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Sample records for air quantitative analysis

  1. Ozone-cyclohexene reaction in air: quantitative analysis of particulate products and the reaction mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Hatakeyama, S.; Tanonaka, T.; Weng, J.; Bandow, H.; Takagi, H.; Akimot, H.

    1985-10-01

    Both gaseous and particulate products of the cyclohexene-ozone reaction were analyzed. Major gaseous products were aldehydes that consist of adipaldehyde (CHO(CH/sub 2/)/sub 4/CHO), glutaraldehyde (CHO(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/CHO), and pentanal (CH/sub 3/(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/CHO). The sum of the primary yields of aldehydes reaches as high as 50%. In addition to aldehydes, formic acid, CO, and CO/sub 2/ were produced, but formaldehyde was not detected. Main particulate products were adipaldehyde, 6-oxohexanoic acid (CHO(CH/sub 2/)/sub 4/COOH), adipic acid (HOOC(CH/sub 2/)/sub 4/COOH), glutaraldehyde, 5-oxopentanoic acid (CHO(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/COOH), and glutaric acid (HOOC(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/COOH). All these compounds were analyzed quantitatively, and the fraction of initial cyclohexene converted to aerosol organic carbon was estimated to be 13 +/- 3% as the value extrapolated to a ppm concentration range of reactants. Although the reaction mechanism is in general explainable in terms of the Criegee mechanism, the reaction pathway to form formic acid is quite unique in this reaction system. The entire mechanism was discussed on the basis of the quantitative product analysis data.

  2. Formaldehyde quantitation in air samples by thiazolidine derivatization: Factors affecting analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuhara, A.; Shibamoto, T. )

    1989-11-01

    A new method for the determination of trace levels of formaldehyde in air was developed and validated. The method is based on the reaction of formaldehyde with cysteamine to form thiazolidine. Air samples containing trace levels of formaldehyde were prepared from paraformaldehyde. The percent yield of formaldehyde from paraformaldehyde was 85.1 +/- 1.14%. Air samples were bubbled into an aqueous cysteamine trap. Thiazolidine formed from formaldehyde and cysteamine in the trap was determined by gas chromatography with a fused silica capillary column and a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD). The lowest detection level for thiazolidine was 17.2 pg, equivalent to 5.80 pg formaldehyde. The recovery efficiency of trace gas phase formaldehyde in air was greater than 90%. Formaldehyde levels in ambient laboratory air were 48.9-56.2 ppb (v/v).

  3. Application of ion chemistry and the SIFT technique to the quantitative analysis of trace gases in air and on breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David; Španěl, Patrik

    Our major objective in this paper is to describe a new method we have developed for the analysis of trace gases at partial pressures down to the ppb level in atmospheric air, with special emphasis on the detection and quantification of trace gases on human breath. It involves the use of our selected ion flow tube (Sift) technique which we previously developed and used extensively for the study of gas phase ionic reactions occurring in ionized media such as the terrestrial atmosphere and interstellar gas clouds. Before discussing this analytical technique we describe the results of our very recent Sift and flowing afterglow (FA) studies of the reactions of the H3O+ and OH- ions, of their hydrates H3O+(H2O)1,2,3 and OH- (H2O)1,2, and of NO+ and O2+, with several hydrocarbons and oxygen-bearing organic molecules, studies that are very relevant to our trace gas analytical studies. Then follows a detailed discussion of the application of our Sift technique to trace gas analysis, after which we present some results obtained for the analyses of laboratory air, the breath of a healthy non-smoking person, the breath of a person who regularly smokes cigarettes, the complex vapours emitted by banana and onion, and the molecules present in a butane/air flame. We show how the quantitative analysis of breath can be achieved from only a single exhalation and in real time (the time response of the instrument is only about 20 ms). We also show how the time variation of breath gases over long time periods can be followed, using the decay of ethanol on the breath after the ingestion of distilled liquor as an example, yet simultaneously following several other trace gases including acetone and isoprene which are very easily detected on the breath of all individuals because of their relatively high partial pressures (typically 100 to 1000 ppb). The breath of a smoker is richer in complex molecules, some nitrogen containing organics apparently being very evident at the 5 to 50 ppb level

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Interference of Spontaneous Raman Scattering in High-Pressure Fuel-Rich H2-Air Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2004-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the spectral interferences in the spontaneous Raman scattering spectra of major combustion products in 30-atm fuel-rich hydrogen-air flames. An effective methodology is introduced to choose an appropriate line-shape model for simulating Raman spectra in high-pressure combustion environments. The Voigt profile with the additive approximation assumption was found to provide a reasonable model of the spectral line shape for the present analysis. The rotational/vibrational Raman spectra of H2, N2, and H2O were calculated using an anharmonic-oscillator model using the latest collisional broadening coefficients. The calculated spectra were validated with data obtained in a 10-atm fuel-rich H2-air flame and showed excellent agreement. Our quantitative spectral analysis for equivalence ratios ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 revealed substantial amounts of spectral cross-talk between the rotational H2 lines and the N2 O-/Q-branch; and between the vibrational H2O(0,3) line and the vibrational H2O spectrum. We also address the temperature dependence of the spectral cross-talk and extend our analysis to include a cross-talk compensation technique that removes the nterference arising from the H2 Raman spectra onto the N2, or H2O spectra.

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Major Phytochemicals in Orthodox tea (Camellia sinensis), Oxidized under Compressed Air Environment.

    PubMed

    Panda, Brajesh Kumar; Datta, Ashis Kumar

    2016-04-01

    This study describes major changes in phytochemical composition of orthodox tea (Camellia sinensis var. Assamica) oxidized under compressed air (CA). The experiments for oxidation were conducted under air pressure (101, 202, and 303 kPa) for 150 min. Relative change in the concentrations of caffeine, catechins, theaflavins (TF), and thearubigins (TR) were analyzed. Effect of CA pressure was found to be nonsignificant in regulating caffeine concentration during oxidation. But degradation in different catechins as well as formation of different TF was significantly affected by CA pressure. At high CA pressure, TF showed highest peak value. TR was found to have slower rate of formation during initial phase of oxidation than TF. Even though the rate of TR formation was significantly influenced by CA, a portion of catechins remained unoxidized at end of oxidation. Except caffeine, the percent change in rate of formation or degradation were more prominent at 202 kPa.

  6. Quantitative analysis of amyloid-integrated biofilms formed by uropathogenic Escherichia coli at the air-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cynthia; Lim, Ji Youn; Fuller, Gerald G; Cegelski, Lynette

    2012-08-08

    Bacterial biofilms are complex multicellular assemblies, characterized by a heterogeneous extracellular polymeric matrix, that have emerged as hallmarks of persistent infectious diseases. New approaches and quantitative data are needed to elucidate the composition and architecture of biofilms, and such data need to be correlated with mechanical and physicochemical properties that relate to function. We performed a panel of interfacial rheological measurements during biofilm formation at the air-liquid interface by the Escherichia coli strain UTI89, which is noted for its importance in studies of urinary tract infection and for its assembly of functional amyloid fibers termed curli. Brewster-angle microscopy and measurements of the surface elasticity (G(s)') and stress-strain response provided sensitive and quantitative parameters that revealed distinct stages during bacterial colonization, aggregation, and eventual formation of a pellicle at the air-liquid interface. Pellicles that formed under conditions that upregulate curli production exhibited an increase in strength and viscoelastic properties as well as a greater ability to recover from stress-strain perturbation. The results suggest that curli, as hydrophobic extracellular amyloid fibers, enhance the strength, viscoelasticity, and resistance to strain of E. coli biofilms formed at the air-liquid interface.

  7. Multivariate Quantitative Chemical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinchen, David G.; Capezza, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Technique of multivariate quantitative chemical analysis devised for use in determining relative proportions of two components mixed and sprayed together onto object to form thermally insulating foam. Potentially adaptable to other materials, especially in process-monitoring applications in which necessary to know and control critical properties of products via quantitative chemical analyses of products. In addition to chemical composition, also used to determine such physical properties as densities and strengths.

  8. Quantitative Hydrocarbon Surface Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Vonnie M.

    2000-01-01

    The elimination of ozone depleting substances, such as carbon tetrachloride, has resulted in the use of new analytical techniques for cleanliness verification and contamination sampling. The last remaining application at Rocketdyne which required a replacement technique was the quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons by infrared spectrometry. This application, which previously utilized carbon tetrachloride, was successfully modified using the SOC-400, a compact portable FTIR manufactured by Surface Optics Corporation. This instrument can quantitatively measure and identify hydrocarbons from solvent flush of hardware as well as directly analyze the surface of metallic components without the use of ozone depleting chemicals. Several sampling accessories are utilized to perform analysis for various applications.

  9. Quantitative environmental risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Klovning, J.; Nilsen, E.F.

    1995-12-31

    According to regulations relating to implementation and rise of risk analysis in the petroleum activities issued by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, it is mandatory for an operator on the Norwegian Continental Shelf to establish acceptance criteria for environmental risk in the activities and carry out environmental risk analysis. This paper presents a {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} method for environmental risk analysis developed by the company. The objective has been to assist the company to meet rules and regulations and to assess and describe the environmental risk in a systematic manner. In the environmental risk analysis the most sensitive biological resource in the affected area is used to assess the environmental damage. The analytical method is based on the methodology for quantitative risk analysis related to loss of life. In addition it incorporates the effect of seasonal fluctuations in the environmental risk evaluations. The paper is describing the function of the main analytical sequences exemplified through an analysis of environmental risk related to exploration drilling in an environmental sensitive area on the Norwegian Continental Shelf.

  10. An Analysis of Selected Quantitative Methods to Air Force Communications Command Electronics Installation Workload Assignment and Scheduling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Institute of Technology, WPAFB OH 11I. CONTROLLING OFFICE HNM AND ADDRESS Department of Comunication and Humanities ,/un/08 AFIT/LSH. WPAFB OH 454330...schedule workload assigned to the Air Force Comunications omand Engineering and Installations Activities. Each model applies mission nd unit unique...presently tasked with the annual accomplishment of more than twenty-five hundred instal- lations, modifications, and removals of ground Comunications

  11. Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, John; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.

    1996-12-01

    Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis is a visual library of techniques used in making volumetric measurements. This 40-minute VHS videotape is designed as a resource for introducing students to proper volumetric methods and procedures. The entire tape, or relevant segments of the tape, can also be used to review procedures used in subsequent experiments that rely on the traditional art of quantitative analysis laboratory practice. The techniques included are: Quantitative transfer of a solid with a weighing spoon Quantitative transfer of a solid with a finger held weighing bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a paper strap held bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a spatula Examples of common quantitative weighing errors Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to beaker to volumetric flask Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to volumetric flask Volumetric transfer pipet A complete acid-base titration Hand technique variations The conventional view of contemporary quantitative chemical measurement tends to focus on instrumental systems, computers, and robotics. In this view, the analyst is relegated to placing standards and samples on a tray. A robotic arm delivers a sample to the analysis center, while a computer controls the analysis conditions and records the results. In spite of this, it is rare to find an analysis process that does not rely on some aspect of more traditional quantitative analysis techniques, such as careful dilution to the mark of a volumetric flask. Figure 2. Transfer of a solid with a spatula. Clearly, errors in a classical step will affect the quality of the final analysis. Because of this, it is still important for students to master the key elements of the traditional art of quantitative chemical analysis laboratory practice. Some aspects of chemical analysis, like careful rinsing to insure quantitative transfer, are often an automated part of an instrumental process that must be understood by the

  12. Quantitative analysis of PET studies.

    PubMed

    Weber, Wolfgang A

    2010-09-01

    Quantitative analysis can be included relatively easily in clinical PET-imaging protocols, but in order to obtain meaningful quantitative results one needs to follow a standardized protocol for image acquisition and data analysis. Important factors to consider are the calibration of the PET scanner, the radiotracer uptake time and the approach for definition of regions of interests. Using such standardized acquisition protocols quantitative parameters of tumor metabolism or receptor status can be derived from tracer kinetic analysis and simplified approaches such as calculation of standardized uptake values (SUVs).

  13. Quantitative analysis in megageomorphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, L.

    1985-01-01

    Megageomorphology is the study of regional topographic features and their relations to independent geomorphic variables that operate at the regional scale. These independent variables can be classified as either tectonic or climatic in nature. Quantitative megageomorphology stresses the causal relations between plate tectonic factors and landscape features or correlations between climatic factors and geomorphic processes. In addition, the cumulative effects of tectonics and climate on landscape evolution that simultaneously operate in a complex system of energy transfer is of interst. Regional topographic differentiation, say between continents and ocean floors, is largely the result of the different densities and density contrasts within the oceanic and continental lithosphere and their isostatic consequences. Regional tectonic processes that alter these lithospheric characteristics include rifting, collision, subduction, transpression and transtension.

  14. A quantitative method for optimized placement of continuous air monitors.

    PubMed

    Whicker, Jeffrey J; Rodgers, John C; Moxley, John S

    2003-11-01

    Alarming continuous air monitors (CAMs) are a critical component for worker protection in facilities that handle large amounts of hazardous materials. In nuclear facilities, continuous air monitors alarm when levels of airborne radioactive materials exceed alarm thresholds, thus prompting workers to exit the room to reduce inhalation exposures. To maintain a high level of worker protection, continuous air monitors are required to detect radioactive aerosol clouds quickly and with good sensitivity. This requires that there are sufficient numbers of continuous air monitors in a room and that they are well positioned. Yet there are no published methodologies to quantitatively determine the optimal number and placement of continuous air monitors in a room. The goal of this study was to develop and test an approach to quantitatively determine optimal number and placement of continuous air monitors in a room. The method we have developed uses tracer aerosol releases (to simulate accidental releases) and the measurement of the temporal and spatial aspects of the dispersion of the tracer aerosol through the room. The aerosol dispersion data is then analyzed to optimize continuous air monitor utilization based on simulated worker exposure. This method was tested in a room within a Department of Energy operated plutonium facility at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, U.S. Results from this study show that the value of quantitative airflow and aerosol dispersion studies is significant and that worker protection can be significantly improved while balancing the costs associated with CAM programs.

  15. Software for quantitative trait analysis.

    PubMed

    Almasy, Laura; Warren, Diane M

    2005-09-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of software currently available for the genetic analysis of quantitative traits in humans. Programs that implement variance components, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), Haseman-Elston (H-E) and penetrance model-based linkage analyses are discussed, as are programs for measured genotype association analyses and quantitative trait transmission disequilibrium tests. The software compared includes LINKAGE, FASTLINK, PAP, SOLAR, SEGPATH, ACT, Mx, MERLIN, GENEHUNTER, Loki, Mendel, SAGE, QTDT and FBAT. Where possible, the paper provides URLs for acquiring these programs through the internet, details of the platforms for which the software is available and the types of analyses performed.

  16. AIR Model Preflight Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, H.; Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) ER-2 preflight analysis, one of the first attempts to obtain a relatively complete measurement set of the high-altitude radiation level environment, is described in this paper. The primary thrust is to characterize the atmospheric radiation and to define dose levels at high-altitude flight. A secondary thrust is to develop and validate dosimetric techniques and monitoring devices for protecting aircrews. With a few chosen routes, we can measure the experimental results and validate the AIR model predictions. Eventually, as more measurements are made, we gain more understanding about the hazardous radiation environment and acquire more confidence in the prediction models.

  17. Quantitative analysis of glycated proteins.

    PubMed

    Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Ramírez-Boo, María; Finamore, Francesco; Gluck, Florent; Sanchez, Jean-Charles

    2014-02-07

    The proposed protocol presents a comprehensive approach for large-scale qualitative and quantitative analysis of glycated proteins (GP) in complex biological samples including biological fluids and cell lysates such as plasma and red blood cells. The method, named glycation isotopic labeling (GIL), is based on the differential labeling of proteins with isotopic [(13)C6]-glucose, which supports quantitation of the resulting glycated peptides after enzymatic digestion with endoproteinase Glu-C. The key principle of the GIL approach is the detection of doublet signals for each glycated peptide in MS precursor scanning (glycated peptide with in vivo [(12)C6]- and in vitro [(13)C6]-glucose). The mass shift of the doublet signals is +6, +3 or +2 Da depending on the peptide charge state and the number of glycation sites. The intensity ratio between doublet signals generates quantitative information of glycated proteins that can be related to the glycemic state of the studied samples. Tandem mass spectrometry with high-energy collisional dissociation (HCD-MS2) and data-dependent methods with collision-induced dissociation (CID-MS3 neutral loss scan) are used for qualitative analysis.

  18. Bioimaging for quantitative phenotype analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiyang; Xia, Xian; Huang, Yi; Chen, Xingwei; Han, Jing-Dong J

    2016-06-01

    With the development of bio-imaging techniques, an increasing number of studies apply these techniques to generate a myriad of image data. Its applications range from quantification of cellular, tissue, organismal and behavioral phenotypes of model organisms, to human facial phenotypes. The bio-imaging approaches to automatically detect, quantify, and profile phenotypic changes related to specific biological questions open new doors to studying phenotype-genotype associations and to precisely evaluating molecular changes associated with quantitative phenotypes. Here, we review major applications of bioimage-based quantitative phenotype analysis. Specifically, we describe the biological questions and experimental needs addressable by these analyses, computational techniques and tools that are available in these contexts, and the new perspectives on phenotype-genotype association uncovered by such analyses.

  19. Quantitative analysis of retinal OCT.

    PubMed

    Sonka, Milan; Abràmoff, Michael D

    2016-10-01

    Clinical acceptance of 3-D OCT retinal imaging brought rapid development of quantitative 3-D analysis of retinal layers, vasculature, retinal lesions as well as facilitated new research in retinal diseases. One of the cornerstones of many such analyses is segmentation and thickness quantification of retinal layers and the choroid, with an inherently 3-D simultaneous multi-layer LOGISMOS (Layered Optimal Graph Image Segmentation for Multiple Objects and Surfaces) segmentation approach being extremely well suited for the task. Once retinal layers are segmented, regional thickness, brightness, or texture-based indices of individual layers can be easily determined and thus contribute to our understanding of retinal or optic nerve head (ONH) disease processes and can be employed for determination of disease status, treatment responses, visual function, etc. Out of many applications, examples provided in this paper focus on image-guided therapy and outcome prediction in age-related macular degeneration and on assessing visual function from retinal layer structure in glaucoma.

  20. Quantitative analysis of endogenous compounds.

    PubMed

    Thakare, Rhishikesh; Chhonker, Yashpal S; Gautam, Nagsen; Alamoudi, Jawaher Abdullah; Alnouti, Yazen

    2016-09-05

    Accurate quantitative analysis of endogenous analytes is essential for several clinical and non-clinical applications. LC-MS/MS is the technique of choice for quantitative analyses. Absolute quantification by LC/MS requires preparing standard curves in the same matrix as the study samples so that the matrix effect and the extraction efficiency for analytes are the same in both the standard and study samples. However, by definition, analyte-free biological matrices do not exist for endogenous compounds. To address the lack of blank matrices for the quantification of endogenous compounds by LC-MS/MS, four approaches are used including the standard addition, the background subtraction, the surrogate matrix, and the surrogate analyte methods. This review article presents an overview these approaches, cite and summarize their applications, and compare their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, we discuss in details, validation requirements and compatibility with FDA guidelines to ensure method reliability in quantifying endogenous compounds. The standard addition, background subtraction, and the surrogate analyte approaches allow the use of the same matrix for the calibration curve as the one to be analyzed in the test samples. However, in the surrogate matrix approach, various matrices such as artificial, stripped, and neat matrices are used as surrogate matrices for the actual matrix of study samples. For the surrogate analyte approach, it is required to demonstrate similarity in matrix effect and recovery between surrogate and authentic endogenous analytes. Similarly, for the surrogate matrix approach, it is required to demonstrate similar matrix effect and extraction recovery in both the surrogate and original matrices. All these methods represent indirect approaches to quantify endogenous compounds and regardless of what approach is followed, it has to be shown that none of the validation criteria have been compromised due to the indirect analyses.

  1. Systemic Analysis Approaches for Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Air transportation system designers have had only limited success using traditional operations research and parametric modeling approaches in their analyses of innovations. They need a systemic methodology for modeling of safety-critical infrastructure that is comprehensive, objective, and sufficiently concrete, yet simple enough to be used with reasonable investment. The methodology must also be amenable to quantitative analysis so issues of system safety and stability can be rigorously addressed. However, air transportation has proven itself an extensive, complex system whose behavior is difficult to describe, no less predict. There is a wide range of system analysis techniques available, but some are more appropriate for certain applications than others. Specifically in the area of complex system analysis, the literature suggests that both agent-based models and network analysis techniques may be useful. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for each approach in these applications, and explores their historic and potential further use for air transportation analysis.

  2. Air Quality Analysis

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides information for air quality data analysts inside and outside EPA. Much of the information is in the form of documented analyses that support the review of the national air qualiyt standards.

  3. Novel Air Stimulation MR-Device for Intraoral Quantitative Sensory Cold Testing.

    PubMed

    Brönnimann, Ben; Meier, Michael L; Hou, Mei-Yin; Parkinson, Charles; Ettlin, Dominik A

    2016-01-01

    The advent of neuroimaging in dental research provides exciting opportunities for relating excitation of trigeminal neurons to human somatosensory perceptions. Cold air sensitivity is one of the most frequent causes of dental discomfort or pain. Up to date, devices capable of delivering controlled cold air in an MR-environment are unavailable for quantitative sensory testing. This study therefore aimed at constructing and evaluating a novel MR-compatible, computer-controlled cold air stimulation apparatus (CASA) that produces graded air puffs. CASA consisted of a multi-injector air jet delivery system (AJS), a cold exchanger, a cooling agent, and a stimulus application construction. Its feasibility was tested by performing an fMRI stimulation experiment on a single subject experiencing dentine cold sensitivity. The novel device delivered repetitive, stable air stimuli ranging from room temperature (24.5°C ± 2°C) to -35°C, at flow rates between 5 and 17 liters per minute (l/min). These cold air puffs evoked perceptions similar to natural stimuli. Single-subject fMRI-analysis yielded brain activations typically associated with acute pain processing including thalamus, insular and cingulate cortices, somatosensory, cerebellar, and frontal brain regions. Thus, the novel CASA allowed for controlled, repetitive quantitative sensory testing by using air stimuli at graded temperatures (room temperature down to -35°C) while simultaneously recording brain responses. No MR-compatible stimulation device currently exists that is capable of providing non-contact natural-like stimuli at a wide temperature range to tissues in spatially restricted areas such as the mouth. The physical characteristics of this novel device thus holds promise for advancing the field of trigeminal and spinal somatosensory research, namely with respect to comparing therapeutic interventions for dentine hypersensitivity.

  4. Novel Air Stimulation MR-Device for Intraoral Quantitative Sensory Cold Testing

    PubMed Central

    Brönnimann, Ben; Meier, Michael L.; Hou, Mei-Yin; Parkinson, Charles; Ettlin, Dominik A.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of neuroimaging in dental research provides exciting opportunities for relating excitation of trigeminal neurons to human somatosensory perceptions. Cold air sensitivity is one of the most frequent causes of dental discomfort or pain. Up to date, devices capable of delivering controlled cold air in an MR-environment are unavailable for quantitative sensory testing. This study therefore aimed at constructing and evaluating a novel MR-compatible, computer-controlled cold air stimulation apparatus (CASA) that produces graded air puffs. CASA consisted of a multi-injector air jet delivery system (AJS), a cold exchanger, a cooling agent, and a stimulus application construction. Its feasibility was tested by performing an fMRI stimulation experiment on a single subject experiencing dentine cold sensitivity. The novel device delivered repetitive, stable air stimuli ranging from room temperature (24.5°C ± 2°C) to −35°C, at flow rates between 5 and 17 liters per minute (l/min). These cold air puffs evoked perceptions similar to natural stimuli. Single-subject fMRI-analysis yielded brain activations typically associated with acute pain processing including thalamus, insular and cingulate cortices, somatosensory, cerebellar, and frontal brain regions. Thus, the novel CASA allowed for controlled, repetitive quantitative sensory testing by using air stimuli at graded temperatures (room temperature down to −35°C) while simultaneously recording brain responses. No MR-compatible stimulation device currently exists that is capable of providing non-contact natural-like stimuli at a wide temperature range to tissues in spatially restricted areas such as the mouth. The physical characteristics of this novel device thus holds promise for advancing the field of trigeminal and spinal somatosensory research, namely with respect to comparing therapeutic interventions for dentine hypersensitivity. PMID:27445771

  5. Quantitative analysis of glycoprotein glycans.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Ron

    2013-01-01

    The ability to quantitatively determine changes in the N- and O-linked glycans is an essential component of comparative glycomics. Multiple strategies are available to by which this can be accomplished, including; both label free approaches and isotopic labeling strategies. The focus of this chapter is to describe each of these approaches while providing insight into their strengths and weaknesses, so that glycomic investigators can make an educated choice of the strategy that is best suited for their particular application.

  6. Quantitative analysis of qualitative images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockney, David; Falco, Charles M.

    2005-03-01

    We show optical evidence that demonstrates artists as early as Jan van Eyck and Robert Campin (c1425) used optical projections as aids for producing their paintings. We also have found optical evidence within works by later artists, including Bermejo (c1475), Lotto (c1525), Caravaggio (c1600), de la Tour (c1650), Chardin (c1750) and Ingres (c1825), demonstrating a continuum in the use of optical projections by artists, along with an evolution in the sophistication of that use. However, even for paintings where we have been able to extract unambiguous, quantitative evidence of the direct use of optical projections for producing certain of the features, this does not mean that paintings are effectively photographs. Because the hand and mind of the artist are intimately involved in the creation process, understanding these complex images requires more than can be obtained from only applying the equations of geometrical optics.

  7. Australia’s first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Green, Donna

    2014-04-01

    This study presents the first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution in Australia. Specifically, our analysis links the spatial distribution of sites and emissions associated with industrial pollution sources derived from the National Pollution Inventory, to Indigenous status and social disadvantage characteristics of communities derived from Australian Bureau of Statistics indicators. Our results reveal a clear national pattern of environmental injustice based on the locations of industrial pollution sources, as well as volume, and toxicity of air pollution released at these locations. Communities with the highest number of polluting sites, emission volume, and toxicity-weighted air emissions indicate significantly greater proportions of Indigenous population and higher levels of socio-economic disadvantage. The quantities and toxicities of industrial air pollution are particularly higher in communities with the lowest levels of educational attainment and occupational status. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed analysis in specific regions and communities where socially disadvantaged groups are disproportionately impacted by industrial air pollution. Our empirical findings also underscore the growing necessity to incorporate environmental justice considerations in environmental planning and policy-making in Australia.

  8. Air Pollution. Part A: Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledbetter, Joe O.

    Two facets of the engineering control of air pollution (the analysis of possible problems and the application of effective controls) are covered in this two-volume text. Part A covers Analysis, and Part B, Prevention and Control. (This review is concerned with Part A only.) This volume deals with the terminology, methodology, and symptomatology…

  9. Quantitative histogram analysis of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holub, Oliver; Ferreira, Sérgio T.

    2006-11-01

    A routine for histogram analysis of images has been written in the object-oriented, graphical development environment LabVIEW. The program converts an RGB bitmap image into an intensity-linear greyscale image according to selectable conversion coefficients. This greyscale image is subsequently analysed by plots of the intensity histogram and probability distribution of brightness, and by calculation of various parameters, including average brightness, standard deviation, variance, minimal and maximal brightness, mode, skewness and kurtosis of the histogram and the median of the probability distribution. The program allows interactive selection of specific regions of interest (ROI) in the image and definition of lower and upper threshold levels (e.g., to permit the removal of a constant background signal). The results of the analysis of multiple images can be conveniently saved and exported for plotting in other programs, which allows fast analysis of relatively large sets of image data. The program file accompanies this manuscript together with a detailed description of two application examples: The analysis of fluorescence microscopy images, specifically of tau-immunofluorescence in primary cultures of rat cortical and hippocampal neurons, and the quantification of protein bands by Western-blot. The possibilities and limitations of this kind of analysis are discussed. Program summaryTitle of program: HAWGC Catalogue identifier: ADXG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXG_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: Mobile Intel Pentium III, AMD Duron Installations: No installation necessary—Executable file together with necessary files for LabVIEW Run-time engine Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested: WindowsME/2000/XP Programming language used: LabVIEW 7.0 Memory required to execute with typical data:˜16MB for starting and ˜160MB used for

  10. Mobile app-based quantitative scanometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jessica X H; Liu, Frank S F; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2014-12-16

    The feasibility of using smartphones and other mobile devices as the detection platform for quantitative scanometric assays is demonstrated. The different scanning modes (color, grayscale, black/white) and grayscale converting protocols (average, weighted average/luminosity, and software specific) have been compared in determining the optical darkness ratio (ODR) values, a conventional quantitation measure for scanometric assays. A mobile app was developed to image and analyze scanometric assays, as demonstrated by paper-printed tests and a biotin-streptavidin assay on a plastic substrate. Primarily for ODR analysis, the app has been shown to perform as well as a traditional desktop scanner, augmenting that smartphones (and other mobile devices) promise to be a practical platform for accurate, quantitative chemical analysis and medical diagnostics.

  11. Quantitative WDS analysis using electron probe microanalyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Ul-Hamid, Anwar . E-mail: anwar@kfupm.edu.sa; Tawancy, Hani M.; Mohammed, Abdul-Rashid I.; Al-Jaroudi, Said S.; Abbas, Nureddin M.

    2006-04-15

    In this paper, the procedure for conducting quantitative elemental analysis by ZAF correction method using wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS) in an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) is elaborated. Analysis of a thermal barrier coating (TBC) system formed on a Ni-based single crystal superalloy is presented as an example to illustrate the analysis of samples consisting of a large number of major and minor elements. The analysis was performed by known standards and measured peak-to-background intensity ratios. The procedure for using separate set of acquisition conditions for major and minor element analysis is explained and its importance is stressed.

  12. Seniors' Online Communities: A Quantitative Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimrod, Galit

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the contents and characteristics of seniors' online communities and to explore their potential benefits to older adults. Design and Methods: Quantitative content analysis of a full year's data from 14 leading online communities using a novel computerized system. The overall database included 686,283 messages. Results: There was…

  13. A quantitative approach to scar analysis.

    PubMed

    Khorasani, Hooman; Zheng, Zhong; Nguyen, Calvin; Zara, Janette; Zhang, Xinli; Wang, Joyce; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2011-02-01

    Analysis of collagen architecture is essential to wound healing research. However, to date no consistent methodologies exist for quantitatively assessing dermal collagen architecture in scars. In this study, we developed a standardized approach for quantitative analysis of scar collagen morphology by confocal microscopy using fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis. Full-thickness wounds were created on adult mice, closed by primary intention, and harvested at 14 days after wounding for morphometrics and standard Fourier transform-based scar analysis as well as fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis. In addition, transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate collagen ultrastructure. We demonstrated that fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis were superior to Fourier transform analysis in discriminating scar versus unwounded tissue in a wild-type mouse model. To fully test the robustness of this scar analysis approach, a fibromodulin-null mouse model that heals with increased scar was also used. Fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis effectively discriminated unwounded fibromodulin-null versus wild-type skin as well as healing fibromodulin-null versus wild-type wounds, whereas Fourier transform analysis failed to do so. Furthermore, fractal dimension and lacunarity data also correlated well with transmission electron microscopy collagen ultrastructure analysis, adding to their validity. These results demonstrate that fractal dimension and lacunarity are more sensitive than Fourier transform analysis for quantification of scar morphology.

  14. Quantitative ADF STEM: acquisition, analysis and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative annular dark-field in the scanning transmission electron microscope (ADF STEM), where image intensities are used to provide composition and thickness measurements, has enjoyed a renaissance during the last decade. Now in a post aberration-correction era many aspects of the technique are being revisited. Here the recent progress and emerging best-practice for such aberration corrected quantitative ADF STEM is discussed including issues relating to proper acquisition of experimental data and its calibration, approaches for data analysis, the utility of such data, its interpretation and limitations.

  15. Method and apparatus for chromatographic quantitative analysis

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, James S.; Gjerde, Douglas T.; Schmuckler, Gabriella

    1981-06-09

    An improved apparatus and method for the quantitative analysis of a solution containing a plurality of anion species by ion exchange chromatography which utilizes a single eluent and a single ion exchange bed which does not require periodic regeneration. The solution containing the anions is added to an anion exchange resin bed which is a low capacity macroreticular polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin containing quarternary ammonium functional groups, and is eluted therefrom with a dilute solution of a low electrical conductance organic acid salt. As each anion species is eluted from the bed, it is quantitatively sensed by conventional detection means such as a conductivity cell.

  16. Quantitative analysis of blood vessel geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrman, Michael G.; Abdul-Karim, Othman; Shah, Sujal; Gilbert, Steven G.; Van Bibber, Richard

    2001-07-01

    Re-narrowing or restenosis of a human coronary artery occurs within six months in one third of balloon angioplasty procedures. Accurate and repeatable quantitative analysis of vessel shape is important to characterize the progression and type of restenosis, and to evaluate effects new therapies might have. A combination of complicated geometry and image variability, and the need for high resolution and large image size makes visual/manual analysis slow, difficult, and prone to error. The image processing and analysis described here was developed to automate feature extraction of the lumen, internal elastic lamina, neointima, external elastic lamina, and tunica adventitia and to enable an objective, quantitative definition of blood vessel geometry. The quantitative geometrical analysis enables the measurement of several features including perimeter, area, and other metrics of vessel damage. Automation of feature extraction creates a high throughput capability that enables analysis of serial sections for more accurate measurement of restenosis dimensions. Measurement results are input into a relational database where they can be statistically analyzed compared across studies. As part of the integrated process, results are also imprinted on the images themselves to facilitate auditing of the results. The analysis is fast, repeatable and accurate while allowing the pathologist to control the measurement process.

  17. Comprehensive quantitative analysis on privacy leak behavior.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lejun; Wang, Yuanzhuo; Jin, Xiaolong; Li, Jingyuan; Cheng, Xueqi; Jin, Shuyuan

    2013-01-01

    Privacy information is prone to be leaked by illegal software providers with various motivations. Privacy leak behavior has thus become an important research issue of cyber security. However, existing approaches can only qualitatively analyze privacy leak behavior of software applications. No quantitative approach, to the best of our knowledge, has been developed in the open literature. To fill this gap, in this paper we propose for the first time four quantitative metrics, namely, possibility, severity, crypticity, and manipulability, for privacy leak behavior analysis based on Privacy Petri Net (PPN). In order to compare the privacy leak behavior among different software, we further propose a comprehensive metric, namely, overall leak degree, based on these four metrics. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using real-world software applications. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can quantitatively analyze the privacy leak behaviors of various software types and reveal their characteristics from different aspects.

  18. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis on Privacy Leak Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lejun; Wang, Yuanzhuo; Jin, Xiaolong; Li, Jingyuan; Cheng, Xueqi; Jin, Shuyuan

    2013-01-01

    Privacy information is prone to be leaked by illegal software providers with various motivations. Privacy leak behavior has thus become an important research issue of cyber security. However, existing approaches can only qualitatively analyze privacy leak behavior of software applications. No quantitative approach, to the best of our knowledge, has been developed in the open literature. To fill this gap, in this paper we propose for the first time four quantitative metrics, namely, possibility, severity, crypticity, and manipulability, for privacy leak behavior analysis based on Privacy Petri Net (PPN). In order to compare the privacy leak behavior among different software, we further propose a comprehensive metric, namely, overall leak degree, based on these four metrics. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using real-world software applications. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can quantitatively analyze the privacy leak behaviors of various software types and reveal their characteristics from different aspects. PMID:24066046

  19. Good practices for quantitative bias analysis.

    PubMed

    Lash, Timothy L; Fox, Matthew P; MacLehose, Richard F; Maldonado, George; McCandless, Lawrence C; Greenland, Sander

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative bias analysis serves several objectives in epidemiological research. First, it provides a quantitative estimate of the direction, magnitude and uncertainty arising from systematic errors. Second, the acts of identifying sources of systematic error, writing down models to quantify them, assigning values to the bias parameters and interpreting the results combat the human tendency towards overconfidence in research results, syntheses and critiques and the inferences that rest upon them. Finally, by suggesting aspects that dominate uncertainty in a particular research result or topic area, bias analysis can guide efficient allocation of sparse research resources. The fundamental methods of bias analyses have been known for decades, and there have been calls for more widespread use for nearly as long. There was a time when some believed that bias analyses were rarely undertaken because the methods were not widely known and because automated computing tools were not readily available to implement the methods. These shortcomings have been largely resolved. We must, therefore, contemplate other barriers to implementation. One possibility is that practitioners avoid the analyses because they lack confidence in the practice of bias analysis. The purpose of this paper is therefore to describe what we view as good practices for applying quantitative bias analysis to epidemiological data, directed towards those familiar with the methods. We focus on answering questions often posed to those of us who advocate incorporation of bias analysis methods into teaching and research. These include the following. When is bias analysis practical and productive? How does one select the biases that ought to be addressed? How does one select a method to model biases? How does one assign values to the parameters of a bias model? How does one present and interpret a bias analysis?. We hope that our guide to good practices for conducting and presenting bias analyses will encourage

  20. Quantitative image analysis of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Ciaccio, Edward J; Bhagat, Govind; Lewis, Suzanne K; Green, Peter H

    2015-03-07

    We outline the use of quantitative techniques that are currently used for analysis of celiac disease. Image processing techniques can be useful to statistically analyze the pixular data of endoscopic images that is acquired with standard or videocapsule endoscopy. It is shown how current techniques have evolved to become more useful for gastroenterologists who seek to understand celiac disease and to screen for it in suspected patients. New directions for focus in the development of methodology for diagnosis and treatment of this disease are suggested. It is evident that there are yet broad areas where there is potential to expand the use of quantitative techniques for improved analysis in suspected or known celiac disease patients.

  1. Quantitative analysis to guide orphan drug development.

    PubMed

    Lesko, L J

    2012-08-01

    The development of orphan drugs for rare diseases has made impressive strides in the past 10 years. There has been a surge in orphan drug designations, but new drug approvals have not kept up. This article presents a three-pronged hierarchical strategy for quantitative analysis of data at the descriptive, mechanistic, and systems levels of the biological system that could represent a standardized and rational approach to orphan drug development. Examples are provided to illustrate the concept.

  2. Using Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Guide Quantitative Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortle, J. F.; Allocco, M.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative methods can be beneficial in many types of safety investigations. However, there are many difficulties in using quantitative m ethods. Far example, there may be little relevant data available. This paper proposes a framework for using quantitative hazard analysis to prioritize hazard scenarios most suitable for quantitative mziysis. The framework first categorizes hazard scenarios by severity and likelihood. We then propose another metric "modeling difficulty" that desc ribes the complexity in modeling a given hazard scenario quantitatively. The combined metrics of severity, likelihood, and modeling difficu lty help to prioritize hazard scenarios for which quantitative analys is should be applied. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for airplane operatio ns at closely spaced parallel runways.

  3. Air sampling and analysis in a rubber vulcanization area.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, S M; Fraser, D A

    1977-05-01

    Results of sampling and analysis of air in a rubber vulcanization area are described. Organic compounds were collected on activated charcoal, desorbed with carbon disulfide and analyzed by gas chromatography. Several previously identified substances were quantitated, including styrene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and several oligomers of 1,3-butadiene. Concentrations ranged from 0.007 to 1.1 ppm.

  4. Influence analysis in quantitative trait loci detection

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Xiaoling; Kuriki, Satoshi; Maeno, Akiteru; Takada, Toyoyuki; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents systematic methods for the detection of influential individuals that affect the log odds (LOD) score curve. We derive general formulas of influence functions for profile likelihoods and introduce them into two standard quantitative trait locus detection methods—the interval mapping method and single marker analysis. Besides influence analysis on specific LOD scores, we also develop influence analysis methods on the shape of the LOD score curves. A simulation-based method is proposed to assess the significance of the influence of the individuals. These methods are shown useful in the influence analysis of a real dataset of an experimental population from an F2 mouse cross. By receiver operating characteristic analysis, we confirm that the proposed methods show better performance than existing diagnostics. PMID:24740424

  5. Continuous Quantitative Measurements on a Linear Air Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Eric

    1973-01-01

    Describes the construction and operational procedures of a spark-timing apparatus which is designed to record the back and forth motion of one or two carts on linear air tracks. Applications to measurements of velocity, acceleration, simple harmonic motion, and collision problems are illustrated. (CC)

  6. Quantitative resilience analysis through control design.

    SciTech Connect

    Sunderland, Daniel; Vugrin, Eric D.; Camphouse, Russell Chris

    2009-09-01

    Critical infrastructure resilience has become a national priority for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. System resilience has been studied for several decades in many different disciplines, but no standards or unifying methods exist for critical infrastructure resilience analysis. Few quantitative resilience methods exist, and those existing approaches tend to be rather simplistic and, hence, not capable of sufficiently assessing all aspects of critical infrastructure resilience. This report documents the results of a late-start Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that investigated the development of quantitative resilience through application of control design methods. Specifically, we conducted a survey of infrastructure models to assess what types of control design might be applicable for critical infrastructure resilience assessment. As a result of this survey, we developed a decision process that directs the resilience analyst to the control method that is most likely applicable to the system under consideration. Furthermore, we developed optimal control strategies for two sets of representative infrastructure systems to demonstrate how control methods could be used to assess the resilience of the systems to catastrophic disruptions. We present recommendations for future work to continue the development of quantitative resilience analysis methods.

  7. Quantitative analysis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, C R; Blewitt, R W; Bird, C C

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary attempt has been made to characterise a small series of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) by morphometric means using the Quantimet 720 Kontron MOP/AMO3 image analysis systems. In most cases it was found that the distribution of nuclear area and correlation between mean nuclear area and frequency per unit field, corresponded closely with tumour classification determined by light microscopy. These results suggest that it may be possible to devise an objective and reproducible grading system for NHL using quantitative morphometric techniques. PMID:7040479

  8. Quantitative NIR Raman analysis in liquid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Sato-Berrú, R Ysacc; Medina-Valtierra, Jorge; Medina-Gutiérrez, Cirilo; Frausto-Reyes, Claudio

    2004-08-01

    The capability to obtain quantitative information of a simple way from Raman spectra is a subject of considerable interest. In this work, this is demonstrated for mixtures of ethanol with water and rhodamine-6G (R-6G) with methanol, which were analyzed directly in glass vessel. The Raman intensities and a simple mathematical model have been used and applied for the analysis of liquid samples. It is starting point to generate a general expression, from the experimental spectra, as the sum of the particular expression for each pure compound allow us to obtain an expression for the mixtures which can be used for determining concentrations, from the Raman spectrum, of the mixture.

  9. Quantitative analysis of retinal changes in hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giansanti, Roberto; Boemi, Massimo; Fumelli, Paolo; Passerini, Giorgio; Zingaretti, Primo

    1995-05-01

    Arterial hypertension is a high prevalence disease in Western countries and it is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular accidents. Retinal vessel changes are common findings in patients suffering from long-standing hypertensive disease. Morphological evaluations of the fundus oculi represent a fundamental tool for the clinical approach to the patient with hypertension. A qualitative analysis of the retinal lesions is usually performed and this implies severe limitations both in the classification of the different degrees of the pathology and in the follow-up of the disease. A diagnostic system based on a quantitative analysis of the retinal changes could overcome these problems. Our computerized approach was intended for this scope. The paper concentrates on the results and the implications of a computerized approach to the automatic extraction of numerical indexes describing morphological details of the fundus oculi. A previously developed image processing and recognition system, documented elsewhere and briefly described here, was successfully tested in pre-clinical experiments and applied in the evaluation of normal as well as of pathological fundus. The software system was developed to extract indexes such as caliber and path of vessels, local tortuosity of arteries and arterioles, positions and angles of crossings between two vessels. The reliability of the results, justified by their low variability, makes feasible the standardization of quantitative parameters to be used both in the diagnosis and in the prognosis of hypertension, and also allows prospective studies based upon them.

  10. Quantitative interactome analysis reveals a chemoresistant edgotype

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Juan D.; Schweppe, Devin K.; Eng, Jimmy K.; Zheng, Chunxiang; Taipale, Alex; Zhang, Yiyi; Takara, Kohji; Bruce, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Chemoresistance is a common mode of therapy failure for many cancers. Tumours develop resistance to chemotherapeutics through a variety of mechanisms, with proteins serving pivotal roles. Changes in protein conformations and interactions affect the cellular response to environmental conditions contributing to the development of new phenotypes. The ability to understand how protein interaction networks adapt to yield new function or alter phenotype is limited by the inability to determine structural and protein interaction changes on a proteomic scale. Here, chemical crosslinking and mass spectrometry were employed to quantify changes in protein structures and interactions in multidrug-resistant human carcinoma cells. Quantitative analysis of the largest crosslinking-derived, protein interaction network comprising 1,391 crosslinked peptides allows for ‘edgotype' analysis in a cell model of chemoresistance. We detect consistent changes to protein interactions and structures, including those involving cytokeratins, topoisomerase-2-alpha, and post-translationally modified histones, which correlate with a chemoresistant phenotype. PMID:26235782

  11. Quantitative measurements of enhanced soot production in a flickering methane/air diffusion flame

    SciTech Connect

    Shaddix, C.R.; Harrington, J.E.; Smyth, K.C. . Building and Fire Research Lab.)

    1994-12-01

    Integrated models of soot production and oxidation are based upon experimental results obtained in steady, laminar flames. For successful application of these descriptions to turbulent combustion, it is instructive to test predictions of soot concentrations against experimental measurements obtained in time-varying flowfields. This paper reports quantitative measurements of the local soot volume fraction in a co-flowing, flickering CH[sub 4]/air diffusion flame burning at atmospheric pressure. Acoustic forcing of the fuel flow rate is used to phase lock the periodic flame flicker close to the natural flicker frequency. Measurements show that soot production is four time greater for a forcing condition in which flame tip clipping occurs, compared with a steady flame burning with the same mean fuel flow velocity. The soot field in the flickering flame has been characterized using tomographic reconstruction of extinction data obtained at 632.8 nm, laser-induced incandescence (LII) images calibrated against steady CH[sub 4]/air extinction results, and vertically polarized scattering data. The LII method is found to track the soot volume fraction closely and to give better signal-to-noise than the extinction measurements in both the steady and time-varying flowfields. A Mie analysis of these results suggests that the flickering flame exhibits similar number densities but larger particle sizes that the corresponding steady flame.

  12. Rapid-air-dry papanicolaou stain in canine and feline tumor cytology: a quantitative comparison with the Giemsa stain.

    PubMed

    Sawa, Mariko; Yabuki, Akira; Miyoshi, Noriaki; Arai, Kou; Yamato, Osamu

    2012-09-01

    The Papanicolaou stain is a gold-standard staining method for tumor diagnosis in human cytology. However, it has not been used routinely in veterinary cytology, because of its complicated multistep procedure and requirement for wet fixation. Currently, a rapid Papanicolaou stain using air-dried smears is utilized in human cytology, but usefulness of this rapid-air-dry Papanicolaou (RAD-Pap) stain in the veterinary field has not been fully evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the RAD-Pap stain by using quantitative analysis. Air-dried impression smears were collected from tumor specimens and stained with RAD-Pap and Giemsa. Twelve parameters representing the criteria of malignancy were quantitated, and characteristics of the RAD-Pap were evaluated statistically. The RAD-Pap stain could be applied to all the smears, and images of nucleoli and chromatin patterns were clear and detailed. In quantitative analysis with the RAD-Pap stain, but not with the Giemsa stain, dispersion of nucleolus size and dispersion of nucleolus/nucleus ratio in malignant tumors were significantly higher than those in benign tumors. These findings demonstrated that the RAD-Pap stain was useful for obtaining detailed nuclear information, and the ability to differentiate benignity and malignancy by nucleolus findings was a principal advantage of this stain. This RAD-Pap stain could be routinely used as a supportive staining method in veterinary diagnostic cytology.

  13. Automated quantitative image analysis of nanoparticle assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Chaitanya R.; Gao, Bo; Tao, Andrea R.; Arya, Gaurav

    2015-05-01

    The ability to characterize higher-order structures formed by nanoparticle (NP) assembly is critical for predicting and engineering the properties of advanced nanocomposite materials. Here we develop a quantitative image analysis software to characterize key structural properties of NP clusters from experimental images of nanocomposites. This analysis can be carried out on images captured at intermittent times during assembly to monitor the time evolution of NP clusters in a highly automated manner. The software outputs averages and distributions in the size, radius of gyration, fractal dimension, backbone length, end-to-end distance, anisotropic ratio, and aspect ratio of NP clusters as a function of time along with bootstrapped error bounds for all calculated properties. The polydispersity in the NP building blocks and biases in the sampling of NP clusters are accounted for through the use of probabilistic weights. This software, named Particle Image Characterization Tool (PICT), has been made publicly available and could be an invaluable resource for researchers studying NP assembly. To demonstrate its practical utility, we used PICT to analyze scanning electron microscopy images taken during the assembly of surface-functionalized metal NPs of differing shapes and sizes within a polymer matrix. PICT is used to characterize and analyze the morphology of NP clusters, providing quantitative information that can be used to elucidate the physical mechanisms governing NP assembly.The ability to characterize higher-order structures formed by nanoparticle (NP) assembly is critical for predicting and engineering the properties of advanced nanocomposite materials. Here we develop a quantitative image analysis software to characterize key structural properties of NP clusters from experimental images of nanocomposites. This analysis can be carried out on images captured at intermittent times during assembly to monitor the time evolution of NP clusters in a highly automated

  14. Lipid biomarker analysis for the quantitative analysis of airborne microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Macnaughton, S.J.; Jenkins, T.L.; Cormier, M.R.

    1997-08-01

    There is an ever increasing concern regarding the presence of airborne microbial contaminants within indoor air environments. Exposure to such biocontaminants can give rise to large numbers of different health effects including infectious diseases, allergenic responses and respiratory problems, Biocontaminants typically round in indoor air environments include bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa and dust mites. Mycotoxins, endotoxins, pollens and residues of organisms are also known to cause adverse health effects. A quantitative detection/identification technique independent of culturability that assays both culturable and non culturable biomass including endotoxin is critical in defining risks from indoor air biocontamination. Traditionally, methods employed for the monitoring of microorganism numbers in indoor air environments involve classical culture based techniques and/or direct microscopic counting. It has been repeatedly documented that viable microorganism counts only account for between 0.1-10% of the total community detectable by direct counting. The classic viable microbiologic approach doe`s not provide accurate estimates of microbial fragments or other indoor air components that can act as antigens and induce or potentiate allergic responses. Although bioaerosol samplers are designed to damage the microbes as little as possible, microbial stress has been shown to result from air sampling, aerosolization and microbial collection. Higher collection efficiency results in greater cell damage while less cell damage often results in lower collection efficiency. Filtration can collect particulates at almost 100% efficiency, but captured microorganisms may become dehydrated and damaged resulting in non-culturability, however, the lipid biomarker assays described herein do not rely on cell culture. Lipids are components that are universally distributed throughout cells providing a means to assess independent of culturability.

  15. Materials characterization through quantitative digital image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J. Philliber; B. Antoun; B. Somerday; N. Yang

    2000-07-01

    A digital image analysis system has been developed to allow advanced quantitative measurement of microstructural features. This capability is maintained as part of the microscopy facility at Sandia, Livermore. The system records images digitally, eliminating the use of film. Images obtained from other sources may also be imported into the system. Subsequent digital image processing enhances image appearance through the contrast and brightness adjustments. The system measures a variety of user-defined microstructural features--including area fraction, particle size and spatial distributions, grain sizes and orientations of elongated particles. These measurements are made in a semi-automatic mode through the use of macro programs and a computer controlled translation stage. A routine has been developed to create large montages of 50+ separate images. Individual image frames are matched to the nearest pixel to create seamless montages. Results from three different studies are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the system.

  16. Near Real Time Quantitative Gas Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herget, William F.; Tromp, Marianne L.; Anderson, Charles R.

    1985-12-01

    A Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) - based system has been developed and is undergoing evaluation for near real time multicomponent quantitative analysis of undiluted gaseous automotive exhaust emissions. The total system includes: (1) a gas conditioning system (GCS) for tracer gas injection, gas mixing, and temperature stabilization; and (2) an exhaust gas analyzer (EGA) consisting of a sample cell, an FT-IR system, and a computerized data processing system. Tests have shown that the system can monitor about 20 individual species (concentrations down to the 1-20 ppm range) with a time resolution of one second. Tests have been conducted on a chassis dynamometer system utilizing different autos, different fuels, and different driving cycles. Results were compared with those obtained using a standard constant volume sampling (CVS) system.

  17. Nonlinear dynamics and quantitative EEG analysis.

    PubMed

    Jansen, B H

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative, computerized electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis appears to be based on a phenomenological approach to EEG interpretation, and is primarily rooted in linear systems theory. A fundamentally different approach to computerized EEG analysis, however, is making its way into the laboratories. The basic idea, inspired by recent advances in the area of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory, is to view an EEG as the output of a deterministic system of relatively simple complexity, but containing nonlinearities. This suggests that studying the geometrical dynamics of EEGs, and the development of neurophysiologically realistic models of EEG generation may produce more successful automated EEG analysis techniques than the classical, stochastic methods. A review of the fundamentals of chaos theory is provided. Evidence supporting the nonlinear dynamics paradigm to EEG interpretation is presented, and the kind of new information that can be extracted from the EEG is discussed. A case is made that a nonlinear dynamic systems viewpoint to EEG generation will profoundly affect the way EEG interpretation is currently done.

  18. Low-cost monitoring of Campylobacter in poultry houses by air sampling and quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, M S R; Josefsen, M H; Löfström, C; Christensen, L S; Wieczorek, K; Osek, J; Hoorfar, J

    2014-02-01

    The present study describes the evaluation of a method for the quantification of Campylobacter by air sampling in poultry houses. Sampling was carried out in conventional chicken houses in Poland, in addition to a preliminary sampling in Denmark. Each measurement consisted of three air samples, two standard boot swab fecal samples, and one airborne particle count. Sampling was conducted over an 8-week period in three flocks, assessing the presence and levels of Campylobacter in boot swabs and air samples using quantitative real-time PCR. The detection limit for air sampling was approximately 100 Campylobacter cell equivalents (CCE)/m3. Airborne particle counts were used to analyze the size distribution of airborne particles (0.3 to 10 μm) in the chicken houses in relation to the level of airborne Campylobacter. No correlation was found. Using air sampling, Campylobacter was detected in the flocks right away, while boot swab samples were positive after 2 weeks. All samples collected were positive for Campylobacter from week 2 through the rest of the rearing period for both sampling techniques, although levels 1- to 2-log CCE higher were found with air sampling. At week 8, the levels were approximately 10(4) and 10(5) CCE per sample for boot swabs and air, respectively. In conclusion, using air samples combined with quantitative real-time PCR, Campylobacter contamination could be detected earlier than by boot swabs and was found to be a more convenient technique for monitoring and/or to obtain enumeration data useful for quantitative risk assessment of Campylobacter.

  19. Quantitative image analysis of WE43-T6 cracking behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, A.; Yahya, Z.

    2013-06-01

    Environment-assisted cracking of WE43 cast magnesium (4.2 wt.% Yt, 2.3 wt.% Nd, 0.7% Zr, 0.8% HRE) in the T6 peak-aged condition was induced in ambient air in notched specimens. The mechanism of fracture was studied using electron backscatter diffraction, serial sectioning and in situ observations of crack propagation. The intermetallic (rare earthed-enriched divorced intermetallic retained at grain boundaries and predominantly at triple points) material was found to play a significant role in initiating cracks which leads to failure of this material. Quantitative measurements were required for this project. The populations of the intermetallic and clusters of intermetallic particles were analyzed using image analysis of metallographic images. This is part of the work to generate a theoretical model of the effect of notch geometry on the static fatigue strength of this material.

  20. Quantitative microstructure analysis of polymer-modified mortars.

    PubMed

    Jenni, A; Herwegh, M; Zurbriggen, R; Aberle, T; Holzer, L

    2003-11-01

    Digital light, fluorescence and electron microscopy in combination with wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy were used to visualize individual polymers, air voids, cement phases and filler minerals in a polymer-modified cementitious tile adhesive. In order to investigate the evolution and processes involved in formation of the mortar microstructure, quantifications of the phase distribution in the mortar were performed including phase-specific imaging and digital image analysis. The required sample preparation techniques and imaging related topics are discussed. As a form of case study, the different techniques were applied to obtain a quantitative characterization of a specific mortar mixture. The results indicate that the mortar fractionates during different stages ranging from the early fresh mortar until the final hardened mortar stage. This induces process-dependent enrichments of the phases at specific locations in the mortar. The approach presented provides important information for a comprehensive understanding of the functionality of polymer-modified mortars.

  1. Quantitative analysis of protein turnover in plants.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Clark J; Li, Lei; Millar, A Harvey

    2014-03-01

    Proteins are constantly being synthesised and degraded as plant cells age and as plants grow, develop and adapt the proteome. Given that plants develop through a series of events from germination to fruiting and even undertake whole organ senescence, an understanding of protein turnover as a fundamental part of this process in plants is essential. Both synthesis and degradation processes are spatially separated in a cell across its compartmented structure. The majority of protein synthesis occurs in the cytosol, while synthesis of specific components occurs inside plastids and mitochondria. Degradation of proteins occurs in both the cytosol, through the action of the plant proteasome, and in organelles and lytic structures through different protease classes. Tracking the specific synthesis and degradation rate of individual proteins can be undertaken using stable isotope feeding and the ability of peptide MS to track labelled peptide fractions over time. Mathematical modelling can be used to follow the isotope signature of newly synthesised protein as it accumulates and natural abundance proteins as they are lost through degradation. Different technical and biological constraints govern the potential for the use of (13)C, (15)N, (2)H and (18)O for these experiments in complete labelling and partial labelling strategies. Future development of quantitative protein turnover analysis will involve analysis of protein populations in complexes and subcellular compartments, assessing the effect of PTMs and integrating turnover studies into wider system biology study of plants.

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Triple Mutant Genetic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Braberg, Hannes; Alexander, Richard; Shales, Michael; Xu, Jiewei; Franks-Skiba, Kathleen E.; Wu, Qiuqin; Haber, James E.; Krogan, Nevan J.

    2014-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of genetic interactions between pairs of gene mutations has proven effective for characterizing cellular functions but can miss important interactions for functionally redundant genes. To address this limitation, we have developed an approach termed Triple Mutant Analysis (TMA). The procedure relies on a query strain that contains two deletions in a pair of redundant or otherwise related genes, that is crossed against a panel of candidate deletion strains to isolate triple mutants and measure their growth. A central feature of TMA is to interrogate mutants that are synthetically sick when two other genes are deleted but interact minimally with either single deletion. This approach has been valuable for discovering genes that restore critical functions when the principle actors are deleted. TMA has also uncovered double mutant combinations that produce severe defects because a third protein becomes deregulated and acts in a deleterious fashion, and it has revealed functional differences between proteins presumed to act together. The protocol is optimized for Singer ROTOR pinning robots, takes 3 weeks to complete, and measures interactions for up to 30 double mutants against a library of 1536 single mutants. PMID:25010907

  3. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: AIR PATHWAY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This bulletin presents information on estimating toxic air emissions from Superfund sites. The focus is on the collection of air emmissions data during the site inspection and remedial investigation/feasibility study and the use of these data for the selection or implementation o...

  4. Applying Knowledge of Quantitative Design and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared and contrasted two quantitative scholarly articles in relation to their research designs. Their designs were analyzed by the comparison of research references and research specific vocabulary to describe how various research methods were used. When researching and analyzing quantitative scholarly articles, it is imperative to…

  5. Quantitative Passive Diffusive Sampling for Assessing Soil Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-28

    4/11/2012 1 Quantitative Passive Diffusive Sampling for Assessing Soil Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air Todd McAlary and Hester Groenevelt, Geosyntec... Intrusion to Indoor Air 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...10-6 risk (ppb) Vapour pressure (atm) Water solubility (g/l) 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 110 400 0.16 1.33 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene

  6. Quantitative Assessment of Detection Frequency for the INL Ambient Air Monitoring Network

    SciTech Connect

    Sondrup, A. Jeffrey; Rood, Arthur S.

    2014-11-01

    A quantitative assessment of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) air monitoring network was performed using frequency of detection as the performance metric. The INL air monitoring network consists of 37 low-volume air samplers in 31 different locations. Twenty of the samplers are located on INL (onsite) and 17 are located off INL (offsite). Detection frequencies were calculated using both BEA and ESER laboratory minimum detectable activity (MDA) levels. The CALPUFF Lagrangian puff dispersion model, coupled with 1 year of meteorological data, was used to calculate time-integrated concentrations at sampler locations for a 1-hour release of unit activity (1 Ci) for every hour of the year. The unit-activity time-integrated concentration (TICu) values were calculated at all samplers for releases from eight INL facilities. The TICu values were then scaled and integrated for a given release quantity and release duration. All facilities modeled a ground-level release emanating either from the center of the facility or at a point where significant emissions are possible. In addition to ground-level releases, three existing stacks at the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, and Material and Fuels Complex were also modeled. Meteorological data from the 35 stations comprising the INL Mesonet network, data from the Idaho Falls Regional airport, upper air data from the Boise airport, and three-dimensional gridded data from the weather research forecasting model were used for modeling. Three representative radionuclides identified as key radionuclides in INL’s annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants evaluations were considered for the frequency of detection analysis: Cs-137 (beta-gamma emitter), Pu-239 (alpha emitter), and Sr-90 (beta emitter). Source-specific release quantities were calculated for each radionuclide, such that the maximum inhalation dose at any publicly accessible sampler or the National

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Hypoperfusion in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Nael, Kambiz; Meshksar, Arash; Liebeskind, David S.; Coull, Bruce M.; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Villablanca, J. Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study compares the concordance between arterial spin labeling (ASL) and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) for the identification of regional hypoperfusion and diffusion-perfusion mismatch tissue classification using a quantitative method. Methods The inclusion criteria for this retrospective study were as follows: patients with acute ischemic syndrome with symptom onset <24 hours and acquisition of both ASL and DSC MR perfusion. The volumes of infarction and hypoperfused lesions were calculated on ASL and DSC multi-parametric maps. Patients were classified into reperfused, matched, or mismatch groups using time to maximum >6 sec as the reference. In a subset of patients who were successfully recanalized, the identical analysis was performed and the infarction and hypoperfused lesion volumes were used for paired pre- and posttreatment comparisons. Results Forty-one patients met our inclusion criteria. Twenty patients underwent successful endovascular revascularization (TICI>2a), resulting in a total of 61 ASL-DSC data pairs for comparison. The hypoperfusion volume on ASL-cerebral blood flow best approximated the DSC-time to peak volume (r=0.83) in pretreatment group and time to maximum (r=0.46) after recanalization. Both ASL-cerebral blood flow and DSC-TTP overestimated the hypoperfusion volume compared with time to maximum volume in pretreatment (F=27.41, P<0.0001) and recanalized patients (F=8.78, P<0.0001). Conclusions ASL-cerebral blood flow overestimates the DSC time to maximum hypoperfusion volume and mismatch classification in patients with acute ischemic syndrome. Continued overestimation of hypoperfused volume after recanalization suggests flow pattern and velocity changes in addition to arterial transit delay can affects the performance of ASL. PMID:23988646

  8. Quantitative assessment of radiation force effect at the dielectric air-liquid interface

    PubMed Central

    Capeloto, Otávio Augusto; Zanuto, Vitor Santaella; Malacarne, Luis Carlos; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Lukasievicz, Gustavo Vinicius Bassi; Bialkowski, Stephen Edward; Astrath, Nelson Guilherme Castelli

    2016-01-01

    We induce nanometer-scale surface deformation by exploiting momentum conservation of the interaction between laser light and dielectric liquids. The effect of radiation force at the air-liquid interface is quantitatively assessed for fluids with different density, viscosity and surface tension. The imparted pressure on the liquids by continuous or pulsed laser light excitation is fully described by the Helmholtz electromagnetic force density. PMID:26856622

  9. Quantitative Auger analysis of Nb-Ge superconducting alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Buitrago, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using Auger electron analysis for quantitative analysis was investigated by studying Nb/sub 3/Ge thin-film Auger data with different approaches. A method base on elemental standards gave consistent quantitative values with reported Nb-Ge data. Alloy sputter yields were also calculated and results were consistent with those for pure elements.

