012) [1], while for the point sources the EPS3 model (Emission Processor v.3 from ENVIRON) was implemented in order to obtain vertical distribution of emission. Boundary conditions were acquired from coupling the GEMS (Global and regional Earth-system Monitoring using Satellite and in-situ data) modelling system results with satellite observations. The modelling system has been evaluated for the area of Central-Eastern Europe, regarding ozone and particulate matter (PM) concentrations. For each pollutant measured data from rural background AirBase and EMEP stations, with more than 75% of daily data, has been used. Original 'operational' evaluation methodology, proposed by Juda-Rezler et al. (2012) was applied. Selected set of metrics consists of 5 groups: bias measures, error measures, correlation measures, measures of model variance and spread, which

  2. Indoor air quality and health in two office buildings with different ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hedge, A. ); Sterling, T.D. ); Sterling, E.M.; Collett, C.W. ); Sterling, D.A. ); Nie, V. )

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of indoor air pollutants were taken in (1) an air conditioned and (2) an adjacent, naturally ventilated office of a public sector organization. Self-administered questionnaires on the work environment and health were distributed to all workers. No differences in concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ozone, and total oxidants were found between buildings. Concentrations of formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and respirable particulates were higher in the air conditioned offices. Symptoms of sleepiness, nasal irritation, concentration difficulties, cold/flu-like symptoms, and eye focusing problems were significantly more prevalent in the air conditioned offices. In the air conditioned offices, most symptoms were significantly more prevalent among women than men. Passive smoking was associated with symptom prevalence, but alcohol, tea, and coffee consumption was unrelated. No significant correlations between pollutant concentrations and symptom prevalence were found, however, recalled reports of leaving work early because of feeling ill were significantly correlated with formaldehyde levels in the air conditioned building.

  3. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Clean Air Is Good Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarneiri, Michele A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effect of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on student health, the cost of safeguarding good IAQ, the cause of poor IAQ in schools, how to tell whether a school has an IAQ problem, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can help schools improve indoor air quality though the use of their free "Indoor Air Quality Tools for…

  4. Indoor air quality investigation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, R.E.; Williams, P.L.

    1996-10-01

    Over the past 10 to 15 years, an increasing number of complaints about discomfort and health effects related to indoor air quality (IAQ) have been reported. The increase in complaints has been accompanied by an increase in requests for IAQ investigations. This study presents an overview of the many IAQ investigation protocols published since 1984. For analysis, the protocols are divided into four categories: solution-oriented, building diagnostics, industrial hygiene, and epidemiology. In general, the protocols begin with general observations, proceed to collect more specific data as indicated, and end with conclusions and recommendations. A generic IAQ protocol is presented that incorporates the common aspects of the various protocols. All of the current protocols place heavy emphasis on the ventilation system during the investigation. A major problem affecting all of the current protocols is the lack of generally accepted IAQ standards. IN addition, the use of questionnaires, occupant interviews, and personal diaries (as well as the point in the investigation at which they are administered) differs among the protocols. Medical evaluations and verification procedures also differ among the protocols.

  5. Use of high-resolution MM5/CALMET/CALPUFF system: SO 2 apportionment to air quality in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Steve H. L.; Fung, Jimmy C. H.; Lau, Alexis K. H.

    2010-12-01

    Recent research has highlighted the substantial health-related costs of air pollution in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) and the potential threat from air pollution to HKSARs economic competitiveness. In order to address the air pollution problems, this paper seeks to analyse the individual contributions of major sulphur dioxide (SO 2) sources in the Pearl River Delta Region (PRDR) (Pearl River Delta + HKSAR) on the air quality in the HKSAR. This study employed the coupling of the MM5/CALMET system with the CALPUFF, the multi-layer, non-steady-state puff dispersion model, where major power plants, marine vessels and vehicles, all in the PRDR, are taken into account. The observation data and simulation results at 11 Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (HKEPD) general (non-road-side) stations are analyzed. Urban (in-zone) and Rural (out-zone) stations are defined in order to examine the SO 2 contribution of different emission sources in different regions of the HKSAR. The model results show that the contribution of the HKSAR marine sources is significant both in summer and in winter, especially for the locations around the in-zone stations (in general 60%, and 55% in summer and winter respectively). In addition, the contribution of the HKSAR power plants is slightly higher than that of the PRD power plants in early summer, with a contribution difference of up to 20% when the prevailing wind is from the south. However, in late summer, this situation reverses. In winter, the contribution of the PRD power plants is two to three times greater than that of the HKSAR power plants. Moreover, Yantian port affects the northern part of the HKSAR when a northeasterly wind dominates the HKSAR. In order to solve these air pollution problems, the main implication of these results suggests that the HKSAR government, in close co-operation with the Guangdong government, needs to take immediate action.

  6. The avian respiratory system: a unique model for studies of respiratory toxicosis and for monitoring air quality.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R E; Brain, J D; Wang, N

    1997-01-01

    There are many distinct differences (morphologic, physiologic, and mechanical) between the bird's lung-air-sac respiratory system and the mammalian bronchoalveolar lung. In this paper, we review the physiology of the avian respiratory system with attention to those mechanisms that may lead to significantly different results, relative to those in mammals, following exposure to toxic gases and airborne particulates. We suggest that these differences can be productively exploited to further our understanding of the basic mechanisms of inhalant toxicology (gases and particulates). The large mass-specific gas uptake by the avian respiratory system, at rest and especially during exercise, could be exploited as a sensitive monitor of air quality. Birds have much to offer in our understanding of respiratory toxicology, but that expectation can only be realized by investigating, in a wide variety of avian taxa, the pathophysiologic interactions of a broad range of inhaled toxicants on the bird's unique respiratory system. Images p188-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 5. C Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. PMID:9105794

  7. Testing an advanced satellite technique for dust detection as a decision support system for the air quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falconieri, Alfredo; Filizzola, Carolina; Femiano, Rossella; Marchese, Francesco; Sannazzaro, Filomena; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio; Di Muro, Ersilia; Divietri, Mariella; Crisci, Anna Maria; Lovallo, Michele; Mangiamele, Lucia; Vaccaro, Maria Pia; Palma, Achille

    2014-05-01

    In order to correctly apply the European directive for air quality (2008/50/CE), local Authorities are often requested to discriminate the possible origin (natural/anthropic) of anomalous concentration of pollutants in the air (art.20 Directive 2008/50/CE). In this framework, it's been focused on PM10 and PM2,5 concentrations and sources. In fact, depending on their origin, appropriate counter-measures can be taken devoted to prevent their production (e.g. by traffic restriction) or simply to reduce their impact on citizen health (e.g. information campaigns). In this context suitable satellite techniques can be used in order to identify natural sources (particularly Saharan dust, but also volcanic ash or forest fire smoke) that can be responsible of over-threshold concentration of PM10/2,5 in populated areas. In the framework of the NIBS (Networking and Internationalization of Basilicata Space Technologies) project, funded by the Basilicata Region within the ERDF 2007-2013 program, the School of Engineering of University of Basilicata, the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis of National Research Council (IMAA-CNR) and the Regional Agency for the Protection of the Environment of Basilicata Region (ARPAB) have started a collaboration devoted to assess the potential of the use of advanced satellite techniques for Saharan dust events identification to support ARPAB activities related to the application of the European directive for air quality (2008/50/CE) in Basilicata region. In such a joint activity, the Robust Satellite Technique (RST) approach has been assessed and tested as a decision support system for monitoring and evaluating air quality at local and regional level. In particular, RST-DUST products, derived by processing high temporal resolution data provided by SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) sensor on board Meteosat Second Generation platforms, have been analysed together with PM10 measurements performed by the ground

  8. SPATIAL PREDICTION OF AIR QUALITY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site-specific air quality monitoring data have been used extensively in both scientific and regulatory programs. As such, these data provide essential information to the public, environmental managers, and the atmospheric research community. Currently, air quality management prac...

  9. High resolution operational air quality forecast for Poland and Central Europe with the GEM-AQ model - EcoForecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Jacek W.; Struzewska, Joanna

    2013-04-01

    The air quality forecast is an important component of the environmental assessment system. The "Clean Air for Europe" (CAFE) Directive 2008/50/EC stipulates a need for numerical modelling in order to support public information services to interpret measurements of pollutants concentrations and to prepare and evaluate air quality plans. Most European countries have developed model-based air quality modelling and information services. We will present the design strategy, development and implementation of a regional high resolution forecasting system that was implemented in Poland. The new national high resolution air quality forecasting system has evolved from a semi-operational chemical weather system EcoForecast.EU which is based on the GEM-AQ model (Kaminski et al., 2008). GEM-AQ is a comprehensive chemical weather model where air quality processes (chemistry and aerosols), troposphere and stratospheric chemistry are implemented on-line in the operational weather prediction model, the Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model (Cote et al, 1998), developed at Environment Canada. For these applications, the model is run on a global variable resolution grid with horizontal spacing of 15 km over Europe. In the vertical there are 28 hybrid levels, with the top at 10 hPa. A high resolution nested forecast at 5 km resolution over Poland (and surrounding countries) was implemented in December 2012. The forecast is published once a day at www.EcoForecast.EU. The air quality forecast is presented for ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, PM10 and PM2.5 as maps of daily maxima and daily averages. We will present results from the on-going model evaluation study over Central Europe (2010-2012). Modelling results were evaluated and compared with available observation of ozone and primary pollutants from air quality monitoring stations and from meteorological synoptic stations. Ozone exposure indices, as defined in the CAFE Directive, will be shown for the

  10. An air quality management system as a tool for establishing a SO 2- and NOx-policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovenkerk, M.; Builtjes, P. J. H.; Zwerver, S.

    A description is given of the development and use of an Air Quality Management System (AQMS) directed to the support of policy decisions made with respect to the conservation and improvement of clean air in the Netherlands. The AQMS consists of three separate modules oriented to economy, transmission and impact assessment. Application of the AQMS to SO 2 has led to the construction of an environmental decision scheme, in which maximum acceptable emission levels are given as a function of the primary and secondary SO 2-air quality standard, the S import-export balance and acidification. Together with information on the socio-economic impacts and the energy options this formed the basis for the political decision to limit future SO 2-emissions in the Netherlands to a value not higher than 500 × 10 6 kg y -1, in fact to establish a ceiling value for the emissions of SO 2. For NOx the AQMS is still under development, so at the moment it is not possible to formulate a complete NOx-environmental decision scheme. Up till now the emphasis has been on the development of the transmission module of the AQMS for NOx, i.e. the impact of domestic and foreign emissions. The results of this module are presented in the paper. The (partly preliminary) results of the AQMS-calculations point out the importance of long-range transport of NOx and photochemical precursors and products for the countrywide NO 2-pattern. The results emphasize the need for the abatement of NOx [and especially hydrocarbons (HC)] on a European scale. Also abatement of automobile exhaust is needed in order to prevent violation of the NO 2-standard at sites with high circulation of traffic.

  11. Indoor air quality and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.

    During the last two decades there has been increasing concern within the scientific community over the effects of indoor air quality on health. Changes in building design devised to improve energy efficiency have meant that modern homes and offices are frequently more airtight than older structures. Furthermore, advances in construction technology have caused a much greater use of synthetic building materials. Whilst these improvements have led to more comfortable buildings with lower running costs, they also provide indoor environments in which contaminants are readily produced and may build up to much higher concentrations than are found outside. This article reviews our current understanding of the relationship between indoor air pollution and health. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a range of sources. The health impacts from indoor exposure to combustion products from heating, cooking, and the smoking of tobacco are examined. Also discussed are the symptoms associated with pollutants emitted from building materials. Of particular importance might be substances known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which arise from sources including paints, varnishes, solvents, and preservatives. Furthermore, if the structure of a building begins to deteriorate, exposure to asbestos may be an important risk factor for the chronic respiratory disease mesothelioma. The health effects of inhaled biological particles can be significant, as a large variety of biological materials are present in indoor environments. Their role in inducing illness through immune mechanisms, infectious processes, and direct toxicity is considered. Outdoor sources can be the main contributors to indoor concentrations of some contaminants. Of particular significance is Radon, the radioactive gas that arises from outside, yet only presents a serious health risk when found inside buildings. Radon and its decay products are now recognised as important indoor pollutants, and their effects are

  12. Indoor Air Quality in Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Steve M.

    This paper presents air quality and ventilation data from an existing chemical laboratory facility and discusses the work practice changes implemented in response to deficiencies in ventilation. General methods for improving air quality in existing laboratories are presented and investigation techniques for characterizing air quality are…

  13. 59 FR- Indoor Air Quality; Proposed Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-06-14

    ... hearing on the proposed rule on indoor air quality which was published on April 5, 1994 (59 FR 15968). The... published a notice of proposed rulemaking on indoor air quality (59 FR 15968 et seq.). The proposal covered a broad range of issues falling into two major categories: (1) General indoor air quality...

  14. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  15. Improvements to the WRF-CMAQ modeling system for fine-scale air quality simulations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite significant reductions in atmospheric pollutants such as ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) over the past several decades, air pollution continues to pose a threat to the health of humans and sensitive ecosystems. A number of areas across...

  16. Ground cloud air quality effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brubaker, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of the ground cloud associated with launching of a large rocket on air quality are discussed. The ground cloud consists of the exhaust emitted by the rocket during the first 15 to 25 seconds following ignition and liftoff, together with a large quantity of entrained air, cooling water, dust and other debris. Immediately after formation, the ground cloud rises in the air due to the buoyant effect of its high thermal energy content. Eventually, at an altitude typically between 0.7 and 3 km, the cloud stabilizes and is carried along by the prevailing wind at that altitude. For the use of heavy lift launch vehicles small quantities of nitrogen oxides, primarily nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, are expected to be produced from a molecular nitrogen impurity in the fuel or liquid oxygen, or from entrainment and heating of ambient air in the hot rocket exhaust. In addition, possible impurities such as sulfur in the fuel would give rise to a corresponding amount of oxidation products such as sulfur dioxide.

  17. C-PORT: A Community-Scale Near-Source Air Quality System to Assess Port-Related Air Quality Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    With increasing activity in global trade, there has been increased activity in transportation by rail, road and ships to move cargo. Based upon multiple near-road and near-source monitoring studies, both busy roadways and large emission source at the ports may impact local air qu...

  18. ADAPTATION AND APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODELING SYSTEM FOR REAL-TIME AIR QUALITY FORECASTING DURING THE SUMMER OF 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to forecast local and regional air pollution events is challenging since the processes governing the production and sustenance of atmospheric pollutants are complex and often non-linear. Comprehensive atmospheric models, by representing in as much detail as possible t...

  19. Air Quality in Alternative Housing Systems May Have an Impact on Laying Hen Welfare. Part I—Dust

    PubMed Central

    David, Bruce; Oppermann Moe, Randi; Michel, Virginie; Lund, Vonne; Mejdell, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    The new legislation for laying hens in the European Union put a ban on conventional cages. Production systems must now provide the hens with access to a nest, a perch, and material for dust bathing. These requirements will improve the behavioral aspects of animal welfare. However, when hens are kept with access to litter, it is a concern that polluted air may become an increased threat to health and therefore also a welfare problem. This article reviews the literature regarding the health and welfare effects birds experience when exposed to barn dust. Dust is composed of inorganic and organic compounds, from the birds themselves as well as from feed, litter, and building materials. Dust may be a vector for microorganisms and toxins. In general, studies indicate that housing systems where laying hens have access to litter as aviaries and floor systems consistently have higher concentrations of suspended dust than caged hens with little (furnished cages) or no access to litter (conventional cages). The higher dust levels in aviaries and floor housing are also caused by increased bird activity in the non-cage systems. There are gaps in both the basic and applied knowledge of how birds react to dust and aerosol contaminants, i.e., what levels they find aversive and/or impair health. Nevertheless, high dust levels may compromise the health and welfare of both birds and their caretakers and the poor air quality often found in new poultry housing systems needs to be addressed. It is necessary to develop prophylactic measures and to refine the production systems in order to achieve the full welfare benefits of the cage ban. PMID:26479370

  20. Photochemical plume-in-grid simulations of major point sources in the community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) modeling system

    SciTech Connect

    Godowitch, J.M.; Gillani, N.V.; Biazar, A.; Wu, Y.; Imhoff, R.E.

    1998-12-31

    A cooperative research and development effort has been conducted to design and implement a plume-in-grid (PinG) modeling techniques into the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system in order to address the need for an improved modeling approach to treat major point source emissions. Objectives are to provide an improved characterization of the near-source concentration field and a better far-field regional pollutant pattern due to the impact of the plume-in-grid approach. The conceptual design and an overview of the science processes contained in the PDM in PinG algorithms are briefly presented. Test simulations with and without the PinG treatment for a major NO{sub x} point source are described, and an O{sub 3} concentration pattern from the grid model reveals the impact of the plume-in-grid approach. Subgrid scale plume cell O{sub 3} concentrations are also shown.

