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Sample records for air race detroit

  1. 75 FR 17106 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit... vessels from portions of the Detroit River during the Red Bull Air Race. This temporary safety zone...

  2. 75 FR 30708 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 17106). We received zero comments on the proposed rule. No public meeting was... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit... from portions of the Detroit River during the Red Bull Air Race. This temporary safety zone...

  3. DETROIT AIR TOXICS INITIATIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project will include both a risk assessment and a risk reduction component. The assessment component will capitalize on the strong air toxics database that currently exists for the Detroit area. Data from several monitoring studies/projects will be utilized to characterize ...

  4. The Unintended Significance of Race: Environmental Racial Inequality in Detroit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Liam

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses shortcomings in the literature on environmental inequality by (a) setting forth and testing four models of environmental inequality and (b) explicitly linking environmental inequality research to spatial mismatch theory and to the debate on the declining significance of race. The explanatory models ask whether the…

  5. Race/Ethnicity, Poverty, Urban Stressors and Telomere Length in a Detroit Community-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Geronimus, Arline T.; Pearson, Jay A.; Linnenbringer, Erin; Schulz, Amy J.; Reyes, Angela G.; Epel, Elissa S.; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

    2015-01-01

    Residents of distressed urban areas suffer early aging-related disease and excess mortality. Using a community-based participatory research approach in a collaboration between social researchers and cellular biologists, we collected a unique data set of 239 black, white, or Mexican adults from a stratified, multi-stage probability sample of three Detroit neighborhoods. We drew venous blood and measured Telomere Length (TL), an indicator of stress-mediated biological aging, linking respondents’ TL to their community survey responses. We regressed TL on socioeconomic, psychosocial, neighborhood, and behavioral stressors, hypothesizing and finding an interaction between poverty and racial/ethnic group. Poor whites had shorter TL than nonpoor whites; poor and nonpoor blacks had equivalent TL; poor Mexicans had longer TL than nonpoor Mexicans. Findings suggest unobserved heterogeneity bias is an important threat to the validity of estimates of TL differences by race/ethnicity. They point to health impacts of social identity as contingent, the products of structurally-rooted biopsychosocial processes. PMID:25930147

  6. Race-Ethnicity, Poverty, Urban Stressors, and Telomere Length in a Detroit Community-based Sample.

    PubMed

    Geronimus, Arline T; Pearson, Jay A; Linnenbringer, Erin; Schulz, Amy J; Reyes, Angela G; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2015-06-01

    Residents of distressed urban areas suffer early aging-related disease and excess mortality. Using a community-based participatory research approach in a collaboration between social researchers and cellular biologists, we collected a unique data set of 239 black, white, or Mexican adults from a stratified, multistage probability sample of three Detroit neighborhoods. We drew venous blood and measured telomere length (TL), an indicator of stress-mediated biological aging, linking respondents' TL to their community survey responses. We regressed TL on socioeconomic, psychosocial, neighborhood, and behavioral stressors, hypothesizing and finding an interaction between poverty and racial-ethnic group. Poor whites had shorter TL than nonpoor whites; poor and nonpoor blacks had equivalent TL; and poor Mexicans had longer TL than nonpoor Mexicans. Findings suggest unobserved heterogeneity bias is an important threat to the validity of estimates of TL differences by race-ethnicity. They point to health impacts of social identity as contingent, the products of structurally rooted biopsychosocial processes. PMID:25930147

  7. The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) - Article in National Ambient Air Quality Status and Trends through 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research study that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted in Detroit, Michigan, named the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS), will help develop data that improves our understanding of human exposure to various air pollutants in our environment.

  8. 77 FR 1513 - Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing TIME AND DATE: 9 a.m., Tuesday, January 10, 2012... hearing is to examine current regulations and oversight practices for air shows and air races,...

  9. 76 FR 39289 - Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit... waters immediately prior to, during, and immediately after the Detroit APBA Gold Cup boat race....

  10. Evaluating spatial outliers and integrating temporal data in air pollution models for the Detroit-Windsor airshed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Brendan F.

    The heterogeneous nature of urban air complicates human exposure estimates and creates a need for accurate, highly detailed spatiotemporal air contaminant models. The study expands on previous investigations by the Geospatial Determinants of Health Outcomes Consortium that examined relationships between air pollutant distributions and asthma exacerbations. Two approaches, the removal of spatial data outliers and the integration of spatial and temporal data, were used to refine air quality models in the Detroit and Windsor international airshed. The evaluation of associations between the resulting air quality models and asthma exacerbations in Detroit and Windsor revealed weaker correlations with spatial outliers removed but improved correlations with the addition of temporal data. Recommendations for future work include increasing the spatial and temporal resolution of the asthma datasets and incorporating Windsor NAPS data through temporal scaling to help confirm the findings of the Detroit temporal scaling.

  11. Modeling exposures to traffic-related air pollutants for the NEXUS respiratory health study of asthmatic children in Detroit, MI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Near-Road EXposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) was designed to investigate associations between exposure to traffic-related air pollution and the respiratory health of asthmatic children living near major roadways in Detroit, MI. A combination of modeli...

  12. Air pollutant exposure and preterm and term small-for-gestational-age births in Detroit, Michigan: Long-term trends and associations

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hien Q.; Batterman, Stuart A.; Wirth, Julia J.; Wahl, Robert L.; Hoggatt, Katherine J.; Sadeghnejad, Alireza; Hultin, Mary Lee; Depa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies in a number of countries have reported associations between exposure to ambient air pollutants and adverse birth outcomes, including low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB) and, less commonly, small for gestational age (SGA). Despite their growing number, the available studies have significant limitations, e.g., incomplete control of temporal trends in exposure, modest sample sizes, and a lack of information regarding individual risk factors such as smoking. No study has yet examined large numbers of susceptible individuals. We investigated the association between ambient air pollutant concentrations and term SGA and PTB outcomes among 164,905 singleton births in Detroit, Michigan occurring between 1990 and 2001. SO2, CO, NO2, O3 and PM10 exposures were used in single and multiple pollutant logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) for these outcomes, adjusted for the infant’s sex and gestational age, the mother’s race, age group, education level, smoking status and prenatal care, birth season, site of residence, and long-term exposure trends. Term SGA was associated with CO levels exceeding 0.75 ppm (OR=1.14, 95% confidence interval=1.02–1.27) and NO2 exceeding 6.8 ppb (1.11, 1.03–1.21) exposures in the first month, and with PM10 exceeding 35 μg/m3 (1.22, 1.03–1.46) and O3 (1.11, 1.02–1.20) exposure in the third trimester. PTB was associated with SO2 (1.07, 1.01–1.14) exposure in the last month, and with (hourly) O3 exceeding 92 ppb (1.08, 1.02–1.14) exposure in the first month. Exposure to several air pollutants at modest concentrations was associated with adverse birth outcomes. This study, which included a large Black population, suggests the importance of the early period of pregnancy for associations between term SGA with CO and NO2, and between O3 with PTB; and the late pregnancy period for associations between term SGA and O3 and PM10, and between SO2 with PTB. It also highlights the importance of accounting for

  13. EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES FROM DETROIT AIR ON HEALTHY RATS AND RATS WITH FEATURES OF ASTHMA OR MILD BRONCHITIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigators will conduct  a 2-year study with rats to evaluate the short-term effects of inhaling concentrated ambient particles derived from the air in an area of Detroit, Michigan that has a high incidence of childhood asthma. The investigators will use two animal ...

  14. Dispersion Modeling of Traffic-Related Air Pollutant Exposures and Health Effects Among Children with Asthma in Detroit, Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Ganguly, Rajiv; Isakov, Vlad; Burke, Janet; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Snyder, Michelle; Robins, Thomas; Lewis, Toby

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular traffic is a major source of ambient air pollution in urban areas. Traffic-related air pollutants, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter, and diesel exhaust emissions, have been associated with adverse human health effects, especially in areas near major roads. In addition to emissions from vehicles, ambient concentrations of air pollutants include contributions from stationary sources and background (or regional) sources. Although dispersion models have been widely used to evaluate air quality strategies and policies and can represent the spatial and temporal variation in environments near roads, the use of these models in health studies to estimate air pollutant exposures has been relatively limited. This paper summarizes the modeling system used to estimate exposures in the Near-Roadway Exposure and Urban Air Pollutant Study, an epidemiological study that examined 139 children with asthma or symptoms consistent with asthma, most of whom lived near major roads in Detroit, Michigan. Air pollutant concentrations were estimated with a hybrid modeling framework that included detailed inventories of mobile and stationary sources on local and regional scales; the RLINE, AERMOD, and CMAQ dispersion models; and monitored observations of pollutant concentrations. The temporal and spatial variability in emissions and exposures over the 2.5-year study period and at more than 300 home and school locations was characterized. The paper highlights issues with the development and understanding of the significance of traffic-related exposures through the use of dispersion models in urban-scale exposure assessments and epidemiology studies. PMID:26139957

  15. Local-Scale Exposure Assessment of Air Pollutants in Source-Impacted Neighborhoods in Detroit, MI (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vette, A. F.; Bereznicki, S.; Sobus, J.; Norris, G.; Williams, R.; Batterman, S.; Breen, M.; Isakov, V.; Perry, S.; Heist, D.; Community Action Against Asthma Steering Committee

    2010-12-01

    There has been growing interest in improving local-scale (< 1-km) exposure assessments to better understand the impact of local sources of air pollutants on adverse health outcomes. This paper describes two research studies aimed at understanding the impact of local sources contributing to spatial gradients at the neighborhood-scale in Detroit, MI. The first study, the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS), was designed to assess the variability in concentrations of air pollutants derived from local and regional sources on community, neighborhood and personal exposures to air pollutants. Homes were identified at random in six different neighborhoods throughout Wayne County, MI that varied proximally to local industrial and mobile sources. Data were collected in summer (July-August) and winter (January-March) at a total of 135 homes over a three-year period (2004-2007). For five consecutive days at each home in summer and winter concurrent samples were collected of personal exposures, residential indoor and outdoor concentrations, and at a community monitoring site. The samples were analyzed for PM2.5 (mass and composition), air toxics, O3 and NO2. The second study is on-going and focuses on characterizing the impacts of mobile sources on near-road air quality and exposures among a cohort of asthmatic children. The Near-road EXposures and effects from Urban air pollutants Study (NEXUS) is designed to examine the relationship between near-road exposures to traffic-related air pollutants (BC, CO, NOx and PM components) and respiratory health of asthmatic children who live close to major roadways. The study will investigate the effects of traffic-associated exposures on exaggerated airway responses, biomolecular responses of inflammatory and oxidative stress, and how these exposures affect the frequency and severity of adverse respiratory outcomes. The study will also examine different near-road exposure assessment metrics, including monitoring and

  16. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT II, MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) OPERATION AND FUNCTION, (2) AIR CLEANER, (3) AIR SHUT-DOWN HOUSING, (4) EXHAUST SYSTEM, (5) BLOWER, (6) TURBOCHARGER, AND (7) TROUBLE-SHOOTING TIPS ON THE AIR SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…

  17. Geospatial relationships of air pollution and acute asthma events across the Detroit-Windsor international border: study design and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Lawrence D; Lamerato, Lois E; Xu, Xiaohong; Booza, Jason C; Reiners, John J; Raymond Iii, Delbert M; Villeneuve, Paul J; Lavigne, Eric; Larkin, Dana; Krouse, Helene J

    2014-07-01

    The Geospatial Determinants of Health Outcomes Consortium (GeoDHOC) study investigated ambient air quality across the international border between Detroit, Michigan, USA and Windsor, Ontario, Canada and its association with acute asthma events in 5- to 89-year-old residents of these cities. NO2, SO2, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured at 100 sites, and particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at 50 sites during two 2-week sampling periods in 2008 and 2009. Acute asthma event rates across neighborhoods in each city were calculated using emergency room visits and hospitalizations and standardized to the overall age and gender distribution of the population in the two cities combined. Results demonstrate that intra-urban air quality variations are related to adverse respiratory events in both cities. Annual 2008 asthma rates exhibited statistically significant positive correlations with total VOCs and total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) at 5-digit zip code scale spatial resolution in Detroit. In Windsor, NO2, VOCs, and PM10 concentrations correlated positively with 2008 asthma rates at a similar 3-digit postal forward sortation area scale. The study is limited by its coarse temporal resolution (comparing relatively short term air quality measurements to annual asthma health data) and interpretation of findings is complicated by contrasts in population demographics and health-care delivery systems in Detroit and Windsor. PMID:24220215

  18. Particle Concentrations and Effectiveness of Free-Standing Air Filters in Bedrooms of Children with Asthma in Detroit, Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Du, Liuliu; Batterman, Stuart; Parker, Edith; Godwin, Christopher; Chin, Jo-Yu; O'Toole, Ashley; Robins, Thomas; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma; Lewis, Toby

    2011-01-01

    Asthma can be exacerbated by environmental factors including airborne particulate matter (PM) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). We report on a study designed to characterize PM levels and the effectiveness of filters on pollutant exposures of children with asthma. 126 households with an asthmatic child in Detroit, Michigan, were recruited and randomized into control or treatment groups. Both groups received asthma education; the latter also received a free-standing high efficiency air filter placed in the child’s bedroom. Information regarding the home, emission sources, and occupant activities was obtained using surveys administered to the child's caregiver and a household inspection. Over a one-week period, we measured PM, carbon dioxide (CO2), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) tracers, and air exchange rates (AERs). Filters were installed at midweek. Before filter installation, PM concentrations averaged 28 µg m−3, number concentrations averaged 70,777 and 1,471 L−1 in 0.3–1.0 and 1–5 µm size ranges, respectively, and the median CO2 concentration was 1,018 ppm. ETS tracers were detected in 23 of 38 homes where smoking was unrestricted and occupants included smokers and, when detected, PM concentrations were elevated by an average of 15 µg m−3. Filter use reduced PM concentrations by an average of 69 to 80%. Simulation models representing location conditions show that filter air flow, room volume and AERs are the key parameters affecting PM removal, however, filters can achieve substantial removal in even "worst" case applications. While PM levels in homes with asthmatic children can be high, levels can be dramatically reduced using filters. PMID:21874085

  19. 40 CFR 81.37 - Metropolitan Detroit-Port Huron Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES...) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the...

  20. DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DEARS is a three-year field monitoring study that will be conducted in Detroit, Michigan and is designed to measure exposure and describe exposure relationships for air toxics, PM components, PM from specific sources, and criteria pollutants. Detroit, Michigan was considered ...

  1. MONITORING, ANALYSIS AND ESTIMATION OF AIR POLLUTION CONCENTRATIONS FOR THE DETROIT CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY (DCHS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research Issue: Spatial analyses of gaseous species and (possibly) particulate matter is in support of NHEERL APM 170 "Publish report on effects of particulate matter and volatile organic chemical air pollutants on children." under NHEERL APG "Characterize long term respiratory h...