  10. Visual Analysis of Air Traffic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, George Hans; Pang, Alex

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present visual analysis tools to help study the impact of policy changes on air traffic congestion. The tools support visualization of time-varying air traffic density over an area of interest using different time granularity. We use this visual analysis platform to investigate how changing the aircraft separation volume can reduce congestion while maintaining key safety requirements. The same platform can also be used as a decision aid for processing requests for unmanned aerial vehicle operations.

  11. Improving the Linkages between Air Pollution Epidemiology and Quantitative Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L.; Walker, Katy; Hubbell, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Air pollution epidemiology plays an integral role in both identifying the hazards of air pollution as well as supplying the risk coefficients that are used in quantitative risk assessments. Evidence from both epidemiology and risk assessments has historically supported critical environmental policy decisions. The extent to which risk assessors can properly specify a quantitative risk assessment and characterize key sources of uncertainty depends in part on the availability, and clarity, of data and assumptions in the epidemiological studies. Objectives: We discuss the interests shared by air pollution epidemiology and risk assessment communities in ensuring that the findings of epidemiological studies are appropriately characterized and applied correctly in risk assessments. We highlight the key input parameters for risk assessments and consider how modest changes in the characterization of these data might enable more accurate risk assessments that better represent the findings of epidemiological studies. Discussion: We argue that more complete information regarding the methodological choices and input data used in epidemiological studies would support more accurate risk assessments—to the benefit of both disciplines. In particular, we suggest including additional details regarding air quality, demographic, and health data, as well as certain types of data-rich graphics. Conclusions: Relatively modest changes to the data reported in epidemiological studies will improve the quality of risk assessments and help prevent the misinterpretation and mischaracterization of the results of epidemiological studies. Such changes may also benefit epidemiologists undertaking meta-analyses. We suggest workshops as a way to improve the dialogue between the two communities. PMID:21816702

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Radar Returns from Insects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    When a number of flying insects is low enough to permit their resolution as individual radar targets, quantitative estimates of their aerial density are developed. Accurate measurements of heading distribution using a rotating polarization radar to enhance the wingbeat frequency method of identification are presented.

  13. Some Epistemological Considerations Concerning Quantitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrescu, Emilian

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the author's address at the 2007 "Journal of Applied Quantitative Methods" ("JAQM") prize awarding festivity. The festivity was included in the opening of the 4th International Conference on Applied Statistics, November 22, 2008, Bucharest, Romania. In the address, the author reflects on three theses that…

  14. Quantitative analysis of planetary reflectance spectra with principal components analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. E.; Smith, M. O.; Adams, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    A technique is presented for quantitative analysis of planetary reflectance spectra as mixtures of particles on microscopic and macroscopic scales using principal components analysis. This technique allows for determination of the endmembers being mixed, their abundance, and the scale of mixing, as well as other physical parameters. Eighteen lunar telescopic reflectance spectra of the Copernicus crater region, from 600 nm to 1800 nm in wavelength, are modeled in terms of five likely endmembers: mare basalt, mature mare soil, anorthosite, mature highland soil, and clinopyroxene. These endmembers were chosen from a similar analysis of 92 lunar soil and rock samples. The models fit the data to within 2 percent rms. It is found that the goodness of fit is marginally better for intimate mixing over macroscopic mixing.

  15. Energy Dispersive Spectrometry and Quantitative Analysis Short Course. Introduction to X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectrometry and Quantitative Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Paul; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This course will cover practical applications of the energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) to x-ray microanalysis. Topics covered will include detector technology, advances in pulse processing, resolution and performance monitoring, detector modeling, peak deconvolution and fitting, qualitative and quantitative analysis, compositional mapping, and standards. An emphasis will be placed on use of the EDS for quantitative analysis, with discussion of typical problems encountered in the analysis of a wide range of materials and sample geometries.

  16. Structural and quantitative analysis of Equisetum alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Luise; Ernst, Ludger; Lubienski, Marcus; Papke, Uli; Schiebel, Hans-Martin; Jerz, Gerold; Beuerle, Till

    2015-08-01

    Equisetum palustre L. is known for its toxicity for livestock. Several studies in the past addressed the isolation and identification of the responsible alkaloids. So far, palustrine (1) and N(5)-formylpalustrine (2) are known alkaloids of E. palustre. A HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method in combination with simple sample work-up was developed to identify and quantitate Equisetum alkaloids. Besides the two known alkaloids six related alkaloids were detected in different Equisetum samples. The structure of the alkaloid palustridiene (3) was derived by comprehensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments. N(5)-Acetylpalustrine (4) was also thoroughly characterized by NMR for the first time. The structure of N(5)-formylpalustridiene (5) is proposed based on mass spectrometry results. Twenty-two E. palustre samples were screened by a HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method after development of a simple sample work-up and in most cases the set of all eight alkaloids were detected in all parts of the plant. A high variability of the alkaloid content and distribution was found depending on plant organ, plant origin and season ranging from 88 to 597mg/kg dried weight. However, palustrine (1) and the alkaloid palustridiene (3) always represented the main alkaloids. For the first time, a comprehensive identification, quantitation and distribution of Equisetum alkaloids was achieved.

  17. Evidence toward an expanded international civil aviation organization (ICAO) concept of a single unified global communication navigation surveillance air traffic management (CNS/ATM) system: A quantitative analysis of ADS-B technology within a CNS/ATM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Gregory S.

    This research dissertation summarizes research done on the topic of global air traffic control, to include technology, controlling world organizations and economic considerations. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) proposed communication, navigation, surveillance, air traffic management system (CNS/ATM) plan is the basis for the development of a single global CNS/ATM system concept as it is discussed within this study. Research will be evaluated on the efficacy of a single technology, Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) within the scope of a single global CNS/ATM system concept. ADS-B has been used within the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Capstone program for evaluation since the year 2000. The efficacy of ADS-B was measured solely by using National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) data relating to accident and incident rates within the Alaskan airspace (AK) and that of the national airspace system (NAS).

  18. Joint association analysis of bivariate quantitative and qualitative traits.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Mengdie; Diao, Guoqing

    2011-11-29

    Univariate genome-wide association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits has been investigated extensively in the literature. In the presence of correlated phenotypes, it is more intuitive to analyze all phenotypes simultaneously. We describe an efficient likelihood-based approach for the joint association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits in unrelated individuals. We assume a probit model for the qualitative trait, under which an unobserved latent variable and a prespecified threshold determine the value of the qualitative trait. To jointly model the quantitative and qualitative traits, we assume that the quantitative trait and the latent variable follow a bivariate normal distribution. The latent variable is allowed to be correlated with the quantitative phenotype. Simultaneous modeling of the quantitative and qualitative traits allows us to make more precise inference on the pleiotropic genetic effects. We derive likelihood ratio tests for the testing of genetic effects. An application to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data is provided. The new method yields reasonable power and meaningful results for the joint association analysis of the quantitative trait Q1 and the qualitative trait disease status at SNPs with not too small MAF.

  19. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of endocytic recycling.

    PubMed

    Reineke, James B; Xie, Shuwei; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis, which encompasses the internalization and sorting of plasma membrane (PM) lipids and proteins to distinct membrane-bound intracellular compartments, is a highly regulated and fundamental cellular process by which eukaryotic cells dynamically regulate their PM composition. Indeed, endocytosis is implicated in crucial cellular processes that include proliferation, migration, and cell division as well as maintenance of tissue homeostasis such as apical-basal polarity. Once PM constituents have been taken up into the cell, either via clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE) or clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE), they typically have two fates: degradation through the late-endosomal/lysosomal pathway or returning to the PM via endocytic recycling pathways. In this review, we will detail experimental procedures that allow for both qualitative and quantitative assessment of endocytic recycling of transmembrane proteins internalized by CDE and CIE, using the HeLa cervical cancer cell line as a model system.

  20. Quantitative infrared analysis of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Manuta, D.M.

    1997-04-01

    This work was performed at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant where hydrogen fluoride is produced upon the hydrolysis of UF{sub 6}. This poses a problem for in this setting and a method for determining the mole percent concentration was desired. HF has been considered to be a non-ideal gas for many years. D. F. Smith utilized complex equations in his HF studies in the 1950s. We have evaluated HF behavior as a function of pressure from three different perspectives. (1) Absorbance at 3877 cm{sup -1} as a function of pressure for 100% HF. (2) Absorbance at 3877 cm{sup -1} as a function of increasing partial pressure HF. Total pressure = 300 mm HgA maintained with nitrogen. (3) Absorbance at 3877 cm{sup -1} for constant partial pressure HF. Total pressure is increased to greater than 800 mm HgA with nitrogen. These experiments have shown that at partial pressures up to 35mm HgA, HIF follows the ideal gas law. The absorbance at 3877 cm{sup -1} can be quantitatively analyzed via infrared methods.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of HIV-1 Preintegration Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Engelman, Alan; Oztop, Ilker; Vandegraaff, Nick; Raghavendra, Nidhanapati K.

    2009-01-01

    Retroviral replication proceeds through the formation of a provirus, an integrated DNA copy of the viral RNA genome. The linear cDNA product of reverse transcription is the integration substrate and two different integrase activities, 3′ processing and DNA strand transfer, are required for provirus formation. Integrase nicks the cDNA ends adjacent to phylogenetically-conserved CA dinucleotides during 3′ processing. After nuclear entry and locating a suitable chromatin acceptor site, integrase joins the recessed 3′-OHs to the 5′-phosphates of a double-stranded staggered cut in the DNA target. Integrase functions in the context of a large nucleoprotein complex, called the preintegration complex (PIC), and PICs are analyzed to determine levels of integrase 3′ processing and DNA strand transfer activities that occur during acute virus infection. Denatured cDNA end regions are monitored by indirect end-labeling to measure the extent of 3′ processing. Native PICs can efficiently integrate their viral cDNA into exogenously added target DNA in vitro, and Southern blotting or nested PCR assays are used to quantify the resultant DNA strand transfer activity. This study details HIV-1 infection, PIC extraction, partial purification, and quantitative analyses of integrase 3′ processing and DNA strand transfer activities. PMID:19233280

  2. Quantitative multi-modal NDT data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Heideklang, René; Shokouhi, Parisa

    2014-02-18

    A single NDT technique is often not adequate to provide assessments about the integrity of test objects with the required coverage or accuracy. In such situations, it is often resorted to multi-modal testing, where complementary and overlapping information from different NDT techniques are combined for a more comprehensive evaluation. Multi-modal material and defect characterization is an interesting task which involves several diverse fields of research, including signal and image processing, statistics and data mining. The fusion of different modalities may improve quantitative nondestructive evaluation by effectively exploiting the augmented set of multi-sensor information about the material. It is the redundant information in particular, whose quantification is expected to lead to increased reliability and robustness of the inspection results. There are different systematic approaches to data fusion, each with its specific advantages and drawbacks. In our contribution, these will be discussed in the context of nondestructive materials testing. A practical study adopting a high-level scheme for the fusion of Eddy Current, GMR and Thermography measurements on a reference metallic specimen with built-in grooves will be presented. Results show that fusion is able to outperform the best single sensor regarding detection specificity, while retaining the same level of sensitivity.

  3. The quantitative failure of human reliability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.T.

    1995-07-01

    This philosophical treatise argues the merits of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in the context of the nuclear power industry. Actually, the author attacks historic and current HRA as having failed in informing policy makers who make decisions based on risk that humans contribute to systems performance. He argues for an HRA based on Bayesian (fact-based) inferential statistics, which advocates a systems analysis process that employs cogent heuristics when using opinion, and tempers itself with a rational debate over the weight given subjective and empirical probabilities.

  4. Quantitative Risk Analysis of Obstacle Limitation Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandaradura, Amila Silva

    Obstacle limitation surfaces (OLS) are the main safeguard against objects that can pose a hazard to aircraft operations at and around the airports. The standard dimensions of the most of these surfaces were estimated using the pilot's experience at the time when they were included in to the standard documents. As a result, some of these standards may have been overestimated while others may not provide an adequate level of safety. With airports moving to the Safety Management System (SMS) approach to design and operations safety, proper evaluation of the level of safety provided by OLS at specific sites becomes great importance to airport operators. There is no published evidence, however, for the estimation of the safety level provided by the existing OLS standards. Moreover, the rationale used by the ICAO to establish existing OLS standards is not readily available in the standard documents. Therefore this study attempts to collect actual flight path data using information provided by air traffic control radars and construct a methodology to assess the probability of aircraft deviating from their intended/protected path. The extension of the developed methodology can be used to estimate the OLS dimensions that provide an acceptable safety level for the aircraft operations. This will be helpful to estimate safe and efficient standard dimensions of the OLS and assess the risk level of objects to the aircraft operations around airports. In order to assess the existing standards and show the applications of the methodology, three case studies were conducted using aircraft data collected from Ottawa (CYOW), Calgary (CYYC) and Edmonton (CYEG) International Airports.

  5. Quantitive and Sociological Analysis of Blog Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachnik, W.; Szymczyk, S.; Leszczynski, S.; Podsiadlo, R.; Rymszewicz, E.; Kurylo, L.; Makowiec, D.; Bykowska, B.

    2005-10-01

    This paper examines the emerging phenomenon of blogging, using three different Polish blogging services as the base of the research. Authors show that blog networks are sharing their characteristics with complex networks (gamma coefficients, small worlds, cliques, etc.). Elements of sociometric analysis were used to prove existence of some social structures in the blog networks.

  6. General aviation air traffic pattern safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    A concept is described for evaluating the general aviation mid-air collision hazard in uncontrolled terminal airspace. Three-dimensional traffic pattern measurements were conducted at uncontrolled and controlled airports. Computer programs for data reduction, storage retrieval and statistical analysis have been developed. Initial general aviation air traffic pattern characteristics are presented. These preliminary results indicate that patterns are highly divergent from the expected standard pattern, and that pattern procedures observed can affect the ability of pilots to see and avoid each other.

  7. Air Force Materiel Command Reorganization Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Shelton, John A. Ausink, Chelsea Kaihoi Duran, Robert G. DeFeo, David W. George, Raymond E. Conley, Bernard Fox, Jerry M. Sollinger PROJECT AIR FORCE...Programs, and Analysis Director- ate (AFMC/A8/9); John Steenbock of the AFMC Manpower and Personnel Direc- torate (AFMC/A1); and others at Headquarters...Secretary of the Air Force for Logistics (SAF/IEL); Col John Dolan in the Office of the Legislative Liaison (SAF/LL); Col Jeffrey Morgan in the in

  8. A Comparative Assessment of Greek Universities' Efficiency Using Quantitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katharaki, Maria; Katharakis, George

    2010-01-01

    In part due to the increased demand for higher education, typical evaluation frameworks for universities often address the key issue of available resource utilisation. This study seeks to estimate the efficiency of 20 public universities in Greece through quantitative analysis (including performance indicators, data envelopment analysis (DEA) and…

  9. Influence of corrosion layers on quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, A.; Bohne, W.; Opitz-Coutureau, J.; Rauschenberg, J.; Röhrich, J.; Strub, E.

    2005-09-01

    Art historians and restorers in charge of ancient metal objects are often reluctant to remove the corrosion layer evolved over time, as this would change the appearance of the artefact dramatically. Therefore, when an elemental analysis of the objects is required, this has to be done by penetrating the corrosion layer. In this work the influence of corrosion was studied on Chinese and Roman coins, where removal of oxidized material was possible. Measurements on spots with and without corrosion are presented and the results discussed.

  10. Segmentation and Quantitative Analysis of Epithelial Tissues.

    PubMed

    Aigouy, Benoit; Umetsu, Daiki; Eaton, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Epithelia are tissues that regulate exchanges with the environment. They are very dynamic and can acquire virtually any shape; at the cellular level, they are composed of cells tightly connected by junctions. Most often epithelia are amenable to live imaging; however, the large number of cells composing an epithelium and the absence of informatics tools dedicated to epithelial analysis largely prevented tissue scale studies. Here we present Tissue Analyzer, a free tool that can be used to segment and analyze epithelial cells and monitor tissue dynamics.

  11. Quantitative reconstruction of paleoclimate - Air and ground temperature tracking from Emigrant Pass Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, D. S.; Bartlett, M. G.; Harris, R. N.

    2004-12-01

    Borehole temperature-depth profiles contain information about surface ground temperatures histories and provide a useful complement to proxy indicators of climate change. An inherent assumption in borehole temperature reconstructions is that air and ground temperatures are coupled through heat diffusion track each other at annual and longer periods. The Emigrant Pass Observatory (EPO), located in the Grouse Creek Mountains of northwestern Utah, is designed to test ground-air temperature tracking. Analyses of 10 years of observations at EPO demonstrate the following: 1) Ground temperatures track air temperatures at annual and longer periods exceptionally well at the site. Divergence between the observed temperatures at 1 m in the subsurface and air temperatures modeled as a boundary layer forcing is less than 0.04 K per annum. 2) Seasonal variations in incident solar radiation are ~200 Wm-2 leading to an average annual difference between ground and air temperatures, Δ Tg-a, of 2.55 K (±0.01) from 1993-2003. The temperature difference varies from -5 K to +10 K when averaged over a diurnal cycle, and from 2.50 K to 2.60 K over an annual cycle. However, inter-annual variations in insulation are less than 1 Wm-2; consequently, solar radiation is not observed to affect the inter-annual tracking at the site. 3) Model studies snow-ground thermal interactions at EPO demonstrate that seasonal snow cover can either warm or cool the ground relative to the annual mean air temperature and that the winter snow effect is an order of magnitude smaller than the summer radiation effect at the site. 4) Temperature observations at various depths within the granite and soils at the site allow us to make estimates of in-situ thermal diffusivity and its changes with time. The "apparent" thermal diffusivity of the upper meter of granite at EPO ranges from 0.88-0.98 x 10-6 m2s-1 while the soil varies from 0.57-0.68 x 10-6 m2s-1. The accumulation of data at EPO leads to a quantitative

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Seismicity in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeesi, Mohammad; Zarifi, Zoya; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Boroujeni, Samar Amini; Tiampo, Kristy

    2017-03-01

    We use historical and recent major earthquakes and GPS geodetic data to compute seismic strain rate, geodetic slip deficit, static stress drop, the parameters of the magnitude-frequency distribution and geodetic strain rate in the Iranian Plateau to identify seismically mature fault segments and regions. Our analysis suggests that 11 fault segments are in the mature stage of the earthquake cycle, with the possibility of generating major earthquakes. These faults primarily are located in the north and the east of Iran. Four seismically mature regions in southern Iran with the potential for damaging strong earthquakes are also identified. We also delineate four additional fault segments in Iran that can generate major earthquakes without robust clues to their maturity.The most important fault segment in this study is the strike-slip system near the capital city of Tehran, with the potential to cause more than one million fatalities.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Seismicity in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeesi, Mohammad; Zarifi, Zoya; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Boroujeni, Samar Amini; Tiampo, Kristy

    2016-12-01

    We use historical and recent major earthquakes and GPS geodetic data to compute seismic strain rate, geodetic slip deficit, static stress drop, the parameters of the magnitude-frequency distribution and geodetic strain rate in the Iranian Plateau to identify seismically mature fault segments and regions. Our analysis suggests that 11 fault segments are in the mature stage of the earthquake cycle, with the possibility of generating major earthquakes. These faults primarily are located in the north and the east of Iran. Four seismically mature regions in southern Iran with the potential for damaging strong earthquakes are also identified. We also delineate four additional fault segments in Iran that can generate major earthquakes without robust clues to their maturity.The most important fault segment in this study is the strike-slip system near the capital city of Tehran, with the potential to cause more than one million fatalities.

  14. Uncertainty of quantitative microbiological methods of pharmaceutical analysis.

    PubMed

    Gunar, O V; Sakhno, N G

    2015-12-30

    The total uncertainty of quantitative microbiological methods, used in pharmaceutical analysis, consists of several components. The analysis of the most important sources of the quantitative microbiological methods variability demonstrated no effect of culture media and plate-count techniques in the estimation of microbial count while the highly significant effect of other factors (type of microorganism, pharmaceutical product and individual reading and interpreting errors) was established. The most appropriate method of statistical analysis of such data was ANOVA which enabled not only the effect of individual factors to be estimated but also their interactions. Considering all the elements of uncertainty and combining them mathematically the combined relative uncertainty of the test results was estimated both for method of quantitative examination of non-sterile pharmaceuticals and microbial count technique without any product. These data did not exceed 35%, appropriated for a traditional plate count methods.

  15. Quantitative flow cytometric analysis of membrane antigen expression.

    PubMed

    D'hautcourt, Jean-Luc

    2002-11-01

    Immunological analysis for cell antigens has been performed by flow cytometry in a qualitative fashion for over thirty years. During that time it has become increasingly apparent that quantitative measurements such as number of antigens per cell provide unique and useful information. This unit on quantitative flow cytometry (QFCM) describes the most commonly used protocols, both direct and indirect, and the major methods of analysis for the number of antibody binding sites on a cell or particle. Practical applications include detection of antigen under- or overexpression in hematological malignancies, distinguishing between B cell lymphoproliferative disorders, and precise diagnosis of certain rare diseases.

  16. Control of separation and quantitative analysis by GC-FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semmoud, A.; Huvenne, Jean P.; Legrand, P.

    1992-03-01

    Software for 3-D representations of the 'Absorbance-Wavenumber-Retention time' is used to control the quality of the GC separation. Spectral information given by the FTIR detection allows the user to be sure that a chromatographic peak is 'pure.' The analysis of peppermint essential oil is presented as an example. This assurance is absolutely required for quantitative applications. In these conditions, we have worked out a quantitative analysis of caffeine. Correlation coefficients between integrated absorbance measurements and concentration of caffeine are discussed at two steps of the data treatment.

  17. Environmental Analysis of the Air Bending Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellens, Karel; Dewulf, Wim; Duflou, Joost R.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a data collection effort, allowing to assess the overall environmental impact of the air bending process using the CO2PE!-Methodology. First the different modes of the air bending process are investigated, including both productive and non-productive modes. In particular consumption of electric power is recorded for the different modes. Subsequently, time studies allow determining the importance of productive and nonproductive modes of the involved process. The study demonstrates that the influence of standby losses can be substantial. In addition to life cycle analysis, in depth process analysis also provides insight in achievable environmental impact reducing measures towards machine tool builders and eco-design recommendations for product developers. The energy consumption of three different machine tool architectures are analysed and compared within this paper.

  18. A Return on Investment Analysis of Air Force Officer Accessions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-13

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY A RETURN ON INVESTMENT ANALYSIS OF AIR FORCE OFFICER ACCESSIONS by David O’Malley, LtCol, USAF...Lieutenant Colonel David O’Malley is assigned to the Air War College , Air University, Maxwell AFB, AL. Before attending the Air War College , LtCol O’Malley...the candidate’s junior and senior years of college , and a non-scholarship program. 3 Upon graduating from college , all ROTC candidates receive a four

  19. A quantitative analysis of the F18 flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Stacy A.; Dugan, Joanne B.; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an informal quantitative analysis of the F18 flight control system (FCS). The analysis technique combines a coverage model with a fault tree model. To demonstrate the method's extensive capabilities, we replace the fault tree with a digraph model of the F18 FCS, the only model available to us. The substitution shows that while digraphs have primarily been used for qualitative analysis, they can also be used for quantitative analysis. Based on our assumptions and the particular failure rates assigned to the F18 FCS components, we show that coverage does have a significant effect on the system's reliability and thus it is important to include coverage in the reliability analysis.

  20. Issues in Quantitative Analysis of Ultraviolet Imager (UV) Data: Airglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Germany, G. A.; Richards, P. G.; Spann, J. F.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Parks, G. K.

    1999-01-01

    The GGS Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) has proven to be especially valuable in correlative substorm, auroral morphology, and extended statistical studies of the auroral regions. Such studies are based on knowledge of the location, spatial, and temporal behavior of auroral emissions. More quantitative studies, based on absolute radiometric intensities from UVI images, require a more intimate knowledge of the instrument behavior and data processing requirements and are inherently more difficult than studies based on relative knowledge of the oval location. In this study, UVI airglow observations are analyzed and compared with model predictions to illustrate issues that arise in quantitative analysis of UVI images. These issues include instrument calibration, long term changes in sensitivity, and imager flat field response as well as proper background correction. Airglow emissions are chosen for this study because of their relatively straightforward modeling requirements and because of their implications for thermospheric compositional studies. The analysis issues discussed here, however, are identical to those faced in quantitative auroral studies.

  1. Incorporating principal component analysis into air quality ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The efficacy of standard air quality model evaluation techniques is becoming compromised as the simulation periods continue to lengthen in response to ever increasing computing capacity. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a statistical approach called Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with the intent of motivating its use by the evaluation community. One of the main objectives of PCA is to identify, through data reduction, the recurring and independent modes of variations (or signals) within a very large dataset, thereby summarizing the essential information of that dataset so that meaningful and descriptive conclusions can be made. In this demonstration, PCA is applied to a simple evaluation metric – the model bias associated with EPA's Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model when compared to weekly observations of sulfate (SO42−) and ammonium (NH4+) ambient air concentrations measured by the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet). The advantages of using this technique are demonstrated as it identifies strong and systematic patterns of CMAQ model bias across a myriad of spatial and temporal scales that are neither constrained to geopolitical boundaries nor monthly/seasonal time periods (a limitation of many current studies). The technique also identifies locations (station–grid cell pairs) that are used as indicators for a more thorough diagnostic evaluation thereby hastening and facilitating understanding of the prob

  2. CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT: GETTING FROM TOXICOLOGY TO QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    INTRODUCTION: GETTING FROM TOXICOLOGY TO QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS FOR CUMULATIVE RISK

    Hugh A. Barton1 and Carey N. Pope2
    1US EPA, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC
    2Department of...

  3. Quantitating the subtleties of microglial morphology with fractal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karperien, Audrey; Ahammer, Helmut; Jelinek, Herbert F.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that microglial form and function are inextricably linked. In recent years, the traditional view that microglial form ranges between “ramified resting” and “activated amoeboid” has been emphasized through advancing imaging techniques that point to microglial form being highly dynamic even within the currently accepted morphological categories. Moreover, microglia adopt meaningful intermediate forms between categories, with considerable crossover in function and varying morphologies as they cycle, migrate, wave, phagocytose, and extend and retract fine and gross processes. From a quantitative perspective, it is problematic to measure such variability using traditional methods, but one way of quantitating such detail is through fractal analysis. The techniques of fractal analysis have been used for quantitating microglial morphology, to categorize gross differences but also to differentiate subtle differences (e.g., amongst ramified cells). Multifractal analysis in particular is one technique of fractal analysis that may be useful for identifying intermediate forms. Here we review current trends and methods of fractal analysis, focusing on box counting analysis, including lacunarity and multifractal analysis, as applied to microglial morphology. PMID:23386810

  4. Quantitative analysis of regional myocardial performance in coronary artery disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, D. K.; Dodge, H. T.; Frimer, M.

    1975-01-01

    Findings from a group of subjects with significant coronary artery stenosis are given. A group of controls determined by use of a quantitative method for the study of regional myocardial performance based on the frame-by-frame analysis of biplane left ventricular angiograms are presented. Particular emphasis was placed upon the analysis of wall motion in terms of normalized segment dimensions, timing and velocity of contraction. The results were compared with the method of subjective assessment used clinically.

  5. Gas chromatograph analysis on closed air and nitrogen oxide storage atmospheres of recalcitrant seeds of Quercus Alba

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage of recalcitrant seeds remains an unsolved problem. This study investigated the quantitative gas analysis of nitrous oxide (N2O) and air atmospheres on the recalcitrant seeds of Quercus alba by using gas chromatograph. Ten seeds were placed in each sealed atmospheric system of air and 98/2% N...

  6. Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books.

    PubMed

    Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Shen, Yuan Kui; Aiden, Aviva Presser; Veres, Adrian; Gray, Matthew K; Pickett, Joseph P; Hoiberg, Dale; Clancy, Dan; Norvig, Peter; Orwant, Jon; Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A; Aiden, Erez Lieberman

    2011-01-14

    We constructed a corpus of digitized texts containing about 4% of all books ever printed. Analysis of this corpus enables us to investigate cultural trends quantitatively. We survey the vast terrain of 'culturomics,' focusing on linguistic and cultural phenomena that were reflected in the English language between 1800 and 2000. We show how this approach can provide insights about fields as diverse as lexicography, the evolution of grammar, collective memory, the adoption of technology, the pursuit of fame, censorship, and historical epidemiology. Culturomics extends the boundaries of rigorous quantitative inquiry to a wide array of new phenomena spanning the social sciences and the humanities.

  7. Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Shen, Yuan Kui; Aiden, Aviva P.; Veres, Adrian; Gray, Matthew K.; Pickett, Joseph P.; Hoiberg, Dale; Clancy, Dan; Norvig, Peter; Orwant, Jon; Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Aiden, Erez Lieberman

    2011-01-01

    We constructed a corpus of digitized texts containing about 4% of all books ever printed. Analysis of this corpus enables us to investigate cultural trends quantitatively. We survey the vast terrain of ‘culturomics’, focusing on linguistic and cultural phenomena that were reflected in the English language between 1800 and 2000. We show how this approach can provide insights about fields as diverse as lexicography, the evolution of grammar, collective memory, the adoption of technology, the pursuit of fame, censorship, and historical epidemiology. ‘Culturomics’ extends the boundaries of rigorous quantitative inquiry to a wide array of new phenomena spanning the social sciences and the humanities. PMID:21163965

  8. Quantitative numerical analysis of transient IR-experiments on buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maierhofer, Ch.; Wiggenhauser, H.; Brink, A.; Röllig, M.

    2004-12-01

    Impulse-thermography has been established as a fast and reliable tool in many areas of non-destructive testing. In recent years several investigations have been done to apply active thermography to civil engineering. For quantitative investigations in this area of application, finite difference calculations have been performed for systematic studies on the influence of environmental conditions, heating power and time, defect depth and size and thermal properties of the bulk material (concrete). The comparison of simulated and experimental data enables the quantitative analysis of defects.

  9. Improved method and apparatus for chromatographic quantitative analysis

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, J.S.; Gjerde, D.T.; Schmuckler, G.

    An improved apparatus and method are described for the quantitative analysis of a solution containing a plurality of anion species by ion exchange chromatography which utilizes a single element and a single ion exchange bed which does not require periodic regeneration. The solution containing the anions is added to an anion exchange resin bed which is a low capacity macroreticular polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin containing quarternary ammonium functional groups, and is eluted therefrom with a dilute solution of a low electrical conductance organic acid salt. As each anion species is eluted from the bed, it is quantitatively sensed by conventional detection means such as a conductivity cell.

  10. Markov chain Monte Carlo linkage analysis of complex quantitative phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, A; Reich, T

    2001-01-01

    We report a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of the five simulated quantitative traits in Genetic Analysis Workshop 12 using the Loki software. Our objectives were to determine the efficacy of the Markov chain Monte Carlo method and to test a new scoring technique. Our initial blind analysis, on replicate 42 (the "best replicate") successfully detected four out of the five disease loci and found no false positives. A power analysis shows that the software could usually detect 4 of the 10 trait/gene combinations at an empirical point-wise p-value of 1.5 x 10(-4).

  11. Spotsizer: High-throughput quantitative analysis of microbial growth

    PubMed Central

    Jeffares, Daniel C.; Arzhaeva, Yulia; Bähler, Jürg

    2017-01-01

    Microbial colony growth can serve as a useful readout in assays for studying complex genetic interactions or the effects of chemical compounds. Although computational tools for acquiring quantitative measurements of microbial colonies have been developed, their utility can be compromised by inflexible input image requirements, non-trivial installation procedures, or complicated operation. Here, we present the Spotsizer software tool for automated colony size measurements in images of robotically arrayed microbial colonies. Spotsizer features a convenient graphical user interface (GUI), has both single-image and batch-processing capabilities, and works with multiple input image formats and different colony grid types. We demonstrate how Spotsizer can be used for high-throughput quantitative analysis of fission yeast growth. The user-friendly Spotsizer tool provides rapid, accurate, and robust quantitative analyses of microbial growth in a high-throughput format. Spotsizer is freely available at https://data.csiro.au/dap/landingpage?pid=csiro:15330 under a proprietary CSIRO license. PMID:27712582

  12. Spotsizer: High-throughput quantitative analysis of microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Leanne; Převorovský, Martin; Rallis, Charalampos; Jeffares, Daniel C; Arzhaeva, Yulia; Bähler, Jürg

    2016-10-01

    Microbial colony growth can serve as a useful readout in assays for studying complex genetic interactions or the effects of chemical compounds. Although computational tools for acquiring quantitative measurements of microbial colonies have been developed, their utility can be compromised by inflexible input image requirements, non-trivial installation procedures, or complicated operation. Here, we present the Spotsizer software tool for automated colony size measurements in images of robotically arrayed microbial colonies. Spotsizer features a convenient graphical user interface (GUI), has both single-image and batch-processing capabilities, and works with multiple input image formats and different colony grid types. We demonstrate how Spotsizer can be used for high-throughput quantitative analysis of fission yeast growth. The user-friendly Spotsizer tool provides rapid, accurate, and robust quantitative analyses of microbial growth in a high-throughput format. Spotsizer is freely available at https://data.csiro.au/dap/landingpage?pid=csiro:15330 under a proprietary CSIRO license.

  13. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of glycoproteins combined with enrichment methods.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yeong Hee; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has been a core technology for high sensitive and high-throughput analysis of the enriched glycoproteome in aspects of quantitative assays as well as qualitative profiling of glycoproteins. Because it has been widely recognized that aberrant glycosylation in a glycoprotein may involve in progression of a certain disease, the development of efficient analysis tool for the aberrant glycoproteins is very important for deep understanding about pathological function of the glycoprotein and new biomarker development. This review first describes the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies mainly employing solid-phase extraction methods such as hydrizide-capturing, lectin-specific capturing, and affinity separation techniques based on porous graphitized carbon, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, or immobilized boronic acid. Second, MS-based quantitative analysis strategies coupled with the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies, by using a label-free MS, stable isotope-labeling, or targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS, are summarized with recent published studies.

  14. An approach to market analysis for lighter than air transportation of freight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. O.; Marcus, H. S.; Pollock, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    An approach is presented to marketing analysis for lighter than air vehicles in a commercial freight market. After a discussion of key characteristics of supply and demand factors, a three-phase approach to marketing analysis is described. The existing transportation systems are quantitatively defined and possible roles for lighter than air vehicles within this framework are postulated. The marketing analysis views the situation from the perspective of both the shipper and the carrier. A demand for freight service is assumed and the resulting supply characteristics are determined. Then, these supply characteristics are used to establish the demand for competing modes. The process is then iterated to arrive at the market solution.

  15. Some selected quantitative methods of thermal image analysis in Matlab.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents a new algorithm based on some selected automatic quantitative methods for analysing thermal images. It shows the practical implementation of these image analysis methods in Matlab. It enables to perform fully automated and reproducible measurements of selected parameters in thermal images. The paper also shows two examples of the use of the proposed image analysis methods for the area of ​​the skin of a human foot and face. The full source code of the developed application is also provided as an attachment. The main window of the program during dynamic analysis of the foot thermal image.

  16. Quantitative risk analysis of oil storage facilities in seismic areas.

    PubMed

    Fabbrocino, Giovanni; Iervolino, Iunio; Orlando, Francesca; Salzano, Ernesto

    2005-08-31

    Quantitative risk analysis (QRA) of industrial facilities has to take into account multiple hazards threatening critical equipment. Nevertheless, engineering procedures able to evaluate quantitatively the effect of seismic action are not well established. Indeed, relevant industrial accidents may be triggered by loss of containment following ground shaking or other relevant natural hazards, either directly or through cascade effects ('domino effects'). The issue of integrating structural seismic risk into quantitative probabilistic seismic risk analysis (QpsRA) is addressed in this paper by a representative study case regarding an oil storage plant with a number of atmospheric steel tanks containing flammable substances. Empirical seismic fragility curves and probit functions, properly defined both for building-like and non building-like industrial components, have been crossed with outcomes of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for a test site located in south Italy. Once the seismic failure probabilities have been quantified, consequence analysis has been performed for those events which may be triggered by the loss of containment following seismic action. Results are combined by means of a specific developed code in terms of local risk contour plots, i.e. the contour line for the probability of fatal injures at any point (x, y) in the analysed area. Finally, a comparison with QRA obtained by considering only process-related top events is reported for reference.

  17. An improved quantitative analysis method for plant cortical microtubules.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Huang, Chenyang; Wang, Jia; Shang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The arrangement of plant cortical microtubules can reflect the physiological state of cells. However, little attention has been paid to the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules so far. In this paper, Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD) algorithm was applied in the image preprocessing of the original microtubule image. And then Intrinsic Mode Function 1 (IMF1) image obtained by decomposition was selected to do the texture analysis based on Grey-Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) algorithm. Meanwhile, in order to further verify its reliability, the proposed texture analysis method was utilized to distinguish different images of Arabidopsis microtubules. The results showed that the effect of BEMD algorithm on edge preserving accompanied with noise reduction was positive, and the geometrical characteristic of the texture was obvious. Four texture parameters extracted by GLCM perfectly reflected the different arrangements between the two images of cortical microtubules. In summary, the results indicate that this method is feasible and effective for the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules. It not only provides a new quantitative approach for the comprehensive study of the role played by microtubules in cell life activities but also supplies references for other similar studies.

  18. Data from quantitative label free proteomics analysis of rat spleen.

    PubMed

    Dudekula, Khadar; Le Bihan, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    The dataset presented in this work has been obtained using a label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of rat spleen. A robust method for extraction of proteins from rat spleen tissue and LC-MS-MS analysis was developed using a urea and SDS-based buffer. Different fractionation methods were compared. A total of 3484 different proteins were identified from the pool of all experiments run in this study (a total of 2460 proteins with at least two peptides). A total of 1822 proteins were identified from nine non-fractionated pulse gels, 2288 proteins and 2864 proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE fractionation into three and five fractions respectively. The proteomics data are deposited in ProteomeXchange Consortium via PRIDE PXD003520, Progenesis and Maxquant output are presented in the supported information. The generated list of proteins under different regimes of fractionation allow assessing the nature of the identified proteins; variability in the quantitative analysis associated with the different sampling strategy and allow defining a proper number of replicates for future quantitative analysis.

  19. Qualitative and quantitative stability analysis of penta-rhythmic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwabedal, Justus T. C.; Knapper, Drake E.; Shilnikov, Andrey L.

    2016-12-01

    Inhibitory circuits of relaxation oscillators are often-used models for dynamics of biological networks. We present a qualitative and quantitative stability analysis of such a circuit constituted by three generic oscillators (of a Fitzhugh-Nagumo type) as its nodes coupled reciprocally. Depending on inhibitory strengths, and parameters of individual oscillators, the circuit exhibits polyrhythmicity of up to five simultaneously stable rhythms. With methods of bifurcation analysis and phase reduction, we investigate qualitative changes in stability of these circuit rhythms for a wide range of parameters. Furthermore, we quantify robustness of the rhythms maintained under random perturbations by monitoring phase diffusion in the circuit. Our findings allow us to describe how circuit dynamics relate to dynamics of individual nodes. We also find that quantitative and qualitative stability properties of polyrhythmicity do not always align.

  20. Implementing a Quantitative Analysis Design Tool for Future Generation Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    future MAC-enabled systems. A human-computer interaction ( HCI ) Index, originally applied to multi-function displays was applied to the prototype Vigilant...Spirit interface. A modified version of the HCI Index was successfully applied to perform a quantitative analysis of the baseline VSCS interface and...two modified interface designs. The modified HCI Index incorporates the Hick-Hyman decision time, Fitts’ Law time, and the physical actions

  1. Quantitative NMR Analysis of Partially Substituted Biodiesel Glycerols

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, M.; Alleman, T. L.; Dyer, T.; Ragauskas, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphitylation of hydroxyl groups in biodiesel samples with 2-chloro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane followed by 31P-NMR analysis provides a rapid quantitative analytical technique for the determination of substitution patterns on partially esterified glycerols. The unique 31P-NMR chemical shift data was established with a series mono and di-substituted fatty acid esters of glycerol and then utilized to characterize an industrial sample of partially processed biodiesel.

  2. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of SQ Injection Using Multiple Chromatographic Technologies.

    PubMed

    Chau, Siu-Leung; Huang, Zhi-Bing; Song, Yan-Gang; Yue, Rui-Qi; Ho, Alan; Lin, Chao-Zhan; Huang, Wen-Hua; Han, Quan-Bin

    2016-08-19

    Quality control of Chinese medicine injections remains a challenge due to our poor knowledge of their complex chemical profile. This study aims to investigate the chemical composition of one of the best-selling injections, Shenqi Fuzheng (SQ) injection (SQI), via a full component quantitative analysis. A total of 15 representative small molecular components of SQI were simultaneously determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with quadrupole tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS); saccharide composition of SQI was also quantitatively determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) on an amino column before and after acid hydrolysis. The existence of polysaccharides was also examined on a gel permeation chromatography column. The method was well validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability, and was successfully applied to analyze 13 SQI samples. The results demonstrate that up to 94.69% (w/w) of this injection product are quantitatively determined, in which small molecules and monosaccharide/sucrose account for 0.18%-0.21%, and 53.49%-58.2%, respectively. The quantitative information contributes to accumulating scientific evidence to better understand the therapy efficacy and safety of complex Chinese medicine injections.

  3. Quantitative Proteomic Approaches for Analysis of Protein S-Nitrosylation.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhe; Greenlief, C Michael; Gu, Zezong

    2016-01-04

    S-Nitrosylation is a redox-based post-translational modification of a protein in response to nitric oxide (NO) signaling, and it participates in a variety of processes in diverse biological systems. The significance of this type of protein modification in health and diseases is increasingly recognized. In the central nervous system, aberrant S-nitrosylation, due to excessive NO production, is known to cause protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction, transcriptional dysregulation, and neuronal death. This leads to an altered physiological state and consequently contributes to pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. To date, much effort has been made to understand the mechanisms underlying protein S-nitrosylation, and several approaches have been developed to unveil S-nitrosylated proteins from different organisms. Interest in determining the dynamic changes of protein S-nitrosylation under different physiological and pathophysiological conditions has underscored the need for the development of quantitative proteomic approaches. Currently, both gel-based and gel-free mass spectrometry-based quantitative methods are widely used, and they each have advantages and disadvantages but may also be used together to produce complementary data. This review evaluates current available quantitative proteomic techniques for the analysis of protein S-nitrosylation and highlights recent advances, with emphasis on applications in neurodegenerative diseases. An important goal is to provide a comprehensive guide of feasible quantitative proteomic methodologies for examining protein S-nitrosylation in research to yield insights into disease mechanisms, diagnostic biomarkers, and drug discovery.

  4. Quantitative analysis of the heterogeneous population of endocytic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Konstantin; Kosheverova, Vera; Kamentseva, Rimma; Kharchenko, Marianna; Sokolkova, Alena; Kornilova, Elena; Samsonova, Maria

    2017-03-07

    The quantitative characterization of endocytic vesicles in images acquired with microscope is critically important for deciphering of endocytosis mechanisms. Image segmentation is the most important step of quantitative image analysis. In spite of availability of many segmentation methods, the accurate segmentation is challenging when the images are heterogeneous with respect to object shapes and signal intensities what is typical for images of endocytic vesicles. We present a Morphological reconstruction and Contrast mapping segmentation method (MrComas) for the segmentation of the endocytic vesicle population that copes with the heterogeneity in their shape and intensity. The method uses morphological opening and closing by reconstruction in the vicinity of local minima and maxima respectively thus creating the strong contrast between their basins of attraction. As a consequence, the intensity is flattened within the objects and their edges are enhanced. The method accurately recovered quantitative characteristics of synthetic images that preserve characteristic features of the endocytic vesicle population. In benchmarks and quantitative comparisons with two other popular segmentation methods, namely manual thresholding and Squash plugin, MrComas shows the best segmentation results on real biological images of EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) endocytosis. As a proof of feasibility, the method was applied to quantify the dynamical behavior of Early Endosomal Autoantigen 1 (EEA1)-positive endosome subpopulations during EGF-stimulated endocytosis.

  5. Mini-Column Ion-Exchange Separation and Atomic Absorption Quantitation of Nickel, Cobalt, and Iron: An Undergraduate Quantitative Analysis Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James L.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Presents an undergraduate quantitative analysis experiment, describing an atomic absorption quantitation scheme that is fast, sensitive and comparatively simple relative to other titration experiments. (CS)

  6. Quantitative Phosphoproteomic Analysis of T-Cell Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Nagib; Salomon, Arthur R

    2017-01-01

    TCR signaling critically depends on protein phosphorylation across many proteins. Localization of each phosphorylation event relative to the T-cell receptor (TCR) and canonical T-cell signaling proteins will provide clues about the structure of TCR signaling networks. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis by mass spectrometry provides a wide-scale view of cellular phosphorylation networks. However, analysis of phosphorylation by mass spectrometry is still challenging due to the relative low abundance of phosphorylated proteins relative to all proteins and the extraordinary diversity of phosphorylation sites across the proteome. Highly selective enrichment of phosphorylated peptides is essential to provide the most comprehensive view of the phosphoproteome. Optimization of phosphopeptide enrichment methods coupled with highly sensitive mass spectrometry workflows significantly improves the sequencing depth of the phosphoproteome to over 10,000 unique phosphorylation sites from complex cell lysates. Here we describe a step-by-step method for phosphoproteomic analysis that has achieved widespread success for identification of serine, threonine, and tyrosine phosphorylation. Reproducible quantification of relative phosphopeptide abundance is provided by intensity-based label-free quantitation. An ideal set of mass spectrometry analysis parameters is also provided that optimize the yield of identified sites. We also provide guidelines for the bioinformatic analysis of this type of data to assess the quality of the data and to comply with proteomic data reporting requirements.

  7. A Quantitative Method for Microtubule Analysis in Fluorescence Images.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xiaodong; Li, Lingfei; Hu, Jiongyu; Zhang, Qiong; Dang, Yongming; Huang, Yuesheng

    2015-12-01

    Microtubule analysis is of significant value for a better understanding of normal and pathological cellular processes. Although immunofluorescence microscopic techniques have proven useful in the study of microtubules, comparative results commonly rely on a descriptive and subjective visual analysis. We developed an objective and quantitative method based on image processing and analysis of fluorescently labeled microtubular patterns in cultured cells. We used a multi-parameter approach by analyzing four quantifiable characteristics to compose our quantitative feature set. Then we interpreted specific changes in the parameters and revealed the contribution of each feature set using principal component analysis. In addition, we verified that different treatment groups could be clearly discriminated using principal components of the multi-parameter model. High predictive accuracy of four commonly used multi-classification methods confirmed our method. These results demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of our method in the analysis of microtubules in fluorescence images. Application of the analytical methods presented here provides information concerning the organization and modification of microtubules, and could aid in the further understanding of structural and functional aspects of microtubules under normal and pathological conditions.

  8. Cell poking: quantitative analysis of indentation of thick viscoelastic layers.

    PubMed

    Duszyk, M; Schwab, B; Zahalak, G I; Qian, H; Elson, E L

    1989-04-01

    A recently introduced device, the cell poker, measures the force required to indent the exposed surface of a cell adherent to a rigid substratum. The cell poker has provided phenomenological information about the viscoelastic properties of several different types of cells, about mechanical changes triggered by external stimuli, and about the role of the cytoskeleton in these mechanical functions. Except in special cases, however, it has not been possible to extract quantitative estimates of viscosity and elasticity moduli from cell poker measurements. This paper presents cell poker measurements of well characterized viscoelastic polymeric materials, polydimethylsiloxanes of different degrees of polymerization, in a simple shape, a flat, thick layer, which for our purposes can be treated as a half space. Analysis of the measurements in terms of a linear viscoelasticity theory yields viscosity values for three polymer samples in agreement with those determined by measurements on a macroscopic scale. Theoretical analysis further indicates that the measured limiting static elasticity of the layers may result from the tension generated at the interface between the polymer and water. This work demonstrates the possibility of obtaining quantitative viscoelastic material properties from cell poker measurements and represents the first step in extending these quantitative studies to more complicated structures including cells.

  9. Cell poking: quantitative analysis of indentation of thick viscoelastic layers.

    PubMed Central

    Duszyk, M; Schwab, B; Zahalak, G I; Qian, H; Elson, E L

    1989-01-01

    A recently introduced device, the cell poker, measures the force required to indent the exposed surface of a cell adherent to a rigid substratum. The cell poker has provided phenomenological information about the viscoelastic properties of several different types of cells, about mechanical changes triggered by external stimuli, and about the role of the cytoskeleton in these mechanical functions. Except in special cases, however, it has not been possible to extract quantitative estimates of viscosity and elasticity moduli from cell poker measurements. This paper presents cell poker measurements of well characterized viscoelastic polymeric materials, polydimethylsiloxanes of different degrees of polymerization, in a simple shape, a flat, thick layer, which for our purposes can be treated as a half space. Analysis of the measurements in terms of a linear viscoelasticity theory yields viscosity values for three polymer samples in agreement with those determined by measurements on a macroscopic scale. Theoretical analysis further indicates that the measured limiting static elasticity of the layers may result from the tension generated at the interface between the polymer and water. This work demonstrates the possibility of obtaining quantitative viscoelastic material properties from cell poker measurements and represents the first step in extending these quantitative studies to more complicated structures including cells. PMID:2720066

  10. Quantitative multivariate analysis of dynamic multicellular morphogenic trajectories.

    PubMed

    White, Douglas E; Sylvester, Jonathan B; Levario, Thomas J; Lu, Hang; Streelman, J Todd; McDevitt, Todd C; Kemp, Melissa L

    2015-07-01

    Interrogating fundamental cell biology principles that govern tissue morphogenesis is critical to better understanding of developmental biology and engineering novel multicellular systems. Recently, functional micro-tissues derived from pluripotent embryonic stem cell (ESC) aggregates have provided novel platforms for experimental investigation; however elucidating the factors directing emergent spatial phenotypic patterns remains a significant challenge. Computational modelling techniques offer a unique complementary approach to probe mechanisms regulating morphogenic processes and provide a wealth of spatio-temporal data, but quantitative analysis of simulations and comparison to experimental data is extremely difficult. Quantitative descriptions of spatial phenomena across multiple systems and scales would enable unprecedented comparisons of computational simulations with experimental systems, thereby leveraging the inherent power of computational methods to interrogate the mechanisms governing emergent properties of multicellular biology. To address these challenges, we developed a portable pattern recognition pipeline consisting of: the conversion of cellular images into networks, extraction of novel features via network analysis, and generation of morphogenic trajectories. This novel methodology enabled the quantitative description of morphogenic pattern trajectories that could be compared across diverse systems: computational modelling of multicellular structures, differentiation of stem cell aggregates, and gastrulation of cichlid fish. Moreover, this method identified novel spatio-temporal features associated with different stages of embryo gastrulation, and elucidated a complex paracrine mechanism capable of explaining spatiotemporal pattern kinetic differences in ESC aggregates of different sizes.

  11. Quantitative analysis of endocytosis with cytoplasmic pHluorin chimeras.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Derek C; Whitworth, Karen; Wendland, Beverly

    2010-09-01

    The pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein (GFP) variant pHluorin is typically fused to the extracellular domain of transmembrane proteins to monitor endocytosis. Here, we have turned pHluorin inside-out, and show that cytoplasmic fusions of pHluorin are effective quantitative reporters for endocytosis and multivesicular body (MVB) sorting. In yeast in particular, fusion of GFP and its variants on the extracellular side of transmembrane proteins can result in perturbed trafficking. In contrast, cytoplasmic fusions are well tolerated, allowing for the quantitative assessment of trafficking of virtually any transmembrane protein. Quenching of degradation-resistant pHluorin in the acidic vacuole permits quantification of extravacuolar cargo proteins at steady-state levels and is compatible with kinetic analysis of endocytosis in live cells.

  12. [Simultaneous quantitative analysis of four lignanoids in Schisandra chinensis by quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker].

    PubMed

    He, Feng-Cheng; Li, Shou-Xin; Zhao, Zhi-Quan; Dong, Jin-Ping; Liu, Wu-Zhan; Su, Rui-Qiang

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study is to establish a new method of quality evaluation and validate its feasibilities by the simultaneous quantitative assay of four lignanoids in Schisandra chinensis. A new quality evaluation method, quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker (QAMS), was established and validated with Schisandra chinensis. Four main lignanoids, schisandrin, schisantherin A, deoxyschizandrin and gamma-schizandrin, were selected as analytes and schisandrin as internal reference substance to evaluate the quality. Their contents in 13 different batches of samples, collected from different bathes, were determined by both external standard method and QAMS. The method was evaluated by comparison of the quantitative results between external standard method and QAMS. No significant differences were found in the quantitative results of four lignanoids in 13 batches of S. chinensis determined by external standard method and QAMS. QAMS is feasible for determination of four lignanoids simultaneously when some authentic standard substances were unavailable, and the developed method can be used for quality control of S. chinensis.

  13. Lichens biomonitoring as feasible methodology to assess air pollution in natural ecosystems: combined study of quantitative PAHs analyses and lichen biodiversity in the Pyrenees Mountains.

    PubMed

    Blasco, María; Domeño, Celia; Nerín, Cristina

    2008-06-01

    The air quality in the Aragón valley, in the central Pyrenees, has been assessed by evaluation of lichen biodiversity and mapped by elaboration of the Index of Air Purity (IAP) based on observations of the presence and abundance of eight kinds of lichen with different sensitivity to air pollution. The IAP values obtained have been compared with quantitative analytical measures of 16 PAHs in the lichen Evernia prunastri, because this species was associated with a wide range of traffic exposure and levels of urbanization. Analyses of PAHs were carried out by the DSASE method followed by an SPE clean-up step and GC-MS analysis. The concentration of total PAHs found in lichen samples from the Aragón valley ranged from 692 to 6420 ng g(-1) and the PAHs profile showed predominance of compounds with three aromatic rings. The influence of the road traffic in the area has been shown because values over the median concentration of PAHs (>1092 ng g(-1)), percentage of combustion PAHs (>50%), and equivalent toxicity (>169) were found in lichens collected at places exposed to the influence of traffic. The combination of both methods suggests IAP as a general method for evaluating the air pollution referenced to PAHs because it can be correlated with the content of combustion PAHs and poor lichen biodiversity can be partly explained by the air pollution caused by specific PAHs.

  14. Quantitative analysis of in vivo confocal microscopy images: a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dipika V; McGhee, Charles N

    2013-01-01

    In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) is a non-invasive method of examining the living human cornea. The recent trend towards quantitative studies using IVCM has led to the development of a variety of methods for quantifying image parameters. When selecting IVCM images for quantitative analysis, it is important to be consistent regarding the location, depth, and quality of images. All images should be de-identified, randomized, and calibrated prior to analysis. Numerous image analysis software are available, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. Criteria for analyzing corneal epithelium, sub-basal nerves, keratocytes, endothelium, and immune/inflammatory cells have been developed, although there is inconsistency among research groups regarding parameter definition. The quantification of stromal nerve parameters, however, remains a challenge. Most studies report lower inter-observer repeatability compared with intra-observer repeatability, and observer experience is known to be an important factor. Standardization of IVCM image analysis through the use of a reading center would be crucial for any future large, multi-centre clinical trials using IVCM.

  15. Business Case Analysis of the Special Operations Air Mobility Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT BUSINESS CASE ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIAL OPERATIONS AIR...2013 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA Professional Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE BUSINESS CASE ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIAL OPERATIONS AIR...perform an industry analysis of the WSC training and aircraft sales industry; and (3) determine the expected government training capabilities and costs

  16. A quantitative analysis of IRAS maps of molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer J.; Adams, Fred C.

    1994-01-01

    We present an analysis of IRAS maps of five molecular clouds: Orion, Ophiuchus, Perseus, Taurus, and Lupus. For the classification and description of these astrophysical maps, we use a newly developed technique which considers all maps of a given type to be elements of a pseudometric space. For each physical characteristic of interest, this formal system assigns a distance function (a pseudometric) to the space of all maps: this procedure allows us to measure quantitatively the difference between any two maps and to order the space of all maps. We thus obtain a quantitative classification scheme for molecular clouds. In this present study we use the IRAS continuum maps at 100 and 60 micrometer(s) to produce column density (or optical depth) maps for the five molecular cloud regions given above. For this sample of clouds, we compute the 'output' functions which measure the distribution of density, the distribution of topological components, the self-gravity, and the filamentary nature of the clouds. The results of this work provide a quantitative description of the structure in these molecular cloud regions. We then order the clouds according to the overall environmental 'complexity' of these star-forming regions. Finally, we compare our results with the observed populations of young stellar objects in these clouds and discuss the possible environmental effects on the star-formation process. Our results are consistent with the recently stated conjecture that more massive stars tend to form in more 'complex' environments.

  17. Simulating realistic predator signatures in quantitative fatty acid signature analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Diet estimation is an important field within quantitative ecology, providing critical insights into many aspects of ecology and community dynamics. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) is a prominent method of diet estimation, particularly for marine mammal and bird species. Investigators using QFASA commonly use computer simulation to evaluate statistical characteristics of diet estimators for the populations they study. Similar computer simulations have been used to explore and compare the performance of different variations of the original QFASA diet estimator. In both cases, computer simulations involve bootstrap sampling prey signature data to construct pseudo-predator signatures with known properties. However, bootstrap sample sizes have been selected arbitrarily and pseudo-predator signatures therefore may not have realistic properties. I develop an algorithm to objectively establish bootstrap sample sizes that generates pseudo-predator signatures with realistic properties, thereby enhancing the utility of computer simulation for assessing QFASA estimator performance. The algorithm also appears to be computationally efficient, resulting in bootstrap sample sizes that are smaller than those commonly used. I illustrate the algorithm with an example using data from Chukchi Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and their marine mammal prey. The concepts underlying the approach may have value in other areas of quantitative ecology in which bootstrap samples are post-processed prior to their use.

  18. Quantitative analysis of motion control in long term microgravity.

    PubMed

    Baroni, G; Ferrigno, G; Anolli, A; Andreoni, G; Pedotti, A

    1998-01-01

    In the frame of the 179-days EUROMIR '95 space mission, two in-flight experiments have foreseen quantitative three-dimensional human movement analysis in microgravity. For this aim, a space qualified opto-electronic motion analyser based on passive markers has been installed onboard the Russian Space Station MIR and 8 in flight sessions have been performed. Techhology and method for the collection of kinematics data are described, evaluating the accuracy in three-dimensional marker localisation. Results confirm the suitability of opto-electronic technology for quantitative human motion analysis on orbital modules and raise a set of "lessons learned", leading to the improvement of motion analyser performance with a contemporary swiftness of the on-board operations. Among the experimental program of T4, results of three voluntary posture perturbation protocols are described. The analysis suggests that a short term reinterpretation of proprioceptive information and re-calibration of sensorimotor mechanisms seem to end within the first weeks of flight, while a continuous long term adaptation process allows the refinement of motor performance, in the frame of never abandoned terrestrial strategies.