  1. The evaluation of the air quality impact of an incinerator by using MM5-CMAQ-EMIMO modeling system: North of Spain case study.

    PubMed

    San José, R; Pérez, J L; González, R M

    2008-07-01

    The use of sophisticated air pollution modeling systems to evaluate the impact of different industrial plant emissions is currently done in an extensive way. MM5-CMAQ (PSU/NCAR and EPA, USA) is one of the most applicable air quality modeling systems to evaluate those impacts. In this contribution we present the methodology and results obtained when applying the MM5-CMAQ air quality modeling system for evaluating the potential impact of an incinerator in San Sebastián (Basque Country, Spain). We have used the EMIMO (UPM, Spain) emission model to simulate the emissions from biogenic and anthropogenic sources including traffic and tertiary sector sources. The study includes the air quality impact of a highway located near the incinerator named A8 and 6 industrial plants which already exist. The impact study has been compared with the results obtained from this highway impact and the 6 industrial plants which are normally operating during the last 30 years. The system has been prepared to simulate also Cadmium, Arsenic, Nickel, Lead and Benzo(a)pyrene air quality impacts. The PCDD/F air concentrations have been determined for the 16 toxic dioxins and furans as determined in the bibliography. The criteria pollutants such as CO, NOx, SO(2), PM(10) and O(3) have also been determined according to the different EU Directives which limit the values of such a pollutants for different periods of time. PMID:18436306

  2. Association between air quality and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Darçın, Murat

    2014-02-01

    Air quality-or its converse, air pollution-is a significant risk factor for human health. Recent studies have reported association between air pollution and human health. There are numerous diseases that may be caused by air pollution such as respiratory infection, lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. In this study, the relationship between air quality and quality of life was examined by using canonical correlation analysis. Data of this study was collected from 27 countries. WHO statistics were used as the main source of quality of life data set (Y variables set). European Environment Agency statistics and (for outdoor air-PM10) WHO statistics were used as the main source of air quality data set (X variables set). It is found that there are significant positive correlation between air quality and quality of life. PMID:24014226

  3. Meteorological determinants of air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turoldo, F.; Del Frate, S.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Montanari, F.; Stel, F.; Goi, D.

    2010-09-01

    Air quality is the result of complex phenomena, among which the major role is played by human emissions of pollutants. Atmospheric processes act as determinants, e.g., modulating, dumping or amplifying the effects of emissions as an orchestra's director does with musical instruments. In this work, a series of small-scale and meso-scale meteorological determinants of air-quality are presented as they are observed in an area characterized by complex orography (Friuli Venezia Giulia, in the north-eastern side of Italy). In particular, attention is devoted to: i) meso-scale flows favouring the persistence of high concentrations of particulate matter; ii) meso-scale periodic flows (breezes) favouring high values of particulate matter; iii) local-scale thermodynamic behaviour favouring high atmospheric values of nitrogen oxides. The effects of these different classes of determinants are shown through comparisons between anthropic emissions (mainly traffic) and ground-based measurements. The relevance of complex orography (relatively steep relieves near to the sea) is shown for the meso-scale flows and, in particular, for local-scale periodic flows, which favour the increase of high pollutants concentrations mainly in summer, when the breezes regime is particularly relevant. Part of these results have been achieved through the ETS - Alpine Space EU project iMONITRAF!

  4. Comparison of the impact of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 and a cigarette on indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Mitova, Maya I; Campelos, Pedro B; Goujon-Ginglinger, Catherine G; Maeder, Serge; Mottier, Nicolas; Rouget, Emmanuel G R; Tharin, Manuel; Tricker, Anthony R

    2016-10-01

    The impact of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS 2.2) on indoor air quality was evaluated in an environmentally controlled room using ventilation conditions recommended for simulating "Office", "Residential" and "Hospitality" environments and was compared with smoking a lit-end cigarette (Marlboro Gold) under identical experimental conditions. The concentrations of eighteen indoor air constituents (respirable suspended particles (RSP) < 2.5 μm in diameter), ultraviolet particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), solanesol, 3-ethenylpyridine, nicotine, 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, isoprene, toluene, acetaldehyde, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, and combined oxides of nitrogen) were measured. In simulations evaluating THS 2.2, the concentrations of most studied analytes did not exceed the background concentrations determined when non-smoking panelists were present in the environmentally controlled room under equivalent conditions. Only acetaldehyde and nicotine concentrations were increased above background concentrations in the "Office" (3.65 and 1.10 μg/m(3)), "Residential" (5.09 and 1.81 μg/m(3)) and "Hospitality" (1.40 and 0.66 μg/m(3)) simulations, respectively. Smoking Marlboro Gold resulted in greater increases in the concentrations of acetaldehyde (58.8, 83.8 and 33.1 μg/m(3)) and nicotine (34.7, 29.1 and 34.6 μg/m(3)) as well as all other measured indoor air constituents in the "Office", "Residential" and "Hospitality" simulations, respectively. PMID:27311683

  5. Annual emissions and air-quality impacts of an urban area district-heating system: Boston case study

    SciTech Connect

    Bernow, S.S.; McAnulty, D.R.; Buchsbaum, S.; Levine, E.

    1980-02-01

    A district-heating system, based on thermal energy from power plants retrofitted to operate in the cogeneration mode, is expected to improve local air quality. This possibility has been examined by comparing the emissions of five major atmospheric pollutants, i.e., particulates, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, from the existing heating and electric system in the City of Boston with those from a proposed district heating system. Detailed, spatial distribution of existing heating load and fuel mix is developed to specify emissions associated with existing heating systems. Actual electric-power-plant parameters and generation for the base year are specified. Additional plant fuel consumption and emissions resulting from cogeneration operation have been estimated. Six alternative fuel-emissions-control scenarios are considered. The average annual ground-level concentrations of sulfur oxides are calculated using a modified form of the EPA's Climatological Dispersion Model. This report describes the methodology, the results and their implications, and the areas for extended investigation. The initial results confirm expectations. Average sulfur oxides concentrations at various points within and near the city drop by up to 85% in the existing fuels scenarios and by 95% in scenarios in which different fuels and more-stringent emissions controls at the plants are used. These reductions are relative to concentrations caused by fuel combustion for heating and large commercial and industrial process uses within the city and Boston Edison Co. electric generation.

  6. Monitoring Air Quality from Space using AURA Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, James F.; Chance, Kelly V.; Fishman, Jack; Torres, Omar; Veefkind, Pepijn

    2003-01-01

    Measurements from the Earth Observing System (EOS) AURA mission will provide a unique perspective on air quality monitoring. Ozone, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and aerosols from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and carbon monoxide from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) will be simultaneously measured with the spatial resolution and coverage needed for improving our understanding of air quality. AURA data products useful for air quality monitoring will be given.

  7. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where persons work or travel, except as...

  8. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where persons work or travel, except as...

  9. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

  10. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas...

  11. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... been implemented by regulation, 40 CFR 93, Subpart B. All EIAP documents must address applicable... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air...

  12. EPA Pushing Improved Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how, in response to the growing problem of poor air quality in schools, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set new voluntary air-quality guidelines for schools. Addresses common air-related irritants; successful efforts at Guerrero Elementary School in Mesa, Arizona; preventive maintenance; and a sample of the EPA's…

  13. TESTING PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY SENSITIVITIES IN THE U.S. EPA COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY MODELING SYSTEM (CMAQ)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Uncertainties in key elements of emissions and meteorology inputs to air quality models (AQMs) can range from 50 to 100% with some areas of emissions uncertainty even higher (Russell and Dennis, 2000). Uncertainties in the chemical mechanisms are thought to be smaller (Russell an...

  14. The atmospheric composition geostationary satellite constellation for air quality and climate science: Evaluating performance with Observation System Simulation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, D. P.; Barre, J.; Worden, H. M.; Arellano, A. F.; Gaubert, B.; Anderson, J. L.; Mizzi, A. P.; Lahoz, W. A.

    2014-12-01

    Current satellite observations of tropospheric composition made from low Earth orbit provide at best one or two measurements each day at any given location. Coverage is global but sparse, often with large uncertainties in individual measurements that limit examination of local and regional atmospheric composition over short time periods. This has hindered the operational uptake of these data for monitoring air quality and population exposure, and for initializing and evaluating chemical weather forecasts. By the end of the current decade there are planned geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellite missions for atmospheric composition over North America, East Asia and Europe with additional missions proposed. Together, these present the possibility of a constellation of GEO platforms to achieve continuous time-resolved high-density observations of continental domains for mapping pollutant sources and variability on diurnal and local scales. We describe Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) to evaluate the contributions of these GEO missions to improve knowledge of near-surface air pollution due to intercontinental long-range transport and quantify chemical precursor emissions. We discuss the requirements on measurement simulation, chemical transport modeling, and data assimilation for a successful OSSE infrastructure. Our approach uses an efficient computational method to sample a high-resolution global GEOS-5 chemistry Nature Run over each geographical region of the GEO constellation. The demonstration carbon monoxide (CO) observation simulator, which is being expanded to other chemical pollutants, currently produces multispectral retrievals and captures realistic scene-dependent variation in measurement vertical sensitivity and cloud cover. We use the DART Ensemble Adjustment Kalman Filter to assimilate the simulated observations in a CAM-Chem global chemistry-climate model Control Run. The impact of observing over each region is evaluated using data

  15. Enabling Mobile Air Quality App Development with an AirNow API

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dye, T.; White, J. E.; Ludewig, S. A.; Dickerson, P.; Healy, A. N.; West, J. W.; Prince, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program works with over 130 participating state, local, and federal air quality agencies to obtain, quality control, and store real-time air quality observations and forecasts. From these data, the AirNow system generates thousands of maps and products each hour. Each day, information from AirNow is published online and in other media to assist the public in making health-based decisions related to air quality. However, an increasing number of people use mobile devices as their primary tool for obtaining information, and AirNow has responded to this trend by publishing an easy-to-use Web API that is useful for mobile app developers. This presentation will describe the various features of the AirNow application programming interface (API), including Representational State Transfer (REST)-type web services, file outputs, and RSS feeds. In addition, a web portal for the AirNow API will be shown, including documentation on use of the system, a query tool for configuring and running web services, and general information about the air quality data and forecasts available. Data published via the AirNow API includes corresponding Air Quality Index (AQI) levels for each pollutant. We will highlight examples of mobile apps that are using the AirNow API to provide location-based, real-time air quality information. Examples will include mobile apps developed for Minnesota ('Minnesota Air') and Washington, D.C. ('Clean Air Partners Air Quality'), and an app developed by EPA ('EPA AirNow').

  16. EPA THIRD-GENERATION AIR QUALITY MODELING SYSTEM - VOLUME 1: CONCEPT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A flexible environmental modeling and decision support system is being developed by the Office of Research and Development as part of EPA's High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) program. his report is Volume 1 of a multiple volume sat describing the development pro...

  17. MODEL ENGINEERING CONCEPTS FOR AIR QUALITY MODELS IN AN INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL MODELING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Models 3 is an extensible environmental modeling system designed to meet the research and regulatory needs of the EPA and other users into the twenty-first century. s such, it must deal with a number of problems. hese problems include (1) the scientific correctness, flexibility, ...

  18. Development and application of a high resolution hybrid modelling system for the evaluation of urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, N.; Pirovano, G.; Lonati, G.; Balzarini, A.; Toppetti, A.; Riva, G. M.; Bedogni, M.

    2016-09-01

    A hybrid modelling system (HMS) was developed to provide hourly concentrations at the urban local scale. The system is based on the combination of a meteorological model (WRF), a chemical and transport eulerian model (CAMx), which computes concentration levels over the regional domains, and a lagrangian dispersion model (AUSTAL2000), accounting for dispersion phenomena within the urban area due to local emission sources; a source apportionment algorithm is also included in the HMS in order to avoid the double counting of local emissions. The HMS was applied over a set of nested domains, the innermost covering a 1.6 × 1.6 km2 area in Milan city center with 20 m grid resolution, for NOX simulation in 2010. For this paper the innermost domain was defined as "local", excluding usual definition of urban areas. WRF model captured the overall evolution of the main meteorological features, except for some very stagnant situations, thus influencing the subsequent performance of regional scale model CAMx. Indeed, CAMx was able to reproduce the spatial and temporal evolution of NOX concentration over the regional domain, except a few episodes, when observed concentrations were higher than 100 ppb. The local scale model AUSTAL2000 provided high-resolution concentration fields that sensibly mirrored the road and traffic pattern in the urban domain. Therefore, the first important outcome of the work is that the application of the hybrid modelling system allowed a thorough and consistent description of urban air quality. This result represents a relevant starting point for future evaluation of pollution exposure within an urban context. However, the overall performance of the HMS did not provide remarkable improvements with respect to stand-alone CAMx at the two only monitoring sites in Milan city center. HMS results were characterized by a smaller average bias, that improved about 6-8 ppb corresponding to 12-13% of the observed concentration, but by a lower correlation, that

  19. Discontinuous and Continuous Indoor Air Quality Monitoring in Homes with Fireplaces or Wood Stoves as Heating System

    PubMed Central

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Dambruoso, Paolo Rosario; Di Gilio, Alessia; Di Palma, Valerio; Marzocca, Annalisa; Tutino, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Around 50% of the world’s population, particularly in developing countries, uses biomass as one of the most common fuels. Biomass combustion releases a considerable amount of various incomplete combustion products, including particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The paper presents the results of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) measurements in six houses equipped with wood burning stoves or fireplaces as heating systems. The houses were monitored for 48-h periods in order to collect PM10 samples and measure PAH concentrations. The average, the maximum and the lowest values of the 12-h PM10 concentration were 68.6 μg/m3, 350.7 μg/m3 and 16.8 μg/m3 respectively. The average benzo[a]pyrene 12-h concentration was 9.4 ng/m3, while the maximum and the minimum values were 24.0 ng/m3 and 1.5 ng/m3, respectively. Continuous monitoring of PM10, PAHs, Ultra Fine Particle (UFP) and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) was performed in order to study the progress of pollution phenomena due to biomass burning, their trends and contributions to IAQ. The results show a great heterogeneity of impacts on IAQ in terms of magnitude and behavior of the considered pollutants’ concentrations. This variability is determined by not only different combustion technologies or biomass quality, but overall by different ignition mode, feeding and flame management, which can also be different for the same house. Moreover, room dimensions and ventilation were significant factors for pollution dispersion. The increase of PM10, UFP and PAH concentrations, during lighting, was always detected and relevant. Continuous monitoring allowed singling out contributions of other domestic sources of considered pollutants such as cooking and cigarettes. Cooking contribution produced an impact on IAQ in same cases higher than that of the biomass heating system. PMID:26712773

  20. Air Sampling System for use in monitoring viable and non-viable particulate air quality under dynamic operating conditions of blow/fill/seal processing.

    PubMed

    Probert, Steve; Sinclair, Colin S; Tallentire, Alan

    2002-01-01

    An Air Sampling Link (ASL), employed in conjunction with an Air Sampling Device (ASD) or a laser particle counter, has been developed for sampling flowing air for viable and non-viable particulate analyses. Typically, the ASL could be used to sample filtered air supplied to an air shower of a Blow/Fill/Seal machine operating in the dynamic state. The ASL allows sample volumes of air to be taken from flowing air without significant loss from the sample flow of airborne particles possessing aerodynamic sizes relevant to those found in practice. The link has no moving parts, is steam sterilizable in-situ, and allows for the taking of continuous samples of air without the need for intervention into the 'critical zone' of the filling machine. This article describes (i) the design criteria for the ASL and the ASD, (ii) the rationale underlying the concept of the ASL design, (iii) the collection performance of the ASL against that of a conventional sampling arrangement, and (iv) a functionality assessment of the ASL-based sampling system installed on a Rommelag style 305 B/F/S machine over a seven week period. PMID:12404722

  1. Urban Air Quality Forecasting in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Menard, Sylvain; Cousineau, Sophie; Stroud, Craig; Moran, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Environment and Climate Change Canada has been providing air quality (AQ) forecasts for major Canadian urban centers since 2001. Over this period, the Canadian AQ Forecast Program has expanded and evolved. It currently uses the Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS) modelling framework. At the heart of the RAQDPS is the GEM-MACH model, an on-line coupled meteorology‒chemistry model configured for a North American domain with 10 km horizontal grid spacing and 80 vertical levels. A statistical post-processing model (UMOS-AQ) is then applied to the RAQDPS hourly forecasts for locations with AQ monitors to reduce point forecast bias and error. These outputs provide the primary guidance from which operational meteorologists disseminate Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) forecasts to the public for major urban centres across Canada. During the 2015 summer Pan Am and Parapan Am Games, which were held in Ontario, Canada, an experimental version of the RAQDPS at 2.5 km horizontal grid spacing was run for a domain over the greater Toronto area. Currently, there is ongoing research to develop and assess AQ systems run at 1 km resolution. This presentation will show analyses of operational AQ forecast performance for several pollutants over the last few years in major Canadian urban centres such as Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, and Calgary. Trends in observed pollution along with short- and long-term development plans for urban AQ forecasting will also be presented.