  2. A Comparison of Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants: Application to Epidemiology Studies in Detroit, Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Burke, Janet; Isakov, Vlad; Lewis, Toby; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Robins, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studies would all benefit from an improved understanding of the key information and metrics needed to assess exposures, as well as the strengths and limitations of alternate exposure metrics. This study develops and evaluates several metrics for characterizing exposure to traffic-related air pollutants for the 218 residential locations of participants in the NEXUS epidemiology study conducted in Detroit (MI, USA). Exposure metrics included proximity to major roads, traffic volume, vehicle mix, traffic density, vehicle exhaust emissions density, and pollutant concentrations predicted by dispersion models. Results presented for each metric include comparisons of exposure distributions, spatial variability, intraclass correlation, concordance and discordance rates, and overall strengths and limitations. While showing some agreement, the simple categorical and proximity classifications (e.g., high diesel/low diesel traffic roads and distance from major roads) do not reflect the range and overlap of exposures seen in the other metrics. Information provided by the traffic density metric, defined as the number of kilometers traveled (VKT) per day within a 300 m buffer around each home, was reasonably consistent with the more sophisticated metrics. Dispersion modeling provided spatially- and temporally-resolved concentrations, along with apportionments that separated concentrations due to traffic emissions and other sources. While several of the exposure metrics showed broad agreement, including traffic density, emissions density and modeled concentrations, these alternatives still produced exposure classifications that differed for a substantial fraction of study participants, e.g., from 20% to 50% of

  3. A comparison of exposure metrics for traffic-related air pollutants: application to epidemiology studies in Detroit, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Batterman, Stuart; Burke, Janet; Isakov, Vlad; Lewis, Toby; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Robins, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studies would all benefit from an improved understanding of the key information and metrics needed to assess exposures, as well as the strengths and limitations of alternate exposure metrics. This study develops and evaluates several metrics for characterizing exposure to traffic-related air pollutants for the 218 residential locations of participants in the NEXUS epidemiology study conducted in Detroit (MI, USA). Exposure metrics included proximity to major roads, traffic volume, vehicle mix, traffic density, vehicle exhaust emissions density, and pollutant concentrations predicted by dispersion models. Results presented for each metric include comparisons of exposure distributions, spatial variability, intraclass correlation, concordance and discordance rates, and overall strengths and limitations. While showing some agreement, the simple categorical and proximity classifications (e.g., high diesel/low diesel traffic roads and distance from major roads) do not reflect the range and overlap of exposures seen in the other metrics. Information provided by the traffic density metric, defined as the number of kilometers traveled (VKT) per day within a 300 m buffer around each home, was reasonably consistent with the more sophisticated metrics. Dispersion modeling provided spatially- and temporally-resolved concentrations, along with apportionments that separated concentrations due to traffic emissions and other sources. While several of the exposure metrics showed broad agreement, including traffic density, emissions density and modeled concentrations, these alternatives still produced exposure classifications that differed for a substantial fraction of study participants, e.g., from 20% to 50% of

  4. Gender and race in beliefs about outdoor air pollution.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B

    2002-08-01

    Universal need for, or reactions to, risk communications should not be assumed; potential differences across demographic groups in environmental risk beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors could affect risk levels or opportunities for risk reduction. This article reports relevant findings from a survey experiment involving 1,100 potential jurors in Philadelphia concerning public responses to outdoor air pollution and air quality information. Flynn et al. (1994) and Finucane et al. (2000) found significant differences in risk ratings for multiple hazards, and in generic risk beliefs, between white men (or a subset) and all others (white women, nonwhite men, and nonwhite women). This study examined whether white men had significantly different responses to air pollution and air pollution information. An opportunity sample of volunteers from those awaiting potential jury duty in city courts (matching census estimates for white versus nonwhite proportions, but more female than the city's adult population and more likely to have children) filled out questionnaires distributed quasi-randomly. On most measures there were no statistically significant differences among white men (N = 192), white women (N = 269), nonwhite men (N = 165), and nonwhite women (N = 272). Nonwhites overall (particularly women) reported more concern about and sensitivity to air pollution than whites, and were more concerned by (even overly sensitive to) air pollution information provided as part of the experiment. Nonwhites also were more likely (within-gender comparisons) to report being active outdoors for at least four hours a day, a measure of potential exposure to air pollution, and to report intentions to reduce such outdoor activity after reading air pollution information. Differences between men and women were less frequent than between whites and nonwhites; the most distinctive group was nonwhite women, followed by white men. Flynn et al. (1994) and Finucane et al. (2000) found a far larger

  5. A Comparison of Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants: Application to Epidemiology Studies in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studi...

  6. (PORTUGAL)THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) represents an intensive examination of personal, residential and community-based particulate matter and related co-pollutant measurements in Detroit, Michigan. Data from the DEARS will be used as inputs into air quality, la...

  7. 75 FR 21191 - Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit... vessels from portions of the Detroit River during the Detroit APBA Gold Cup. This special local...

  8. 75 FR 39448 - Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 21191). We received zero comments on the proposed rule. No public meeting was... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit... Detroit River during the Detroit APBA Gold Cup. This special local regulation is necessary to...

  9. Multiple Race Reporting. AIR 2001 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahra, Amita; Howard, Kyland

    For more than 20 years the standards set in Statistical Policy Directive No. 15 of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) have provided a common language to define and group the social constructs of "race" and "ethnicity." The definitions were developed to provide consistency in the collection of data by various federal agencies. Since the…

  10. Dispersion Modeling of Traffic-Related Air Pollutant Exposures and Health Effects among Children with Asthma in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicular traffic is a major source of ambient air pollution in urban areas, and traffic-related air pollutants, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter under 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) and diesel exhaust emissions, have been associated with...

  11. An Evaluation of EPA's National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA): Comparison with Benzene Measurements in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA periodically evaluates ambient concentrations, human exposures, and health risks for 180 hazardous air pollutants plus diesel particulate matter using modeled estimates from the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). NATA publishes estimates at the spatial reso...

  12. 75 FR 25794 - Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World Championship, Upper New York Bay, Lower Hudson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World... State Park, New Jersey and Ellis Island, New Jersey and New York for the Red Bull Air Race...

  13. DETROIT CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Children's Health Study will consist of health questionnaires for 15,000 children enrolled in the fourth- and fifth-grades of selected elementary schools, and measurements of lung function and exhaled breath in a subset of 3,500 of these children. Participation in bo...

  14. Detroit Commuter Hydrogen Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Jerry; Prebo, Brendan

    2010-07-31

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate the viability of using hydrogen as a fuel in an internal combustion engine vehicle for use as a part of a mass transit system. The advantages of hydrogen as a fuel include renew-ability, minimal environmental impact on air quality and the environment, and potential to reduce dependence on foreign energy sources for the transportation sector. Recognizing the potential for the hydrogen fuel concept, the Southeast Michigan Congress of Governments (SEMCOG) determined to consider it in the study of a proposed regional mass transit rail system for southeast Michigan. SEMCOG wanted to evaluate the feasibility of using hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine (H2ICE) vehicles in shuttle buses to connect the Detroit Metro Airport to a proposed, nearby rail station. Shuttle buses are in current use on the airport for passenger parking and inter-terminal transport. This duty cycle is well suited to the application of hydrogen fuel at this time because of the ability to re-fuel vehicles at a single nearby facility, overcoming the challenge of restricted fuel availability in the undeveloped hydrogen fuel infrastructure. A cooperative agreement between SEMCOG and the DOE was initiated and two H2ICE buses were placed in regular passenger service on March 29, 2009 and operated for six months in regular passenger service. The buses were developed and built by the Ford Motor Company. Wayne County Airport Authority provided the location for the demonstration with the airport transportation contractor, Metro Cars Inc. operating the buses. The buses were built on Ford E450 chassis and incorporated a modified a 6.8L V-10 engine with specially designed supercharger, fuel rails and injectors among other sophisticated control systems. Up to 30 kg of on-board gaseous hydrogen were stored in a modular six tank, 350 bar (5000 psi) system to provide a 150 mile driving range. The bus chassis and body were configured to carry nine passengers with

  15. Determining Spatial Variability in PM2.5 Source Impacts across Detroit, MI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intra-urban variability in air pollution source impacts was investigated using receptor modeling of daily speciated PM2.5 measurements collected at residential outdoor locations across Detroit, MI (Wayne County) as part of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Stud...

  16. Traffic-related air pollution and circulating levels of total and allergen-specific IgE among children in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: There is a growing body of literature suggesting a relationship between traffic-related air pollution and allergic health outcomes. Animal studies have demonstrated that air pollution, particularly diesel exhaust particles, may stimulate or enhance atopic responses...

  17. Environmental Racial Inequality in Detroit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Liam

    2006-01-01

    This study uses industrial pollution data from the Environmental Protection Agency's Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and tract-level demographic data from the 2000 U.S. census to determine whether environmental racial inequality existed in the Detroit metropolitan area in the year 2000. This study differs from prior environmental inequality…

  18. Assessing Spatial and Temporal Variability of VOCs and PM-Components in Outdoor Air during the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure models for air pollutants often adjust for effects of the physical environment (e.g., season, urban vs. rural populations) in order to improve exposure and risk predictions. Yet attempts are seldom made to attribute variability in observed outdoor air measurements to spe...

  19. Sources of fine urban particulate matter in Detroit, MI.

    PubMed

    Gildemeister, Amy E; Hopke, Philip K; Kim, Eugene

    2007-10-01

    Data from the speciation trends network (STN) was used to evaluate the amount and temporal patterns of particulate matter originating from local industrial sources and long-range transport at two sites in Detroit, MI: Allen Park, MI, southwest of both Detroit and the areas of heavy industrial activity; Dearborn, MI, located on the south side of Detroit near the most heavily industrialized region. Using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and comparing source contributions at Allen Park to those in Dearborn, contributions made by local industrial sources (power plants, coke refineries, iron smelting, waste incineration), local area sources (automobile and diesel truck) and long range sources of PM(2.5) can be distinguished in greater Detroit. Overall, the mean mass concentration measured at Dearborn was 19% higher than that measured at Allen Park. The mass at Allen Park was apportioned as: secondary sulfate 31%, secondary nitrate 28%, soil 8%, mixed aged sea and road salts 4%, gasoline 15%, diesel 4%, and biomass burning 3%. At Dearborn the mass was apportioned as: secondary sulfate 25%, secondary nitrate 20%, soil 12%, mixed aged sea and road salts 4%, gasoline 20%, diesel 8%, iron and steel, 5%, and mixed industrial 7%. The impact of the iron and steel, soil, and mixed aged sea and road salt was much higher at the Dearborn site than at the Allen Park site, suggesting that close proximity to a local industrial complex has a direct negative impact on local air quality. PMID:17537480

  20. 11. Photocopy of Photograph (Courtesy of the Detroit Hockey Club, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of Photograph (Courtesy of the Detroit Hockey Club, Detroit, Michigan). GROUNDBREAKING FOR ADDITION, JUNE 23, 1965. Left Sid Abel, Genral Manager of the Detroit Hockey Club Center - Jerome Cavanaugh, Mayor, City of Detroit Right - Nick Landis, General Manager of the Olympia Stadium - Olympia Arena, 5920 Grand River Avenue, Detroit, MI

  1. Detroit Edison conquers zebra mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, D.B.; Buda, D.J. )

    1993-11-01

    A potentially troublesome zebra mussel infestation at Detroit Edison's Harbor Beach Power Plant was nipped in time. Reducing the oxygen content of water inside the plant's water systems and using steam to thermally treat a colony of mussels that was established in the plant's screenhouse prevented the problem. So successful was the temperature treatment that it will be used regularly as part of the plant's annual mussel removal program.

  2. 33 CFR 100.918 - Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit, MI. 100.918 Section 100.918 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.918 Detroit APBA Gold...

  3. 33 CFR 100.918 - Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit, MI. 100.918 Section 100.918 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.918 Detroit APBA Gold...

  4. 33 CFR 100.918 - Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit, MI. 100.918 Section 100.918 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.918 Detroit APBA Gold...

  5. 33 CFR 100.918 - Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit, MI. 100.918 Section 100.918 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.918 Detroit APBA Gold...

  6. 33 CFR 100.918 - Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit, MI. 100.918 Section 100.918 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.918 Detroit APBA Gold...

  7. 75 FR 32661 - Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Exhibition, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... River, Detroit, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will... encompass all waters of the Detroit River, between Detroit, MI and Belle Isle, within an area bound on the... 42 19.5' N; 083 2.2' W and to a point on land at position 42 19.7' N; 083 2.4' W. All...

  8. 33 CFR 100.912 - Detroit Bell Isle Grand Prix, Detroit, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detroit Bell Isle Grand Prix, Detroit, MI. 100.912 Section 100.912 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.912 Detroit Bell Isle...

  9. Long-term assessment of ultrafine particles on major roadways in Las Vegas, Nevada and Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation at the National Air Monitoring conference, given at the request of OAQPS partners. The presentation will cover ultrafine particle data collected at three locations - Las Vegas, Detroit, and Research Triangle Park.

  10. DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY (DEARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) is a residential and personal exposure field monitoring study that is being conducted in Detroit MI over a three-year period from 2004 to 2007. The primary goal of the study is to evaluate and describe the relationship betw...

  11. Creating Locally-Resolved Mobile-Source Emissions Inputs for Air Quality Modeling in Support of an Exposure Study in Detroit, Michigan, USA

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Michelle; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Isakov, Vlad; Talgo, Kevin; Naess, Brian; Valencia, Alejandro; Omary, Mohammad; Davis, Neil; Cook, Rich; Hanna, Adel

    2014-01-01

    This work describes a methodology for modeling the impact of traffic-generated air pollutants in an urban area. This methodology presented here utilizes road network geometry, traffic volume, temporal allocation factors, fleet mixes, and emission factors to provide critical modeling inputs. These inputs, assembled from a variety of sources, are combined with meteorological inputs to generate link-based emissions for use in dispersion modeling to estimate pollutant concentration levels due to traffic. A case study implementing this methodology for a large health study is presented, including a sensitivity analysis of the modeling results reinforcing the importance of model inputs and identify those having greater relative impact, such as fleet mix. In addition, an example use of local measurements of fleet activity to supplement model inputs is described, and its impacts to the model outputs are discussed. We conclude that with detailed model inputs supported by local traffic measurements and meteorology, it is possible to capture the spatial and temporal patterns needed to accurately estimate exposure from traffic-related pollutants. PMID:25501000

  12. Creating locally-resolved mobile-source emissions inputs for air quality modeling in support of an exposure study in Detroit, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Michelle; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Isakov, Vlad; Talgo, Kevin; Naess, Brian; Valencia, Alejandro; Omary, Mohammad; Davis, Neil; Cook, Rich; Hanna, Adel

    2014-12-01

    This work describes a methodology for modeling the impact of traffic-generated air pollutants in an urban area. This methodology presented here utilizes road network geometry, traffic volume, temporal allocation factors, fleet mixes, and emission factors to provide critical modeling inputs. These inputs, assembled from a variety of sources,are combined with meteorological inputs to generate link-based emissions for use in dispersion modeling to estimate pollutant concentration levels due to traffic. A case study implementing this methodology for a large health study is presented, including a sensitivity analysis of the modeling results reinforcing the importance of model inputs and identify those having greater relative impact, such as fleet mix. In addition, an example use of local measurements of fleet activity to supplement model inputs is described, and its impacts to the model outputs are discussed. We conclude that with detailed model inputs supported by local traffic measurements and meteorology, it is possible to capture the spatial and temporal patterns needed to accurately estimate exposure from traffic-related pollutants. PMID:25587603

  13. Creating locally-resolved mobile-source emissions inputs for air quality modeling in support of an exposure study in Detroit, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Michelle; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Isakov, Vlad; Talgo, Kevin; Naess, Brian; Valencia, Alejandro; Omary, Mohammad; Davis, Neil; Cook, Rich; Hanna, Adel

    2014-01-01

    This work describes a methodology for modeling the impact of traffic-generated air pollutants in an urban area. This methodology presented here utilizes road network geometry, traffic volume, temporal allocation factors, fleet mixes, and emission factors to provide critical modeling inputs. These inputs, assembled from a variety of sources, are combined with meteorological inputs to generate link-based emissions for use in dispersion modeling to estimate pollutant concentration levels due to traffic. A case study implementing this methodology for a large health study is presented, including a sensitivity analysis of the modeling results reinforcing the importance of model inputs and identify those having greater relative impact, such as fleet mix. In addition, an example use of local measurements of fleet activity to supplement model inputs is described, and its impacts to the model outputs are discussed. We conclude that with detailed model inputs supported by local traffic measurements and meteorology, it is possible to capture the spatial and temporal patterns needed to accurately estimate exposure from traffic-related pollutants. PMID:25501000

  14. Restoring Detroit's Street Lighting System

    SciTech Connect

    Kinzey, Bruce R.