  19. QUANTITATIVE MASS SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS OF GLYCOPROTEINS COMBINED WITH ENRICHMENT METHODS

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yeong Hee; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has been a core technology for high sensitive and high-throughput analysis of the enriched glycoproteome in aspects of quantitative assays as well as qualitative profiling of glycoproteins. Because it has been widely recognized that aberrant glycosylation in a glycoprotein may involve in progression of a certain disease, the development of efficient analysis tool for the aberrant glycoproteins is very important for deep understanding about pathological function of the glycoprotein and new biomarker development. This review first describes the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies mainly employing solid-phase extraction methods such as hydrizide-capturing, lectin-specific capturing, and affinity separation techniques based on porous graphitized carbon, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, or immobilized boronic acid. Second, MS-based quantitative analysis strategies coupled with the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies, by using a label-free MS, stable isotope-labeling, or targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS, are summarized with recent published studies. © 2014 The Authors. Mass Spectrometry Reviews Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Rapid Commun. Mass Spec Rev 34:148–165, 2015. PMID:24889823

  20. Flow quantitation by radio frequency analysis of contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Rovai, D; Lombardi, M; Mazzarisi, A; Landini, L; Taddei, L; Distante, A; Benassi, A; L'Abbate, A

    1993-03-01

    Contrast echocardiography has the potential for measuring cardiac output and regional blood flow. However, accurate quantitation is limited both by the use of non-standard contrast agents and by the electronic signal distortion inherent to the echocardiographic instruments. Thus, the aim of this study is to quantify flow by combining a stable contrast agent and a modified echo equipment, able to sample the radio frequency (RF) signal from a region of interest (ROI) in the echo image. The contrast agent SHU-454 (0.8 ml) was bolus injected into an in vitro calf vein, at 23 flow rates (ranging from 376 to 3620 ml/min) but constant volume and pressure. The ROI was placed in the centre of the vein, the RF signal was processed in real time and transferred to a personal computer to generate time-intensity curves. In the absence of recirculation, contrast washout slope and mean transit time (MTT) of curves (1.11-8.52 seconds) yielded excellent correlations with flow: r = 0.93 and 0.95, respectively. To compare the accuracy of RF analysis with that of conventional image processing as to flow quantitation, conventional images were collected in the same flow model by two different scanners: a) the mechanical sector scanner used for RF analysis, and b) a conventional electronic sector scanner. These images were digitized off-line, mean videodensity inside an identical ROI was measured and time-intensity curves were built. MTT by RF was shorter than by videodensitometric analysis of the images generated by the same scanner (p < 0.001). In contrast, MTT by RF was longer than by the conventional scanner (p < 0.001). Significant differences in MTT were also found with changes in the gain setting controls of the conventional scanner. To study the stability of the contrast effect, 6 contrast injections (20 ml) were performed at a constant flow rate during recirculation: the spontaneous decay in RF signal intensity (t1/2 = 64 +/- 8 seconds) was too long to affect MTT significantly

  1. Computer compensation for NMR quantitative analysis of trace components

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, T.; Fujiwara, Y.

    1981-07-22

    A computer program has been written that determines trace components and separates overlapping components in multicomponent NMR spectra. This program uses the Lorentzian curve as a theoretical curve of NMR spectra. The coefficients of the Lorentzian are determined by the method of least squares. Systematic errors such as baseline/phase distortion are compensated and random errors are smoothed by taking moving averages, so that there processes contribute substantially to decreasing the accumulation time of spectral data. The accuracy of quantitative analysis of trace components has been improved by two significant figures. This program was applied to determining the abundance of 13C and the saponification degree of PVA.

  2. Quantitative analysis of sideband coupling in photoinduced force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahng, Junghoon; Kim, Bongsu; Lee, Eun Seong; Potma, Eric Olaf

    2016-11-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of the cantilever motions detected in photoinduced force microscopy (PiFM) using the sideband coupling detection scheme. In sideband coupling, the cantilever dynamics are probed at a combination frequency of a fundamental mechanical eigenmode and the modulation frequency of the laser beam. Using this detection mode, we develop a method for reconstructing the modulated photoinduced force gradient from experimental parameters in a quantitative manner. We show evidence, both theoretically and experimentally, that the sideband coupling detection mode provides PiFM images with superior contrast compared to images obtained when detecting the cantilever motions directly at the laser modulation frequency.

  3. Functional Regression Models for Epistasis Analysis of Multiple Quantitative Traits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Futao; Xie, Dan; Liang, Meimei; Xiong, Momiao

    2016-04-01

    To date, most genetic analyses of phenotypes have focused on analyzing single traits or analyzing each phenotype independently. However, joint epistasis analysis of multiple complementary traits will increase statistical power and improve our understanding of the complicated genetic structure of the complex diseases. Despite their importance in uncovering the genetic structure of complex traits, the statistical methods for identifying epistasis in multiple phenotypes remains fundamentally unexplored. To fill this gap, we formulate a test for interaction between two genes in multiple quantitative trait analysis as a multiple functional regression (MFRG) in which the genotype functions (genetic variant profiles) are defined as a function of the genomic position of the genetic variants. We use large-scale simulations to calculate Type I error rates for testing interaction between two genes with multiple phenotypes and to compare the power with multivariate pairwise interaction analysis and single trait interaction analysis by a single variate functional regression model. To further evaluate performance, the MFRG for epistasis analysis is applied to five phenotypes of exome sequence data from the NHLBI's Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) to detect pleiotropic epistasis. A total of 267 pairs of genes that formed a genetic interaction network showed significant evidence of epistasis influencing five traits. The results demonstrate that the joint interaction analysis of multiple phenotypes has a much higher power to detect interaction than the interaction analysis of a single trait and may open a new direction to fully uncovering the genetic structure of multiple phenotypes.

  4. Quantitative chemical analysis of ocular melanosomes in the TEM.

    PubMed

    Eibl, O; Schultheiss, S; Blitgen-Heinecke, P; Schraermeyer, U

    2006-01-01

    Melanosomes in retinal tissues of a human, monkey and rat were analyzed by EDX in the TEM. Samples were prepared by ultramicrotomy at different thicknesses. The material was mounted on Al grids and samples were analyzed in a Zeiss 912 TEM equipped with an Omega filter and EDX detector with ultrathin window. Melanosomes consist of C and O as main components, mole fractions are about 90 and 3-10 at.%, respectively, and small mole fraction ratios, between 2 and 0.1 at.%, of Na, Mg, K, Si, P, S, Cl, Ca. All elements were measured quantitatively by standardless EDX with high precision. Mole fractions of transition metals Fe, Cu and Zn were also measured. For Fe a mole fraction ratio of less than 0.1at.% was found and gives the melanin its paramagnetic properties. Its mole fraction is however close to or below the minimum detectable mass fraction of the used equipment. Only in the human eye and only in the retinal pigment epitelium (rpe) the mole fractions of Zn (0.1 at.% or 5000 microg/g) and Cu were clearly beyond the minimum detectable mass fraction. In the rat and monkey eye the mole fraction of Zn was at or below the minimum detectable mass fraction and could not be measured quantitatively. The obtained results yielded the chemical composition of the melanosomes in the choroidal tissue and the retinal pigment epitelium (rpe) of the three different species. The results of the chemical analysis are discussed by mole fraction correlation diagrams. Similarities and differences between the different species are outlined. Correlation behavior was found to hold over species, e.g. the Ca-O correlation. It indicates that Ca is bound to oxygen rich sites in the melanin. These are the first quantitative analyses of melanosomes by EDX reported so far. The quantitative chemical analysis should open a deeper understanding of the metabolic processes in the eye that are of central importance for the understanding of a large number of eye-related diseases. The chemical analysis also

  5. Quantitative safety assessment of air traffic control systems through system control capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jingjing

    Quantitative Safety Assessments (QSA) are essential to safety benefit verification and regulations of developmental changes in safety critical systems like the Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems. Effectiveness of the assessments is particularly desirable today in the safe implementations of revolutionary ATC overhauls like NextGen and SESAR. QSA of ATC systems are however challenged by system complexity and lack of accident data. Extending from the idea "safety is a control problem" in the literature, this research proposes to assess system safety from the control perspective, through quantifying a system's "control capacity". A system's safety performance correlates to this "control capacity" in the control of "safety critical processes". To examine this idea in QSA of the ATC systems, a Control-capacity Based Safety Assessment Framework (CBSAF) is developed which includes two control capacity metrics and a procedural method. The two metrics are Probabilistic System Control-capacity (PSC) and Temporal System Control-capacity (TSC); each addresses an aspect of a system's control capacity. And the procedural method consists three general stages: I) identification of safety critical processes, II) development of system control models and III) evaluation of system control capacity. The CBSAF was tested in two case studies. The first one assesses an en-route collision avoidance scenario and compares three hypothetical configurations. The CBSAF was able to capture the uncoordinated behavior between two means of control, as was observed in a historic midair collision accident. The second case study compares CBSAF with an existing risk based QSA method in assessing the safety benefits of introducing a runway incursion alert system. Similar conclusions are reached between the two methods, while the CBSAF has the advantage of simplicity and provides a new control-based perspective and interpretation to the assessments. The case studies are intended to investigate the

  6. Quantitative Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi Amastigogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Rayner M. L.; Charneau, Sébastien; Mandacaru, Samuel C.; Schwämmle, Veit; Lima, Beatriz D.; Roepstorff, Peter; Ricart, Carlos A. O.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease is a tropical neglected disease endemic in Latin America caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The parasite has four major life stages: epimastigote, metacyclic trypomastigote, bloodstream trypomastigote, and amastigote. The differentiation from infective trypomastigotes into replicative amastigotes, called amastigogenesis, takes place in vivo inside mammalian host cells after a period of incubation in an acidic phagolysosome. This differentiation process can be mimicked in vitro by incubating tissue-culture-derived trypomastigotes in acidic DMEM. Here we used this well-established differentiation protocol to perform a comprehensive quantitative proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis of T. cruzi amastigogenesis. Samples from fully differentiated forms and two biologically relevant intermediate time points were Lys-C/trypsin digested, iTRAQ-labeled, and multiplexed. Subsequently, phosphopeptides were enriched using a TiO2 matrix. Non-phosphorylated peptides were fractionated via hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics procedures were used for protein and phosphopeptide quantitation, identification, and phosphorylation site assignment. We were able to identify regulated proteins and pathways involved in coordinating amastigogenesis. We also observed that a significant proportion of the regulated proteins were membrane proteins. Modulated phosphorylation events coordinated by protein kinases and phosphatases that are part of the signaling cascade induced by incubation in acidic medium were also evinced. To our knowledge, this work is the most comprehensive quantitative proteomics study of T. cruzi amastigogenesis, and these data will serve as a trustworthy basis for future studies, and possibly for new potential drug targets. PMID:25225356

  7. Quantitative analysis of intermolecular interactions in orthorhombic rubrene

    SciTech Connect

    Hathwar, Venkatesha R.; Sist, Mattia; Jørgensen, Mads R. V.; Mamakhel, Aref H.; Wang, Xiaoping; Hoffmann, Christina M.; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Overgaard, Jacob; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    2015-08-14

    Rubrene is one of the most studied organic semiconductors to date due to its high charge carrier mobility which makes it a potentially applicable compound in modern electronic devices. Previous electronic device characterizations and first principles theoretical calculations assigned the semiconducting properties of rubrene to the presence of a large overlap of the extended π-conjugated core between molecules. We present here the electron density distribution in rubrene at 20 K and at 100 K obtained using a combination of high-resolution X-ray and neutron diffraction data. The topology of the electron density and energies of intermolecular interactions are studied quantitatively. Specifically, the presence of Cπ...Cπinteractions between neighbouring tetracene backbones of the rubrene molecules is experimentally confirmed from a topological analysis of the electron density, Non-Covalent Interaction (NCI) analysis and the calculated interaction energy of molecular dimers. A significant contribution to the lattice energy of the crystal is provided by H—H interactions. The electron density features of H—H bonding, and the interaction energy of molecular dimers connected by H—H interaction clearly demonstrate an importance of these weak interactions in the stabilization of the crystal structure. Finally, the quantitative nature of the intermolecular interactions is virtually unchanged between 20 K and 100 K suggesting that any changes in carrier transport at these low temperatures would have a different origin. The obtained experimental results are further supported by theoretical calculations.

  8. Quantitative analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans chemotaxis using a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liang; Ye, Jinjuan; Tan, Haowei; Ge, Anle; Tang, Lichun; Feng, Xiaojun; Du, Wei; Liu, Bi-Feng

    2015-08-05

    Caenorhabditis elegans, one of the widely studied model organisms, sense external chemical cues and perform relative chemotaxis behaviors through its simple chemosensory neuronal system. To study the mechanism underlying chemosensory behavior, a rapid and reliable method for quantitatively analyzing the worms' behaviors is essential. In this work, we demonstrated a microfluidic approach for investigating chemotaxis responses of worms to chemical gradients. The flow-based microfluidic chip was consisted of circular tree-like microchannels, which was able to generate eight flow streams containing stepwise chemical concentrations without the difference in flow velocity. Worms' upstream swimming into microchannels with various concentrations was monitored for quantitative analysis of the chemotaxis behavior. By using this microfluidic chip, the attractive and repellent responses of C. elegans to NaCl were successfully quantified within several minutes. The results demonstrated the wild type-like repellent responses and severely impaired attractive responses in grk-2 mutant animals with defects in calcium influx. In addition, the chemotaxis analysis of the third stage larvae revealed that its gustatory response was different from that in the adult stage. Thus, our microfluidic method provided a useful platform for studying the chemosensory behaviors of C. elegans and screening of chemosensation-related chemical drugs.

  9. Quantitative analysis in outcome assessment of instrumented lumbosacral arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Champain, Sabina; Mazel, Christian; Mitulescu, Anca; Skalli, Wafa

    2007-08-01

    The outcome assessment in instrumented lumbosacral fusion mostly focuses on clinical criteria, complications and scores, with a high variability of imaging means, methods of fusion grading and parameters describing degenerative changes, making comparisons between studies difficult. The aim of this retrospective evaluation was to evaluate the interest of quantified radiographic analysis of lumbar spine in global outcome assessment and to highlight the key biomechanical factors involved. Clinical data and Beaujon-Lassale scores were collected for 49 patients who underwent lumbosacral arthrodesis after prior lumbar discectomy (mean follow-up: 5 years). Sagittal standing and lumbar flexion-extension X-ray films allowed quantifying vertebral, lumbar, pelvic and kinematic parameters of the lumbar spine, which were compared to reference values. Statistics were performed to assess evolution for all variables. At long-term follow-up, 90% of patients presented satisfactory clinical outcomes, associated to normal sagittal alignment; vertebral parameters objectified adjacent level degeneration in four cases (8%). Clinical outcome was correlated (r = 0.8) with fusion that was confirmed in 80% of cases, doubtful in 16% and pseudarthrosis seemed to occur in 4% (2) of cases. In addition to clinical data (outcomes comparable to the literature), quantitative analysis accurately described lumbar spine geometry and kinematics, highlighting parameters related to adjacent level's degeneration and a significant correlation between clinical outcome and fusion. Furthermore, criteria proposed to quantitatively evaluate fusion from lumbar dynamic radiographs seem to be appropriate and in agreement with surgeon's qualitative grading in 87% of cases.

  10. Multivariate calibration applied to the quantitative analysis of infrared spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Haaland, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Multivariate calibration methods are very useful for improving the precision, accuracy, and reliability of quantitative spectral analyses. Spectroscopists can more effectively use these sophisticated statistical tools if they have a qualitative understanding of the techniques involved. A qualitative picture of the factor analysis multivariate calibration methods of partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) is presented using infrared calibrations based upon spectra of phosphosilicate glass thin films on silicon wafers. Comparisons of the relative prediction abilities of four different multivariate calibration methods are given based on Monte Carlo simulations of spectral calibration and prediction data. The success of multivariate spectral calibrations is demonstrated for several quantitative infrared studies. The infrared absorption and emission spectra of thin-film dielectrics used in the manufacture of microelectronic devices demonstrate rapid, nondestructive at-line and in-situ analyses using PLS calibrations. Finally, the application of multivariate spectral calibrations to reagentless analysis of blood is presented. We have found that the determination of glucose in whole blood taken from diabetics can be precisely monitored from the PLS calibration of either mind- or near-infrared spectra of the blood. Progress toward the non-invasive determination of glucose levels in diabetics is an ultimate goal of this research. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Quantitative analysis of live cells using digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Tan Rongwei; Qu, Weijuan; Chee, Oi Choo; Singh, Vijay Raj; Asundi, Anand

    2010-03-01

    During the life time of a cell, it goes through changes to the plasma membrane as well as its internal structures especially distinctive during processes like cell division and death. Different types of microscope are used to fulfill the observation of the cell's variation. In our experiment, Vero cells have been investigated by using phase contrast microscopy and digital holographic microscopy (DHM). A comparison of the images obtained for cell division is presented here. The conventional phase contrast microscope provided a good imaging method in the real time analysis of cell division. The off-axis digital hologram recorded by the DHM system can be reconstructed to obtain both the intensity image and phase contrast image of the test object. These can be used for live cell imaging to provide multiple results from a single equipment setup. The DHM system, besides being a qualitative tool, is able to provide quantitative results and 3D images of the cell division process. The ability of DHM to provide quantitative analysis makes it an ideal tool for life science applications.

  12. Quantitative analysis of live cells using digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Tan Rongwei; Qu, Weijuan; Chee, Oi Choo; Singh, Vijay Raj; Asundi, Anand

    2009-12-01

    During the life time of a cell, it goes through changes to the plasma membrane as well as its internal structures especially distinctive during processes like cell division and death. Different types of microscope are used to fulfill the observation of the cell's variation. In our experiment, Vero cells have been investigated by using phase contrast microscopy and digital holographic microscopy (DHM). A comparison of the images obtained for cell division is presented here. The conventional phase contrast microscope provided a good imaging method in the real time analysis of cell division. The off-axis digital hologram recorded by the DHM system can be reconstructed to obtain both the intensity image and phase contrast image of the test object. These can be used for live cell imaging to provide multiple results from a single equipment setup. The DHM system, besides being a qualitative tool, is able to provide quantitative results and 3D images of the cell division process. The ability of DHM to provide quantitative analysis makes it an ideal tool for life science applications.

  13. Quantitative analysis of intermolecular interactions in orthorhombic rubrene

    PubMed Central

    Hathwar, Venkatesha R.; Sist, Mattia; Jørgensen, Mads R. V.; Mamakhel, Aref H.; Wang, Xiaoping; Hoffmann, Christina M.; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Overgaard, Jacob; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    2015-01-01

    Rubrene is one of the most studied organic semiconductors to date due to its high charge carrier mobility which makes it a potentially applicable compound in modern electronic devices. Previous electronic device characterizations and first principles theoretical calculations assigned the semiconducting properties of rubrene to the presence of a large overlap of the extended π-conjugated core between molecules. We present here the electron density distribution in rubrene at 20 K and at 100 K obtained using a combination of high-resolution X-ray and neutron diffraction data. The topology of the electron density and energies of intermolecular interactions are studied quantitatively. Specifically, the presence of Cπ⋯Cπ interactions between neighbouring tetracene backbones of the rubrene molecules is experimentally confirmed from a topological analysis of the electron density, Non-Covalent Interaction (NCI) analysis and the calculated interaction energy of molecular dimers. A significant contribution to the lattice energy of the crystal is provided by H—H interactions. The electron density features of H—H bonding, and the interaction energy of molecular dimers connected by H—H interaction clearly demonstrate an importance of these weak interactions in the stabilization of the crystal structure. The quantitative nature of the intermolecular interactions is virtually unchanged between 20 K and 100 K suggesting that any changes in carrier transport at these low temperatures would have a different origin. The obtained experimental results are further supported by theoretical calculations. PMID:26306198

  14. Quantitative analysis of intermolecular interactions in orthorhombic rubrene

    DOE PAGES

    Hathwar, Venkatesha R.; Sist, Mattia; Jørgensen, Mads R. V.; ...

    2015-08-14

    Rubrene is one of the most studied organic semiconductors to date due to its high charge carrier mobility which makes it a potentially applicable compound in modern electronic devices. Previous electronic device characterizations and first principles theoretical calculations assigned the semiconducting properties of rubrene to the presence of a large overlap of the extended π-conjugated core between molecules. We present here the electron density distribution in rubrene at 20 K and at 100 K obtained using a combination of high-resolution X-ray and neutron diffraction data. The topology of the electron density and energies of intermolecular interactions are studied quantitatively. Specifically,more » the presence of Cπ...Cπinteractions between neighbouring tetracene backbones of the rubrene molecules is experimentally confirmed from a topological analysis of the electron density, Non-Covalent Interaction (NCI) analysis and the calculated interaction energy of molecular dimers. A significant contribution to the lattice energy of the crystal is provided by H—H interactions. The electron density features of H—H bonding, and the interaction energy of molecular dimers connected by H—H interaction clearly demonstrate an importance of these weak interactions in the stabilization of the crystal structure. Finally, the quantitative nature of the intermolecular interactions is virtually unchanged between 20 K and 100 K suggesting that any changes in carrier transport at these low temperatures would have a different origin. The obtained experimental results are further supported by theoretical calculations.« less

  15. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  16. Quantitative Analysis of the Interdisciplinarity of Applied Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zheng; Duan, Xiaojun; Ouyang, Zhenzheng; Zhang, Pengyuan

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of mathematical techniques in scientific research leads to the interdisciplinarity of applied mathematics. This viewpoint is validated quantitatively here by statistical and network analysis on the corpus PNAS 1999-2013. A network describing the interdisciplinary relationships between disciplines in a panoramic view is built based on the corpus. Specific network indicators show the hub role of applied mathematics in interdisciplinary research. The statistical analysis on the corpus content finds that algorithms, a primary topic of applied mathematics, positively correlates, increasingly co-occurs, and has an equilibrium relationship in the long-run with certain typical research paradigms and methodologies. The finding can be understood as an intrinsic cause of the interdisciplinarity of applied mathematics.

  17. [Quantitative analysis of transformer oil dissolved gases using FTIR].

    PubMed

    Zhao, An-xin; Tang, Xiao-jun; Wang, Er-zhen; Zhang, Zhong-hua; Liu, Jun-hua

    2013-09-01

    For the defects of requiring carrier gas and regular calibration, and low safety using chromatography to on line monitor transformer dissolved gases, it was attempted to establish a dissolved gas analysis system based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Taking into account the small amount of characteristic gases, many components, detection limit and safety requirements and the difficulty of degasser to put an end to the presence of interference gas, the quantitative analysis model was established based on sparse partial least squares, piecewise section correction and feature variable extraction algorithm using improvement TR regularization. With the characteristic gas of CH4, C2H6, C2H6, and CO2, the results show that using FTIR meets DGA requirements with the spectrum wave number resolution of 1 cm(-1) and optical path of 10 cm.

  18. Quantitative Analysis of the Interdisciplinarity of Applied Mathematics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengyuan

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of mathematical techniques in scientific research leads to the interdisciplinarity of applied mathematics. This viewpoint is validated quantitatively here by statistical and network analysis on the corpus PNAS 1999–2013. A network describing the interdisciplinary relationships between disciplines in a panoramic view is built based on the corpus. Specific network indicators show the hub role of applied mathematics in interdisciplinary research. The statistical analysis on the corpus content finds that algorithms, a primary topic of applied mathematics, positively correlates, increasingly co-occurs, and has an equilibrium relationship in the long-run with certain typical research paradigms and methodologies. The finding can be understood as an intrinsic cause of the interdisciplinarity of applied mathematics. PMID:26352604

  19. Fusing Quantitative Requirements Analysis with Model-based Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Heron, Vance A.; Jenkins, J. Steven

    2006-01-01

    A vision is presented for fusing quantitative requirements analysis with model-based systems engineering. This vision draws upon and combines emergent themes in the engineering milieu. "Requirements engineering" provides means to explicitly represent requirements (both functional and non-functional) as constraints and preferences on acceptable solutions, and emphasizes early-lifecycle review, analysis and verification of design and development plans. "Design by shopping" emphasizes revealing the space of options available from which to choose (without presuming that all selection criteria have previously been elicited), and provides means to make understandable the range of choices and their ramifications. "Model-based engineering" emphasizes the goal of utilizing a formal representation of all aspects of system design, from development through operations, and provides powerful tool suites that support the practical application of these principles. A first step prototype towards this vision is described, embodying the key capabilities. Illustrations, implications, further challenges and opportunities are outlined.

  20. Quantitative Phase Analysis by the Rietveld Method for Forensic Science.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fei; Lin, Xiaodong; He, Yonghong; Li, Shu; Zi, Run; Lai, Shijun

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative phase analysis (QPA) is helpful to determine the type attribute of the object because it could present the content of the constituents. QPA by Rietveld method requires neither measurement of calibration data nor the use of an internal standard; however, the approximate crystal structure of each phase in a mixture is necessary. In this study, 8 synthetic mixtures composed of potassium nitrate and sulfur were analyzed by Rietveld QPA method. The Rietveld refinement was accomplished with a material analysis using diffraction program and evaluated by three agreement indices. Results showed that Rietveld QPA yielded precise results, with errors generally less than 2.0% absolute. In addition, a criminal case which was broken successfully with the help of Rietveld QPA method was also introduced. This method will allow forensic investigators to acquire detailed information of the material evidence, which could point out the direction for case detection and court proceedings.

  1. 3D quantitative analysis of brain SPECT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loncaric, Sven; Ceskovic, Ivan; Petrovic, Ratimir; Loncaric, Srecko

    2001-07-01

    The main purpose of this work is to develop a computer-based technique for quantitative analysis of 3-D brain images obtained by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In particular, the volume and location of ischemic lesion and penumbra is important for early diagnosis and treatment of infracted regions of the brain. SPECT imaging is typically used as diagnostic tool to assess the size and location of the ischemic lesion. The segmentation method presented in this paper utilizes a 3-D deformable model in order to determine size and location of the regions of interest. The evolution of the model is computed using a level-set implementation of the algorithm. In addition to 3-D deformable model the method utilizes edge detection and region growing for realization of a pre-processing. Initial experimental results have shown that the method is useful for SPECT image analysis.

  2. Quantitative morphometric analysis for the tectonic characterisation of northern Tunisia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camafort, Miquel; Pérez-Peña, José Vicente; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, César R.; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Azañón, José Miguel; Melki, Fetheddine; Ouadday, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Northern Tunisia is characterized by low deformation rates and low to moderate seismicity. Although instrumental seismicity reaches maximum magnitudes of Mw 5.5, some historical earthquakes have occurred with catastrophic consequences in this region. Aiming to improve our knowledge of active tectonics in Tunisia, we carried out both a quantitative morphometric analysis and field study in the north-western region. We applied different morphometric tools, like river profiles, knickpoint analysis, hypsometric curves and integrals and drainage pattern anomalies in order to differentiate between zones with high or low recent tectonic activity. This analysis helps identifying uplift and subsidence zones, which we relate to fault activity. Several active faults in a sparse distribution were identified. A selected sector was studied with a field campaign to test the results obtained with the quantitative analysis. During the fieldwork we identified geological evidence of recent activity and a considerable seismogenic potential along El Alia-Teboursouk (ETF) and Dkhila (DF) faults. The ETF fault could be responsible of one of the most devastating historical earthquakes in northern Tunisia that destroyed Utique in 412 A.D. Geological evidence include fluvial terraces folded by faults, striated and cracked pebbles, clastic dikes, sand volcanoes, coseismic cracks, etc. Although not reflected in the instrumental seismicity, our results support an important seismic hazard, evidenced by the several active tectonic structures identified and the two seismogenic faults described. After obtaining the current active tectonic framework of Tunisia we discuss our results within the western Mediterranean trying to contribute to the understanding of the western Mediterranean tectonic context. With our results, we suggest that the main reason explaining the sparse and scarce seismicity of the area in contrast with the adjacent parts of the Nubia-Eurasia boundary is due to its extended

  3. Quantitative analysis of cyclic beta-turn models.

    PubMed Central

    Perczel, A.; Fasman, G. D.

    1992-01-01

    The beta-turn is a frequently found structural unit in the conformation of globular proteins. Although the circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the alpha-helix and beta-pleated sheet are well defined, there remains some ambiguity concerning the pure component CD spectra of the different types of beta-turns. Recently, it has been reported (Hollósi, M., Kövér, K.E., Holly, S., Radics, L., & Fasman, G.D., 1987, Biopolymers 26, 1527-1572; Perczel, A., Hollósi, M., Foxman, B.M., & Fasman, G.D., 1991a, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 9772-9784) that some pseudohexapeptides (e.g., the cyclo[(delta)Ava-Gly-Pro-Aaa-Gly] where Aaa = Ser, Ser(OtBu), or Gly) in many solvents adopt a conformational mixture of type I and the type II beta-turns, although the X-ray-determined conformation was an ideal type I beta-turn. In addition to these pseudohexapeptides, conformational analysis was also carried out on three pseudotetrapeptides and three pseudooctapeptides. The target of the conformation analysis reported herein was to determine whether the ring stress of the above beta-turn models has an influence on their conformational properties. Quantitative nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) measurements yielded interproton distances. The conformational average distances so obtained were interpreted utilizing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to yield the conformational percentages. These conformational ratios were correlated with the conformational weights obtained by quantitative CD analysis of the same compounds. The pure component CD curves of type I and type II beta-turns were also obtained, using a recently developed algorithm (Perczel, A., Tusnády, G., Hollósi, M., & Fasman, G.D., 1991b, Protein Eng. 4(6), 669-679). For the first time the results of a CD deconvolution, based on the CD spectra of 14 beta-turn models, were assigned by quantitative NOE results. The NOE experiments confirmed the ratios of the component curves found for the two major beta-turns by CD analysis. These results

  4. Quantitative image analysis in sonograms of the thyroid gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catherine, Skouroliakou; Maria, Lyra; Aristides, Antoniou; Lambros, Vlahos

    2006-12-01

    High-resolution, real-time ultrasound is a routine examination for assessing the disorders of the thyroid gland. However, the current diagnosis practice is based mainly on qualitative evaluation of the resulting sonograms, therefore depending on the physician's experience. Computerized texture analysis is widely employed in sonographic images of various organs (liver, breast), and it has been proven to increase the sensitivity of diagnosis by providing a better tissue characterization. The present study attempts to characterize thyroid tissue by automatic texture analysis. The texture features that are calculated are based on co-occurrence matrices as they have been proposed by Haralick. The sample consists of 40 patients. For each patient two sonographic images (one for each lobe) are recorded in DICOM format. The lobe is manually delineated in each sonogram, and the co-occurrence matrices for 52 separation vectors are calculated. The texture features extracted from each one of these matrices are: contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity. Primary component analysis is used to select the optimal set of features. The statistical analysis resulted in the extraction of 21 optimal descriptors. The optimal descriptors are all co-occurrence parameters as the first-order statistics did not prove to be representative of the images characteristics. The bigger number of components depends mainly on correlation for very close or very far distances. The results indicate that quantitative analysis of thyroid sonograms can provide an objective characterization of thyroid tissue.

  5. Air Cargo Transportation Route Choice Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obashi, Hiroshi; Kim, Tae-Seung; Oum, Tae Hoon

    2003-01-01

    Using a unique feature of air cargo transshipment data in the Northeast Asian region, this paper identifies the critical factors that determine the transshipment route choice. Taking advantage of the variations in the transport characteristics in each origin-destination airports pair, the paper uses a discrete choice model to describe the transshipping route choice decision made by an agent (i.e., freight forwarder, consolidator, and large shipper). The analysis incorporates two major factors, monetary cost (such as line-haul cost and landing fee) and time cost (i.e., aircraft turnaround time, including loading and unloading time, custom clearance time, and expected scheduled delay), along with other controls. The estimation method considers the presence of unobserved attributes, and corrects for resulting endogeneity by use of appropriate instrumental variables. Estimation results find that transshipment volumes are more sensitive to time cost, and that the reduction in aircraft turnaround time by 1 hour would be worth the increase in airport charges by more than $1000. Simulation exercises measures the impacts of alternative policy scenarios for a Korean airport, which has recently declared their intention to be a future regional hub in the Northeast Asian region. The results suggest that reducing aircraft turnaround time at the airport be an effective strategy, rather than subsidizing to reduce airport charges.

  6. Structural Technology Evaluation and Analysis Program (STEAP). Delivery Order 0049: Computational Prototyping of Micro Air Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    integration at the system level . To quantitatively assess MAV technology, a more detailed engineering description is needed. 2 Approved for public...descriptions. A fairly unique source of system- level FWMAV data is the NATO AVT Task Group 184, “Characterization of Bio-Inspired Micro Air Vehicle...control geometric description utilizes the same underlying geometric description in the aerodynamics analysis, but adds an abstract level of describing

  7. EBprot: Statistical analysis of labeling-based quantitative proteomics data.

    PubMed

    Koh, Hiromi W L; Swa, Hannah L F; Fermin, Damian; Ler, Siok Ghee; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Choi, Hyungwon

    2015-08-01

    Labeling-based proteomics is a powerful method for detection of differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). The current data analysis platform typically relies on protein-level ratios, which is obtained by summarizing peptide-level ratios for each protein. In shotgun proteomics, however, some proteins are quantified with more peptides than others, and this reproducibility information is not incorporated into the differential expression (DE) analysis. Here, we propose a novel probabilistic framework EBprot that directly models the peptide-protein hierarchy and rewards the proteins with reproducible evidence of DE over multiple peptides. To evaluate its performance with known DE states, we conducted a simulation study to show that the peptide-level analysis of EBprot provides better receiver-operating characteristic and more accurate estimation of the false discovery rates than the methods based on protein-level ratios. We also demonstrate superior classification performance of peptide-level EBprot analysis in a spike-in dataset. To illustrate the wide applicability of EBprot in different experimental designs, we applied EBprot to a dataset for lung cancer subtype analysis with biological replicates and another dataset for time course phosphoproteome analysis of EGF-stimulated HeLa cells with multiplexed labeling. Through these examples, we show that the peptide-level analysis of EBprot is a robust alternative to the existing statistical methods for the DE analysis of labeling-based quantitative datasets. The software suite is freely available on the Sourceforge website http://ebprot.sourceforge.net/. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001426 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001426/).

  8. Analysis of Aircraft Evasion Strategies in Air-to-Air Missille Effectiveness Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    AD-A015 238 ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT EVASION STRATEGIES IN AIR-TO-AIR MISSILE EFFECTIVENESS MObri ’ G. Carpenter, et al Grumman Aerospace Corporation ...overall tep t Es CIS*atiet d) Oft ’IsNA 1tTNG AC ?v I TV ? corpor te author) 2S. REPORT SECUNITY CLASSIrICA TION Unclassified ;rummn Aerospace... Corporation b RoU N/A I NEPOA’ I ?LE nalysis of Aircraft Evasion Strategies in Air-to-Air Missile Effectiveness Models 4 DESCRIP T IVE *40TS ’Type of repct

  9. In vivo osteogenesis assay: a rapid method for quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Dennis, J E; Konstantakos, E K; Arm, D; Caplan, A I

    1998-08-01

    A quantitative in vivo osteogenesis assay is a useful tool for the analysis of cells and bioactive factors that affect the amount or rate of bone formation. There are currently two assays in general use for the in vivo assessment of osteogenesis by isolated cells: diffusion chambers and porous calcium phosphate ceramics. Due to the relative ease of specimen preparation and reproducibility of results, the porous ceramic assay was chosen for the development of a rapid method for quantitating in vivo bone formation. The ceramic cube implantation technique consists of combining osteogenic cells with 27-mm3 porous calcium phosphate ceramics, implanting the cell-ceramic composites subcutaneously into an immuno-tolerant host, and, after 2-6 weeks, harvesting and preparing the ceramic implants for histologic analysis. A drawback to the analysis of bone formation within these porous ceramics is that the entire cube must be examined to find small foci of bone present in some samples; a single cross-sectional area is not representative. For this reason, image analysis of serial sections from ceramics is often prohibitively time-consuming. Two alternative scoring methodologies were tested and compared to bone volume measurements obtained by image analysis. The two subjective scoring methods were: (1) Bone Scale: the amount of bone within pores of the ceramic implant is estimated on a scale of 0-4 based on the degree of bone fill (0=no bone, 1=up to 25%, 2=25 to 75%, 4=75 to 100% fill); and (2) Percentage Bone: the amount of bone is estimated by determining the percentage of ceramic pores which contain bone. Every tenth section of serially sectioned cubes was scored by each of these methods under double-blind conditions, and the Bone Scale and Percentage Bone results were directly compared to image analysis measurements from identical samples. Correlation coefficients indicate that the Percentage Bone method was more accurate than the Bone Scale scoring method. The Bone Scale

  10. Phenotypic analysis of Arabidopsis mutants: quantitative analysis of root growth.

    PubMed

    Doerner, Peter

    2008-03-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe growth of plant roots is very easy to measure and is particularly straightforward in Arabidopsis thaliana, because the increase in organ size is essentially restricted to one dimension. The precise measurement of root apical growth can be used to accurately determine growth activity (the rate of growth at a given time) during development in mutants, transgenic backgrounds, or in response to experimental treatments. Root growth is measured in a number of ways, the simplest of which is to grow the seedlings in a Petri dish and record the position of the advancing root tip at appropriate time points. The increase in root length is measured with a ruler and the data are entered into Microsoft Excel for analysis. When dealing with large numbers of seedlings, however, this procedure can be tedious, as well as inaccurate. An alternative approach, described in this protocol, uses "snapshots" of the growing plants, which are taken using gel-documentation equipment (i.e., a video camera with a frame-grabber unit, now commonly used to capture images from ethidium-bromide-stained electrophoresis gels). The images are analyzed using publicly available software (NIH-Image), which allows the user simply to cut and paste data into Microsoft Excel.

  11. Functional Linear Models for Association Analysis of Quantitative Traits

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Mills, James L.; Wilson, Alexander F.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Xiong, Momiao

    2014-01-01

    Functional linear models are developed in this paper for testing associations between quantitative traits and genetic variants, which can be rare variants or common variants or the combination of the two. By treating multiple genetic variants of an individual in a human population as a realization of a stochastic process, the genome of an individual in a chromosome region is a continuum of sequence data rather than discrete observations. The genome of an individual is viewed as a stochastic function that contains both linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) information of the genetic markers. By using techniques of functional data analysis, both fixed and mixed effect functional linear models are built to test the association between quantitative traits and genetic variants adjusting for covariates. After extensive simulation analysis, it is shown that the F-distributed tests of the proposed fixed effect functional linear models have higher power than that of sequence kernel association test (SKAT) and its optimal unified test (SKAT-O) for three scenarios in most cases: (1) the causal variants are all rare, (2) the causal variants are both rare and common, and (3) the causal variants are common. The superior performance of the fixed effect functional linear models is most likely due to its optimal utilization of both genetic linkage and LD information of multiple genetic variants in a genome and similarity among different individuals, while SKAT and SKAT-O only model the similarities and pairwise LD but do not model linkage and higher order LD information sufficiently. In addition, the proposed fixed effect models generate accurate type I error rates in simulation studies. We also show that the functional kernel score tests of the proposed mixed effect functional linear models are preferable in candidate gene analysis and small sample problems. The methods are applied to analyze three biochemical traits in data from the Trinity Students Study. PMID:24130119

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Single-Molecule RNA-Protein Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Fuhrmann, Alexander; Schoening, Jan C.; Anselmetti, Dario; Staiger, Dorothee; Ros, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Abstract RNA-binding proteins impact gene expression at the posttranscriptional level by interacting with cognate cis elements within the transcripts. Here, we apply dynamic single-molecule force spectroscopy to study the interaction of the Arabidopsis glycine-rich RNA-binding protein AtGRP8 with its RNA target. A dwell-time-dependent analysis of the single-molecule data in combination with competition assays and site-directed mutagenesis of both the RNA target and the RNA-binding domain of the protein allowed us to distinguish and quantify two different binding modes. For dwell times <0.21 s an unspecific complex with a lifetime of 0.56 s is observed, whereas dwell times >0.33 s result in a specific interaction with a lifetime of 208 s. The corresponding reaction lengths are 0.28 nm for the unspecific and 0.55 nm for the specific AtGRP8-RNA interactions, indicating formation of a tighter complex with increasing dwell time. These two binding modes cannot be dissected in ensemble experiments. Quantitative titration in RNA bandshift experiments yields an ensemble-averaged equilibrium constant of dissociation of KD = 2 × 10−7 M. Assuming comparable on-rates for the specific and nonspecific binding modes allows us to estimate their free energies as ΔG0 = −42 kJ/mol and ΔG0 = −28 kJ/mol for the specific and nonspecific binding modes, respectively. Thus, we show that single-molecule force spectroscopy with a refined statistical analysis is a potent tool for the analysis of protein-RNA interactions without the drawback of ensemble averaging. This makes it possible to discriminate between different binding modes or sites and to analyze them quantitatively. We propose that this method could be applied to complex interactions of biomolecules in general, and be of particular interest for the investigation of multivalent binding reactions. PMID:19527663

  13. Functional linear models for association analysis of quantitative traits.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Mills, James L; Wilson, Alexander F; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Xiong, Momiao

    2013-11-01

    Functional linear models are developed in this paper for testing associations between quantitative traits and genetic variants, which can be rare variants or common variants or the combination of the two. By treating multiple genetic variants of an individual in a human population as a realization of a stochastic process, the genome of an individual in a chromosome region is a continuum of sequence data rather than discrete observations. The genome of an individual is viewed as a stochastic function that contains both linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) information of the genetic markers. By using techniques of functional data analysis, both fixed and mixed effect functional linear models are built to test the association between quantitative traits and genetic variants adjusting for covariates. After extensive simulation analysis, it is shown that the F-distributed tests of the proposed fixed effect functional linear models have higher power than that of sequence kernel association test (SKAT) and its optimal unified test (SKAT-O) for three scenarios in most cases: (1) the causal variants are all rare, (2) the causal variants are both rare and common, and (3) the causal variants are common. The superior performance of the fixed effect functional linear models is most likely due to its optimal utilization of both genetic linkage and LD information of multiple genetic variants in a genome and similarity among different individuals, while SKAT and SKAT-O only model the similarities and pairwise LD but do not model linkage and higher order LD information sufficiently. In addition, the proposed fixed effect models generate accurate type I error rates in simulation studies. We also show that the functional kernel score tests of the proposed mixed effect functional linear models are preferable in candidate gene analysis and small sample problems. The methods are applied to analyze three biochemical traits in data from the Trinity Students Study.

  14. The Quantitative Analysis of Chennai Automotive Industry Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, Ethirajan

    2016-07-01

    Chennai, also called as Detroit of India due to presence of Automotive Industry producing over 40 % of the India's vehicle and components. During 2001-2002, the Automotive Component Industries (ACI) in Ambattur, Thirumalizai and Thirumudivakkam Industrial Estate, Chennai has faced problems on infrastructure, technology, procurement, production and marketing. The objective is to study the Quantitative Performance of Chennai Automotive Industry Cluster before (2001-2002) and after the CDA (2008-2009). The methodology adopted is collection of primary data from 100 ACI using quantitative questionnaire and analyzing using Correlation Analysis (CA), Regression Analysis (RA), Friedman Test (FMT), and Kruskall Wallis Test (KWT).The CA computed for the different set of variables reveals that there is high degree of relationship between the variables studied. The RA models constructed establish the strong relationship between the dependent variable and a host of independent variables. The models proposed here reveal the approximate relationship in a closer form. KWT proves, there is no significant difference between three locations clusters with respect to: Net Profit, Production Cost, Marketing Costs, Procurement Costs and Gross Output. This supports that each location has contributed for development of automobile component cluster uniformly. The FMT proves, there is no significant difference between industrial units in respect of cost like Production, Infrastructure, Technology, Marketing and Net Profit. To conclude, the Automotive Industries have fully utilized the Physical Infrastructure and Centralised Facilities by adopting CDA and now exporting their products to North America, South America, Europe, Australia, Africa and Asia. The value chain analysis models have been implemented in all the cluster units. This Cluster Development Approach (CDA) model can be implemented in industries of under developed and developing countries for cost reduction and productivity

  15. Advance in orientation microscopy: quantitative analysis of nanocrystalline structures.

    PubMed

    Seyring, Martin; Song, Xiaoyan; Rettenmayr, Markus

    2011-04-26

    The special properties of nanocrystalline materials are generally accepted to be a consequence of the high density of planar defects (grain and twin boundaries) and their characteristics. However, until now, nanograin structures have not been characterized with similar detail and statistical relevance as coarse-grained materials, due to the lack of an appropriate method. In the present paper, a novel method based on quantitative nanobeam diffraction in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is presented to determine the misorientation of adjacent nanograins and subgrains. Spatial resolution of <5 nm can be achieved. This method is applicable to characterize orientation relationships in wire, film, and bulk materials with nanocrystalline structures. As a model material, nanocrystalline Cu is used. Several important features of the nanograin structure are discovered utilizing quantitative analysis: the fraction of twin boundaries is substantially higher than that observed in bright-field images in the TEM; small angle grain boundaries are prominent; there is an obvious dependence of the grain boundary characteristics on grain size distribution and mean grain size.

  16. Quantitative analysis of tumor burden in mouse lung via MRI.

    PubMed

    Tidwell, Vanessa K; Garbow, Joel R; Krupnick, Alexander S; Engelbach, John A; Nehorai, Arye

    2012-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Despite recent advances in screening protocols, the majority of patients still present with advanced or disseminated disease. Preclinical rodent models provide a unique opportunity to test novel therapeutic drugs for targeting lung cancer. Respiratory-gated MRI is a key tool for quantitatively measuring lung-tumor burden and monitoring the time-course progression of individual tumors in mouse models of primary and metastatic lung cancer. However, quantitative analysis of lung-tumor burden in mice by MRI presents significant challenges. Herein, a method for measuring tumor burden based upon average lung-image intensity is described and validated. The method requires accurate lung segmentation; its efficiency and throughput would be greatly aided by the ability to automatically segment the lungs. A technique for automated lung segmentation in the presence of varying tumor burden levels is presented. The method includes development of a new, two-dimensional parametric model of the mouse lungs and a multi-faceted cost function to optimally fit the model parameters to each image. Results demonstrate a strong correlation (0.93), comparable with that of fully manual expert segmentation, between the automated method's tumor-burden metric and the tumor burden measured by lung weight.

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Peripheral Tissue Perfusion Using Spatiotemporal Molecular Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungsul; Koh, Gou Young; Kwon, Kihwan; Choi, Chulhee

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate measurement of peripheral tissue perfusion is challenging but necessary to diagnose peripheral vascular insufficiency. Because near infrared (NIR) radiation can penetrate relatively deep into tissue, significant attention has been given to intravital NIR fluorescence imaging. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a new optical imaging-based strategy for quantitative measurement of peripheral tissue perfusion by time-series analysis of local pharmacokinetics of the NIR fluorophore, indocyanine green (ICG). Time-series NIR fluorescence images were obtained after injecting ICG intravenously in a murine hindlimb ischemia model. Mathematical modeling and computational simulations were used for translating time-series ICG images into quantitative pixel perfusion rates and a perfusion map. We could successfully predict the prognosis of ischemic hindlimbs based on the perfusion profiles obtained immediately after surgery, which were dependent on the preexisting collaterals. This method also reflected increases in perfusion and improvements in prognosis of ischemic hindlimbs induced by treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor and COMP-angiopoietin-1. Conclusions/Significance We propose that this novel NIR-imaging-based strategy is a powerful tool for biomedical studies related to the evaluation of therapeutic interventions directed at stimulating angiogenesis. PMID:19169354

  18. Quantitative analysis of incipient mineral loss in hard tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matvienko, Anna; Mandelis, Andreas; Hellen, Adam; Jeon, Raymond; Abrams, Stephen; Amaechi, Bennett

    2009-02-01

    A coupled diffuse-photon-density-wave and thermal-wave theoretical model was developed to describe the biothermophotonic phenomena in multi-layered hard tissue structures. Photothermal Radiometry was applied as a safe, non-destructive, and highly sensitive tool for the detection of early tooth enamel demineralization to test the theory. Extracted human tooth was treated sequentially with an artificial demineralization gel to simulate controlled mineral loss in the enamel. The experimental setup included a semiconductor laser (659 nm, 120 mW) as the source of the photothermal signal. Modulated laser light generated infrared blackbody radiation from teeth upon absorption and nonradiative energy conversion. The infrared flux emitted by the treated region of the tooth surface and sub-surface was monitored with an infrared detector, both before and after treatment. Frequency scans with a laser beam size of 3 mm were performed in order to guarantee one-dimensionality of the photothermal field. TMR images showed clear differences between sound and demineralized enamel, however this technique is destructive. Dental radiographs did not indicate any changes. The photothermal signal showed clear change even after 1 min of gel treatment. As a result of the fittings, thermal and optical properties of sound and demineralized enamel were obtained, which allowed for quantitative differentiation of healthy and non-healthy regions. In conclusion, the developed model was shown to be a promising tool for non-invasive quantitative analysis of early demineralization of hard tissues.

  19. Quantitative multi-image analysis for biomedical Raman spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, Martin A B; Bergholt, Mads S; Stevens, Molly M

    2016-05-01

    Imaging by Raman spectroscopy enables unparalleled label-free insights into cell and tissue composition at the molecular level. With established approaches limited to single image analysis, there are currently no general guidelines or consensus on how to quantify biochemical components across multiple Raman images. Here, we describe a broadly applicable methodology for the combination of multiple Raman images into a single image for analysis. This is achieved by removing image specific background interference, unfolding the series of Raman images into a single dataset, and normalisation of each Raman spectrum to render comparable Raman images. Multivariate image analysis is finally applied to derive the contributing 'pure' biochemical spectra for relative quantification. We present our methodology using four independently measured Raman images of control cells and four images of cells treated with strontium ions from substituted bioactive glass. We show that the relative biochemical distribution per area of the cells can be quantified. In addition, using k-means clustering, we are able to discriminate between the two cell types over multiple Raman images. This study shows a streamlined quantitative multi-image analysis tool for improving cell/tissue characterisation and opens new avenues in biomedical Raman spectroscopic imaging.

  20. Quantitative three-dimensional holographic interferometry for flow field analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, C. M. E.; Parker, S. C. J.; Bryanston-Cross, P. J.

    Holographic interferometry offers the potential for quantitative, wholefield analysis of three-dimensional compressible flows. The technique is non-intrusive, does not require the introduction of seeding particles, and records the entire flow information within the pulse duration of a Q-switched ruby laser (~30ns). At present, however, holographic interferometry is mainly used qualitatively due to the practical restrictions of data recording, acquisition and processing. To address the potential of holographic flow analysis a prototype multi-channel interferometer has been designed and preliminary wind tunnel results have been obtained. The proposed configuration uses specular illumination which, unlike comparable diffuse systems, does not suffer from fringe localisation and speckle noise. Beam collimation and steering through the flow field is achieved in a single operation by the use of holographic optical elements (HOEs). The resulting design is compact, light efficient, has aberration compensation, and the recorded data are conducive to both tomographic analysis and direct comparison to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions. Holograms have been recorded of simple two-dimensional and axisymmetric compressible flows, to compare the accuracy of holographic density measurements with data from conventional pressure sensors and CFD codes. Data extraction from the holograms, and the elimination of rigid body motion, was achieved using digital Fourier transform fringe analysis. The introduction of phase errors by image processing has been investigated by analysing simulated fringe patterns generated from a combination of experimental amplitude information and computer generated phase data.

  1. Multipoint quantitative-trait linkage analysis in general pedigrees.

    PubMed Central

    Almasy, L; Blangero, J

    1998-01-01

    Multipoint linkage analysis of quantitative-trait loci (QTLs) has previously been restricted to sibships and small pedigrees. In this article, we show how variance-component linkage methods can be used in pedigrees of arbitrary size and complexity, and we develop a general framework for multipoint identity-by-descent (IBD) probability calculations. We extend the sib-pair multipoint mapping approach of Fulker et al. to general relative pairs. This multipoint IBD method uses the proportion of alleles shared identical by descent at genotyped loci to estimate IBD sharing at arbitrary points along a chromosome for each relative pair. We have derived correlations in IBD sharing as a function of chromosomal distance for relative pairs in general pedigrees and provide a simple framework whereby these correlations can be easily obtained for any relative pair related by a single line of descent or by multiple independent lines of descent. Once calculated, the multipoint relative-pair IBDs can be utilized in variance-component linkage analysis, which considers the likelihood of the entire pedigree jointly. Examples are given that use simulated data, demonstrating both the accuracy of QTL localization and the increase in power provided by multipoint analysis with 5-, 10-, and 20-cM marker maps. The general pedigree variance component and IBD estimation methods have been implemented in the SOLAR (Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines) computer package. PMID:9545414

  2. Quantitative analysis of the reconstruction performance of interpolants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, Donald L.; Park, Stephen K.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis presented provides a quantitative measure of the reconstruction or interpolation performance of linear, shift-invariant interpolants. The performance criterion is the mean square error of the difference between the sampled and reconstructed functions. The analysis is applicable to reconstruction algorithms used in image processing and to many types of splines used in numerical analysis and computer graphics. When formulated in the frequency domain, the mean square error clearly separates the contribution of the interpolation method from the contribution of the sampled data. The equations provide a rational basis for selecting an optimal interpolant; that is, one which minimizes the mean square error. The analysis has been applied to a selection of frequently used data splines and reconstruction algorithms: parametric cubic and quintic Hermite splines, exponential and nu splines (including the special case of the cubic spline), parametric cubic convolution, Keys' fourth-order cubic, and a cubic with a discontinuous first derivative. The emphasis in this paper is on the image-dependent case in which no a priori knowledge of the frequency spectrum of the sampled function is assumed.

  3. Quantitative Risk Analysis on the Transport of Dangerous Goods Through a Bi-Directional Road Tunnel.

    PubMed

    Caliendo, Ciro; De Guglielmo, Maria Luisa

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative risk analysis (QRA) regarding dangerous goods vehicles (DGVs) running through road tunnels was set up. Peak hourly traffic volumes (VHP), percentage of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs), and failure of the emergency ventilation system were investigated in order to assess their impact on the risk level. The risk associated with an alternative route running completely in the open air and passing through a highly populated urban area was also evaluated. The results in terms of social risk, as F/N curves, show an increased risk level with an increase the VHP, the percentage of HGVs, and a failure of the emergency ventilation system. The risk curves of the tunnel investigated were found to lie both above and below those of the alternative route running in the open air depending on the type of dangerous goods transported. In particular, risk was found to be greater in the tunnel for two fire scenarios (no explosion). In contrast, the risk level for the exposed population was found to be greater for the alternative route in three possible accident scenarios associated with explosions and toxic releases. Therefore, one should be wary before stating that for the transport of dangerous products an itinerary running completely in the open air might be used if the latter passes through a populated area. The QRA may help decisionmakers both to implement additional safety measures and to understand whether to allow, forbid, or limit circulation of DGVs.

  4. Failure-cause analysis: Air preheaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, K. L.; Benson, R. C.

    1981-07-01

    The major generic equipment and/or operating problems responsible for utility power plant outages are examined. Data analyzed from 118 generating units with an average size over 500 MW and using 236 air heaters demonstrates problems with air preheater systems and their components that contribute to loss in performance and unavailability of generating units. Nine major problem areas are identified: corrosion, fouling, plugging, soot blowers, water wash system, seals, fires, and drive and bearing systems. The indicated causes and effects are discussed. Recommendations are made to improve the reliability of existing air preheaters, and generic problems requiring future research and application of existing technologies are identified.

  5. Quantitative multielement analysis using high energy particle bombardment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. J.; Neal, G. F.; Allen, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    Charged particles ranging in energy from 0.8 to 4.0 MeV are used to induce resonant nuclear reactions, Coulomb excitation (gamma X-rays), and X-ray emission in both thick and thin targets. Quantitative analysis is possible for elements from Li to Pb in complex environmental samples, although the matrix can severely reduce the sensitivity. It is necessary to use a comparator technique for the gamma-rays, while for X-rays an internal standard can be used. A USGS standard rock is analyzed for a total of 28 elements. Water samples can be analyzed either by nebulizing the sample doped with Cs or Y onto a thin formvar film or by extracting the sample (with or without an internal standard) onto ion exchange resin which is pressed into a pellet.

  6. Large-Scale Quantitative Analysis of Painting Arts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images – the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and the roughness of the brightness. We found a difference in color usage between classical paintings and photographs, and a significantly low color variety of the medieval period. Interestingly, moreover, the increment of roughness exponent as painting techniques such as chiaroscuro and sfumato have advanced is consistent with historical circumstances. PMID:25501877

  7. Quantitative genetic analysis of injury liability in infants and toddlers

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, K.; Matheny, A.P. Jr.

    1995-02-27

    A threshold model of latent liability was applied to infant and toddler twin data on total count of injuries sustained during the interval from birth to 36 months of age. A quantitative genetic analysis of estimated twin correlations in injury liability indicated strong genetic dominance effects, but no additive genetic variance was detected. Because interpretations involving overdominance have little research support, the results may be due to low order epistasis or other interaction effects. Boys had more injuries than girls, but this effect was found only for groups whose parents were prompted and questioned in detail about their children`s injuries. Activity and impulsivity are two behavioral predictors of childhood injury, and the results are discussed in relation to animal research on infant and adult activity levels, and impulsivity in adult humans. Genetic epidemiological approaches to childhood injury should aid in targeting higher risk children for preventive intervention. 30 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Quantitative multielement analysis using high energy particle bombardment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. J.; Neal, G. F.; Allen, R. O.

    1975-01-01

    Charged particles ranging in energy from 0.8 to 4.0 MeV are used to induce resonant nuclear reactions, Coulomb excitation (gamma-rays), and X-ray emission in both thick and thin targets. Quantitative analysis is possible for elements from Li to Pb in complex environmental samples, although the matrix can severely reduce the sensitivity. It is necessary to use a comparator technique for the gamma-rays while for X-rays an internal standard can be used. A USGS standard rock is analyzed for a total of 28 elements. Water samples can be analyzed either by nebulizing the sample doped with Cs or Y a thin Formvar film or by extracting the sample onto ion exchange resin which is pressed into a pellet.

  9. Large-Scale Quantitative Analysis of Painting Arts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-12-01

    Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images - the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and the roughness of the brightness. We found a difference in color usage between classical paintings and photographs, and a significantly low color variety of the medieval period. Interestingly, moreover, the increment of roughness exponent as painting techniques such as chiaroscuro and sfumato have advanced is consistent with historical circumstances.

  10. Quantitative analysis of gallstones using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Vivek K.; Singh, Vinita; Rai, Awadhesh K.; Thakur, Surya N.; Rai, Pradeep K.; Singh, Jagdish P

    2008-11-01

    The utility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for categorizing different types of gallbladder stone has been demonstrated by analyzing their major and minor constituents. LIBS spectra of three types of gallstone have been recorded in the 200-900 nm spectral region. Calcium is found to be the major element in all types of gallbladder stone. The spectrophotometric method has been used to classify the stones. A calibration-free LIBS method has been used for the quantitative analysis of metal elements, and the results have been compared with those obtained from inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) measurements. The single-shot LIBS spectra from different points on the cross section (in steps of 0.5 mm from one end to the other) of gallstones have also been recorded to study the variation of constituents from the center to the surface. The presence of different metal elements and their possible role in gallstone formation is discussed.

  11. Automatic analysis of quantitative NMR data of pharmaceutical compound libraries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuejun; Kolpak, Michael X; Wu, Jiejun; Leo, Gregory C

    2012-08-07

    In drug discovery, chemical library compounds are usually dissolved in DMSO at a certain concentration and then distributed to biologists for target screening. Quantitative (1)H NMR (qNMR) is the preferred method for the determination of the actual concentrations of compounds because the relative single proton peak areas of two chemical species represent the relative molar concentrations of the two compounds, that is, the compound of interest and a calibrant. Thus, an analyte concentration can be determined using a calibration compound at a known concentration. One particularly time-consuming step in the qNMR analysis of compound libraries is the manual integration of peaks. In this report is presented an automated method for performing this task without prior knowledge of compound structures and by using an external calibration spectrum. The script for automated integration is fast and adaptable to large-scale data sets, eliminating the need for manual integration in ~80% of the cases.

  12. Quantitative analysis of forest island pattern in selected Ohio landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, G.W.; Burgess, R.L.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively describe the various aspects of regional distribution patterns of forest islands and relate those patterns to other landscape features. Several maps showing the forest cover of various counties in Ohio were selected as representative examples of forest patterns to be quantified. Ten thousand hectare study areas (landscapes) were delineated on each map. A total of 15 landscapes representing a wide variety of forest island patterns was chosen. Data were converted into a series of continuous variables which contained information pertinent to the sizes, shape, numbers, and spacing of woodlots within a landscape. The continuous variables were used in a factor analysis to describe the variation among landscapes in terms of forest island pattern. The results showed that forest island patterns are related to topography and other environmental features correlated with topography.

  13. Quantitative characterizations of ultrashort echo (UTE) images for supporting air-bone separation in the head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shu-Hui; Cao, Yue; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Tsien, Christina; Feng, Mary; Grodzki, David M.; Balter, James M.

    2015-04-01

    Accurate separation of air and bone is critical for creating synthetic CT from MRI to support Radiation Oncology workflow. This study compares two different ultrashort echo-time sequences in the separation of air from bone, and evaluates post-processing methods that correct intensity nonuniformity of images and account for intensity gradients at tissue boundaries to improve this discriminatory power. CT and MRI scans were acquired on 12 patients under an institution review board-approved prospective protocol. The two MRI sequences tested were ultra-short TE imaging using 3D radial acquisition (UTE), and using pointwise encoding time reduction with radial acquisition (PETRA). Gradient nonlinearity correction was applied to both MR image volumes after acquisition. MRI intensity nonuniformity was corrected by vendor-provided normalization methods, and then further corrected using the N4itk algorithm. To overcome the intensity-gradient at air-tissue boundaries, spatial dilations, from 0 to 4 mm, were applied to threshold-defined air regions from MR images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, by comparing predicted (defined by MR images) versus ‘true’ regions of air and bone (defined by CT images), were performed with and without residual bias field correction and local spatial expansion. The post-processing corrections increased the areas under the ROC curves (AUC) from 0.944 ± 0.012 to 0.976 ± 0.003 for UTE images, and from 0.850 ± 0.022 to 0.887 ± 0.012 for PETRA images, compared to without corrections. When expanding the threshold-defined air volumes, as expected, sensitivity of air identification decreased with an increase in specificity of bone discrimination, but in a non-linear fashion. A 1 mm air mask expansion yielded AUC increases of 1 and 4% for UTE and PETRA images, respectively. UTE images had significantly greater discriminatory power in separating air from bone than PETRA images. Post-processing strategies improved the

  14. Quantitative analysis in outcome assessment of instrumented lumbosacral arthrodesis

    PubMed Central

    Mazel, Christian; Mitulescu, Anca

    2007-01-01

    The outcome assessment in instrumented lumbosacral fusion mostly focuses on clinical criteria, complications and scores, with a high variability of imaging means, methods of fusion grading and parameters describing degenerative changes, making comparisons between studies difficult. The aim of this retrospective evaluation was to evaluate the interest of quantified radiographic analysis of lumbar spine in global outcome assessment and to highlight the key biomechanical factors involved. Clinical data and Beaujon–Lassale scores were collected for 49 patients who underwent lumbosacral arthrodesis after prior lumbar discectomy (mean follow-up: 5 years). Sagittal standing and lumbar flexion-extension X-ray films allowed quantifying vertebral, lumbar, pelvic and kinematic parameters of the lumbar spine, which were compared to reference values. Statistics were performed to assess evolution for all variables. At long-term follow-up, 90% of patients presented satisfactory clinical outcomes, associated to normal sagittal alignment; vertebral parameters objectified adjacent level degeneration in four cases (8%). Clinical outcome was correlated (r = 0.8) with fusion that was confirmed in 80% of cases, doubtful in 16% and pseudarthrosis seemed to occur in 4% (2) of cases. In addition to clinical data (outcomes comparable to the literature), quantitative analysis accurately described lumbar spine geometry and kinematics, highlighting parameters related to adjacent level’s degeneration and a significant correlation between clinical outcome and fusion. Furthermore, criteria proposed to quantitatively evaluate fusion from lumbar dynamic radiographs seem to be appropriate and in agreement with surgeon’s qualitative grading in 87% of cases. PMID:17216227

  15. Quantitative analysis of protein-ligand interactions by NMR.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Ayako; Konuma, Tsuyoshi; Yanaka, Saeko; Sugase, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Protein-ligand interactions have been commonly studied through static structures of the protein-ligand complex. Recently, however, there has been increasing interest in investigating the dynamics of protein-ligand interactions both for fundamental understanding of the underlying mechanisms and for drug development. NMR is a versatile and powerful tool, especially because it provides site-specific quantitative information. NMR has widely been used to determine the dissociation constant (KD), in particular, for relatively weak interactions. The simplest NMR method is a chemical-shift titration experiment, in which the chemical-shift changes of a protein in response to ligand titration are measured. There are other quantitative NMR methods, but they mostly apply only to interactions in the fast-exchange regime. These methods derive the dissociation constant from population-averaged NMR quantities of the free and bound states of a protein or ligand. In contrast, the recent advent of new relaxation-based experiments, including R2 relaxation dispersion and ZZ-exchange, has enabled us to obtain kinetic information on protein-ligand interactions in the intermediate- and slow-exchange regimes. Based on R2 dispersion or ZZ-exchange, methods that can determine the association rate, kon, dissociation rate, koff, and KD have been developed. In these approaches, R2 dispersion or ZZ-exchange curves are measured for multiple samples with different protein and/or ligand concentration ratios, and the relaxation data are fitted to theoretical kinetic models. It is critical to choose an appropriate kinetic model, such as the two- or three-state exchange model, to derive the correct kinetic information. The R2 dispersion and ZZ-exchange methods are suitable for the analysis of protein-ligand interactions with a micromolar or sub-micromolar dissociation constant but not for very weak interactions, which are typical in very fast exchange. This contrasts with the NMR methods that are used

  16. Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovitz, C.M.