  2. The Economic Value of Air Quality Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson-Sumo, Tasha

    Both long-term and daily air quality forecasts provide an essential component to human health and impact costs. According the American Lung Association, the estimated current annual cost of air pollution related illness in the United States, adjusted for inflation (3% per year), is approximately $152 billion. Many of the risks such as hospital visits and morality are associated with poor air quality days (where the Air Quality Index is greater than 100). Groups such as sensitive groups become more susceptible to the resulting conditions and more accurate forecasts would help to take more appropriate precautions. This research focuses on evaluating the utility of air quality forecasting in terms of its potential impacts by building on air quality forecasting and economical metrics. Our analysis includes data collected during the summertime ozone seasons between 2010 and 2012 from air quality models for the Washington, DC/Baltimore, MD region. The metrics that are relevant to our analysis include: (1) The number of times that a high ozone or particulate matter (PM) episode is correctly forecasted, (2) the number of times that high ozone or PM episode is forecasted when it does not occur and (3) the number of times when the air quality forecast predicts a cleaner air episode when the air was observed to have high ozone or PM. Our collection of data included available air quality model forecasts of ozone and particulate matter data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s AIRNOW as well as observational data of ozone and particulate matter from Clean Air Partners. We evaluated the performance of the air quality forecasts with that of the observational data and found that the forecast models perform well for the Baltimore/Washington region and the time interval observed. We estimate the potential amount for the Baltimore/Washington region accrues to a savings of up to 5,905 lives and 5.9 billion dollars per year. This total assumes perfect compliance with

  3. Contribution of Saharan dust in an integrated air quality system and its on-line assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Pérez, Carlos; Jorba, Oriol; Baldasano, José M.

    2008-02-01

    Nowadays none of the operational daily forecasts in Europe includes the influence of Saharan dust on a non-climatic basis. In order to account for this, the BSC-CNS currently operates daily photochemical forecasts in the Iberian Peninsula with MM5-EMEP-CMAQ modelling system and Saharan dust forecasts over Southern Europe with Eta/DREAM. The necessity of coupling both modelling systems is addressed by the study of a long summer episode combining regional re-circulations and Saharan dust covering from June 19 to July 12, 2006. As a first approach, the natural dust contribution from Eta/DREAM is added on-line to the anthropogenic output of CMAQ. The performance of the model has been quantitatively evaluated with discrete and categorical (skill scores) statistics by a fully operational on-line comparison of the first-layer simulations results of CMAQ and CMAQ+DREAM and the values measured in two different stations located in the Mediterranean part of the domain. The results indicate a remarkable improvement in the discrete and skill-scores evaluation (accuracy, critical success index and probability of detection) of PM10 exceedances set in regulations when using CMAQ+DREAM compared to CMAQ- or DREAM-alone simulations.

  4. Land use information and air quality planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Wallace E.; Lewis, John E.

    1975-01-01

    The pilot national land use information system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site project has provided an improved technique for estimating emissions, diffusion, and impact patterns of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter. Implementation of plans to control air quality requires land use information, which, until this time, has been inadequate. The pilot system, however, provided data for updating information on the sources of point and area emissions of SO2 and particulate matter affecting the Norfolk-Portsmouth area of Virginia for the 1971-72 winter (Dec.-Jan.-Feb.) and the annual 1972 period, and for a future annual period 1985. This emission information is used as input to the Air Quality Display Model of the Environmental Protection Agency to obtain diffusion and impact patterns for the three periods previously mentioned. The results are: (1) During the 1971-72 winter, estimated S02 amounts over an area with a SW-NE axis in the central section of Norfolk exceeded both primary and secondary levels; (2) future annual levels of SO2, estimated by anticipated residential development and point-source changes, are not expected to cause serious deterioration of the region's present air quality; and (3) for the 1971-72 winter and annual 1972 period the diffusion results showed that both primary and secondary standards for particulate matter are regularly exceeded in central Norfolk and Portsmouth. In addition, on the basis of current control programs, the 1985 levels of particulate matter are expected to exceed the presently established secondary air quality standards through central Norfolk and Portsmouth and in certain areas of Virginia Beach.

  5. Lichen recolonization following air quality improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Showman, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Air quality improvement near a coal-fired power plant led to recolonization of Parmelia caperata (L.) Ach. in a pollution-induced void area. Recolonization was first observed about four years after pollution abatement. Least-affected sites were slowest to recover. After eight years of improved air quality, the distribution of P. caperata has returned to near normal. Lichen biomonitoring is useful not only to detect the effects of poor air quality but to document air quality improvements as well. 5 references, 4 figures.

  6. Cold air systems: Sleeping giant

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, C.D. )

    1994-04-01

    This article describes how cold air systems help owners increase the profits from their buildings by reducing electric costs and improving indoor air quality through lower relative humidity levels. Cold air distribution involves energy savings, cost savings, space savings, greater comfort, cleaner air, thermal storage, tighter ducting, coil redesign, lower relative humidities, retrofitting, and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). It opens a door for architects, engineers, owners, builders, environmentalists, retrofitters, designers, occupants, and manufacturers. Three things have held up cold air's usage: multiple fan-powered boxes that ate up the energy savings of primary fans. Cold air room diffusers that provided inadequate comfort. Condensation from ducts, boxes, and diffusers. Such problems have been largely eliminated through research and development by utilities and manufacturers. New cold air diffusers no longer need fan powered boxes. It has also been found that condensation is not a concern so long as the ducts are located in air conditioned space, such as drop ceilings or central risers, where relative humidity falls quickly during morning startup.

  7. Impact of inherent meteorology uncertainty on air quality model predictions

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is well established that there are a number of different classifications and sources of uncertainties in environmental modeling systems. Air quality models rely on two key inputs, namely, meteorology and emissions. When using air quality models for decision making, it is impor...

  8. Recent Advances in WRF Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA uses WRF in conjunction with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) for air quality regulation and research. Over the years we have added physics options and geophysical datasets to the WRF system to enhance model capabilities especially for extended retrospective...

  9. Aerosol Optical Depth over Europe: Evaluation of the CALIOPE air quality modelling system with direct-sun AERONET observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basart, Sara; Pay, María. Teresa; Pérez, Carlos; Cuevas, Emilio; Jorba, Oriol; Piot, Matthias; María Baldasano, Jose

    2010-05-01

    In the frame of the CALIOPE project (Baldasano et al., 2008), the Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC-CNS) currently operates a high-resolution air quality forecasting system based on daily photochemical forecasts in Europe (12km x 12km resolution) with the WRF-ARW/HERMES/CMAQ modelling system (http://www.bsc.es/caliope) and desert dust forecasts over Southern Europe with BSC-DREAM8b (Pérez et al., 2006; http://www.bsc.es/projects/earthscience/DREAM). High resolution simulations and forecasts are possible through their implementation on MareNostrum supercomputer at BSC-CNS. As shown in previous air quality studies (e.g. Rodríguez et al., 2001; Jiménez-Guerrero et al., 2008), the contribution of desert dust on particulate matter levels in Southern Europe is remarkable due to its proximity to African desert dust sources. When considering only anthropogenic emissions (Baldasano et al., 2008) and the current knowledge about aerosol physics and chemistry, chemistry-transport model simulations underestimate the PM10 concentrations by 30-50%. As a first approach, the natural dust contribution from BSC-DREAM8b is on-line added to the anthropogenic aerosol output of CMAQ. The aim of the present work is the quantitative evaluation of the WRF-ARW/HERMES/ CMAQ/BSC-DREAM8b forecast system to simulate the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over Europe. The performance of the modelled AOD has been quantitatively evaluated with discrete and categorical (skill scores) statistics by a comparison to direct-sun AERONET observations for 2004. The contribution of different types of aerosols will be analyzed by means of the O'Neill fine mode AOD products (O'Neill et al., 2001). A previous aerosol characterization of AERONET data was performed (Basart et al., 2009) in order to discriminate the different aerosol source contributions within the study region. The results indicate a remarkable improvement in the discrete and skill-scores evaluation (accuracy, critical success index and

  10. Air Quality Analysis by Using Fuzzy Inference System and Fuzzy C-mean Clustering in Tehran, Iran from 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    HAMEDIAN, Amir Abbas; JAVID, Allahbakhsh; MOTESADDI ZARANDI, Saeed; RASHIDI, Yousef; MAJLESI, Monireh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since the industrial revolution, the rate of industrialization and urbanization has increased dramatically. Regarding this issue, specific regions mostly located in developing countries have been confronted with serious problems, particularly environmental problems among which air pollution is of high importance. Methods: Eleven parameters, including CO, SO2, PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO2, benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, xylene, and 1,3-butadiene, have been accounted over a period of two years (2011–2012) from five monitoring stations located at Tehran, Iran, were assessed by using fuzzy inference system and fuzzy c-mean clustering. Results: These tools showed that the quality of criteria pollutants between the year 2011 and 2012 did not as much effect the public health as the other pollutants did. Conclusion: Using the air EPA AQI, the quality of air, and also the managerial plans required to improve the quality can be misled. PMID:27516999

  11. DOE/NV/26383-LTR2008-01 Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Caliente, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  12. APPLICATION OF A NEW LAND-SURFACE, DRY DEPOSITION, AND PBL MODEL IN THE MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTI-SCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Like most air quality modeling systems, CMAQ divides the treatment of meteorological and chemical/transport processes into separate models run sequentially. A potential drawback to this approach is that it creates the illusion that these processes are minimally interdependent an...

  13. Air Quality Index (AQI) -- A Guide to Air Quality and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the AQI value, the greater the level of air pollution and the greater the health concern. For example, ... to 50. Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air pollution poses little or no risk. "Moderate" AQI is ...

  14. Co-benefits of air quality and climate change policies on air quality of the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzoli, Luca; Mert Gokturk, Ozan; Unal, Alper; Kindap, Tayfun; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin is one of the regions of the world where significant impacts due to climate changes are predicted to occur in the future. Observations and model simulations are used to provide to the policy makers scientifically based estimates of the necessity to adjust national emission reductions needed to achieve air quality objectives in the context of a changing climate, which is not only driven by GHGs, but also by short lived climate pollutants, such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols. There is an increasing interest and need to design cost-benefit emission reduction strategies, which could improve both regional air quality and global climate change. In this study we used the WRF-CMAQ air quality modelling system to quantify the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to ozone and particulate matter concentrations in Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean and to understand how this contribution could change in different future scenarios. We have investigated four different future scenarios for year 2050 defined during the European Project CIRCE: a "business as usual" scenario (BAU) where no or just actual measures are taken into account; an "air quality" scenario (BAP) which implements the National Emission Ceiling directive 2001/81/EC member states of the European Union (EU-27); a "climate change" scenario (CC) which implements global climate policies decoupled from air pollution policies; and an "integrated air quality and climate policy" scenario (CAP) which explores the co-benefit of global climate and EU-27 air pollution policies. The BAP scenario largely decreases summer ozone concentrations over almost the entire continent, while the CC and CAP scenarios similarly determine lower decreases in summer ozone but extending all over the Mediterranean, the Middle East countries and Russia. Similar patterns are found for winter PM concentrations; BAP scenario improves pollution levels only in the Western EU countries, and the CAP scenario determines

  15. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... as conditions caused by outdoor impacts (such as climate change). Many reports and studies indicate that the following ... Air Duct Cleaning Asthma Health, Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Flood Cleanup Home Remodel Indoor airPLUS Mold Radon ...

  16. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  17. INCORPORATING MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY INTO AIR QUALITY EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Decisions on air quality problems must often be made on the basis of existing ambient air quality data. One consideration in such situations is how to accomodate the uncertainty associated with these measurements. Measurement error is often stated in terms of a single measurement...

  18. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  20. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  1. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  2. Air Quality Measurements for Science and Policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality measurements and the methods used to conduct them are vital to advancing our knowledge of the source-to-receptor-to-health effects continuum1-3. This information then forms the basis for evaluating and managing air quality to protect human health and welfa...

  3. Agricultural Air Quality: A USDA Perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural air quality concerns have broadened recently because of the increasing urban-rural interface; greater understanding of the impact of air quality on health, visibility and safety, and coincident regulation increases; and increasing size and density of some farming operations. The USDA h...

  4. 66 FR 64946 - Indoor Air Quality

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-12-17

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Parts 1910, 1915, 1926 and 1928 RIN 1218-AB37 Indoor Air Quality AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Withdrawal of proposal. SUMMARY: OSHA is withdrawing its Indoor Air Quality proposal and terminating the...

  5. AIR QUALITY FORECAST DATABASE AND ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2003, NOAA and EPA signed a Memorandum of Agreement to collaborate on the design and implementation of a capability to produce daily air quality modeling forecast information for the U.S. NOAA's ETA meteorological model and EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model ...

  6. Source Emissions in Multipollutant Air Quality Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activities and natural processes that emit pollutants into the ambient atmosphere are the underlying cause of all air quality problems. In a technical sense, we refer to these activities and processes as pollutant sources. Although air quality management is usually concerne...

  7. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  8. FORECASTING AIR QUALITY OVER THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased awareness of national air quality issues on the part of the media and the general public have recently led to more demand for short-term (1-2 day) air quality forecasts for use in assessing potential health impacts (e.g., on children, the elderly, and asthmatics) and po...

  9. Breaking the Mold on Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEA Today, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Indoor air quality is a growing problem in aging school buildings. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offers an Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools kit which is being used at schools nationwide to improve school maintenance. Profiles an aging school in Connecticut in which teachers were becoming ill to illustrate the use of the kit to…

  10. Air quality monitor and acid rain networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, H.

    1980-01-01

    The air quality monitor program which consists of two permanent air monitor stations (PAMS's) and four mobile shuttle pollutant air monitor stations (SPAMS's) is evaluated. The PAMS measures SO sub X, NO sub X particulates, CO, O3, and nonmethane hydrocarbons. The SPAMS measures O3, SO2, HCl, and particulates. The collection and analysis of data in the rain monitor program are discussed.

  11. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Society (as mandated by the clean Air Act) requires that we protect our environment and minimize human exposure to harmful air pollutants with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). e al:o seek to minimize the economic costs of the necessary pollution control to meet the...

  12. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR LEAD (FINAL, 1986)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Quality Criteria documents evaluate and assesse scientific information on the health and welfare effects associated with exposure to various concentrations of lead in ambient air. The literature through 1985 has been reviewed thoroughly for information relevant to air qua...

  13. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... consolidation of Ohio's Ambient Air Quality Standards (AAQS) into Ohio's State Implementation Plan (SIP)...

  14. Development of Quality Control Parameters and Electronic Data Recording for an Ambient Air Particle Inhalation Exposure System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air particle concentrating systems were installed by the US EPA in RTP, NC. These systems, designed by Harvard School of Public Health’s Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (Boston, MA), concentrated ambient fine and ultra-fine mode particulate matter (P...

  15. Impact of surface disinfection and sterile draping of furniture on room air quality in a cardiac procedure room with a ventilation and air-conditioning system (extrusion airflow, cleanroom class 1b (DIN 1946-4))

    PubMed Central

    Below, Harald; Ryll, Sylvia; Empen, Klaus; Dornquast, Tina; Felix, Stefan; Rosenau, Heike; Kramer, Sebastian; Kramer, Axel

    2010-01-01

    In a cardiac procedure room, ventilated by a ventilation and air-conditioning system with turbulent mixed airflow, a protection zone in the operating area could be defined through visualization of airflows. Within this protection zone, no turbulence was detectable in the room air. Under the given conditions, disinfection of all surfaces including all furniture and equipment after the last operation and subsequent draping of furniture and all equipment that could not be removed from the room with sterile surgical drapes improved the indoor room air quality from cleanroom class C to cleanroom class B. This also allows procedures with elevated requirements to be performed in room class 1b. PMID:20941336

  16. A smart indoor air quality sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jin

    2006-03-01

    The indoor air quality (IAQ) has an important impact on public health. Currently, the indoor air pollution, caused by gas, particle, and bio-aerosol pollutants, is considered as the top five environmental risks to public health and has an estimated cost of $2 billion/year due to medical cost and lost productivity. Furthermore, current buildings are especially vulnerable for chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agent contamination because the central air conditioning and ventilation system serve as a nature carrier to spread the released agent from one location to the whole indoor environment within a short time period. To assure the IAQ and safety for either new or existing buildings, real time comprehensive IAQ and CBW measurements are needed. With the development of new sensing technologies, economic and reliable comprehensive IAQ and CBW sensors become promising. However, few studies exist that examine the design and evaluation issues related to IAQ and CBW sensor network. In this paper, relevant research areas including IAQ and CBW sensor development, demand control ventilation, indoor CBW sensor system design, and sensor system design for other areas such as water system protection, fault detection and diagnosis, are reviewed and summarized. Potential research opportunities for IAQ and CBW sensor system design and evaluation are discussed.