    2015-10-21

    The City of Detroit is undertaking a comprehensive restoration of its street lighting system that includes transitioning the existing high-pressure sodium (HPS) sources to light-emitting diode (LED). Detroit’s well-publicized financial troubles over the last several years have added many hurdles and constraints to this process. Strategies to overcome these issues have largely been successful, but have also brought some mixed results. This document provides an objective review of the circumstances surrounding the system restoration, the processes undertaken and decisions made, and the results so far.

  15. Detroit Pursues Training with a Purpose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, William B.

    1978-01-01

    This article presents a six-week basic training course implemented in Detroit for operation and maintenance of a newly upgraded wastewater treatment plant. Each phase of the program, including manual preparation and use, is outlined and discussed. (CS)

  16. Detroit and the Lower Peninsula of Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This scene displays the southeastern part of Michigan's Lower Peninsula and adjacent Ontario, Canada (43.0N, 84.0W). Detroit can be recognized by its radial pattern of development and sediment plumes in the rivers from the massive industrial activity. The area pockmarked by lakes northwest of Detroit essentially outlines the limits of the Defiance Moraine caused by the stagnation and melting of Ice Age glaciers.

  17. Can an Egg-Dropping Race Enhance Students' Conceptual Understanding of Air Resistance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yeung Chung; Kwok, Ping Wai

    2009-01-01

    Children are familiar with situations in which air resistance plays an important role, such as parachuting. However, it is not known whether they have any understanding about the concept of air resistance, how air resistance affects falling objects, and the differential effect it has on different objects. The literature reveals that there are…

  18. Assessing the impact of race, social factors and air pollution on birth outcomes: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Both air pollution exposure and socioeconomic status (SES) are important indicators of children’s health. Using highly resolved modeled predictive surfaces, we examine the joint effects of air pollution exposure and measures of SES in a population level analysis of pregnancy outcomes in North Carolina (NC). Methods Daily measurements of particulate matter <2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) were calculated through a spatial hierarchical Bayesian model which produces census-tract level point predictions. Using multilevel models and NC birth data from 2002–2006, we examine the association between pregnancy averaged PM2.5 and O3, individual and area-based SES indicators, and birth outcomes. Results Maternal race and education, and neighborhood household income were associated with adverse birth outcomes. Predicted concentrations of PM2.5 and O3 were also associated with an additional effect on reductions in birth weight and increased risks of being born low birth weight and small for gestational age. Conclusions This paper builds on and complements previous work on the relationship between pregnancy outcomes and air pollution exposure by using 1) highly resolved air pollution exposure data; 2) a five-year population level sample of pregnancies; and 3) including personal and areal level measures of social determinants of pregnancy outcomes. Results show a stable and negative association between air pollution exposure and adverse birth outcomes. Additionally, the more socially disadvantaged populations are at a greater risk; controlling for both SES and environmental stressors provides a better understanding of the contributing factors to poor children’s health outcomes. PMID:24476365

  19. 18. Detroit Superior Bridge, Foundation for west pier of river ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Detroit Superior Bridge, Foundation for west pier of river span, dated 2/4/14. Drawing courtesy Office of the Cuyahoga County Engineer, Cleveland, Ohio. - Detroit Superior High Level Bridge, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  20. Suicide in Detroit 1975: Changes and Continuities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed data on 193 cases of suicide in Detroit to assess changes and continuities in the etiology of suicide. Results showed the highest rate of suicide has shifted from the elderly to the relatively young age cohorts. Males, persons in manual occupations, Whites, and immigrants continued to have relatively high rates of suicide. (JAC)

  1. Mexicans of Detroit. Peopling of Michigan Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baba, Marietta Lynn; Abonyi, Malvina Hauk

    Tracing the background and history of Mexican Americans in Detroit, Michigan, the booklet briefly reviews the early stages of Meso-American history, the Spaniards' arrival in Mexico, colonial Mexico, Mexico's revolt for independence, and the internal turmoil in Mexico which continued until early in 1861. The accomplishments of such Mexicans as…

  2. A New Desegregation Plan: Daylight for Detroit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, John W.

    1979-01-01

    Part of the desegration plan for the Detroit Public Schools included the construction under federal court order of five area vocational schools, the first to open in January 1980. Describes steps in program planning, initial lack of public support for vocational education, and growing community support for the concept. (MF)

  3. Detroit Schools Struggle to Stem Student Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports how Detroit public schools struggle, amidst the problems that run in the nation's fastest-shrinking big-city school system, to stem the loss of students and improve academic achievement. Facing budget, achievement woes, the district tries to compete with charter schools. Since the fall of 2004, close to 12,000 students have…

  4. Markers of respiratory inflammation in horses in relation to seasonal changes in air quality in a conventional racing stable

    PubMed Central

    Riihimäki, Miia; Raine, Amanda; Elfman, Lena; Pringle, John

    2008-01-01

    Airborne factors in a conventionally managed racing stable and markers of pulmonary inflammation in the stabled horses were investigated on 3 occasions at 6-month intervals, including 2 winter periods and the intervening summer period. The stable measurements included inside and outside ambient temperature and relative humidity, levels of total and respirable dust, endotoxin, and 1,3-β-glucan. Horses (n = 12) were examined in detail clinically as well as by endoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of BAL-cells for IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA. Indoor measurements showed low dust levels irrespective of season. Inhalable dust, as well as 1,3-β-glucan, were higher during the winter stabling period, whereas endotoxin levels were higher during summer. Complete data from all sampling occasions to be used for further evaluation was obtained for only 8 of the horses. There was a trend for elevation of BAL neutrophils in the horses during winter stabling that coincided with a 3.7-fold increased expression of IL-6 mRNA in BAL cells (P = 0.014). Compared to summer sampling, IL-10 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in only 1 of the winter sampling occasions, implicating influence on immune regulation by factor/s apart from seasonal differences. Our findings suggest up-regulation of innate immunity in the airways of stabled horses; in particular involving IL-6 in association with mild elevations in respirable dust, 1,3-β-glucan, and/or cold ambient air. However, given that this study was observational, other unmeasured environmental factors associated with winter stabling need to be considered. PMID:19086376

  5. Spatial Stigma and Health in Postindustrial Detroit.

    PubMed

    Graham, Louis F; Padilla, Mark B; Lopez, William D; Stern, Alexandra M; Peterson, Jerry; Keene, Danya E

    2016-01-01

    An emerging body of research suggests that those who reside in socially and economically marginalized places may be marked by a stigma of place, referred to as spatial stigma, which influences their sense of self, their daily experiences, and their relations with outsiders. Researchers conducted 60 semistructured interviews at partnering community-based organizations during summer 2011 with African American and Latina/o, structurally disadvantaged youth of diverse gender and sexual identities who were between 18 and 26 years of age residing in Detroit, Michigan. The disadvantaged structural conditions and dilapidated built environment were common themes in participants' narratives. Beyond these descriptions, participants' framings and expressions of their experiences in and perceptions of these spaces alluded to reputational qualities of their city and particular areas of their city that appear related to spatial stigma. Young Detroit residents articulated the ways that they experience and navigate the symbolic degradation of their city. PMID:26833796

  6. The Detroit Approach to Adapted Physical Education and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Bruce; Czapski, Stephen

    The report describes Detroit's Adaptive Physical Education Consortium Project in Michigan. Among the main objectives of the project are to coordinate all physical education and recreation services to the handicapped in the Detroit area; to facilitate the mainstreaming of capable handicapped individuals into existing "regular" physical education…

  7. Detroit Healthy Youth Initiative: Creating Successful School-University Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaughtry, Nate; Krause, Joyce; McAuliffe, Patrice; Miotke, Rick; Price, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    The Detroit Healthy Youth Initiative is a 10-year partnership between the Detroit Public Schools (DPS) and Wayne State University (WSU) with the goal of improving the quality of school health and physical education programs throughout the city schools. Drawing on the experiences of WSU and DPS faculty, administrators, teachers, and project staff,…

  8. 75 FR 60133 - Detroit Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC); Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Detroit Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC); Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Detroit Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC) to submit their applications for membership to the...: Authority Section 102 of the Maritime Transportation Security Act (MTSA) of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-295)...

  9. 33 CFR 110.206 - Detroit River, Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detroit River, Michigan. 110.206 Section 110.206 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.206 Detroit River, Michigan. (a) The Anchorage grounds. Belle Isle Anchorage. The area is in...

  10. Sources of ambient fine particulate matter at two community sites in Detroit, Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Davyda M.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Keeler, Gerald J.; Parker, Edith A.; Kamal, Ali S.; Barres, James A.; Yip, Fuyuen Y.; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma

    Detroit, Michigan is a non-attainment area of the annual PM 2.5 (particles ⩽2.5 μm in diameter) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), and contains a host of local pollution contributors including high diesel traffic from a nearby international border crossing. A source apportionment analysis was conducted using PM 2.5 data collected from 1999 to 2002 by the Community Action Against Asthma (CAAA) project in Detroit, Michigan. CAAA used a community-based participatory research approach to identify and address the environmental triggers for asthma among children residing in southwest and east Detroit. The data used for the study included 24-h measurements of PM 2.5 mass, elemental and organic carbon, and a suite of trace element species, along with hourly measurements of PM 2.5 mass and black carbon. Positive matrix factorization (PMF2) was used to quantitatively apportion the sources of ambient PM 2.5 at each of two Detroit community sites. Results showed that southwest Detroit PM 2.5 levels can be apportioned to seven source categories: secondary sulfate/coal combustion, gasoline vehicles, diesel vehicles, refinery/oil combustion, iron-steel manufacturing/waste incineration, automotive electroplating, and sewage sludge incineration that includes crustal material from runoff. The PMF2 model apportioned the east Detroit PM 2.5 data into five source categories: secondary sulfate/coal combustion, motor vehicles/combustion, refinery/oil combustion, iron-steel manufacturing/waste incineration, and automotive electroplating. For both locations, approximately over 60% of the PM 2.5 mass was attributed to secondary sulfate/coal combustion sources, approximately 30% to vehicular sources, and 1-5% to local industrial sources. The unexplained mass accounted for <2% of the measured PM 2.5 mass. This study illustrates that regional secondary sulfate/coal combustion and local motor vehicle emissions alone are enough for this mid-western US city to be in non

  11. Determining spatial variability in PM 2.5 source impacts across Detroit, MI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvall, Rachelle M.; Norris, Gary A.; Burke, Janet M.; Olson, David A.; Vedantham, Ram; Williams, Ron

    2012-02-01

    Intra-urban variability in air pollution source impacts was investigated using receptor modeling of daily speciated PM 2.5 measurements collected at residential outdoor locations across Detroit, MI (Wayne County) as part of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) during summer and winter from 2004 to 2006. Six areas were selected for the residential monitoring in the DEARS to capture impacts from different sources including local industry, motor vehicles, and upwind regional sources. PM 2.5 measurements were also collected at the Allen Park, MI Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) site for comparison with the residential outdoor sites. Sources impacting PM 2.5 were quantified using the EPA Chemical Mass Balance Model (CMB 8.2). Published source profiles were used as input to CMB along with a mixed industrial profile and a steel manufacturing profile obtained by applying the EPA Positive Matrix Factorization Model (PMF 4.0) to CSN data from a Midwestern U.S. site with industrial sources similar to Detroit. Major PM 2.5 sources impacting the Allen Park and residential monitoring areas during DEARS included motor vehicles (24-36% by mass), secondary sulfate/coal combustion (17-35%), secondary nitrate (16-37%) and organic matter (17-21%). Road dust, steel manufacturing, and mixed industrial sources contributed less than 11% by mass. CMB source contribution estimates for Allen Park during the DEARS generally compared well to CMB estimates from the collocated year-long CSN measurements using the same source profiles. CMB source contributions during DEARS showed similar contributions across the residential monitoring areas for secondary sulfate/coal combustion and secondary nitrate consistent with regional impacts for these sources. Contributions from motor vehicles, steel manufacturing, and mixed industrial sources varied across the DEARS monitoring areas, indicating impacts from local sources within the Detroit airshed that may not be well characterized by

  12. Access to Music Education with Regard to Race in Two Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Karen; Allegood, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study examined access to school music instruction with regard to race in two urban areas: Detroit, Michigan, and Washington, DC, in 2009-2010. We found significant differences in the provision of music instruction between schools with high and low proportions of nonwhite enrollment, in categories including curricular offerings,…

  13. Measurement and Correlation of Ambient VOCs in Windsor, Ontario, Canada and Detroit, Michigan, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L. J.; You, H.; Xu, X.; Molaroni, S.; Lemke, L.; Weglicki, L.; Krouse, H.; Krajenta, R.