    1992-03-01

    The current objective of the project Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases'' is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

  17. Sensitivity, stability, and precision of quantitative Ns-LIBS-based fuel-air-ratio measurements for methane-air flames at 1-11 bar.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Paul S; Gragston, Mark; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Zhili; Patnaik, Anil K; Kiefer, Johannes; Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R

    2016-10-01

    Nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (ns-LIBS) is employed for quantitative local fuel-air (F/A) ratio (i.e., ratio of actual fuel-to-oxidizer mass over ratio of fuel-to-oxidizer mass at stoichiometry, measurements in well-characterized methane-air flames at pressures of 1-11 bar). We selected nitrogen and hydrogen atomic-emission lines at 568 nm and 656 nm, respectively, to establish a correlation between the line intensities and the F/A ratio. We have investigated the effects of laser-pulse energy, camera gate delay, and pressure on the sensitivity, stability, and precision of the quantitative ns-LIBS F/A ratio measurements. We determined the optimal laser energy and camera gate delay for each pressure condition and found that measurement stability and precision are degraded with an increase in pressure. We have identified primary limitations of the F/A ratio measurement employing ns-LIBS at elevated pressures as instabilities caused by the higher density laser-induced plasma and the presence of the higher level of soot. Potential improvements are suggested.

  18. Automatic quantitative analysis of cardiac MR perfusion images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breeuwer, Marcel M.; Spreeuwers, Luuk J.; Quist, Marcel J.

    2001-07-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique for imaging cardiovascular diseases. The introduction of cardiovascular MRI into clinical practice is however hampered by the lack of efficient and accurate image analysis methods. This paper focuses on the evaluation of blood perfusion in the myocardium (the heart muscle) from MR images, using contrast-enhanced ECG-triggered MRI. We have developed an automatic quantitative analysis method, which works as follows. First, image registration is used to compensate for translation and rotation of the myocardium over time. Next, the boundaries of the myocardium are detected and for each position within the myocardium a time-intensity profile is constructed. The time interval during which the contrast agent passes for the first time through the left ventricle and the myocardium is detected and various parameters are measured from the time-intensity profiles in this interval. The measured parameters are visualized as color overlays on the original images. Analysis results are stored, so that they can later on be compared for different stress levels of the heart. The method is described in detail in this paper and preliminary validation results are presented.

  19. QTL analysis for some quantitative traits in bread wheat*

    PubMed Central

    Pushpendra, Kumar Gupta; Harindra, Singh Balyan; Pawan, Laxminarayan Kulwal; Neeraj, Kumar; Ajay, Kumar; Reyazul, Rouf Mir; Amita, Mohan; Jitendra, Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted in bread wheat for 14 important traits utilizing data from four different mapping populations involving different approaches of QTL analysis. Analysis for grain protein content (GPC) suggested that the major part of genetic variation for this trait is due to environmental interactions. In contrast, pre-harvest sprouting tolerance (PHST) was controlled mainly by main effect QTL (M-QTL) with very little genetic variation due to environmental interactions; a major QTL for PHST was detected on chromosome arm 3AL. For grain weight, one QTL each was detected on chromosome arms 1AS, 2BS and 7AS. QTL for 4 growth related traits taken together detected by different methods ranged from 37 to 40; nine QTL that were detected by single-locus as well as two-locus analyses were all M-QTL. Similarly, single-locus and two-locus QTL analyses for seven yield and yield contributing traits in two populations respectively allowed detection of 25 and 50 QTL by composite interval mapping (CIM), 16 and 25 QTL by multiple-trait composite interval mapping (MCIM) and 38 and 37 QTL by two-locus analyses. These studies should prove useful in QTL cloning and wheat improvement through marker aided selection. PMID:17973342

  20. A Quantitative Analysis of the Solar Composition Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villante, F. L.; Serenelli, A. M.

    We perform a quantitative analysis of the solar composition problem by using a statistical approach that allows us to combine the information provided by helioseismic and solar neutrino data in an effective way. We show that the opacity profile of the Sun is well constrained by the solar observational properties. In the context of a two parameter analysis in which elements are grouped as volatiles (i.e. C, N, O and Ne) and refractories (i.e. Mg, Si, S, Fe), the optimal surface composition is found by increasing the abundance of volatiles by (45 ± 4) % and that of refractories by (19 ± 3) % with respect to the values provided by Asplund et al., 2009. As an additional result of our analysis, we show that the best fit to the observational data is obtained with values of input parameters of the standard solar models (radiative opacities, gravitational settling rate, the astrophysical factors S 34 and S 17) that differ at the ∼ 1σ level from those presently adopted.

  1. An approach for quantitative image quality analysis for CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Amir; Cochran, Joe; Mooney, Doug; Regensburger, Joe

    2016-03-01

    An objective and standardized approach to assess image quality of Compute Tomography (CT) systems is required in a wide variety of imaging processes to identify CT systems appropriate for a given application. We present an overview of the framework we have developed to help standardize and to objectively assess CT image quality for different models of CT scanners used for security applications. Within this framework, we have developed methods to quantitatively measure metrics that should correlate with feature identification, detection accuracy and precision, and image registration capabilities of CT machines and to identify strengths and weaknesses in different CT imaging technologies in transportation security. To that end we have designed, developed and constructed phantoms that allow for systematic and repeatable measurements of roughly 88 image quality metrics, representing modulation transfer function, noise equivalent quanta, noise power spectra, slice sensitivity profiles, streak artifacts, CT number uniformity, CT number consistency, object length accuracy, CT number path length consistency, and object registration. Furthermore, we have developed a sophisticated MATLAB based image analysis tool kit to analyze CT generated images of phantoms and report these metrics in a format that is standardized across the considered models of CT scanners, allowing for comparative image quality analysis within a CT model or between different CT models. In addition, we have developed a modified sparse principal component analysis (SPCA) method to generate a modified set of PCA components as compared to the standard principal component analysis (PCA) with sparse loadings in conjunction with Hotelling T2 statistical analysis method to compare, qualify, and detect faults in the tested systems.

  2. A quantitative analysis of elements in soil using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, G.-C.; Sun, D.-X.; Su, M.-G.; Dong, C.-Z.

    2011-09-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to the quantitative analysis of elemental composition of soil. The experiment was performed in air at atmospheric pressure and at room temperature. A Nd:YAG laser with the fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm was employed to generate the soil plasma. The emission spectra from the plasma were collected by the Cerny-Turner type of spectrometer, which was equipped with an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD). The plasma temperature and electron density were evaluated by the Boltzmann plot method and the Saha-Boltzmann equation respectively. Then the concentrations of elements in soil were further obtained by the internal standard of iron element and some selected atomic/ionic lines. In order to prove the credibility and reliability of the present LIBS results, a comparison between the LIBS results and the nominal concentrations was performed. It was found that the LIBS results agree with the nominal concentrations. Therefore the LIBS technique promises to fast and in simultaneous multi-element quantitative analysis of soil.

  3. Quantitative analysis of drug-induced tremor in mice.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, H

    1984-12-01

    A method of analyzing tremor in mice was developed using a power spectral analysis of the random current induced by the movement of a magnet attached to a mouse, on a wire coil. The power spectral density function defined the frequency composition of the tremor, and the mean square value of the data in any frequency range of concern was determined. It was possible to determine qualitative differences in the tremor caused by various tremorgenic agents, and to differentiate the drug-induced tremor from spontaneous motor activity. The power spectral densities of the tremorine- and oxotremorine-induced tremors were tentatively expressed as the sum of 3 main components (Cauchy distribution) with different peak frequencies, consisting of the spontaneous motor activity component and two tremor components. On the other hand, the power spectral densities of the harmaline-induced tremor were expressed as the sum of two components with two peak frequencies, and the plots of the power spectral densities versus frequency, consisting of the spontaneous motor activity component and a tremor component. The frequency of the peak spectral density was almost independent of the dose of tremorgenic agents, but changed slightly with the lapse of time after their injection. The severity of the tremor was determined quantitatively in terms of the sum of the mean square value. The sum of the mean square value for a period of 45 min after the injection of tremorine, changed in a dose-dependent manner. The severity of the tremor was different for each of the mouse strains. The method studied in the present paper is expected to be utilized for the quantitative examination of the fine motor movement of the experimental animal, particularly, for the screening test of new anti-tremor drugs.

  4. Towards quantitative analysis of retinal features in optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Maurizio; Fortunato, Pina; La Torre, Agostino

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this paper was to propose a new computer method for quantitative evaluation of representative features of the retina using optical coherence tomography (OCT). A multi-step approach was devised and positively tested for segmentation of the three main retinal layers: the vitreo-retinal interface and the inner and outer retina. Following a preprocessing step, three regions of interest were delimited. Significant peaks corresponding to high and low intensity strips were located along the OCT A-scan lines and accurate boundaries between different layers were obtained by maximizing an edge likelihood function. For a quantitative description, thickness measurement, densitometry, texture and curvature analyses were performed. As a first application, the effect of intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) for the treatment of vitreo-retinal interface syndrome was evaluated. Almost all the parameters, measured on a set of 16 pathologic OCT images, were statistically different before and after IVTA injection (p<0.05). Shape analysis of the internal limiting membrane confirmed the reduction of the pathological traction state. Other significant parameters, such as reflectivity and texture contrast, exhibited relevant changes both at the vitreo-retinal interface and in the inner retinal layers. Texture parameters in the inner and outer retinal layers significantly correlated with the visual acuity restoration. According to these findings an IVTA injection might be considered a possible alternative to surgery for selected patients. In conclusion, the proposed approach appeared to be a promising tool for the investigation of tissue changes produced by pathology and/or therapy.

  5. Quantitative analysis and parametric display of regional myocardial mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eusemann, Christian D.; Bellemann, Matthias E.; Robb, Richard A.

    2000-04-01

    Quantitative assessment of regional heart motion has significant potential for more accurate diagnosis of heart disease and/or cardiac irregularities. Local heart motion may be studied from medical imaging sequences. Using functional parametric mapping, regional myocardial motion during a cardiac cycle can be color mapped onto a deformable heart model to obtain better understanding of the structure- to-function relationships in the myocardium, including regional patterns of akinesis or diskinesis associated with ischemia or infarction. In this study, 3D reconstructions were obtained from the Dynamic Spatial Reconstructor at 15 time points throughout one cardiac cycle of pre-infarct and post-infarct hearts. Deformable models were created from the 3D images for each time point of the cardiac cycles. Form these polygonal models, regional excursions and velocities of each vertex representing a unit of myocardium were calculated for successive time-intervals. The calculated results were visualized through model animations and/or specially formatted static images. The time point of regional maximum velocity and excursion of myocardium through the cardiac cycle was displayed using color mapping. The absolute value of regional maximum velocity and maximum excursion were displayed in a similar manner. Using animations, the local myocardial velocity changes were visualized as color changes on the cardiac surface during the cardiac cycle. Moreover, the magnitude and direction of motion for individual segments of myocardium could be displayed. Comparison of these dynamic parametric displays suggest that the ability to encode quantitative functional information on dynamic cardiac anatomy enhances the diagnostic value of 4D images of the heart. Myocardial mechanics quantified this way adds a new dimension to the analysis of cardiac functional disease, including regional patterns of akinesis and diskinesis associated with ischemia and infarction. Similarly, disturbances in

  6. Quantitative DNA Methylation Analysis of Candidate Genes in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Erin M.; Riggs, Bridget M.; Delmas, Amber L.; Koch, Abby; Hakam, Ardeshir; Brown, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2). A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site) per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC) of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97–1.00, p-value = 0.003). Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated. PMID:25826459

  7. Quantitative Analysis Of Acoustic Emission From Rock Fracture Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfellow, Sebastian David

    This thesis aims to advance the methods of quantitative acoustic emission (AE) analysis by calibrating sensors, characterizing sources, and applying the results to solve engi- neering problems. In the first part of this thesis, we built a calibration apparatus and successfully calibrated two commercial AE sensors. The ErgoTech sensor was found to have broadband velocity sensitivity and the Panametrics V103 was sensitive to surface normal displacement. These calibration results were applied to two AE data sets from rock fracture experiments in order to characterize the sources of AE events. The first data set was from an in situ rock fracture experiment conducted at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The Mine-By experiment was a large scale excavation response test where both AE (10 kHz - 1 MHz) and microseismicity (MS) (1 Hz - 10 kHz) were monitored. Using the calibration information, magnitude, stress drop, dimension and energy were successfully estimated for 21 AE events recorded in the tensile region of the tunnel wall. Magnitudes were in the range -7.5 < Mw < -6.8, which is consistent with other laboratory AE results, and stress drops were within the range commonly observed for induced seismicity in the field (0.1 - 10 MPa). The second data set was AE collected during a true-triaxial deformation experiment, where the objectives were to characterize laboratory AE sources and identify issues related to moving the analysis from ideal in situ conditions to more complex laboratory conditions in terms of the ability to conduct quantitative AE analysis. We found AE magnitudes in the range -7.8 < Mw < -6.7 and as with the in situ data, stress release was within the expected range of 0.1 - 10 MPa. We identified four major challenges to quantitative analysis in the laboratory, which in- hibited our ability to study parameter scaling (M0 ∝ fc -3 scaling). These challenges were 0c (1) limited knowledge of attenuation which we proved was continuously evolving, (2

  8. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Analysis of ERBB3/ERBB4 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Kris; Klammer, Martin; Jordan, Nicole; Elschenbroich, Sarah; Parade, Marc; Jacoby, Edgar; Linders, Joannes T. M.; Brehmer, Dirk; Cools, Jan; Daub, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The four members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ERBB) family form homo- and heterodimers which mediate ligand-specific regulation of many key cellular processes in normal and cancer tissues. While signaling through the EGFR has been extensively studied on the molecular level, signal transduction through ERBB3/ERBB4 heterodimers is less well understood. Here, we generated isogenic mouse Ba/F3 cells that express full-length and functional membrane-integrated ERBB3 and ERBB4 or ERBB4 alone, to serve as a defined cellular model for biological and phosphoproteomics analysis of ERBB3/ERBB4 signaling. ERBB3 co-expression significantly enhanced Ba/F3 cell proliferation upon neuregulin-1 (NRG1) treatment. For comprehensive signaling studies we performed quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) experiments to compare the basal ERBB3/ERBB4 cell phosphoproteome to NRG1 treatment of ERBB3/ERBB4 and ERBB4 cells. We employed a workflow comprising differential isotope labeling with mTRAQ reagents followed by chromatographic peptide separation and final phosphopeptide enrichment prior to MS analysis. Overall, we identified 9686 phosphorylation sites which could be confidently localized to specific residues. Statistical analysis of three replicate experiments revealed 492 phosphorylation sites which were significantly changed in NRG1-treated ERBB3/ERBB4 cells. Bioinformatics data analysis recapitulated regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt pathways, but also indicated signaling links to cytoskeletal functions and nuclear biology. Comparative assessment of NRG1-stimulated ERBB4 Ba/F3 cells revealed that ERBB3 did not trigger defined signaling pathways but more broadly enhanced phosphoproteome regulation in cells expressing both receptors. In conclusion, our data provide the first global picture of ERBB3/ERBB4 signaling and provide numerous potential starting points for further mechanistic studies. PMID:26745281

  9. Quantitative evaluation of midpalatal suture maturation via fractal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Yong-Deok

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether the results of fractal analysis can be used as criteria for midpalatal suture maturation evaluation. Methods The study included 131 subjects aged over 18 years of age (range 18.1–53.4 years) who underwent cone-beam computed tomography. Skeletonized images of the midpalatal suture were obtained via image processing software and used to calculate fractal dimensions. Correlations between maturation stage and fractal dimensions were calculated using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Optimal fractal dimension cut-off values were determined using a receiver operating characteristic curve. Results The distribution of maturation stages of the midpalatal suture according to the cervical vertebrae maturation index was highly variable, and there was a strong negative correlation between maturation stage and fractal dimension (−0.623, p < 0.001). Fractal dimension was a statistically significant indicator of dichotomous results with regard to maturation stage (area under curve = 0.794, p < 0.001). A test in which fractal dimension was used to predict the resulting variable that splits maturation stages into ABC and D or E yielded an optimal fractal dimension cut-off value of 1.0235. Conclusions There was a strong negative correlation between fractal dimension and midpalatal suture maturation. Fractal analysis is an objective quantitative method, and therefore we suggest that it may be useful for the evaluation of midpalatal suture maturation. PMID:27668195

  10. A quantitative risk analysis approach to port hydrocarbon logistics.

    PubMed

    Ronza, A; Carol, S; Espejo, V; Vílchez, J A; Arnaldos, J

    2006-01-16

    A method is presented that allows quantitative risk analysis to be performed on marine hydrocarbon terminals sited in ports. A significant gap was identified in the technical literature on QRA for the handling of hazardous materials in harbours published prior to this work. The analysis is extended to tanker navigation through port waters and loading and unloading facilities. The steps of the method are discussed, beginning with data collecting. As to accident scenario identification, an approach is proposed that takes into account minor and massive spills due to loading arm failures and tank rupture. Frequency estimation is thoroughly reviewed and a shortcut approach is proposed for frequency calculation. This allows for the two-fold possibility of a tanker colliding/grounding at/near the berth or while navigating to/from the berth. A number of probability data defining the possibility of a cargo spill after an external impact on a tanker are discussed. As to consequence and vulnerability estimates, a scheme is proposed for the use of ratios between the numbers of fatal victims, injured and evacuated people. Finally, an example application is given, based on a pilot study conducted in the Port of Barcelona, where the method was tested.

  11. Inside Single Cells: Quantitative Analysis with Advanced Optics and Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yi; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Single cell explorations offer a unique window to inspect molecules and events relevant to mechanisms and heterogeneity constituting the central dogma of biology. A large number of nucleic acids, proteins, metabolites and small molecules are involved in determining and fine-tuning the state and function of a single cell at a given time point. Advanced optical platforms and nanotools provide tremendous opportunities to probe intracellular components with single-molecule accuracy, as well as promising tools to adjust single cell activity. In order to obtain quantitative information (e.g. molecular quantity, kinetics and stoichiometry) within an intact cell, achieving the observation with comparable spatiotemporal resolution is a challenge. For single cell studies both the method of detection and the biocompatibility are critical factors as they determine the feasibility, especially when considering live cell analysis. Although a considerable proportion of single cell methodologies depend on specialized expertise and expensive instruments, it is our expectation that the information content and implication will outweigh the costs given the impact on life science enabled by single cell analysis. PMID:25430077

  12. Therapeutic electrical stimulation for spasticity: quantitative gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Pease, W S

    1998-01-01

    Improvement in motor function following electrical stimulation is related to strengthening of the stimulated spastic muscle and inhibition of the antagonist. A 26-year-old man with familial spastic paraparesis presented with gait dysfunction and bilateral lower limb spastic muscle tone. Clinically, muscle strength and sensation were normal. He was considered appropriate for a trial of therapeutic electrical stimulation following failed trials of physical therapy and baclofen. No other treatment was used concurrent with the electrical stimulation. Before treatment, quantitative gait analysis revealed 63% of normal velocity and a crouched gait pattern, associated with excessive electromyographic activity in the hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscles. Based on these findings, bilateral stimulation of the quadriceps and anterior compartment musculature was performed two to three times per week for three months. Repeat gait analysis was conducted three weeks after the cessation of stimulation treatment. A 27% increase in velocity was noted associated with an increase in both cadence and right step length. Right hip and bilateral knee stance motion returned to normal (rather than "crouched"). No change in the timing of dynamic electromyographic activity was seen. These findings suggest a role for the use of electrical stimulation for rehabilitation of spasticity. The specific mechanism of this improvement remains uncertain.

  13. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of Ovarian and Breast Cancer Tumor Peptidomes

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhe; Wu, Chaochao; Xie, Fang; Slysz, Gordon W.; Tolic, Nikola; Monroe, Matthew E.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Payne, Samuel H.; Fujimoto, Grant M.; Moore, Ronald J.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Levine, Douglas; Townsend, Reid; Davies, Sherri; Li, Shunqiang; Ellis, Matthew; Boja, Emily; Rivers, Robert; Rodriguez, Henry; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-01-02

    Aberrant degradation of proteins is associated with many pathological states, including cancers. Mass spectrometric analysis of tumor peptidomes, the intracellular and intercellular products of protein degradation, has the potential to provide biological insights on proteolytic processing in cancer. However, attempts to use the information on these smaller protein degradation products from tumors for biomarker discovery and cancer biology studies have been fairly limited to date, largely due to the lack of effective approaches for robust peptidomics identification and quantification, and the prevalence of confounding factors and biases associated with sample handling and processing. Herein, we have developed an effective and robust analytical platform for comprehensive analyses of tissue peptidomes, which is suitable for high throughput quantitative studies. The reproducibility and coverage of the platform, as well as the suitability of clinical ovarian tumor and patient-derived breast tumor xenograft samples with post-excision delay of up to 60 min before freezing for peptidomics analysis, have been demonstrated. Moreover, our data also show that the peptidomics profiles can effectively separate breast cancer subtypes, reflecting tumor-associated protease activities. Peptidomics complements results obtainable from conventional bottom-up proteomics, and provides insights not readily obtainable from such approaches.

  14. A Computational Tool for Quantitative Analysis of Vascular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zudaire, Enrique; Gambardella, Laure; Kurcz, Christopher; Vermeren, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the generation of mature vascular networks from pre-existing vessels. Angiogenesis is crucial during the organism' development, for wound healing and for the female reproductive cycle. Several murine experimental systems are well suited for studying developmental and pathological angiogenesis. They include the embryonic hindbrain, the post-natal retina and allantois explants. In these systems vascular networks are visualised by appropriate staining procedures followed by microscopical analysis. Nevertheless, quantitative assessment of angiogenesis is hampered by the lack of readily available, standardized metrics and software analysis tools. Non-automated protocols are being used widely and they are, in general, time - and labour intensive, prone to human error and do not permit computation of complex spatial metrics. We have developed a light-weight, user friendly software, AngioTool, which allows for quick, hands-off and reproducible quantification of vascular networks in microscopic images. AngioTool computes several morphological and spatial parameters including the area covered by a vascular network, the number of vessels, vessel length, vascular density and lacunarity. In addition, AngioTool calculates the so-called “branching index” (branch points / unit area), providing a measurement of the sprouting activity of a specimen of interest. We have validated AngioTool using images of embryonic murine hindbrains, post-natal retinas and allantois explants. AngioTool is open source and can be downloaded free of charge. PMID:22110636

  15. Quantitative analysis of triple-mutant genetic interactions.

    PubMed

    Braberg, Hannes; Alexander, Richard; Shales, Michael; Xu, Jiewei; Franks-Skiba, Kathleen E; Wu, Qiuqin; Haber, James E; Krogan, Nevan J

    2014-08-01

    The quantitative analysis of genetic interactions between pairs of gene mutations has proven to be effective for characterizing cellular functions, but it can miss important interactions for functionally redundant genes. To address this limitation, we have developed an approach termed triple-mutant analysis (TMA). The procedure relies on a query strain that contains two deletions in a pair of redundant or otherwise related genes, which is crossed against a panel of candidate deletion strains to isolate triple mutants and measure their growth. A central feature of TMA is to interrogate mutants that are synthetically sick when two other genes are deleted but interact minimally with either single deletion. This approach has been valuable for discovering genes that restore critical functions when the principal actors are deleted. TMA has also uncovered double-mutant combinations that produce severe defects because a third protein becomes deregulated and acts in a deleterious fashion, and it has revealed functional differences between proteins presumed to act together. The protocol is optimized for Singer ROTOR pinning robots, takes 3 weeks to complete and measures interactions for up to 30 double mutants against a library of 1,536 single mutants.

  16. Development of More Cost-Effective Methods for Long-Term Monitoring of Soil Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air Using Quantitative Passive Diffusive-Adsorptive Sampling Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    ER-200830) Development of More Cost-Effective Methods for Long-Term Monitoring of Soil Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air Using...Methods for Long-Term Monitoring of Soil Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air Using Quantitative Passive Diffusive-Adsorptive Sampling Techniques W912HQ-08-C...volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at sites with potential human health risks. These risks were attributable to subsurface vapor intrusion to indoor air by

  17. Applying Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Support Quantitative Safety Analysis for Proposed Reduced Wake Separation Conops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortle, John F.; Allocco, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a scenario-driven hazard analysis process to identify, eliminate, and control safety-related risks. Within this process, we develop selective criteria to determine the applicability of applying engineering modeling to hypothesized hazard scenarios. This provides a basis for evaluating and prioritizing the scenarios as candidates for further quantitative analysis. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for closely spaced parallel runways. For arrivals, the process identified 43 core hazard scenarios. Of these, we classified 12 as appropriate for further quantitative modeling, 24 that should be mitigated through controls, recommendations, and / or procedures (that is, scenarios not appropriate for quantitative modeling), and 7 that have the lowest priority for further analysis.

  18. BMEWS Capture and Analysis of Reflected Energy Clear Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BMEWS Capture and Analysis of Reflected Energy - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  19. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of atmospheric organosulfates in Centreville, Alabama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettiyadura, Anusha P. S.; Jayarathne, Thilina; Baumann, Karsten; Goldstein, Allen H.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Koss, Abigail; Keutsch, Frank N.; Skog, Kate; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Organosulfates are components of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) that form from oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sulfate. In this study, the composition and abundance of organosulfates were determined in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected from Centreville, AL, during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) in summer 2013. Six organosulfates were quantified using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (TQD) against authentic standards. Among these, the three most abundant species were glycolic acid sulfate (0.5-52.5 ng m-3), lactic acid sulfate (0.5-36.7 ng m-3), and hydroxyacetone sulfate (0.5-14.3 ng m-3). These three species were strongly inter-correlated, suggesting similar precursors and/or formation pathways. Further correlations with sulfate, isoprene, and isoprene oxidation products indicate important roles for these precursors in organosulfate formation in Centreville. Positive filter sampling artifacts associated with these organosulfates due to gas adsorption or reaction of gas phase precursors of organosulfates with sulfuric acid were assessed for a subset of samples and were less than 7.8 % of their PM2.5 concentrations. Together, the quantified organosulfates accounted for < 0.3 % of organic carbon mass in PM2.5. To gain insights into other organosulfates in PM2.5 collected from Centreville, semi-quantitative analysis was employed by way of monitoring characteristic product ions of organosulfates (HSO4- at m/z 97 and SO4- ṡ at m/z 96) and evaluating relative signal strength by HILIC-TQD. Molecular formulas of organosulfates were determined by high-resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. The major organosulfate signal across all samples corresponded to 2-methyltetrol sulfates, which accounted for 42-62 % of the total bisulfate ion signal. Conversely, glycolic acid sulfate, the most abundant organosulfate quantified in this study, was 0

  20. Evaluating the Quantitative Capabilities of Metagenomic Analysis Software.

    PubMed

    Kerepesi, Csaba; Grolmusz, Vince

    2016-05-01

    DNA sequencing technologies are applied widely and frequently today to describe metagenomes, i.e., microbial communities in environmental or clinical samples, without the need for culturing them. These technologies usually return short (100-300 base-pairs long) DNA reads, and these reads are processed by metagenomic analysis software that assign phylogenetic composition-information to the dataset. Here we evaluate three metagenomic analysis software (AmphoraNet--a webserver implementation of AMPHORA2--, MG-RAST, and MEGAN5) for their capabilities of assigning quantitative phylogenetic information for the data, describing the frequency of appearance of the microorganisms of the same taxa in the sample. The difficulties of the task arise from the fact that longer genomes produce more reads from the same organism than shorter genomes, and some software assign higher frequencies to species with longer genomes than to those with shorter ones. This phenomenon is called the "genome length bias." Dozens of complex artificial metagenome benchmarks can be found in the literature. Because of the complexity of those benchmarks, it is usually difficult to judge the resistance of a metagenomic software to this "genome length bias." Therefore, we have made a simple benchmark for the evaluation of the "taxon-counting" in a metagenomic sample: we have taken the same number of copies of three full bacterial genomes of different lengths, break them up randomly to short reads of average length of 150 bp, and mixed the reads, creating our simple benchmark. Because of its simplicity, the benchmark is not supposed to serve as a mock metagenome, but if a software fails on that simple task, it will surely fail on most real metagenomes. We applied three software for the benchmark. The ideal quantitative solution would assign the same proportion to the three bacterial taxa. We have found that AMPHORA2/AmphoraNet gave the most accurate results and the other two software were under

  1. The Measles Vaccination Narrative in Twitter: A Quantitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Radzikowski, Jacek; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Croitoru, Arie; Crooks, Andrew; Delamater, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    Background The emergence of social media is providing an alternative avenue for information exchange and opinion formation on health-related issues. Collective discourse in such media leads to the formation of a complex narrative, conveying public views and perceptions. Objective This paper presents a study of Twitter narrative regarding vaccination in the aftermath of the 2015 measles outbreak, both in terms of its cyber and physical characteristics. We aimed to contribute to the analysis of the data, as well as presenting a quantitative interdisciplinary approach to analyze such open-source data in the context of health narratives. Methods We collected 669,136 tweets referring to vaccination from February 1 to March 9, 2015. These tweets were analyzed to identify key terms, connections among such terms, retweet patterns, the structure of the narrative, and connections to the geographical space. Results The data analysis captures the anatomy of the themes and relations that make up the discussion about vaccination in Twitter. The results highlight the higher impact of stories contributed by news organizations compared to direct tweets by health organizations in communicating health-related information. They also capture the structure of the antivaccination narrative and its terms of reference. Analysis also revealed the relationship between community engagement in Twitter and state policies regarding child vaccination. Residents of Vermont and Oregon, the two states with the highest rates of non-medical exemption from school-entry vaccines nationwide, are leading the social media discussion in terms of participation. Conclusions The interdisciplinary study of health-related debates in social media across the cyber-physical debate nexus leads to a greater understanding of public concerns, views, and responses to health-related issues. Further coalescing such capabilities shows promise towards advancing health communication, thus supporting the design of more

  2. Quantitative texture analysis of talc in mantle hydrated mylonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez-Perez, J. M.; Gomez Barreiro, J.; Wenk, H. R.; Vogel, S. C.; Soda, Y.; Voltolini, M.; Martinez-Catalan, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    A quantitative texture analysis of talc-serpentinite mylonites developed in highly deformed ultramafic rocks from different orogenic contexts have been done with neutorn diffraction at HIPPO (Los Álamos National Laboratory). Mineral assemblage, metamorphic evolution and deformative fabric of these samples could be correlated with those verified along the shallow levels (<100km; <5GPa) of a subduction zone. The hydration of mantle (ultramafic) rocks at those levels it is likely to occur dynamically, with important implications on seismogenesis. Given the high anisotropy of the major phases in the samples (i.e. talc and antigorite) it is expected to influence seismic anisotropy of the whole system, in the presence of texture. However to date there was no data on the crystallographic preferred orientation of talc and examples of antigorite textures are very limited. We explore the contribution of talc texture to the seismic anisotropy of mantle hydrated mylonites. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by research project CGL2011-22728 of Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. JGB and JMBP are grateful to the Ramón y Cajal and FPI funding programs. Access to HIPPO (LANSCE) to conduct diffraction experiments is kindly acknowledged.

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Cellular Metabolic Dissipative, Self-Organized Structures

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Ildefonso Martínez

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important goals of the postgenomic era is understanding the metabolic dynamic processes and the functional structures generated by them. Extensive studies during the last three decades have shown that the dissipative self-organization of the functional enzymatic associations, the catalytic reactions produced during the metabolite channeling, the microcompartmentalization of these metabolic processes and the emergence of dissipative networks are the fundamental elements of the dynamical organization of cell metabolism. Here we present an overview of how mathematical models can be used to address the properties of dissipative metabolic structures at different organizational levels, both for individual enzymatic associations and for enzymatic networks. Recent analyses performed with dissipative metabolic networks have shown that unicellular organisms display a singular global enzymatic structure common to all living cellular organisms, which seems to be an intrinsic property of the functional metabolism as a whole. Mathematical models firmly based on experiments and their corresponding computational approaches are needed to fully grasp the molecular mechanisms of metabolic dynamical processes. They are necessary to enable the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the cellular catalytic reactions and also to help comprehend the conditions under which the structural dynamical phenomena and biological rhythms arise. Understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the metabolic dissipative structures is crucial for unraveling the dynamics of cellular life. PMID:20957111

  4. Separation and quantitative analysis of alkyl sulfate ethoxymers by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Morvan, Julien; Hubert-Roux, Marie; Agasse, Valérie; Cardinael, Pascal; Barbot, Florence; Decock, Gautier; Bouillon, Jean-Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Separation of alkyl sulfate ethoxymers is investigated on various high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) stationary phases: Acclaim C18 Surfactant, Surfactant C8, and Hypercarb. For a fixed alkyl chain length, ethoxymers are eluted in the order of increasing number of ethoxylated units on Acclaim C18 Surfactant, whereas a reversed elution order is observed on Surfactant C8 and Hypercarb. Moreover, on an Acclaim C18 Surfactant column, non-ethoxylated compounds are eluted in their ethoxymers distribution and the use of sodium acetate additive in mobile phase leads to a co-elution of ethoxymers. HPLC stationary phases dedicated to surfactants analysis are evaluated by means of the Tanaka test. Surfactant C8 presents a great silanol activity whereas Acclaim C18 Surfactant shows a high steric selectivity. For alkyl sulfates, linearity of the calibration curve and limits of detection and quantitation are evaluated. The amount of sodium laureth sulfate raw material found in commercial body product is in agreement with the specification of the manufacturer.

  5. Quantitative analysis of 3-OH oxylipins in fermentation yeast.

    PubMed

    Potter, Greg; Xia, Wei; Budge, Suzanne M; Speers, R Alex

    2017-02-01

    Despite the ubiquitous distribution of oxylipins in plants, animals, and microbes, and the application of numerous analytical techniques to study these molecules, 3-OH oxylipins have never been quantitatively assayed in yeasts. The formation of heptafluorobutyrate methyl ester derivatives and subsequent analysis with gas chromatography - negative chemical ionization - mass spectrometry allowed for the first determination of yeast 3-OH oxylipins. The concentration of 3-OH 10:0 (0.68-4.82 ng/mg dry cell mass) in the SMA strain of Saccharomyces pastorianus grown in laboratory-scale beverage fermentations was elevated relative to oxylipin concentrations in plant tissues and macroalgae. In fermenting yeasts, the onset of 3-OH oxylipin formation has been related to fermentation progression and flocculation initiation. When the SMA strain was grown in laboratory-scale fermentations, the maximal sugar consumption rate preceded the lowest concentration of 3-OH 10:0 by ∼4.5 h and a distinct increase in 3-OH 10:0 concentration by ∼16.5 h.

  6. Quantitative analysis of brain magnetic resonance imaging for hepatic encephalopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syh, Hon-Wei; Chu, Wei-Kom; Ong, Chin-Sing

    1992-06-01

    High intensity lesions around ventricles have recently been observed in T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance images for patients suffering hepatic encephalopathy. The exact etiology that causes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gray scale changes has not been totally understood. The objective of our study was to investigate, through quantitative means, (1) the amount of changes to brain white matter due to the disease process, and (2) the extent and distribution of these high intensity lesions, since it is believed that the abnormality may not be entirely limited to the white matter only. Eleven patients with proven haptic encephalopathy and three normal persons without any evidence of liver abnormality constituted our current data base. Trans-axial, sagittal, and coronal brain MRI were obtained on a 1.5 Tesla scanner. All processing was carried out on a microcomputer-based image analysis system in an off-line manner. Histograms were decomposed into regular brain tissues and lesions. Gray scale ranges coded as lesion were then brought back to original images to identify distribution of abnormality. Our results indicated the disease process involved pallidus, mesencephalon, and subthalamic regions.

  7. Quantitative SERS sensors for environmental analysis of naphthalene.

    PubMed

    Péron, O; Rinnert, E; Toury, T; Lamy de la Chapelle, M; Compère, C

    2011-03-07

    In the investigation of chemical pollutants, such as PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) at low concentration in aqueous medium, Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) stands for an alternative to the inherent low cross-section of normal Raman scattering. Indeed, SERS is a very sensitive spectroscopic technique due to the excitation of the surface plasmon modes of the nanostructured metallic film. The surface of quartz substrates was coated with a hydrophobic film obtained by silanization and subsequently reacted with polystyrene (PS) beads coated with gold nanoparticles. The hydrophobic surface of the SERS substrates pre-concentrates non-polar molecules such as naphthalene. Under laser excitation, the SERS-active substrates allow the detection and the identification of the target molecules localized close to the gold nanoparticles. The morphology of the SERS substrates based on polystyrene beads surrounded by gold nanoparticles was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the Raman fingerprint of the polystyrene stands for an internal spectral reference. To this extent, an innovative method to detect and to quantify organic molecules, as naphthalene in the range of 1 to 20 ppm, in aqueous media was carried out. Such SERS-active substrates tend towards an application as quantitative SERS sensors for the environmental analysis of naphthalene.

  8. Quantitative Financial Analysis of Alternative Energy Efficiency Shareholder Incentive Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2008-08-03

    Rising energy prices and climate change are central issues in the debate about our nation's energy policy. Many are demanding increased energy efficiency as a way to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower the total cost of electricity and energy services for consumers and businesses. Yet, as the National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency (NAPEE) pointed out, many utilities continue to shy away from seriously expanding their energy efficiency program offerings because they claim there is insufficient profit-motivation, or even a financial disincentive, when compared to supply-side investments. With the recent introduction of Duke Energy's Save-a-Watt incentive mechanism and ongoing discussions about decoupling, regulators and policymakers are now faced with an expanded and diverse landscape of financial incentive mechanisms, Determining the 'right' way forward to promote deep and sustainable demand side resource programs is challenging. Due to the renaissance that energy efficiency is currently experiencing, many want to better understand the tradeoffs in stakeholder benefits between these alternative incentive structures before aggressively embarking on a path for which course corrections can be time-consuming and costly. Using a prototypical Southwest utility and a publicly available financial model, we show how various stakeholders (e.g. shareholders, ratepayers, etc.) are affected by these different types of shareholder incentive mechanisms under varying assumptions about program portfolios. This quantitative analysis compares the financial consequences associated with a wide range of alternative incentive structures. The results will help regulators and policymakers better understand the financial implications of DSR program incentive regulation.

  9. Quantitative analysis of plasma interleiukin-6 by immunoassay on microchip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Hashimoto, Y.; Yatsushiro, S.; Yamamura, S.; Tanaka, M.; Ooie, T.; Baba, Y.; Kataoka, M.

    2012-03-01

    Sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) is one of the most frequently employed assays for clinical diagnosis, since this enables the investigator to identify specific protein biomarkers. However, the conventional assay using a 96-well microtitration plate is time- and sample-consuming, and therefore is not suitable for rapid diagnosis. To overcome these drawbacks, we performed a sandwich ELISA on a microchip. We employed the piezoelectric inkjet printing for deposition and fixation of 1st antibody on the microchannnel surface (300 μm width and 100 μm depth). Model analyte was interleukin-6 (IL-6) which was one of the inflammatory cytokine. After blocking the microchannel, antigen, biotin-labeled 2nd antibody, and avidin-labeled peroxidase were infused into the microchannel and incubated for 20 min, 10 min, and 5 min, respectively. This assay could detect 2 pg/ml and quantitatively measure the range of 0-32 pg/ml. Liner regression analysis of plasma IL-6 concentration obtained by microchip and conventional methods exhibited a significant relationship (R2 = 0.9964). This assay reduced the time for the antigen-antibody reaction to 1/6, and the consumption of samples and reagents to 1/50 compared with the conventional method. This assay enables us to determine plasma IL-6 with accuracy, high sensitivity, time saving ability, and low consumption of sample and reagents, and thus will be applicable to clinic diagnosis.

  10. Quantitative produced water analysis using mobile 1H NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Lisabeth; Kalli, Chris; Fridjonsson, Einar O.; May, Eric F.; Stanwix, Paul L.; Graham, Brendan F.; Carroll, Matthew R. J.; Johns, Michael L.

    2016-10-01

    Measurement of oil contamination of produced water is required in the oil and gas industry to the (ppm) level prior to discharge in order to meet typical environmental legislative requirements. Here we present the use of compact, mobile 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, in combination with solid phase extraction (SPE), to meet this metrology need. The NMR hardware employed featured a sufficiently homogeneous magnetic field, such that chemical shift differences could be used to unambiguously differentiate, and hence quantitatively detect, the required oil and solvent NMR signals. A solvent system consisting of 1% v/v chloroform in tetrachloroethylene was deployed, this provided a comparable 1H NMR signal intensity for the oil and the solvent (chloroform) and hence an internal reference 1H signal from the chloroform resulting in the measurement being effectively self-calibrating. The measurement process was applied to water contaminated with hexane or crude oil over the range 1-30 ppm. The results were validated against known solubility limits as well as infrared analysis and gas chromatography.

  11. Quantitative analysis of dynamic association in live biological fluorescent samples.

    PubMed

    Ruusuvuori, Pekka; Paavolainen, Lassi; Rutanen, Kalle; Mäki, Anita; Huttunen, Heikki; Marjomäki, Varpu

    2014-01-01

    Determining vesicle localization and association in live microscopy may be challenging due to non-simultaneous imaging of rapidly moving objects with two excitation channels. Besides errors due to movement of objects, imaging may also introduce shifting between the image channels, and traditional colocalization methods cannot handle such situations. Our approach to quantifying the association between tagged proteins is to use an object-based method where the exact match of object locations is not assumed. Point-pattern matching provides a measure of correspondence between two point-sets under various changes between the sets. Thus, it can be used for robust quantitative analysis of vesicle association between image channels. Results for a large set of synthetic images shows that the novel association method based on point-pattern matching demonstrates robust capability to detect association of closely located vesicles in live cell-microscopy where traditional colocalization methods fail to produce results. In addition, the method outperforms compared Iterated Closest Points registration method. Results for fixed and live experimental data shows the association method to perform comparably to traditional methods in colocalization studies for fixed cells and to perform favorably in association studies for live cells.

  12. High throughput, quantitative analysis of human osteoclast differentiation and activity.

    PubMed

    Diepenhorst, Natalie A; Nowell, Cameron J; Rueda, Patricia; Henriksen, Kim; Pierce, Tracie; Cook, Anna E; Pastoureau, Philippe; Sabatini, Massimo; Charman, William N; Christopoulos, Arthur; Summers, Roger J; Sexton, Patrick M; Langmead, Christopher J

    2017-02-15

    Osteoclasts are multinuclear cells that degrade bone under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Osteoclasts are therefore a major target of osteoporosis therapeutics aimed at preserving bone. Consequently, analytical methods for osteoclast activity are useful for the development of novel biomarkers and/or pharmacological agents for the treatment of osteoporosis. The nucleation state of an osteoclast is indicative of its maturation and activity. To date, activity is routinely measured at the population level with only approximate consideration of the nucleation state (an 'osteoclast population' is typically defined as cells with ≥3 nuclei). Using a fluorescent substrate for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), a routinely used marker of osteoclast activity, we developed a multi-labelled imaging method for quantitative measurement of osteoclast TRAP activity at the single cell level. Automated image analysis enables interrogation of large osteoclast populations in a high throughput manner using open source software. Using this methodology, we investigated the effects of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANK-L) on osteoclast maturation and activity and demonstrated that TRAP activity directly correlates with osteoclast maturity (i.e. nuclei number). This method can be applied to high throughput screening of osteoclast-targeting compounds to determine changes in maturation and activity.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Intracellular Fluorescent Foci in Live Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Moolman, M. Charl; Kerssemakers, Jacob W.J.; Dekker, Nynke H.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy has revolutionized in vivo cellular biology. Through the specific labeling of a protein of interest with a fluorescent protein, one is able to study movement and colocalization, and even count individual proteins in a live cell. Different algorithms exist to quantify the total intensity and position of a fluorescent focus. Although these algorithms have been rigorously studied for in vitro conditions, which are greatly different than the in-homogenous and variable cellular environments, their exact limits and applicability in the context of a live cell have not been thoroughly and systematically evaluated. In this study, we quantitatively characterize the influence of different background subtraction algorithms on several focus analysis algorithms. We use, to our knowledge, a novel approach to assess the sensitivity of the focus analysis algorithms to background removal, in which simulated and experimental data are combined to maintain full control over the sensitivity of a focus within a realistic background of cellular fluorescence. We demonstrate that the choice of algorithm and the corresponding error are dependent on both the brightness of the focus, and the cellular context. Expectedly, focus intensity estimation and localization accuracy suffer in all algorithms at low focus to background ratios, with the bacteroidal background subtraction in combination with the median excess algorithm, and the region of interest background subtraction in combination with a two-dimensional Gaussian fit algorithm, performing the best. We furthermore show that the choice of background subtraction algorithm is dependent on the expression level of the protein under investigation, and that the localization error is dependent on the distance of a focus from the bacterial edge and pole. Our results establish a set of guidelines for what signals can be analyzed to give a targeted spatial and intensity accuracy within a bacterial cell. PMID:26331246

  14. Communication about vaccinations in Italian websites: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Tafuri, Silvio; Gallone, Maria S; Gallone, Maria F; Zorico, Ivan; Aiello, Valeria; Germinario, Cinzia

    2014-01-01

    Babies' parents and people who look for information about vaccination often visit anti-vaccine movement's websites, blogs by naturopathic physicians or natural and alternative medicine practitioners. The aim of this work is to provide a quantitative analysis on the type of information available to Italian people regarding vaccination and a quality analysis of websites retrieved through our searches. A quality score was created to evaluate the technical level of websites. A research was performed through Yahoo, Google, and MSN using the keywords "vaccine" and "vaccination," with the function "OR" in order to identify the most frequently used websites. The 2 keywords were input in Italian, and the first 15 pages retrieved by each search engine were analyzed. 149 websites were selected through this methodology. Fifty-three per cent of the websites belonged to associations, groups, or scientific companies, 32.2% (n = 48) consisted of a personal blog and 14.8% (n = 22) belonged to some of the National Health System offices. Among all analyzed websites, 15.4% (n = 23) came from anti-vaccine movement groups. 37.6% reported webmaster name, 67.8% webmaster e-mail, 28.6% indicated the date of the last update and 46.6% the author's name. The quality score for government sites was higher on average than anti-vaccine websites; although, government sites don't use Web 2.0 functions, as the forums.: National Health System institutions who have to promote vaccination cannot avoid investing in web communication because it cannot be managed by private efforts but must be the result of Public Health, private and scientific association, and social movement synergy.

  15. Task analysis of Air Force pharmacy practice.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, A; Sawyer, W T; Coats, L

    1995-01-15

    The frequency with which United States Air Force pharmacists perform specific professional tasks and the pharmacists' views as to the importance of those tasks were studied. A questionnaire was prepared that asked recipients to rate each of 36 tasks selected as representing the spectrum of practice activities. There were four categories of tasks: managerial tasks, dispensing tasks, drug information tasks, and patient care tasks. Recipients rated the tasks with respect to frequency of performance and importance on separate 6-point scales. The questionnaire was mailed in May 1991 to the 225 pharmacists then serving in the Air Force worldwide. Of the 225 questionnaires, 150 usable questionnaires were returned (response rate, 67%). All the tasks in the survey were performed by at least one Air Force pharmacy officer, although the frequency of task performance varied. In particular, the frequency of many patient care tasks was low. All the tasks were perceived to have some importance, but drug information tasks were rated as being significantly more important than tasks in the other categories; patient care tasks were rated lowest in importance. The results varied with the respondents' demographic characteristics. Pharmacy officers with more years of service, more senior positions, higher rank, or an advanced degree in a field other than pharmacy tended to give responses that diverged from those of the population. A 1991 survey showed an awareness among Air Force pharmacists of the need to orient practice around patient care; however, they were not spending substantial time on patient care and tended to view it as less important than more traditional pharmacy tasks.

  16. Quantitative XPS analysis of silica-supported Cu Co oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesar, Deborah V.; Peréz, Carlos A.; Schmal, Martin; Salim, Vera Maria M.

    2000-04-01

    Copper-cobalt oxides with Cu/Co=5:5, 15:15 and 35:35 bulk ratio have been prepared by deposition-precipitation method at constant pH from copper and cobalt nitrate solutions. Different oxides were obtained by decomposition of the precursors at 673 K for 7 h in air and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD data showed the formation of different oxide phases; for the bulk atomic ratio of 15Cu:15Co, a phase containing Cu and Co with spinel-like structure was observed, while the other bimetallic oxides presented CuO and Co 3O 4 as distinct phases. The XPS qualitative analysis has shown that all samples exhibited Cu 2+ and Co 3+ species at the surface. The Cu-Co spinel presented a displacement in Cu 2p binding energy value. A mathematical model was proposed from relative intensity ratios, which allowed the determination of the oxide particle thickness and the fraction of coverage at the support. This model described accurately the system and showed that cobalt improved the copper dispersion.

  17. Software for quantitative analysis of radiotherapy: overview, requirement analysis and design solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lanlan; Hub, Martina; Mang, Sarah; Thieke, Christian; Nix, Oliver; Karger, Christian P; Floca, Ralf O

    2013-06-01

    Radiotherapy is a fast-developing discipline which plays a major role in cancer care. Quantitative analysis of radiotherapy data can improve the success of the treatment and support the prediction of outcome. In this paper, we first identify functional, conceptional and general requirements on a software system for quantitative analysis of radiotherapy. Further we present an overview of existing radiotherapy analysis software tools and check them against the stated requirements. As none of them could meet all of the demands presented herein, we analyzed possible conceptional problems and present software design solutions and recommendations to meet the stated requirements (e.g. algorithmic decoupling via dose iterator pattern; analysis database design). As a proof of concept we developed a software library "RTToolbox" following the presented design principles. The RTToolbox is available as open source library and has already been tested in a larger-scale software system for different use cases. These examples demonstrate the benefit of the presented design principles.

  18. Air-to-air combat analysis - Review of differential-gaming approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of evaluating the combat performance of fighter/attack aircraft is discussed, and the mathematical nature of the problem is examined. The following approaches to air combat analysis are reviewed: (1) differential-turning differential game and (2) coplanar differential game. Selected numerical examples of these approaches are presented. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each are analyzed, and it is concluded that air combat analysis is an extremely difficult mathematical problem and that no one method of approach is best for all purposes. The paper concludes with a discussion of how the two approaches might be used in a complementary manner.

  19. Column precipitation chromatography: an approach to quantitative analysis of eigencolloids.

    PubMed

    Breynaert, E; Maes, A

    2005-08-01

    A new column precipitation chromatography (CPC) technique, capable of quantitatively measuring technetium eigencolloids in aqueous solutions, is presented. The CPC technique is based on the destabilization and precipitation of eigencolloids by polycations in a confined matrix. Tc(IV) colloids can be quantitatively determined from their precipitation onto the CPC column (separation step) and their subsequent elution upon oxidation to pertechnetate by peroxide (elution step). A clean-bed particle removal model was used to explain the experimental results.

  20. Quantitative analysis of harmonic convergence in mosquito auditory interactions.

    PubMed

    Aldersley, Andrew; Champneys, Alan; Homer, Martin; Robert, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    This article analyses the hearing and behaviour of mosquitoes in the context of inter-individual acoustic interactions. The acoustic interactions of tethered live pairs of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, from same and opposite sex mosquitoes of the species, are recorded on independent and unique audio channels, together with the response of tethered individual mosquitoes to playbacks of pre-recorded flight tones of lone or paired individuals. A time-dependent representation of each mosquito's non-stationary wing beat frequency signature is constructed, based on Hilbert spectral analysis. A range of algorithmic tools is developed to automatically analyse these data, and used to perform a robust quantitative identification of the 'harmonic convergence' phenomenon. The results suggest that harmonic convergence is an active phenomenon, which does not occur by chance. It occurs for live pairs, as well as for lone individuals responding to playback recordings, whether from the same or opposite sex. Male-female behaviour is dominated by frequency convergence at a wider range of harmonic combinations than previously reported, and requires participation from both partners in the duet. New evidence is found to show that male-male interactions are more varied than strict frequency avoidance. Rather, they can be divided into two groups: convergent pairs, typified by tightly bound wing beat frequencies, and divergent pairs, that remain widely spaced in the frequency domain. Overall, the results reveal that mosquito acoustic interaction is a delicate and intricate time-dependent active process that involves both individuals, takes place at many different frequencies, and which merits further enquiry.

  1. Quantitative analysis of harmonic convergence in mosquito auditory interactions

    PubMed Central

    Aldersley, Andrew; Champneys, Alan; Robert, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the hearing and behaviour of mosquitoes in the context of inter-individual acoustic interactions. The acoustic interactions of tethered live pairs of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, from same and opposite sex mosquitoes of the species, are recorded on independent and unique audio channels, together with the response of tethered individual mosquitoes to playbacks of pre-recorded flight tones of lone or paired individuals. A time-dependent representation of each mosquito's non-stationary wing beat frequency signature is constructed, based on Hilbert spectral analysis. A range of algorithmic tools is developed to automatically analyse these data, and used to perform a robust quantitative identification of the ‘harmonic convergence’ phenomenon. The results suggest that harmonic convergence is an active phenomenon, which does not occur by chance. It occurs for live pairs, as well as for lone individuals responding to playback recordings, whether from the same or opposite sex. Male–female behaviour is dominated by frequency convergence at a wider range of harmonic combinations than previously reported, and requires participation from both partners in the duet. New evidence is found to show that male–male interactions are more varied than strict frequency avoidance. Rather, they can be divided into two groups: convergent pairs, typified by tightly bound wing beat frequencies, and divergent pairs, that remain widely spaced in the frequency domain. Overall, the results reveal that mosquito acoustic interaction is a delicate and intricate time-dependent active process that involves both individuals, takes place at many different frequencies, and which merits further enquiry. PMID:27053654

  2. Quantitative analysis of flavanones and chalcones from willow bark.

    PubMed

    Freischmidt, A; Untergehrer, M; Ziegler, J; Knuth, S; Okpanyi, S; Müller, J; Kelber, O; Weiser, D; Jürgenliemk, G

    2015-09-01

    Willow bark extracts are used for the treatment of fever, pain and inflammation. Recent clinical and pharmacological research revealed that not only the salicylic alcohol derivatives, but also the polyphenols significantly contribute to these effects. Quantitative analysis of the European Pharmacopoeia still focuses on the determination of the salicylic alcohol derivatives. The objective of the present study was the development of an effective quantification method for the determination of as many flavanone and chalcone glycosides as possible in Salix purpurea and other Salix species as well as commercial preparations thereof. As Salix species contain a diverse spectrum of the glycosidated flavanones naringenin, eriodictyol, and the chalcone chalconaringenin, a subsequent acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis was developed to yield naringenin and eriodictyol as aglycones, which were quantified by HPLC. The 5-O-glucosides were cleaved with 11.5% TFA before subsequent hydrolysis of the 7-O-glucosides with an almond β-glucosidase at pH 6-7. The method was validated with regard to LOD, LOQ, intraday and interday precision, accuracy, stability, recovery, time of hydrolysis, robustness and applicability to extracts. All 5-O- and 7-O-glucosides of naringenin, eriodictyol and chalconaringenin were completely hydrolysed and converted to naringenin and eriodictyol. The LOD of the HPLC method was 0.77 μM of naringenin and 0.45 μM of eriodictyol. The LOQ was 2.34 μM of naringenin and 1.35 μM for eriodictyol. The method is robust with regard to sample weight, but susceptible concerning enzyme deterioration. The developed method is applicable to the determination of flavanone and chalcone glycosides in willow bark and corresponding preparations.

  3. Hydrocarbons on Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion: Quantitative Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; MoreauDalleOre, Cristina; Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Clark, Roger Nelson

    2012-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the hydrocarbon spectral bands measured on three of Saturn's satellites, Phoebe, Iaperus, and Hyperion. These bands, measured with the Cassini Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on close fly-by's of these satellites, are the C-H stretching modes of aromatic hydrocarbons at approximately 3.28 micrometers (approximately 3050 per centimeter), and the are four blended bands of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3 in the range approximately 3.36-3.52 micrometers (approximately 2980- 2840 per centimeter) bably indicating the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), is unusually strong in comparison to the aliphatic bands, resulting in a unique signarure among Solar System bodies measured so far, and as such offers a means of comparison among the three satellites. The ratio of the C-H bands in aromatic molecules to those in aliphatic molecules in the surface materials of Phoebe, NAro:NAliph approximately 24; for Hyperion the value is approximately 12, while laperus shows an intermediate value. In view of the trend of the evolution (dehydrogenation by heat and radiation) of aliphatic complexes toward more compact molecules and eventually to aromatics, the relative abundances of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3- is an indication of the lengths of the molecular chain structures, hence the degree of modification of the original material. We derive CH2:CH3 approximately 2.2 in the spectrum of low-albedo material on laperus; this value is the same within measurement errors to the ratio in the diffuse interstellar medium. The similarity in the spectral signatures of the three satellites, plus the apparent weak trend of aromatic/aliphatic abundance from Phoebe to Hyperion, is consistent with, and effectively confirms that the source of the hydrocarbon-bearing material is Phoebe, and that the appearance of that material on the other two satellites arises from the deposition of the inward-spiraling dust that populates the Phoebe ring.

  4. Quantitative Analysis of the Effective Functional Structure in Yeast Glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    De la Fuente, Ildefonso M.; Cortes, Jesus M.

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of the effective functionality that governs the enzymatic self-organized processes in cellular conditions is a crucial topic in the post-genomic era. In recent studies, Transfer Entropy has been proposed as a rigorous, robust and self-consistent method for the causal quantification of the functional information flow among nonlinear processes. Here, in order to quantify the functional connectivity for the glycolytic enzymes in dissipative conditions we have analyzed different catalytic patterns using the technique of Transfer Entropy. The data were obtained by means of a yeast glycolytic model formed by three delay differential equations where the enzymatic rate equations of the irreversible stages have been explicitly considered. These enzymatic activity functions were previously modeled and tested experimentally by other different groups. The results show the emergence of a new kind of dynamical functional structure, characterized by changing connectivity flows and a metabolic invariant that constrains the activity of the irreversible enzymes. In addition to the classical topological structure characterized by the specific location of enzymes, substrates, products and feedback-regulatory metabolites, an effective functional structure emerges in the modeled glycolytic system, which is dynamical and characterized by notable variations of the functional interactions. The dynamical structure also exhibits a metabolic invariant which constrains the functional attributes of the enzymes. Finally, in accordance with the classical biochemical studies, our numerical analysis reveals in a quantitative manner that the enzyme phosphofructokinase is the key-core of the metabolic system, behaving for all conditions as the main source of the effective causal flows in yeast glycolysis. PMID:22393350

  5. Indoor air quality analysis based on Hadoop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuo, Wang; Yunhua, Sun; Song, Tian; Liang, Yu; Weihong, Cui

    2014-03-01

    The air of the office environment is our research object. The data of temperature, humidity, concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and ammonia are collected peer one to eight seconds by the sensor monitoring system. And all the data are stored in the Hbase database of Hadoop platform. With the help of HBase feature of column-oriented store and versioned (automatically add the time column), the time-series data sets are bulit based on the primary key Row-key and timestamp. The parallel computing programming model MapReduce is used to process millions of data collected by sensors. By analysing the changing trend of parameters' value at different time of the same day and at the same time of various dates, the impact of human factor and other factors on the room microenvironment is achieved according to the liquidity of the office staff. Moreover, the effective way to improve indoor air quality is proposed in the end of this paper.