  17. Air Quality Monitoring: Risk-Based Choices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Air monitoring is secondary to rigid control of risks to air quality. Air quality monitoring requires us to target the credible residual risks. Constraints on monitoring devices are severe. Must transition from archival to real-time, on-board monitoring. Must provide data to crew in a way that they can interpret findings. Dust management and monitoring may be a major concern for exploration class missions.

  18. The development of effects-based air quality management regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhurst, J. W. S.; Irwin, J. G.; Chatterton, T. J.; Hayes, E. T.; Leksmono, N. S.; Symons, J. K.

    This paper considers the evolution of attempts to control and manage air pollution, principally but not exclusively focussing upon the challenge of managing air pollution in urban environments. The development and implementation of a range of air pollution control measures are considered. Initially the measures implemented primarily addressed point sources, a small number of fuel types and a limited number of pollutants. The adequacy of such a source-control approach is assessed within the context of a changing and challenging air pollution climate. An assessment of air quality management in the United Kingdom over a 50-year timeframe exemplifies the range of issues and challenges in contemporary air quality management. The need for new approaches is explored and the development and implementation of an effects-based, risk management system for air quality regulation is evaluated.

  19. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  20. Enhancing indoor air quality -The air filter advantage.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality. PMID:26628762

  1. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality. PMID:26628762

  2. Validation of selected analytical methods using accuracy profiles to assess the impact of a Tobacco Heating System on indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Mottier, Nicolas; Tharin, Manuel; Cluse, Camille; Crudo, Jean-René; Lueso, María Gómez; Goujon-Ginglinger, Catherine G; Jaquier, Anne; Mitova, Maya I; Rouget, Emmanuel G R; Schaller, Mathieu; Solioz, Jennifer

    2016-09-01

    Studies in environmentally controlled rooms have been used over the years to assess the impact of environmental tobacco smoke on indoor air quality. As new tobacco products are developed, it is important to determine their impact on air quality when used indoors. Before such an assessment can take place it is essential that the analytical methods used to assess indoor air quality are validated and shown to be fit for their intended purpose. Consequently, for this assessment, an environmentally controlled room was built and seven analytical methods, representing eighteen analytes, were validated. The validations were carried out with smoking machines using a matrix-based approach applying the accuracy profile procedure. The performances of the methods were compared for all three matrices under investigation: background air samples, the environmental aerosol of Tobacco Heating System THS 2.2, a heat-not-burn tobacco product developed by Philip Morris International, and the environmental tobacco smoke of a cigarette. The environmental aerosol generated by the THS 2.2 device did not have any appreciable impact on the performances of the methods. The comparison between the background and THS 2.2 environmental aerosol samples generated by smoking machines showed that only five compounds were higher when THS 2.2 was used in the environmentally controlled room. Regarding environmental tobacco smoke from cigarettes, the yields of all analytes were clearly above those obtained with the other two air sample types. PMID:27343591

  3. Are Ventilation Filters Degrading Indoor Air Quality in California Classrooms?

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Destaillats, H.; Apte, M.G.; Destaillats,, Hugo; Fisk, Michael G. Apte and William J.

    2008-10-01

    Heating, ventilating, and cooling classrooms in California consume substantial electrical energy. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms affects studenthealth and performance. In addition to airborne pollutants that are emitted directly by indoor sources and those generated outdoors, secondary pollutants can be formed indoors by chemical reaction of ozone with other chemicals and materials. Filters are used in nearly all classroom heating, ventilation and air?conditioning (HVAC) systems to maintain energy-efficient HVAC performance and improve indoor air quality; however, recent evidence indicates that ozone reactions with filters may, in fact, be a source of secondary pollutants. This project quantitatively evaluated ozone deposition in HVAC filters and byproduct formation, and provided a preliminary assessment of the extent towhich filter systems are degrading indoor air quality. The preliminary information obtained will contribute to the design of subsequent research efforts and the identification of energy efficient solutions that improve indoor air quality in classrooms and the health and performance of students.

  4. Air quality management programs in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, J.

    1996-12-31

    Degradation of air quality in Asia due to economic growth during Past two decades is evident. The World Bank with its new mandate for sustainable development is working with Asian Governments to reverse the trend. This paper briefly describes initiatives called URBAIR and RAINS-ASIA. Urban Air Quality Strategy in Asia (URBAIR) program seeks to assist governments and the private sector in developing tools to identify immediate and long-term actions to restore air quality in Asian cities. The URBAIR program, conducted for four selected cities (Bombay, Jakarta, Kathmandu, Manila). Since air pollution management in Asian cities is in a preliminary stage, there is need to develop a comprehensive Action Plan as a framework for preparing the Air Quality Management Strategy in each city. In preparing this Action Plan, URBAIR has identified the main aspects of air pollution in the cities. These include major pollutants, their sources, and their health and economic impacts. Air quality models have been evaluated and adapted to the data available for these cities, and monitoring needs identified. An Action Plan has been proposed by the city based working groups for a comprehensive Air Quality Management Strategy.

  5. Doing Your Homework on Indoor Air Quality Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Rick

    2000-01-01

    Explains how administrators at the Georgia Institute of Technology were able to build a new residence hall that included a cost-effective ventilation system providing high quality indoor air. Project considerations, design solutions, and project economies are discussed. (GR)

  6. AIR QUALITY MODELING FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes recent and evolving advances in the science of numerical air quality simulation modeling. Emphasis is placed on new developments in particulate matter modeling and atmospheric chemistry, diagnostic modeling tools, and integrated modeling systems. New...

  7. Visual air quality assessment: Denver case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumpower, Jeryl; Middleton, Paulette; Dennis, Robin L.; Stewart, Thomas R.; Veirs, Val

    Studies of visual air quality in the Denver metropolitan region during summer 1979 and winter 1979-1980 are described and results reported. The major objective of the studies was to investigate relationships among four types of variables important to urban visual air quality: (1) individuals' judgements of overall visual air quality; (2) perceptual cues used in making judgments of visual air quality; (3) measurable physical characteristics of the visual environment and (4) concentrations of visibility-reducing pollutants and their precursors. During August 1979 and mid-December 1979 to January 1980, simultaneous measurements of observational and environmental data were made daily at various locations throughout the metropolitan area. Observational data included ratings of overall air quality and related perceptual cues (e.g., distance, clarity, color, border) by multiple observers. Environmental data included routine hourly pollutant and meteorological measurements from several fixed locations within the city, as well as aerosol light scattering and absorption measures from one location. Statistical analyses indicated that (1) multiple perceptual cues are required to explain variation in judgments of overall visual air quality and (2) routine measurements of the physical environment appear to be inadequate predictors of either judgments of overall visual air quality or related perceptual cues.

  8. The Impact of Physical Atmosphere on Air Quality and the Utility of Satellite Observations in Air Quality Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour Biazar, A.; McNider, R. T.; Park, Y. H.; Doty, K.; Khan, M. N.; Dornblaser, B.

    2012-12-01

    Physical atmosphere significantly impacts air quality as it regulates production, accumulation, and transport of atmospheric pollutants. Consequently, air quality simulations are greatly influenced by the uncertainties that emanates from the simulation of physical atmosphere. Since air quality model predictions are increasingly being used in health studies, regulatory applications, and policy making, reducing such uncertainties in model simulations is of outmost importance. This paper describes some of the critical aspects of physical atmosphere affecting air quality models that can be improved by utilizing satellite observations. Retrievals of skin temperature, surface albedo, surface insolation, cloud top temperature and cloud reflectance obtained from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) by NASA/MSFC GOES Product Generation System (GPGS) have been utilized to improve the air quality simulations used in the State Implementation Plan (SIP) attainment demonstrations. Satellite observations of ground temperature are used to recover surface moisture and heat capacity and thereby improving model simulation of air temperature. Observations of clouds are utilized to improve the photochemical reaction rates within the photochemical model and also to assimilate clouds in the meteorological model. These techniques have been implemented and tested in some of the widely used air quality decision modeling systems such as MM5/WRF/CMAQ/CAMx. The results from these activities show significant improvements in air quality simulations.

  9. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    MedlinePlus

    ... is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce your ... human health. Ozone forms when two types of pollutants (VOCs and NOx) react in sunlight. These pollutants ...

  10. Evaluation of emission control strategies to reduce ozone pollution in the Paso del Norte region using a photochemical air quality modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, Victor Hugo

    Air pollution emissions control strategies to reduce ozone precursor pollutants are analyzed by applying a photochemical modeling system. Simulations of air quality conditions during an ozone episode which occurred in June, 2006 are undertaken by increasing or reducing area source emissions in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Two air pollutants are primary drivers in the formation of tropospheric ozone. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) undergo multiple chemical reactions under favorable meteorological conditions to form ozone, which is a secondary pollutant that irritates respiratory systems in sensitive individuals especially the elderly and young children. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to limit ambient air pollutants such as ozone by establishing an 8-hour average concentration of 0.075 ppm as the threshold at which a violation of the standard occurs. Ozone forms primarily due reactions in the troposphere of NOx and VOC emissions generated primarily by anthropogenic sources in urban regions. Data from emissions inventories indicate area sources account for ˜15 of NOx and ˜45% of regional VOC emissions. Area sources include gasoline stations, automotive paint bodyshops and nonroad mobile sources. Multiplicity of air pollution emissions sources provides an opportunity to investigate and potentially implement air quality improvement strategies to reduce emissions which contribute to elevated ozone concentrations. A baseline modeling scenario was established using the CAMx photochemical air quality model from which a series of sensitivity analyses for evaluating air quality control strategies were conducted. Modifications to area source emissions were made by varying NOx and / or VOC emissions in the areas of particular interest. Model performance was assessed for each sensitivity analysis. Normalized bias (NB) and normalized error (NE) were used to identify

  11. Air quality and human welfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundseth, K.; Pacyna, J. M.; Pacyna, E. G.

    2009-02-01

    Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA), Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA) or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA). By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  12. Monitoring Air Quality with Leaf Yeasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, D. H. S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Proposes that leaf yeast serve as quick, inexpensive, and effective techniques for monitoring air quality. Outlines procedures and provides suggestions for data analysis. Includes results from sample school groups who employed this technique. (ML)

  13. Classroom Air Quality: Exploring the Indoor Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borst, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Describes a teacher's experiences with Global Lab, which is depicted as a real-world networked science laboratory connecting individuals investigating global and local environmental change. Focuses on techniques to monitor indoor air quality. (DDR)

  14. Air heating system

    DOEpatents

    Primeau, John J.

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  15. Urban air quality estimation study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamante, J. M.; Englar, T. S., Jr.; Jazwinski, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    Possibilities are explored for applying estimation theory to the analysis, interpretation, and use of air quality measurements in conjunction with simulation models to provide a cost effective method of obtaining reliable air quality estimates for wide urban areas. The physical phenomenology of real atmospheric plumes from elevated localized sources is discussed. A fluctuating plume dispersion model is derived. Individual plume parameter formulations are developed along with associated a priori information. Individual measurement models are developed.

  16. TESTS OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY SINKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were conducted in a room-size test chamber to determine the sink effects of selected materials on indoor air concentrations of p-dichlorobenzene (PDCB). hese effects might alter pollutant behavior from that predicted using similar indoor air quality models, by reducin...

  17. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... been implemented by regulation, 40 CFR 93, subpart B. All EIAP documents must address applicable... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL...

  18. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... been implemented by regulation, 40 CFR 93, subpart B. All EIAP documents must address applicable... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL...

  19. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... been implemented by regulation, 40 CFR 93, subpart B. All EIAP documents must address applicable... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL...

  20. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... been implemented by regulation, 40 CFR 93, subpart B. All EIAP documents must address applicable... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL...

  1. MANAGING INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN THE USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of managing indoor air quality (IAQ) in the U.S. In contrast to outdoor air, which is regulated through various federal and state statutes, there is no unified and comprehensive governmental regulation of IAQ. Therefore, IAQ is managed through variou...

  2. Air quality management in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    William Chameides; Daniel Greenbaum; Raymond Wassel; K. John Holmes; Karl Gustavson; Amanda Staudt

    2005-07-01

    In 2004, the National Research Council released Air Quality Management in the United States, a report prepared in response to a congressional request for an independent evaluation of the overall effectiveness of the Clean Air Act. Based on that report, this article summarizes the committee's findings and recommendations. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Improving Regional Air Quality with Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-05-01

    This model documentation is designed to assist State and local governments in pursuing wind energy purchases as a control measure under regional air quality plans. It is intended to support efforts to draft State Implementation Plans (SIPs), including wind energy purchases, to ensure compliance with the standard for ground-level ozone established under the Clean Air Act.

  4. Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, John W., Ed.

    To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of some relatively new applications of proven techniques to discussions…

  5. Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, John W., Ed.

    To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers, the second in a series, from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of individual pollutant measurements to…

  6. Cabin Air Quality Dynamics On Board the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.; Peterson, B. V.

    2003-01-01

    Spacecraft cabin air quality is influenced by a variety of factors. Beyond normal equipment offgassing and crew metabolic loads, the vehicle s operational configuration contributes significantly to overall air quality. Leaks from system equipment and payload facilities, operational status of the atmospheric scrubbing systems, and the introduction of new equipment and modules to the vehicle all influence air quality. The dynamics associated with changes in the International Space Station's (ISS) configuration since the launch of the U.S. Segment s laboratory module, Destiny, is summarized. Key classes of trace chemical contaminants that are important to crew health and equipment performance are emphasized. The temporary effects associated with attaching each multi-purpose logistics module (MPLM) to the ISS and influence of in-flight air quality on the post-flight ground processing of the MPLM are explored.

  7. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1689 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1689 Section 52.1689 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  15. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.96 Section 52.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Air Quality... deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  19. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  1. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  3. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  5. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  15. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  20. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  1. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  3. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  9. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  12. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  15. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  16. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  19. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  20. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  1. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  3. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  15. Sandia National Laboratories, California Air Quality Program : annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Richard; Gardizi, Leslee P.

    2007-05-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Air Quality Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Air Quality Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  16. Sandia National Laboratories, California Air Quality Program annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gardizi, Leslee P.; Smith, Richard

    2009-06-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Air Quality Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Air Quality Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  17. The measurement of carbon monoxide and methane in the National Capital Air Quality Control Region. I - Measurement systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebel, P. J.; Lamontagne, R. A.; Goldstein, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    The Carbon Monoxide Pollution Experiment (COPE) and the National Capital Air Quality Control Region (NCAQCR) undertook a series of measurements of atmospheric CO and CH4 to determine the accuracy of the airborne COPE Correlation Interfer4meter. The device, a modified Michelson interferometer, measures the atmospheric column density of CO and CH4 at 2.3 microns with tropospheric measurement sensitivities of 70 and 10 PPB, respectively. Data for evaluating the remote measurements included atmospheric column density measurements at a ground truth site using a van-mounted infrared Fourier spectrometer; continuous ground level gas chromatographic measurements; and chromatographic data from atmospheric grab samples collected by aircraft and at ground locations. The instruments and sampling techniques used in the experiment are described in detail.

  18. Incorporating the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) Into a Regional Air Quality Modeling System for the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Pacific Northwest, wind storms intermittently cause massive dust events that reduce visibility along roadways and jeopardize health as a result of extremely high concentrations of PM10 (particulate matter less than or equal to 10µm in diameter). An early warning dust forecast system is needed...

  19. Meteorological Processes Affecting Air Quality – Research and Model Development Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meteorology modeling is an important component of air quality modeling systems that defines the physical and dynamical environment for atmospheric chemistry. The meteorology models used for air quality applications are based on numerical weather prediction models that were devel...

  20. AN OPERATIONAL EVALUATION OF THE ETA-CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in collaboration with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are developing an Air Quality Forecasting Program that will eventually result in an operational Nationwide Air Quality Forecasting System. The initial pha...

  1. Shuttle Entry Air Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. M., III

    1978-01-01

    The SEADS system (Shuttle Entry Air Data System) is being developed to provide research quality hypersonic (M greater than 3.5) air data. SEADS will accomplish this through the instrumentation of the orbiter's baseline nose cap. The SEADS development program consists of (1) the design and testing program required to define a reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) nose cap penetration concept which will not degrade nose cap performance, (2) the definition of analytical techniques and design criteria for array definition and flight data analysis, (3) the verification of these analytical techniques and array criteria through a comprehensive wind-tunnel test program, (4) the demonstration of the system concept through detailed testing, and (5) the analyses and tests required to flight-certify the SEADS system.