    2009-05-01

    An air quality study has been carried out in Windsor, Ontario, Canada and Detroit, Michigan, USA as part of a pilot research study undertaken by the Geospatial Determinants of Health Outcomes Consortium (GeoDHOC), a multidisciplinary, international effort aimed at understanding the health effects of air pollution in urban environments. Exposure to volatile organic compounds has long been associated with adverse health conditions such as atrophy of skeletal muscles, loss of coordination, neurological damage, dizziness, throat, nose, and eye irritation, nervous system depression, liver damage, and respiratory symptoms. Twenty-six species of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored during a 2-week period in September, 2008 at 100 sites across Windsor and Detroit, using 3M # 3500 Organic Vapour Monitors. Ten species with highest concentrations were selected for further investigation; Toluene (mean concentration =4.14 μm/m3), (m+p)-Xylene (2.30 μm/m3), Hexane (1.87 μm/m3), Benzene (1.37 μm/m3), 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene (0.87 μm/m3), Dichloromethane (0.77 μm/m3), Ethylbenzene (0.68 μm/m3), o-Xylene (0.63 μm/m3), n-Decane (0.42 μm/m3), and 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene (0.39 μm/m3). Comparison to a similar investigation in Sarnia, Ontario in October 2005 revealed that the mean concentrations of VOCs were higher in Windsor-Detroit for all species by a significant margin (31-958%), indicating substantial impact of local industrial and vehicular emissions in the WindsorVDetroit area. For most VOCs, the concentrations were higher in Detroit than in Windsor. The mean concentration of total VOC was 9.7 μm/m3 in Windsor, which is slightly higher than that in Sarnia in 2005 (7.9 um/m3), whilst total VOC concentration in Detroit was much higher (16.5 μm/m3). There were strong correlations among several of the 10 species, with the highest Pearson correlation coefficients (r=0.78 - 0.99, p<0.05) amongst the BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) group

  14. (DETROIT) SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF SUMMER 2004 DATA FROM DEARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) represents a multi-year assessment field study involving summer and winter season collection of personal, residential indoor, residential outdoor and central community monitoring measurements.

  15. 2. View of pier #3, West approach, Detroit Superior High ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of pier #3, West approach, Detroit Superior High Level bridge (1914-1917). Pier #3 and #4 support the steel rive span. They are 116 feet by 80 feet at the base and rest on stiff blue clay 45 feet below the surface of the river. Cast-steel bolsters of the three-hinge steel arch are anchored by structural steel grillage to the masory piers. - Detroit Superior High Level Bridge, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  16. Trends in PM2.5 emissions, concentrations and apportionments in Detroit and Chicago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milando, Chad; Huang, Lei; Batterman, Stuart

    2016-03-01

    PM2.5 concentrations throughout much of the U.S. have decreased over the last 15 years, but emissions and concentration trends can vary by location and source type. Such trends should be understood to inform air quality management and policies. This work examines trends in emissions, concentrations and source apportionments in two large Midwest U.S. cities, Detroit, Michigan, and Chicago, Illinois. Annual and seasonal trends were investigated using National Emission Inventory (NEI) data for 2002 to 2011, speciated ambient PM2.5 data from 2001 to 2014, apportionments from positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor modeling, and quantile regression. Over the study period, county-wide data suggest emissions from point sources decreased (Detroit) or held constant (Chicago), while emissions from on-road mobile sources were constant (Detroit) or increased (Chicago), however changes in methodology limit the interpretation of inventory trends. Ambient concentration data also suggest source and apportionment trends, e.g., annual median concentrations of PM2.5 in the two cities declined by 3.2-3.6%/yr (faster than national trends), and sulfate concentrations (due to coal-fired facilities and other point source emissions) declined even faster; in contrast, organic and elemental carbon (tracers of gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust) declined more slowly or held constant. The PMF models identified nine sources in Detroit and eight in Chicago, the most important being secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate and vehicle emissions. A minor crustal dust source, metals sources, and a biomass source also were present in both cities. These apportionments showed that the median relative contributions from secondary sulfate sources decreased by 4.2-5.5% per year in Detroit and Chicago, while contributions from metals sources, biomass sources, and vehicles increased from 1.3 to 9.2% per year. This first application of quantile regression to trend analyses of speciated PM2.5 data reveals

  17. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 84-484-1754, Detroit Fire Fighters, Detroit, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.E.; Melius, J.M.

    1986-12-01

    In response to a request from the International Association of Fire Fighters on behalf of the Detroit Fire Fighters Association, Detroit, Michigan, a health hazard evaluation was made of respiratory symptoms and skin irritation in fire fighters involved in a large fire and explosion at a warehouse. Over 200 fire fighters from fire-fighting organizations in three communities were involved in the incident. Site runoff water contained chlordane and malathion in low parts per million; other samples were negative. Nose and throat irritation, cough, and shortness of breath were experienced by a large proportion of fire fighters following the fire, and in 14, 15, and 17 percent, respectively, symptoms persisted over 2 months. Symptoms were significantly associated with time spent at the scene and time spent in heavy smoke. Pulmonary function tests were abnormal in 14 cases, ten due to obstructive lung disease, three to restrictive lung disease, and one to a combination. The authors conclude that better protective equipment is needed for fire fighters at chemical fires. Recommendations include development of a hazardous-materials response team, and implementation of a routine medical surveillance program.

  18. Race, poverty, and potential exposure of middle-school students to air emissions from confined swine feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Mirabelli, Maria C; Wing, Steve; Marshall, Stephen W; Wilcosky, Timothy C

    2006-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that airborne effluent from swine confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) may affect the health and quality of life of adults and the prevalence of asthma symptoms among children. To investigate the extent to which public school students may be exposed to airborne effluent from swine CAFOs and to evaluate the association between schools' demographic characteristics and swine CAFO exposures, we assessed the proximity of 226 schools to the nearest swine CAFO and conducted a survey of school employees to identify schools with noticeable livestock odor. We used publicly available information describing the enrollment of each school to assess the association between race and socioeconomic status (SES) and swine CAFO exposure. Odor from livestock was noticeable outside (n = 47, 21%) and inside (n = 19, 8%) school buildings. Schools with < 63% enrollment of white students and > or = 47% of students receiving subsidized lunches at school were located closer to swine CAFOs (mean = 4.9 miles) than were the remaining schools (mean = 10.8 miles) and were more likely to be located within 3 miles of an operation than were schools with high-white/high-SES enrollment (prevalence ratio = 2.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-4.33). The prevalence of reported livestock odor varied with SES (low SES, 25%; high SES, 17%). These analyses indicate that the potential for in-school exposure to pollution arising from swine CAFOs in North Carolina and the environmental health risks associated with such exposures vary according to the racial and economic characteristics of enrolled students. PMID:16581551

  19. 77 FR 38484 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Adrian Palomeque, Prevention, U.S. Coast Guard Sector Detroit, 110 Mount Elliot Ave., Detroit MI, 48207; telephone (313) 568- 9508, email Adrian.F.Palomeque@uscg.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Coast...

  20. 78 FR 40961 - Safety Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... Adrian Palomeque, Prevention, U.S. Coast Guard Sector Detroit, 110 Mount Elliot Ave., Detroit MI 48207; telephone (313) 568- 9508, email Adrian.F.Palomeque@uscg.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Coast...

  1. Air Quality Modeling in Support of the Near-road EXposures and effects of Urban air pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the results of the model applications to estimate exposure metrics in support of an epidemiologic study in Detroit, Michigan. The Near-road Exposures to Urban air pollutant Study (NEXUS) design includes determining if children in Detroit, MI with asthma living ...

  2. THE DETROIT ASTHMA MORBIDITY, AIR QUALITY AND TRAFFIC (DAMAT) STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project was completed successfully. In Project Year 1, the health outcome and exposure data sets were collected, cleaned and processed, including specifically:

    • A set of daily exposure measures, based on measurements of the selected pollutants measure...

    • 77 FR 48476 - Proposed Amendment to Class B Airspace; Detroit, MI

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2012-08-14

      ...This action proposes to modify the Detroit, MI, Class B airspace area to contain aircraft conducting published instrument procedures at Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport (DTW), Detroit, MI, within Class B airspace. The FAA is taking this action to support all three existing Simultaneous Instrument Landing System (SILS) configurations today, runways 22/21, runways \\4/3\\ and runways......

    • Bike Racing Helmet

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1992-01-01

      In 1985, the U.S. Cycling Federation ruled that all racing bikers must wear helmets that meet American National Safety Institute Standards. Existing helmets were hot and heavy. Jim Gentes, president of Giro Sport Design, Inc. turned to Raymond Hicks an aerodynamicist at Ames Research Center for a design for a cool, lightweight helmet. Hicks created an aerodynamic helmet shape using technology from a NACA airfoil section. Air vents make the air flow laminar and reduce drag. Since 1986, Giro helmets have evolved and expanded. One was worn by the 1989 Tour de France winner.

    • Source identification of ambient PM 2.5 during summer inhalation exposure studies in Detroit, MI

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Morishita, Masako; Keeler, Gerald J.; Wagner, James G.; Harkema, Jack R.

      Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in heavily populated urban centers of the United States. Because ambient fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ⩽2.5 μm; PM 2.5) is a complex mixture resulting from multiple sources and variable atmospheric conditions, it is difficult to identify specific components of PM 2.5 that are responsible for adverse health effects. During four consecutive summers from 2000 to 2003 we characterized the ambient gaseous and PM 2.5 air quality in an urban southwest Detroit community where childhood asthma hospitalization rates are more than twice the statewide average. Both integrated and continuous PM measurements together with gaseous air pollution measurements were performed using a mobile air research facility, AirCARE1, in which concurrent toxicological studies were being conducted. Chemical and physical characterizations of PM 2.5 as well as receptor modeling using positive matrix factorization (PMF) were completed. Results from PMF indicated that six major sources contributed to the observed ambient PM 2.5 mass during the summer months. Primary sources included (1) coal combustion/secondary sulfate aerosol, (2) motor vehicle/urban road dust, (3) municipal waste incinerators, (4) oil combustion/refineries, (5) sewage sludge incinerators, and (6) iron/steel manufacturing. Although the contribution of the coal/secondary sulfate aerosol source was greater than other factors, increased levels of urban PM 2.5 from local combustion sources were also observed. In addition to characterization of ambient PM 2.5 and their sources in southwest Detroit, this paper discusses possible associations of ambient PM 2.5 from local combustion sources, specifically incinerator and refinery emissions and the observed adverse health effects during the inhalation exposure campaigns.

    • Area contingency plan southeast Michigan coastal zone. (COTP Detroit)

      SciTech Connect

      1994-07-01

      The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Southeast Michigan Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Detroit Coastal Zone.

    • Education "Reform" in Latino Detroit: Achievement Gap or Colonial Legacy?

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gonzales, Sandra M.; Shields, Carolyn M.

      2015-01-01

      Using critical theory and an analysis of missionary reports and documentation describing education in colonial Puerto Rico and Mexico, the authors cross borders and time periods to socially and historically situate Spanish colonial educational methodologies and their contemporary use in one low-income Latino community in urban Detroit, Michigan.…

    • The Detroit Riot: A Profile of 500 Prisoners.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

      Following the July 1967 riots in Detroit, 496 Negroes who had been arrested and imprisoned were questioned about their economic and employment status, family status, views about the riot and its causes, and rankings of Negro leaders. Negro interviewers conducted the survey at the prisons. Despite some stated shortcomings in the data collection…

    • Social Studies Education and Public Art: The Detroit Billboard Project

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Taylor, Julie Anne; Iroha, Okezie

      2015-01-01

      The aim of this action-research project was to evaluate the impact of high school students' involvement in community-oriented, art-based work in the social studies. In Detroit, high school students engaged in persuasive writing and design while exploring community issues. The project culminated in the installation of student artwork on a billboard…

    • THE DETROIT GREAT CITIES SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PROJECT. PROGRAM SUMMARY.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      MITCHELL, CHARLES

      TO MEET THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF CHILDREN OF LIMITED BACKGROUNDS (COMPRISING ONE-THIRD OF THE CHILDREN ENROLLED IN AMERICA'S FOURTEEN LARGEST SCHOOL SYSTEMS) THE GREAT CITIES HAVE EMBARKED ON A COOPERATIVE EFFORT TO IMPLEMENT, STUDY, AND EVALUATE AN APPROPRIATE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM. IN DETROIT THE PROJECT NOW INVOLVES 27 SCHOOLS, 1,250 SCHOOL…

    • Fixing Detroit's Broken School System

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Lake, Robin; Jochim, Ashley; DeArmond, Michael

      2015-01-01

      In January 2014, as part of a multicity study, researchers from the Center on Reinventing Public Education (CRPE) met with a dozen parents in Detroit to learn about their experiences with education in the city. Parents struggle to navigate the city's complex education marketplace. A lack of information, confusing paperwork, and transportation…

    • Management of flowering rush in the Detroit Lakes, Minnesota

      Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

      Flowering rush (Butomus umbellatus) is an invasive aquatic plant introduced to North America from Eurasia in 1897. Flowering rush can grow either submersed or emergent from wet soil habitats to waters that are up to 5 m deep. Flowering rush was first observed in the Detroit Lake system in the 196...

    • 33 CFR 117.631 - Detroit River (Trenton Channel).

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Detroit River (Trenton Channel... Channel). (a) The draw of the Grosse Ile Toll bridge (Bridge Road), mile 8.8, at Grosse Ile, shall operate... need open only from three minutes before to three minutes after the hour and half-hour for...

    • 33 CFR 117.631 - Detroit River (Trenton Channel).

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detroit River (Trenton Channel... Channel). (a) The draw of the Grosse Ile Toll bridge (Bridge Road), mile 8.8, at Grosse Ile, shall operate... need open only from three minutes before to three minutes after the hour and half-hour for...

    • A University in Detroit Pins New Hopes on Old Buildings

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Sander, Libby

      2009-01-01

      With the help of Wayne State University, facelifts of a handful of old buildings, many of them once at the heart of the automotive industry, are leading the way in the revitalization of one small corner of Detroit. Building by building, block by block, the university is gradually helping to transform an area that was, until very recently, known…

    • Moving, Writing, Failing: Spatialities of Ambivalence in Detroit's Ruinscapes

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Anderson, Mary Elizabeth

      2012-01-01

      In Detroit, the creative impulse to work in and around sites of ruin presents both aesthetic and ethical dilemmas. Creative practices that make use of ruined sites in the city are controversial to the extent that they present aesthetically attractive representations of real, unresolved social and environmental problems. This article examines the…

    • Soil Contamination as a Legacy of the U.S. Auto Industry, Southwest Detroit, Michigan USA

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Murray, K.; Peterman, C.

      2012-04-01

      The Delray community of southwest Detroit is one of the most depressed areas in southeast Michigan. Historically, Delray was a working class, racially diverse community that depended heavily on industrial jobs provided by nearby factories. However, decades of industrial waste discharges have left Delray with extensive air and soil pollution. Although high unemployment and poverty are major challenges confronting residents in Delray today, the threat to public health from Pb, Hg, As and Cr [VI] in the soil may become an even bigger issue and a significant source of concern. Newspaper headlines cite crime, substance abuse, high school and labor force dropout, as being prevalent in Delray, but recent research suggest that soil contamination, which has resulted in elevated blood Pb levels may be an underlying factor. Recent interest in this area as a potential site for a new bridge to Canada, has offered new hope to the residents by potentially opening the door for redevelopment. The initial step in this process is an environmental assessment of the Delray community. This investigation is being conducted by the University of Michigan-Dearborn in consortium with local community groups and the Detroit Public School. Although preliminary, an analysis of soil samples from over 400 residences has indicated that significant levels of As, and Pb are present in the upper 0.1 meter of soil throughout the Delray area. The high levels of metals present in the soil suggest that further investigation and possible remedial action will be necessary prior to redevelopment.

    • 77 FR 76411 - Security Zone; 25th Annual North American International Auto Show, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2012-12-28

      ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... temporary final rule, call or email LT Adrian Palomeque, Prevention Department, Sector Detroit, Coast Guard; telephone (313) 568-9508, email Adrian.F.Palomeque@uscg.mil . If you have questions on viewing the...