  6. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K. A. Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S.; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Median salivary concentrations of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4–5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL). High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP). The combination of the four bacteria, i.e., the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39–4.13). When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51–4.52). The highest OR 3.59 (95% CI 1.94–6.63) was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and

  7. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K A Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Median salivary concentrations of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4-5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL). High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP). The combination of the four bacteria, i.e., the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39-4.13). When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51-4.52). The highest OR 3.59 (95% CI 1.94-6.63) was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and T

  8. Using Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Choose a Habitat Quality Metric for Air Pollution Policy Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Adriana E. S.; Smart, Simon M.; Henrys, Peter A.; Ashmore, Mike R.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has had detrimental effects on species composition in a range of sensitive habitats, although N deposition can also increase agricultural productivity and carbon storage, and favours a few species considered of importance for conservation. Conservation targets are multiple, and increasingly incorporate services derived from nature as well as concepts of intrinsic value. Priorities vary. How then should changes in a set of species caused by drivers such as N deposition be assessed? We used a novel combination of qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative ranking to elucidate the views of conservation professionals specialising in grasslands, heathlands and mires. Although conservation management goals are varied, terrestrial habitat quality is mainly assessed by these specialists on the basis of plant species, since these are readily observed. The presence and abundance of plant species that are scarce, or have important functional roles, emerged as important criteria for judging overall habitat quality. However, species defined as ‘positive indicator-species’ (not particularly scarce, but distinctive for the habitat) were considered particularly important. Scarce species are by definition not always found, and the presence of functionally important species is not a sufficient indicator of site quality. Habitat quality as assessed by the key informants was rank-correlated with the number of positive indicator-species present at a site for seven of the nine habitat classes assessed. Other metrics such as species-richness or a metric of scarcity were inconsistently or not correlated with the specialists’ assessments. We recommend that metrics of habitat quality used to assess N pollution impacts are based on the occurrence of, or habitat-suitability for, distinctive species. Metrics of this type are likely to be widely applicable for assessing habitat change in response to different drivers. The novel combined

  9. Using Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Choose a Habitat Quality Metric for Air Pollution Policy Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Edwin C; Ford, Adriana E S; Smart, Simon M; Henrys, Peter A; Ashmore, Mike R

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has had detrimental effects on species composition in a range of sensitive habitats, although N deposition can also increase agricultural productivity and carbon storage, and favours a few species considered of importance for conservation. Conservation targets are multiple, and increasingly incorporate services derived from nature as well as concepts of intrinsic value. Priorities vary. How then should changes in a set of species caused by drivers such as N deposition be assessed? We used a novel combination of qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative ranking to elucidate the views of conservation professionals specialising in grasslands, heathlands and mires. Although conservation management goals are varied, terrestrial habitat quality is mainly assessed by these specialists on the basis of plant species, since these are readily observed. The presence and abundance of plant species that are scarce, or have important functional roles, emerged as important criteria for judging overall habitat quality. However, species defined as 'positive indicator-species' (not particularly scarce, but distinctive for the habitat) were considered particularly important. Scarce species are by definition not always found, and the presence of functionally important species is not a sufficient indicator of site quality. Habitat quality as assessed by the key informants was rank-correlated with the number of positive indicator-species present at a site for seven of the nine habitat classes assessed. Other metrics such as species-richness or a metric of scarcity were inconsistently or not correlated with the specialists' assessments. We recommend that metrics of habitat quality used to assess N pollution impacts are based on the occurrence of, or habitat-suitability for, distinctive species. Metrics of this type are likely to be widely applicable for assessing habitat change in response to different drivers. The novel combined

  10. A Quantitative Analysis of the Behavioral Checklist of the Movement ABC Motor Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Luis Miguel; Gomez, Marta; Graupera, Jose Luis; Gutierrez, Melchor; Linaza, Jose Luis

    2007-01-01

    The fifth section of the Henderson and Sugden's Movement ABC Checklist is part of the general Checklist that accompanies The Movement ABC Battery. The authors maintain that the analysis of this section must be mainly qualitative instead of quantitative. The main objective of this study was to employ a quantitative analysis of this behavioural…

  11. Quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance for the structural and quantitative analysis of atropine sulfate.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shi; Yao, Jing; Shi, Yaqin

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed a general method of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) for the calibration of atropine sulfate (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient, API) as reference standard. The spectra were acquired in D2O using maleic acid as the internal standard. Conformational behaviors of tropane ring were observed and studied by means of NMR and ROESY experiments at different temperature, which showed that the azine methyl group was at equilibrium for axial and equatorial conformations at room temperature. Signal delay and monitor signals of qNMR experimentation were optimized for quantification. The study reported here validated the method's linearity, range, limit of quantification, stability and precision. The results were consistent with the results obtained from mass balance approach.

  12. Quantitative Analysis by Isotopic Dilution Using Mass Spectroscopy: The Determination of Caffeine by GC-MS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Devon W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a laboratory technique for quantitative analysis of caffeine by an isotopic dilution method for coupled gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Discusses caffeine analysis and experimental methodology. Lists sample caffeine concentrations found in common products. (MVL)

  13. Microchromatography of hemoglobins. VIII. A general qualitative and quantitative method in plastic drinking straws and the quantitative analysis of Hb-F.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, W A; Pace, L A

    1978-03-01

    The microchromatographic procedure for the quantitative analysis of the hemoglobin components in a hemolysate uses columns of DEAE-cellulose in a plastic drinking straw with a glycine-KCN-NaCl developer. Not only may the method be used for the quantitative analysis of Hb-F but also for the analysis of the varied components in mixtures of hemoglobins.

  14. Geographical classification of Epimedium based on HPLC fingerprint analysis combined with multi-ingredients quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Zhou, Guofu; Li, Xiaojuan; Lu, Heng; Meng, Fanyun; Zhai, Huaqiang

    2017-05-01

    A reliable and comprehensive method for identifying the origin and assessing the quality of Epimedium has been developed. The method is based on analysis of HPLC fingerprints, combined with similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and multi-ingredient quantitative analysis. Nineteen batches of Epimedium, collected from different areas in the western regions of China, were used to establish the fingerprints and 18 peaks were selected for the analysis. Similarity analysis, HCA and PCA all classified the 19 areas into three groups. Simultaneous quantification of the five major bioactive ingredients in the Epimedium samples was also carried out to confirm the consistency of the quality tests. These methods were successfully used to identify the geographical origin of the Epimedium samples and to evaluate their quality.

  15. Tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence measurement technique for quantitative fuel/air-ratio measurements in a hydrogen internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Blotevogel, Thomas; Hartmann, Matthias; Rottengruber, Hermann; Leipertz, Alfred

    2008-12-10

    A measurement technique for the quantitative investigation of mixture formation processes in hydrogen internal combustion engines (ICEs) has been developed using tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence (TLIF). This technique can be employed to fired and motored engine operation. The quantitative TLIF fuel/air-ratio results have been verified by means of linear Raman scattering measurements. Exemplary results of the simultaneous investigation of mixture formation and combustion obtained at an optical accessible hydrogen ICE are shown.

  16. The next generation of low-cost personal air quality sensors for quantitative exposure monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piedrahita, R.; Xiang, Y.; Masson, N.; Ortega, J.; Collier, A.; Jiang, Y.; Li, K.; Dick, R.; Lv, Q.; Hannigan, M.; Shang, L.

    2014-03-01

    Advances in embedded systems and low-cost gas sensors are enabling a new wave of low cost air quality monitoring tools. Our team has been engaged in the development of low-cost wearable air quality monitors (M-Pods) using the Arduino platform. The M-Pods use commercially available metal oxide semiconductor (MOx) sensors to measure CO, O3, NO2, and total VOCs, and NDIR sensors to measure CO2. MOx sensors are low in cost and show high sensitivity near ambient levels; however they display non-linear output signals and have cross sensitivity effects. Thus, a quantification system was developed to convert the MOx sensor signals into concentrations. Two deployments were conducted at a regulatory monitoring station in Denver, Colorado. M-Pod concentrations were determined using laboratory calibration techniques and co-location calibrations, in which we place the M-Pods near regulatory monitors to then derive calibration function coefficients using the regulatory monitors as the standard. The form of the calibration function was derived based on laboratory experiments. We discuss various techniques used to estimate measurement uncertainties. A separate user study was also conducted to assess personal exposure and M-Pod reliability. In this study, 10 M-Pods were calibrated via co-location multiple times over 4 weeks and sensor drift was analyzed with the result being a calibration function that included drift. We found that co-location calibrations perform better than laboratory calibrations. Lab calibrations suffer from bias and difficulty in covering the necessary parameter space. During co-location calibrations, median standard errors ranged between 4.0-6.1 ppb for O3, 6.4-8.4 ppb for NO2, 0.28-0.44 ppm for CO, and 16.8 ppm for CO2. Median signal to noise (S/N) ratios for the M-Pod sensors were higher for M-Pods than the regulatory instruments: for NO2, 3.6 compared to 23.4; for O3, 1.4 compared to 1.6; for CO, 1.1 compared to 10.0; and for CO2, 42.2 compared to 300

  17. Quantitative analysis of autophagy using advanced 3D fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Changou, Chun A; Wolfson, Deanna L; Ahluwalia, Balpreet Singh; Bold, Richard J; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Chuang, Frank Y S

    2013-05-03

    Prostate cancer is the leading form of malignancies among men in the U.S. While surgery carries a significant risk of impotence and incontinence, traditional chemotherapeutic approaches have been largely unsuccessful. Hormone therapy is effective at early stage, but often fails with the eventual development of hormone-refractory tumors. We have been interested in developing therapeutics targeting specific metabolic deficiency of tumor cells. We recently showed that prostate tumor cells specifically lack an enzyme (argininosuccinate synthase, or ASS) involved in the synthesis of the amino acid arginine(1). This condition causes the tumor cells to become dependent on exogenous arginine, and they undergo metabolic stress when free arginine is depleted by arginine deiminase (ADI)(1,10). Indeed, we have shown that human prostate cancer cells CWR22Rv1 are effectively killed by ADI with caspase-independent apoptosis and aggressive autophagy (or macroautophagy)(1,2,3). Autophagy is an evolutionarily-conserved process that allows cells to metabolize unwanted proteins by lysosomal breakdown during nutritional starvation(4,5). Although the essential components of this pathway are well-characterized(6,7,8,9), many aspects of the molecular mechanism are still unclear - in particular, what is the role of autophagy in the death-response of prostate cancer cells after ADI treatment? In order to address this question, we required an experimental method to measure the level and extent of autophagic response in cells - and since there are no known molecular markers that can accurately track this process, we chose to develop an imaging-based approach, using quantitative 3D fluorescence microscopy(11,12). Using CWR22Rv1 cells specifically-labeled with fluorescent probes for autophagosomes and lysosomes, we show that 3D image stacks acquired with either widefield deconvolution microscopy (and later, with super-resolution, structured-illumination microscopy) can clearly capture the early

  18. Quantitative Determination of the Breakdown Field of Air from Van de Graaff Generator Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, John; Chartrand, Bridget; Gallagher, Hugh

    2016-03-01

    The Van de Graaff generator (VG) is ubiquitous in electrostatic demonstrations because of the large static charge and dramatic sparks produced. We have developed a novel technique for determining the breakdown field of air using the VG. When a spark occurs, the force of attraction between the VG and a discharge sphere suspended above it is measured by a Pasco force sensor. At this time the charge is not symmetric but pulled towards the near side of the spheres by mutual attraction. In order to interpret the measured force in terms of the breakdown field, an accurate model of the charge distribution is needed. Using the method of images for a spherical conductor in an iterative fashion we can provide this model. The electric field in the vicinity of the spheres is then calculated from the charge distribution and its maximum value is the breakdown field. In preliminary work, we determined the breakdown field to be 3.1x106 N/C at 24.9 C and 18% relative humidity. We will report our most recent determination of the breakdown field using this method and discuss the validity of the results in terms of accepted values, experimental limitations and sensitivity to the charge distribution model.

  19. Air pollution and venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Liang; Wang, Qing-Yun; Cheng, Zhi-Peng; Hu, Bei; Liu, Jing-Di; Hu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. However, the effect of air pollution on venous thrombotic disorders is uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between air pollution and venous thrombosis. PubMed, Embase, EBM Reviews, Healthstar, Global Health, Nursing Database, and Web of Science were searched for citations on air pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matters) and venous thrombosis. Using a random-effects model, overall risk estimates were derived for each increment of 10 μg/m3 of pollutant concentration. Of the 485 in-depth reviewed studies, 8 citations, involving approximately 700,000 events, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All the main air pollutants analyzed were not associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis (OR = 1.005, 95% CI = 0.998–1.012 for PM2.5; OR = 0.995, 95% CI = 0.984–1.007 for PM10; OR = 1.006, 95% CI = 0.994–1.019 for NO2). Based on exposure period and thrombosis location, additional subgroup analyses provided results comparable with those of the overall analyses. There was no evidence of publication bias. Therefore, this meta analysis does not suggest the possible role of air pollution as risk factor for venous thrombosis in general population. PMID:27600652

  20. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of air-cooled heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimpour, Mohammad Reza; Bahrami, Zabihollah

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, a thermodynamic second-law analysis was performed to investigate the effects of different geometry and flow parameters on the air-cooled heat exchanger performance. For this purpose, the entropy generation due to heat transfer and pressure loss of internal and external flows of the air-cooled heat exchanger was calculated; and it was observed that the total entropy generation has a minimum at special tube-side Reynolds number. Also, it was seen that the increasing of the tube-side Reynolds number resulted in the rise of the irreversibility of the air-cooled heat exchanger. The results also showed when air-side Reynolds number decreased, the entropy generation rate of the external flow reduced. Finally, based on the computed results, a new correlation was developed to predict the optimum Reynolds number of the tube-side fluid flow.

  1. Teaching Quantitative Reasoning for Nonscience Majors through Carbon Footprint Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boose, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative reasoning is a key intellectual skill, applicable across disciplines and best taught in the context of authentic, relevant problems. Here, I describe and assess a laboratory exercise that has students calculate their "carbon footprint" and evaluate the impacts of various behavior choices on that footprint. Students gather…

  2. Quantitative proteomic analysis by accurate mass retention time pairs.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jeffrey C; Denny, Richard; Dorschel, Craig A; Gorenstein, Marc; Kass, Ignatius J; Li, Guo-Zhong; McKenna, Therese; Nold, Michael J; Richardson, Keith; Young, Phillip; Geromanos, Scott

    2005-04-01

    Current methodologies for protein quantitation include 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis techniques, metabolic labeling, and stable isotope labeling methods to name only a few. The current literature illustrates both pros and cons for each of the previously mentioned methodologies. Keeping with the teachings of William of Ockham, "with all things being equal the simplest solution tends to be correct", a simple LC/MS based methodology is presented that allows relative changes in abundance of proteins in highly complex mixtures to be determined. Utilizing a reproducible chromatographic separations system along with the high mass resolution and mass accuracy of an orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer, the quantitative comparison of tens of thousands of ions emanating from identically prepared control and experimental samples can be made. Using this configuration, we can determine the change in relative abundance of a small number of ions between the two conditions solely by accurate mass and retention time. Employing standard operating procedures for both sample preparation and ESI-mass spectrometry, one typically obtains under 5 ppm mass precision and quantitative variations between 10 and 15%. The principal focus of this paper will demonstrate the quantitative aspects of the methodology and continue with a discussion of the associated, complementary qualitative capabilities.

  3. MOLD SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR: THE EMERGING STANDARD IN MOLD ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Today I will talk about the use of quantitative or Real time PCR for the standardized identification and quantification of molds. There are probably at least 100,000 species of molds or fungi. But there are actually about 100 typically found indoors. Some pose a threat to human...

  4. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Biomarkers in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a combination HPLC-DART-TOF-MS system was utilized to identify and quantitatively analyze carbohydrates in wild type and mutant strains of Fusarium verticillioides. Carbohydrate fractions were isolated from F. verticillioides cellular extracts by HPLC using a cation-exchange size-excl...

  5. A review of risk analysis and helicopter air ambulance accidents.

    PubMed

    Nix, Sam; Buckner, Steven; Cercone, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration announced a final rule in February 2014 that includes a requirement for helicopter air ambulance operators to institute preflight risk analysis programs. This qualitative study examined risk factors that were described in 22 preliminary, factual, and probable cause helicopter air ambulance accident and incident reports that were initiated by the National Transportation Safety Board between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013. Insights into the effectiveness of existing preflight risk analysis strategies were gained by comparing these risk factors with the preflight risk analysis guidance that is published by the Federal Aviation Administration in the Flight Standards Information Management System. When appropriate, a deeper understanding of the human factors that may have contributed to occurrences was gained through methodologies that are described in the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System. The results of this study suggest that there are some vulnerabilities in existing preflight risk analysis guidelines that may affect safety in the helicopter air ambulance industry. The likelihood that human factors contributed to most of the helicopter air ambulance accidents and incidents that occurred during the study period was also evidenced. The results of this study suggest that effective risk analysis programs should provide pilots with both preflight and in-flight resources.

  6. A new quantitative method for gunshot residue analysis by ion beam analysis.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Matthew E; Warmenhoeven, John-William; Romolo, Francesco S; Donghi, Matteo; Webb, Roger P; Jeynes, Christopher; Ward, Neil I; Kirkby, Karen J; Bailey, Melanie J

    2013-08-21

    Imaging and analyzing gunshot residue (GSR) particles using the scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) is a standard technique that can provide important forensic evidence, but the discrimination power of this technique is limited due to low sensitivity to trace elements and difficulties in obtaining quantitative results from small particles. A new, faster method using a scanning proton microbeam and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (μ-PIXE), together with Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) is presented for the non-destructive, quantitative analysis of the elemental composition of single GSR particles. In this study, the GSR particles were all Pb, Ba, Sb. The precision of the method is assessed. The grouping behaviour of different makes of ammunition is determined using multivariate analysis. The protocol correctly groups the cartridges studied here, with a confidence >99%, irrespective of the firearm or population of particles selected.

  7. ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007 Final Determination Quantitative Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Mark A.; Liu, Bing; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2011-05-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) conducted a final quantitative analysis to assess whether buildings constructed according to the requirements of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)/Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) Standard 90.1-2007 would result in energy savings compared with buildings constructed to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. The final analysis considered each of the 44 addenda to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 that were included in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007. All 44 addenda processed by ASHRAE in the creation of Standard 90.1-2007 from Standard 90.1-2004 were reviewed by DOE, and their combined impact on a suite of 15 building prototype models in 15 ASHRAE climate zones was considered. Most addenda were deemed to have little quantifiable impact on building efficiency for the purpose of DOE’s final determination. However, out of the 44 addenda, 9 were preliminarily determined to have measureable and quantifiable impact.

  8. Structural and Quantitative Analysis of Three C-Glycosylflavones by Variable Temperature Proton Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Dai, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance is a powerful tool in drug analysis because of its speed, precision, and efficiency. In present study, the application of variable temperature proton quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (VT-1H-qNMR) for the calibration of three C-glycosylflavones including orientin, isoorientin, and schaftoside as reference substances was reported. Since there was conformational equilibrium due to the restricted rotation around the C(sp3)-C(sp2) bond in C-glycosylflavones, the conformational behaviors were investigated by VT-NMR and verified by molecular mechanics (MM) calculation. The VT-1H-qNMR method was validated including the linearity, limit of quantification, precision, and stability. The results were consistent with those obtained from mass balance approach. VT-1H-qNMR can be deployed as an effective tool in analyzing C-glycosylflavones. PMID:28243484

  9. The next generation of low-cost personal air quality sensors for quantitative exposure monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piedrahita, R.; Xiang, Y.; Masson, N.; Ortega, J.; Collier, A.; Jiang, Y.; Li, K.; Dick, R. P.; Lv, Q.; Hannigan, M.; Shang, L.

    2014-10-01

    Advances in embedded systems and low-cost gas sensors are enabling a new wave of low-cost air quality monitoring tools. Our team has been engaged in the development of low-cost, wearable, air quality monitors (M-Pods) using the Arduino platform. These M-Pods house two types of sensors - commercially available metal oxide semiconductor (MOx) sensors used to measure CO, O3, NO2, and total VOCs, and NDIR sensors used to measure CO2. The MOx sensors are low in cost and show high sensitivity near ambient levels; however they display non-linear output signals and have cross-sensitivity effects. Thus, a quantification system was developed to convert the MOx sensor signals into concentrations. We conducted two types of validation studies - first, deployments at a regulatory monitoring station in Denver, Colorado, and second, a user study. In the two deployments (at the regulatory monitoring station), M-Pod concentrations were determined using collocation calibrations and laboratory calibration techniques. M-Pods were placed near regulatory monitors to derive calibration function coefficients using the regulatory monitors as the standard. The form of the calibration function was derived based on laboratory experiments. We discuss various techniques used to estimate measurement uncertainties. The deployments revealed that collocation calibrations provide more accurate concentration estimates than laboratory calibrations. During collocation calibrations, median standard errors ranged between 4.0-6.1 ppb for O3, 6.4-8.4 ppb for NO2, 0.28-0.44 ppm for CO, and 16.8 ppm for CO2. Median signal to noise (S / N) ratios for the M-Pod sensors were higher than the regulatory instruments: for NO2, 3.6 compared to 23.4; for O3, 1.4 compared to 1.6; for CO, 1.1 compared to 10.0; and for CO2, 42.2 compared to 300-500. By contrast, lab calibrations added bias and made it difficult to cover the necessary range of environmental conditions to obtain a good calibration. A separate user study

  10. An analysis of candidates for addition to the Clean Air Act list of hazardous air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Lunder, Sonya; Woodruff, Tracey J; Axelrad, Daniel A

    2004-02-01

    There are 188 air toxics listed as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the Clean Air Act (CAA), based on their potential to adversely impact public health. This paper presents several analyses performed to screen potential candidates for addition to the HAPs list. We analyzed 1086 HAPs and potential HAPs, including chemicals regulated by the state of California or with emissions reported to the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI). HAPs and potential HAPs were ranked by their emissions to air, and by toxicity-weighted (tox-wtd) emissions for cancer and noncancer, using emissions information from the TRI and toxicity information from state and federal agencies. Separate consideration was given for persistent, bioaccumulative toxins (PBTs), reproductive or developmental toxins, and chemicals under evaluation for regulation as toxic air contaminants in California. Forty-four pollutants were identified as candidate HAPs based on three ranking analyses and whether they were a PBT or a reproductive or developmental toxin. Of these, nine qualified in two or three different rankings (ammonia [NH3], copper [Cu], Cu compounds, nitric acid [HNO3], N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, sulfuric acid [H2SO4], vanadium [V] compounds, zinc [Zn], and Zn compounds). This analysis suggests further evaluation of several pollutants for possible addition to the CAA list of HAPs.

  11. Quantitative sectioning and noise analysis for structured illumination microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Nathan; Gao, Liang; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2011-01-01

    Structured illumination (SI) has long been regarded as a nonquantitative technique for obtaining sectioned microscopic images. Its lack of quantitative results has restricted the use of SI sectioning to qualitative imaging experiments, and has also limited researchers’ ability to compare SI against competing sectioning methods such as confocal microscopy. We show how to modify the standard SI sectioning algorithm to make the technique quantitative, and provide formulas for calculating the noise in the sectioned images. The results indicate that, for an illumination source providing the same spatially-integrated photon flux at the object plane, and for the same effective slice thicknesses, SI sectioning can provide higher SNR images than confocal microscopy for an equivalent setup when the modulation contrast exceeds about 0.09. PMID:22274364

  12. Quantitative analysis of immobilized metalloenzymes by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Opwis, Klaus; Knittel, Dierk; Schollmeyer, Eckhard

    2004-12-01

    A new, sensitive assay for the quantitative determination of immobilized metal containing enzymes has been developed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). In contrast with conventionally used indirect methods the described quantitative AAS assay for metalloenzymes allows more exact analyses, because the carrier material with the enzyme is investigated directly. As an example, the validity and reliability of the method was examined by fixing the iron-containing enzyme catalase on cotton fabrics using different immobilization techniques. Sample preparation was carried out by dissolving the loaded fabrics in sulfuric acid before oxidising the residues with hydrogen peroxide. The iron concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after calibration of the spectrometer with solutions of the free enzyme at different concentrations.

  13. Modal analysis of PATHFINDER unmanned air vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Woehrle, T.G.; Costerus, B.W.; Lee, C.L.

    1994-10-19

    An experimental modal analysis was performed on PATHFINDER, a 450-lb, 100-ft wing span, flying-wing-design aircraft powered by solar/electric motors. The aircraft was softly suspended and then excited using random input from a long-stroke shaker. Modal data was taken from 92 measurement locations on the aircraft using newly designed, lightweight, tri-axial accelerometers. A conventional PC-based data acquisition system provided data handling. Modal parameters were calculated, and animated mode shapes were produced using SMS STARStruct{trademark} Modal Analysis System software. The modal parameters will be used for validation of finite element models, optimum placement of onboard accelerometers during flight testing, and vibration isolation design of sensor platforms.

  14. Semi-quantitative spectrographic analysis and rank correlation in geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanagan, F.J.

    1957-01-01

    The rank correlation coefficient, rs, which involves less computation than the product-moment correlation coefficient, r, can be used to indicate the degree of relationship between two elements. The method is applicable in situations where the assumptions underlying normal distribution correlation theory may not be satisfied. Semi-quantitative spectrographic analyses which are reported as grouped or partly ranked data can be used to calculate rank correlations between elements. ?? 1957.

  15. Quantitative analysis of cortical pyramidal neurons after corpus callosotomy.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Bob; Creswell, Johanna; Britt, Jonathan P; Ford, Kevin L; Bogen, Joseph E; Zaidel, Eran

    2003-07-01

    This study quantitatively explored the dendritic/spine extent of supragranular pyramidal neurons across several cortical areas in two adult male subjects who had undergone a callosotomy several decades before death. In all cortical areas, there were numerous atypical, supragranular pyramidal neurons with elongated "tap root" basilar dendrites. These atypical cells could be associated with an underlying epileptic condition and/or could represent a compensatory mechanism in response to deafferentation after callosotomy.

  16. Fluorescent microscopy approaches of quantitative soil microbial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Konstantin; Polyanskaya, Lubov

    2015-04-01

    Classical fluorescent microscopy method was used during the last decades in various microbiological studies of terrestrial ecosystems. The method provides representative results and simple application which is allow to use it both as routine part of amplitudinous research and in small-scaled laboratories. Furthermore, depending on research targets a lot of modifications of fluorescent microscopy method were established. Combination and comparison of several approaches is an opportunity of quantitative estimation of microbial community in soil. The first analytical part of the study was dedicated to soil bacterial density estimation by fluorescent microscopy in dynamic of several 30-days experiments. The purpose of research was estimation of changes in soil bacterial community on the different soil horizons under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with adding nutrients in two experimental sets: cellulose and chitin. Was modified the nalidixic acid method for inhibition of DNA division of gram-negative bacteria, and the method provides the quantification of this bacterial group by fluorescent microscopy. Established approach allowed to estimate 3-4 times more cells of gram-negative bacteria in soil. The functions of actinomyces in soil polymer destruction are traditionally considered as dominant in comparison to gram-negative bacterial group. However, quantification of gram-negative bacteria in chernozem and peatland provides underestimation of classical notion for this bacterial group. Chitin introduction had no positive effect to gram-negative bacterial population density changes in chernozem but concurrently this nutrient provided the fast growing dynamics at the first 3 days of experiment both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This is confirming chitinolytic activity of gram-negative bacteria in soil organic matter decomposition. At the next part of research modified method for soil gram-negative bacteria quantification was compared to fluorescent in situ

  17. The Effects of Selection on Linkage Analysis for Quantitative Traits

    PubMed Central

    Mackinnon, M. J.; Georges, MAJ.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of within-sample selection on the outcome of analyses detecting linkage between genetic markers and quantitative traits were studied. It was found that selection by truncation for the trait of interest significantly reduces the differences between marker genotype means thus reducing the power to detect linked quantitative trait loci (QTL). The size of this reduction is a function of proportion selected, the magnitude of the QTL effect, recombination rate between the marker locus and the QTL, and the allele frequency of the QTL. Proportion selected was the most influential of these factors on bias, e.g., for an allele substitution effect of one standard deviation unit, selecting the top 80%, 50% or 20% of the population required 2,6 or 24 times the number of progeny, respectively, to offset the loss of power caused by this selection. The effect on power was approximately linear with respect to the size of gene effect, almost invariant to recombination rate, and a complex function of QTL allele frequency. It was concluded that experimental samples from animal populations which have been subjected to even minor amounts of selection will be inefficient in yielding information on linkage between markers and loci influencing the quantitative trait under selection. PMID:1459434

  18. Analysis of modified wet-air oxidation for soil detoxification

    SciTech Connect

    Unterberg, W.; Willms, R.S.; Balinsky, A.M.; Reible, D.D.; Wetzel, D.M.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the results of research on wet-air oxidation as a method for the destruction of hazardous wastes. For organics in the presence of large amounts of water, the water need not be vaporized during wet-air oxidation, an attractive characteristic for energy conservation. The feasibility of using wet-air oxidation was investigated in terms of the effects of temperature, pressure, and the presence or absence of soil on the oxidation rate of three model compounds. Wet-air oxidation is a semi-commercial process that has been used to treat a variety of weakly toxic chemical wastes and for the regeneration of activated carbon. In the study, wet-air oxidation research was carried out in a 1-liter batch reactor at temperatures from 130 to 275/sup 0/C and pressures from 703-1760 x 10/sup 3/ kg/sq m on three substances: m-xylene, tetrachloroethylene (TCE), and malathion, both with and without addition of soil. Any attempt to balance the effect of residence time and the cost of energy requires an accurate description of the oxidation kinetics for the compound or waste stream in question. Due to the sampling technique used during the investigation and the inherent nature of the wet-air oxidation process, a variety of potential problems with the interpretation and analysis of the raw concentration-time data were encountered during the study.

  19. An Inexpensive Electrodeposition Device and Its Use in a Quantitative Analysis Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental procedure, using an apparatus that is easy to construct, was developed to incorporate a quantitative electrogravimetric determination of the solution nickel content into an undergraduate or advanced high school quantitative analysis laboratory. This procedure produces results comparable to the procedure used for the gravimetric…

  20. HIGH SPEED GC/MS FOR AIR ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high speed GC/MS system consisting of a gas chromatograph equipped with a narrow bandwidth injection accessory and using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer detector has been adapted for analysis of ambient whole air samples which have been collected in passivated canisters. ...

  1. An Analysis of the Air Conditioning, Refrigerating and Heating Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frass, Melvin R.; Krause, Marvin

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the air conditioning, refrigerating, and heating occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Six duties are…

  2. Cognitive Task Analysis of Prioritization in Air Traffic Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, Richard E.; And Others

    A cognitive task analysis was performed to analyze the key cognitive components of the en route air traffic controllers' jobs. The goals were to ascertain expert mental models and decision-making strategies and to identify important differences in controller knowledge, skills, and mental models as a function of expertise. Four groups of…

  3. Hydrological drought types in cold climates: quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative survey of impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loon, A. F.; Ploum, S. W.; Parajka, J.; Fleig, A. K.; Garnier, E.; Laaha, G.; Van Lanen, H. A. J.

    2015-04-01

    For drought management and prediction, knowledge of causing factors and socio-economic impacts of hydrological droughts is crucial. Propagation of meteorological conditions in the hydrological cycle results in different hydrological drought types that require separate analysis. In addition to the existing hydrological drought typology, we here define two new drought types related to snow and ice. A snowmelt drought is a deficiency in the snowmelt discharge peak in spring in snow-influenced basins and a glaciermelt drought is a deficiency in the glaciermelt discharge peak in summer in glacierised basins. In 21 catchments in Austria and Norway we studied the meteorological conditions in the seasons preceding and at the time of snowmelt and glaciermelt drought events. Snowmelt droughts in Norway were mainly controlled by below-average winter precipitation, while in Austria both temperature and precipitation played a role. For glaciermelt droughts, the effect of below-average summer air temperature was dominant, both in Austria and Norway. Subsequently, we investigated the impacts of temperature-related drought types (i.e. snowmelt and glaciermelt drought, but also cold and warm snow season drought and rain-to-snow-season drought). In historical archives and drought databases for the US and Europe many impacts were found that can be attributed to these temperature-related hydrological drought types, mainly in the agriculture and electricity production (hydropower) sectors. However, drawing conclusions on the frequency of occurrence of different drought types from reported impacts is difficult, mainly because of reporting biases and the inevitably limited spatial and temporal scales of the information. Finally, this study shows that complete integration of quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative analysis of impacts of temperature-related droughts is not yet possible. Analysis of selected events, however, points out that it can be a promising research

  4. Tobacco Smoke, Indoor Air Pollution and Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsien-Ho; Ezzati, Majid; Murray, Megan

    2007-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking, passive smoking, and indoor air pollution from biomass fuels have been implicated as risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) infection, disease, and death. Tobacco smoking and indoor air pollution are persistent or growing exposures in regions where TB poses a major health risk. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association between these exposures and the risk of infection, disease, and death from TB. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies reporting effect estimates and 95% confidence intervals on how tobacco smoking, passive smoke exposure, and indoor air pollution are associated with TB. We identified 33 papers on tobacco smoking and TB, five papers on passive smoking and TB, and five on indoor air pollution and TB. We found substantial evidence that tobacco smoking is positively associated with TB, regardless of the specific TB outcomes. Compared with people who do not smoke, smokers have an increased risk of having a positive tuberculin skin test, of having active TB, and of dying from TB. Although we also found evidence that passive smoking and indoor air pollution increased the risk of TB disease, these associations are less strongly supported by the available evidence. Conclusions There is consistent evidence that tobacco smoking is associated with an increased risk of TB. The finding that passive smoking and biomass fuel combustion also increase TB risk should be substantiated with larger studies in future. TB control programs might benefit from a focus on interventions aimed at reducing tobacco and indoor air pollution exposures, especially among those at high risk for exposure to TB. PMID:17227135

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Single Amino Acid Variant Peptides Associated with Pancreatic Cancer in Serum by an Isobaric Labeling Quantitative Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Single amino acid variations are highly associated with many human diseases. The direct detection of peptides containing single amino acid variants (SAAVs) derived from nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in serum can provide unique opportunities for SAAV associated biomarker discovery. In the present study, an isobaric labeling quantitative strategy was applied to identify and quantify variant peptides in serum samples of pancreatic cancer patients and other benign controls. The largest number of SAAV peptides to date in serum including 96 unique variant peptides were quantified in this quantitative analysis, of which five variant peptides showed a statistically significant difference between pancreatic cancer and other controls (p-value < 0.05). Significant differences in the variant peptide SDNCEDTPEAGYFAVAVVK from serotransferrin were detected between pancreatic cancer and controls, which was further validated by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) analysis. The novel biomarker panel obtained by combining α-1-antichymotrypsin (AACT), Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) and this variant peptide showed an excellent diagnostic performance in discriminating pancreatic cancer from healthy controls (AUC = 0.98) and chronic pancreatitis (AUC = 0.90). These results suggest that large-scale analysis of SAAV peptides in serum may provide a new direction for biomarker discovery research. PMID:25393578

  6. Quantitative image analysis in the assessment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Chabot-Richards, Devon S; Martin, David R; Myers, Orrin B; Czuchlewski, David R; Hunt, Kristin E

    2011-12-01

    Proliferation rates in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma have been associated with conflicting outcomes in the literature, more often with high proliferation associated with poor prognosis. In most studies, the proliferation rate was estimated by a pathologist using an immunohistochemical stain for the monoclonal antibody Ki-67. We hypothesized that a quantitative image analysis algorithm would give a more accurate estimate of the proliferation rate, leading to better associations with survival. In all, 84 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were selected according to the World Health Organization criteria. Ki-67 percentage positivity estimated by the pathologist was recorded from the original report. The same slides were then scanned using an Aperio ImageScope, and Ki-67 percentage positivity was calculated using a computer-based quantitative immunohistochemistry nuclear algorithm. In addition, chart review was performed and survival time was recorded. The Ki-67 percentage estimated by the pathologist from the original report versus quantitative image analysis was significantly correlated (P<0.001), but pathologist Ki-67 percentages were significantly higher than quantitative image analysis (P=0.021). There was less agreement at lower Ki-67 percentages. Comparison of Ki-67 percentage positivity versus survival did not show significant association either with pathologist estimate or quantitative image analysis. However, although not significant, there was a trend of worse survival at higher proliferation rates detected by the pathologist but not by quantitative image analysis. Interestingly, our data suggest that the Ki-67 percentage positivity as assessed by the pathologist may be more closely associated with survival outcome than that identified by quantitative image analysis. This may indicate that pathologists are better at selecting appropriate areas of the slide. More cases are needed to assess whether this finding would be statistically significant. Due to

  7. MCM - 2 and Ki - 67 as proliferation markers in renal cell carcinoma: A quantitative and semi - quantitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Muhammad Zain; Nagi, Abdul Hanan; Naseem, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction/Background: Fuhrman nuclear grade is the most important histological parameter to predict prognosis in a patient of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, it suffers from inter-observer and intra-observer variation giving rise to need of a parameter that not only correlates with nuclear grade but is also objective and reproducible. Proliferation is the measure of aggressiveness of a tumour and it is strongly correlated with Fuhrman nuclear grade, clinical survival and recurrence in RCC. Ki-67 is conventionally used to assess proliferation. Mini-chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM-2) is a lesser known marker of proliferation and identifies a greater proliferation faction. This study was designed to assess the prognostic significance of MCM-2 by comparing it with Fuhrman nuclear grade and Ki-67. Material and Methods: n=50 cases of various ages, stages, histological subtypes and grades of RCC were selected for this study. Immunohistochemical staining using Ki-67(MIB-1, Mouse monoclonal antibody, Dako) and MCM-2 (Mouse monoclonal antibody, Thermo) was performed on the paraffin embedded blocks in the department of Morbid anatomy and Histopathology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore. Labeling indices (LI) were determined by two pathologists independently using quantitative and semi-quantitative analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 20.0. Kruskall-Wallis test was used to determine a correlation of proliferation markers with grade, and Pearson's correlate was used to determine correlation between the two proliferation markers. Results: Labeling index of MCM-2 (median=24.29%) was found to be much higher than Ki-67(median=13.05%). Both markers were significantly related with grade (p=0.00; Kruskall-Wallis test). LI of MCM-2 was found to correlate significantly with LI of Ki-67(r=0.0934;p=0.01 with Pearson's correlate). Results of semi-quantitative analysis correlated well with quantitative analysis. Conclusion: Both Ki-67 and MCM-2 are

  8. Error analysis of supersonic air-to-air ejector schlieren pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolář, J.

    2013-04-01

    The scope of this article is focused on general analysis of errors and uncertainties possibly arising from CFD-to-schlieren pictures matching. Analysis is based on classic analytical equations. These are firstly evaluated with the presumption of constant density gradient along the ray course. In other words, the deflection of light-ray caused by density gradient is negligible in compare to the cross size of constant gradient area. It is the aim of this work to determine, whether this presumption is applicable in case of supersonic air-to-air ejector. The colour and black and white schlieren pictures are carried out and compared to CFD results. Simulations had covered various eddy viscosities. Computed pressure gradients are transformed into deflection angles and further to ray displacement. Resulting computed light- ray deflection is matched to experimental results

  9. Spacelab J air filter debris analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obenhuber, Donald C.

    1993-01-01

    Filter debris from the Spacelab module SLJ of STS-49 was analyzed for microbial contamination. Debris for cabin and avionics filters was collected by Kennedy Space Center personnel on 1 Oct. 1992, approximately 5 days postflight. The concentration of microorganisms found was similar to previous Spacelab missions averaging 7.4E+4 CFU/mL for avionics filter debris and 4.5E+6 CFU/mL for the cabin filter debris. A similar diversity of bacterial types was found in the two filters. Of the 13 different bacterial types identified from the cabin and avionics samples, 6 were common to both filters. The overall analysis of these samples as compared to those of previous missions shows no significant differences.

  10. Study of proper conditions for quantitative atom-probe analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolander, Ulf; Andrén, Hans-Olof

    1994-03-01

    Atom-probe microanalysis is a truly quantitative method only if certain requirements are fulfilled. Field evaporation must only happen when the detector system is active; ions must travel from specimen to detector without being obstructed; and ions must be detected with the same probability regardless of mass and energy. Designs and methods to achieve these requirements are presented in the paper, such as a controlled high-voltage pulser, a detector with good and variable multi-hit resolution, ion optical alignment procedures, and a method to statistically correct for pile-up in the detector.

  11. Analysis of flight equipment purchasing practices of representative air carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The process through which representative air carriers decide whether or not to purchase flight equipment was investigated as well as their practices and policies in retiring surplus aircraft. An analysis of the flight equipment investment decision process in ten airlines shows that for the airline industry as a whole, the flight equipment investment decision is in a state of transition from a wholly informal process in earliest years to a much more organized and structured process in the future. Individual air carriers are in different stages with respect to the formality and sophistication associated with the flight equipment investment decision.

  12. Quantitation of chemical warfare agents using the direct analysis in real time (DART) technique.

    PubMed

    Nilles, J Michael; Connell, Theresa R; Durst, H Dupont

    2009-08-15

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) is an ion source that permits rapid mass spectrometric detection of gases, liquids, and solids in open air under ambient conditions. It is a unique technology in the field of chemical weapons detectors in that it does not require a vapor pressure, does not require sample preparation, and is nondestructive to the original sample. While the DART technique has had success as a first line instrument of detection, there have been lingering doubts over the technique's quantitative reliability and reproducibility. Here, we demonstrate its capability to produce linear calibration curves (R(2) = 0.99 or better) for the nerve agents GA, GB, and VX as well as the blister agent HD. Independently prepared check standards measured against these curves typically have recovery errors less than 3%. We show the DART instrument response to be linear over roughly 3 orders of magnitude. Furthermore, this study shows that averaging as few as three measurements for each data point is sufficient to produce high quality calibration curves, thus reducing data collection time and providing quicker results.

  13. Quantitative analysis of Euclidean distance to complement qualitative analysis of facial expression during deception

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Ananya; Mukhopadhyay, Pritha; Basu, Nabanita; Bandyopadhyay, Samir Kumar; Chatterjee, Tanima

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accurate evaluation of an individuals' veracity is a fundamental aspect of social functioning that allows individuals to act in adaptive ways. The domain of deception detection ability is still young, and many components in this field are yet to be touched which demands more research in this field. Aims: The present study aims at deciphering the structural composition of face during felt, posed, and deceived emotions in facial expression unique to Indian culture, using Facial Action Coding System (FACS). Quantitative analysis of Euclidean distance has been done to complement qualitative FACS analysis. Methods: In this study, thirty female, young adults with age range of 23–27 years were chosen randomly for portraying their (felt, posed, and deceived) facial expression. All facial expressions were captured through instruction, and videos were converted into static images. The static images were coded on the basis of FACS to decipher the felt, posed, and deceived expressions. Quantitative analysis of the data has been done using MATLAB to meet the objectives of the study and to complement the qualitative analysis. Results: Felt and posed emotions differ in terms of intensity of the expression and subjective experience. Posed emotional and deceived expressions differ in intent. Facial asymmetry is an important indicator for detecting deception. PMID:28163412

  14. Chemical Fingerprint Analysis and Quantitative Analysis of Rosa rugosa by UPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Sanawar; Abdulla, Rahima; Ayupbec, Amatjan; Aisa, Haji Akbar

    2016-12-21

    A method based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (UPLC-DAD) was developed for quantitative analysis of five active compounds and chemical fingerprint analysis of Rosa rugosa. Ten batches of R. rugosa collected from different plantations in the Xinjiang region of China were used to establish the fingerprint. The feasibility and advantages of the used UPLC fingerprint were verified for its similarity evaluation by systematically comparing chromatograms with professional analytical software recommended by State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) of China. In quantitative analysis, the five compounds showed good regression (R² = 0.9995) within the test ranges, and the recovery of the method was in the range of 94.2%-103.8%. The similarities of liquid chromatography fingerprints of 10 batches of R. rugosa were more than 0.981. The developed UPLC fingerprint method is simple, reliable, and validated for the quality control and identification of R. rugosa. Additionally, simultaneous quantification of five major bioactive ingredients in the R. rugosa samples was conducted to interpret the consistency of the quality test. The results indicated that the UPLC fingerprint, as a characteristic distinguishing method combining similarity evaluation and quantification analysis, can be successfully used to assess the quality and to identify the authenticity of R. rugosa.

  15. A Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of In Vitro Assembled Chromatin*

    PubMed Central

    Völker-Albert, Moritz Carl; Pusch, Miriam Caroline; Fedisch, Andreas; Schilcher, Pierre; Schmidt, Andreas; Imhof, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The structure of chromatin is critical for many aspects of cellular physiology and is considered to be the primary medium to store epigenetic information. It is defined by the histone molecules that constitute the nucleosome, the positioning of the nucleosomes along the DNA and the non-histone proteins that associate with it. These factors help to establish and maintain a largely DNA sequence-independent but surprisingly stable structure. Chromatin is extensively disassembled and reassembled during DNA replication, repair, recombination or transcription in order to allow the necessary factors to gain access to their substrate. Despite such constant interference with chromatin structure, the epigenetic information is generally well maintained. Surprisingly, the mechanisms that coordinate chromatin assembly and ensure proper assembly are not particularly well understood. Here, we use label free quantitative mass spectrometry to describe the kinetics of in vitro assembled chromatin supported by an embryo extract prepared from preblastoderm Drosophila melanogaster embryos. The use of a data independent acquisition method for proteome wide quantitation allows a time resolved comparison of in vitro chromatin assembly. A comparison of our in vitro data with proteomic studies of replicative chromatin assembly in vivo reveals an extensive overlap showing that the in vitro system can be used for investigating the kinetics of chromatin assembly in a proteome-wide manner. PMID:26811354

  16. Quantitative analysis of biopolymers by matrix-assisted laser desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, K.; Allman, S.L.; Jones, R.B.; Chen, C.H. )

    1993-08-01

    During the past few years, major efforts have been made to use mass spectrometry to measure biopolymers because of the great potential benefit to biological and medical research. Although the theoretical details of laser desorption and ionization mechanisms of MALDI are not yet fully understood, several models have been presented to explain the production of large biopolymer ions. In brief, it is very difficult to obtain reliable measurements of the absolute quantity of analytes by MALDI. If MALDI is going to become a routine analytical tool, it is obvious that quantitative measurement capability must be pursued. Oligonucleotides and protein samples used in this work were purchased from commercial sources. Nicotinic acid was used as matrix for both types of biopolymers. From this experiment, it is seen that it is difficult to obtain absolute quantitative measurements of biopolymers using MALDI. However, internal calibration with molecules having similar chemical properties can be used to resolve these difficulties. Chemical reactions between biopolymers must be avoided to prevent the destruction of the analyte materials. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Quantitative Spectral Analysis of Evolved Low-Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Klaus; Rauch, Thomas; Kruk, Jeffrey W.

    2009-09-01

    The hydrogen-deficiency in extremely hot post-AGB stars of spectral class PG1159 is probably caused by a (very) late helium-shell flash or a AGB final thermal pulse that consumes the hydrogen envelope, exposing the usually-hidden intershell region. Thus, the photospheric element abundances of these stars allow us to draw conclusions about details of nuclear burning and mixing processes in the precursor AGB stars. We compare predicted element abundances to those determined by quantitative spectral analyses performed with advanced non-LTE model atmospheres. A good qualitative and quantitative agreement is found for many species (He, C, N, O, Ne, F, Si, Ar) but discrepancies for others (P, S, Fe) point at shortcomings in stellar evolution models for AGB stars. Almost all of the chemical trace elements in these hot stars can only be identified in the UV spectral range. The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and the Hubble Space Telescope played a crucial role for this research.

  18. Quantitative analysis of radiation-induced changes in sperm morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.T.; Gledhill, B.L.; Lake, S.; Wyrobek, A.J.

    1982-09-01

    When developing spermatogenic cells are exposed to radiation, chemical carcinogens or mutagens, the transformation in the morphology of the mature sperm can be used to determine the severity of the exposure. In this study five groups of mice with three mice per group received testicular doses of X irradiation at dosage levels ranging from 0 rad to 120 rad. A random sample of 100 mature sperm per mouse was analyzed five weeks later for the quantitative morphologic transformation as a function of dosage level. The cells were stained with gallocyanin chrome alum (GCA) so that only the DNA in the sperm head was visible. The ACUity quantitative microscopy system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was used to scan the sperm at a sampling density of 16 points per linear micrometer and with 256 brightness levels per point. The contour of each cell was extracted using conventional thresholding techniques on the high-contrast images. For each contour a variety of shape features was then computed to characterize the morphology of that cell. Using the control group and the distribution of their shape features to establish the variability of a normal sperm population, the 95% limits on normal morphology were established. Using only four shape features, a doubling dose of approximately 39 rad was determined. That is, at 39 rad exposure the percentage of abnormal cells was twice that occurring in the control population. This compared to a doubling dose of approximately 70 rad obtained from a concurrent visual procedure.

  19. Quantitative Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of carrot bioactives.

    PubMed

    Killeen, Daniel P; Sansom, Catherine E; Lill, Ross E; Eason, Jocelyn R; Gordon, Keith C; Perry, Nigel B

    2013-03-20

    Rapid quantitative near-infrared Fourier transform Raman analyses of the key phytonutrients in carrots, polyacetylenes and carotenoids, are reported here for the first time. Solvent extracts of 31 carrot lines were analyzed for these phytonutrients by conventional methods, polyacetylenes by GC-FID and carotenoids by visible spectrophotometry. Carotenoid concentrations were 0-5586 μg g(-1) dry weight (DW). Polyacetylene concentrations were 74-4846 μg g(-1) DW, highest in wild carrots. The polyacetylenes were falcarinol, 6-1237 μg g(-1) DW; falcarindiol, 42-3475 μg g(-1) DW; and falcarindiol 3-acetate, 27-649 μg g(-1) DW. Strong Raman bands for carotenoids gave good correlation to results by visible spectrophotometry. A chemometric model capable of quantitating carotenoids from Raman data was developed. A classification model for rapidly distinguishing carrots with high and low polyacetylene (limit of detection = 1400 μg g(-1)) concentrations based on Raman spectral intensity in the region of 2250 cm(-1) was produced.

  20. Quantitative characterization of surface topography using spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Tevis D. B.; Junge, Till; Pastewka, Lars

    2017-03-01

    Roughness determines many functional properties of surfaces, such as adhesion, friction, and (thermal and electrical) contact conductance. Recent analytical models and simulations enable quantitative prediction of these properties from knowledge of the power spectral density (PSD) of the surface topography. The utility of the PSD is that it contains statistical information that is unbiased by the particular scan size and pixel resolution chosen by the researcher. In this article, we first review the mathematical definition of the PSD, including the one- and two-dimensional cases, and common variations of each. We then discuss strategies for reconstructing an accurate PSD of a surface using topography measurements at different size scales. Finally, we discuss detecting and mitigating artifacts at the smallest scales, and computing upper/lower bounds on functional properties obtained from models. We accompany our discussion with virtual measurements on computer-generated surfaces. This discussion summarizes how to analyze topography measurements to reconstruct a reliable PSD. Analytical models demonstrate the potential for tuning functional properties by rationally tailoring surface topography—however, this potential can only be achieved through the accurate, quantitative reconstruction of the PSDs of real-world surfaces.

  1. QUANTITATIVE CT ANALYSIS, AIRFLOW OBSTRUCTION AND LUNG CANCER IN THE PITTSBURGH LUNG SCREENING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David O; Leader, Joseph K; Fuhrman, Carl R; Reilly, John J; Sciurba, Frank C.; Weissfeld, Joel L

    2011-01-01

    Background To study the relationship between emphysema, airflow obstruction and lung cancer in a high risk population we performed quantitative analysis of screening computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods Subjects completed questionnaires, spirometry and low-dose helical chest CT. Analyses compared cases and controls according to automated quantitative analysis of lung parenchyma and airways measures. Results Our case-control study of 117 matched pairs of lung cancer cases and controls did not reveal any airway or lung parenchymal findings on quantitative analysis of screening CT scans that were associated with increased lung cancer risk. Airway measures including wall area %, lumen perimeter, lumen area and average wall HU, and parenchymal measures including lung fraction < −910 Hounsfield Units (HU), were not statistically different between cases and controls. Conclusions The relationship between visual assessment of emphysema and increased lung cancer risk could not be verified by quantitative analysis of low-dose screening CT scans in a high risk tobacco exposed population. PMID:21610523

  2. Grid-Enabled Quantitative Analysis of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    large-scale, multi-modality computerized image analysis . The central hypothesis of this research is that large-scale image analysis for breast cancer...research, we designed a pilot study utilizing large scale parallel Grid computing harnessing nationwide infrastructure for medical image analysis . Also

  3. Air Pollution and Quality of Sperm: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Namvar, Farideh; Ghavami Ghanbarabadi, Vahid; Hadizadeh Talasaz, Zahra; Esmaeli, Mahin

    2015-01-01

    Context: Air pollution is common in all countries and affects reproductive functions in men and women. It particularly impacts sperm parameters in men. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the impact of air pollution on the quality of sperm. Evidence Acquisition: The scientific databases of Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, Cochrane Library, and Elsevier were searched to identify relevant articles published between 1978 to 2013. In the first step, 76 articles were selected. These studies were ecological correlation, cohort, retrospective, cross-sectional, and case control ones that were found through electronic and hand search of references about air pollution and male infertility. The outcome measurement was the change in sperm parameters. A total of 11 articles were ultimately included in a meta-analysis to examine the impact of air pollution on sperm parameters. The authors applied meta-analysis sheets from Cochrane library, then data extraction, including mean and standard deviation of sperm parameters were calculated and finally their confidence interval (CI) were compared to CI of standard parameters. Results: The CI for pooled means were as follows: 2.68 ± 0.32 for ejaculation volume (mL), 62.1 ± 15.88 for sperm concentration (million per milliliter), 39.4 ± 5.52 for sperm motility (%), 23.91 ± 13.43 for sperm morphology (%) and 49.53 ± 11.08 for sperm count. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis showed that air pollution reduces sperm motility, but has no impact on the other sperm parameters of spermogram. PMID:26023349

  4. Analysis of Artifacts Suggests DGGE Should Not Be Used For Quantitative Diversity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Julia W.; Jordan, Fiona L.; Maier, Raina M.

    2014-01-01

    PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) is widely used in microbial ecology for the analysis of comparative community structure. However, artifacts generated during PCR-DGGE of mixed template communities impede the application of this technique to quantitative analysis of community diversity. The objective of the current study was to employ an artificial bacterial community to document and analyze artifacts associated with multiband signatures and preferential template amplification and to highlight their impacts on the use of this technique for quantitative diversity analysis. Six bacterial species (three Betaproteobacteria, two Alphaproteobacteria, and one Firmicutes) were amplified individually and in combinations with primers targeting the V7/V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Two of the six isolates produced multiband profiles demonstrating that band number does not correlate directly with α-diversity. Analysis of the multiple bands from one of these isolates confirmed that both bands had identical sequences which lead to the hypothesis that the multiband pattern resulted from two distinct structural conformations of the same amplicon. In addition, consistent preferential amplification was demonstrated following pairwise amplifications of the six isolates. DGGE and real time PCR analysis identified primer mismatch and PCR inhibition due to 16S rDNA secondary structure as the most probable causes of preferential amplification patterns. Reproducible DGGE community profiles generated in this study confirm that PCR-DGGE provides an excellent high-throughput tool for comparative community structure analysis, but that method-specific artifacts preclude its use for accurate comparative diversity analysis. PMID:23313091

  5. Fracture Analysis Based on Quantitative Evaluation of Microcracking in Ceramics Using AE Source Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakayama, Shuichi; Ishiwata, Kohei

    Quantitative detection of microcracks during fracture process of alumina was carried out by AE source characterization, which enables the quantitative characterization of the size, nucleation velocity and fracture mode, as well as nucleation time and location of individual microcracks. Fracture toughness tests of SENB specimens of two types of alumina with different grain size and purity were carried out in air and water. AE signals emitted from microcrackings were detected by piezoelectric transducers. The combined response function of the specimen and measurement system was experimentally determined using a pencil lead breaking as a simulated source. Then AE source function which describes the nature of microcrack nucleation was determined by the inverse calculation using obtained response function and detected signal. Consequently, it was clarified that the size of microcrack in water was larger than that in air for both alumina and larger microcracks nucleated in water resulted in the degradation of fracture resistance.

  6. Quantitative Anatomic Analysis of the Native Ligamentum Teres

    PubMed Central

    Mikula, Jacob D.; Slette, Erik L.; Chahla, Jorge; Brady, Alex W.; Locks, Renato; Trindade, Christiano A. C.; Rasmussen, Matthew T.; LaPrade, Robert F.; Philippon, Marc J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: While recent studies have addressed the biomechanical function of the ligamentum teres and provided descriptions of ligamentum teres reconstruction techniques, its detailed quantitative anatomy remains relatively undocumented. Moreover, there is a lack of consensus in the literature regarding the number and morphology of the acetabular attachments of the ligamentum teres. Purpose: To provide a clinically relevant quantitative anatomic description of the native human ligamentum teres. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Ten human cadaveric hemipelvises, complete with femurs (mean age, 59.6 years; range, 47-65 years), were dissected free of all extra-articular soft tissues to isolate the ligamentum teres and its attachments. A coordinate measuring device was used to quantify the attachment areas and their relationships to pertinent open and arthroscopic landmarks on both the acetabulum and the femur. The clock face reference system was utilized to describe acetabular anatomy, and all anatomic relationships were described using the mean and 95% confidence intervals. Results: There were 6 distinct attachments to the acetabulum and 1 to the femur. The areas of the acetabular and femoral attachment footprints of the ligamentum teres were 434 mm2 (95% CI, 320-549 mm2) and 84 mm2 (95% CI, 65-104 mm2), respectively. The 6 acetabular clock face locations were as follows: anterior attachment, 4:53 o’clock (95% CI, 4:45-5:02); posterior attachment, 6:33 o’clock (95% CI, 6:23-6:43); ischial attachment, 8:07 o’clock (95% CI, 7:47-8:26); iliac attachment, 1:49 o’clock (95% CI, 1:04-2:34); and a smaller pubic attachment that was located at 3:50 o’clock (95% CI, 3:41-4:00). The ischial attachment possessed the largest cross-sectional attachment area (127.3 mm2; 95% CI, 103.0-151.7 mm2) of all the acetabular attachments of the ligamentum teres. Conclusion: The most important finding of this study was that the human ligamentum teres had 6

  7. Bridging the gaps for global sustainable development: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Udo, Victor E; Jansson, Peter Mark

    2009-09-01

    Global human progress occurs in a complex web of interactions between society, technology and the environment as driven by governance and infrastructure management capacity among nations. In our globalizing world, this complex web of interactions over the last 200 years has resulted in the chronic widening of economic and political gaps between the haves and the have-nots with consequential global cultural and ecosystem challenges. At the bottom of these challenges is the issue of resource limitations on our finite planet with increasing population. The problem is further compounded by pleasure-driven and poverty-driven ecological depletion and pollution by the haves and the have-nots respectively. These challenges are explored in this paper as global sustainable development (SD) quantitatively; in order to assess the gaps that need to be bridged. Although there has been significant rhetoric on SD with very many qualitative definitions offered, very few quantitative definitions of SD exist. The few that do exist tend to measure SD in terms of social, energy, economic and environmental dimensions. In our research, we used several human survival, development, and progress variables to create an aggregate SD parameter that describes the capacity of nations in three dimensions: social sustainability, environmental sustainability and technological sustainability. Using our proposed quantitative definition of SD and data from relatively reputable secondary sources, 132 nations were ranked and compared. Our comparisons indicate a global hierarchy of needs among nations similar to Maslow's at the individual level. As in Maslow's hierarchy of needs, nations that are struggling to survive are less concerned with environmental sustainability than advanced and stable nations. Nations such as the United States, Canada, Finland, Norway and others have higher SD capacity, and thus, are higher on their hierarchy of needs than nations such as Nigeria, Vietnam, Mexico and other

  8. Thermohydraulic analysis of the cooling air flow in a rack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natusch, Andreas; Huchler, Markus

    Manned space laboratories like the US Space Station Freedom or the European COLUMBUS APM are equipped with so-called racks for subsystem and payload accommodation. An important resource is air for cooling the unit internal heat sources, the avionics air. Each unit inside the rack must be supplied with sufficient amount of air to cool down the unit to the allowable maximum temperature. In the course of the COLUMBUS Environmental Control and Life Support Subsystem (ECLSS) project, a thermohydraulic mathematical model (THMM) of a representative COLUMBUS rack was developed to analyze and optimize the distribution of avionic air inside this rack. A sensitivity and accuracy study was performed to determine the accuracy range of the calculated avionics flow rate distribution to the units. These calculations were then compared to measurement results gained in a rack airflow distribution test, which was performed with an equipped COLUMBUS subsystem rack to show the pressure distribution inside the rack. In addition to that cold flow study, the influence of the avionics air heating due to the unit dissipations on the airflow distribution and the cooling tenmperature was investigated in a detailed warm flow analysis.

  9. Analysis of MINIE2013 Explosion Air-Blast Data

    SciTech Connect

    Schnurr, Julie M.; Rodgers, Arthur J.; Kim, Keehoon; Ford, Sean R.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    2016-10-14

    We report analysis of air-blast overpressure measurements from the MINIE2013 explosive experiments. The MINIE2013 experiment involved a series of nearly 70 near-surface (height-ofburst, HOB, ranging from -1 to +4 m) low-yield (W=2-20 kg TNT equivalent) chemical highexplosives tests that were recorded at local distances (230 m – 28.5 km). Many of the W and HOB combinations were repeated, allowing for quantification of the variability in air-blast features and corresponding yield estimates. We measured canonical signal features (peak overpressure, impulse per unit area, and positive pulse duration) from the air-blast data and compared these to existing air-blast models. Peak overpressure measurements showed good agreement with the models at close ranges but tended to attenuate more rapidly at longer range (~ 1 km), which is likely caused by upward refraction of acoustic waves due to a negative vertical gradient of sound speed. We estimated yields of the MINIE2013 explosions using the Integrated Yield Determination Tool (IYDT). Errors of the estimated yields were on average within 30% of the reported yields, and there were no significant differences in the accuracy of the IYDT predictions grouped by yield. IYDT estimates tend to be lower than ground truth yields, possibly because of reduced overpressure amplitudes by upward refraction. Finally, we report preliminary results on a development of a new parameterized air-blast waveform.