  2. Design and demonstration of a next-generation air quality attainment assessment system for PM2.5 and O3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Zhu, Yun; Jang, Carey; Lin, Che-Jen; Wang, Shuxiao; Fu, Joshua S; Gao, Jian; Deng, Shuang; Xie, Junping; Ding, Dian; Qiu, Xuezhen; Long, Shicheng

    2015-03-01

    Due to the increasingly stringent standards, it is important to assess whether the proposed emission reduction will result in ambient concentrations that meet the standards. The Software for Model Attainment Test-Community Edition (SMAT-CE) is developed for demonstrating attainment of air quality standards of O3 and PM2.5. SMAT-CE improves computational efficiency and provides a number of advanced visualization and analytical functionalities on an integrated GIS platform. SMAT-CE incorporates historical measurements of air quality parameters and simulated air pollutant concentrations under a number of emission inventory scenarios to project the level of compliance to air quality standards in a targeted future year. An application case study of the software based on the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) shows that SMAT-CE is capable of demonstrating the air quality attainment of annual PM2.5 and 8-hour O3 for a proposed emission control policy. PMID:25766027

  3. DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF AIR QUALITY MODELING SIMULATIONS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentrations of five hazardous air pollutants were simulated using the Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Annual simulations were performed over the continental United States for the entire year of 2001 to support human exposure estimates. Results a...

  4. Climate change, air quality, and human health.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Patrick L

    2008-11-01

    Weather and climate play important roles in determining patterns of air quality over multiple scales in time and space, owing to the fact that emissions, transport, dilution, chemical transformation, and eventual deposition of air pollutants all can be influenced by meteorologic variables such as temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, and mixing height. There is growing recognition that development of optimal control strategies for key pollutants like ozone and fine particles now requires assessment of potential future climate conditions and their influence on the attainment of air quality objectives. In addition, other air contaminants of relevance to human health, including smoke from wildfires and airborne pollens and molds, may be influenced by climate change. In this study, the focus is on the ways in which health-relevant measures of air quality, including ozone, particulate matter, and aeroallergens, may be affected by climate variability and change. The small but growing literature focusing on climate impacts on air quality, how these influences may play out in future decades, and the implications for human health is reviewed. Based on the observed and anticipated impacts, adaptation strategies and research needs are discussed. PMID:18929972

  5. Pesticides in Air: New Challenges in Agricultural Air Quality Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As agricultural and urban communities have become more intertwined, and the average size of agricultural production operations have increased substantially, issues of air quality have emerged as an area of increasing regulatory pressure for farmers in many countries. The science of measuring emissi...

  6. Air cleaning system

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, J.H.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes an air cleaning system comprising: a motor housing; a motor mounted within the housing; a fan attached to and rotatably driven by the motor; a fan chamber surrounding the fan and having an air inlet and outlet; a separator housing means mounted adjacent to and in spaced relation with the motor housing, the separator housing means having an inlet disposed in communication with a chamber within separator housing means; an outlet disposed in communication with the fan chamber; an air driven separator means mounted in chamber of the separator housing means to receive airflow from inlet for rotation of the separator means and removal of foreign matter from airflow by centrifugal force responsive to rotation of the separator means; the airflow is further directed through the outlet of separator housing means to the fan chamber to be ejected by the fan.

  7. Indoor air quality standards of performance applications guide

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, R.J.; Dorgan, C.B.; Dorgan, C.E.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the development and application of standards of performance (SOPs) for HVAC and R equipment, plumbing systems, and building envelope systems in relation to maintaining acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ) in buildings. The utilization of the SOP procedure, developed in ASHRAE Research Project 853, will aid in the proper operation of systems and verify that acceptable building IAQ levels are obtained.

  8. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ...This rule establishes initial air quality designations for most areas in the United States, including areas of Indian country, for the 2008 primary and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone. The designations for several counties in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin that the EPA is considering for inclusion in the Chicago nonattainment area will be designated in a......

  9. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues...

  10. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements...

  11. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements...

  12. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections...

  13. 30 CFR 250.302 - Definitions concerning air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions concerning air quality. 250.302... Definitions concerning air quality. For purposes of §§ 250.303 and 250.304 of this part: Air pollutant means..., pursuant to section 109 of the Clean Air Act, national primary or secondary ambient air quality...

  14. Developing Interoperable Air Quality Community Portals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falke, S. R.; Husar, R. B.; Yang, C. P.; Robinson, E. M.; Fialkowski, W. E.

    2009-04-01

    Web portals are intended to provide consolidated discovery, filtering and aggregation of content from multiple, distributed web sources targeted at particular user communities. This paper presents a standards-based information architectural approach to developing portals aimed at air quality community collaboration in data access and analysis. An important characteristic of the approach is to advance beyond the present stand-alone design of most portals to achieve interoperability with other portals and information sources. We show how using metadata standards, web services, RSS feeds and other Web 2.0 technologies, such as Yahoo! Pipes and del.icio.us, helps increase interoperability among portals. The approach is illustrated within the context of the GEOSS Architecture Implementation Pilot where an air quality community portal is being developed to provide a user interface between the portals and clearinghouse of the GEOSS Common Infrastructure and the air quality community catalog of metadata and data services.

  15. What is IAQ. [Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, G.

    1992-01-01

    Does indoor air quality (IAQ) affect you The answer is an emphatic YES Problems affecting indoor air quality can range from a stinky rest room to Sick Building Syndrome. IAQ goes beyond avoiding odors through sufficient ventilation. Many health issues are also involved. IAQ problems are generally complex with no single source causing them. Rather, they result from a combination of several sources that require an organized, but flexible, plan of attack. The purpose of this paper is to define the terms associated with the subject of IAQ, provide some history on the subject, and finally describe my experiences with the continuing process of assessing and remediating problems associated with poor indoor air quality in a new laboratory building.

  16. [Quality revision of air ambulance services].

    PubMed

    Wisborg, T

    1999-10-20

    The 14 anaesthesiologist-manned ambulance helicopters in Norway are administratively placed under the head of the nearest anaesthetic department. Routines for quality assurance vary considerably. In 1995, a total of 6,850 patients were treated by air ambulance anaesthesiologists. An enquiry to all 14 air ambulance services revealed that approximately two thirds of all medical records were reviewed for quality assurance purposes. Only half of the reviewers based their work on written treatment procedures in addition to their own sense of good clinical practice. A review of all 162 medical records for one year at one air ambulance base indicates that a thorough review of one third of all records would identify all major areas of improvement. The selection of records has to be based on local experience concerning both patients and personnel. When areas of improvement are identified, the quality assurance process can be simplified without increasing the risk of not addressing serious problems. PMID:10574052

  17. Indoor air quality analysis based on Hadoop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuo, Wang; Yunhua, Sun; Song, Tian; Liang, Yu; Weihong, Cui

    2014-03-01

    The air of the office environment is our research object. The data of temperature, humidity, concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and ammonia are collected peer one to eight seconds by the sensor monitoring system. And all the data are stored in the Hbase database of Hadoop platform. With the help of HBase feature of column-oriented store and versioned (automatically add the time column), the time-series data sets are bulit based on the primary key Row-key and timestamp. The parallel computing programming model MapReduce is used to process millions of data collected by sensors. By analysing the changing trend of parameters' value at different time of the same day and at the same time of various dates, the impact of human factor and other factors on the room microenvironment is achieved according to the liquidity of the office staff. Moreover, the effective way to improve indoor air quality is proposed in the end of this paper.

  18. Experiences in evaluating regional air quality models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mei-Kao; Greenfield, Stanley M.

    Any area of the world concerned with the health and welfare of its people and the viability of its ecological system must eventually address the question of the control of air pollution. This is true in developed countries as well as countries that are undergoing a considerable degree of industrialization. The control or limitation of the emissions of a pollutant can be very costly. To avoid ineffective or unnecessary control, the nature of the problem must be fully understood and the relationship between source emissions and ambient concentrations must be established. Mathematical models, while admittedly containing large uncertainties, can be used to examine alternatives of emission restrictions for achieving safe ambient concentrations. The focus of this paper is to summarize our experiences with modeling regional air quality in the United States and Western Europe. The following modeling experiences have been used: future SO 2 and sulfate distributions and projected acidic deposition as related to coal development in the northern Great Plains in the U.S.; analysis of regional ozone and sulfate episodes in the northeastern U.S.; analysis of the regional ozone problem in western Europe in support of alternative emission control strategies; analysis of distributions of toxic chemicals in the Southeast Ohio River Valley in support of the design of a monitoring network human exposure. Collectively, these prior modeling analyses can be invaluable in examining a similar problem in other parts of the world as well, such as the Pacific rim in Asia.

  19. Air System Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  20. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  1. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  2. 40 CFR 51.320 - Annual air quality data report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual air quality data report. 51.320... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Reports Air Quality Data Reporting § 51.320 Annual air quality data report. The requirements for reporting air quality data...

  3. 40 CFR 51.320 - Annual air quality data report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual air quality data report. 51.320... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Reports Air Quality Data Reporting § 51.320 Annual air quality data report. The requirements for reporting air quality data...

  4. 40 CFR 51.320 - Annual air quality data report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual air quality data report. 51.320... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Reports Air Quality Data Reporting § 51.320 Annual air quality data report. The requirements for reporting air quality data...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  8. 40 CFR 51.320 - Annual air quality data report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual air quality data report. 51.320... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Reports Air Quality Data Reporting § 51.320 Annual air quality data report. The requirements for reporting air quality data...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 51.320 - Annual air quality data report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual air quality data report. 51.320... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Reports Air Quality Data Reporting § 51.320 Annual air quality data report. The requirements for reporting air quality data...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  12. Indoor Air Quality: Is Increased Ventilation the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Shirley

    1989-01-01

    Explains how indoor air quality is affected by pollutants in the air and also by temperature, humidity, and ventilation. Increased ventilation alone seldom solves the "sick building syndrome." Lists ways to improve indoor air quality and optimize energy efficiency. (MLF)

  13. Impacts of Climate Policy on Regional Air Quality, Health, and Air Quality Regulatory Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. M.; Selin, N. E.

    2011-12-01

    Both the changing climate, and the policy implemented to address climate change can impact regional air quality. We evaluate the impacts of potential selected climate policies on modeled regional air quality with respect to national pollution standards, human health and the sensitivity of health uncertainty ranges. To assess changes in air quality due to climate policy, we couple output from a regional computable general equilibrium economic model (the US Regional Energy Policy [USREP] model), with a regional air quality model (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions [CAMx]). USREP uses economic variables to determine how potential future U.S. climate policy would change emissions of regional pollutants (CO, VOC, NOx, SO2, NH3, black carbon, and organic carbon) from ten emissions-heavy sectors of the economy (electricity, coal, gas, crude oil, refined oil, energy intensive industry, other industry, service, agriculture, and transportation [light duty and heavy duty]). Changes in emissions are then modeled using CAMx to determine the impact on air quality in several cities in the Northeast US. We first calculate the impact of climate policy by using regulatory procedures used to show attainment with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter. Building on previous work, we compare those results with the calculated results and uncertainties associated with human health impacts due to climate policy. This work addresses a potential disconnect between NAAQS regulatory procedures and the cost/benefit analysis required for and by the Clean Air Act.

  14. An inexact fuzzy-chance-constrained air quality management model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ye; Huang, Guohe; Qin, Xiaosheng

    2010-07-01

    Regional air pollution is a major concern for almost every country because it not only directly relates to economic development, but also poses significant threats to environment and public health. In this study, an inexact fuzzy-chance-constrained air quality management model (IFAMM) was developed for regional air quality management under uncertainty. IFAMM was formulated through integrating interval linear programming (ILP) within a fuzzy-chance-constrained programming (FCCP) framework and could deal with uncertainties expressed as not only possibilistic distributions but also discrete intervals in air quality management systems. Moreover, the constraints with fuzzy variables could be satisfied at different confidence levels such that various solutions with different risk and cost considerations could be obtained. The developed model was applied to a hypothetical case of regional air quality management. Six abatement technologies and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission trading under uncertainty were taken into consideration. The results demonstrated that IFAMM could help decision-makers generate cost-effective air quality management patterns, gain in-depth insights into effects of the uncertainties, and analyze tradeoffs between system economy and reliability. The results also implied that the trading scheme could achieve lower total abatement cost than a nontrading one. PMID:20681428

  15. THE EMERGENCE OF NUMERICAL AIR QUALITY FORCASTING MODELS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years the U.S. and other nations have begun programs for short-term local through regional air quality forecasting based upon numerical three-dimensional air quality grid models. These numerical air quality forecast (NAQF) models and systems have been developed and test...

  16. 40 CFR 52.13 - Air quality surveillance; resources; intergovernmental cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality surveillance; resources... § 52.13 Air quality surveillance; resources; intergovernmental cooperation. Disapproved portions of the plan related to the air quality surveillance system, resources, and intergovernmental cooperation...

  17. 40 CFR 52.13 - Air quality surveillance; resources; intergovernmental cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality surveillance; resources... § 52.13 Air quality surveillance; resources; intergovernmental cooperation. Disapproved portions of the plan related to the air quality surveillance system, resources, and intergovernmental cooperation...

  18. 40 CFR 52.13 - Air quality surveillance; resources; intergovernmental cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality surveillance; resources... § 52.13 Air quality surveillance; resources; intergovernmental cooperation. Disapproved portions of the plan related to the air quality surveillance system, resources, and intergovernmental cooperation...

  19. THE EMERGENCE OF NUMERICAL AIR QUALITY FORECASTING MODELS AND THEIR APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years the U.S. and other nations have begun programs for short-term local through regional air quality forecasting based upon numerical three-dimensional air quality grid models. These numerical air quality forecast (NAQF) models and systems have been developed and test...

  20. A novel, fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI) for air quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Gharibi, Hamed; Yunesian, Masud; Tayefeh Mahmoudi, Maryam; Lotfi, Saeedeh

    2011-04-01

    The ever increasing level of air pollution in most areas of the world has led to development of a variety of air quality indices for estimation of health effects of air pollution, though the indices have their own limitations such as high levels of subjectivity. Present study, therefore, aimed at developing a novel, fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI ) to handle such limitations. The index developed by present study is based on fuzzy logic that is considered as one of the most common computational methods of artificial intelligence. In addition to criteria air pollutants (i.e. CO, SO 2, PM 10, O 3, NO 2), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and 1,3-butadiene were also taken into account in the index proposed, because of their considerable health effects. Different weighting factors were then assigned to each pollutant according to its priority. Trapezoidal membership functions were employed for classifications and the final index consisted of 72 inference rules. To assess the performance of the index, a case study was carried out employing air quality data at five different sampling stations in Tehran, Iran, from January 2008 to December 2009, results of which were then compared to the results obtained from USEPA air quality index (AQI). According to the results from present study, fuzzy-based air quality index is a comprehensive tool for classification of air quality and tends to produce accurate results. Therefore, it can be considered useful, reliable, and suitable for consideration by local authorities in air quality assessment and management schemes. Fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI).

  1. The AirQuality SenseBox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuth, Dustin; Nuest, Daniel; Bröring, Arne; Pebesma, Edzer

    2013-04-01

    In the past year, a group of open hardware enthusiasts and citizen scientists had large success in the crowd-funding of an open hardware-based sensor platform for air quality monitoring, called the Air Quality Egg. Via the kickstarter platform, the group was able to collect triple the amount of money than needed to fulfill their goals. Data generated by the Air Quality Egg is pushed to the data logging platform cosm.com, which makes the devices a part of the Internet of Things. The project aims at increasing the participation of citizens in the collection of data, the development of sensors, the operation of sensor stations, and, as data on cosm is publicly available, the sharing, visualization and analysis of data. Air Quality Eggs can measure NO2 and CO concentrations, as well as relative humidity and temperature. The chosen sensors are low-cost and have limited precision and accurracy. The Air Quality Egg consists of a stationary outdoor and a stationary indoor unit. Each outdoor unit will wirelessly transmit air quality measurements to the indoor unit, which forwards the data to cosm. Most recent versions of the Air Quality Egg allow a rough calibration of the gas sensors and on-the-fly conversion from raw sensor readings (impedance) to meaningful air quality data expressed in units of parts per billion. Data generated by these low-cost platforms are not intended to replace well-calibrated official monitoring stations, but rather augment the density of the total monitoring network with citizen sensors. To improve the usability of the Air Quality Egg, we present a new and more advanced concept, called the AirQuality SenseBox. We made the outdoor platform more autonomous and location-aware by adding solarpanels and rechargeable batteries as a power source. The AirQuality SenseBox knows its own position from a GPS device attached to the platform. As a mobile sensor platform, it can for instance be attached to vehicles. A low-cost and low-power wireless chipset

  2. Compact spectroscopic sensor for air quality monitoring in spacecrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Benjamin; Hamid, Hakim; Rosskopf, Jürgen; Forouhar, Siamak

    2011-01-01

    The air quality of any manned spacecraft needs to be continuously monitored in order to safeguard the health of the crew. Any fire event, accidental release of harmful gaseous contaminants or a malfunction in the air revitalization system has to be detected as fast as possible to provide enough time for the crew to react. In this paper, a fast sensor system based on laser spectroscopy is presented, which is able to detect three important gases: carbon monoxide for fire detection, hydrogen chloride for fire characterization and oxygen to monitor the air vitalization system. To provide a long maintenance-free operation time without the need for any consumables except power, a calibration-free measurement method was developed, which is only based on molecule specific constants which are available from the molecular data base HITRAN. The presented sensor offers the possibility for reliable and crosssensitivity-free air quality monitoring over a large pressure and temperature range.