    • University of Detroit and the University of Detroit Professors' Union Affiliated with the MEA/NEA. Collective Bargaining Agreement, January 15, 1985-August 15,1986.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      National Education Association, Washington, DC.

      The collective bargaining agreement between the University of Detroit and the University of Detroit Professors' Union (183 members), an affiliate of the National Education Association and the Michigan Education Association, covering the period January 15, 1985-August 15, 1986 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: unit recognition;…

    • Air

      MedlinePlus

      ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  1. Race concepts in medicine.

    PubMed

    Hardimon, Michael O

    2013-02-01

    Confusions about the place of race in medicine result in part from a failure to recognize the plurality of race concepts. Recognition that the ordinary concept of race is not identical to the racialist concept of race makes it possible to ask whether there might be a legitimate place for the deployment of concepts of race in medical contexts. Two technical race concepts are considered. The concept of social race is the concept of a social group that is taken to be a racialist race. It is apt for use in examining and addressing the medical effects of discrimination. The populationist concept of race represents race as a kind of biological population. It makes it possible to frame the question whether biological race is a factor in disease susceptibility and drug responsiveness. It is apt for use in determining whether biological race is a medically significant category. PMID:23300217

  2. RACE pulls for shared control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, M. B., Jr.; Cassiday, B. K.

    1993-02-01

    Maintaining and supporting an aircraft fleet, in a climate of reduced manpower and financial resources, dictates effective utilization of robotics and automation technologies. To help develop a winning robotics and automation program the Air Force Logistics Command created the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE). RACE is a command wide focal point. Race is an organic source of expertise to assist the Air Logistic Center (ALC) product directorates in improving process productivity through the judicious insertion of robotics and automation technologies. RACE is a champion for pulling emerging technologies into the aircraft logistic centers. One of those technology pulls is shared control. Small batch sizes, feature uncertainty, and varying work load conspire to make classic industrial robotic solutions impractical. One can view ALC process problems in the context of space robotics without the time delay. The ALC's will benefit greatly from the implementation of a common architecture that supports a range of control actions from fully autonomous to teleoperated. Working with national laboratories and private industry, we hope to transition shared control technology to the depot floor. This paper provides an overview of the RACE internal initiatives and customer support, with particular emphasis on production processes that will benefit from shared control technology.

  3. RACE pulls for shared control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, M. B., Jr.; Cassiday, B. K.

    1993-01-01

    Maintaining and supporting an aircraft fleet, in a climate of reduced manpower and financial resources, dictates effective utilization of robotics and automation technologies. To help develop a winning robotics and automation program the Air Force Logistics Command created the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE). RACE is a command wide focal point. Race is an organic source of expertise to assist the Air Logistic Center (ALC) product directorates in improving process productivity through the judicious insertion of robotics and automation technologies. RACE is a champion for pulling emerging technologies into the aircraft logistic centers. One of those technology pulls is shared control. Small batch sizes, feature uncertainty, and varying work load conspire to make classic industrial robotic solutions impractical. One can view ALC process problems in the context of space robotics without the time delay. The ALC's will benefit greatly from the implementation of a common architecture that supports a range of control actions from fully autonomous to teleoperated. Working with national laboratories and private industry, we hope to transition shared control technology to the depot floor. This paper provides an overview of the RACE internal initiatives and customer support, with particular emphasis on production processes that will benefit from shared control technology.

  4. Detroit Observatory: nineteenth-century training ground for astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitesell, Patricia S.

    2003-12-01

    Detroit Observatory was founded in 1854 at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, by Henry Philip Tappan, the University's first President. In 2004, the University celebrates Detroit Observatory's sesquicentennial year. Tappan named his creation the "Detroit Observatory" to honour the city's major benefactors. Tappan, who was inaugurated in 1852, was a visionary leader in the history of higher education. The creation of an astronomical observatory was one of his first steps toward the integration of a new scientific course with the traditional classical course of study, following the Prussian model of higher education. Tappan's observatory was built in the frontier state of Michigan at a modest cost, yet it was equipped with the best European and American instruments available. The facility was impressive, but Tappan's success in launching the University of Michigan to the forefront of American astronomical science was achieved through the recruitment of the renowned Prussian astronomer, Franz Brünnow, of the Berlin Observatory. The instruction in precision astronomy Brünnow offered to American students produced some of the most notable astronomers of the era, which led to the recognition of an "Ann Arbor School of Astronomy". Subsequent Directors and Assistants, including James Watson, Mark Harrington, J. Martin Schaeberle, and Asaph Hall Jr., produced students with exceptional talent in astronomy, geodesy, surveying and meteorology. Michigan's talent pool was the widely deployed across the nation. This paper documents and preserves the history, and serves as a focal point for celebrating in 2004 the 150-year milestone in Detroit Observatory's fascinating history.

  5. Race and Gender Issues: Critical Race Feminism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Adrien K.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a new body of legal scholarship on race and gender: critical race feminism (CRF), examining critical legal studies, critical race theory, and feminism. Explains the term "global multiplicative identities" as it relates to CRF and concludes that CRF has the potential to benefit from more sustained interaction with human rights workers in…

  6. Where You Live Matters: Structural Correlates of HIV Risk Behavior Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in Metro Detroit.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A; Eaton, Lisa; Andrzejewski, Jack; Loveluck, Jimena; VanHemert, William; Pingel, Emily S

    2015-12-01

    Structural characteristics are linked to HIV/STI risks, yet few studies have examined the mechanisms through which structural characteristics influence the HIV/STI risk of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Using data from a cross-sectional survey of YMSM (ages 18-29) living in Detroit Metro (N = 328; 9 % HIV-positive; 49 % Black, 27 % White, 15 % Latino, 9 % Other race), we used multilevel modeling to examine the association between community-level characteristics (e.g., socioeconomic disadvantage; distance to LGBT-affirming institutions) and YMSM's HIV testing behavior and likelihood of engaging in unprotected anal intercourse with serodiscordant partner(s). We accounted for individual-level factors (race/ethnicity, poverty, homelessness, alcohol and marijuana use) and contextual factors (community acceptance and stigma regarding same-sex sexuality). YMSM in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage and nearer to an AIDS Service Organization were more likely to have tested for HIV and less likely to report serodiscordant partners. Community acceptance was associated with having tested for HIV. Efforts to address YMSM's exposure to structural barriers in Detroit Metro are needed to inform HIV prevention strategies from a socioecological perspective. PMID:26334445

  7. RACE pulls for shared control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Michael B., Jr.; Cassiday, Brian K.

    1992-11-01

    Maintaining and supporting an aircraft fleet, in a climate of reduced manpower and financial resources, dictates effective utilization of robotics and automation technologies. To help develop a winning robotics and automation program the Air Force Logistics Command created the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE). RACE is a command wide focal point. An organic source of expertise to assist the Air Logistic Center (ALC) product directorates in improving process productivity through the judicious insertion of robotics and automation technologies. RACE is a champion for pulling emerging technologies into the aircraft logistic centers. One of those technology pulls is shared control. The small batch sizes, feature uncertainty, and varying work load conspire to make classic industrial robotic solutions impractical. One can view ALC process problems in the context of space robotics without the time delay. The ALCs will benefit greatly from the implementation of a common architecture that supports a range of control actions from fully autonomous to teleoperated. Working with national laboratories and private industry we hope to transition shared control technology to the depot floor. This paper provides an overview of the RACE internal initiatives and customer support, with particular emphasis on production processes that will benefit from shared control technology.

  8. Detroit Objective Referenced Tests (DORT): Ethnic Literacy Handbook. A Guide for Teacher Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detroit Public Schools, MI. Dept. of Social Studies.

    This teacher's guide on ethnic literacy was developed by the Ethnic Literacy Project for the Detroit, Michigan public schools. It consists of lessons, materials and activities intended to supplement reading activities under the DORT (Detroit Objective Referenced Tests) Reading System being implemented in those urban classrooms from kindergarten to…

  9. 78 FR 27032 - Safety Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone... enforce various safety zones for annual marine events in the Captain of the Port Detroit zone from May 24... without permission of the Captain of the Port. DATES: The regulations in this notice of enforcement...

  10. 75 FR 35648 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 46197): Sec. 165.941(a)(30) Bay-Rama Fishfly Festival Fireworks, New Baltimore, MI... questions on this notice, call or e-mail Commander Joseph Snowden, Prevention, U.S. Coast Guard Sector Detroit, 110 Mount Elliot Ave., Detroit, MI 48207; telephone 313-568-9508, e-mail...

  11. The Race Race: Assimilation in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balis, Andrea; Aman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Can race and assimilation be taught? Interdisciplinary pedagogy provides a methodology, context, and use of nontraditional texts culled from American cultural history such as from, theater and historical texts. This approach and these texts prove useful for an examination of race and assimilation in America. The paper describes a course that while…

  12. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 87-288-1828, Henry Ford High School, Detroit, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, M.S.

    1987-08-01

    In response to a request from teachers in the Henry Ford High School (SIC-8211) located in Detroit, Michigan, a study was made of possible malfunctions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing fluorescent-light ballasts which were suspected of being causally related to increased occurrences of respiratory symptoms, sore throats, and headaches. Surface wipe samples and air samples were analyzed in four classrooms where complaints had originated and in three reference rooms where no symptoms had been reported. No levels of PCB air concentrations were found exceeding 0.1 microgram/cubic meter (microg/m/sup 3/) in any reference room. In three of four index rooms, PCB concentrations were recorded at 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 microg/m/sup 3/, which were below the NIOSH recommended exposure level (1microg/m3 time weighted average). Surface-wipe samples from student and teacher desk tops averaged 1.3 micrograms per square meter (microg/m/sup 2/), with a maximum of 2.4microg/m/sup 2/. On low contact surfaces, PCB concentrations ranged from 1.6 to 9.2microg/m/sup 2/.

  13. Yacht Race Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Observer Single-handed Transatlantic Race (OSTAR) participants were aided by a French-American space-based monitoring system which reported the yacht's positions throughout the race, and also served as an emergency locator service. Originating from NASA's Nimbus 6 Satellite, use of this system, called ARGOS made the OSTAR competition the most accurately reported sea race ever conducted. Each boat carried a portable transmitter allowing 88 new sources of oceanographic data available during the race.

  14. Source-to-receptor pathways of anthropogenic PM 2.5 in Detroit, Michigan: Comparison of two inhalation exposure studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Masako; Keeler, Gerald J.; McDonald, Jacob D.; Wagner, James G.; Young, Li-Hao; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Ewing, Rodney C.; Harkema, Jack R.

    Recent studies have attributed toxic effects of ambient fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm; PM 2.5) to physical and/or chemical properties rather than total mass. However, identifying specific components or sources of a complex mixture of ambient PM 2.5 that are responsible for adverse health effects is still challenging. In order to improve our understanding of source-to-receptor pathways for ambient PM 2.5 (links between sources of ambient PM 2.5 and measures of biologically relevant dose), integrated inhalation toxicology studies using animal models and concentrated air particles (CAPs) were completed in southwest Detroit, a community where the pediatric asthma rate is more than twice the national average. Ambient PM 2.5 was concentrated with a Harvard fine particle concentrator housed in AirCARE1, a mobile air research laboratory which facilitates inhalation exposure studies in real-world settings. Detailed characterizations of ambient PM 2.5 and CAPs, identification of major emission sources of PM 2.5, and quantification of trace elements in the lung tissues of laboratory rats that were exposed to CAPs for two distinct 3-day exposure periods were completed. This paper describes the physical/chemical properties and sources of PM 2.5, pulmonary metal concentrations and meteorology from two different 3-day exposure periods—both conducted at the southwest Detroit location in July 2003—which resulted in disparate biological effects. More specifically, during one of the exposure periods, ambient PM 2.5-derived trace metals were recovered from lung tissues of CAPs-exposed animals, and these metals were linked to local combustion point sources in southwest Detroit via receptor modeling and meteorology; whereas in the other exposure period, no such trace metals were observed. By comparing these two disparate results, this investigation was able to define possible links between PM 2.5 emitted from refineries and incinerators and biologically

  15. Detecting neighborhood vacancy level in Detroit city using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Wang, R.; Yang, A.; Vojnovic, I.

    2015-12-01

    With the decline of manufacturing industries, many Rust Belt cities, which enjoyed prosperity in the past, are now suffering from financial stress, population decrease and urban poverty. As a consequence, urban neighborhoods deteriorate. Houses are abandoned and left to decay. Neighborhood vacancy brings on many problems. Governments and agencies try to survey the vacancy level by going through neighborhoods and record the condition of each structure, or by buying information of active mailing addresses to get approximate neighborhood vacancy rate. But these methods are expensive and time consuming. Remote sensing provides a quick and comparatively cost-efficient way to access spatial information on social and demographical attributes of urban area. In our study, we use remote sensing to detect a major aspect of neighborhood deterioration, the vacancy levels of neighborhoods in Detroit city. We compared different neighborhoods using Landsat 8 images in 2013. We calculated NDVI that indicates the greenness of neighborhoods with the image in July 2013. Then we used thermal infrared information from image in February to detect human activities. In winter, abandoned houses will not consume so much energy and therefore neighborhoods with more abandoned houses will have smaller urban heat island effect. Controlling for the differences in terms of the greenness obtained from summer time image, we used thermal infrared from winter image to determine the temperatures of urban surface. We find that hotter areas are better maintained and have lower house vacancy rates. We also compared the changes over time for neighborhoods using Landsat 7 images from 2003 to 2013. The results show that deteriorated neighborhoods have increased NDVI in summer and get colder in winter due to abandonment of houses. Our results show the potential application of remote sensing as an easily accessed and efficient way to obtain data about social conditions in cities. We used the neighborhood

  16. Waiting Lines Tell Story of Black Support for "Schools of Choice" in Detroit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Ed, III

    1989-01-01

    Reports on a conference on school choice at Hillsdale College attended by many Black educators. Describes the popular system implemented in Detroit Public Schools. Discusses problems of racial discrimination and school finance. (FMW)

  17. ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SEDIMENTS FROM THE TRENTON CHANNEL OF THE DETROIT RIVER, MI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic organic contaminants in sediments from the Trenton Channel of the Detroit River, a highly industrialized waterway connecting Lake St. Clair with Lake Erie, were identified and quantified. he four major classes of organic contaminants identified were polycyclic aroma...

  18. THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY (DEARS): BRIEFING TO THE MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) has completed its first monitoring season (summer 2005) and is progressing toward initiation of its second season (February 2005). The assistance obtained from the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality has been instr...

  19. PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FROM THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY (DEARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) has completed its first monitoring season (summer 2005) and is progressing toward initiation of its second season (February 2005). The assistance obtained from the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality has been instr...