  10. Quantitative interpretation of mineral hyperspectral images based on principal component analysis and independent component analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiping; Jiang, Yu; Wu, Fang; Wu, Fenghuang

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of mineral hyperspectral images provides large amounts of high-dimensional data, which is often complicated by mixed pixels. The quantitative interpretation of hyperspectral images is known to be extremely difficult when three types of information are unknown, namely, the number of pure pixels, the spectrum of pure pixels, and the mixing matrix. The problem is made even more complex by the disturbance of noise. The key to interpreting abstract mineral component information, i.e., pixel unmixing and abundance inversion, is how to effectively reduce noise, dimension, and redundancy. A three-step procedure is developed in this study for quantitative interpretation of hyperspectral images. First, the principal component analysis (PCA) method can be used to process the pixel spectrum matrix and keep characteristic vectors with larger eigenvalues. This can effectively reduce the noise and redundancy, which facilitates the abstraction of major component information. Second, the independent component analysis (ICA) method can be used to identify and unmix the pixels based on the linear mixed model. Third, the pure-pixel spectrums can be normalized for abundance inversion, which gives the abundance of each pure pixel. In numerical experiments, both simulation data and actual data were used to demonstrate the performance of our three-step procedure. Under simulation data, the results of our procedure were compared with theoretical values. Under the actual data measured from core hyperspectral images, the results obtained through our algorithm are compared with those of similar software (Mineral Spectral Analysis 1.0, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources). The comparisons show that our method is effective and can provide reference for quantitative interpretation of hyperspectral images.

  11. Torpedo electromotor system development: a quantitative analysis of synaptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fox, G Q; Kötting, D

    1984-04-10

    Synaptogenesis in the electric organ of Torpedo marmorato has been studied quantitatively at the ultrastructural level of observation. In addition to establishing the normal developmental time course for this event we were interested in determining whether a gradient of synaptogenesis might be present because the electric organ produces several morphologically recognizable spatiotemporal gradients during its early ontogeny. These gradients genesis of electrocyte columns, both gradients of which are operative for periods of weeks. No gradient of synaptogenesis was found, indicating this to be a synchronous process. The idea is advanced that synaptogenesis in the electric organ is modulated by extrinsic influences, many of which may originate from the target electrocytes which, by this time, have become synchronized in their development.

  12. Microfluidic platform for the quantitative analysis of leukocyte migration signatures.

    PubMed

    Boneschansker, Leo; Yan, Jun; Wong, Elisabeth; Briscoe, David M; Irimia, Daniel

    2014-09-03

    Leukocyte migration into tissues is characteristic of inflammation. It is usually measured in vitro as the average displacement of populations of cells towards a chemokine gradient, not acknowledging other patterns of cell migration. Here, we designed and validated a microfluidic migration platform to simultaneously analyse four qualitative migration patterns: chemoattraction, -repulsion, -kinesis and -inhibition, using single-cell quantitative metrics of direction, speed, persistence and fraction of cells responding. We find that established chemokines, complement component 5a and IL-8 induce chemoattraction and repulsion in equal proportions, resulting in the dispersal of cells. These migration signatures are characterized by high persistence and speed and are independent of the chemokine dose or receptor expression. Furthermore, we find that twice as many T lymphocytes migrate away than towards stromal cell-derived factor 1 and their directional migration patterns are not persistent. Overall, our platform helps discover migratory signature responses and uncovers an avenue for precise characterization of leukocyte migration and therapeutic modulators.

  13. MICROFLUIDIC PLATFORM FOR THE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF LEUKOCYTE MIGRATION SIGNATURES

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Elisabeth; Briscoe, David M.; Irimia, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Leukocyte migration into tissues is characteristic of inflammation. It is usually measured in vitro as the average displacement of populations of cells towards a chemokine gradient, not acknowledging other patterns of cell migration. Here, we designed and validated a microfluidic migration platform to simultaneously analyze four qualitative migration patterns: chemo-attraction, -repulsion, -kinesis and -inhibition, using single-cell quantitative metrics of direction, speed, persistence, and fraction of cells responding. We find that established chemokines C5a and IL-8 induce chemoattraction and repulsion in equal proportions, resulting in the dispersal of cells. These migration signatures are characterized by high persistence and speed and are independent of the chemokine dose or receptor expression. Furthermore, we find that twice as many T-lymphocytes migrate away than towards SDF-1 and their directional migration patterns are not persistent. Overall, our platform characterizes migratory signature responses and uncovers an avenue for precise characterization of leukocyte migration and therapeutic modulators. PMID:25183261

  14. Comparative analysis of quantitative methodologies for Vibrionaceae biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Chavez-Dozal, Alba A.; Nourabadi, Neda; Erken, Martina; McDougald, Diane; Nishiguchi, Michele K.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple symbiotic and free living Vibrio sp. grow as a form of microbial community known as biofilm. In the laboratory, methods to quantify Vibrio biofilm mass include crystal violet staining, direct Colony Forming Unit (CFU) counting, dry biofilm cell mass measurement, and observation of development of wrinkled colonies. Another approach for bacterial biofilms also involves the use of tetrazolium (XTT) assays (used widely in studies of fungi) that are an appropriate measure of metabolic activity and vitality of cells within the biofilm matrix. This study systematically tested five techniques, among which the XTT assay and wrinkled colony measurement provided the most reproducible, accurate, and efficient methods for the quantitative estimation of Vibrionaceae biofilms. PMID:27009592

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Matrine in Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles by HPLC

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xinsheng; Hu, Min; Ling, Yahao; Tian, Yuan; Zhou, Yanxing; Zhou, Yanfang

    2014-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed to quantitatively determine matrine in liquid crystal nanoparticles. The chromatographic method is carried out using an isocratic system. The mobile phase was composed of methanol-PBS(pH6.8)-triethylamine (50 : 50 : 0.1%) with a flow rate of 1 mL/min with SPD-20A UV/vis detector and the detection wavelength was at 220 nm. The linearity of matrine is in the range of 1.6 to 200.0 μg/mL. The regression equation is y = 10706x − 2959 (R2 = 1.0). The average recovery is 101.7%; RSD = 2.22%  (n = 9). This method provides a simple and accurate strategy to determine matrine in liquid crystalline nanoparticle. PMID:24834359

  16. Copper in silicon: Quantitative analysis of internal and proximity gettering

    SciTech Connect

    McHugo, S.A.; Flink, C.; Weber, E.R.

    1997-08-01

    The behavior of copper in the presence of a proximity gettering mechanism and a standard internal gettering mechanism in silicon was studied. He implantation-induced cavities in the near surface region were used as a proximity gettering mechanism and oxygen precipitates in the bulk of the material provided internal gettering sites. Moderate levels of copper contamination were introduced by ion implantation such that the copper was not supersaturated during the anneals, thus providing realistic copper contamination/gettering conditions. Copper concentrations at cavities and internal gettering sites were quantitatively measured after the annealings. In this manner, the gettering effectiveness of cavities was measured when in direct competition with internal gettering sites. The cavities were found to be the dominant gettering mechanism with only a small amount of copper gettered at the internal gettering sites. These results reveal the benefits of a segregation-type gettering mechanism for typical contamination conditions.

  17. Quantitative analysis of peptide-MHC class II interaction.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, B; Jung, G; Wiesmüller, K H

    1999-12-01

    The tremendous progress in the field of basic immunology and immunochemistry made in the last decade has significantly advanced our understanding of antigen processing and presentation by MHC class I and II proteins. In this review different techniques to study peptide interaction with MHC class II molecules are summarized and their impact on the elucidation of quantitative parameters, like affinities or kinetic data, is discussed. A recently introduced method based on synthetic combinatorial peptide libraries allows to quantify the binding contribution of each amino acid residue in a class II ligand and is presented in more detail. As this knowledge is fundamental for current investigations in modern medicine, e.g. for novel immune system based therapy concepts, further aspects like the design of new high affinity MHC class II ligands and the prediction of peptide antigens are discussed.

  18. Samaa : A Software For Air Pollution Modelling and Analysis Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueguen, C.; Mangin, A.; Sanchez, O.

    In order to better understand the qualitative and quantitative evolution of air pollu- tion in cities and their surroundings, ACRI-st has designed and developed, jointly with two French air surveillance networks, an integrated application for air pollution modelling. This simulator, called Samaa, enables testing the impact on pollution of different emission scenarios under a number of meteorological conditions. Samaa is a platform with a user-friendly interface for scenario management, including an emission module, and a GIS-based results viewing module, that may in turn be interfaced with a meteorological and a chemistry/dispersion module (or a dispersion module). The meteorological module is processed first, before any other air pollution module of the simulator. It supplies the meteorological files that will then be used by the emis- sion module and subsequently by the dispersion and chemical modules. This module calculates wind and temperature fields, as well as different meteorological parameters. The AIREMIS emission module was designed to calculate the hourly emissions of seven primary pollutants for each emission sector (transport, industry, heating and natural environment). The GIS, integrated in the emission module, executes two main tasks : - preparation of the emission data sets that the modelling system will process - results viewing for all the different calculation modules (emission, wind and concen- tration maps). The chemistry/dispersion and the dispersion modules enable reactive and non reac- tive pollutants simulation in urban and sub-urban areas. They are interfaced with the other system element to allow simulation of pollutants concentration derived from non chemical or photochemical reactions. Samaa has been validated on two 3-day simulations : the first one was dedicated to evaluate the "chemical processing" of the simulator, and the second one to the "dis- persion processing". The results have proven the strength and the robustness of the

  19. Grid-Enabled Quantitative Analysis of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    large-scale, multi-modality computerized image analysis . The central hypothesis of this research is that large-scale image analysis for breast cancer...pilot study to utilize large scale parallel Grid computing to harness the nationwide cluster infrastructure for optimization of medical image ... analysis parameters. Additionally, we investigated the use of cutting edge dataanalysis/ mining techniques as applied to Ultrasound, FFDM, and DCE-MRI Breast

  20. A Wavelet Analysis Approach for Categorizing Air Traffic Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drew, Michael; Sheth, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    In this paper two frequency domain techniques are applied to air traffic analysis. The Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT), like the Fourier Transform, is shown to identify changes in historical traffic patterns caused by Traffic Management Initiatives (TMIs) and weather with the added benefit of detecting when in time those changes take place. Next, with the expectation that it could detect anomalies in the network and indicate the extent to which they affect traffic flows, the Spectral Graph Wavelet Transform (SGWT) is applied to a center based graph model of air traffic. When applied to simulations based on historical flight plans, it identified the traffic flows between centers that have the greatest impact on either neighboring flows, or flows between centers many centers away. Like the CWT, however, it can be difficult to interpret SGWT results and relate them to simulations where major TMIs are implemented, and more research may be warranted in this area. These frequency analysis techniques can detect off-nominal air traffic behavior, but due to the nature of air traffic time series data, so far they prove difficult to apply in a way that provides significant insight or specific identification of traffic patterns.

  1. Response Neighborhoods in Online Learning Networks: A Quantitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviv, Reuven; Erlich, Zippy; Ravid, Gilad

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical foundation of Response mechanisms in networks of online learners are revealed by Statistical Analysis of p* Markov Models for the Networks. Our comparative analysis of two networks shows that the minimal-effort hunt-for-social-capital mechanism controls a major behavior of both networks: negative tendency to respond. Differences in…

  2. Afghanistan Reconstruction - A Quantitative Analysis of the International Effort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Trinkunas Chairman, Department of National Security Affairs iv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT Since the start of Operation Enduring...10 4. Chapter V - Provincial Level Analysis - Part II ........................11 5. Chapter VI - Conclusions...Level Approach.......80 C. PRESENTATION OF RESULTS................................................................82 V . PROVINCIAL LEVEL ANALYSIS

  3. Quantitative analysis of numerical solvers for oscillatory biomolecular system models

    PubMed Central

    Quo, Chang F; Wang, May D

    2008-01-01

    Background This article provides guidelines for selecting optimal numerical solvers for biomolecular system models. Because various parameters of the same system could have drastically different ranges from 10-15 to 1010, the ODEs can be stiff and ill-conditioned, resulting in non-unique, non-existing, or non-reproducible modeling solutions. Previous studies have not examined in depth how to best select numerical solvers for biomolecular system models, which makes it difficult to experimentally validate the modeling results. To address this problem, we have chosen one of the well-known stiff initial value problems with limit cycle behavior as a test-bed system model. Solving this model, we have illustrated that different answers may result from different numerical solvers. We use MATLAB numerical solvers because they are optimized and widely used by the modeling community. We have also conducted a systematic study of numerical solver performances by using qualitative and quantitative measures such as convergence, accuracy, and computational cost (i.e. in terms of function evaluation, partial derivative, LU decomposition, and "take-off" points). The results show that the modeling solutions can be drastically different using different numerical solvers. Thus, it is important to intelligently select numerical solvers when solving biomolecular system models. Results The classic Belousov-Zhabotinskii (BZ) reaction is described by the Oregonator model and is used as a case study. We report two guidelines in selecting optimal numerical solver(s) for stiff, complex oscillatory systems: (i) for problems with unknown parameters, ode45 is the optimal choice regardless of the relative error tolerance; (ii) for known stiff problems, both ode113 and ode15s are good choices under strict relative tolerance conditions. Conclusions For any given biomolecular model, by building a library of numerical solvers with quantitative performance assessment metric, we show that it is possible

  4. Quantitative Expression Analysis in Brassica napus by Northern Blot Analysis and Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR in a Complex Experimental Setting.

    PubMed

    Rumlow, Annekathrin; Keunen, Els; Klein, Jan; Pallmann, Philip; Riemenschneider, Anja; Cuypers, Ann; Papenbrock, Jutta

    Analysis of gene expression is one of the major ways to better understand plant reactions to changes in environmental conditions. The comparison of many different factors influencing plant growth challenges the gene expression analysis for specific gene-targeted experiments, especially with regard to the choice of suitable reference genes. The aim of this study is to compare expression results obtained by Northern blot, semi-quantitative PCR and RT-qPCR, and to identify a reliable set of reference genes for oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) suitable for comparing gene expression under complex experimental conditions. We investigated the influence of several factors such as sulfur deficiency, different time points during the day, varying light conditions, and their interaction on gene expression in oilseed rape plants. The expression of selected reference genes was indeed influenced under these conditions in different ways. Therefore, a recently developed algorithm, called GrayNorm, was applied to validate a set of reference genes for normalizing results obtained by Northern blot analysis. After careful comparison of the three methods mentioned above, Northern blot analysis seems to be a reliable and cost-effective alternative for gene expression analysis under a complex growth regime. For using this method in a quantitative way a number of references was validated revealing that for our experiment a set of three references provides an appropriate normalization. Semi-quantitative PCR was prone to many handling errors and difficult to control while RT-qPCR was very sensitive to expression fluctuations of the reference genes.

  5. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the Salmonella-lettuce interaction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuping; Nandakumar, Renu; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Snow, Daniel D; Hodges, Laurie; Li, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Human pathogens can internalize food crops through root and surface uptake and persist inside crop plants. The goal of the study was to elucidate the global modulation of bacteria and plant protein expression after Salmonella internalizes lettuce. A quantitative proteomic approach was used to analyse the protein expression of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis and lettuce cultivar Green Salad Bowl 24 h after infiltrating S. Infantis into lettuce leaves. Among the 50 differentially expressed proteins identified by comparing internalized S. Infantis against S. Infantis grown in Luria Broth, proteins involved in glycolysis were down-regulated, while one protein involved in ascorbate uptake was up-regulated. Stress response proteins, especially antioxidant proteins, were up-regulated. The modulation in protein expression suggested that internalized S. Infantis might utilize ascorbate as a carbon source and require multiple stress response proteins to cope with stresses encountered in plants. On the other hand, among the 20 differentially expressed lettuce proteins, proteins involved in defense response to bacteria were up-regulated. Moreover, the secreted effector PipB2 of S. Infantis and R proteins of lettuce were induced after bacterial internalization into lettuce leaves, indicating human pathogen S. Infantis triggered the defense mechanisms of lettuce, which normally responds to plant pathogens. PMID:24512637

  6. [Device for quantitative analysis of perception and pain sensation].

    PubMed

    Arita, Hideko; Kato, Jitsu; Ogawa, Setsuro; Hanaoka, Kazuo

    2014-07-01

    The article describes an analysing device that measures the perception and intensity of pain quantitatively. While it is not necessarily true that psychological aspect is totally irrelevant to pain measurement, this device is remarkable in that it is capable of measuring the intensity of pain felt by the patient more objectively by using electric stimuli. The feature of this device is that it uses a non-pain heteresthesia for measuring the intensity of pain. The device is compact, light-weight, and portable. Unlike VAS that requires only a scale, the device requires a person to carry out the measurement. Nevertheless, as the National Health Insurance (NHI) coverage has been approved, introduction of the device may be facilitated in terms of budget for the purchase and labor. The device is useful to better understand not only the intensity of pain but also the pathological conditions, resulting in more appropriate treatment, by (1) comparing degree of pain or VAS values taken by a multicenter study with those of a patient; (2) using both degree of pain and VAS; and (3) multiple measurements of degree of pain and VAS in one case.

  7. Quantitative analysis of virus and plasmid trafficking in cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagache, Thibault; Dauty, Emmanuel; Holcman, David

    2009-01-01

    Intracellular transport of DNA carriers is a fundamental step of gene delivery. By combining both theoretical and numerical approaches we study here single and several viruses and DNA particles trafficking in the cell cytoplasm to a small nuclear pore. We present a physical model to account for certain aspects of cellular organization, starting with the observation that a viral trajectory consists of epochs of pure diffusion and epochs of active transport along microtubules. We define a general degradation rate to describe the limitations of the delivery of plasmid or viral particles to a nuclear pore imposed by various types of direct and indirect hydrolysis activity inside the cytoplasm. By replacing the switching dynamics by a single steady state stochastic description, we obtain estimates for the probability and the mean time for the first one of many particles to go from the cell membrane to a small nuclear pore. Computational simulations confirm that our model can be used to analyze and interpret viral trajectories and estimate quantitatively the success of nuclear delivery.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of CME Deflections in the Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Bin; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, Yuming; Ye, Pinzhong; Liu, Jiajia; Wang, Shui; Zhao, Xuepu

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, ten CME events viewed by the STEREO twin spacecraft are analyzed to study the deflections of CMEs during their propagation in the corona. Based on the three-dimensional information of the CMEs derived by the graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) model (Thernisien, Howard, and Vourlidas in Astrophys. J. 652, 1305, 2006), it is found that the propagation directions of eight CMEs had changed. By applying the theoretical method proposed by Shen et al. ( Solar Phys. 269, 389, 2011) to all the CMEs, we found that the deflections are consistent, in strength and direction, with the gradient of the magnetic energy density. There is a positive correlation between the deflection rate and the strength of the magnetic energy density gradient and a weak anti-correlation between the deflection rate and the CME speed. Our results suggest that the deflections of CMEs are mainly controlled by the background magnetic field and can be quantitatively described by the magnetic energy density gradient (MEDG) model.

  9. Space-to-Ground Communication for Columbus: A Quantitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Thomas; Mannel, Thurid; Fortunato, Antonio; Illmer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The astronauts on board the International Space Station (ISS) are only the most visible part of a much larger team engaged around the clock in the performance of science and technical activities in space. The bulk of such team is scattered around the globe in five major Mission Control Centers (MCCs), as well as in a number of smaller payload operations centres. Communication between the crew in space and the flight controllers at those locations is an essential element and one of the key drivers to efficient space operations. Such communication can be carried out in different forms, depending on available technical assets and the selected operational approach for the activity at hand. This paper focuses on operational voice communication and provides a quantitative overview of the balance achieved in the Columbus program between collaborative space/ground operations and autonomous on-board activity execution. An interpretation of the current situation is provided, together with a description of potential future approaches for deep space exploration missions.

  10. Quantitative analysis of task selection for brain-computer interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llera, Alberto; Gómez, Vicenç; Kappen, Hilbert J.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. To assess quantitatively the impact of task selection in the performance of brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Approach. We consider the task-pairs derived from multi-class BCI imagery movement tasks in three different datasets. We analyze for the first time the benefits of task selection on a large-scale basis (109 users) and evaluate the possibility of transferring task-pair information across days for a given subject. Main results. Selecting the subject-dependent optimal task-pair among three different imagery movement tasks results in approximately 20% potential increase in the number of users that can be expected to control a binary BCI. The improvement is observed with respect to the best task-pair fixed across subjects. The best task-pair selected for each subject individually during a first day of recordings is generally a good task-pair in subsequent days. In general, task learning from the user side has a positive influence in the generalization of the optimal task-pair, but special attention should be given to inexperienced subjects. Significance. These results add significant evidence to existing literature that advocates task selection as a necessary step towards usable BCIs. This contribution motivates further research focused on deriving adaptive methods for task selection on larger sets of mental tasks in practical online scenarios.

  11. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the Salmonella-lettuce interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuping; Nandakumar, Renu; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Snow, Daniel D; Hodges, Laurie; Li, Xu

    2014-11-01

    Human pathogens can internalize food crops through root and surface uptake and persist inside crop plants. The goal of the study was to elucidate the global modulation of bacteria and plant protein expression after Salmonella internalizes lettuce. A quantitative proteomic approach was used to analyse the protein expression of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis and lettuce cultivar Green Salad Bowl 24 h after infiltrating S. Infantis into lettuce leaves. Among the 50 differentially expressed proteins identified by comparing internalized S. Infantis against S. Infantis grown in Luria Broth, proteins involved in glycolysis were down-regulated, while one protein involved in ascorbate uptake was up-regulated. Stress response proteins, especially antioxidant proteins, were up-regulated. The modulation in protein expression suggested that internalized S. Infantis might utilize ascorbate as a carbon source and require multiple stress response proteins to cope with stresses encountered in plants. On the other hand, among the 20 differentially expressed lettuce proteins, proteins involved in defense response to bacteria were up-regulated. Moreover, the secreted effector PipB2 of S. Infantis and R proteins of lettuce were induced after bacterial internalization into lettuce leaves, indicating human pathogen S. Infantis triggered the defense mechanisms of lettuce, which normally responds to plant pathogens.

  12. Quantitative proteomic analysis of amphotericin B resistance in Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Brotherton, Marie-Christine; Bourassa, Sylvie; Légaré, Danielle; Poirier, Guy G; Droit, Arnaud; Ouellette, Marc

    2014-08-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) in its liposomal form is now considered as either first- or second-line treatment against Leishmania infections in different part of the world. Few cases of AmB resistance have been reported and resistance mechanisms toward AmB are still poorly understood. This paper reports a large-scale comparative proteomic study in the context of AmB resistance. Quantitative proteomics using stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) was used to better characterize cytoplasmic and membrane-enriched (ME) proteomes of the in vitro generated Leishmania infantum AmB resistant mutant AmB1000.1. In total, 97 individual proteins were found as differentially expressed between the mutant and its parental sensitive strain (WT). More than half of these proteins were either metabolic enzymes or involved in transcription or translation processes. Key energetic pathways such as glycolysis and TCA cycle were up-regulated in the mutant. Interestingly, many proteins involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and heat-shock proteins were also up-regulated in the resistant mutant. This work provides a basis for further investigations to understand the roles of proteins differentially expressed in relation with AmB resistance.

  13. Space-to-Ground Communication for Columbus: A Quantitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Uhlig, Thomas; Mannel, Thurid; Fortunato, Antonio; Illmer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The astronauts on board the International Space Station (ISS) are only the most visible part of a much larger team engaged around the clock in the performance of science and technical activities in space. The bulk of such team is scattered around the globe in five major Mission Control Centers (MCCs), as well as in a number of smaller payload operations centres. Communication between the crew in space and the flight controllers at those locations is an essential element and one of the key drivers to efficient space operations. Such communication can be carried out in different forms, depending on available technical assets and the selected operational approach for the activity at hand. This paper focuses on operational voice communication and provides a quantitative overview of the balance achieved in the Columbus program between collaborative space/ground operations and autonomous on-board activity execution. An interpretation of the current situation is provided, together with a description of potential future approaches for deep space exploration missions. PMID:26290898

  14. Quantitative analysis on electric dipole energy in Rashba band splitting

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jisook; Rhim, Jun-Won; Kim, Changyoung; Ryong Park, Seung; Hoon Shim, Ji

    2015-01-01

    We report on quantitative comparison between the electric dipole energy and the Rashba band splitting in model systems of Bi and Sb triangular monolayers under a perpendicular electric field. We used both first-principles and tight binding calculations on p-orbitals with spin-orbit coupling. First-principles calculation shows Rashba band splitting in both systems. It also shows asymmetric charge distributions in the Rashba split bands which are induced by the orbital angular momentum. We calculated the electric dipole energies from coupling of the asymmetric charge distribution and external electric field, and compared it to the Rashba splitting. Remarkably, the total split energy is found to come mostly from the difference in the electric dipole energy for both Bi and Sb systems. A perturbative approach for long wave length limit starting from tight binding calculation also supports that the Rashba band splitting originates mostly from the electric dipole energy difference in the strong atomic spin-orbit coupling regime. PMID:26323493

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Synaptic Release at the Photoreceptor Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Gabriel; Rabl, Katalin; Gemp, Ian; Heidelberger, Ruth; Thoreson, Wallace B.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Exocytosis from the rod photoreceptor is stimulated by submicromolar Ca2+ and exhibits an unusually shallow dependence on presynaptic Ca2+. To provide a quantitative description of the photoreceptor Ca2+ sensor for exocytosis, we tested a family of conventional and allosteric computational models describing the final Ca2+-binding steps leading to exocytosis. Simulations were fit to two measures of release, evoked by flash-photolysis of caged Ca2+: exocytotic capacitance changes from individual rods and postsynaptic currents of second-order neurons. The best simulations supported the occupancy of only two Ca2+ binding sites on the rod Ca2+ sensor rather than the typical four or five. For most models, the on-rates for Ca2+ binding and maximal fusion rate were comparable to those of other neurons. However, the off-rates for Ca2+ unbinding were unexpectedly slow. In addition to contributing to the high-affinity of the photoreceptor Ca2+ sensor, slow Ca2+ unbinding may support the fusion of vesicles located at a distance from Ca2+ channels. In addition, partial sensor occupancy due to slow unbinding may contribute to the linearization of the first synapse in vision. PMID:20483317

  16. Quantitative analysis of ultrasound images for computer-aided diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie Ying; Tuomi, Adam; Beland, Michael D.; Konrad, Joseph; Glidden, David; Grand, David; Merck, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. We propose an adaptable framework for analyzing ultrasound (US) images quantitatively to provide computer-aided diagnosis using machine learning. Our preliminary clinical targets are hepatic steatosis, adenomyosis, and craniosynostosis. For steatosis and adenomyosis, we collected US studies from 288 and 88 patients, respectively, as well as their biopsy or magnetic resonanceconfirmed diagnosis. Radiologists identified a region of interest (ROI) on each image. We filtered the US images for various texture responses and use the pixel intensity distribution within each ROI as feature parameterizations. Our craniosynostosis dataset consisted of 22 CT-confirmed cases and 22 age-matched controls. One physician manually measured the vectors from the center of the skull to the outer cortex at every 10 deg for each image and we used the principal directions as shape features for parameterization. These parameters and the known diagnosis were used to train classifiers. Testing with cross-validation, we obtained 72.74% accuracy and 0.71 area under receiver operating characteristics curve for steatosis (p<0.0001), 77.27% and 0.77 for adenomyosis (p<0.0001), and 88.63% and 0.89 for craniosynostosis (p=0.0006). Our framework is able to detect a variety of diseases with high accuracy. We hope to include it as a routinely available support system in the clinic. PMID:26835502

  17. Quantitative analysis of chromosome condensation in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Boryana; Dehler, Sascha; Kruitwagen, Tom; Hériché, Jean-Karim; Miura, Kota; Haering, Christian H

    2013-03-01

    Chromosomes undergo extensive conformational rearrangements in preparation for their segregation during cell divisions. Insights into the molecular mechanisms behind this still poorly understood condensation process require the development of new approaches to quantitatively assess chromosome formation in vivo. In this study, we present a live-cell microscopy-based chromosome condensation assay in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. By automatically tracking the three-dimensional distance changes between fluorescently marked chromosome loci at high temporal and spatial resolution, we analyze chromosome condensation during mitosis and meiosis and deduct defined parameters to describe condensation dynamics. We demonstrate that this method can determine the contributions of condensin, topoisomerase II, and Aurora kinase to mitotic chromosome condensation. We furthermore show that the assay can identify proteins required for mitotic chromosome formation de novo by isolating mutants in condensin, DNA polymerase ε, and F-box DNA helicase I that are specifically defective in pro-/metaphase condensation. Thus, the chromosome condensation assay provides a direct and sensitive system for the discovery and characterization of components of the chromosome condensation machinery in a genetically tractable eukaryote.

  18. Quantitative analysis of a frequency-domain nonlinearity indicator.

    PubMed

    Reichman, Brent O; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; Miller, Kyle G

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, quantitative understanding of a frequency-domain nonlinearity indicator is developed. The indicator is derived from an ensemble-averaged, frequency-domain version of the generalized Burgers equation, which can be rearranged in order to directly compare the effects of nonlinearity, absorption, and geometric spreading on the pressure spectrum level with frequency and distance. The nonlinear effect is calculated using pressure-squared-pressure quadspectrum. Further theoretical development has given an expression for the role of the normalized quadspectrum, referred to as Q/S by Morfey and Howell [AIAA J. 19, 986-992 (1981)], in the spatial rate of change of the pressure spectrum level. To explore this finding, an investigation of the change in level for initial sinusoids propagating as plane waves through inviscid and thermoviscous media has been conducted. The decibel change with distance, calculated through Q/S, captures the growth and decay of the harmonics and indicates that the most significant changes in level occur prior to sawtooth formation. At large distances, the inviscid case results in a spatial rate of change that is uniform across all harmonics. For thermoviscous media, large positive nonlinear gains are observed but offset by absorption, which leads to a greater overall negative spatial rate of change for higher harmonics.

  19. Temporal Kinetics and Quantitative Analysis of Cryptococcus neoformans Nonlytic Exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Stukes, Sabriya A.; Cohen, Hillel W.

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of cryptococcosis, a disease that is often fatal to those with compromised immune systems. C. neoformans has the capacity to escape phagocytic cells through a process known as nonlytic exocytosis whereby the cryptococcal cell is released from the macrophage into the extracellular environment, leaving both the host and pathogen alive. Little is known about the mechanism behind nonlytic exocytosis, but there is evidence that both the fungal and host cells contribute to the process. In this study, we used time-lapse movies of C. neoformans-infected macrophages to delineate the kinetics and quantitative aspects of nonlytic exocytosis. We analyzed approximately 800 macrophages containing intracellular C. neoformans and identified 163 nonlytic exocytosis events that were further characterized into three subcategories: type I (complete emptying of macrophage), type II (partial emptying of macrophage), and type III (cell-to-cell transfer). The majority of type I and II events occurred after several hours of intracellular residence, whereas type III events occurred significantly (P < 0.001) earlier in the course of macrophage infection. Our results show that nonlytic exocytosis is a morphologically and temporally diverse process that occurs relatively rapidly in the course of macrophage infection. PMID:24595144

  20. Quantitative analysis of pheromone-binding protein specificity

    PubMed Central

    Katti, S.; Lokhande, N.; González, D.; Cassill, A.; Renthal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Many pheromones have very low water solubility, posing experimental difficulties for quantitative binding measurements. A new method is presented for determining thermodynamically valid dissociation constants for ligands binding to pheromone-binding proteins (OBPs), using β-cyclodextrin as a solubilizer and transfer agent. The method is applied to LUSH, a Drosophila OBP that binds the pheromone 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA). Refolding of LUSH expressed in E. coli was assessed by measuring N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) binding and Förster resonance energy transfer between LUSH tryptophan 123 (W123) and NPN. Binding of cVA was measured from quenching of W123 fluorescence as a function of cVA concentration. The equilibrium constant for transfer of cVA between β-cyclodextrin and LUSH was determined from a linked equilibria model. This constant, multiplied by the β-cyclodextrin-cVA dissociation constant, gives the LUSH-cVA dissociation constant: ~100 nM. It was also found that other ligands quench W123 fluorescence. The LUSH-ligand dissociation constants were determined to be ~200 nM for the silk moth pheromone bombykol and ~90 nM for methyl oleate. The results indicate that the ligand-binding cavity of LUSH can accommodate a variety ligands with strong binding interactions. Implications of this for the pheromone receptor model proposed by Laughlin et al. (Cell 133: 1255–65, 2008) are discussed. PMID:23121132

  1. Quantitative assessment of human motion using video motion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Probe, John D.

    1990-01-01

    In the study of the dynamics and kinematics of the human body, a wide variety of technologies was developed. Photogrammetric techniques are well documented and are known to provide reliable positional data from recorded images. Often these techniques are used in conjunction with cinematography and videography for analysis of planar motion, and to a lesser degree three-dimensional motion. Cinematography has been the most widely used medium for movement analysis. Excessive operating costs and the lag time required for film development coupled with recent advances in video technology have allowed video based motion analysis systems to emerge as a cost effective method of collecting and analyzing human movement. The Anthropometric and Biomechanics Lab at Johnson Space Center utilizes the video based Ariel Performance Analysis System to develop data on shirt-sleeved and space-suited human performance in order to plan efficient on orbit intravehicular and extravehicular activities. The system is described.

  2. From quantitative protein complex analysis to disease mechanism.

    PubMed

    Texier, Y; Kinkl, N; Boldt, K; Ueffing, M

    2012-12-15

    Interest in the field of cilia biology and cilia-associated diseases - ciliopathies - has strongly increased over the last few years. Proteomic technologies, especially protein complex analysis by affinity purification-based methods, have been used to decipher various basic but also disease-associated mechanisms. This review focusses on some selected recent studies using affinity purification-based protein complex analysis, thereby exemplifying the great possibilities this technology offers.

  3. [Quantitative spectrum analysis of characteristic gases of spontaneous combustion coal].

    PubMed

    Liang, Yun-Tao; Tang, Xiao-Jun; Luo, Hai-Zhu; Sun, Yong

    2011-09-01

    Aimed at the characteristics of spontaneous combustion gas such as a variety of gases, lou limit of detection, and critical requirement of safety, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis is presented to analyze characteristic gases of spontaneous combustion In this paper, analysis method is introduced at first by combing characteristics of absorption spectra of analyte and analysis requirement. Parameter setting method, sample preparation, feature variable abstract and analysis model building are taken into consideration. The methods of sample preparation, feature abstraction and analysis model are introduced in detail. And then, eleven kinds of gases were tested with Tensor 27 spectrometer. CH4, C2H6, C3H8, iC4H10, nC4H10, C2 H4, C3 H6, C3 H2, SF6, CO and CO2 were included. The optical path length was 10 cm while the spectra resolution was set as 1 cm(-1). The testing results show that the detection limit of all analytes is less than 2 x 10(-6). All the detection limits fit the measurement requirement of spontaneous combustion gas, which means that FTIR may be an ideal instrument and the analysis method used in this paper is competent for spontaneous combustion gas measurement on line.

  4. An Analysis of the Air Force Enlisted Performance Feedback System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    subjects giving and receiving the feedback from the various methods (DeGregorio and Fisher, 1988:605). The four types of techniques they studied in... receives some P.~ id~srn Hence, leadership gives support from upper-level ~potfo elw p no emphasis to a feedback management. Certain Io .a.........k...researchers’ analysis of the literature. The researchers found evidence that the new Air Force feedback system is an improvement over the old design. Under the

  5. Interlaboratory study of toxaphene analysis in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidleman, Terry F.; Cussion, Sylvia; Jantunen, Liisa M.

    An interlaboratory study was conducted for total toxaphene and selected congeners in an extract of ambient air from the southern United States. All participating labs were experienced in toxaphene analysis and used GC-MS techniques. Ten labs reported the concentration of total toxaphene in a technical toxaphene solution, with a 113% average recovery of the target value and 40% relative standard deviation (RSD). Only six of the 10 labs fell within ±30% of the target value, a criterion recommended by good laboratory practice standards. The interlaboratory RSD was 65% for total toxaphene in the air sample extract (lowered to 43% when one outlying lab was omitted). Nine labs reported the concentrations of five toxaphene components (B8-1413, B8-1414+B8-1945, B8-806+B8-809, B8-2229 and B9-1679) with 33-47% RSD for the technical toxaphene unknown and 34-62% for the air sample. The precision was poorer for a sixth component, congener B9-1025, which has a very low response by electron capture negative ion mass spectrometry (ECNI): 59% RSD for the technical toxaphene unknown and 196% for the air sample. Factors contributing to the interlaboratory variability for total toxaphene and single components are discussed, and follow-up studies are required to identify and minimize the causes of variability. Based on the average analysis, B8-1413 was enriched and B8-806+B8-809 was depleted in the air sample relative to the technical toxaphene standard.

  6. Software applications toward quantitative metabolic flux analysis and modeling.

    PubMed

    Dandekar, Thomas; Fieselmann, Astrid; Majeed, Saman; Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2014-01-01

    Metabolites and their pathways are central for adaptation and survival. Metabolic modeling elucidates in silico all the possible flux pathways (flux balance analysis, FBA) and predicts the actual fluxes under a given situation, further refinement of these models is possible by including experimental isotopologue data. In this review, we initially introduce the key theoretical concepts and different analysis steps in the modeling process before comparing flux calculation and metabolite analysis programs such as C13, BioOpt, COBRA toolbox, Metatool, efmtool, FiatFlux, ReMatch, VANTED, iMAT and YANA. Their respective strengths and limitations are discussed and compared to alternative software. While data analysis of metabolites, calculation of metabolic fluxes, pathways and their condition-specific changes are all possible, we highlight the considerations that need to be taken into account before deciding on a specific software. Current challenges in the field include the computation of large-scale networks (in elementary mode analysis), regulatory interactions and detailed kinetics, and these are discussed in the light of powerful new approaches.

  7. Quantitative assessment of human motion using video motion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Probe, John D.

    1993-01-01

    In the study of the dynamics and kinematics of the human body a wide variety of technologies has been developed. Photogrammetric techniques are well documented and are known to provide reliable positional data from recorded images. Often these techniques are used in conjunction with cinematography and videography for analysis of planar motion, and to a lesser degree three-dimensional motion. Cinematography has been the most widely used medium for movement analysis. Excessive operating costs and the lag time required for film development, coupled with recent advances in video technology, have allowed video based motion analysis systems to emerge as a cost effective method of collecting and analyzing human movement. The Anthropometric and Biomechanics Lab at Johnson Space Center utilizes the video based Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS) to develop data on shirtsleeved and space-suited human performance in order to plan efficient on-orbit intravehicular and extravehicular activities. APAS is a fully integrated system of hardware and software for biomechanics and the analysis of human performance and generalized motion measurement. Major components of the complete system include the video system, the AT compatible computer, and the proprietary software.

  8. Geysers of Enceladus: Quantitative analysis of qualitative models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilliantov, Nikolai V.; Schmidt, Jürgen; Spahn, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Aspects of two qualitative models of Enceladus' dust plume - the so-called "Cold Faithful" [Porco, C.C., et al., 2006. Cassini observes the active south pole of Enceladus. Science 311, 1393-1401; Ingersoll, A.P., et al., 2006. Models of the Enceladus plumes. In: Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, vol. 38, p. 508] and "Frigid Faithful" [Kieffer, S.W., et al., 2006. A clathrate reservoir hypothesis for Enceladus' south polar plume. Science 314, 1764; Gioia, G., et al., 2007. Unified model of tectonics and heat transport in a Frigid Enceladus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 104, 13578-13591] models - are analyzed quantitatively. The former model assumes an explosive boiling of subsurface liquid water, when pressure exerted by the ice crust is suddenly released due to an opening crack. In the latter model the existence of a deep shell of clathrates below Enceladus' south pole is conjectured; clathrates can decompose explosively when exposed to vacuum through a fracture in the outer icy shell. For the Cold Faithful model we estimate the maximal velocity of ice grains, originating from water splashing in explosive boiling. We find that for water near the triple point this velocity is far too small to explain the observed plume properties. For the Frigid Faithful model we consider the problem of momentum transfer from gas to ice particles. It arises since any change in the direction of the gas flow in the cracks of the shell requires re-acceleration of the entrained grains. While this effect may explain the observed speed difference of gas and grains if the gas evaporates from triple point temperature (273.15 K) [Schmidt, J., et al., 2008. Formation of Enceladus dust plume. Nature 451, 685], the low temperatures of the Frigid Faithful model (˜140-170K) imply a too dilute vapor to support the observed high particle fluxes in Enceladus' plume.

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Shoot Development and Branching Patterns in Actinidia

    PubMed Central

    SELEZNYOVA, ALLA N.; THORP, T. GRANT; BARNETT, ANDREW M.; COSTES, EVELYNE

    2002-01-01

    We developed a framework for the quantitative description of Actinidia vine architecture, classifying shoots into three types (short, medium and long) corresponding to the modes of node number distribution and the presence/absence of neoformed nodes. Short and medium shoots were self‐terminated and had only preformed nodes. Based on the cut‐off point between their two modes of node number distribution, short shoots were defined as having nine or less nodes, and medium shoots as having more than nine nodes. Long shoots were non‐terminated and had a number of neoformed nodes; the total number of nodes per shoot was up to 90. Branching patterns for each parent shoot type were represented by a succession of branching zones. Probabilities of different types of axillary production (latent bud, short, medium or long shoot) and the distributions of length for each branching zone were estimated from experimental data using hidden semi‐Markov chain stochastic models. Branching was acrotonic on short and medium parent shoots, with most axillary shoots being located near the shoot tip. For long parent shoots, branching was mesotonic, with most long axillary shoots being located in the transition zone between the preformed and neoformed part of the parent shoot. Although the shoot classification is based on node number distribution there was a marked difference in average (per shoot) internode length between the shoot types, with mean values of 9, 27 and 47 mm for short, medium and long shoots, respectively. Bud and shoot development is discussed in terms of environmental controls. PMID:12096808

  10. Quantitative analysis of lymphangiogenic markers in human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Parr, C; Jiang, W G

    2003-08-01

    Lymphatic spread of colorectal cancer cells to regional lymph nodes is one of the early events in metastatic cancer, and is often associated with distant metastatic spread and a poor prognosis. This study examined lymphangiogenic factors, and in particular a panel of newly discovered lymphangiogenic markers, in colorectal cancer tissues from a cohort of patients. Paired samples (background normal mucosa and cancer) of colon tissue were obtained from patients with colorectal cancer. The expression and levels of the VEGF-C and VEGF-D cytokines, the VEGF receptors VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3, and newly described lymphatic endothelial markers, LYVE-1, Prox-1, podoplanin and 5'-nucleotidase were assessed. RNA was extracted from the frozen colon tissues. The level of expression for each factor/marker was determined using RT-PCR and quantified using a real-time quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR) technique, with respective cloned cDNA plasmids as internal standards. VEGF-D was expressed to a significantly higher degree in the colon tumour tissues. There was no significant difference between the expression levels for both VEGF-C and its receptor, VEGFR-2, in background and cancer tissues. However, levels of the VEGFR-3 receptor were found to be significantly higher in colon cancer than the normal background tissues. LYVE-1 levels were below detection in most cases. There was a significant increase in the degree of Prox-1 and 5'-nucleotidase expression in colon cancer tissue. Podoplanin expression was also increased in the cancer samples. These markers indicate an increase in lymphangiogenesis in colon cancer, and may therefore have prognostic value for colon cancer patients.

  11. Dynamic and still microcirculatory image analysis for quantitative microcirculation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Xiaoyou; Xiu, Rui-juan

    1994-05-01

    Based on analyses of various types of digital microcirculatory image (DMCI), we summed up the image features of DMCI, the digitizing demands for digital microcirculatory imaging, and the basic characteristics of the DMCI processing. A dynamic and still imaging separation processing (DSISP) mode was designed for developing a DMCI workstation and the DMCI processing. Original images in this study were clinical microcirculatory images from human finger nail-bed and conjunctiva microvasculature, and intravital microvascular network images from animal tissue or organs. A series of dynamic and still microcirculatory image analysis functions were developed in this study. The experimental results indicate most of the established analog video image analysis methods for microcirculatory measurement could be realized in a more flexible way based on the DMCI. More information can be rapidly extracted from the quality improved DMCI by employing intelligence digital image analysis methods. The DSISP mode is very suitable for building a DMCI workstation.

  12. Automated quantitative analysis of ventilation-perfusion lung scintigrams

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, G.H.; Vernon, P.; Seed, W.A.

    1984-05-01

    An automated computer analysis of ventilation (Kr-81m) and perfusion (Tc-99m) lung images has been devised that produces a graphical image of the distribution of ventilation and perfusion, and of ventilation-perfusion ratios. The analysis has overcome the following problems: the identification of the midline between two lungs and the lung boundaries, the exclusion of extrapulmonary radioactivity, the superimposition of lung images of different sizes, and the format for presentation of the data. Therefore, lung images of different sizes and shapes may be compared with each other. The analysis has been used to develop normal ranges from 55 volunteers. Comparison of younger and older age groups of men and women show small but significant differences in the distribution of ventilation and perfusion, but no differences in ventilation-perfusion ratios.

  13. Quantitative spectroscopy for the analysis of GOME data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate analysis of the global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME) data to obtain atmospheric constituents requires reliable, traceable spectroscopic parameters for atmospheric absorption and scattering. Results are summarized for research that includes: the re-determination of Rayleigh scattering cross sections and phase functions for the 200 nm to 1000 nm range; the analysis of solar spectra to obtain a high-resolution reference spectrum with excellent absolute vacuum wavelength calibration; Ring effect cross sections and phase functions determined directly from accurate molecular parameters of N2 and O2; O2 A band line intensities and pressure broadening coefficients; and the analysis of absolute accuracies for ultraviolet and visible absorption cross sections of O3 and other trace species measurable by GOME.

  14. Single radial immunodiffusion analysis for quantitation of colostral immunoglobulin concentration.

    PubMed

    Fleenor, W A; Stott, G H

    1981-05-01

    Relative accuracy of the single radial immunodiffusion technique to measure immunoglobulin concentrations of colostral preparations (whey, whole, or fat-free) has been assessed. Fresh colostrum samples were analyzed for major constituents. Gammaglobulin as a standard was compared to total immunoglobulin concentration derived from single radial immunodiffusion analysis of colostral preparations with no differences except between standard and whey. Differences were in part from either enhancement or interference of immunoglobulin diffusion by colostral constituents. Removal of casein and fat during whey preparations caused a concentrating effect upon immunoglobulin constituents resulting in exaggerated precipitin rings. Whey has produced unreliable results: therefore, whole colostrum is recommended for single radial immunodiffusion analysis.

  15. Theoretical and numerical analysis of the corneal air puff test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonini, Irene; Angelillo, Maurizio; Pandolfi, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Ocular analyzers are used in the current clinical practice to estimate, by means of a rapid air jet, the intraocular pressure and other eye's parameters. In this study, we model the biomechanical response of the human cornea to the dynamic test with two approaches. In the first approach, the corneal system undergoing the air puff test is regarded as a harmonic oscillator. In the second approach, we use patient-specific geometries and the finite element method to simulate the dynamic test on surgically treated corneas. In spite of the different levels of approximation, the qualitative response of the two models is very similar, and the most meaningful results of both models are not significantly affected by the inclusion of viscosity of the corneal material in the dynamic analysis. Finite element calculations reproduce the observed snap-through of the corneal shell, including two applanate configurations, and compare well with in vivo images provided by ocular analyzers, suggesting that the mechanical response of the cornea to the air puff test is actually driven only by the elasticity of the stromal tissue. These observations agree with the dynamic characteristics of the test, since the frequency of the air puff impulse is several orders of magnitude larger than the reciprocal of any reasonable relaxation time for the material, downplaying the role of viscosity during the fast snap-through phase.

  16. Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Investment Model-Cargo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jesse; Santmire, Tara

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Air Cargo Investment Model-Cargo (ACIMC), is to examine the economic effects of technology investment on the air cargo market, particularly the market for new cargo aircraft. To do so, we have built an econometrically based model designed to operate like the ACIM. Two main drivers account for virtually all of the demand: the growth rate of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and changes in the fare yield (which is a proxy of the price charged or fare). These differences arise from a combination of the nature of air cargo demand and the peculiarities of the air cargo market. The net effect of these two factors are that sales of new cargo aircraft are much less sensitive to either increases in GDP or changes in the costs of labor, capital, fuel, materials, and energy associated with the production of new cargo aircraft than the sales of new passenger aircraft. This in conjunction with the relatively small size of the cargo aircraft market means technology improvements to the cargo aircraft will do relatively very little to spur increased sales of new cargo aircraft.

  17. Rethinking Meta-Analysis: Applications for Air Pollution Data and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Julie E; Petito Boyce, Catherine; Sax, Sonja N; Beyer, Leslie A; Prueitt, Robyn L

    2015-06-01

    Meta-analyses offer a rigorous and transparent systematic framework for synthesizing data that can be used for a wide range of research areas, study designs, and data types. Both the outcome of meta-analyses and the meta-analysis process itself can yield useful insights for answering scientific questions and making policy decisions. Development of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards illustrates many potential applications of meta-analysis. These applications demonstrate the strengths and limitations of meta-analysis, issues that arise in various data realms, how meta-analysis design choices can influence interpretation of results, and how meta-analysis can be used to address bias and heterogeneity. Reviewing available data from a meta-analysis perspective can provide a useful framework and impetus for identifying and refining strategies for future research. Moreover, increased pervasiveness of a meta-analysis mindset-focusing on how the pieces of the research puzzle fit together-would benefit scientific research and data syntheses regardless of whether or not a quantitative meta-analysis is undertaken. While an individual meta-analysis can only synthesize studies addressing the same research question, the results of separate meta-analyses can be combined to address a question encompassing multiple data types. This observation applies to any scientific or policy area where information from a variety of disciplines must be considered to address a broader research question.

  18. EXPLoRA-web: linkage analysis of quantitative trait loci using bulk segregant analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pulido-Tamayo, Sergio; Duitama, Jorge; Marchal, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Identification of genomic regions associated with a phenotype of interest is a fundamental step toward solving questions in biology and improving industrial research. Bulk segregant analysis (BSA) combined with high-throughput sequencing is a technique to efficiently identify these genomic regions associated with a trait of interest. However, distinguishing true from spuriously linked genomic regions and accurately delineating the genomic positions of these truly linked regions requires the use of complex statistical models currently implemented in software tools that are generally difficult to operate for non-expert users. To facilitate the exploration and analysis of data generated by bulked segregant analysis, we present EXPLoRA-web, a web service wrapped around our previously published algorithm EXPLoRA, which exploits linkage disequilibrium to increase the power and accuracy of quantitative trait loci identification in BSA analysis. EXPLoRA-web provides a user friendly interface that enables easy data upload and parallel processing of different parameter configurations. Results are provided graphically and as BED file and/or text file and the input is expected in widely used formats, enabling straightforward BSA data analysis. The web server is available at http://bioinformatics.intec.ugent.be/explora-web/. PMID:27105844

  19. Regression Commonality Analysis: A Technique for Quantitative Theory Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimon, Kim; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to multiple linear regression analysis (MLR), it is common for social and behavioral science researchers to rely predominately on beta weights when evaluating how predictors contribute to a regression model. Presenting an underutilized statistical technique, this article describes how organizational researchers can use commonality…

  20. Reflectance spectroscopy: quantitative analysis techniques for remote sensing applications.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, R.N.; Roush, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    Several methods for the analysis of remotely sensed reflectance data are compared, including empirical methods and scattering theories, both of which are important for solving remote sensing problems. The concept of the photon mean path length and the implications for use in modeling reflectance spectra are presented.-from Authors

  1. Identification and quantitative analysis of tissue particulate burden.

    PubMed

    Abraham, J L

    1984-01-01

    The analysis of particles in tissue samples, especially in lung tissue samples, has been of great use diagnostically and in the search for more precise information on the etiology of occupational/environmental diseases. There is a strong need for an interdisciplinary approach involving patients, epidemiologists, clinicians, pathologists, toxicologists, and microscopists if advancement in the recognition, diagnosis, and prevention of disease is to proceed.

  2. Quantitative analysis of cell migration using optical flow.

    PubMed

    Boric, Katica; Orio, Patricio; Viéville, Thierry; Whitlock, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Neural crest cells exhibit dramatic migration behaviors as they populate their distant targets. Using a line of zebrafish expressing green fluorescent protein (sox10:EGFP) in neural crest cells we developed an assay to analyze and quantify cell migration as a population, and use it here to characterize in detail the subtle defects in cell migration caused by ethanol exposure during early development. The challenge was to quantify changes in the in vivo migration of all Sox10:EGFP expressing cells in the visual field of time-lapse movies. To perform this analysis we used an Optical Flow algorithm for motion detection and combined the analysis with a fit to an affine transformation. Through this analysis we detected and quantified significant differences in the cell migrations of Sox10:EGFP positive cranial neural crest populations in ethanol treated versus untreated embryos. Specifically, treatment affected migration by increasing the left-right asymmetry of the migrating cells and by altering the direction of cell movements. Thus, by applying this novel computational analysis, we were able to quantify the movements of populations of cells, allowing us to detect subtle changes in cell behaviors. Because cranial neural crest cells contribute to the formation of the frontal mass these subtle differences may underlie commonly observed facial asymmetries in normal human populations.

  3. Efficacy of Rational-Emotive Therapy: A Quantitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Gemma I.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Meta-analysis of 28 controlled studies on rational-emotive therapy (RET) showed RET superior to placebo and no treatment, but equally effective in comparison with treatments such as combination therapies and systematic desensitization. No support was found for view that RET with main or balanced emphasis on behavioral techniques is more…

  4. Quantitative histology analysis of the ovarian tumour microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Chunyan; Heindl, Andreas; Huang, Xin; Xi, Shaoyan; Banerjee, Susana; Liu, Jihong; Yuan, Yinyin

    2015-01-01

    Concerted efforts in genomic studies examining RNA transcription and DNA methylation patterns have revealed profound insights in prognostic ovarian cancer subtypes. On the other hand, abundant histology slides have been generated to date, yet their uses remain very limited and largely qualitative. Our goal is to develop automated histology analysis as an alternative subtyping technology for ovarian cancer that is cost-efficient and does not rely on DNA quality. We developed an automated system for scoring primary tumour sections of 91 late-stage ovarian cancer to identify single cells. We demonstrated high accuracy of our system based on expert pathologists’ scores (cancer = 97.1%, stromal = 89.1%) as well as compared to immunohistochemistry scoring (correlation = 0.87). The percentage of stromal cells in all cells is significantly associated with poor overall survival after controlling for clinical parameters including debulking status and age (multivariate analysis p = 0.0021, HR = 2.54, CI = 1.40–4.60) and progression-free survival (multivariate analysis p = 0.022, HR = 1.75, CI = 1.09–2.82). We demonstrate how automated image analysis enables objective quantification of microenvironmental composition of ovarian tumours. Our analysis reveals a strong effect of the tumour microenvironment on ovarian cancer progression and highlights the potential of therapeutic interventions that target the stromal compartment or cancer-stroma signalling in the stroma-high, late-stage ovarian cancer subset. PMID:26573438

  5. A quantitative analysis of fish consumption and stroke risk.

    PubMed

    Bouzan, Colleen; Cohen, Joshua T; Connor, William E; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Gray, George M; König, Ariane; Lawrence, Robert S; Savitz, David A; Teutsch, Steven M

    2005-11-01

    Although a rich source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that may confer multiple health benefits, some fish contain methyl mercury (MeHg), which may harm the developing fetus. U.S. government recommendations for women of childbearing age are to modify consumption of high-MeHg fish to reduce MeHg exposure, while recommendations encourage fish consumption among the general population because of the nutritional benefits. The Harvard Center for Risk Analysis convened an expert panel (see acknowledgements) to quantify the net impact of resulting hypothetical changes in fish consumption across the population. This paper estimates the impact of fish consumption on stroke risk. Other papers quantify coronary heart disease mortality risk and the impacts of both prenatal MeHg exposure and maternal intake of n-3 PUFAs on cognitive development. This analysis identified articles in a recent qualitative literature review that are appropriate for the development of a dose-response relationship between fish consumption and stroke risk. Studies had to satisfy quality criteria, quantify fish intake, and report the precision of the relative risk estimates. The analysis combined the relative risk results, weighting each proportionately to its precision. Six studies were identified as appropriate for inclusion in this analysis, including five prospective cohort studies and one case-control study (total of 24 exposure groups). Our analysis indicates that any fish consumption confers substantial relative risk reduction compared to no fish consumption (12% for the linear model), with the possibility that additional consumption confers incremental benefits (central estimate of 2.0% per serving per week).

  6. Why social network analysis is important to Air Force applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havig, Paul R.; McIntire, John P.; Geiselman, Eric; Mohd-Zaid, Fairul

    2012-06-01

    Social network analysis is a powerful tool used to help analysts discover relationships amongst groups of people as well as individuals. It is the mathematics behind such social networks as Facebook and MySpace. These networks alone cause a huge amount of data to be generated and the issue is only compounded once one adds in other electronic media such as e-mails and twitter. In this paper we outline the basics of social network analysis and how it may be used in current and future Air Force applications.

  7. Quantitative analysis of night skyglow amplification under cloudy conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Solano Lamphar, Héctor Antonio

    2014-10-01

    The radiance produced by artificial light is a major source of nighttime over-illumination. It can, however, be treated experimentally using ground-based and satellite data. These two types of data complement each other and together have a high information content. For instance, the satellite data enable upward light emissions to be normalized, and this in turn allows skyglow levels at the ground to be modelled under cloudy or overcast conditions. Excessive night lighting imposes an unacceptable burden on nature, humans and professional astronomy. For this reason, there is a pressing need to determine the total amount of downwelling diffuse radiation. Undoubtedly, cloudy periods can cause a significant increase in skyglow as a result of amplification owing to diffuse reflection from clouds. While it is recognized that the amplification factor (AF) varies with cloud cover, the effects of different types of clouds, of atmospheric turbidity and of the geometrical relationships between the positions of an individual observer, the cloud layer, and the light source are in general poorly known. In this paper the AF is quantitatively analysed considering different aerosol optical depths (AODs), urban layout sizes and cloud types with specific albedos and altitudes. The computational results show that the AF peaks near the edges of a city rather than at its centre. In addition, the AF appears to be a decreasing function of AOD, which is particularly important when modelling the skyglow in regions with apparent temporal or seasonal variability of atmospheric turbidity. The findings in this paper will be useful to those designing engineering applications or modelling light pollution, as well as to astronomers and environmental scientists who aim to predict the amplification of skyglow caused by clouds. In addition, the semi-analytical formulae can be used to estimate the AF levels, especially in densely populated metropolitan regions for which detailed computations may be CPU

  8. Quantitative full time course analysis of nonlinear enzyme cycling kinetics.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenxiang; De La Cruz, Enrique M

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme inhibition due to the reversible binding of reaction products is common and underlies the origins of negative feedback inhibition in many metabolic and signaling pathways. Product inhibition generates non-linearity in steady-state time courses of enzyme activity, which limits the utility of well-established enzymology approaches developed under the assumption of irreversible product release. For more than a century, numerous attempts to find a mathematical solution for analysis of kinetic time courses with product inhibition have been put forth. However, no practical general method capable of extracting common enzymatic parameters from such non-linear time courses has been successfully developed. Here we present a simple and practical method of analysis capable of efficiently extracting steady-state enzyme kinetic parameters and product binding constants from non-linear kinetic time courses with product inhibition and/or substrate depletion. The method is general and applicable to all enzyme systems, independent of reaction schemes and pathways.

  9. Efficacy of rational-emotive therapy: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Engels, G I; Garnefski, N; Diekstra, R F

    1993-12-01

    Meta-analysis of 28 controlled studies on the efficacy of rational-emotive therapy (RET) showed RET to be superior to placebo and no treatment but equally effective in comparison with other types of treatment such as combination therapies and systematic desensitization. No support was found for the view that RET with a main or balanced emphasis on behavioral techniques is more efficacious than RET with a primarily or exclusively cognitive approach. However, given the heterogeneity of the set of studies and its relatively small sample size, interpretations of results have to be made with caution, particularly because evidence was found for a relationship between study characteristics and magnitude of effect size. For the sake of meta-analysis, outcome studies should be required to report at least the means and standard deviations for all experimental groups.

  10. African Primary Care Research: quantitative analysis and presentation of results.

    PubMed

    Mash, Bob; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A

    2014-06-06

    This article is part of a series on Primary Care Research Methods. The article describes types of continuous and categorical data, how to capture data in a spreadsheet, how to use descriptive and inferential statistics and, finally, gives advice on how to present the results in text, figures and tables. The article intends to help Master's level students with writing the data analysis section of their research proposal and presenting their results in their final research report.

  11. Calibration and Data Analysis of the MC-130 Air Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Dennis; Ulbrich, N.

    2012-01-01

    Design, calibration, calibration analysis, and intended use of the MC-130 air balance are discussed. The MC-130 balance is an 8.0 inch diameter force balance that has two separate internal air flow systems and one external bellows system. The manual calibration of the balance consisted of a total of 1854 data points with both unpressurized and pressurized air flowing through the balance. A subset of 1160 data points was chosen for the calibration data analysis. The regression analysis of the subset was performed using two fundamentally different analysis approaches. First, the data analysis was performed using a recently developed extension of the Iterative Method. This approach fits gage outputs as a function of both applied balance loads and bellows pressures while still allowing the application of the iteration scheme that is used with the Iterative Method. Then, for comparison, the axial force was also analyzed using the Non-Iterative Method. This alternate approach directly fits loads as a function of measured gage outputs and bellows pressures and does not require a load iteration. The regression models used by both the extended Iterative and Non-Iterative Method were constructed such that they met a set of widely accepted statistical quality requirements. These requirements lead to reliable regression models and prevent overfitting of data because they ensure that no hidden near-linear dependencies between regression model terms exist and that only statistically significant terms are included. Finally, a comparison of the axial force residuals was performed. Overall, axial force estimates obtained from both methods show excellent agreement as the differences of the standard deviation of the axial force residuals are on the order of 0.001 % of the axial force capacity.