  3. Uncertainty in Regional Air Quality Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digar, Antara

    Effective pollution mitigation is the key to successful air quality management. Although states invest millions of dollars to predict future air quality, the regulatory modeling and analysis process to inform pollution control strategy remains uncertain. Traditionally deterministic ‘bright-line’ tests are applied to evaluate the sufficiency of a control strategy to attain an air quality standard. A critical part of regulatory attainment demonstration is the prediction of future pollutant levels using photochemical air quality models. However, because models are uncertain, they yield a false sense of precision that pollutant response to emission controls is perfectly known and may eventually mislead the selection of control policies. These uncertainties in turn affect the health impact assessment of air pollution control strategies. This thesis explores beyond the conventional practice of deterministic attainment demonstration and presents novel approaches to yield probabilistic representations of pollutant response to emission controls by accounting for uncertainties in regional air quality planning. Computationally-efficient methods are developed and validated to characterize uncertainty in the prediction of secondary pollutant (ozone and particulate matter) sensitivities to precursor emissions in the presence of uncertainties in model assumptions and input parameters. We also introduce impact factors that enable identification of model inputs and scenarios that strongly influence pollutant concentrations and sensitivity to precursor emissions. We demonstrate how these probabilistic approaches could be applied to determine the likelihood that any control measure will yield regulatory attainment, or could be extended to evaluate probabilistic health benefits of emission controls, considering uncertainties in both air quality models and epidemiological concentration-response relationships. Finally, ground-level observations for pollutant (ozone) and precursor

  4. Improving National Air Quality Forecasts with Satellite Aerosol Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saadi, Jassim; Szykman, James; Pierce, R. Bradley; Kittaka, Chieko; Neil, Doreen; Chu, D. Allen; Remer, Lorraine; Gumley, Liam; Prins, Elaine; Weinstock, Lewis; MacDonald, Clinton; Wayland, Richard; Dimmick, Fred; Fishman, Jack

    2005-09-01

    Accurate air quality forecasts can allow for mitigation of the health risks associated with high levels of air pollution. During September 2003, a team of NASA, NOAA, and EPA researchers demonstrated a prototype tool for improving fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality forecasts using satellite aerosol observations. Daily forecast products were generated from a near-real-time fusion of multiple input data products, including aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/ Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument on the NASA Terra satellite, PM2.5 concentration from over 300 state/local/national surface monitoring stations, meteorological fields from the NOAA/NCEP Eta Model, and fire locations from the NOAA/National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) product. The products were disseminated via a Web interface to a small group of forecasters representing state and local air management agencies and the EPA. The MODIS data improved forecaster knowledge of synoptic-scale air pollution events, particularly over oceans and in regions devoid of surface monitors. Forecast trajectories initialized in regions of high AOD offered guidance for identifying potential episodes of poor air quality. The capability of this approach was illustrated with a case study showing that aerosol resulting from wildfires in the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada is transported across the continent to influence air quality in the Great Lakes region a few days later. The timing of this demonstration was selected to help improve the accuracy of the EPA's AIRNow (www.epa.gov/airnow/) air quality index next-day PM2.5 forecast, which began on 1 October 2003. Based on the positive response from air quality managers and forecasters, this prototype was expanded and transitioned to an operational

  5. Mining Environmental Data from a Coupled Modelling System to Examine the Impact of Agricultural Management Practices on Groundwater and Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, V.; Cooter, E. J.; Hayes, B.; Murphy, M. S.; Bash, J. O.

    2014-12-01

    Excess nitrogen (N) resulting from current agricultural management practices can leach into sources of drinking water as nitrate, increasing human health risks of 'blue baby syndrome', hypertension, and some cancers and birth defects. Nitrogen also enters the atmosphere from land surfaces forming air pollution increasing human health risks of pulmonary and cardio-vascular disease. Characterizing and attributing nitrogen from agricultural management practices is difficult due to the complex and inter-related chemical and biological reactions associated with the nitrogen cascade. Coupled physical process-based models, however, present new opportunities to investigate relationships among environmental variables on new scales; particularly because they link emission sources with meteorology and the pollutant concentration ultimately found in the environment. In this study, we applied a coupled meteorology (NOAA-WRF), agricultural (USDA-EPIC) and air quality modelling system (EPA-CMAQ) to examine the impact of nitrogen inputs from corn production on ecosystem and human health and wellbeing. The coupled system accounts for the nitrogen flux between the land surface and air, and the soil surface and groundwater, providing a unique opportunity to examine the effect of management practices such as type and timing of fertilization, tilling and irrigation on both groundwater and air quality across the conterminous US. In conducting the study, we first determined expected relationships based on literature searches and then identified model variables as direct or surrogate variables. We performed extensive and methodical multi-variate regression modelling and variable selection to examine associations between agricultural management practices and environmental condition. We then applied the regression model to predict and contrast pollution levels between two corn production scenarios (Figure 1). Finally, we applied published health functions (e.g., spina bifida and cardio

  6. Shuttle applications in tropospheric air quality observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E.; Gupta, J.; Carmichael, J.

    1978-01-01

    The role which might be played by the space shuttle in obtaining data which describes the air quality of the north-eastern United States was investigated. The data requirements of users, a model for statistical interpretation of the observations, the influence of orbit parameters on the spatial and temporal sampling and an example of application of the the model were considered.

  7. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral....5 percent oxygen and not more than 0.5 percent carbon dioxide, and the volume and velocity of the... worked-out areas where persons work or travel shall contain at least 19.5 percent oxygen, and...

  8. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral....5 percent oxygen and not more than 0.5 percent carbon dioxide, and the volume and velocity of the... worked-out areas where persons work or travel shall contain at least 19.5 percent oxygen, and...

  9. PROMOTING AIR QUALITY THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the promotion of improved air quality through environmental technology verifications (ETVs). In 1995, the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development began the ETV Program in response to President Clinton's "Bridge to a Sustainable Future" and Vice Presiden...

  10. OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING FOR AIR QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper outlines recent developments in using optical remote sensing (ORS) instruments for air quality monitoring both for gaseous pollutants and airborne particulate matter (PM). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been using open-path Fourier transform infrared...

  11. Indoor Air Quality Basics for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    This fact sheet details important information on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in school buildings, problems associated with IAQ, and various prevention and problem-solving strategies. Most people spend 90 percent of their time indoors, therefore the Environmental Protection Agency ranks IAQ in the top four environmental risks to the public. The…

  12. INDOOR AIR QUALITY MODELING (CHAPTER 58)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discussses indoor air quality (IAQ) modeling. Such modeling provides a way to investigate many IAQ problems without the expense of large field experiments. Where experiments are planned, IAQ models can be used to help design experiments by providing information on exp...

  13. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

  14. The Bottom Line For Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how the right type of flooring can help schools reduce indoor-air-quality problems. Using vinyl composition flooring to handle moisture and reduce fungi growth is examined as are the benefits of vinyl cushion tufted textile flooring for cost effectiveness, learning environment improvement, installation, and effectiveness in emergencies.…

  15. Indoor Air Quality Guidelines for Pennsylvania Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Robert S., Jr.

    This report provides information and practical guidance on how to prevent indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in schools, and it describes how to implement a practical plan of action using a minimal amount of resources. It includes general guidelines to prevent or help resolve IAQ problems, guidelines on specific indoor contaminants, recommendations…

  16. Managing Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolums, Jennifer

    This publication examines the causes and effects of poor indoor air quality and provides information for reducing exposure to indoor contaminants in schools. It discusses the various indoor pollutants found in schools, including dust, chemical agents, gases, and volatile organic compounds; where they are found in schools; and their health effects…

  17. Integration of air and water quality issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental sustainability of dairy farms is dependent upon a number of air and water quality issues. Atmospheric emissions include hazardous compounds such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide along with greenhouse gases and their implications with global climate change. Runoff of sediment, phosph...

  18. COMPUTATIONAL MODELING ISSUES IN NEXT GENERATION AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory is leading a major effort to advance urban/regional multi-pollutant air quality modeling through development of a third-generation modeling system, Models-3. he Models-3 system is being developed within a high-performa...

  19. AQMEII: A New International Initiative on Air Quality Model Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    We provide a conceptual view of the process of evaluating regional-scale three-dimensional numerical photochemical air quality modeling system, based on an examination of existing approached to the evaluation of such systems as they are currently used in a variety of application....

  20. Sensor selection for outdoor air quality monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, K. L.; Herr, John R.; Pisano, A. P.

    2014-06-01

    Gas chemical monitoring for next-generation robotics applications such as fire fighting, explosive gas detection, ubiquitous urban monitoring, and mine safety require high performance, reliable sensors. In this work, we discuss the performance requirements of fixed-location, mobile vehicle, and personal sensor nodes for outdoor air quality sensing. We characterize and compare the performance of a miniature commercial electrochemical and a metal oxide gas sensor and discuss their suitability for environmental monitoring applications. Metal oxide sensors are highly cross-sensitive to factors that affect chemical adsorption (e.g., air speed, pressure) and require careful enclosure design or compensation methods. In contrast, electrochemical sensors are less susceptible to environmental variations, have very low power consumption, and are well matched for mobile air quality monitoring.

  1. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  2. Connecting Water Quality With Air Quality Through Microbial Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueker, M. Elias

    air by increasing microbial aerosol settling rates and enhancing viability of aerosolized marine microbes. Using methods developed for the non-urban site, the role of local environment and winds in mediating water-air connections was further investigated in the urban environment. The local environment, including water surfaces, was an important source of microbial aerosols at urban sites. Large portions of the urban waterfront microbial aerosol communities were aquatic and, at a highly polluted Superfund waterfront, were closely related to bacteria previously described in environments contaminated with hydrocarbons, heavy metals, sewage and other industrial waste. Culturable urban aerosols and surface waters contained bacterial genera known to include human pathogens and asthma agents. High onshore winds strengthened this water-air connection by playing both a transport and production role. The microbial connection between water and air quality outlined by this dissertation highlights the need for information on the mechanisms that deliver surface water materials to terrestrial systems on a much larger scale. Moving from point measurements to landscape-level analyses will allow for the quantitative assessment of implications for this microbial water-air-land transfer in both urban and non-urban arenas.

  3. Thermal conditions and perceived air quality in an air-conditioned auditorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polednik, Bernard; Guz, Łukasz; Skwarczyński, Mariusz; Dudzińska, Marzenna R.

    2016-07-01

    The study reports measurements of indoor air temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH), perceived air quality (PAQ) and CO2, fine aerosol particle number (PN) and mass (PM1) concentrations in an air conditioned auditorium. The measurements of these air physical parameters have been carried out in the unoccupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off (AC off mode) and in the unoccupied and occupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off during the night and switched on during the day (AC on/off mode). The average indoor air thermal parameters, CO2 concentration and the PAQ value (in decipols) were elevated, while average PM1 concentration was lower in the AC on/off mode. A statistically significant (p < 0.001) positive correlation has been observed between T and PAQ values and CO2 concentrations (r = 0.66 and r = 0.59, respectively) in that AC mode. A significant negative correlation has been observed between T and PN and PM1 concentrations (r = -0.38 and r = -0.49, respectively). In the AC off mode the above relations between T and the particle concentrations were not that unequivocal. These findings may be of importance as they indicate that in certain AC operation modes the indoor air quality deteriorates along with the variation of the indoor air microclimate and room occupation. This, in turn, may adversely affect the comfort and productivity of the users of air conditioned premises.

  4. Maintenance requirements in solar air heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lof, G.O.G.; Junk, J.P.

    1983-06-01

    The maintenance requirements of a well designed and constructed solar air-heating system are comparable to those of conventional, forced warm air heating systems. One of the major reasons for this low maintenance is the absence of problems associated with corrosion, freezing, boiling, and leakage often encountered in solar liquid systems. Experience shows that most problems are due to overly complex designs, control problems, faulty installation, and adjustment of the moving parts in the system. Operational histories show negligible requirements for maintenance of air collectors, pebble-bed heat-storage bins, and system ducts and connections. Good quality control in the manufacture and installation of airtight collectors, heat-storage bins, and interconnecting ductwork is essential, however. The paper includes a description of solar air-heating systems and their characteristics, an evaluation of the various maintenance requirements, and several case histories illustrating the handling of solar air system maintenance.

  5. Inter-comparison between HERMESv2.0 and TNO-MACC-II emission data using the CALIOPE air quality system (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, Marc; Pay, María Teresa; Martínez, Francesc; Soret, Albert; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Baldasano, José M.

    2014-12-01

    This work examines and compares the performance of two emission datasets on modelling air quality concentrations for Spain: (i) the High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emissions System (HERMESv2.0) and (ii) the TNO-MACC-II emission inventory. For this purpose, the air quality system CALIOPE-AQFS (WRF-ARW/CMAQ/BSC-DREAM8b) was run over Spain for February and June 2009 using the two emission datasets (4 km × 4 km and 1 h). Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), Ozone (O3) and particular matter (PM10) modelled concentrations were compared with measurements at different type of air quality stations (i.e. rural background, urban, suburban industrial). A preliminary emission comparison showed significant discrepancies between the two datasets, highlighting an overestimation of industrial emissions in urban areas when using TNO-MACC-II. However, simulations showed similar performances of both emission datasets in terms of air quality. Modelled NO2 concentrations were similar between both datasets at the background stations, although TNO-MACC-II presented lower underestimations due to differences in industrial, other mobile sources and residential emissions. At Madrid urban stations NO2 was significantly underestimated in both cases despite the fact that HERMESv2.0 estimates traffic emissions using a more local information and detailed methodology. This NO2 underestimation problem was not found in Barcelona due to the influence of international shipping emissions located in the coastline. An inadequate characterization of some TNO-MACC-II's point sources led to high SO2 biases at industrial stations, especially in northwest Spain where large facilities are grouped. In general, surface O3 was overestimated regardless of the emission dataset used, depicting the problematic of CMAQ on overestimating low ozone at night. On the other hand, modelled PM10 concentrations were less underestimated in urban areas when applying HERMESv2.0 due to the inclusion of road dust

  6. The Australian Air Quality Forecasting System: Exploring First Steps Towards Determining The Limits of Predictability For Short-Term Ozone Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cope, M. E.; Hess, G. D.; Lee, S.; Tory, K. J.; Burgers, M.; Dewundege, P.; Johnson, M.

    2005-08-01

    Physical parameterisations of turbulent transfer processes in the atmospheric boundary layer, such as the stability parameterisations developed by Joost Businger, and recent advances in computing capabilities, have been important factors leading to the emergence of operational, numerical air quality forecasting systems. The present paper investigates the performance of the Australian Air Quality Forecasting System (AAQFS) in forecasting the peak 1 h ozone for the current or next day. These 24/36 h forecasts are generated for the Sydney and Melbourne regions and issued twice daily. Quantitative evidence is presented of the potential for the AAQFS to provide accurate numerical air quality forecasts. A second goal is to provide an initial benchmark for investigating the limits of predictability for air quality in the Sydney and Melbourne regions by looking at the dependence of the forecasts on the domain spatial scale (while maintaining the same model grid resolution), the starting time and length of the forecast (0000 UTC starts are 36-h forecasts and 1200 UTC starts are 24-h forecasts), and the sophistication of the photochemical mechanism (simple chemistry, Generic Reaction Set (GRS) and complex chemistry, Carbon Bond IV (CBIV)). The probability of detection by the forecast model is much better than persistence, showing considerable skill. The normalised bias, in general, decreases going from regional scale to sub-regional scale and becomes negative at the station scale. In Melbourne the gross error increases as the domain spatial scale decreases, but in Sydney there is a dip in the error at the sub-regional scale due to a sampling artifact. Better results are obtained at the smaller domain scales for 1200 UTC forecasts in Sydney. These are attributed to the shorter forecast period and secondarily to greater model spin-up effects at 0000 UTC. In Melbourne the results are ambiguous. Similar conclusions are derived from scatter plots of forecasts versus observations

  7. RESULTS OF A PILOT FIELD STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CLEANING RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND THE IMPACT ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses and gives results of a pilot field study to evaluate the effectiveness of air duct cleaning (ADC) as a source removal technique in residential heating and air-conditioning (HAC) systems and its impact on airborne particle, fiber, and bioaerosol concentrations...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  9. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  12. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality rules identified in paragraph (a) of this section, and the Lane Regional Air Pollution...