  20. Biological Races in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not. Adaptive traits, such as skin color, have frequently been used to define races in humans, but such adaptive traits reflect the underlying environmental factor to which they are adaptive and not overall genetic differentiation, and different adaptive traits define discordant groups. There are no objective criteria for choosing one adaptive trait over another to define race. As a consequence, adaptive traits do not define races in humans. Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree. A tree-like structure among humans has been falsified whenever tested, so this practice is scientifically indefensible. It is also socially irresponsible as these pictorial representations of human evolution have more impact on the general public than nuanced phrases in the text of a scientific paper. Humans have much genetic diversity, but the vast majority of this diversity reflects individual uniqueness and not race. PMID:23684745

  1. Biological races in humans.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Alan R

    2013-09-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not. Adaptive traits, such as skin color, have frequently been used to define races in humans, but such adaptive traits reflect the underlying environmental factor to which they are adaptive and not overall genetic differentiation, and different adaptive traits define discordant groups. There are no objective criteria for choosing one adaptive trait over another to define race. As a consequence, adaptive traits do not define races in humans. Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree. A tree-like structure among humans has been falsified whenever tested, so this practice is scientifically indefensible. It is also socially irresponsible as these pictorial representations of human evolution have more impact on the general public than nuanced phrases in the text of a scientific paper. Humans have much genetic diversity, but the vast majority of this diversity reflects individual uniqueness and not race. PMID:23684745

  2. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF AIR POLLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF A LAND-USE REGRESSION ( LUR ) MODEL IN AN URBAN AIRSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Children's Health Study is an epidemiologic study examining associations between chronic ambient environmental exposures to gaseous air pollutants and respiratory health outcomes among elementary school-age children in an urban airshed. The exposure component of this...

  3. The neuroscience of race.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Jennifer T; Banaji, Mahzarin R; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2012-07-01

    As the racial composition of the population changes, intergroup interactions are increasingly common. To understand how we perceive and categorize race and the attitudes that flow from it, scientists have used brain imaging techniques to examine how social categories of race and ethnicity are processed, evaluated and incorporated in decision-making. We review these findings, focusing on black and white race categories. A network of interacting brain regions is important in the unintentional, implicit expression of racial attitudes and its control. On the basis of the overlap in the neural circuitry of race, emotion and decision-making, we speculate as to how this emerging research might inform how we recognize and respond to variations in race and its influence on unintended race-based attitudes and decisions. PMID:22735516

  4. The neuroscience of race

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Jennifer T; Banaji, Mahzarin R; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    As the racial composition of the population changes, intergroup interactions are increasingly common. To understand how we perceive and categorize race and the attitudes that flow from it, scientists have used brain imaging techniques to examine how social categories of race and ethnicity are processed, evaluated and incorporated in decision-making. We review these findings, focusing on black and white race categories. A network of interacting brain regions is important in the unintentional, implicit expression of racial attitudes and its control. On the basis of the overlap in the neural circuitry of race, emotion and decision-making, we speculate as to how this emerging research might inform how we recognize and respond to variations in race and its influence on unintended race-based attitudes and decisions. PMID:22735516

  5. The Biological Case Against Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Joseph L., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Though modern science considers race a social concept, not a scientific truth, many still believe there are innate racial differences among people. Discusses the development of biology and race theory; basic definitions of race; genes, human variation, and race; genetic variation within and between races; modern genome studies that dismiss…

  6. Race: Deflate or pop?

    PubMed

    Hochman, Adam

    2016-06-01

    Neven Sesardic has recently defended his arguments in favour of racial naturalism-the view that race is a valid biological category-in response to my criticism of his work. While Sesardic claims that a strong version of racial naturalism can survive critique, he has in fact weakened his position considerably. He concedes that conventional racial taxonomy is arbitrary and he no longer identifies 'races' as human subspecies. Sesardic now relies almost entirely on Theodosius Dobzhansky's notion of race-as-population. This weak approach to 'race'-according to which all genetic difference between populations is 'racial' and 'the races' are simply the populations we choose to call races-survived its early critiques. As it is being mobilised to support racial naturalism once more, we need to continue the debate about whether we should weaken the concept of race to mean 'population', or abandon it as a failed biological category. I argue that Sesardic's case for racial naturalism is only supported by his continued mischaracterisation of anti-realism about biological race and his appeal to Dobzhansky's authority. Rather than deflating the meaning of 'race', it should be eliminated from our biological ontology. PMID:27060241

  7. Detroit Edison's Fermi 1 - Preparation for Reactor Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Swindle, Danny

    2008-01-15

    This paper is intended to provide information about the ongoing decommissioning tasks at Detroit Edison's Fermi 1 plant, and in particular, the work being performed to prepare the reactor for removal and disposal. In 1972 Fermi 1 was shutdown and the fuel returned to the Atomic Energy Commission. By the end of 1975, a retirement plan was prepared, the bulk sodium removed, and the plant placed in a safe store condition. The plant systems were left isolated with the sodium containing systems inert with carbon dioxide in an attempt to form a carbonate layer, thus passivating the underlying reactive sodium. In 1996, Detroit Edison determined to evaluate the condition of the plant and to make recommendations in relation to the Fermi 1 future plans. At the end of 1997 approval was obtained to remove the bulk asbestos and residual alkali-metals (i.e., sodium and sodium potassium (NaK)). In 2000, full nuclear decommissioning of the plant was approved. To date, the bulk asbestos insulation has been removed, and the only NaK remaining is located in six capillary instrument tubes. The remaining sodium is contained within the reactor, two of the three primary loops, and miscellaneous removed pipes and equipment to be processed. The preferred method for removing or reacting sodium at Fermi 1 is by injecting superheated steam into a heated, nitrogen inert system. The byproducts of this reaction are caustic sodium hydroxide, hydrogen gas, and heat. The decision was made to separate the three primary loops from the reactor for better control prior to processing each loop and the reactor separately. The first loop has already been processed. The main focus is now to process the reactor to allow removal and disposal of the Class C waste prior to the anticipated June 2008 closure of the Barnwell radioactive waste disposal facility located in South Carolina. Lessons learnt are summarized and concern: the realistic schedule and adherence to the schedule, time estimates, personnel

  8. PTSD and Obesity in the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Karen S.; Aiello, Allison E.; Galea, Sandro; Uddin, Monica; Wildman, Derek; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with adverse health consequences, including overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. African Americans, particularly women, have among the highest rates of overweight and obesity in the U.S. compared to other racial groups. High rates of violence exposure in urban African Americans may lead to the development of PTSD and increase risk for overweight and obesity. The current study investigated the comorbidity of lifetime PTSD and overweight/obesity in a population-based African American, urban sample. Method Data were from 463 African American male and female participants of the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated the impact of lifetime PTSD on risk for overweight and obesity. Results The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among women (60.9%) than men (33.1%; p<0.001). In sex-stratified models, after controlling for demographic variables, PTSD was associated obesity (OR=4.4, 95% CI: 1.3, 14.3) only among women. Conclusions PTSD was associated with obesity, after controlling for confounding variables, among African American women. Results underscore the contribution of PTSD to obesity among African American women and the importance of addressing the physical health correlates of women with PTSD. PMID:24035634

  9. The Amazing Mathematical Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noblitt, Bethany A.; Buckley, Brooke E.

    2011-01-01

    Teams, pit stops, clues, time limits, fast forwards, challenges, and prizes are all components of the CBS hit show "The Amazing Race." They were also elements of the Amazing Mathematical Race sponsored by the Math and Stats Club at Northern Kentucky University in April 2009. Held in recognition of Math Awareness Month, which is advocated by the…

  10. RACE AS LIVED EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, John A.; Sanchez, Gabriel R.; Sanchez-Youngman, Shannon; Vargas, Edward D.; Ybarra, Vickie D.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of social science research has sought to conceptualize race as a multidimensional concept in which context, societal relations, and institutional dynamics are key components. Utilizing a specially designed survey, we develop and use multiple measures of race (skin color, ascribed race, and discrimination experiences) to capture race as “lived experience” and assess their impact on Latinos’ self-rated health status. We model these measures of race as a lived experience to test the explanatory power of race, both independently and as an integrated scale with categorical regression, scaling, and dimensional analyses. Our analyses show that our multiple measures of race have significant and negative effects on Latinos’ self-reported health. Skin color is a dominant factor that impacts self-reported health both directly and indirectly. We then advocate for the utilization of multiple measures of race, adding to those used in our analysis, and their application to other health and social outcomes. Our analysis provides important contributions across a wide range of health, illness, social, and political outcomes for communities of color. PMID:26681972

  11. Prejudice and Race Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Raymond W., Ed.

    Contents of this book comprises: Introduction--A decade of change; (1) Race and its consequences: Beliefs and acts; (2) Race relations in different societies: A comparative perspective; (3) Implementing discrimination: the institutional impact of prejudice; (4) Leaders in change: A set of profiles; and (5) Options facing Americans: Pathos to…

  12. The Kinesiology of Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Myosha

    2014-01-01

    In this research article, Myosha McAfee presents findings from her grounded theory and microethnographical study of math instruction in a racially and socioeconomically diverse public school. Her analysis puts forth a new theory-the kinesiology of race-which conceptualizes race as a verb rather than a noun. It centrally considers how racial…

  13. Assessment of personal and community-level exposures to particulate matter among children with asthma in Detroit, Michigan, as part of Community Action Against Asthma (CAAA).

    PubMed Central

    Keeler, Gerald J; Dvonch, Timothy; Yip, Fuyuen Y; Parker, Edith A; Isreal, Barbara A; Marsik, Frank J; Morishita, Masako; Barres, James A; Robins, Thomas G; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma; Sam, Mathew

    2002-01-01

    PM10 = 28.9 14.4 microg/m(3)), PM2.5 = 17.0 9.3 microg/m(3); eastside PM10 = 23.8 12.1 microg/m(3), PM2.5 = 15.5 9.0 microg/m(3). The increased levels in the southwest Detroit community are likely due to the proximity to heavy industrial pollutant point sources and interstate motorways. Trace element characterization of filter samples collected over the 2-year period will allow a more complete assessment of the PM components. When combined with other project measures, including concurrent seasonal twice-daily peak expiratory flow and forced expiratory volume at 1 sec and daily asthma symptom and medication dairies for 300 children with asthma living in the two Detroit communities, these data will allow not only investigations into the sources of PM in the Detroit airshed with regard to PM exposure assessment but also the role of air pollutants in exacerbation of childhood asthma. PMID:11929726

  14. Hybrid Air Quality Modeling Approach For Use in the Near-Road Exposures to Urban Air Pollutant Study (NEXUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Near-road EXposures to Urban air pollutant Study (NEXUS) investigated whether children with asthma living in close proximity to major roadways in Detroit, MI, (particularly near roadways with high diesel traffic) have greater health impacts associated with exposure to air pol...

  15. Cigarette use among Arab Americans in the Detroit metropolitan area.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, V H; Kulwicki, A

    1992-01-01

    Use of cigarette tobacco by large proportions of the population of Middle Eastern countries has been reported; however, little is known about smoking behavior in one of America's fastest growing minorities, the Arab Americans. The purpose of this study was to examine cigarette smoking behavior of 237 randomly selected Arab American adults from a telephone listing in the Detroit area. Participants lived in the geographic Arab American community and identified with a Middle Eastern cultural heritage. Nurses, who spoke both English and Arabic, interviewed one adult family member using the 59-item self-report from the Cardiovascular Risk Factor Survey developed by Rice. Mean age of respondents was 40.4 years, 97 percent had been born in the Middle East, and 67 percent had been living in the United States 15 years or less. Current smokers rate was 38.9 percent, former smokers rate was 11.1 percent, never smokers rate was 50 percent, and the quit ratio (proportion of ever smokers who are former smokers) was 22.2 percent. Fifty-four percent of the current smokers were between 25 and 34 years of age; fewer women than men were former smokers, and the highest proportion of current smokers were Lebanese. Subjects who had smoked for the longest time were the least well educated. Arab Americans in this sample had a higher smoking rate, a lower quitting rate, and a much lower quit ratio when compared with national and State of Michigan data. With the growing numbers of Middle Eastern immigrants, there is potential for a dramatic increase in smoking-related health problems. PMID:1410242

  16. A Multilevel Analysis of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Transactional Sex with Casual Partners Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men Living in Metro Detroit.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José; Eaton, Lisa; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The role of structural factors when evaluating the vulnerability of human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risks among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men is an important area of focus for HIV prevention. Using cross-sectional data from young men living in Metro Detroit (N = 319; aged 18-29 years; 50% black, 25% white, 15% Latino, 9% other race/ethnicity; 9% HIV-positive), we examined whether transactional sex with casual partners was associated with neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage and individual-level factors (race/ethnicity and sexual identity, socioeconomic status, HIV/STI diagnoses, and substance use). Youth living in greater socioeconomic disadvantage reported more transactional sex (b = 0.11; SE = 0.04; p ≤ 0.01). This relationship was mitigated once individual-level correlates were entered into the model. Multilevel efforts to counteract socioeconomic deficits through community and individual level strategies may alleviate youth's exposure to transactional sex and reduce their vulnerability to HIV/STI risks. PMID:27337624

  17. 76 FR 52266 - Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise, Detroit River, Ambassador Bridge to the Western Tip of Belle Isle

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise, Detroit River, Ambassador Bridge to the Western Tip of Belle Isle AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the Captain of the Port Detroit...

  18. 75 FR 11914 - Chrysler, LLC, Detroit Axle Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Caravan Knight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... the Federal Register on February 2, 2009 (74 FR 5870). At the request of the State agency, the... From Caravan Knight Facilities Management LLC; Detroit, MI; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility... Caravan Knight Facilities Management LLC were employed on-site at the Detroit, Michigan location...

  19. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Environmental Exposure Studies: Lessons from the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency’s Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) was a complex 3-year personal exposure study. The six geographically defined areas in the Detroit (Wayne County), Michigan, area used as study locations are ethnically diverse; the majority ...

  20. First evidence of egg deposition by walleye (Sander vitreus) in the Detroit River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, B.A.; Kennedy, G.W.; Allen, J.D.; French, J. R. P., III

    2007-01-01

    The importance of fish spawning habitat in channels connecting the Great Lakes to fishery productivity in those lakes is poorly understood and has not been adequately documented. The Detroit River is a reputed spawning and nursery area for many fish, including walleye (Sander vitreus) that migrate between adjacent Lakes Erie and St. Clair. During April–May 2004, near the head of the Detroit River, we collected 136 fish eggs from the bottom of the river on egg mats. We incubated the eggs at the Great Lakes Science Center until they hatched. All eleven larvae that hatched from the eggs were identified as walleye. These eggs and larvae are the first credible scientific evidence that walleye spawn in the Detroit River. Their origin might be a stock of river-spawning walleye. Such a stock of walleye could potentially add resilience to production by walleye stocks that spawn and are harvested in adjacent waters.