  12. Longitudinal Metagenomic Analysis of Hospital Air Identifies Clinically Relevant Microbes

    PubMed Central

    King, Paula; Pham, Long K.; Waltz, Shannon; Sphar, Dan; Yamamoto, Robert T.; Conrad, Douglas; Taplitz, Randy; Torriani, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    We describe the sampling of sixty-three uncultured hospital air samples collected over a six-month period and analysis using shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Our primary goals were to determine the longitudinal metagenomic variability of this environment, identify and characterize genomes of potential pathogens and determine whether they are atypical to the hospital airborne metagenome. Air samples were collected from eight locations which included patient wards, the main lobby and outside. The resulting DNA libraries produced 972 million sequences representing 51 gigabases. Hierarchical clustering of samples by the most abundant 50 microbial orders generated three major nodes which primarily clustered by type of location. Because the indoor locations were longitudinally consistent, episodic relative increases in microbial genomic signatures related to the opportunistic pathogens Aspergillus, Penicillium and Stenotrophomonas were identified as outliers at specific locations. Further analysis of microbial reads specific for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia indicated homology to a sequenced multi-drug resistant clinical strain and we observed broad sequence coverage of resistance genes. We demonstrate that a shotgun metagenomic sequencing approach can be used to characterize the resistance determinants of pathogen genomes that are uncharacteristic for an otherwise consistent hospital air microbial metagenomic profile. PMID:27482891

  13. Longitudinal Metagenomic Analysis of Hospital Air Identifies Clinically Relevant Microbes.

    PubMed

    King, Paula; Pham, Long K; Waltz, Shannon; Sphar, Dan; Yamamoto, Robert T; Conrad, Douglas; Taplitz, Randy; Torriani, Francesca; Forsyth, R Allyn

    2016-01-01

    We describe the sampling of sixty-three uncultured hospital air samples collected over a six-month period and analysis using shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Our primary goals were to determine the longitudinal metagenomic variability of this environment, identify and characterize genomes of potential pathogens and determine whether they are atypical to the hospital airborne metagenome. Air samples were collected from eight locations which included patient wards, the main lobby and outside. The resulting DNA libraries produced 972 million sequences representing 51 gigabases. Hierarchical clustering of samples by the most abundant 50 microbial orders generated three major nodes which primarily clustered by type of location. Because the indoor locations were longitudinally consistent, episodic relative increases in microbial genomic signatures related to the opportunistic pathogens Aspergillus, Penicillium and Stenotrophomonas were identified as outliers at specific locations. Further analysis of microbial reads specific for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia indicated homology to a sequenced multi-drug resistant clinical strain and we observed broad sequence coverage of resistance genes. We demonstrate that a shotgun metagenomic sequencing approach can be used to characterize the resistance determinants of pathogen genomes that are uncharacteristic for an otherwise consistent hospital air microbial metagenomic profile.

  14. [Quantitative image analysis in pulmonary pathology - digitalization of preneoplastic lesions in human bronchial epithelium (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Steinbach, T; Müller, K M; Kämper, H

    1979-01-01

    The report concerns the first phase of a quantitative study of normal and abnormal bronchial epithelium with the objective of establishing the digitalization of histologic patterns. Preparative methods, data collecting and handling, and further mathematical analysis are described. In cluster and discriminatory analysis the digitalized histologic features can be used to separate and classify the individual cases into the respective diagnostic groups.

  15. Digitally Enhanced Thin-Layer Chromatography: An Inexpensive, New Technique for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Amber Victoria Irish

    2007-01-01

    A study conducted shows that if digital photography is combined with regular thin-layer chromatography (TLC), it could perform highly improved qualitative analysis as well as make accurate quantitative analysis possible for a much lower cost than commercial equipment. The findings suggest that digitally enhanced TLC (DE-TLC) is low-cost and easy…

  16. Kinetic Analysis of Amylase Using Quantitative Benedict's and Iodine Starch Reagents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Beverly; Lunday, Deborah; Miskevich, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of carbohydrates is a fundamental analytical tool used in many aspects of biology and chemistry. We have adapted a technique developed by Mathews et al. using an inexpensive scanner and open-source image analysis software to quantify amylase activity using both the breakdown of starch and the appearance of glucose. Breakdown…

  17. Revisiting the quantitative features of surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Yi; Lee, Kai-Chieh; Kuo, Yen-Ling; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2016-10-28

    Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) is frequently used to analyse small organics owing to its clean background. Inorganic materials can be used as energy absorbers and the transfer medium to facilitate the desorption/ionization of analytes; thus, they are used as SALDI-assisting materials. Many studies have demonstrated the usefulness of SALDI-MS in quantitative analysis of small organics. However, some characteristics occurring in SALDI-MS require certain attention to ensure the reliability of the quantitative analysis results. The appearance of a coffee-ring effect in SALDI sample preparation is the primary factor that can affect quantitative SALDI-MS analysis results. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no reports relating to quantitative SALDI-MS analysis that discuss or consider this effect. In this study, the coffee-ring effect is discussed using nanoparticles and nanostructured substrates as SALDI-assisting materials to show how this effect influences SALDI-MS analysis results. Potential solutions for overcoming the existing problems are also suggested.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  18. [Study on the multivariate quantitative analysis method for steel alloy elements using LIBS].

    PubMed

    Gu, Yan-hong; Li, Ying; Tian, Ye; Lu, Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative analysis of steel alloys was carried out using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) taking into account the complex matrix effects in steel alloy samples. The laser induced plasma was generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm with pulse width of 10 ns and repeated frequency of 10 Hz. The LIBS signal was coupled to the echelle spectrometer and recorded by a high sensitive ICCD detector. To get the best experimental conditions, some parameters, such as the detection delay, the CCDs integral gate width and the detecting position from the sample surface, were optimized. The experimental results showed that the optimum detection delay time was 1.5 micros, the optimal CCDs integral gate width was 2 micros and the best detecting position was 1.5 mm below the alloy sample's surface. The samples used in the experiments are ten standard steel alloy samples and two unknown steel alloy samples. The quantitative analysis was investigated with the optimum experimental parameters. Elements Cr and Ni in steel alloy samples were taken as the detection targets. The analysis was carried out with the methods based on conditional univariate quantitative analysis, multiple linear regression and partial least squares (PLS) respectively. It turned out that the correlation coefficients of calibration curves are not very high in the conditional univariate calibration method. The analysis results were obtained with the unsatisfied relative errors for the two predicted samples. So the con- ditional univariate quantitative analysis method can't effectively serve the quantitative analysis purpose for multi-components and complex matrix steel alloy samples. And with multiple linear regression method, the analysis accuracy was improved effectively. The method based on partial least squares (PLS) turned out to be the best method among all the three quantitative analysis methods applied. Based on PLS, the correlation coefficient of calibration curve for Cr is 0

  19. Some remarks on the quantitative analysis of behavior

    PubMed Central

    Marr, M. Jackson

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses similarities between the mathematization of operant behavior and the early history of the most mathematical of sciences—physics. Galileo explored the properties of motion without dealing with the causes of motion, focusing on changes in motion. Newton's dynamics were concerned with the action of forces as causes of change. Skinner's rationale for using rate to describe behavior derived from an interest in changes in rate. Reinforcement has played the role of force in the dynamics of behavior. Behavioral momentum and maximization have received mathematical formulations in behavior analysis. Yet to be worked out are the relations between molar and molecular formulations of behavioral theory. PMID:22478028

  20. Quantitative fluid inclusion gas analysis of airburst, nuclear, impact and fulgurite glasses.

    SciTech Connect

    Parnell, John; Newsom, Horton E.; Blamey, Nigel J. F.; Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick

    2010-10-01

    We present quantitative fluid inclusion gas analysis on a suite of violently-formed glasses. We used the incremental crush mass spectrometry method (Norman & Blamey, 2001) to analyze eight pieces of Libyan Desert Glass (LDG). As potential analogues we also analyzed trinitite, three impact crater glasses, and three fulgurites. The 'clear' LDG has the lowest CO{sub 2} content and O{sub 2}/Ar ratios are two orders of magnitude lower than atmospheric. The 'foamy' glass samples have heterogeneous CO{sub 2} contents and O{sub 2}/Ar ratios. N{sub 2}/Ar ratios are similar to atmospheric (83.6). H{sub 2} and He are elevated but it is difficult to confirm whether they are of terrestrial or meteoritic origin. Combustion cannot account for oxygen depletion that matches the amount of CO{sub 2} produced. An alternative mechanism is required that removes oxygen without producing CO{sub 2}. Trinitite has exceedingly high CO{sub 2} which we attribute to carbonate breakdown of the caliche at ground zero. The O{sub 2}/Ar ratio for trinitite is lower than atmospheric but higher than all LDG samples. N{sub 2}/Ar ratios closely match atmospheric. Samples from Lonar, Henbury and Aouelloul impact craters have atmospheric N{sub 2}/Ar ratios. O{sub 2}/Ar ratios at Lonar and Henbury are 9.5 to 9.9 whereas the O{sub 2}/Ar ratio is 0.1 for the Aouelloul sample. In most fulgurites the N{sub 2}/Ar ratio is higher than atmospheric, possibly due to interference from CO. Oxygen ranges from 1.3 to 19.3%. Gas signatures of LDG inclusions neither match those from the craters, trinitite nor fulgurites. It is difficult to explain both the observed depletion of oxygen in the LDG and a CO{sub 2} level that is lower than it would be if the CO{sub 2} were simply a product of hydrocarbon combustion in air. One possible mechanism for oxygen depletion is that as air turbulently mixed with a hot jet of vaporized asteroid from an airburst and expanded, the atmospheric oxygen reacted with the metal vapor to form

  1. Modeling air pollution in the Tracking and Analysis Framework (TAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, J.D.

    1998-12-31

    The Tracking and Analysis Framework (TAF) is a set of interactive computer models for integrated assessment of the Acid Rain Provisions (Title IV) of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. TAF is designed to execute in minutes on a personal computer, thereby making it feasible for a researcher or policy analyst to examine quickly the effects of alternate modeling assumptions or policy scenarios. Because the development of TAF involves researchers in many different disciplines, TAF has been given a modular structure. In most cases, the modules contain reduced-form models that are based on more complete models exercised off-line. The structure of TAF as of December 1996 is shown. Both the Atmospheric Pathways Module produce estimates for regional air pollution variables.

  2. Quantitative Computed Tomography and Image Analysis for Advanced Muscle Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Kyle Joseph; Gíslason, Magnus K.; Arnadottir, Iris D.; Marcante, Andrea; Piccione, Francesco; Gargiulo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Medical imaging is of particular interest in the field of translational myology, as extant literature describes the utilization of a wide variety of techniques to non-invasively recapitulate and quantity various internal and external tissue morphologies. In the clinical context, medical imaging remains a vital tool for diagnostics and investigative assessment. This review outlines the results from several investigations on the use of computed tomography (CT) and image analysis techniques to assess muscle conditions and degenerative process due to aging or pathological conditions. Herein, we detail the acquisition of spiral CT images and the use of advanced image analysis tools to characterize muscles in 2D and 3D. Results from these studies recapitulate changes in tissue composition within muscles, as visualized by the association of tissue types to specified Hounsfield Unit (HU) values for fat, loose connective tissue or atrophic muscle, and normal muscle, including fascia and tendon. We show how results from these analyses can be presented as both average HU values and compositions with respect to total muscle volumes, demonstrating the reliability of these tools to monitor, assess and characterize muscle degeneration. PMID:27478562

  3. Quantitative assessment of human body shape using Fourier analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friess, Martin; Rohlf, F. J.; Hsiao, Hongwei

    2004-04-01

    Fall protection harnesses are commonly used to reduce the number and severity of injuries. Increasing the efficiency of harness design requires the size and shape variation of the user population to be assessed as detailed and as accurately as possible. In light of the unsatisfactory performance of traditional anthropometry with respect to such assessments, we propose the use of 3D laser surface scans of whole bodies and the statistical analysis of elliptic Fourier coefficients. Ninety-eight male and female adults were scanned. Key features of each torso were extracted as a 3D curve along front, back and the thighs. A 3D extension of Elliptic Fourier analysis4 was used to quantify their shape through multivariate statistics. Shape change as a function of size (allometry) was predicted by regressing the coefficients onto stature, weight and hip circumference. Upper and lower limits of torso shape variation were determined and can be used to redefine the design of the harness that will fit most individual body shapes. Observed allometric changes are used for adjustments to the harness shape in each size. Finally, the estimated outline data were used as templates for a free-form deformation of the complete torso surface using NURBS models (non-uniform rational B-splines).

  4. Managing the analysis of air quality impacts under NEPA

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Y.B.; Leslie, A.C.D.

    1995-12-31

    The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) mandates the analysis and evaluation of potential impacts of major Federal actions having the potential to affect the environment. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify an array of new air quality issues appropriate for analysis in compliance with NEPA. An example is emissions of the 189 hazardous air pollutants identified in Title III. The utility industry estimates that more than 2.4 billion pounds of toxic pollutants were emitted to the atmosphere in 1988, with the potential for resultant adverse health impacts such as cancer, reproductive effects, birth defects, and respiratory illness. The US Department of Energy (DOE) provides Federal funds for projects that utilize coal as the primary fuel, including the approximately 45 projects funded over the past ten years under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Provision of Federal funds brings these projects under NEPA review. While electric steam generating units greater than 25 MW are currently excluded from regulatory review for the 189 air toxics listed in Title III, they are not, due to their potential impacts, excluded from NEPA review when Federally funded, in whole or in part. The authors will discuss their experiences drawn from NEPA evaluations of coal-fired power projects, the differences between regulatory requirements and NEPA requirements, source categories, major and area sources, conformity, maximum achievable control technology, mandatory licensing, radionuclides, visibility, toxics found to be emitted from coal combustion, public involvement, citizen suits, the bounty system, and how NEPA review can result in beneficial changes to proposed projects through mitigation measures to avoid or minimize potentially adverse environmental impacts.

  5. [Quantitative analysis of seven phenolic acids in eight Yinqiao Jiedu serial preparations by quantitative analysis of multi-components with single-marker].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-jun; Zhang, Li; Guo, Qing; Kou, Jun-ping; Yu, Bo-yang; Gu, Dan-hua

    2015-04-01

    The study aims to develop a unified method to determine seven phenolic acids (neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A and isochlorogenic acid C) contained in honeysuckle flower that is the monarch drug of all the eight Yinqiao Jiedu serial preparations using quantitative analysis of multi-components by single-marker (QAMS). Firstly, chlorogenic acid was used as a reference to get the average relative correction factors (RCFs) of the other phenolic acids in ratios to the reference; columns and instruments from different companies were used to validate the durability of the achieved RCFs in different levels of standard solutions; and honeysuckle flower extract was used as the reference substance to fix the positions of chromatographic peaks. Secondly, the contents of seven phenolic acids in eight different Yinqiao Jiedu serial preparations samples were calculated based on the RCFs durability. Finally, the quantitative results were compared between QAMS and the external standard (ES) method. The results have showed that the durability of the achieved RCFs is good (RSD during 0.80% - 2.56%), and there are no differences between the quantitative results of QAMS and ES (the relative average deviation < 0.93%). So it can be successfully used to the quantitative control of honeysuckle flower principally prescribed in Yinqiao Jiedu serial preparations.

  6. Insights into Primary Immune Deficiency from quantitative microscopy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mace, Emily M.; Orange, Jordan S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in genomics based technology have resulted in an increase in our understanding of the molecular basis of many primary immune deficiencies. Along with this increased knowledge comes an increased responsibility to understand the underlying mechanism of disease, and thus increasingly sophisticated technologies are being used to investigate the cell biology of human immune deficiencies. One such technology, which has, itself, undergone a recent explosion in innovation, is that of high-resolution microscopy and image analysis. These advances complement innovative studies that have previously shed light on critical cell biological processes that are perturbed by single gene mutations in primary immune deficiency. Here, we highlight advances made specifically in the following cell biological processes: 1) cytoskeletal-related processes; 2) cell signaling; 3) intercellular trafficking; and 4) cellular host defense. PMID:26078103

  7. Automated monitoring and quantitative analysis of feeding behaviour in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Itskov, Pavel M.; Moreira, José-Maria; Vinnik, Ekaterina; Lopes, Gonçalo; Safarik, Steve; Dickinson, Michael H.; Ribeiro, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Food ingestion is one of the defining behaviours of all animals, but its quantification and analysis remain challenging. This is especially the case for feeding behaviour in small, genetically tractable animals such as Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we present a method based on capacitive measurements, which allows the detailed, automated and high-throughput quantification of feeding behaviour. Using this method, we were able to measure the volume ingested in single sips of an individual, and monitor the absorption of food with high temporal resolution. We demonstrate that flies ingest food by rhythmically extending their proboscis with a frequency that is not modulated by the internal state of the animal. Instead, hunger and satiety homeostatically modulate the microstructure of feeding. These results highlight similarities of food intake regulation between insects, rodents, and humans, pointing to a common strategy in how the nervous systems of different animals control food intake. PMID:25087594

  8. Digital photogrammetry for quantitative wear analysis of retrieved TKA components.

    PubMed

    Grochowsky, J C; Alaways, L W; Siskey, R; Most, E; Kurtz, S M

    2006-11-01

    The use of new materials in knee arthroplasty demands a way in which to accurately quantify wear in retrieved components. Methods such as damage scoring, coordinate measurement, and in vivo wear analysis have been used in the past. The limitations in these methods illustrate a need for a different methodology that can accurately quantify wear, which is relatively easy to perform and uses a minimal amount of expensive equipment. Off-the-shelf digital photogrammetry represents a potentially quick and easy alternative to what is readily available. Eighty tibial inserts were visually examined for front and backside wear and digitally photographed in the presence of two calibrated reference fields. All images were segmented (via manual and automated algorithms) using Adobe Photoshop and National Institute of Health ImageJ. Finally, wear was determined using ImageJ and Rhinoceros software. The absolute accuracy of the method and repeatability/reproducibility by different observers were measured in order to determine the uncertainty of wear measurements. To determine if variation in wear measurements was due to implant design, 35 implants of the three most prevalent designs were subjected to retrieval analysis. The overall accuracy of area measurements was 97.8%. The error in automated segmentation was found to be significantly lower than that of manual segmentation. The photogrammetry method was found to be reasonably accurate and repeatable in measuring 2-D areas and applicable to determining wear. There was no significant variation in uncertainty detected among different implant designs. Photogrammetry has a broad range of applicability since it is size- and design-independent. A minimal amount of off-the-shelf equipment is needed for the procedure and no proprietary knowledge of the implant is needed.

  9. Scalp Surgery: Quantitative Analysis of Follicular Unit Growth

    PubMed Central

    Caruana, Giorgia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over the years, different kinds of hair transplantation have been compared in an attempt to overcome male pattern alopecia and, at the same time, maximize both the survival and growth rate of grafted hair. In this study, we have assessed the survival and growth rate of follicular units (FU) in an in vitro model, as compared with that of conventional hair micrografts, to experimentally evaluate and elaborate on the differences between these 2 approaches in hair transplantation procedures. Methods: Group A (control; n = 100 follicles) was composed of hair micrografts, whereas FUs were assigned to Group B (experimental; n = 100 follicles, n = 35 FUs). Each group was cultured for a period of 10 days; the total stretch of follicles was measured soon after the harvest and 10 days later. The Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance on ranks test was used to perform statistical analysis. Results: The growth rate of follicles from Group A (mean 10-day shaft growth rate = 0.30 mm) proved to be statistically different compared with that of Group B (mean 10-day shaft growth rate = 0.23 mm). Conversely, our data did not show any significant difference between the survival rate of hair grafts from these 2 groups. Conclusions: Our data highlighted a reduced FU shaft growth compared with that of hair micrografts, corroborating, to a certain extent, the hypothesis that a significant amount of adipose tissue surrounding the follicle included in the graft may result in an inadequate nourishment supply to follicular cells. PMID:26579345

  10. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the brainstem following lethal sarin exposure.

    PubMed

    Meade, Mitchell L; Hoffmann, Andrea; Makley, Meghan K; Snider, Thomas H; Schlager, John J; Gearhart, Jeffery M

    2015-06-22

    The brainstem represents a major tissue area affected by sarin organophosphate poisoning due to its function in respiratory and cardiovascular control. While the acute toxic effects of sarin on brainstem-related responses are relatively unknown, other brain areas e.g., cortex or cerebellum, have been studied more extensively. The study objective was to analyze the guinea pig brainstem toxicology response following sarin (2×LD50) exposure by proteome pathway analysis to gain insight into the complex regulatory mechanisms that lead to impairment of respiratory and cardiovascular control. Guinea pig exposure to sarin resulted in the typical acute behavior/physiology outcomes with death between 15 and 25min. In addition, brain and blood acetylcholinesterase activity was significantly reduced in the presence of sarin to 95%, and 89%, respectively, of control values. Isobaric-tagged (iTRAQ) liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) identified 198 total proteins of which 23% were upregulated, and 18% were downregulated following sarin exposure. Direct gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed a sarin-specific broad-spectrum proteomic profile including glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, calcium overload, energy depletion responses, and compensatory carbohydrate metabolism, increases in ROS defense, DNA damage and chromatin remodeling, HSP response, targeted protein degradation (ubiquitination) and cell death response. With regards to the sarin-dependent effect on respiration, our study supports the potential interference of sarin with CO2/H(+) sensitive chemoreceptor neurons of the brainstem retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) that send excitatory glutamergic projections to the respiratory centers. In conclusion, this study gives insight into the brainstem broad-spectrum proteome following acute sarin exposure and the gained information will assist in the development of novel countermeasures.

  11. Space-Time Analysis of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) Phase 1 Air Quality Simulations

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study presents an evaluation of summertime daily maximum ozone concentrations over North America (NA) and Europe (EU) using the database generated during Phase 1 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII). The analysis focuses on identifying tempor...

  12. Enabling Quantitative Analysis in Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Internal Standard Coated Capillary Samplers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangjiang; Cooks, R. Graham; Ouyang, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    We describe a sampling method using glass capillaries for quantitative analysis of trace analytes in small volumes of complex mixtures (~1 μL) using ambient ionization mass spectrometry. The internal surface of a sampling glass capillary was coated with internal standard then used to draw liquid sample and so transfer both the analyte and internal standard in a single fixed volume onto a substrate for analysis. The internal standard was automatically mixed into the sample during this process and the volumes of the internal standard solution and sample are both fixed by the capillary volume. Precision in quantitation is insensitive to variations in length of the capillary, making the preparation of the sampling capillary simple and providing a robust sampling protocol. Significant improvements in quantitation accuracy were obtained for analysis of 1 μL samples using various ambient ionization methods. PMID:23731380

  13. Statistical shape analysis using 3D Poisson equation--A quantitatively validated approach.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yi; Bouix, Sylvain

    2016-05-01

    Statistical shape analysis has been an important area of research with applications in biology, anatomy, neuroscience, agriculture, paleontology, etc. Unfortunately, the proposed methods are rarely quantitatively evaluated, and as shown in recent studies, when they are evaluated, significant discrepancies exist in their outputs. In this work, we concentrate on the problem of finding the consistent location of deformation between two population of shapes. We propose a new shape analysis algorithm along with a framework to perform a quantitative evaluation of its performance. Specifically, the algorithm constructs a Signed Poisson Map (SPoM) by solving two Poisson equations on the volumetric shapes of arbitrary topology, and statistical analysis is then carried out on the SPoMs. The method is quantitatively evaluated on synthetic shapes and applied on real shape data sets in brain structures.

  14. Quantitative spatiotemporal image analysis of fluorescein angiography in age-related macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Jeffrey W.

    1998-06-01

    Interpretation and analysis of retinal angiographic studies has been largely qualitative. Quantitative analysis of pathologic fundus features will facilitate interpretation and potentiate clinical studies where precise image metrology is vital. Fluorescein angiography studies of patients with age- related macular degeneration were digitized. Sequential temporal images were spatially-registered with polynomial warping algorithms, allowing for the construction of a three- dimensional (two spatial and one temporal) angiogram vector. Temporal profiles through spatially-registered, temporally- sequential pixels were computed. Characteristic temporal profiles for fundus background, retinal vasculature, retinal pigment epithelial atrophy, and choroidal neovascular (CNV) membranes were observed, allowing for pixel assignment and fundus feature quantitation. Segmentation and quantitation of fundus features including geographic atrophy and CNV is facilitated by spatio-temporal image analysis.

  15. Reliable Quantitative SERS Analysis Facilitated by Core-Shell Nanoparticles with Embedded Internal Standards.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Lin, Xuan; Jiang, Chaoyang; Li, Chaoyu; Lin, Haixin; Huang, Jingtao; Wang, Shuo; Liu, Guokun; Yan, Xiaomei; Zhong, Qiling; Ren, Bin

    2015-06-15

    Quantitative analysis is a great challenge in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Core-molecule-shell nanoparticles with two components in the molecular layer, a framework molecule to form the shell, and a probe molecule as a Raman internal standard, were rationally designed for quantitative SERS analysis. The signal of the embedded Raman probe provides effective feedback to correct the fluctuation of samples and measuring conditions. Meanwhile, target molecules with different affinities can be adsorbed onto the shell. The quantitative analysis of target molecules over a large concentration range has been demonstrated with a linear response of the relative SERS intensity versus the surface coverage, which has not been achieved by conventional SERS methods.

  16. Evaluating network analysis and agent based modeling for investigating the stability of commercial air carrier schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Sheila Ruth

    For a number of years, the United States Federal Government has been formulating the Next Generation Air Transportation System plans for National Airspace System improvement. These improvements attempt to address air transportation holistically, but often address individual improvements in one arena such as ground or in-flight equipment. In fact, air transportation system designers have had only limited success using traditional Operations Research and parametric modeling approaches in their analyses of innovative operations. They need a systemic methodology for modeling of safety-critical infrastructure that is comprehensive, objective, and sufficiently concrete, yet simple enough to be deployed with reasonable investment. The methodology must also be amenable to quantitative analysis so issues of system safety and stability can be rigorously addressed. The literature suggests that both agent-based models and network analysis techniques may be useful for complex system development and analysis. The purpose of this research is to evaluate these two techniques as applied to analysis of commercial air carrier schedule (route) stability in daily operations, an important component of air transportation. Airline-like routing strategies are used to educe essential elements of applying the method. Two main models are developed, one investigating the network properties of the route structure, the other an Agent-based approach. The two methods are used to predict system properties at a macro-level. These findings are compared to observed route network performance measured by adherence to a schedule to provide validation of the results. Those interested in complex system modeling are provided some indication as to when either or both of the techniques would be applicable. For aviation policy makers, the results point to a toolset capable of providing insight into the system behavior during the formative phases of development and transformation with relatively low investment

  17. Segmentation of vascular structures and hematopoietic cells in 3D microscopy images and quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Jian; Yang, Lin; Kamocka, Malgorzata M.; Zollman, Amy L.; Carlesso, Nadia; Chen, Danny Z.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present image processing methods for quantitative study of how the bone marrow microenvironment changes (characterized by altered vascular structure and hematopoietic cell distribution) caused by diseases or various factors. We develop algorithms that automatically segment vascular structures and hematopoietic cells in 3-D microscopy images, perform quantitative analysis of the properties of the segmented vascular structures and cells, and examine how such properties change. In processing images, we apply local thresholding to segment vessels, and add post-processing steps to deal with imaging artifacts. We propose an improved watershed algorithm that relies on both intensity and shape information and can separate multiple overlapping cells better than common watershed methods. We then quantitatively compute various features of the vascular structures and hematopoietic cells, such as the branches and sizes of vessels and the distribution of cells. In analyzing vascular properties, we provide algorithms for pruning fake vessel segments and branches based on vessel skeletons. Our algorithms can segment vascular structures and hematopoietic cells with good quality. We use our methods to quantitatively examine the changes in the bone marrow microenvironment caused by the deletion of Notch pathway. Our quantitative analysis reveals property changes in samples with deleted Notch pathway. Our tool is useful for biologists to quantitatively measure changes in the bone marrow microenvironment, for developing possible therapeutic strategies to help the bone marrow microenvironment recovery.

  18. Preparation, certification and interlaboratory analysis of workplace air filters spiked with high-fired beryllium oxide.

    PubMed

    Oatts, Thomas J; Hicks, Cheryl E; Adams, Amy R; Brisson, Michael J; Youmans-McDonald, Linda D; Hoover, Mark D; Ashley, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    Occupational sampling and analysis for multiple elements is generally approached using various approved methods from authoritative government sources such as the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as consensus standards bodies such as ASTM International. The constituents of a sample can exist as unidentified compounds requiring sample preparation to be chosen appropriately, as in the case of beryllium in the form of beryllium oxide (BeO). An interlaboratory study was performed to collect analytical data from volunteer laboratories to examine the effectiveness of methods currently in use for preparation and analysis of samples containing calcined BeO powder. NIST SRM(®) 1877 high-fired BeO powder (1100 to 1200 °C calcining temperature; count median primary particle diameter 0.12 μm) was used to spike air filter media as a representative form of beryllium particulate matter present in workplace sampling that is known to be resistant to dissolution. The BeO powder standard reference material was gravimetrically prepared in a suspension and deposited onto 37 mm mixed cellulose ester air filters at five different levels between 0.5 μg and 25 μg of Be (as BeO). Sample sets consisting of five BeO-spiked filters (in duplicate) and two blank filters, for a total of twelve unique air filter samples per set, were submitted as blind samples to each of 27 participating laboratories. Participants were instructed to follow their current process for sample preparation and utilize their normal analytical methods for processing samples containing substances of this nature. Laboratories using more than one sample preparation and analysis method were provided with more than one sample set. Results from 34 data sets ultimately received from the 27 volunteer laboratories were subjected to applicable statistical analyses. The observed

  19. Direct Quantitative Analysis of Arsenic in Coal Fly Ash

    PubMed Central

    Hartuti, Sri; Kambara, Shinji; Takeyama, Akihiro; Kumabe, Kazuhiro; Moritomi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    A rapid, simple method based on graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry is described for the direct determination of arsenic in coal fly ash. Solid samples were directly introduced into the atomizer without preliminary treatment. The direct analysis method was not always free of spectral matrix interference, but the stabilization of arsenic by adding palladium nitrate (chemical modifier) and the optimization of the parameters in the furnace program (temperature, rate of temperature increase, hold time, and argon gas flow) gave good results for the total arsenic determination. The optimal furnace program was determined by analyzing different concentrations of a reference material (NIST1633b), which showed the best linearity for calibration. The optimized parameters for the furnace programs for the ashing and atomization steps were as follows: temperatures of 500–1200 and 2150°C, heating rates of 100 and 500°C s−1, hold times of 90 and 7 s, and medium then maximum and medium argon gas flows, respectively. The calibration plots were linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9699. This method was validated using arsenic-containing raw coal samples in accordance with the requirements of the mass balance calculation; the distribution rate of As in the fly ashes ranged from 101 to 119%. PMID:23251836

  20. Quantitative real-time single particle analysis of virions

    SciTech Connect

    Heider, Susanne; Metzner, Christoph

    2014-08-15

    Providing information about single virus particles has for a long time been mainly the domain of electron microscopy. More recently, technologies have been developed—or adapted from other fields, such as nanotechnology—to allow for the real-time quantification of physical virion particles, while supplying additional information such as particle diameter concomitantly. These technologies have progressed to the stage of commercialization increasing the speed of viral titer measurements from hours to minutes, thus providing a significant advantage for many aspects of virology research and biotechnology applications. Additional advantages lie in the broad spectrum of virus species that may be measured and the possibility to determine the ratio of infectious to total particles. A series of disadvantages remain associated with these technologies, such as a low specificity for viral particles. In this review we will discuss these technologies by comparing four systems for real-time single virus particle analysis and quantification. - Highlights: • We introduce four methods for virus particle-based quantification of viruses. • They allow for quantification of a wide range of samples in under an hour time. • The additional measurement of size and zeta potential is possible for some.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of the Microstructure of Auxetic Foams

    SciTech Connect

    Gaspar, N.; Smith, C.W.; Miller, E.A.; Seidler, G.T.; Evans, K.E.

    2008-07-28

    The auxetic foams first produced by Lakes have been modelled in a variety of ways, each model trying to reproduce some observed feature of the microscale of the foams. Such features include bent or broken ribs or inverted angles between ribs. These models can reproduce the Poisson's ratio or Poisson's function of auxetic foam if the model parameters are carefully chosen. However these model parameters may not actually reflect the internal structure of the foams. A big problem is that measurement of parameters such as lengths and angles is not straightforward within a 3-d sample. In this work a sample of auxetic foam has been imaged by 3-d X-ray computed tomography. The resulting image is translated to a form that emphasises the geometrical structure of connected ribs. This connected rib data are suitably analysed to describe both the microstructural construction of auxetic foams and the statistical spread of structure, that is, the heterogeneity of an auxetic foam. From the analysis of the microstructure, observations are made about the requirements for microstructural models and comparisons made to previous existing models. From the statistical data, measures of heterogeneity are made that will help with future modelling that includes the heterogeneous aspect of auxetic foams.

  2. Quantitative Analysis with Heavy Ion E-TOF ERD

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, J.C.; Doyle, B.L.; Font, A. Climent

    1999-07-23

    Heavy ion TOF ERD combined with energy detection (E-TOF-ERD) is a powerful analytical technique taking advantage of the following facts: the scattering cross section is usually very high ({approximately}10{sup {minus}21} cm{sup 2}/sr) compared to regular He RBS ({approximately}10{sup {minus}25} cm{sup 2}/sr), contrary to what happens with the energy resolution in ordinary surface solid barrier detectors, time resolution is almost independent of the atomic mass of the detected element, and the detection in coincidence of time and energy signals allows for the mass separation of overlapping signals with the same energy (or time of flight). Measurements on several oxides have been performed with the E-TOF-ERD set up at Sandia National Laboratories using an incident beam of 10-15 MeV Au. The information on the composition of the sample is obtained from the time domain spectrum, which is converted to energy domain, and then, using existing software codes, the analysis is performed. During the quantification of the results, they have found problems related to the interaction of the beam with the sample and to the tabulated values of the stopping powers for heavy ions.

  3. Segmentation and learning in the quantitative analysis of microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, Christy; Ross, Amy; Porter, Reid

    2015-02-01

    In material science and bio-medical domains the quantity and quality of microscopy images is rapidly increasing and there is a great need to automatically detect, delineate and quantify particles, grains, cells, neurons and other functional "objects" within these images. These are challenging problems for image processing because of the variability in object appearance that inevitably arises in real world image acquisition and analysis. One of the most promising (and practical) ways to address these challenges is interactive image segmentation. These algorithms are designed to incorporate input from a human operator to tailor the segmentation method to the image at hand. Interactive image segmentation is now a key tool in a wide range of applications in microscopy and elsewhere. Historically, interactive image segmentation algorithms have tailored segmentation on an image-by-image basis, and information derived from operator input is not transferred between images. But recently there has been increasing interest to use machine learning in segmentation to provide interactive tools that accumulate and learn from the operator input over longer periods of time. These new learning algorithms reduce the need for operator input over time, and can potentially provide a more dynamic balance between customization and automation for different applications. This paper reviews the state of the art in this area, provides a unified view of these algorithms, and compares the segmentation performance of various design choices.

  4. Funtools: Fits Users Need Tools for Quick, Quantitative Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Eric; Brederkamp, Joe (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Funtools project arose out of conversations with astronomers about the decline in their software development efforts over the past decade. A stated reason for this decline is that it takes too much effort to master one of the existing FITS libraries simply in order to write a few analysis programs. This problem is exacerbated by the fact that astronomers typically develop new programs only occasionally, and the long interval between coding efforts often necessitates re-learning the FITS interfaces. We therefore set ourselves the goal of developing a minimal buy-in FITS library for researchers who are occasional (but serious) coders. In this case, "minimal buy-in" meant "easy to learn, easy to use, and easy to re-learn next month". Based on conversations with astronomers interested in writing code, we concluded that this goal could be achieved by emphasizing two essential capabilities. The first was the ability to write FITS programs without knowing much about FITS, i.e., without having to deal with the arcane rules for generating a properly formatted FITS file. The second was to support the use of already-familiar C/Unix facilities, especially C structs and Unix stdio. Taken together, these two capabilities would allow researchers to leverage their existing programming expertise while minimizing the need to learn new and complex coding rules.

  5. Quantitative analysis of bloggers' collective behavior powered by emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrović, Marija; Paltoglou, Georgios; Tadić, Bosiljka

    2011-02-01

    Large-scale data resulting from users' online interactions provide the ultimate source of information to study emergent social phenomena on the Web. From individual actions of users to observable collective behaviors, different mechanisms involving emotions expressed in the posted text play a role. Here we combine approaches of statistical physics with machine-learning methods of text analysis to study the emergence of emotional behavior among Web users. Mapping the high-resolution data from digg.com onto bipartite networks of users and their comments onto posted stories, we identify user communities centered around certain popular posts and determine emotional contents of the related comments by the emotion classifier developed for this type of text. Applied over different time periods, this framework reveals strong correlations between the excess of negative emotions and the evolution of communities. We observe avalanches of emotional comments exhibiting significant self-organized critical behavior and temporal correlations. To explore the robustness of these critical states, we design a network-automaton model on realistic network connections and several control parameters, which can be inferred from the dataset. Dissemination of emotions by a small fraction of very active users appears to critically tune the collective states.

  6. Quantitative gas chromatographic analysis of volatile fatty acids in spent culture media and body fluids.

    PubMed Central

    van den Bogaard, A E; Hazen, M J; Van Boven, C P

    1986-01-01

    Gas chromatographic analysis of volatile fatty acids for identification of obligately anaerobic bacteria and for presumptive diagnosis of anaerobic infections is now widely practiced. However, it is difficult to compare data because only a qualitative analysis is done or only chromatograms are presented instead of quantitative data on volatile fatty acid production. We compared three stationary phases for volatile fatty acid analysis of aqueous solutions and four methods of pretreating samples for gas chromatography. Quantitative analysis could be done accurately by using Carbowax as the stationary phase after pretreatment of spent culture media with Dowex columns. If only qualitative analysis is required (e.g., for presumptive diagnosis of anaerobic infections), ether extraction and headspace analysis are equally suitable. The overall variation coefficient for volatile fatty acid production by four reference strains of obligately anaerobic bacteria after 24 h of incubation was approximately 10%. PMID:3958144

  7. [Study of infrared spectroscopy quantitative analysis method for methane gas based on data mining].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-Ju

    2013-10-01

    Monitoring of methane gas is one of the important factors affecting the coal mine safety. The online real-time monitoring of the methane gas is used for the mine safety protection. To improve the accuracy of model analysis, in the present paper, the author uses the technology of infrared spectroscopy to study the gas infrared quantitative analysis algorithm. By data mining technology application in multi-component infrared spectroscopy quantitative analysis algorithm, it was found that cluster analysis partial least squares algorithm is obviously superior to simply using partial least squares algorithm in terms of accuracy. In addition, to reduce the influence of the error on the accuracy of model individual calibration samples, the clustering analysis was used for the data preprocessing, and such denoising method was found to improve the analysis accuracy.

  8. On-Orbit Quantitative Real-Time Gene Expression Analysis Using the Wetlab-2 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parra, Macarena; Jung, Jimmy; Almeida, Eduardo; Boone, Travis; Tran, Luan; Schonfeld, Julie

    2015-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center's WetLab-2 Project enables on-orbit quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis without the need for sample return. The WetLab-2 system is capable of processing sample types ranging from microbial cultures to animal tissues dissected on-orbit. The project developed a RNA preparation module that can lyse cells and extract RNA of sufficient quality and quantity for use as templates in qRT-PCR reactions. Our protocol has the advantage of using non-toxic chemicals and does not require alcohols or other organics. The resulting RNA is dispensed into reaction tubes that contain all lyophilized reagents needed to perform qRT-PCR reactions. System operations require simple and limited crew actions including syringe pushes, valve turns and pipette dispenses. The project selected the Cepheid SmartCycler (TradeMark), a Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) qRT-PCR unit, because of its advantages including rugged modular design, low power consumption, rapid thermal ramp times and four-color multiplex detection. Single tube multiplex assays can be used to normalize for RNA concentration and integrity, and to study multiple genes of interest in each module. The WetLab-2 system can downlink data from the ISS to the ground after a completed run and uplink new thermal cycling programs. The ability to conduct qRT-PCR and generate results on-orbit is an important step towards utilizing the ISS as a National Laboratory facility. Specifically, the ability to get on-orbit data will provide investigators with the opportunity to adjust experimental parameters in real time without the need for sample return and re-flight. On orbit gene expression analysis can also eliminate the confounding effects on gene expression of reentry stresses and shock acting on live cells and organisms or the concern of RNA degradation of fixed samples and provide on-orbit gene expression benchmarking prior to sample return. Finally, the system can also be used for analysis of

  9. Quantitative flux analysis reveals folate-dependent NADPH production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jing; Ye, Jiangbin; Kamphorst, Jurre J.; Shlomi, Tomer; Thompson, Craig B.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

    2014-06-01

    ATP is the dominant energy source in animals for mechanical and electrical work (for example, muscle contraction or neuronal firing). For chemical work, there is an equally important role for NADPH, which powers redox defence and reductive biosynthesis. The most direct route to produce NADPH from glucose is the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, with malic enzyme sometimes also important. Although the relative contribution of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to ATP production has been extensively analysed, similar analysis of NADPH metabolism has been lacking. Here we demonstrate the ability to directly track, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the passage of deuterium from labelled substrates into NADPH, and combine this approach with carbon labelling and mathematical modelling to measure NADPH fluxes. In proliferating cells, the largest contributor to cytosolic NADPH is the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. Surprisingly, a nearly comparable contribution comes from serine-driven one-carbon metabolism, in which oxidation of methylene tetrahydrofolate to 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate is coupled to reduction of NADP+ to NADPH. Moreover, tracing of mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism revealed complete oxidation of 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate to make NADPH. As folate metabolism has not previously been considered an NADPH producer, confirmation of its functional significance was undertaken through knockdown of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD) genes. Depletion of either the cytosolic or mitochondrial MTHFD isozyme resulted in decreased cellular NADPH/NADP+ and reduced/oxidized glutathione ratios (GSH/GSSG) and increased cell sensitivity to oxidative stress. Thus, although the importance of folate metabolism for proliferating cells has been long recognized and attributed to its function of producing one-carbon units for nucleic acid synthesis, another crucial function of this pathway is generating reducing power.

  10. Quantitative analysis of experiments on bacterial chemotaxis to naphthalene.

    PubMed

    Pedit, Joseph A; Marx, Randall B; Miller, Cass T; Aitken, Michael D

    2002-06-20

    A mathematical model was developed to quantify chemotaxis to naphthalene by Pseudomonas putida G7 (PpG7) and its influence on naphthalene degradation. The model was first used to estimate the three transport parameters (coefficients for naphthalene diffusion, random motility, and chemotactic sensitivity) by fitting it to experimental data on naphthalene removal from a discrete source in an aqueous system. The best-fit value of naphthalene diffusivity was close to the value estimated from molecular properties with the Wilke-Chang equation. Simulations applied to a non-chemotactic mutant strain only fit the experimental data well if random motility was negligible, suggesting that motility may be lost rapidly in the absence of substrate or that gravity may influence net random motion in a vertically oriented experimental system. For the chemotactic wild-type strain, random motility and gravity were predicted to have a negligible impact on naphthalene removal relative to the impact of chemotaxis. Based on simulations using the best-fit value of the chemotactic sensitivity coefficient, initial cell concentrations for a non-chemotactic strain would have to be several orders of magnitude higher than for a chemotactic strain to achieve similar rates of naphthalene removal under the experimental conditions we evaluated. The model was also applied to an experimental system representing an adaptation of the conventional capillary assay to evaluate chemotaxis in porous media. Our analysis suggests that it may be possible to quantify chemotaxis in porous media systems by simply adjusting the model's transport parameters to account for tortuosity, as has been suggested by others.

  11. Quantitative assessment of p-glycoprotein expression and function using confocal image analysis.

    PubMed

    Hamrang, Zahra; Arthanari, Yamini; Clarke, David; Pluen, Alain

    2014-10-01

    P-glycoprotein is implicated in clinical drug resistance; thus, rapid quantitative analysis of its expression and activity is of paramout importance to the design and success of novel therapeutics. The scope for the application of quantitative imaging and image analysis tools in this field is reported here at "proof of concept" level. P-glycoprotein expression was utilized as a model for quantitative immunofluorescence and subsequent spatial intensity distribution analysis (SpIDA). Following expression studies, p-glycoprotein inhibition as a function of verapamil concentration was assessed in two cell lines using live cell imaging of intracellular Calcein retention and a routine monolayer fluorescence assay. Intercellular and sub-cellular distributions in the expression of the p-glycoprotein transporter between parent and MDR1-transfected Madin-Derby Canine Kidney cell lines were examined. We have demonstrated that quantitative imaging can provide dose-response parameters while permitting direct microscopic analysis of intracellular fluorophore distributions in live and fixed samples. Analysis with SpIDA offers the ability to detect heterogeniety in the distribution of labeled species, and in conjunction with live cell imaging and immunofluorescence staining may be applied to the determination of pharmacological parameters or analysis of biopsies providing a rapid prognostic tool.

  12. Quantitative Expression Analysis in Brassica napus by Northern Blot Analysis and Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR in a Complex Experimental Setting

    PubMed Central

    Rumlow, Annekathrin; Keunen, Els; Klein, Jan; Pallmann, Philip; Riemenschneider, Anja; Cuypers, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of gene expression is one of the major ways to better understand plant reactions to changes in environmental conditions. The comparison of many different factors influencing plant growth challenges the gene expression analysis for specific gene-targeted experiments, especially with regard to the choice of suitable reference genes. The aim of this study is to compare expression results obtained by Northern blot, semi-quantitative PCR and RT-qPCR, and to identify a reliable set of reference genes for oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) suitable for comparing gene expression under complex experimental conditions. We investigated the influence of several factors such as sulfur deficiency, different time points during the day, varying light conditions, and their interaction on gene expression in oilseed rape plants. The expression of selected reference genes was indeed influenced under these conditions in different ways. Therefore, a recently developed algorithm, called GrayNorm, was applied to validate a set of reference genes for normalizing results obtained by Northern blot analysis. After careful comparison of the three methods mentioned above, Northern blot analysis seems to be a reliable and cost-effective alternative for gene expression analysis under a complex growth regime. For using this method in a quantitative way a number of references was validated revealing that for our experiment a set of three references provides an appropriate normalization. Semi-quantitative PCR was prone to many handling errors and difficult to control while RT-qPCR was very sensitive to expression fluctuations of the reference genes. PMID:27685087

  13. Air Force Standard Analysis Toolkit and Analysis Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Survivability & Vulnerability Engineering & Engagement Level Analysis •Discrete Events •Engagement-Level •Stochastic Tools • Impact of: Tactics...Survivability & Vulnerability: Impacts on Mission Level Analysis Confederation •Airlift Capability •Tanker Deploy/Employ Requirements •Logistics Flow...Discrete Events •Mission-Level •Stochastic Tools • Impact of: CONOPS Tactics C4ISR Sensors TMD 17I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n

  14. Motor current signature analysis: A potential diagnostic for air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.A.; Haynes, H.D.; Griffin, F.P.; Levins, W.P.; Karnitz, M.A.

    1988-03-01

    Recent advancements in modern electronics have made it possible to collect the various ''transient noise'' signals which are present on electric power lines of motor-driven equipment while using a simple non-intrusive clamp-on inductive pickup. Electronic filters are used to analyze the noise signal with an on-the-spot, real-time analysis. An exploratory study, conducted at ORNL, examined the potential for using the motor current signature on heat pumps and air conditioners as a diagnostic tool. Preliminary results show that there is some correlation between the motor current signature and the performance of a heat pump. However, the tests and associated analysis were limited, and additional research is needed to determine the full potential of motor current signature analysis (MCSA).

  15. Quantitative x-ray diffraction phase analysis of coarse airborne particulate collected by cascade impactor sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteve, V.; Rius, J.; Ochando, L. E.; Amigó, J. M.

    Mineralogical composition of Castellon (Spanish Mediterranean coast) atmospheric aerosol was studied by X-ray diffraction by sampling with a cascade impactor without filters. Quantitative phase analysis of natural phases present in the atmospheric coarse aerosol was performed using a modified version of the computer program MENGE, that uses the standardless X-ray method developed by Rius for the quantitative analysis of multiphase mixtures, adapted for PC running. Presence of quartz, calcite and gypsum was identified in the atmospheric aerosol and we have quantified their amounts using the standardless method.

  16. Analysis of liver connexin expression using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Michaël; Willebrords, Joost; Crespo Yanguas, Sara; Cogliati, Bruno; Vinken, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Summary Although connexin production is mainly regulated at the protein level, altered connexin gene expression has been identified as the underlying mechanism of several pathologies. When studying the latter, appropriate methods to quantify connexin mRNA levels are required. The present chapter describes a well-established reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction procedure optimized for analysis of hepatic connexins. The method includes RNA extraction and subsequent quantification, generation of complementary DNA, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and data analysis. PMID:27207283

  17. Dynamic heave-pitch analysis of air cushion landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, K. M.; Boghani, A. B.; Wormley, D. N.

    1975-01-01

    A program to develop analytical tools for evaluating the dynamic performance of Air Cushion Landing Systems (ACLS) is described. The heave (vertical) motion of the ACLS was analyzed, and the analysis was extended to cover coupled heave-pitch motions. The mathematical models developed are based on a fundamental analysis of the body dynamics and fluid mechanics of the aircraft-cushion-runway interaction. The air source characteristics, flow losses in the feeding ducts, trunk and cushion, the effects of fluid compressibility, and dynamic trunk deflections, including ground contact are considered. A computer program, based on the heave-pitch analysis, was developed to simulate the dynamic behavior of an ACLS during landing impact and taxi over an irregular runway. The program outputs include ACLS motions, loadings, pressures, and flows as a function of time. To illustrate program use, three basic types of simulations were carried out. The results provide an initial indication of ACLS performance during (1) a static drop, (2) landing impact, and (3) taxi over a runway irregularity.

  18. The Feasibility of Oil Analysis for Air Force Diesel Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    period 18 September 1978 to 18 June 1979. The Air F’orce Project Monitor was MrW~ le MaW e, - an rton16h ALC /MMET,’ . Mr. J,P. Cuellar, Jr., of SwRI...insolub les 28 TABLE 5. RELATION OF USED CRANKCASE OIL ANALYSIS TO ENGINE CONDITION OR OPERATION (Cont’d) Contributing Engine Condition Test Result...guidelines for wearmetal and lubricant control limits. 46. Schilling, A. (Chief Engineer, Institut Francais du Petrole ), Automobile Engine Lubrication, 1972

  19. [Analysis of the impact of two typical air pollution events on the air quality of Nanjing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Zhu, Bin; Kang, Han-Qing; Gao, Jin-Hui; Wang, Yin; Jiang, Qi

    2012-10-01

    Nanjing and the surrounding area have experienced two consecutive serious air pollution events from late October to early November in 2009. The first event was long-lasting haze pollution, and the second event was resulted from the mixed impact of crop residue burning and local transportation. The effects of regional transport and local sources on the two events were discussed by cluster analysis, using surface meteorological observations, air pollution index, satellite remote sensing of fire hot spots data and back trajectory model. The results showed that the accumulation-mode aerosol number concentrations were higher than those of any other aerosol modes in the two pollution processes. The peak value of aerosol particle number concentrations shifted to large particle size compare with the previous studies in this area. The ratio of SO4(2-)/NO3(-) was 1.30 and 0.99, indicating that stationary sources were more important than traffic sources in the first event and the reverse in the second event. Affected by the local sources from east and south, the particle counts below 0.1 microm gradually accumulated in the first event. The second event was mainly affected by a short-distance transport from northeast and local sources from southwest, especially south, the concentration of aerosol particles was higher than those in other directions, indicating that the sources of crop residue burning were mainly in this direction.

  20. Air Force Training: Further Analysis and Planning Needed to Improve Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    explained that Red Flag exercises require a significant adversary air presence to provide high quality training for the participants. As discussed... AIR FORCE TRAINING Further Analysis and Planning Needed to Improve Effectiveness Report to Congressional Committees...GAO-16-864, a report to congressional committees September 2016 AIR FORCE TRAINING Further Analysis and Planning Needed to Improve

  1. Incorporating principal component analysis into air quality model evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Brian; Bash, Jesse; Foley, Kristen; Pleim, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of standard air quality model evaluation techniques is becoming compromised as the simulation periods continue to lengthen in response to ever increasing computing capacity. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a statistical approach called Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with the intent of motivating its use by the evaluation community. One of the main objectives of PCA is to identify, through data reduction, the recurring and independent modes of variations (or signals) within a very large dataset, thereby summarizing the essential information of that dataset so that meaningful and descriptive conclusions can be made. In this demonstration, PCA is applied to a simple evaluation metric - the model bias associated with EPA's Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model when compared to weekly observations of sulfate (SO42-) and ammonium (NH4+) ambient air concentrations measured by the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet). The advantages of using this technique are demonstrated as it identifies strong and systematic patterns of CMAQ model bias across a myriad of spatial and temporal scales that are neither constrained to geopolitical boundaries nor monthly/seasonal time periods (a limitation of many current studies). The technique also identifies locations (station-grid cell pairs) that are used as indicators for a more thorough diagnostic evaluation thereby hastening and facilitating understanding of the probable mechanisms responsible for the unique behavior among bias regimes. A sampling of results indicates that biases are still prevalent in both SO42- and NH4+ simulations that can be attributed to either: 1) cloud processes in the meteorological model utilized by CMAQ, which are found to overestimated convective clouds and precipitation, while underestimating larger-scale resolved clouds that are less likely to precipitate, and 2) biases associated with Midwest NH3 emissions which may be partially ameliorated

  2. Quantifying fungal viability in air and water samples using quantitative PCR after treatment with propidium monoazide (PMA).

    PubMed

    Vesper, Stephen; McKinstry, Craig; Hartmann, Chris; Neace, Michelle; Yoder, Stephanie; Vesper, Alex

    2008-02-01

    A method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Paecilomyces variotii. To test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85 degrees C or held at 5 degrees C (controls) for 1 h. Polycarbonate filters (25 mm diameter, 0.8 microm pore size) were placed on "welled" slides (14 mm diameter) and the filters treated with either PBS or PMA. Propidium monoazide (PMA), which enters dead cells but not live cells, was incubated with cell suspensions, exposed to blue wavelength light-emitting diodes (LED) to inactivate remaining PMA and secure intercalation of PMA with DNA of dead cells. Treated cells were extracted and the live and dead cells evaluated with quantitative PCR (QPCR). After heat treatment and DNA modification with PMA, all fungal species tested showed an approximate 100- to 1000-fold difference in cell viability estimated by QPCR analysis which was consistent with estimates of viability based on culturing.

  3. Quantitative analysis of urinary stone composition with micro-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Yu; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Chiang, Huihua Kenny; Chou, Y. H. Jet; Lu, Shing-Hwa; Chiu, Allen W.

    2010-02-01

    Urolithiasis is a common, disturbing disease with high recurrent rate (60% in five years). Accurate identification of urinary stone composition is important for treatment and prevention purpose. Our previous studies have demonstrated that micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS)-based approach successfully detects the composition of tiny stone powders after minimal invasive urological surgery. But quantitative analysis of urinary stones was not established yet. In this study, human urinary stone mixed with two compositions of COM, HAP, COD, and uric acid, were analyzed quantitatively by using a 632.98 nm Raman spectrometric system. This quantitative analysis was based on the construction of calibration curves of known mixtures of synthetically prepared pure COM, HAP, COD and uric acid. First, the various concentration (mole fraction) ratio of binary mixtures including COM and HAP, COM and COD, or COM and uric acid, were produced. Second, the intensities of the characteristic bands at 1462cm -1(IRCOM), 1477cm-1(IRCOD), 961cm-1(IRHAP) and 1402cm-1(IRuric acid), for COD, COM, HAP and uric acid were used respectively for intensity calculation. Various binary mixtures of known concentration ratio were recorded as the basis for the quantitative analysis. The ratios of the relative intensities of the Raman bands corresponding to binary mixtures of known composition on the inverse of the COM concentration yielded a linear dependence. Third, urinary stone fragments collected from patients after management were analyzed with the use of the calibration curve and the quantitative analysis of unknown samples was made by the interpolation analysis. We successfully developed a MRS-based quantitative analytical method for measuring two composition.

  4. Qualitative and Quantitative Proteome Analysis of Oral Fluids in Health and Periodontal Disease by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Salih, Erdjan

    2017-01-01

    The significance of protein identification and characterization by classical protein chemistry approaches is clearly highlighted by our detailed understanding of the biological systems assembled over a time period of almost a century. The advent of state-of-the-art mass spectrometry (MS) with sensitivity, speed, and global protein analysis capacity without individual protein purification has transformed the classical protein chemistry with premise to accelerate discovery. These combined with the ability of the oral fluids such as whole saliva (WS) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) to reflect both systemic and locally derived proteins have generated significant interest to characterize these fluids more extensively by MS technology. This chapter deals with the experimental details of preanalytical steps using multidimensional protein separation combined with MS analysis of WS and GCF to achieve detailed protein composition at qualitative and quantitative levels. These approaches are interfaced with gold standard "stable-isotope" labeling technologies for large-scale quantitative MS analysis which is a prerequisite to determine accurate alterations in protein levels as a function of disease progression. The latter incorporates two stable-isotope chemistries one specific for cysteine containing proteins and the other universal amine-specific reagent in conjunction with oral fluids in health and periodontal disease to perform quantitative MS analysis. In addition, specific preanalytical steps demanded by the oral fluids such as GCF and WS for sample preparations to overcome limitations and uncertainties are elaborated for reliable large-scale quantitative MS analysis.

  5. The correlation of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis in rabbit VX2 liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zhiming; Liang, Qianwen; Liang, Changhong; Zhong, Guimian

    2014-12-01

    Our objective is to explore the value of liver cancer contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis in liver cancer and the correlation between these two analysis methods. Rabbit VX2 liver cancer model was established in this study. CEUS was applied. Sono Vue was applied in rabbits by ear vein to dynamically observe and record the blood perfusion and changes in the process of VX2 liver cancer and surrounding tissue. MRI perfusion quantitative analysis was used to analyze the mean enhancement time and change law of maximal slope increasing, which were further compared with the pathological examination results. Quantitative indicators of liver cancer CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis were compared, and the correlation between them was analyzed by correlation analysis. Rabbit VX2 liver cancer model was successfully established. CEUS showed that time-intensity curve of rabbit VX2 liver cancer showed "fast in, fast out" model while MRI perfusion quantitative analysis showed that quantitative parameter MTE of tumor tissue increased and MSI decreased: the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The diagnostic results of CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis were not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, the quantitative parameter of them were significantly positively correlated (P < 0.05). CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis can both dynamically monitor the liver cancer lesion and surrounding liver parenchyma, and the quantitative parameters of them are correlated. The combined application of both is of importance in early diagnosis of liver cancer.

  6. Quantitative analysis of povidone (PVP) in drug-PVP matrix using multicomponent analysis.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, G; Kristensen, H G

    1999-01-01

    A method for the quantification of povidone (PVP), in solid dispersions and physical mixtures of the polymer and a very slightly soluble drug substance, has been developed by multicomponent analysis using the concepts of chemometrics. Because the UV-absorbance spectra of PVP is completely overlapped by the UV-absorbance spectra of the drug substance, a direct spectrophotometric method of PVP is impossible. However, UV-spectrophotometric data were analyzed by the Quant + Perkin Elmer software for quantitative multicomponent analysis using chemometrics, and by the optimal method developed using a solvent of pH 7.4, a fast, reliable, and precise detection of PVP was obtained when the content of PVP in the powder sample exceeded 20% (m/m). Two methods were developed by the calibration procedure, using buffers of pH 7.4, respectively pH 8.5. By applying a solvent of pH 8.5, more sample could be taken into use because of the enhanced solubility of the drug substance, and hence it was believed that as more PVP was taken into use, a better prediction of PVP would be obtained. However, as more drug substance was taken into use the UV-absorbance spectrum of PVP was even more overlapped, and an inferior prediction was obtained.

  7. Possibility of quantitative estimation of blood cell forms by the spatial-frequency spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonov, Igor N.; Safonova, Larisa P.; Samorodov, Andrey V.

    2000-05-01

    At present in hematology there are no quantitative estimates of such important for the cell classification parameters: cell form and nuclear form. Due to the absence of the correlation between morphological parameters and parameters measured by hemoanalyzers, both flow cytometers and computer recognition systems, do not provide the completeness of the clinical blood analysis. Analysis of the spatial-frequency spectra of blood samples (smears and liquid probes) permit the estimate the forms quantitatively. On the results of theoretical and experimental researches carried out an algorithm of the form quantitative estimation by means of SFS parameters has been created. The criteria of the quality of these estimates have been proposed. A test bench based on the coherent optical and digital processors. The received results could be applied for the automated classification of ether normal or pathological blood cells in the standard blood smears.

  8. Quantitative interferometric microscopic flow cytometer with expanded principal component analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shouyu; Jin, Ying; Yan, Keding; Xue, Liang; Liu, Fei; Li, Zhenhua

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative interferometric microscopy is used in biological and medical fields and a wealth of applications are proposed in order to detect different kinds of biological samples. Here, we develop a phase detecting cytometer based on quantitative interferometric microscopy with expanded principal component analysis phase retrieval method to obtain phase distributions of red blood cells with a spatial resolution ~1.5 μm. Since expanded principal component analysis method is a time-domain phase retrieval algorithm, it could avoid disadvantages of traditional frequency-domain algorithms. Additionally, the phase retrieval method realizes high-speed phase imaging from multiple microscopic interferograms captured by CCD camera when the biological cells are scanned in the field of view. We believe this method can be a powerful tool to quantitatively measure the phase distributions of different biological samples in biological and medical fields.

  9. The novel selected-ion flow tube approach to trace gas analysis of air and breath.

    PubMed

    Smith, D; Spanel, P

    1996-01-01

    We present an overview of the development and use of our selected-ion flow tube (SIFT) technique as a sensitive, quantitative method for the rapid, real-time analysis of the trace gas content of atmospheric air and human breath, presenting some pilot data from various research areas in which this method will find valuable application. We show that it is capable of detecting and quantifying trace gases, in complex mixtures such as breath, which are present at partial pressures down to about 10 parts per billion. Following discussions of the principles involved in this SIFT method of analysis, of the experiments which we have carried out to establish its quantitative validity, and of the air and breath sampling techniques involved, we present sample data on the detection and quantification of trace gases on the breath of healthy people and of patients suffering from renal failure and diabetes. We also show how breath ammonia can be accurately quantified from a single breath exhalation and used as an indicator of the presence in the stomach of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Health and safety applications are exemplified by analyses of the gases of the gases of cigarette smoke and on the breath of smokers. The value of this analytical method in environmental science is demonstrated by the analyses of petrol vapour, car exhaust emissions and the trace organic vapours detected in town air near a busy road. Final examples of the value of this analytical method are the detection and quantification of the gases emitted from crushed garlic and from breath following the chewing of a mint, which demonstrate its potential in food and flavour research. Throughout the paper we stress the advantages of this SIFT method compared to conventional mass spectrometry for trace gas analysis of complex mixtures, emphasizing its selectivity, sensitivity and real-time analysis capability. Finally, we note that whilst the current SIFT is strictly laboratory based, both transportable and

  10. Analysis of air quality management with emphasis on transportation sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T. D.; Divita, E.; Lees, L.