  14. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  15. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  18. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  1. Use of Air Quality Observations by the National Air Quality Forecast Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajner, I.; McQueen, J.; Lee, P.; Stein, A. F.; Kondragunta, S.; Ruminski, M.; Tong, D.; Pan, L.; Huang, J. P.; Shafran, P.; Huang, H. C.; Dickerson, P.; Upadhayay, S.

    2015-12-01

    The National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC) operational predictions of ozone and wildfire smoke for the United States (U.S.) and predictions of airborne dust for continental U.S. are available at http://airquality.weather.gov/. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operational North American Mesoscale (NAM) weather predictions are combined with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to produce the ozone predictions and test fine particulate matter (PM2.5) predictions. The Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model provides smoke and dust predictions. Air quality observations constrain emissions used by NAQFC predictions. NAQFC NOx emissions from mobile sources were updated using National Emissions Inventory (NEI) projections for year 2012. These updates were evaluated over large U.S. cities by comparing observed changes in OMI NO2 observations and NOx measured by surface monitors. The rate of decrease in NOx emission projections from year 2005 to year 2012 is in good agreement with the observed changes over the same period. Smoke emissions rely on the fire locations detected from satellite observations obtained from NESDIS Hazard Mapping System (HMS). Dust emissions rely on a climatology of areas with a potential for dust emissions based on MODIS Deep Blue aerosol retrievals. Verification of NAQFC predictions uses AIRNow compilation of surface measurements for ozone and PM2.5. Retrievals of smoke from GOES satellites are used for verification of smoke predictions. Retrievals of dust from MODIS are used for verification of dust predictions. In summary, observations are the basis for the emissions inputs for NAQFC, they are critical for evaluation of performance of NAQFC predictions, and furthermore they are used in real-time testing of bias correction of PM2.5 predictions, as we continue to work on improving modeling and emissions important for representation of PM2.5.

  2. Future Air Force systems.

    PubMed

    Tremaine, S A

    1986-10-01

    Planning for the future is under way in earnest at the Aeronautical Systems Division (ASD) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It has been statistically established that it takes from 14-16 years from the generation of a new system idea to enter into engineering development. With this unpleasing, but realistic, schedule in mind, ASD has, during the last 3 years, been initiating long-term planning projects that are pre-starts for new system ideas. They are generated from throughout the Air Force and are locally managed and funded. Through this process, which spans from 12-14 months, specific and revolutionary new ideas for the systems of the future are generated. This article addresses more than a dozen specific new ideas in work at ASD today. These ideas range from a need to replace the C-130 type aircraft after the year 2000 to planning a follow-on to the B-18 well into the 21st century. Among other specific projects are investigation into an immortal fighter intended to be free of reliability and maintenance demands for an especially long period of operation, a new training system and advanced trainer to replace the T-38, a transatmospheric vehicle that could operate in the 100,000-500,000 foot flight region (30,480-152,400 m), and a new means of defending against hostile cruise missile launchers and cruise missiles. Other ideas are also addressed. The article concludes with emphasis on systems that can operate hypersonically in and out of the known atmosphere and greater use of airbreathing propulsion systems operating between Mach 3 and Mach 6. PMID:3778403

  3. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    PubMed

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel. PMID:27112132

  4. Baseline air quality study at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, M.J.; Charboneau, R.

    1980-10-01

    Air quality and meteorological data collected at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are presented. The data represent baseline values for the pre-construction phase of a proposed coal-gasification test facility. Air quality data were characterized through continuous monitoring of gaseous pollutants, collection of meteorological data, data acquisition and reduction, and collection and analysis of discrete atmospheric samples. Seven air quality parameters were monitored and recorded on a continuous real-time basis: sulfur dioxide, ozone, total hydrocarbons, nonreactive hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide. A 20.9-m tower was erected near Argonne's mobile air monitoring laboratory, which was located immediately downwind of the proposed facility. The tower was instrumented at three levels to collect continuous meteorological data. Wind speed was monitored at three levels; wind direction, horizontal and vertical, at the top level; ambient temperature at the top level; and differential temperature between all three levels. All continuously-monitored parameters were digitized and recorded on magnetic tape. Appropriate software was prepared to reduce the data. Statistical summaries, grphical displays, and correlation studies also are presented.

  5. Indoor air quality and health in schools*

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana Maria da Conceição; Cardoso, Massano

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether indoor air quality in schools is associated with the prevalence of allergic and respiratory diseases in children. Methods: We evaluated 1,019 students at 51 elementary schools in the city of Coimbra, Portugal. We applied a questionnaire that included questions regarding the demographic, social, and behavioral characteristics of students, as well as the presence of smoking in the family. We also evaluated the indoor air quality in the schools. Results: In the indoor air of the schools evaluated, we identified mean concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) above the maximum reference value, especially during the fall and winter. The CO2 concentration was sometimes as high as 1,942 ppm, implying a considerable health risk for the children. The most prevalent symptoms and respiratory diseases identified in the children were sneezing, rales, wheezing, rhinitis, and asthma. Other signs and symptoms, such as poor concentration, cough, headache, and irritation of mucous membranes, were identified. Lack of concentration was associated with CO2 concentrations above the maximum recommended level in indoor air (p = 0.002). There were no other significant associations. Conclusions: Most of the schools evaluated presented with reasonable air quality and thermal comfort. However, the concentrations of various pollutants, especially CO2, suggest the need for corrective interventions, such as reducing air pollutant sources and improving ventilation. There was a statistically significant association between lack of concentration in the children and exposure to high levels of CO2. The overall low level of pollution in the city of Coimbra might explain the lack of other significant associations. PMID:25029649

  6. Monitoring and analysis of air quality in Riga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubelis, Arnolds; Leitass, Andris; Vitols, Maris

    1995-09-01

    Riga, the capital of Latvia is a city with nearly 900,000 inhabitants and various highly concentrated industries. Air pollution in Riga is a serious problem affecting health and damaging valuable buildings of historical importance, as acid rain and smog take their toll. Therefore the Air Quality Management System with significant assistance from Swedish Government and persistent efforts from Riga City Council was arranged in Riga. It contains INDIC AIRVIRO system which simulates and evaluates air pollution levels at various locations. It then processes the data in order to predict air quality based on a number of criteria and parameters, measured by OPSIS differential absorption instruments, as well as data from the Meteorological Service and results of episodic measurements. The analysis of the results provided by Riga Air Quality Management System for the first time allows us to start comprehensive supervision of troposphere physical, chemical, and photochemical processes in the air of Riga as well as to appreciate the influence of lcoal pollution and transboundary transfer. The report contains the actual results of this work and first attempts of analysis as well as overview about activities towards research and teaching in the fields of spectroscopy and photochemistry of polluted atmospheres.

  7. Achieving indoor air quality through contaminant control

    SciTech Connect

    Katzel, J.

    1995-07-10

    Federal laws outlining industry`s responsibilities in creating a healthy, hazard-free workspace are well known. OSHA`s laws on interior air pollution establish threshold limit values (TLVs) and permissible exposure limits (PELs) for more than 500 potentially hazardous substances found in manufacturing operations. Until now, OSHA has promulgated regulations only for the manufacturing environment. However, its recently-proposed indoor air quality (IAQ) ruling, if implemented, will apply to all workspaces. It regulates IAQ, including environmental tobacco smoke, and requires employers to write and implement IAQ compliance plans.

  8. The air quality forecast about PM2.5 before and during APEC 2014 in Beijing by WRF-CMAQ model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qizhong; Xu, Wenshuai; Wang, Zifa

    2015-04-01

    In the past year 2014, the APEC meeting was hold in Beijing, where the particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration is high and worried. In such a heavily air-polluted environment, people want access to reasonable air quality predictions, that the government can take necessary short-term emissions reduction measures to improve air quality. According to Wu et al. (2014), the enhanced model domain and the updated emissions inventory will improve the model performance of particulate matter concentration obviously, a new model system, with the enhanced 9km-domain and latest emission inventory in WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ model, was established in October 2014, before APEC. As a result, the model system plays good performance in the whole October: 1) the model catches four air pollution episodes in October, and has a high correlation coefficient of 0.89, 2) the daily forecast of PM2.5 concentration reaches 277 \\unit{{μ}g m-3} and close to the observed value (320 \\unit{{μ}g m-3}), but still a little underestimated, 3) the mean bias(MB) of the forecast to observed is 1.03 \\unit{{μ}g m-3} and the normalized mean bias(NMB) is 24.9{%}, 4) the normalized mean square error (NMSE) between the forecast and observed is 0.137 in October. The forecast results, with well performance, indicate the emissions inventory used in the model system is reasonable as baseline scenario, which scenario without any emission-sources reduction. From 3 to 12 November, the emission-sources reduction measures(e.g. the traffic restriction, factory cut production and closures) are carried step by step in Beijing and its surrounding areas. Those measures information is collected and used in the SMOKE model with growth/project module, to prepared as a reduced emissions inventory as APEC scenario. The same WRF-CMAQ model system, but be driven by the emission inventory of APEC scenario, was added from 3 November, to forecast the air quality under such emission-sources reduction measures, and evaluate the effect of

  9. Air quality data analysis system for interrelating effects, standards, and needed source reductions: Part 12. Effects on man, animals, and plants as a function of air pollutant impact

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.I.; McDonnell, W.F.; Coffin, D.L.; Heck, W.W.

    1993-12-01

    The impact-effect mathematical model was developed previously to predict biological response as a function of air pollutant impact (exposure duration multiplied by pollutant concentration raised on an exponent). The purpose of this paper is plot and regress example effects on man, animals, and plants (a wide range of life forms) as a function of air pollutant impact to determine how well the plotted data fit this model and to determine, especially, how well both acute and chronic exposure data fit the model. The three examples of air pollutant effects plotted and regressed are: for man, lung function decrease after exposure to ozone (O3); for animals, mice mortality after exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2); and for plants, leaf injury after exposure to O3. The resultant impact-effect equations explain 95 percent of the variance for the lung function data, 92 percent for leaf injury, and 73 percent for mice mortality.

  10. Quality screening for air quality monitoring data in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Weifeng; Li, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter data obtained from the national air quality monitoring network in China has become an essential and critical data source for many current and forthcoming studies as well as the formulation and implementation of air pollution regulatory policies on particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10). However, the quality control of this data is dubitable and can affect many future studies and policies. This study identifies and elucidates two significant quality control issues with the data. They are PM2.5 levels exceeding concurrent co-located PM10 levels and the registration of same concentrations for consecutive hours at some stations. Future studies utilizing particulate matter data need to acknowledge and address these issues to ensure accurate and reliable results. PMID:27376986

  11. 40 CFR 93.160 - Mitigation of air quality impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mitigation of air quality impacts. 93... quality impacts. (a) Any measures that are intended to mitigate air quality impacts must be identified and..., the revised text is set forth as follows: § 93.160 Mitigation of air quality impacts. (e)...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR Chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR Chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR Chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  15. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  16. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  17. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  18. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  19. Determination of Air Quality. Proceedings of the ACS Symposium on Determination of Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamantov, Gleb, Ed.; Shults, W. D., Ed.

    Composed of data submitted by a variety of experts in the field, this book provides an introduction to air pollution control. It contains the proceedings of the American Chemical Society Symposium on Determination of Air Quality held in Los Angeles, California, April 1-2, 1971. Contributions from chemists, physicians, engineers, administrators,…

  20. 77 FR 73320 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ...EPA is taking final action under section 110 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) to approve a State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD or District) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This SIP revision incorporates District Rule 1714--Prevention of Significant Deterioration for Greenhouse Gases into the California SIP.......

  1. 78 FR 30829 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Air Quality Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... Quality Standards Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY..., Control Strategies Section, Air Programs Branch (AR-18J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 77 West... Section, Air Programs Branch (AR-18J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 77 West Jackson...

  2. 75 FR 40762 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air Quality...

  3. Modeling air quality over China: Results from the Panda project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katinka Petersen, Anna; Bouarar, Idir; Brasseur, Guy; Granier, Claire; Xie, Ying; Wang, Lili; Wang, Xuemei

    2015-04-01

    China faces strong air pollution problems related to rapid economic development in the past decade and increasing demand for energy. Air quality monitoring stations often report high levels of particle matter and ozone all over the country. Knowing its long-term health impacts, air pollution became then a pressing problem not only in China but also in other Asian countries. The PANDA project is a result of cooperation between scientists from Europe and China who joined their efforts for a better understanding of the processes controlling air pollution in China, improve methods for monitoring air quality and elaborate indicators in support of European and Chinese policies. A modeling system of air pollution is being setup within the PANDA project and include advanced global (MACC, EMEP) and regional (WRF-Chem, EMEP) meteorological and chemical models to analyze and monitor air quality in China. The poster describes the accomplishments obtained within the first year of the project. Model simulations for January and July 2010 are evaluated with satellite measurements (SCIAMACHY NO2 and MOPITT CO) and in-situ data (O3, CO, NOx, PM10 and PM2.5) observed at several surface stations in China. Using the WRF-Chem model, we investigate the sensitivity of the model performance to emissions (MACCity, HTAPv2), horizontal resolution (60km, 20km) and choice of initial and boundary conditions.

  4. Building air quality: A guide for building owners and facility managers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The guide was intended to help those individuals responsible for air quality control in buildings to prevent indoor air quality problems from developing and resolving such problems quickly should they develop. Background information and guidance on dealing with indoor air quality problems were provided. Specific topics included: factors which affect indoor air quality; sources of indoor air contaminants; heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; the role of building occupants; effective communication between managers and others involved; developing an indoor air quality (IAQ) profile; managing a building for good IAQ; diagnosing IAQ problems; mitigating IAQ problems, hiring professional assistance to solve an IAQ problem; common IAQ measurements; HVAC systems and IAQ; moisture with resultant mold and mildew conditions; asbestos (1332214); radon (10043922); and resources through which additional information can be obtained. Indoor air quality forms were included which can be modified to meet individual needs.

  5. An air quality forecasting system in Beijing--application to the study of dust storm events in China in May 2008.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qijie; Laurent, Benoit; Velay-Lasry, Fanny; Ngo, Richard; Derognat, Claude; Marticorena, Béatrice; Albergel, Armand

    2012-01-01

    An air pollution forecast system, ARIA Regional, was implemented in 2007-2008 at the Beijing Municipality Environmental Monitoring Center, providing daily forecast of main pollutant concentrations. The chemistry-transport model CHIMERE was coupled with the dust emission model MB95 for restituting dust storm events in springtime so as to improve forecast results. Dust storm events were sporadic but could be extremely intense and then control air quality indexes close to the source areas but also far in the Beijing area. A dust episode having occurred at the end of May 2008 was analyzed in this article, and its impact of particulate matter on the Chinese air pollution index (API) was evaluated. Following our estimation, about 23 Tg of dust were emitted from source areas in Mongolia and in the Inner Mongolia of China, transporting towards southeast. This episode of dust storm influenced a large part of North China and East China, and also South Korea. The model result was then evaluated using satellite observations and in situ data. The simulated daily concentrations of total suspended particulate at 6:00 UTC had a similar spatial pattern with respect to OMI satellite aerosol index. Temporal evolution of dust plume was evaluated by comparing dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) calculated from the simulations with AOD derived from MODIS satellite products. Finally, the comparison of reported Chinese API in Beijing with API calculated from the simulation including dust emissions had showed the significant improvement of the model results taking into account mineral dust correctly. PMID:22783620

  6. Definition of air quality measurements for monitoring space shuttle launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    A description of a recommended air quality monitoring network to characterize the impact on ambient air quality in the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) (area) of space shuttle launch operations is given. Analysis of ground cloud processes and prevalent meteorological conditions indicates that transient HCl depositions can be a cause for concern. The system designed to monitor HCl employs an extensive network of inexpensive detectors combined with a central analysis device. An acid rain network is also recommended. A quantitative measure of projected minimal long-term impact involves the limited monitoring of NOx and particulates. All recommended monitoring is confined ti KSC property.

  7. Impact of inherent meteorology uncertainty on air quality model predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliam, Robert C.; Hogrefe, Christian; Godowitch, James M.; Napelenok, Sergey; Mathur, Rohit; Rao, S. Trivikrama

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that there are a number of different classifications and sources of uncertainties in environmental modeling systems. Air quality models rely on two key inputs, namely, meteorology and emissions. When using air quality models for decision making, it is important to understand how uncertainties in these inputs affect the simulated concentrations. Ensembles are one method to explore how uncertainty in meteorology affects air pollution concentrations. Most studies explore this uncertainty by running different meteorological models or the same model with different physics options and in some cases combinations of different meteorological and air quality models. While these have been shown to be useful techniques in some cases, we present a technique that leverages the initial condition perturbations of a weather forecast ensemble, namely, the Short-Range Ensemble Forecast system to drive the four-dimensional data assimilation in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with a key focus being the response of ozone chemistry and transport. Results confirm that a sizable spread in WRF solutions, including common weather variables of temperature, wind, boundary layer depth, clouds, and radiation, can cause a relatively large range of ozone-mixing ratios. Pollutant transport can be altered by hundreds of kilometers over several days. Ozone-mixing ratios of the ensemble can vary as much as 10-20 ppb or 20-30% in areas that typically have higher pollution levels.