  1. Relocating race: introdution.

    PubMed

    Seth, Suman

    2014-12-01

    The essays here reconsider some of the basal assumptions in Nancy Stepan's now-classic The Idea of Race in Science (1982). Stepan's book focused, for the most part, on metropolitan scientists from 1800 to 1960. The present contributions seek to "relocate" race along one (at least) of three axes: discipline, geography, period. The aim overall is not so much to make the fairly obvious point that "racial" thinking was different in different times and places; rather, the essays seek to use accounts of the relocation of race to "make strange" our assumptions about the conditions of possibility for nineteenth- and early twentieth-century race science in its once-canonical form. PMID:25665382

  2. Intelligence, race, and genetics.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Robert J; Grigorenko, Elena L; Kidd, Kenneth K

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They further argue that race is a social construction with no scientific definition. Thus, studies of the relationship between race and other constructs may serve social ends but cannot serve scientific ends. No gene has yet been conclusively linked to intelligence, so attempts to provide a compelling genetic link of race to intelligence are not feasible at this time. The authors also show that heritability, a behavior-genetic concept, is inadequate in regard to providing such a link. PMID:15641921

  3. Air Quality Modeling of Traffic-related Air Pollutants for the NEXUS Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the results of the model applications to estimate exposure metrics in support of an epidemiologic study in Detroit, Michigan. A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characteriz...

  4. Conceptualizing Race in Research

    PubMed Central

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Henderson, Gail; Blumenthal, Connie; Dorrance, Jessica; Estroff, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of race as a variable in research continues to spark debate about whether it should be used, as well as the implications it has for research on health differences. Given this continued controversy, we examined how investigators interpret the concept of “race” and whether their views of race are reflected in their published work. Methods Thirty-three semistructured interviews were conducted with investigators from 3 southeastern universities to discuss recruitment of participants, the use of race as a variable in research and analyses, and their assessment of the National Institutes of Health mandate on the inclusion of women and minorities. The interview data were analyzed using the principles of constant comparative method, theme identification and pattern investigation. Up to 2 publications for each respondent were also used to assess the use of race in their research. Results Results reflect a spectrum of views on the definition of race, from biological to social. Findings also suggest that investigators think critically about the use and implications of using race in their research, although this is not consistently reflected in their published work. Conclusion In our view, authors, journal editors and peer reviewers have an important role in moving this debate forward, and advocate that they engage more directly in shaping the process. When reporting results by race, investigators should provide a statement on the theory or conceptual framework underlying the hypothesized racial differences in health examined in the study. They should be also cautious in invoking either biological or social constructions of race, thus demonstrating an appreciation of the nuances and implications of using this variable. PMID:18942287

  5. Race, money and medicines.

    PubMed

    Bloche, M Gregg

    2006-01-01

    Taking notice of race is both risky and inevitable, in medicine no less than in other endeavors. On the one hand, race can be a useful stand-in for unstudied genetic and environmental factors that yield differences in disease expression and therapeutic response. Attention to race can make a therapeutic difference, to the point of saving lives. On the other hand, racial distinctions have social meanings that are often pejorative or worse, especially when these distinctions are cast as culturally or biologically fixed. I argue in this essay that we should start with a presumption against racial categories in medicine, but permit their use when it might prolong lives or meaningfully improve health. Use of racial categories should be understood as an interim step; follow-up inquiry into the factors that underlie race-correlated clinical differences is important both to improve the efficacy of clinical care and to prevent race in itself from being misunderstood as a biological determinant. If we pursue such inquiry with vigor, the pernicious effects of racial categories on public understanding can be managed. But perverse market and regulatory incentives create the danger that use of race will be "locked-in," once drugs or other therapies are approved. These incentives should be revisited. PMID:17144179

  6. [Woman and race biology].

    PubMed

    Hanson, H

    1993-01-01

    Early 20th century race biology takes a special interest in woman as part of the "intra-racial" project of bringing forth healthy and competitive individuals. But there are other motives as well for the race biologist to take an interest in woman. She is believed to develop fewer individual characteristics and is therefore a more typical representative of her race than man. The development level of the race is also presupposed to be discernible by the degree of "gender diformism": a race of higher standing would exhibit a greater difference between the sexes. The anthropologist, anatomist, gynaecologist--or whatever guise the race biologist may adopt-- will, in principle, stress that the relation between the sexes is not a matter of "more or less", but one of differences in kind. In reality, the "more-or-less of comparison is the very cornerstone of the issue. Quantitative differences, directly observed or obtained from statistics, are construed as signs of difference in kind. 18th century medical philosophy and sex-linked anthropology laid the theoretical foundation of the 19th century essentialist conception of woman, which is also that adopted by race biology. Eugenics of social Darwinist inspiration regarded prophylactic health care and social welfare programs with scepticism. A race biology founded on the man-woman dualism could sustain altogether different conclusions. An advanced culture calls for extensive division of labour. An extended childhood renders possible higher development but will also impose higher demands on woman. The protection of the female organism is thus an exigency for any people or race striving to survive and evolve. From society's care for the female organism health care for women and preventive maternity care will emerge. Race biology has been a preeminently German concern, as indicated by the selection of works taken to represent this perspective on woman: Bartels-Ploss' Das Weib, C.H. Stratz' Die Rassenschönheit des Weibes and

  7. Biogeographical ancestry and race.

    PubMed

    Gannett, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    The use of racial and ethnic categories in biological and biomedical research is controversial-for example, in the comparison of disease risk in different groups or as a means of making use of or controlling for population structure in the mapping of genes to chromosomes. Biogeographical ancestry (BGA) has been recommended as a more accurate and appropriate category. BGA is a product of the collaboration between biological anthropologist Mark Shriver from Pennsylvania State University and molecular biologist Tony Frudakis from the now-defunct biotechnology start-up company DNAPrint genomics, Inc. Shriver and Frudakis portray BGA as a measure of the 'biological', 'genetic', 'natural', and 'objective' components of race and ethnicity, what philosophers of science would call a natural kind. This paper argues that BGA is not a natural kind that escapes social and political connotations of race and ethnicity, as Shriver and Frudakis and other proponents believe, but a construction that is built upon race-as race has been socially constructed in the European scientific and philosophical traditions. More specifically, BGA is not a global category of biological and anthropological classification but a local category shaped by the U.S. context of its production, especially the forensic aim of being able to predict the race or ethnicity of an unknown suspect based on DNA found at the crime scene. Therefore, caution needs to be exercised in the embrace of BGA as an alternative to the use of racial and ethnic categories in biological and biomedical research. PMID:24989973

  8. 78 FR 26293 - Safety Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final Rule A. Public... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public... within U.S. waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port Detroit (73 FR 46194)....

  9. Parental Choice of Schools and Social Stratification in Education: The Paradox of Detroit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Valerie E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Using multilevel methods to analyze data from 710 household heads in 45 Detroit (Michigan) area school districts, results show that minority and disadvantaged respondents, especially from the city, favor parental school choice. Potential effects of an interdistrict choice plan are discussed, suggesting that choice might favor inequities. (SLD)

  10. 77 FR 5787 - Consumers Energy Company, Detroit Edison Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Consumers Energy Company, Detroit Edison Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Protests Take notice that the following hydroelectric application has been...

  11. A Systemwide Approach to Improving Early Childhood Program Quality in the Detroit Metropolitan Area. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shouse, A. Clay; Epstein, Ann S.

    This document is the final report of the McGregor-funded High/Scope training initiative, a system-wide approach to improving the quality of early childhood programs in the Detroit metropolitan area. The 3-year project was based on the validated High/Scope educational approach and training model, which advocates hands-on active learning for both…

  12. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VII, ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF TUNE-UP PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINES. TOPICS ARE SCHEDULING TUNE-UPS, AND TUNE-UP PROCEDURES. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE" AND OTHER MATERIALS. SEE VT 005 655 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION.…

  13. History of the Adult Education Program of the City of Detroit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skavery, Stanley

    The development of adult education in the Detroit area during the years 1875-1932 was intimately tied to the social, political, and economic events of that time span. Data gleaned from census records, Board of Education minutes, old maps, street guides, labor legislation, educational legislation, church records, advertisements, alien…

  14. Decentralizing High School Administration in Detroit: An Evaluation of Alternative Strategies of Political Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Michael A.; Shepherd, John W.

    1972-01-01

    Basic cause of the differences in range of choice between white and black decentralization plans is the disparity between black registered electoral figures and the number of black students in the high school system. Geographic polarization of Detroit into a black inner city and surrounding white suburbs reinforces this effect. (RJ)

  15. HIGHER ENVIRONMENTAL RELATIVE MOLDINESS INDEX (ERMISM) VALUES MEASURED IN DETROIT HOMES OF SEVERELY ASTHMATIC CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sieved vacuum bag dust from the homes of 143 children in Detroit was analyzed by mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) and the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMIsm) was calculated for each home. Children living in these homes were categorized into non-asthmatic (n=8...

  16. 75 FR 76036 - American Axle & Manufacturing Detroit Manufacturing Complex Holbrook Avenue and Saint Aubin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... December 10, 2008 (73 FR 75137). The Department's Notice was amended on January 8, 2009 to clarify that the... (subject firm). The Department's Notice was published in the Federal Register on January 15, 2009 (74 FR... Avenue and Saint Aubin Including On-Site Leased Workers From Paint Tech International Detroit,...

  17. Survey of User Services in 42 Medical Libraries in Metropolitan Detroit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendell, Sandra Hanes

    Data regarding current services in hospital libraries of the metropolitan Detroit area form the nucleus of this study. The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to ascertain what services are given to users of hospital libraries and (2) to determine the value of the inventory as a means for obtaining information on user-services in hospital…

  18. Teenage Pregnancy and Parenting: Findings from the Detroit Teen Parenting Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickel, Annette U.; And Others

    This study investigated the child rearing strategies endorsed by pregnant adolescent girls. The sample consisted of 124 pregnant adolescent girls from two alternative high schools for pregnant or parenting teenage girls in the Detroit (Michigan) Metropolitan Area. Child rearing strategies were assessed using the Rickel Modified Form of the Block…

  19. Prekindergarten District Report, 2001-2002: Report of the Detroit Public Schools. A Condensed Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Joyce A.

    This report of the Detroit Public Schools compiles data analysis of prekindergarten children's entry level skills, a 1-month follow-up assessment, and an end-of-the-year skills evaluation. The report contains information on the growth and development of 3- and 4-year-old prekindergarten students in the Michigan School Readiness Program and Head…

  20. White Gazes of Black Detroit: "Milliken v. Bradley I", Postcolonial Theory, and Persistent Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalifa, Muhammad A.; Douglas, Ty-Ron M. O.; Chambers, Terah T.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: This article employs critical policy analysis as it examines the historical underpinnings of racialized policy discrimination in Detroit. It considers histories, discourses, and oppressive structures as it seeks to understand how policies have been and currently are implemented by Whites in predominantly Black urban areas.…

  1. SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: ST. CLAIR STATION, DETROIT EDISON CO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a survey of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system retrofitted on Unit 6 of Detroit Edison Co.'s St. Clair Station. The experimental FGD system, which operated through a 2-month (October 1976-January 1977) demonstration program, utilized a limestone...

  2. Service Delivery Rules and the Distribution of Local Government Services: Three Detroit Bureaucracies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Bryan D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Argues that the routinized procedures governing delivery of local public services influence distribution of services to citizens by three municipal agencies in Detroit. Agencies are the Department of Parks and Recreation, the Sanitation Division, and the Environmental Enforcement Division of the Environmental Protection and Maintenance Department.…

  3. 77 FR 48856 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Event in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Event in the Captain of the Port... Guard will enforce a safety zone for an annual fireworks event in the Captain of the Port Detroit zone... Captain of the Port. DATES: The regulations in 33 CFR 165.941 will be enforced from 9:15 p.m. to 10...

  4. 76 FR 38304 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Register on August 8, 2008 (73 FR 46197) and on June 9, 2010 (75 FR 32666): ] Section 165.941(a)(39) Port... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port... Guard will enforce two safety zones for annual fireworks events in the Captain of the Port Detroit...

  5. Distribution and abundance of caddisflies (Trichoptera) in the St. Clair-Detroit River system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Bruce M.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Armitage, Brian J.

    1991-01-01

    Abundance and distribution patterns of the caddisflies of the St. Clair-Detroit River system were investigated in 1983–84. Collections of both adults and larvae yielded 70 species representing 34 genera and 12 families. Leptoceridae and Hydroptilidae were the most common families and Ceraclea the most common genus in number of species. This study adds 21 species to the Michigan record. The hydropsychidsCheumatopsyche (81, 63, 105 m−2; log-transformed values for mean and lower and upper 95% C.L.) and Hydropsyche (70, 57, 87 m−2) were the most abundant genera collected as larvae in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers, while Oecetis (41, 35, 47 m−2) was the most abundant in Lake St. Clair. Larval densities of caddisflies in the Detroit River were about twice those in the St. Clair River, but the number of genera collected in each river was about equal (22 vs. 23). Larval abundances were higher in October than May because most genera had substantial overwinter population declines. Low densities and species richness in some areas of the St. Clair-Detroit River system may reflect in part continued water quality problems, but community structure has markedly improved and representation of pollution-sensitive organisms has increased over a 12–15 year period.

  6. 75 FR 19304 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... the Port Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The... zone. This proposed rule adds events not previously published in Coast Guard regulations. These...

  7. Partners for a Better Future. Detroit Compact Promises Young People Jobs and College Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majors, Sheena L.

    1994-01-01

    The Detroit Compact is a comprehensive education partnership that seeks to graduate more high school students who are ready for jobs or college and to stimulate necessary changes in the school system to make the increase possible. It involves businesses, students, the community, and state and city government. (JOW)

  8. Product Evaluation of the Counseling and Career Guidance Component of the Detroit Desegregation Court Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Arnold

    The goal of the Counseling and Career Guidance Component of the Detroit (Michigan) school desegregation plan was to improve student effectiveness in the areas of personal, social, academic, and career development. Major program functions included individual and group counseling, program selection and placement guidance, career guidance, and…

  9. The View From a Polish Ghetto. Some Observations on the First One Hundred Years in Detroit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radzialowski, Thaddeus

    1974-01-01

    Poles settled in two major Detroit areas: the West Side settlement which took shape around St. Casimir's Church and developed westward along Michigan Avenue; and the larger East Side settlement which ran east-west on both sides of Canfield Street and then north. (Author/JM)

  10. Decline and Fall: Crisis Financial Manager Tries to Fix Detroit Schools' Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2009-01-01

    Robert C. Bobb, the state-appointed emergency financial manager of the Detroit public school system, may have the biggest "turnaround" job in the nation. The district, with an annual budget of $1.2 billion, has a deficit projected to be $259 million and growing. Over the past 10 years, about half of the district's students have left, leaving…

  11. Pursuit of Excellence: The Detroit Public Schools Action Plan 1994-95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detroit Board of Education, MI.

    "Pursuit of Excellence" is a plan developed through the cooperation of many stakeholders to guide the improvement efforts of the Detroit (Michigan) public schools in 1994-95. The first goal, to guarantee student success, includes objectives for achievement and results on achievement tests and objectives for accreditation, attendance, and student…

  12. 75 FR 68604 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 70; Detroit, Michigan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... given in the Federal Register (75 FR 11514, 3/11/2010 and 75 FR 15679, 3/30/2010) and the application... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 70; Detroit, Michigan Pursuant to its...

  13. 75 FR 15679 - Foreign-Trade Zone 70-Detroit, MI: Application for Expansion Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 70--Detroit, MI: Application for Expansion Correction The Federal Register notice published on March 11, 2010 (75 FR 11514) describing the expansion of FTZ...