    1980-01-01

    The current environment and practices of air quality management were examined for three regions: Denver, Phoenix, and the South Coast Air Basin of California. These regions were chosen because the majority of their air pollution emissions are related to mobile sources. The impact of auto exhaust on the air quality management process is characterized and assessed. An examination of the uncertainties in air pollutant measurements, emission inventories, meteorological parameters, atmospheric chemistry, and air quality simulation models is performed. The implications of these uncertainties to current air quality management practices is discussed. A set of corrective actions are recommended to reduce these uncertainties.

  11. Visual and Quantitative Analysis Methods of Respiratory Patterns for Respiratory Gated PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    We integrated visual and quantitative methods for analyzing the stability of respiration using four methods: phase space diagrams, Fourier spectra, Poincaré maps, and Lyapunov exponents. Respiratory patterns of 139 patients were grouped based on the combination of the regularity of amplitude, period, and baseline positions. Visual grading was done by inspecting the shape of diagram and classified into two states: regular and irregular. Quantitation was done by measuring standard deviation of x and v coordinates of Poincaré map (SDx, SDv) or the height of the fundamental peak (A1) in Fourier spectrum or calculating the difference between maximal upward and downward drift. Each group showed characteristic pattern on visual analysis. There was difference of quantitative parameters (SDx, SDv, A1, and MUD-MDD) among four groups (one way ANOVA, p = 0.0001 for MUD-MDD, SDx, and SDv, p = 0.0002 for A1). In ROC analysis, the cutoff values were 0.11 for SDx (AUC: 0.982, p < 0.0001), 0.062 for SDv (AUC: 0.847, p < 0.0001), 0.117 for A1 (AUC: 0.876, p < 0.0001), and 0.349 for MUD-MDD (AUC: 0.948, p < 0.0001). This is the first study to analyze multiple aspects of respiration using various mathematical constructs and provides quantitative indices of respiratory stability and determining quantitative cutoff value for differentiating regular and irregular respiration. PMID:27872857

  12. Systems nanobiology: from quantitative single molecule biophysics to microfluidic-based single cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Martini, Joerg; Hellmich, Wibke; Greif, Dominik; Becker, Anke; Merkle, Thomas; Ros, Robert; Ros, Alexandra; Toensing, Katja; Anselmetti, Dario

    2007-01-01

    Detailed and quantitative information about structure-function relation, concentrations and interaction kinetics of biological molecules and subcellular components is a key prerequisite to understand and model cellular organisation and temporal dynamics. In systems nanobi-ology, cellular processes are quantitatively investigated at the sensitivity level of single molecules and cells. This approach provides direct access to biomolecular information without being statistically ensemble-averaged, their associated distribution functions, and possible subpopulations. Moreover at the single cell level, the interplay of regulated genomic information and proteomic variabilities can be investigated and attributed to functional peculiarities. These requirements necessitate the development of novel and ultrasensitive methods and instruments for single molecule detection, microscopy and spectroscopy for analysis without the need of amplification and preconcentration. In this chapter, we present three methodological applications that demonstrate how quantitative informations can be accessed that are representative for cellular processes or single cell analysis like gene expression regulation, intracellular protein translocation dynamics, and single cell protein fingerprinting. First, the interaction kinetics of transcriptionally regulated DNA-protein interaction can be quantitatively investigated with single molecule force spectroscopy allowing a molecular affinity ranking. Second, intracellular protein dynamics for a transcription regulator migrating form the nucleus to the cytoplasm can be quantitatively monitored by photoactivable GFP and two-photon laser scanning microscopy. And third, a microfluidic-based method for label-free single cell proteomics and fingerprinting and first label-free single cell electropherograms are presented which include the manipulation and steering of single cells in a microfluidic device.

  13. Quantitative analysis of bristle number in Drosophila mutants identifies genes involved in neural development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norga, Koenraad K.; Gurganus, Marjorie C.; Dilda, Christy L.; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Lyman, Richard F.; Patel, Prajal H.; Rubin, Gerald M.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Mackay, Trudy F.; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The identification of the function of all genes that contribute to specific biological processes and complex traits is one of the major challenges in the postgenomic era. One approach is to employ forward genetic screens in genetically tractable model organisms. In Drosophila melanogaster, P element-mediated insertional mutagenesis is a versatile tool for the dissection of molecular pathways, and there is an ongoing effort to tag every gene with a P element insertion. However, the vast majority of P element insertion lines are viable and fertile as homozygotes and do not exhibit obvious phenotypic defects, perhaps because of the tendency for P elements to insert 5' of transcription units. Quantitative genetic analysis of subtle effects of P element mutations that have been induced in an isogenic background may be a highly efficient method for functional genome annotation. RESULTS: Here, we have tested the efficacy of this strategy by assessing the extent to which screening for quantitative effects of P elements on sensory bristle number can identify genes affecting neural development. We find that such quantitative screens uncover an unusually large number of genes that are known to function in neural development, as well as genes with yet uncharacterized effects on neural development, and novel loci. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings establish the use of quantitative trait analysis for functional genome annotation through forward genetics. Similar analyses of quantitative effects of P element insertions will facilitate our understanding of the genes affecting many other complex traits in Drosophila.

  14. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Nutrition and Food Safety Information in School Science Textbooks of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subba Rao, G. M.; Vijayapushapm, T.; Venkaiah, K.; Pavarala, V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess quantity and quality of nutrition and food safety information in science textbooks prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), India for grades I through X. Design: Content analysis. Methods: A coding scheme was developed for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Two investigators independently coded the…

  15. Quantitative Intersectionality: A Critical Race Analysis of the Chicana/o Educational Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covarrubias, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing the critical race framework of intersectionality, this research reexamines the Chicana/o educational pipeline through a quantitative intersectional analysis. This approach disaggregates data along the intersection of race, class, gender, and citizenship status to provide a detailed portrait of the educational trajectory of Mexican-origin…

  16. Method of fault-tree quantitative analysis for solid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Baochao; Yang, Yicai; Xie, Weimin

    1993-08-01

    Based on the existing problem in determining the failure probabilities of base events in solid rocket motor fault-tree quantitative analysis, an engineering method of 'Solicitation Opinions to Give Marks' was put forward to determine the failure probability. A satisfactory result was obtained by analyzing the practical example of structure reliability for some solid rocket motors at the test sample stage.

  17. Method of fault-tree quantitative analysis for solid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Baochao; Yang, Yicai; Xie, Weimin

    1993-08-01

    Based on the existing problem of determining the failure probabilities of base events in solid rocket motor fault tree quantitative analysis, an engineering method of Solicitation Opinions to Give Marks is put forward to determine failure probability. A more satisfactory result is obtained by analyzing the actual example of the structural reliability of solid rocket motors at the test sample stage.

  18. A GC-FID method for quantitative analysis of N,N-carbonyldiimidazole.

    PubMed

    Lee, Claire; Mangion, Ian

    2016-03-20

    N,N-Carbonyldiimidazole (CDI), a common synthetic reagent used in commercial scale pharmaceutical synthesis, is known to be sensitive to hydrolysis from ambient moisture. This liability demands a simple, robust analytical method to quantitatively determine reagent quality to ensure reproducible performance in chemical reactions. This work describes a protocol for a rapid GC-FID based analysis of CDI.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: A Simple and Rapid Method for Use in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

    1973-01-01

    Describes the procedure for making a quantitative analysis of organic compounds suitable for secondary school chemistry classes. Using the Schoniger procedure, the organic compound, such as PVC, is decomposed in a conical flask with oxygen. The products are absorbed in a suitable liquid and analyzed by titration. (JR)

  20. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of compounds containing both hydrogen and deuterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespi, H. L.; Harkness, L.; Katz, J. J.; Norman, G.; Saur, W.

    1969-01-01

    Method allows qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of partially deuterated compounds. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy determines location and amount of deuterium in organic compounds but not fully deuterated compounds. Mass spectroscopy can detect fully deuterated species but not the location.

  1. A Quantitative Analysis of Cognitive Strategy Usage in the Marking of Two GCSE Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suto, W. M. Irenka; Greatorex, Jackie

    2008-01-01

    Diverse strategies for marking GCSE examinations have been identified, ranging from simple automatic judgements to complex cognitive operations requiring considerable expertise. However, little is known about patterns of strategy usage or how such information could be utilised by examiners. We conducted a quantitative analysis of previous verbal…

  2. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  3. A Quantitative Analysis of "Ataque de Nervios" in Puerto Rico: Further Examination of a Cultural Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Febo San Miguel, Vivian E.; Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Canino, Glorisa J.; Ramirez, Rafael R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors present a quantitative analysis and assessment of the symptoms of "ataque de nervios." A sample of 121 individuals living in Puerto Rico provided qualitative and structured data on "ataques de nervios" and psychiatric correlates. A total of 77 participants reported having an "ataque de nervios" during…

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Science and Chemistry Textbooks for Indicators of Reform: A Complementary Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahveci, Ajda

    2010-01-01

    In this study, multiple thematically based and quantitative analysis procedures were utilized to explore the effectiveness of Turkish chemistry and science textbooks in terms of their reflection of reform. The themes gender equity, questioning level, science vocabulary load, and readability level provided the conceptual framework for the analyses.…

  5. Multiple Regression Analysis of Sib-Pair Data on Reading to Detect Quantitative Trait Loci.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulker, D. W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Applies an extension of an earlier multiple regression model for twin analysis to the problem of detecting linkage in a quantitative trait. Detects a number of possible linkages, indicating that the approach is effective. Discusses detecting genotype-environment interaction and the issue of power. (RS)

  6. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) system for quantitative analysis of reactive chemical compounds

    DOEpatents

    Grindstaff, Quirinus G.

    1992-01-01

    Described is a new gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) system and method for quantitative analysis of reactive chemical compounds. All components of such a GC/MS system external to the oven of the gas chromatograph are programmably temperature controlled to operate at a volatilization temperature specific to the compound(s) sought to be separated and measured.

  7. Clinical applications of a quantitative analysis of regional lift ventricular wall motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighton, R. F.; Rich, J. M.; Pollack, M. E.; Altieri, P. I.

    1975-01-01

    Observations were summarized which may have clinical application. These were obtained from a quantitative analysis of wall motion that was used to detect both hypokinesis and tardokinesis in left ventricular cineangiograms. The method was based on statistical comparisons with normal values for regional wall motion derived from the cineangiograms of patients who were found not to have heart disease.

  8. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Preliminary Determination: Quantitative Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Mark A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Xie, YuLong; Hart, Reid; Goel, Supriya

    2014-03-01

    This report provides a preliminary quantitative analysis to assess whether buildings constructed according to the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would result in energy savings compared with buildings constructed to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010.

  9. QUANTITATIVE PCR ANALYSIS OF MOLDS IN THE DUST FROM HOMES OF ASTHMATIC CHILDREN IN NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vacuum bag (VB) dust was analyzed by mold specific quantitative PCR. These results were compared to the analysis survey calculated for each of the homes. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of the ERMI values in the homes of the NC asthmatic children was 16.4 (6.77), compa...

  10. Forty Years of the "Journal of Librarianship and Information Science": A Quantitative Analysis, Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furner, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the first part of a two-part quantitative analysis of volume 1-40 (1969-2008) of the "Journal of Librarianship and Information Science" (formerly the "Journal of Librarianship"). It provides an overview of the current state of LIS research journal publishing in the UK; a review of the publication and…

  11. Teaching Fundamental Skills in Microsoft Excel to First-Year Students in Quantitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Samuel J.; Abrams, Binyomin

    2015-01-01

    Despite their technological savvy, most students entering university lack the necessary computer skills to succeed in a quantitative analysis course, in which they are often expected to input, analyze, and plot results of experiments without any previous formal education in Microsoft Excel or similar programs. This lack of formal education results…

  12. Whose American Government? A Quantitative Analysis of Gender and Authorship in American Politics Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassese, Erin C.; Bos, Angela L.; Schneider, Monica C.

    2014-01-01

    American government textbooks signal to students the kinds of topics that are important and, by omission, the kinds of topics that are not important to the discipline of political science. This article examines portrayals of women in introductory American politics textbooks through a quantitative content analysis of 22 widely used texts. We find…

  13. A Quantitative Features Analysis of Recommended No- and Low-Cost Preschool E-Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P.; Blum, Craig; Luthin, Katie

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, recommended e-books have drawn increasing attention from early childhood education professionals. This study applied a quantitative descriptive features analysis of cost (n = 70) and no-cost (n = 60) e-books recommended by the Texas Computer Education Association. While t tests revealed no statistically significant differences…

  14. A Colorimetric Analysis Experiment Not Requiring a Spectrophotometer: Quantitative Determination of Albumin in Powdered Egg White

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlton, Amanda K.; Sevcik, Richard S.; Tucker, Dorie A.; Schultz, Linda D.

    2007-01-01

    A general science experiment for high school chemistry students might serve as an excellent review of the concepts of solution preparation, solubility, pH, and qualitative and quantitative analysis of a common food product. The students could learn to use safe laboratory techniques, collect and analyze data using proper scientific methodology and…

  15. Analysis of Air Flow in the Ventilated Insulating Air Layer of the External Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katunská, Jana; Bullová, Iveta; Špaková, Miroslava

    2016-12-01

    The paper deals with problems of impact of air flow in ventilated insulating air layer of the external wall on behaviour of thermal-technical parameters of the proposed external structure (according principles of STN 73 0549, which is not valid now), by comparing them in the calculation according to the valid STN standards, where air flow in the ventilated air layer is not taken into account, as well as by comparing them with behavior of thermal-technical parameters in the proposal of sandwich external wall with the contact heat insulation system without air cavity.

  16. A Growing Role for Gender Analysis in Air Pollution Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Clougherty, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Epidemiologic studies of air pollution effects on respiratory health report significant modification by sex, although results are not uniform. Importantly, it remains unclear whether modifications are attributable to socially derived gendered exposures, to sex-linked physiological differences, or to some interplay thereof. Gender analysis, which aims to disaggregate social from biological differences between males and females, may help to elucidate these possible sources of effect modification. Data sources and data extraction A PubMed literature search was performed in July 2009, using the terms “respiratory” and any of “sex” or “gender” or “men and women” or “boys and girls” and either “PM2.5” (particulate matter ≥ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) or “NO2” (nitrogen dioxide). I reviewed the identified studies, and others cited therein, to summarize current evidence of effect modification, with attention to authors’ interpretation of observed differences. Owing to broad differences in exposure mixes, outcomes, and analytic techniques, with few studies examining any given combination thereof, meta-analysis was not deemed appropriate at this time. Data synthesis More studies of adults report stronger effects among women, particularly for older persons or where using residential exposure assessment. Studies of children suggest stronger effects among boys in early life and among girls in later childhood. Conclusions The qualitative review describes possible sources of difference in air pollution response between women and men, which may vary by life stage, coexposures, hormonal status, or other factors. The sources of observed effect modifications remain unclear, although gender analytic approaches may help to disentangle gender and sex differences in pollution response. A framework for incorporating gender analysis into environmental epidemiology is offered, along with several potentially useful methods from gender analysis

  17. Synthesis of quantitative and qualitative evidence for accident analysis in risk-based highway planning.

    PubMed

    Lambert, James H; Peterson, Kenneth D; Joshi, Nilesh N

    2006-09-01

    Accident analysis involves the use of both quantitative and qualitative data in decision-making. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the synthesis of relevant quantitative and qualitative evidence for accident analysis and for planning a large and diverse portfolio of highway investment projects. The proposed analysis and visualization techniques along with traditional mathematical modeling serve as an aid to planners, engineers, and the public in comparing the benefits of current and proposed improvement projects. The analysis uses data on crash rates, average daily traffic, cost estimates from highway agency databases, and project portfolios for regions and localities. It also utilizes up to two motivations out of seven that are outlined in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). Three case studies demonstrate the risk-based approach to accident analysis for short- and long-range transportation plans. The approach is adaptable to other topics in accident analysis and prevention that involve the use of quantitative and qualitative evidence, risk analysis, and multi-criteria decision-making for project portfolio selection.

  18. An Integrated Safety Analysis Methodology for Emerging Air Transport Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Peter F.; Adams, Milton B.; Allinger, Deborah F.; Rosch, Gene; Kuchar, James

    1998-01-01

    The continuing growth of air traffic will place demands on NASA's Air Traffic Management (ATM) system that cannot be accommodated without the creation of significant delays and economic impacts. To deal with this situation, work has begun to develop new approaches to providing a safe and economical air transportation infrastructure. Many of these emerging air transport technologies will represent radically new approaches to ATM, both for ground and air operations.

  19. A quantitative ratiometric sensor for time-resolved analysis of auxin dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Wend, Sabrina; Bosco, Cristina Dal; Kämpf, Michael M.; Ren, Fugang; Palme, Klaus; Weber, Wilfried; Dovzhenko, Alexander; Zurbriggen, Matias D.

    2013-01-01

    Time-resolved quantitative analysis of auxin-mediated processes in plant cells is as of yet limited. By applying a synergistic mammalian and plant synthetic biology approach, we have developed a novel ratiometric luminescent biosensor with wide applicability in the study of auxin metabolism, transport, and signalling. The sensitivity and kinetic properties of our genetically encoded biosensor open new perspectives for the analysis of highly complex auxin dynamics in plant growth and development. PMID:23787479

  20. Electroencephalography reactivity for prognostication of post-anoxic coma after cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A comparison of quantitative analysis and visual analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Su, Yingying; Jiang, Mengdi; Chen, Weibi; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yunzhou; Gao, Daiquan

    2016-07-28

    Electroencephalogram reactivity (EEG-R) is a positive predictive factor for assessing outcomes in comatose patients. Most studies assess the prognostic value of EEG-R utilizing visual analysis; however, this method is prone to subjectivity. We sought to categorize EEG-R with a quantitative approach. We retrospectively studied consecutive comatose patients who had an EEG-R recording performed 1-3 days after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or during normothermia after therapeutic hypothermia. EEG-R was assessed via visual analysis and quantitative analysis separately. Clinical outcomes were followed-up at 3-month and dichotomized as recovery of awareness or no recovery of awareness. A total of 96 patients met the inclusion criteria, and 38 (40%) patients recovered awareness at 3-month followed-up. Of 27 patients with EEG-R measured with visual analysis, 22 patients recovered awareness; and of the 69 patients who did not demonstrated EEG-R, 16 patients recovered awareness. The sensitivity and specificity of visually measured EEG-R were 58% and 91%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the quantitative analysis was 0.92 (95% confidence interval, 0.87-0.97), with the best cut-off value of 0.10. EEG-R through quantitative analysis might be a good method in predicting the recovery of awareness in patients with post-anoxic coma after CPR.

  1. Tannin structural elucidation and quantitative ³¹P NMR analysis. 2. Hydrolyzable tannins and proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Melone, Federica; Saladino, Raffaele; Lange, Heiko; Crestini, Claudia

    2013-10-02

    An unprecedented analytical method that allows simultaneous structural and quantitative characterization of all functional groups present in tannins is reported. In situ labeling of all labile H groups (aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyls and carboxylic acids) with a phosphorus-containing reagent (Cl-TMDP) followed by quantitative ³¹P NMR acquisition constitutes a novel fast and reliable analytical tool for the analysis of tannins and proanthocyanidins with significant implications for the fields of food and feed analyses, tannery, and the development of natural polyphenolics containing products.

  2. Quantitative analysis of the mixtures of illicit drugs using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dejun; Zhao, Shusen; Shen, Jingling

    2008-03-01

    A method was proposed to quantitatively inspect the mixtures of illicit drugs with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The mass percentages of all components in a mixture can be obtained by linear regression analysis, on the assumption that all components in the mixture and their absorption features be known. For illicit drugs were scarce and expensive, firstly we used common chemicals, Benzophenone, Anthraquinone, Pyridoxine hydrochloride and L-Ascorbic acid in the experiment. Then illicit drugs and a common adulterant, methamphetamine and flour, were selected for our experiment. Experimental results were in significant agreement with actual content, which suggested that it could be an effective method for quantitative identification of illicit drugs.

  3. Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles for the Detection and Quantitative Analysis of Cell Surface Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Abdolahi, Mohammad; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Laurent, Sophie; Sermeus, Corine; Gruettner, Cordula

    2013-01-01

    Cell surface antigens as biomarkers offer tremendous potential for early diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic response in a variety of diseases such as cancers. In this research, a simple, rapid, accurate, inexpensive, and easily available in vitro assay based on magnetic nanoparticles and magnetic cell separation principle was applied to identify and quantitatively analyze the cell surface antigen expression in the case of prostate cancer cells. Comparing the capability of the assay with flow cytometry as a gold standard method showed similar results. The results showed that the antigen-specific magnetic cell separation with antibody-coated magnetic nanoparticles has high potential for quantitative cell surface antigen detection and analysis. PMID:23484112

  4. Quantitative evaluation of translational medicine based on scientometric analysis and information extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Diao, Tianxi; Wang, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Designed to advance the two-way translational process between basic research and clinical practice, translational medicine has become one of the most important areas in biomedicine. The quantitative evaluation of translational medicine is valuable for the decision making of global translational medical research and funding. Using the scientometric analysis and information extraction techniques, this study quantitatively analyzed the scientific articles on translational medicine. The results showed that translational medicine had significant scientific output and impact, specific core field and institute, and outstanding academic status and benefit. While it is not considered in this study, the patent data are another important indicators that should be integrated in the relevant research in the future.

  5. The other half of the story: effect size analysis in quantitative research.

    PubMed

    Maher, Jessica Middlemis; Markey, Jonathan C; Ebert-May, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Statistical significance testing is the cornerstone of quantitative research, but studies that fail to report measures of effect size are potentially missing a robust part of the analysis. We provide a rationale for why effect size measures should be included in quantitative discipline-based education research. Examples from both biological and educational research demonstrate the utility of effect size for evaluating practical significance. We also provide details about some effect size indices that are paired with common statistical significance tests used in educational research and offer general suggestions for interpreting effect size measures. Finally, we discuss some inherent limitations of effect size measures and provide further recommendations about reporting confidence intervals.

  6. Advances in liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry for quantitative and qualitative environmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Aceña, Jaume; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Pérez, Sandra; Barceló, Damià

    2015-08-01

    This review summarizes the advances in environmental analysis by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) during the last decade and discusses different aspects of their application. LC-HRMS has become a powerful tool for simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of organic pollutants, enabling their quantitation and the search for metabolites and transformation products or the detection of unknown compounds. LC-HRMS provides more information than low-resolution (LR) MS for each sample because it can accurately determine the mass of the molecular ion and its fragment ions if it can be used for MS-MS. Another advantage is that the data can be processed using either target analysis, suspect screening, retrospective analysis, or non-target screening. With the growing popularity and acceptance of HRMS analysis, current guidelines for compound confirmation need to be revised for quantitative and qualitative purposes. Furthermore, new commercial software and user-built libraries are required to mine data in an efficient and comprehensive way. The scope of this critical review is not to provide a comprehensive overview of the many studies performed with LC-HRMS in the field of environmental analysis, but to reveal its advantages and limitations using different workflows.

  7. A Critical Appraisal of Techniques, Software Packages, and Standards for Quantitative Proteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lawless, Craig; Hubbard, Simon J.; Fan, Jun; Bessant, Conrad; Hermjakob, Henning; Jones, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract New methods for performing quantitative proteome analyses based on differential labeling protocols or label-free techniques are reported in the literature on an almost monthly basis. In parallel, a correspondingly vast number of software tools for the analysis of quantitative proteomics data has also been described in the literature and produced by private companies. In this article we focus on the review of some of the most popular techniques in the field and present a critical appraisal of several software packages available to process and analyze the data produced. We also describe the importance of community standards to support the wide range of software, which may assist researchers in the analysis of data using different platforms and protocols. It is intended that this review will serve bench scientists both as a useful reference and a guide to the selection and use of different pipelines to perform quantitative proteomics data analysis. We have produced a web-based tool (http://www.proteosuite.org/?q=other_resources) to help researchers find appropriate software for their local instrumentation, available file formats, and quantitative methodology. PMID:22804616

  8. Spatial Quantitation of Drugs in tissues using Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    PubMed

    Swales, John G; Strittmatter, Nicole; Tucker, James W; Clench, Malcolm R; Webborn, Peter J H; Goodwin, Richard J A

    2016-11-24

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry imaging (LESA-MSI) has been shown to be an effective tissue profiling and imaging technique, producing robust and reliable qualitative distribution images of an analyte or analytes in tissue sections. Here, we expand the use of LESA-MSI beyond qualitative analysis to a quantitative analytical technique by employing a mimetic tissue model previously shown to be applicable for MALDI-MSI quantitation. Liver homogenate was used to generate a viable and molecularly relevant control matrix for spiked drug standards which can be frozen, sectioned and subsequently analyzed for the generation of calibration curves to quantify unknown tissue section samples. The effects of extraction solvent composition, tissue thickness and solvent/tissue contact time were explored prior to any quantitative studies in order to optimize the LESA-MSI method across several different chemical entities. The use of a internal standard to normalize regional differences in ionization response across tissue sections was also investigated. Data are presented comparing quantitative results generated by LESA-MSI to LC-MS/MS. Subsequent analysis of adjacent tissue sections using DESI-MSI is also reported.

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Pork and Chicken Products by Droplet Digital PCR

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yicun; Li, Xiang; Lv, Rong; Yang, Jielin; Li, Jian; He, Yuping; Pan, Liangwen

    2014-01-01

    In this project, a highly precise quantitative method based on the digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) technique was developed to determine the weight of pork and chicken in meat products. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is currently used for quantitative molecular analysis of the presence of species-specific DNAs in meat products. However, it is limited in amplification efficiency and relies on standard curves based Ct values, detecting and quantifying low copy number target DNA, as in some complex mixture meat products. By using the dPCR method, we find the relationships between the raw meat weight and DNA weight and between the DNA weight and DNA copy number were both close to linear. This enabled us to establish formulae to calculate the raw meat weight based on the DNA copy number. The accuracy and applicability of this method were tested and verified using samples of pork and chicken powder mixed in known proportions. Quantitative analysis indicated that dPCR is highly precise in quantifying pork and chicken in meat products and therefore has the potential to be used in routine analysis by government regulators and quality control departments of commercial food and feed enterprises. PMID:25243184

  10. The closer we look the more we see? Quantitative microscopic analysis of the pulmonary surfactant system.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The surfactant system of the lung has essential biophysical and immunomodulatory functions. Only at the electron microscopic level does surfactant reveal its morphological complexity--and beauty. Therefore, morphological tools are indispensible to characterize the surfactant system in health and disease. Stereology provides the gold standard for obtaining quantitative (morphometric) data in microscopy. The combination of microscopy and stereology allows for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the intraalveolar as well as the intracellular surfactant pool, both in its preserved microorganization and localization within the lung. Surfactant-producing alveolar epithelial type II cells can be counted and sampled for size estimation with physical disectors at a high magnification light microscopic level. The number of their surfactant storing lamellar bodies can be estimated using physical disectors at the electron microscopic level. Electron tomography allows for high resolution 3D visualization of lamellar body fusion pores. Intraalveolar surfactant subtypes can be quantitated in situ, thus reflecting the functional state of the intraalveolar surfactant pool. By immunoelectron microscopy, surfactant protein distribution can be analyzed. These methods allow for a comprehensive quantitative analysis of surfactant (ultra-)structure. Here, we give an overview on the analysis of the normal and disordered surfactant system by electron microscopy and stereology.

  11. Quantitative image analysis for the characterization of microbial aggregates in biological wastewater treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Costa, J C; Mesquita, D P; Amaral, A L; Alves, M M; Ferreira, E C

    2013-09-01

    Quantitative image analysis techniques have gained an undeniable role in several fields of research during the last decade. In the field of biological wastewater treatment (WWT) processes, several computer applications have been developed for monitoring microbial entities, either as individual cells or in different types of aggregates. New descriptors have been defined that are more reliable, objective, and useful than the subjective and time-consuming parameters classically used to monitor biological WWT processes. Examples of this application include the objective prediction of filamentous bulking, known to be one of the most problematic phenomena occurring in activated sludge technology. It also demonstrated its usefulness in classifying protozoa and metazoa populations. In high-rate anaerobic processes, based on granular sludge, aggregation times and fragmentation phenomena could be detected during critical events, e.g., toxic and organic overloads. Currently, the major efforts and needs are in the development of quantitative image analysis techniques focusing on its application coupled with stained samples, either by classical or fluorescent-based techniques. The use of quantitative morphological parameters in process control and online applications is also being investigated. This work reviews the major advances of quantitative image analysis applied to biological WWT processes.

  12. Spatial Quantitation of Drugs in tissues using Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Swales, John G.; Strittmatter, Nicole; Tucker, James W.; Clench, Malcolm R.; Webborn, Peter J. H.; Goodwin, Richard J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry imaging (LESA-MSI) has been shown to be an effective tissue profiling and imaging technique, producing robust and reliable qualitative distribution images of an analyte or analytes in tissue sections. Here, we expand the use of LESA-MSI beyond qualitative analysis to a quantitative analytical technique by employing a mimetic tissue model previously shown to be applicable for MALDI-MSI quantitation. Liver homogenate was used to generate a viable and molecularly relevant control matrix for spiked drug standards which can be frozen, sectioned and subsequently analyzed for the generation of calibration curves to quantify unknown tissue section samples. The effects of extraction solvent composition, tissue thickness and solvent/tissue contact time were explored prior to any quantitative studies in order to optimize the LESA-MSI method across several different chemical entities. The use of a internal standard to normalize regional differences in ionization response across tissue sections was also investigated. Data are presented comparing quantitative results generated by LESA-MSI to LC-MS/MS. Subsequent analysis of adjacent tissue sections using DESI-MSI is also reported. PMID:27883030

  13. Quantitative analysis of multiple components based on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry in full scan mode.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min Li; Li, Bao Qiong; Wang, Xue; Chen, Jing; Zhai, Hong Lin

    2016-08-01

    Although liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry in full scan mode can obtain all the signals simultaneously in a large range and low cost, it is rarely used in quantitative analysis due to several problems such as chromatographic drifts and peak overlap. In this paper, we propose a Tchebichef moment method for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of three active compounds in Qingrejiedu oral liquid based on three-dimensional spectra in full scan mode of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. After the Tchebichef moments were calculated directly from the spectra, the quantitative linear models for three active compounds were established by stepwise regression. All the correlation coefficients were more than 0.9978. The limits of detection and limits of quantitation were less than 0.11 and 0.49 μg/mL, respectively. The intra- and interday precisions were less than 6.54 and 9.47%, while the recovery ranged from 102.56 to 112.15%. Owing to the advantages of multi-resolution and inherent invariance properties, Tchebichef moments could provide favorable results even in the situation of peaks shifting and overlapping, unknown interferences and noise signals, so it could be applied to the analysis of three-dimensional spectra in full scan mode of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry.

  14. Spatial Quantitation of Drugs in tissues using Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swales, John G.; Strittmatter, Nicole; Tucker, James W.; Clench, Malcolm R.; Webborn, Peter J. H.; Goodwin, Richard J. A.

    2016-11-01

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry imaging (LESA-MSI) has been shown to be an effective tissue profiling and imaging technique, producing robust and reliable qualitative distribution images of an analyte or analytes in tissue sections. Here, we expand the use of LESA-MSI beyond qualitative analysis to a quantitative analytical technique by employing a mimetic tissue model previously shown to be applicable for MALDI-MSI quantitation. Liver homogenate was used to generate a viable and molecularly relevant control matrix for spiked drug standards which can be frozen, sectioned and subsequently analyzed for the generation of calibration curves to quantify unknown tissue section samples. The effects of extraction solvent composition, tissue thickness and solvent/tissue contact time were explored prior to any quantitative studies in order to optimize the LESA-MSI method across several different chemical entities. The use of a internal standard to normalize regional differences in ionization response across tissue sections was also investigated. Data are presented comparing quantitative results generated by LESA-MSI to LC-MS/MS. Subsequent analysis of adjacent tissue sections using DESI-MSI is also reported.

  15. Quantitative analysis of somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations by single-cell single-molecule PCR.

    PubMed

    Kraytsberg, Yevgenya; Bodyak, Natalya; Myerow, Susan; Nicholas, Alexander; Ebralidze, Konstantin; Khrapko, Konstantin

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome integrity is an important issue in somatic mitochondrial genetics. Development of quantitative methods is indispensable to somatic mitochondrial genetics as quantitative studies are required to characterize heteroplasmy and mutation processes, as well as their effects on phenotypic developments. Quantitative studies include the identification and measurement of the load of pathogenic and non-pathogenic clonal mutations, screening mitochondrial genomes for mutations in order to determine the mutation spectra and characterize an ongoing mutation process. Single-molecule PCR (smPCR) has been shown to be an effective method that can be applied to all areas of quantitative studies. It has distinct advantages over conventional vector-based cloning techniques avoiding the well-known PCR-related artifacts such as the introduction of artificial mutations, preferential allelic amplifications, and "jumping" PCR. smPCR is a straightforward and robust method, which can be effectively used for molecule-by-molecule mutational analysis, even when mitochondrial whole genome (mtWG) analysis is involved. This chapter describes the key features of the smPCR method and provides three examples of its applications in single-cell analysis: di-plex smPCR for deletion quantification, smPCR cloning for clonal point mutation quantification, and smPCR cloning for whole genome sequencing (mtWGS).

  16. An assessment of software solutions for the analysis of mass spectrometry based quantitative proteomics data.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Lukas N; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Mani, D R; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, a series of experimental strategies for mass spectrometry based quantitative proteomics and corresponding computational methodology for the processing of the resulting data have been generated. We provide here an overview of the main quantification principles and available software solutions for the analysis of data generated by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Three conceptually different methods to perform quantitative LC-MS experiments have been introduced. In the first, quantification is achieved by spectral counting, in the second via differential stable isotopic labeling, and in the third by using the ion current in label-free LC-MS measurements. We discuss here advantages and challenges of each quantification approach and assess available software solutions with respect to their instrument compatibility and processing functionality. This review therefore serves as a starting point for researchers to choose an appropriate software solution for quantitative proteomic experiments based on their experimental and analytical requirements.

  17. Thermal analysis of Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP) prototype.

    SciTech Connect

    Oneto, Robert; Levine, Howard; Mould, John; Pierce, Jim Dwight

    2003-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has designed a crash-resistant container, the Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP), capable of surviving a worst-case plane crash, including both impact and subsequent fire, for the air transport of plutonium. This report presents thermal analyses of the full-scale PMATP in its undamaged (pre-test) condition and in bounding post-accident states. The goal of these thermal simulations was to evaluate the performance of the package in a worst-case post-crash fire. The full-scale package is approximately 1.6 m long by 0.8 m diameter. The thermal analyses were performed with the FLEX finite element code. This analysis clearly predicts that the PMATP provides acceptable thermal response characteristics, both for the post-accident fire of a one-hour duration and the after-fire heat-soak condition. All predicted temperatures for the primary containment vessel are well within design limits for safety.

  18. Heart-rate monitoring by air pressure and causal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Naoki; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hata, Yutaka

    2011-06-01

    Among lots of vital signals, heart-rate (HR) is an important index for diagnose human's health condition. For instance, HR provides an early stage of cardiac disease, autonomic nerve behavior, and so forth. However, currently, HR is measured only in medical checkups and clinical diagnosis during the rested state by using electrocardiograph (ECG). Thus, some serious cardiac events in daily life could be lost. Therefore, a continuous HR monitoring during 24 hours is desired. Considering the use in daily life, the monitoring should be noninvasive and low intrusive. Thus, in this paper, an HR monitoring in sleep by using air pressure sensors is proposed. The HR monitoring is realized by employing the causal analysis among air pressure and HR. The causality is described by employing fuzzy logic. According to the experiment on 7 males at age 22-25 (23 on average), the correlation coefficient against ECG is 0.73-0.97 (0.85 on average). In addition, the cause-effect structure for HR monitoring is arranged by employing causal decomposition, and the arranged causality is applied to HR monitoring in a setting posture. According to the additional experiment on 6 males, the correlation coefficient is 0.66-0.86 (0.76 on average). Therefore, the proposed method is suggested to have enough accuracy and robustness for some daily use cases.

  19. An objective isobaric/isentropic technique for upper air analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancuso, R. L.; Endlich, R. M.; Ehernberger, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    An objective meteorological analysis technique is presented whereby both horizontal and vertical upper air analyses are performed. The process used to interpolate grid-point values from the upper-air station data is the same as for grid points on both an isobaric surface and a vertical cross-sectional plane. The nearby data surrounding each grid point are used in the interpolation by means of an anisotropic weighting scheme, which is described. The interpolation for a grid-point potential temperature is performed isobarically; whereas wind, mixing-ratio, and pressure height values are interpolated from data that lie on the isentropic surface that passes through the grid point. Two versions (A and B) of the technique are evaluated by qualitatively comparing computer analyses with subjective handdrawn analyses. The objective products of version A generally have fair correspondence with the subjective analyses and with the station data, and depicted the structure of the upper fronts, tropopauses, and jet streams fairly well. The version B objective products correspond more closely to the subjective analyses, and show the same strong gradients across the upper front with only minor smoothing.

  20. Bayesian analysis of a reduced-form air quality model.

    PubMed

    Foley, Kristen M; Reich, Brian J; Napelenok, Sergey L

    2012-07-17

    Numerical air quality models are being used for assessing emission control strategies for improving ambient pollution levels across the globe. This paper applies probabilistic modeling to evaluate the effectiveness of emission reduction scenarios aimed at lowering ground-level ozone concentrations. A Bayesian hierarchical model is used to combine air quality model output and monitoring data in order to characterize the impact of emissions reductions while accounting for different degrees of uncertainty in the modeled emissions inputs. The probabilistic model predictions are weighted based on population density in order to better quantify the societal benefits/disbenefits of four hypothetical emission reduction scenarios in which domain-wide NO(x) emissions from various sectors are reduced individually and then simultaneously. Cross validation analysis shows the statistical model performs well compared to observed ozone levels. Accounting for the variability and uncertainty in the emissions and atmospheric systems being modeled is shown to impact how emission reduction scenarios would be ranked, compared to standard methodology.

  1. Highly Reproducible Label Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of RNA Polymerase Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Mosley, Amber L.; Sardiu, Mihaela E.; Pattenden, Samantha G.; Workman, Jerry L.; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The use of quantitative proteomics methods to study protein complexes has the potential to provide in-depth information on the abundance of different protein components as well as their modification state in various cellular conditions. To interrogate protein complex quantitation using shotgun proteomic methods, we have focused on the analysis of protein complexes using label-free multidimensional protein identification technology and studied the reproducibility of biological replicates. For these studies, we focused on three highly related and essential multi-protein enzymes, RNA polymerase I, II, and III from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that label-free quantitation using spectral counting is highly reproducible at the protein and peptide level when analyzing RNA polymerase I, II, and III. In addition, we show that peptide sampling does not follow a random sampling model, and we show the need for advanced computational models to predict peptide detection probabilities. In order to address these issues, we used the APEX protocol to model the expected peptide detectability based on whole cell lysate acquired using the same multidimensional protein identification technology analysis used for the protein complexes. Neither method was able to predict the peptide sampling levels that we observed using replicate multidimensional protein identification technology analyses. In addition to the analysis of the RNA polymerase complexes, our analysis provides quantitative information about several RNAP associated proteins including the RNAPII elongation factor complexes DSIF and TFIIF. Our data shows that DSIF and TFIIF are the most highly enriched RNAP accessory factors in Rpb3-TAP purifications and demonstrate our ability to measure low level associated protein abundance across biological replicates. In addition, our quantitative data supports a model in which DSIF and TFIIF interact with RNAPII in a dynamic fashion in agreement with previously published reports. PMID

  2. Quantitative fuel vapor/air mixing imaging in droplet/gas regions of an evaporating spray flow using filtered Rayleigh scattering.

    PubMed

    Allison, Patton M; McManus, Thomas A; Sutton, Jeffrey A

    2016-03-15

    This Letter demonstrates the application of filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS) for quantitative two-dimensional fuel vapor/air mixing measurements in an evaporating hydrocarbon fuel spray flow. Using the FRS approach, gas-phase measurements are made in the presence of liquid-phase droplets without interference. Effective suppression of the liquid-phase droplet scattering using FRS is enabled by the high spectral purity of the current Nd:YAG laser system. Simultaneous Mie-scattering imaging is used to visualize the droplet field and illustrate the droplet loading under which the FRS imaging is applied in the current spray flows. The initial quantification of the FRS imaging is based on calibration measurements from a flow cell of known fuel vapor/air mixtures, while future work targets the utilization of a Rayleigh-Brillouin spectral model for quantification of the FRS signals.

  3. Identification and quantitative analysis of chemical compounds based on multiscale linear fitting of terahertz spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Lingbo; Wang, Yingxin; Zhao, Ziran; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2014-07-01

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy is considered as an attractive tool for the analysis of chemical composition. The traditional methods for identification and quantitative analysis of chemical compounds by THz spectroscopy are all based on full-spectrum data. However, intrinsic features of the THz spectrum only lie in absorption peaks due to existence of disturbances, such as unexpected components, scattering effects, and barrier materials. We propose a strategy that utilizes Lorentzian parameters of THz absorption peaks, extracted by a multiscale linear fitting method, for both identification of pure chemicals and quantitative analysis of mixtures. The multiscale linear fitting method can automatically remove background content and accurately determine Lorentzian parameters of the absorption peaks. The high recognition rate for 16 pure chemical compounds and the accurate predicted concentrations for theophylline-lactose mixtures demonstrate the practicability of our approach.

  4. Quantitative determination of sibutramine in adulterated herbal slimming formulations by TLC-image analysis method.

    PubMed

    Phattanawasin, Panadda; Sotanaphun, Uthai; Sukwattanasinit, Tasamaporn; Akkarawaranthorn, Jariya; Kitchaiya, Sarunyaporn

    2012-06-10

    A simple thin layer chromatographic (TLC)-image analysis method was developed for rapid determination and quantitation of sibutramine hydrochloride (SH) adulterated in herbal slimming products. Chromatographic separation of SH was achieved on a silica gel 60 F(254) TLC plate, using toluene-n-hexane-diethylamine (9:1:0.3, v/v/v) as the mobile phase and Dragendorff reagent as spot detection. Image analysis of the scanned TLC plate was performed to quantify the amount of SH. The polynomial regression data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship in the concentration range of 1-6 μg/spot. The limits of detection and quantitation were 190 and 634 ng/spot, respectively. The method gave satisfactory specificity, precision, accuracy, robustness and was applied for determination of SH in herbal formulations. The contents of SH in adulterated samples determined by the TLC-image analysis and TLC-densitometry were also compared.

  5. Immunochemical approach to indoor aeroallergen quantitation with a new volumetric air sampler: studies with mite, roach, cat, mouse, and guinea pig antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, M.C.; Agarwal, M.K.; Reed, C.E.

    1985-11-01

    We describe a new high-volume air sampler for determining antigen concentrations in homes and illustrate its use for quantitating airborne house dust mite, cat, cockroach, mouse, and guinea pig antigens. The concentration of house dust-mite antigen was similar from houses in Rochester, Minn. and tenement apartments in Harlem, N. Y., but cockroach and mouse urinary proteins were present only in Harlem. The amount of cat or guinea pig antigen varied as expected with the number of pets in the home. In calm air the airborne concentration of mite and cat antigen was similar throughout the house but increased greatly in a bedroom when bedding was changed. In calm air most of the cat and mite antigens were associated with respirable particles less than 5 microns mean aerodynamic mass diameter, but in air sampled after the bedding was changed, more cat antigen was found in particles greater than 5 microns. The apparatus and technique described can provide objective data concerning the magnitude and the relative distribution and duration of suspended particles of defined sizes, which contain allergen activity.

  6. Multiple component quantitative analysis for the pattern recognition and quality evaluation of Kalopanacis Cortex using HPLC.

    PubMed

    Men, Chu Van; Jang, Yu Seon; Lee, Kwan Jun; Lee, Jae Hyun; Quang, Tran Hong; Long, Nguyen Van; Luong, Hoang Van; Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Jong Seong

    2011-12-01

    A quantitative and pattern recognition analyses were conducted for quality evaluation of Kalopanacis Cortex (KC) using HPLC. For quantitative analysis, four bioactive compounds, liriodendrin, pinoresinol O-β-D-glucopyranoside, acanthoside B and kalopanaxin B, were determined. The analysis method was optimized and validated using ODS column with mobile phase of methanol and aqueous phosphoric acid. The validation gave acceptable linearities (r > 0.9995), recoveries (98.4% to 101.9%) and precisions (RSD < 2.20). The limit of detection of compounds ranged from 0.4 to 0.9 μg/mL. Among the four compounds, liriodendrin was recommended as a marker compound for the quality control of KC. The pattern analysis was successfully carried out by analyzing thirty two samples from four species, and the authentic KC samples were completely discriminated from other inauthentic species by linear discriminant analysis. The results indicated that the method was suitable for the quantitative analysis of liriodendrin and the quality evaluation of KC.

  7. Quantitative analysis of orofacial development and median clefts in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Allyson E; Dickinson, Amanda J

    2014-05-01

    Xenopus has become a useful tool to study the molecular mechanisms underlying orofacial development. However, few quantitative analyses exist to describe the anatomy of this region. In this study we combine traditional facial measurements with geometric morphometrics to describe anatomical changes in the orofacial region during normal and abnormal development. Facial measurements and principal component (PC) analysis indicate that during early tadpole development the face expands primarily in the midface region accounting for the development of the upper jaw and primary palate. The mouth opening correspondingly becomes flatter and wider as it incorporates the jaw elements. A canonical variate analysis of orofacial and mouth opening shape emphasized that changes in the orofacial shape occur gradually. Orofacial anatomy was quantified after altered levels of retinoic acid using all-trans retinoic acid or an inhibitor of retinoic acid receptors or by injecting antisense oligos targeting RALDH2. Such perturbations resulted in major decreases in the width of the midface and the mouth opening illustrated in facial measurements and a PC analysis. The mouth opening shape also had a gap in the primary palate resulting in a median cleft in the mouth opening that was only illustrated quantitatively in the morphometric analysis. Finally, canonical and discriminant function analysis statistically distinguished the orofacial and mouth opening shape changes among the different modes used to alter retinoic acid signaling levels. By combining quantitative analyses with molecular studies of orofacial development we will be better equipped to understand the complex morphogenetic processes involved in palate development and clefting.

  8. A novel approach to the analysis of squeezed-film air damping in microelectromechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weilin; Li, Hongxia; Chatterjee, Aveek N.; Elfadel, Ibrahim (Abe M.; Ender Ocak, Ilker; Zhang, TieJun

    2017-01-01

    Squeezed-film damping (SFD) is a phenomenon that significantly affects the performance of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). The total damping force in MEMS mainly include the viscous damping force and elastic damping force. Quality factor (Q factor) is usually used to evaluate the damping in MEMS. In this work, we measure the Q factor of a resonator through experiments in a wide range of pressure levels. In fact, experimental characterizations of MEMS have some limitations because it is difficult to conduct experiments at very high vacuum and also hard to differentiate the damping mechanisms from the overall Q factor measurements. On the other hand, classical theoretical analysis of SFD is restricted to strong assumptions and simple geometries. In this paper, a novel numerical approach, which is based on lattice Boltzmann simulations, is proposed to investigate SFD in MEMS. Our method considers the dynamics of squeezed air flow as well as fluid-solid interactions in MEMS. It is demonstrated that Q factor can be directly predicted by numerical simulation, and our simulation results agree well with experimental data. Factors that influence SFD, such as pressure, oscillating amplitude, and driving frequency, are investigated separately. Furthermore, viscous damping and elastic damping forces are quantitatively compared based on comprehensive simulation. The proposed numerical approach as well as experimental characterization enables us to reveal the insightful physics of squeezed-film air damping in MEMS.

  9. Emerging flow injection mass spectrometry methods for high-throughput quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C; Kaldon, Laura G

    2016-01-01

    Where does flow injection analysis mass spectrometry (FIA-MS) stand relative to ambient mass spectrometry (MS) and chromatography-MS? Improvements in FIA-MS methods have resulted in fast-expanding uses of this technique. Key advantages of FIA-MS over chromatography-MS are fast analysis (typical run time <60 s) and method simplicity, and FIA-MS offers high-throughput without compromising sensitivity, precision and accuracy as much as ambient MS techniques. Consequently, FIA-MS is increasingly becoming recognized as a suitable technique for applications where quantitative screening of chemicals needs to be performed rapidly and reliably. The FIA-MS methods discussed herein have demonstrated quantitation of diverse analytes, including pharmaceuticals, pesticides, environmental contaminants, and endogenous compounds, at levels ranging from parts-per-billion (ppb) to parts-per-million (ppm) in very complex matrices (such as blood, urine, and a variety of foods of plant and animal origin), allowing successful applications of the technique in clinical diagnostics, metabolomics, environmental sciences, toxicology, and detection of adulterated/counterfeited goods. The recent boom in applications of FIA-MS for high-throughput quantitative analysis has been driven in part by (1) the continuous improvements in sensitivity and selectivity of MS instrumentation, (2) the introduction of novel sample preparation procedures compatible with standalone mass spectrometric analysis such as salting out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) with volatile solutes and NH4(+) QuEChERS, and (3) the need to improve efficiency of laboratories to satisfy increasing analytical demand while lowering operational cost. The advantages and drawbacks of quantitative analysis by FIA-MS are discussed in comparison to chromatography-MS and ambient MS (e.g., DESI, LAESI, DART). Generally, FIA-MS sits 'in the middle' between ambient MS and chromatography-MS, offering a balance between analytical

  10. Interlaboratory analysis of high molecular weight organochlorines in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidleman, Terry F.

    High volume air samples were collected in Boston, MA, and Columbia, SC using a glass fiber filter — polyurethane foam trap, and the pooled sample extracts from each location were distributed among nine laboratories for organochlorine analysis. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were reported by all laboratories, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 26-39 % for total PCB. The total PCB concentration in Boston was 7.1 ng m -3, compared to 4.4 ng m -3 in Columbia. Other organochlorines identified by three or more laboratories included hexachlorobenzene and the pesticides DDT, DDE, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, hexachlorocyclohexane, and polychloroterpenes. RSDs for most pesticides ranged from 35-75% and as high as 116% for polychloroterpenes (quantified as toxaphene). In general, pesticide levels were an order of magnitude higher in Columbia than in Boston.

  11. BACT analysis under the Clean Air Act's PCD program

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, P.; Walke, J.

    2006-11-15

    Before a company may build a new major industrial source of air pollution, or make modifications to an existing major source in the USA it must apply for and receive a Clean Air Act (CAA) Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit. State environmental agencies typically issue such permits, either under state law or by exercising delegated authority to implement the federal PSD program. To fully comply with the CAA, the emissions limits identified as BACT must incorporate consideration of more than just add-on emissions control technology, they must also reflect appropriate considerations of fuel quality (e.g. low-sulfur coal) and process changes (e.g. advanced combustion techniques) as a means of controlling emissions, and must consider the other environmental and public welfare benefits of the identified emissions control options. Several states including New Mexico and Illinois have already determined that innovated technologies, such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), must be considered in connection with the BACT analysis for new coal-fired power plants. Even the notion that BACT is categorically limited in scope to the general type of facility proposed is contrary to EPA precedent. For example, the Environmental Appeals Board (EAB) has explained that permitting authorities retain the discretion under the definition of BACT to require dramatically different facility designs (e.g. a natural gas plant instead of a coal-fired power plant). The best advice for any permit applicant is to include in the BACT analysis a careful and honest examination of better performing alternative processes and/or innovative combustion techniques and to aggressively pursue such options wherever feasible. 17 refs.

  12. [Quantitative surface analysis of Pt-Co, Cu-Au and Cu-Ag alloy films by XPS and AES].

    PubMed

    Li, Lian-Zhong; Zhuo, Shang-Jun; Shen, Ru-Xiang; Qian, Rong; Gao, Jie

    2013-11-01

    In order to improve the quantitative analysis accuracy of AES, We associated XPS with AES and studied the method to reduce the error of AES quantitative analysis, selected Pt-Co, Cu-Au and Cu-Ag binary alloy thin-films as the samples, used XPS to correct AES quantitative analysis results by changing the auger sensitivity factors to make their quantitative analysis results more similar. Then we verified the accuracy of the quantitative analysis of AES when using the revised sensitivity factors by other samples with different composition ratio, and the results showed that the corrected relative sensitivity factors can reduce the error in quantitative analysis of AES to less than 10%. Peak defining is difficult in the form of the integral spectrum of AES analysis since choosing the starting point and ending point when determining the characteristic auger peak intensity area with great uncertainty, and to make analysis easier, we also processed data in the form of the differential spectrum, made quantitative analysis on the basis of peak to peak height instead of peak area, corrected the relative sensitivity factors, and verified the accuracy of quantitative analysis by the other samples with different composition ratio. The result showed that the analytical error in quantitative analysis of AES reduced to less than 9%. It showed that the accuracy of AES quantitative analysis can be highly improved by the way of associating XPS with AES to correct the auger sensitivity factors since the matrix effects are taken into account. Good consistency was presented, proving the feasibility of this method.

  13. Simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of the Escherichia coli proteome: a sweet tale.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jeffrey C; Denny, Richard; Dorschel, Craig; Gorenstein, Marc V; Li, Guo-Zhong; Richardson, Keith; Wall, Daniel; Geromanos, Scott J

    2006-04-01

    We describe a novel LCMS approach to the relative quantitation and simultaneous identification of proteins within the complex milieu of unfractionated Escherichia coli. This label-free, LCMS acquisition method observes all detectable, eluting peptides and their corresponding fragment ions. Postacquisition data analysis methods extract both the chromatographic and the mass spectrometric information on the tryptic peptides to provide time-resolved, accurate mass measurements, which are subsequently used for quantitation and identification of constituent proteins. The response of E. coli to carbon source variation is well understood, and it is thus commonly used as a model biological system when validating an analytical method. Using this LCMS approach, we characterized proteins isolated from E. coli grown in glucose, lactose, and acetate. The change in relative abundance of the corresponding proteins was measured from peptides common to both conditions. Protein identities were also determined for those peptides that were unique to each condition, and these identities were found to be consistent with the underlying biochemical restrictions imposed by the growth conditions. The relative change in abundance of the characterized proteins ranged from 0.1- to 90-fold among the three binary comparisons. The overall coverage of the characterized proteins ranged from 10 to 80%, consisting of one to 34 peptides per protein. The quantitative results obtained from our study were comparable to other existing proteomic and transcriptional profiling approaches. This study illustrates the robustness of this novel LCMS approach for the simultaneous quantitative and comprehensive qualitative analysis of proteins in complex mixtures.

  14. Multiple-trait quantitative trait loci analysis using a large mouse sibship.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, A U; Fornés, A; Galecki, A; Miller, R A; Burke, D T

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci influencing several phenotypes were assessed using a genetically heterogeneous mouse population. The 145 individuals were produced by a cross between (BALB/cJ x C57BL/6J)F1 females and (C3H/HeJ x DBA/2J)F1 males. The population is genetically equivalent to full siblings derived from heterozygous parents, with known linkage phase. Each individual in the population represents a unique combination of alleles from the inbred grandparents. Quantitative phenotypes for eight T cell measures were obtained at 8 and 18 mo of age. Single-marker locus, repeated measures analysis of variance identified nine marker-phenotype associations with an experimentwise significance level of P < 0.05. Six of the eight quantitative phenotypes could be associated with at least one locus having experiment-wide significance. Composite interval, repeated measures analysis of variance identified 13 chromosomal regions with comparisonwise (nominal) significance associations of P < 0.001. The heterozygous-parent cross provides a reproducible, general method for identification of loci associated with quantitative trait phenotypes or repeated phenotypic measures. PMID:9927469

  15. Sources of Technical Variability in Quantitative LC-MS Proteomics: Human Brain Tissue Sample Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Piehowski, Paul D.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Orton, Daniel J.; Xie, Fang; Moore, Ronald J.; Ramirez Restrepo, Manuel; Engel, Anzhelika; Lieberman, Andrew P.; Albin, Roger L.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Myers, Amanda J.

    2013-05-03

    To design a robust quantitative proteomics study, an understanding of both the inherent heterogeneity of the biological samples being studied as well as the technical variability of the proteomics methods and platform is needed. Additionally, accurately identifying the technical steps associated with the largest variability would provide valuable information for the improvement and design of future processing pipelines. We present an experimental strategy that allows for a detailed examination of the variability of the quantitative LC-MS proteomics measurements. By replicating analyses at different stages of processing, various technical components can be estimated and their individual contribution to technical variability can be dissected. This design can be easily adapted to other quantitative proteomics pipelines. Herein, we applied this methodology to our label-free workflow for the processing of human brain tissue. For this application, the pipeline was divided into four critical components: Tissue dissection and homogenization (extraction), protein denaturation followed by trypsin digestion and SPE clean-up (digestion), short-term run-to-run instrumental response fluctuation (instrumental variance), and long-term drift of the quantitative response of the LC-MS/MS platform over the 2 week period of continuous analysis (instrumental stability). From this analysis, we found the following contributions to variability: extraction (72%) >> instrumental variance (16%) > instrumental stability (8.4%) > digestion (3.1%). Furthermore, the stability of the platform and its’ suitability for discovery proteomics studies is demonstrated.

  16. Dynamic analysis of pathogen-infected host cells using quantitative phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungrag; Kim, Young Ran; Lee, Ji Yong; Rhee, Joon Haeng; Park, Chang-Soo; Kim, Dug Young

    2011-03-01

    We present the real-time quantitative analysis of Vibrio vulnificus-infected host cells using quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) based on interferometric techniques. This provides the ability to retrieve the phase or optical path-length distribution over the cell with nanometer path-length sensitivity from a single interferogram image. We have used QPM to study dynamic cell morphologic changes and to noninvasively quantify the cell volumes of rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells infected with V. vulnificus strains: wild type (MO6-24/O) and RtxA1 toxin mutant (CMM770). During the process of V. vulnificus infection in RBL-2H3 cells, the dynamic changes of quantitative phase images, cell volumes, and areas were observed in real time using QPM. In contrast, dramatic changes were not detected in RBL-2H3 cells infected with the noncytotoxic RtxA1 toxin mutant. The results showed good correlation between QPM analysis and biochemical assays, such as lactate dehydrogenase assay or β-hexosaminidase release assay. We suggest that QPM is a powerful quantitative method to study the dynamic process of host cells infected with pathogens in a noninvasive manner.

  17. Rapid Analysis, Self-Calibrating Array for Air Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie L.; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Lara, Liana; Huerta, Ramon; Vergara, Alexander; Muezzinoglua, Mehmet K.

    2012-01-01

    Human space missions have critical needs for monitoring and control for life support systems. These systems have monitoring needs that include feedback for closed loop processes and quality control for environmental factors. Sensors and monitoring technologies assure that the air environment and water supply for the astronaut crew habitat fall within acceptable limits, and that the life support system is functioning properly and efficiently. The longer the flight duration and the more distant the destination, the more critical it becomes to have carefully monitored and automated control systems for life support. Past experiments with the JPL ENose have demonstrated a lifetime of the sensor array, with the software, of around 18 months. The lifetime of the calibration, for some analytes, was as long as 24 months. We are working on a sensor array and new algorithms that will include sensor response time in the analysis. The preliminary array analysis for two analytes shows that the analysis time, of an event, can be dropped from 45 minutes to less than10 minutes and array training time can be cut substantially. We will describe the lifetime testing of an array and show lifetime data on individual sensors. This progress will lead to more rapid identification of analytes, and faster training time of the array.

  18. Stratospheric Air Sub-sampler (SAS) and its application to analysis of Δ17O(CO2) from small air samples collected with an AirCore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janina Mrozek, Dorota; van der Veen, Carina; Hofmann, Magdalena E. G.; Chen, Huilin; Kivi, Rigel; Heikkinen, Pauli; Röckmann, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    We present the set-up and a scientific application of the Stratospheric Air Sub-sampler (SAS), a device to collect and to store the vertical profile of air collected with an AirCore (Karion et al., 2010) in numerous sub-samples for later analysis in the laboratory. The SAS described here is a 20 m long 1/4 inch stainless steel tubing that is separated by eleven valves to divide the tubing into 10 identical segments, but it can be easily adapted to collect smaller or larger samples. In the collection phase the SAS is directly connected to the outlet of an optical analyzer that measures the mole fractions of CO2, CH4 and CO from an AirCore sampler. The stratospheric part (or if desired any part of the AirCore air) is then directed through the SAS. When the SAS is filled with the selected air, the valves are closed and the vertical profile is maintained in the different segments of the SAS. The segments can later be analysed to retrieve vertical profiles of other trace gas signatures that require slower instrumentation. As an application, we describe the coupling of the SAS to an analytical system to determine the 17O excess of CO2, which is a tracer for photochemical processing of stratospheric air. For this purpose the analytical system described by Mrozek et al. (2015) was adapted for analysis of air directly from the SAS. The performance of the coupled system is demonstrated for a set of air samples from an AirCore flight in November 2014 near Sodankylä, Finland. The standard error for a 25 mL air sample at stratospheric CO2 mole fraction is 0.56 ‰ (1σ) for δ17O and 0.03 ‰ (1σ) for both δ18O and δ13C. Measured Δ17O(CO2) values show a clear correlation with N2O in agreement with already published data.

  19. DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF AIR QUALITY MODELING SIMULATIONS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentrations of five hazardous air pollutants were simulated using the Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Annual simulations were performed over the continental United States for the entire year of 2001 to support human exposure estimates. Results a...

  20. Impact of Model Uncertainties on Quantitative Analysis of FUV Auroral Images: Peak Production Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Germany, G. A.; Lummerzheim, D.; Parks, G. K.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Spann, James F., Jr.; Richards, Phil G.

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that small uncertainties in the modeled height of peak production for FUV emissions can lead to significant uncertainties in the analysis of these sai-ne emissions. In particular, an uncertainty of only 3 km in the peak production height can lead to a 50% uncertainty in the mean auroral energy deduced from the images. This altitude uncertainty is comparable to differences in different auroral deposition models currently used for UVI analysis. Consequently, great care must be taken in quantitative photometric analysis and interpretation of FUV auroral images.