  8. South coast air quality management district

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    The first of several state-of-the-art sampling instruments to monitor acid fog in the South Coast Air Basin on an on-going basis has been in stalled in Rubidoux by the South Coast Air Quality Management District. The automated equipment, called the Caltech Active Strand Collector (CASC), is part of a long-term acid fog monitoring program developed by AQMD. The collecting process involves drawing a fog-laden air sample into the collector where fog droplets strike a series of teflon strands and run down to a collection trough. The sample is then sent to AQMD's laboratory to determine acidity and chemical composition. The monitoring equipment will be moved to Pomona later this winter, and to Crestline in the spring. Following this initial evaluation period, additional CASC units will be sited in the region.

  9. Building ventilation and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Hollowell, C.D.; Berk, J.V.; Boegel, M.L.; Miksch, R.R.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Traynor, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor contaminants and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Four indoor air contaminants - carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide from gas appliances; formaldehyde from particleboard, plywood, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and gas appliances; and radon from building materials, soil, and ground water - are currently receiving considerable attention in the context of potential health risks associated with reduced infiltration and ventilation rates. These air contaminants in conventional and energy efficient buildings were measured and analyzed with a view to assessing their potential health risks and various control strategies capable of lowering pollutant concentrations. Preliminary findings suggest that further intensive studies are needed in order to develop criteria for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality without compromising energy efficiency.

  10. Air Quality Scoping Study for Rachel, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Kavouras, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David

    2007-04-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each site’s sampling program.

  11. Air Quality Scoping Study for Beatty, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Kav, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David

    2007-04-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each site’s sampling program.

  12. Predictive Techniques for Spacecraft Cabin Air Quality Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.; Cromes, Scott D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) proceeds, predictive techniques are used to determine the best approach for handling a variety of cabin air quality challenges. These techniques use equipment offgassing data collected from each ISS module before flight to characterize the trace chemical contaminant load. Combined with crew metabolic loads, these data serve as input to a predictive model for assessing the capability of the onboard atmosphere revitalization systems to handle the overall trace contaminant load as station assembly progresses. The techniques for predicting in-flight air quality are summarized along with results from early ISS mission analyses. Results from groundbased analyses of in-flight air quality samples are compared to the predictions to demonstrate the technique's relative conservatism.

  13. Altitude characteristics of selected air quality analyzers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. H.; Strong, R.; Tommerdahl, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of altitude (pressure) on the operation and sensitivity of various air quality analyzers frequently flown on aircraft were analyzed. Two ozone analyzers were studied at altitudes from 600 to 7500 m and a nitrogen oxides chemiluminescence detector and a sulfur dioxide flame photometric detector were studied at altitudes from 600 to 3000 m. Calibration curves for altitude corrections to the sensitivity of the instruments are presented along with discussion of observed instrument behavior.

  14. AIR QUALITY MODELING OF AMMONIA: A REGIONAL MODELING PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The talk will address the status of modeling of ammonia from a regional modeling perspective, yet the observations and comments should have general applicability. The air quality modeling system components that are central to modeling ammonia will be noted and a perspective on ...

  15. Indoor air quality & airborne disease control in healthcare facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, S.

    1997-06-01

    This article is concerned with indoor air quality (IAQ) in the context of healthcare facilities. It defines what is meant by IAQ, lists health outcomes of poor IAQ, addresses specific healthcare IAQ issues, discusses solutions by means of HVAC systems, and covers relevant regulations and standards.

  16. Carpet and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    Ways in which carpeting can affect a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) are discussed. Carpeting is defined as a system of components that includes pads, adhesives, floor preparation compounds, and seam sealers. For the last several years, these products have been increasingly scrutinized as to how they affect IAQ. Carpeting gives off volatile…

  17. Global Warming and Air Quality in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    The atmospheric lapse rate has been observed to decrease as a result of global warming. Reduced lapse rate is a result of a robust water vapor/lapse rate climate feedback simulated in coupled ocean-atmosphere models. The reduced lapse rate makes the atmosphere more stable, and in turn the more stable atmosphere can affect air quality in many aspects, most of them detrimental to the air quality. The largest effect of an increased vertical stability is an increased trapping of air pollutants in the boundary layer. A more stable atmosphere also makes it less likely to precipitate, especially for light and moderate precipitation that requires an unstable large-scale environment. Thus there is less scavenging of air pollutants by precipitation. Furthermore less precipitation implies less cloud cover or more clear days which can result in more nighttime inversions, again trapping more pollutants in the surface layer. Significant increase in clear days has been observed in China in the last 50 years, this can be a major contributor to more and worse fog/haze events in recent decades.

  18. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    PubMed Central

    Jurado, Sonia R.; Bankoff, Antônia D. P.; Sanchez, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 μg/m3) in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively). The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem. PMID:25019268

  19. Dynamic Management of NOx and SO2 Emissions in the Texas and Mid-Atlantic Electric Power Systems and Implications for Air Quality.

    PubMed

    McDonald-Buller, Elena; Kimura, Yosuke; Craig, Michael; McGaughey, Gary; Allen, David; Webster, Mort

    2016-02-01

    Cap and trade programs have historically been designed to achieve annual or seasonal reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from power plants. Emissions reductions may not be temporally coincident with meteorological conditions conducive to the formation of peak ozone and fine particulate matter concentrations. Integrated power system and air quality modeling methods were developed to evaluate time-differentiated emissions price signals on high ozone days in the Mid-Atlantic portion of the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) Interconnection and Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) grids. Sufficient flexibility exists in the two grids with marked differences in demand and fuel generation mix to accommodate time-differentiated emissions pricing alone or in combination with a season-wide program. System-wide emissions reductions and production costs from time-differentiated pricing are shown to be competitive with those of a season-wide program on high ozone days and would be more cost-effective if the primary policy goal was to target emissions reductions on these days. Time-differentiated pricing layered as a complement to the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule had particularly pronounced benefits for the Mid-Atlantic PJM system that relies heavily on coal-fired generation. Time-differentiated pricing aimed at reducing ozone concentrations had particulate matter reduction co-benefits, but if particulate matter reductions are the primary objective, other approaches to time-differentiated pricing may lead to greater benefits. PMID:26727552

  20. Urban compaction or dispersion? An air quality modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Helena

    2012-07-01

    Urban sprawl is altering the landscape, with current trends pointing to further changes in land use that will, in turn, lead to changes in population, energy consumption, atmospheric emissions and air quality. Urban planners have debated on the most sustainable urban structure, with arguments in favour and against urban compaction and dispersion. However, it is clear that other areas of expertise have to be involved. Urban air quality and human exposure to atmospheric pollutants as indicators of urban sustainability can contribute to the discussion, namely through the study of the relation between urban structure and air quality. This paper addresses the issue by analysing the impacts of alternative urban growth patterns on the air quality of Porto urban region in Portugal, through a 1-year simulation with the MM5-CAMx modelling system. This region has been experiencing one of the highest European rates of urban sprawl, and at the same time presents a poor air quality. As part of the modelling system setup, a sensitivity study was conducted regarding different land use datasets and spatial distribution of emissions. Two urban development scenarios were defined, SPRAWL and COMPACT, together with their new land use and emission datasets; then meteorological and air quality simulations were performed. Results reveal that SPRAWL land use changes resulted in an average temperature increase of 0.4 °C, with local increases reaching as high as 1.5 °C. SPRAWL results also show an aggravation of PM10 annual average values and an increase in the exceedances to the daily limit value. For ozone, differences between scenarios were smaller, with SPRAWL presenting larger concentration differences than COMPACT. Finally, despite the higher concentrations found in SPRAWL, population exposure to the pollutants is higher for COMPACT because more inhabitants are found in areas of highest concentration levels.

  1. Analysis of air quality management with emphasis on transportation sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T. D.; Divita, E.; Lees, L.

    1980-01-01

    The current environment and practices of air quality management were examined for three regions: Denver, Phoenix, and the South Coast Air Basin of California. These regions were chosen because the majority of their air pollution emissions are related to mobile sources. The impact of auto exhaust on the air quality management process is characterized and assessed. An examination of the uncertainties in air pollutant measurements, emission inventories, meteorological parameters, atmospheric chemistry, and air quality simulation models is performed. The implications of these uncertainties to current air quality management practices is discussed. A set of corrective actions are recommended to reduce these uncertainties.

  2. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Act are not met, since the plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  3. Developing a risk-based air quality health index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Tze Wai; Tam, Wilson Wai San; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Lau, Alexis Kai Hon; Pang, Sik Wing; Wong, Andromeda H. S.

    2013-09-01

    We developed a risk-based, multi-pollutant air quality health index (AQHI) reporting system in Hong Kong, based on the Canadian approach. We performed time series studies to obtain the relative risks of hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases associated with four air pollutants: sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10). We then calculated the sum of excess risks of the hospital admissions associated with these air pollutants. The cut-off points of the summed excess risk, for the issuance of different health warnings, were based on the concentrations of these pollutants recommended as short-term Air Quality Guidelines by the World Health Organization. The excess risks were adjusted downwards for young children and the elderly. Health risk was grouped into five categories and sub-divided into eleven bands, with equal increments in excess risk from band 1 up to band 10 (the 11th band is 'band 10+'). We developed health warning messages for the general public, including at-risk groups: young children, the elderly, and people with pre-existing cardiac or respiratory diseases. The new system addressed two major shortcomings of the current standard-based system; namely, the time lag between a sudden rise in air pollutant concentrations and the issue of a health warning, and the reliance on one dominant pollutant to calculate the index. Hence, the AQHI represents an improvement over Hong Kong's existing air pollution index.

  4. ONE ATMOSPHERE MODELING FOR AIR QUALITY: BUILDING PARTNERSHIPS THAT TRANSITION RESEARCH INTO APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Miultiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system is a "one atmosphere" chemical transport model that simulates the transport and fate of air pollutants from urban to continental scales and from daily to annual time intervals.

  5. New Zealand traffic and local air quality.

    PubMed

    Irving, Paul; Moncrieff, Ian

    2004-12-01

    Since 1996 the New Zealand Ministry of Transport (MOT) has been investigating the effects of road transport on local air quality. The outcome has been the government's Vehicle Fleet Emissions Control Strategy (VFECS). This is a programme of measures designed to assist with the improvement in local air quality, and especially in the appropriate management of transport sector emissions. Key to the VFECS has been the development of tools to assess and predict the contribution of vehicle emissions to local air pollution, in a given urban situation. Determining how vehicles behave as an emissions source, and more importantly, how the combined traffic flows contribute to the total emissions within a given airshed location was an important element of the programme. The actual emissions output of a vehicle is more than that determined by a certified emission standard, at the point of manufacture. It is the engine technology's general performance capability, in conjunction with the local driving conditions, that determines its actual emissions output. As vehicles are a mobile emissions source, to understand the effect of vehicle technology, it is necessary to work with the average fleet performance, or "fleet-weighted average emissions rate". This is the unit measure of performance of the general traffic flow that could be passing through a given road corridor or network, as an average, over time. The flow composition can be representative of the national fleet population, but also may feature particular vehicle types in a given locality, thereby have a different emissions 'signature'. A summary of the range of work that has been completed as part of the VFECS programme is provided. The NZ Vehicle Fleet Emissions Model and the derived data set available in the NZ Traffic Emission Rates provide a significant step forward in the consistent analysis of practical, sustainable vehicle emissions policy and air-quality management in New Zealand. PMID:15504517

  6. Practical approaches for health care: Indoor air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Turk, A.R.; Poulakos, E.M.

    1996-05-01

    The management of indoor air quality (IAQ) is of interest to building occupants, managers, owners, and regulators alike. Whether by poor design, improper attention, inadequate maintenance or the intent to save energy, many buildings today have significantly degraded IAQ levels. Acceptable IAQ is defined by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) in Standard 62-1989 {open_quotes}Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality{close_quotes} as {open_quotes}air in which there are no known contaminants at harmful concentrations as determined by cognizant authorities and with which a substantial majority (80 percent or more) of the people exposed do not express dissatisfaction.{close_quotes} ASHRAE`s definition not only addresses the chemical compounds that may be present in the air, but it also recognizes a need to address both physiological and psychosocial comfort. The second step is to conduct a performance review of the HVAC systems based on equipment design specifications and guidelines for acceptable IAQ. And the third step is to identify potential chemical, physical and biological sources that are known to contribute to adverse air quality. Upon completion of these three steps, you will able to identify the more significant contributors to IAQ problems and establish applications for prevention and mitigation.

  7. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  8. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  9. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  11. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  12. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  16. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  17. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  18. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  19. Parent's Guide to School Indoor Air Quality. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is air pollution, indoors or out. Good indoor air quality (IAQ) contributes to a favorable learning environment for students, protects health, and supports the productivity of school personnel. In schools in poor repair, leaky roofs and crumbling walls have caused additional indoor air quality problems, including contamination with…

  20. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more pol...

  1. CFD simulation research on residential indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Ye, Miao; He, Bao-Jie

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays people are excessively depending on air conditioning to create a comfortable indoor environment, but it could cause some health problems in a long run. In this paper, wind velocity field, temperature field and air age field in a bedroom with wall-hanging air conditioning running in summer are analyzed by CFD numerical simulation technology. The results show that wall-hanging air conditioning system can undertake indoor heat load and conduct good indoor thermal comfort. In terms of wind velocity, air speed in activity area where people sit and stand is moderate, most of which cannot feel wind flow and meet the summer indoor wind comfort requirement. However, for air quality, there are local areas without ventilation and toxic gases not discharged in time. Therefore it is necessary to take effective measures to improve air quality. Compared with the traditional measurement method, CFD software has many advantages in simulating indoor environment, so it is hopeful for humans to create a more comfortable, healthy living environment by CFD in the future. PMID:24365517

  2. Air Quality in the Central Ontario Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gbor, P. K.; Meng, F.; Singh, R.; Galvez, O.; Sloan, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Central Ontario Region (COR) is the most densely populated area in Canada. With a population of 7.3 million, it contains 23% of the total population of Canada. It extends from the extreme south west end of Ontario to the eastern end of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and includes the Niagara, Hamilton and Waterloo Regions,. The air quality of this region is frequently severely impaired in the summer months. In the larger metropolitan areas (Toronto and Hamilton) air pollution is a concern throughout the year. Local health authorities attribute about 1000 premature deaths per year in the GTA alone to air pollution. Average air pollution levels in Ontario have decreased significantly during the past 30 years, despite significant growth in both population and industry. The concentrations of SO2 and CO have decreased by over 80% and the concentration of NOX has decreased by about 50% over the past 26 years. Currently, the concentrations of NOX, CO, SO2 and VOCs in the COR are well below the Provincial and Federal air quality criteria. Ozone, PM2.5 and PM10, however, remain above the Provincial guidelines, so smog still remains a problem. The pollutants in the atmosphere of the COR are caused by both local emissions and long range transport. The COR contributes over 50% of the NOx, VOC and CO emissions in Ontario. Over 58% of NOX and CO emissions in the COR are due to mobile sources while about 50% of VOC and PM emissions are due to area sources. The proximity of the COR to the Canada-U.S. border makes it vulnerable to long range transport of pollutants stemming from the much larger population in the United States. The Canadian government, industries and non-governmental organizations are all taking steps to help reduce the level of pollution in Canada. The Canadian federal government also participates in extensive consultations and cooperative programs with the United States designed to reduce the mutually detrimental effects of cross-border pollution. These

  3. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  4. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  5. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  6. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention...

  9. 40 CFR 51.860 - Mitigation of air quality impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mitigation of air quality impacts. 51... Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 51.860 Mitigation of air quality impacts. Link... mitigate air quality impacts must be identified and the process for implementation and enforcement of...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  11. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  12. 40 CFR 52.986 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.986 Section 52.986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Louisiana on August 14, 1984 (as adopted... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of...

  13. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  14. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The... federal vessel emissions provisions contained in 40 CFR 51.166. In a letter dated October 17,...

  15. 40 CFR 93.160 - Mitigation of air quality impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Mitigation of air quality impacts. 93.160 Section 93.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality impacts. (a) Any measures that are intended to mitigate air quality impacts must be identified...

  16. 40 CFR 93.160 - Mitigation of air quality impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mitigation of air quality impacts. 93.160 Section 93.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality impacts. (a) Any measures that are intended to mitigate air quality impacts must be identified...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52... Address: Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Pollution Control, Air Division,...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states....

  19. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...