  14. The Detroit Public Schools' Experience with Alternatives to I.Q. Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Ingrid; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Alternatives to I.Q. testing have been developed in the Detroit Public Schools as a way to improve educational services and avoid the biased placement of Black students in special education programs. The new procedures involve the collaboration of a team that is specially trained to use multifaceted approaches to assessment. (VM)

  15. 78 FR 24063 - Special Local Regulation; Hebda Cup Rowing Regatta, Trenton Channel; Detroit River, Wyandotte, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... temporary rule, call or email LT Adrian Palomeque, Prevention Department, Sector Detroit, Coast Guard; telephone (313) 568-9508, email Adrian.F.Palomeque@uscg.mil . If you have questions on viewing the...

  16. EXPOSURE MONITORING COMPONENT FOR DETROIT CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY ( DCHS )

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional, regulatory-based air monitoring is expensive and, thus, conducted at one or few locations in a city. This provides limited info on intra-urban variability and spatial distribution of air pollution. Research-oriented urban network monitoring has progressed with inc...

  17. Comparison of asthma prevalence among African American teenage youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia and urban Detroit

    PubMed Central

    Ownby, Dennis R.; Tingen, Martha S.; Havstad, Suzanne; Waller, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Christine C.; Joseph, Christine C. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of asthma among urban African American (AA) populations has attracted research attention while the prevalence among rural AA populations is poorly documented. Objective To compare the prevalence of asthma among AA youth in rural Georgia and urban Detroit, Michigan. Methods The prevalence of asthma was compared in population-based samples of 7297 youth attending Detroit public high schools and in 2523 youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia. Current asthma was defined as a physician diagnosis and symptoms in the previous 12 months. Undiagnosed asthma was defined as multiple respiratory symptoms in the previous 12 months without a physician diagnosis. Results In Detroit, 6994 (95.8%) youth were AA compared to 1514 (60.0%) in GA. Average population density in high school ZIP codes was 5628 people/mi2 in Detroit and 45.1 people/mi2 in GA. The percent of poverty and of students qualifying for free or reduced lunches were similar in both areas. The prevalence of current diagnosed asthma among AA youth in Detroit and GA were similar: 15.0% (95% CI 14.1–15.8), and 13.7% (CI 12.0–17.1) (p=.22), respectively. Undiagnosed asthma prevalence in AA youth was 8.0% in Detroit and 7.5% in GA (p=.56). Asthma symptoms were reported more frequently among those with diagnosed asthma in Detroit while those with undiagnosed asthma in Georgia reported more symptoms. Conclusions Among AA youth living in similar socioeconomic circumstances, asthma prevalence is as high in rural Georgia as it is in urban Detroit suggesting that urban residence is not an asthma risk factor. Clinical Implications Asthma prevalence was as common among African American high school students in rural Georgia as among students in urban Detroit, Michigan. Asthma is more likely related to poverty than urban residence. PMID:25825215

  18. Racing with the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    In 1,950 mile Australian race, the General Motors Sunraycer, was powered by space-derived solar cell technology incorporating a number of other aerospace technologies. The 547 lb one seater averaged better than 41 miles per hour and finished 600 miles ahead of the nearest competitor.

  19. Race and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brace, C. Loring, Ed.; And Others

    Contents of this book include: an introductory preface by C. Loring Brace; "Introduction to Jensenism," C. Loring Brace; "Can we and should we study race differences?" Arthur R. Jensen; "Intelligence in Black and White," Alexander Alland, Jr.; "Whose is the failure?" Vera John; "The influence of conceptual rule-sets on measures of learning…

  20. Intelligence, Race, and Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They…

  1. Race, Emotions, and Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James E.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the connection between emotion and behavior, examining the connection between the construct of emotional intelligence and criminal behavior. Data collected from a group of men and women on probation from prison indicated that people received different socialization with regard to emotions based on gender and race. Results suggest that…

  2. The Great Poetry Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitcher, Sharon M.

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that parent involvement improves academic achievement, but in the busy world in which we live it is often difficult to promote. Many researchers suggest that successful programs value parents' limited time constraints, diversity of literacy skills, and availability of materials. The Great Poetry Race provides an easy vehicle to…

  3. Sports, Race, and Ressentiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the problem of college sports corruption and the debate over "the plight of the black athlete," suggesting that this debate is actually not about race or athletics but a code for examining contradictions between education and mass democracy. Calls this the problem of "ressentiment." Examines how athletes have used the "plight of the…

  4. Science and Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    States unequivocally that the classification of humans into races has no validity within the discipline of biology. Maintains that such classification is strictly cultural and any attempt to discern differences in cognitive or other abilities among populations must confront the limits of scientific knowledge. (MJP)

  5. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  6. Race, Racism, and Darwinism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeynes, William H.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the views of Darwinist evolution on issues regarding race and how this contributed to the spread of racism in the United States. The writings of Charles Darwin and a myriad of his followers are examined, including Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, and others. The influence of Darwinism in contributing to the growth of…

  7. Racing into Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Tina R.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity in which race cars are designed and constructed out of edible materials. Students explore relationships between speed, distance, and time using both math and science. Includes a chart that shows alignment with the National Science Education Standards. (DDR)

  8. Simulating potential structural and operational changes for Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River, Oregon, for downstream temperature management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buccola, Norman L.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Sullivan, Annett B.; Risley, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Detroit Dam was constructed in 1953 on the North Santiam River in western Oregon and resulted in the formation of Detroit Lake. With a full-pool storage volume of 455,100 acre-feet and a dam height of 463 feet, Detroit Lake is one of the largest and most important reservoirs in the Willamette River basin in terms of power generation, recreation, and water storage and releases. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers operates Detroit Dam as part of a system of 13 reservoirs in the Willamette Project to meet multiple goals, which include flood-damage protection, power generation, downstream navigation, recreation, and irrigation. A distinct cycle in water temperature occurs in Detroit Lake as spring and summer heating through solar radiation creates a warm layer of water near the surface and isolates cold water below. Controlling the temperature of releases from Detroit Dam, therefore, is highly dependent on the location, characteristics, and usage of the dam's outlet structures. Prior to operational changes in 2007, Detroit Dam had a well-documented effect on downstream water temperature that was problematic for endangered salmonid fish species, releasing water that was too cold in midsummer and too warm in autumn. This unnatural seasonal temperature pattern caused problems in the timing of fish migration, spawning, and emergence. In this study, an existing calibrated 2-dimensional hydrodynamic water-quality model [CE-QUAL-W2] of Detroit Lake was used to determine how changes in dam operation or changes to the structural release points of Detroit Dam might affect downstream water temperatures under a range of historical hydrologic and meteorological conditions. The results from a subset of the Detroit Lake model scenarios then were used as forcing conditions for downstream CE-QUAL-W2 models of Big Cliff Reservoir (the small reregulating reservoir just downstream of Detroit Dam) and the North Santiam and Santiam Rivers. Many combinations of environmental, operational, and

  9. Race(ing) Stories: Digital Storytelling as a Tool for Critical Race Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolon-Dow, Rosalie

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the use of digital storytelling as a medium for exploring the significance of race in the educational experiences of youth. A critical race theory (CRT) framework is utilized because CRT places race at the center of social analysis and values the everyday experiences of people of color. The author focuses on two US high…

  10. Race Is...Race Isn't: Critical Race Theory and Qualitative Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Laurence, Ed.; Deyhle, Donna, Ed.; Villenas, Sofia, Ed.

    Critical race theory offers a way to understand how ostensibly race-neutral structures in education--knowledge, merit, objectivity, and "good education"--in fact help form and police the boundaries of white supremacy and racism. Critical race theory can be used to deconstruct the meaning of "educational achievement," to recognize that the…

  11. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA-86-125-1853, Empire-Detroit Steel Division, Mansfield, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrenholz, S.H.

    1987-11-01

    In response to a request from Local 169, United Steel Workers of America, an evaluation was made of vapors in the Cold Rolling Mill of Empire-Detroit Steel Division in Mansfield, Ohio. Another concern was the possible accumulation of acid vapors accumulating in the crane areas from an adjacent pickling operation. Bulk samples of coolants were taken as obtained from the supplier and as used as emulsions at the facility, for analysis. A large number of hydrocarbons were released on heating the coolants. Sampling of area air space revealed kerosene, at nondetectable to 6.1mg/m3 levels, and oil mists from nondetectable to 0.3mg/m3. Acrolein, a potential degradation product, was not detected in any sample, while formaldehyde ranged in concentration from 0.004 to 0.06mg/m3. No sulfuric acid was detected and hydrochloric acid was detected in only one sample at 0.7mg/m3. Personal breathing-space samples contained kerosene ranging from not detectable to 6.7mg/m3. No evidence to support crane operator exposure to acid mists was found. The author concludes that no chemical exposure representing a health hazard to the workers has been identified.

  12. “Applying Multi-scale Air Quality Models to Support Epidemiologic Studies”.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Near-road Exposures and Effects of Urban air pollutant Study (NEXUS) investigating whether children with asthma living near major roadways in Detroit, MI have greater health impacts from air pollutants than those living farther away, particularly near roadways with high diese...

  13. Design of a composite monocoque frame racing wheelchair.

    PubMed

    MacLeish, M S; Cooper, R A; Harralson, J; Ster, J F

    1993-01-01

    Design of present-day racing wheelchairs developed out of necessity and common sense. The chairs first used in racing were everyday chairs; through years of trial and modification the racing chairs of today evolved. Very little advanced engineering has been applied to the design of racing chairs. The Finite Element Analysis model executed on a computer provided insight into structural problem areas in the design of unibody frame racing chairs. Slight modifications to the model can be used to investigate new shapes, loads, or materials without investing large amounts of time and money. Wind tunnel testing with scale models provided perspectives on different improvements to reduce drag. Shape improvements may play an important role in reducing the racer's time during competition. Shape may help to decrease drag for the user in either the upright or down position. Considering that the frontal area increases around 30% in the up position with current strut and chassis frames, monocoque shapes should excel. Finite element analysis and air drag analysis are important to the design of a composite racing wheelchair. Composite materials may promote more efficient and ergonomic racing wheelchairs. PMID:8035352

  14. Distribution of Eurasian watermilfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum, in the St. Clair-Detroit River system in 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Manny, Bruce A.

    1984-01-01

    Submersed macrophytes were surveyed at 595 stations located throughout the St. Clair-Detroit River system between Lakes Huron and Erie, 23 August to 13 October 1978. Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), first recorded in the system in 1974, became the fourth most common submersed macrophyte in the system by 1978. However, it has not been reported as a widespread nuisance in this system as it has in many other large water bodies in the United States. Observations made during the present study, and interpretation of an aerial photograph, suggest that M. spicatum was a minor nuisance to small boat navigation in portions of the system. Information presented in this study provides a baseline against which future changes in the occurrence of M. spicatum in the St. Clair-Detroit River system can be measured.

  15. Distribution of submersed macrophytes in the St. Clair-Detroit River System, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Manny, Bruce A.

    1986-01-01

    An extensive survey was conducted in fall 1978 to determine the distribution and abundance of submersed macrophytes through the St. Clair-Detroit River system from Lake Huron to Lake Erie. Submersed macrophytes, representing 19 taxa, were widely distributed in the system, being found on 358 km2 (30%) of the total 1185 km2 of substrate surveyed. Of the 19 taxa identified, 8 common taxa were found on 20 to 121 km2 of substrate. These commonly found taxa, in decreasing order of substrate coverage were Characeae, Vallisneria americana, Najas flexilis, Myriophyllum spicatum, Elodea canadensis, Potamogeton richardsonii, Potamogeton spp. (narrow-leaf forms), andHeteranthera dubia. In general, macrophyte beds of low, medium, and high biomass covered much less area but a higher proportion of the available substrate in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers than in Lake St. Clair.

  16. 78 FR 10129 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 70 Under Alternative Site Framework, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ..., notice inviting public comment was given in the Federal Register (77 FR 38037-38038, 6/26/2012) and the..., Detroit, MI Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U... existing 3, 5, 12, 14 and 19 would be categorized as magnet sites, existing Sites 2, 4, 6, 8-11, 13, 15,...

  17. Combined-sewer overflow data and methods of sample collection for selected sites, Detroit, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweat, M.J.; Wolf, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    From October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995, four combined-sewer discharging to the Detroit River in Detroit, Michigan were monitored to characterize storm-related water quantity and quality. Water velocity, stage, discharge, and precipitation were measured continuously and recorded at 5-minute intervals. Water-quality samples were collected at discrete times during each storm and analyzed for inorganic and organic pollutants. This report includes the sampling approach, field collection and processing techniques, and methods of chemical analysis, as well as a compilation of combined sewer discharge volumes, chemical data, and quality control data. These data may be used by resource managers and scientists (1) to describe temporal variation for pollutant concentrations in combined-sewage for various overflow events; (2) to describe spatial distribution of selected pollutants in the four combined-sewer overflows discharging to the Detroit River; (3) to calculate pollutant loads to the Detroit River from the four overflow sites for the monitored storm events; (4) to estimate pollutant loadings form other overflow sites; and, (5) to provide data and information which can be used to define appropriate management methods to reduce or eliminate untreated combined-sewer overflows. Selected combined-sewers were sampled between 30 and 82 times for inorganic pollutants, and between 14 and 22 times for organic pollutants, depending on the site. These samples represented between 8 and 17 storms during which one or more combined-sewers overflowed. The monitored pollutants included fecal coliform, fecal streptococci, and Escherichia coli; antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, total chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, thallium and zinc; and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, volatile organic compounds, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. In general, metal and non-metal inorganic pollutants were detected at all

  18. Injuries from hovercraft racing.

    PubMed

    Cattermole, H R

    1997-01-01

    A 31-year-old man presented with a potentially serious neck injury following a racing hovercraft accident. Previous reports of hovercrafting injuries could not be found, and a review of the sport's own records was undertaken. This shows there to be a wide range of injuries sustained from the sport, although most of them are minor. However, there are some worrying trends, and further studies are being undertaking in order to improve the sport's safety record. PMID:9196622

  19. Nutrition for adventure racing.

    PubMed

    Ranchordas, Mayur K

    2012-11-01

    Adventure racing requires competitors to perform various disciplines ranging from, but not limited to, mountain biking, running, kayaking, climbing, mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating and orienteering over a rugged, often remote and wilderness terrain. Races can vary from 6 hours to expedition-length events that can last up to 10-consecutive days or more. The purpose of this article is to provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for adventure racing competitors. Energy expenditures of 365-750 kcal/hour have been reported with total energy expenditures of 18 000-80 000 kcal required to complete adventure races, and large negative energy balances during competitions have been reported. Nutrition, therefore, plays a major role in the successful completion of such ultra-endurance events. Conducting research in these events is challenging and the limited studies investigating dietary surveys and nutritional status of adventure racers indicate that competitors do not meet nutrition recommendations for ultra-endurance exercise. Carbohydrate intakes of 7-12 g/kg are needed during periods of prolonged training to meet requirements and replenish glycogen stores. Protein intakes of 1.4-1.7 g/kg are recommended to build and repair tissue. Adequate replacement of fluid and electrolytes are crucial, particularly during extreme temperatures; however, sweat rates can vary greatly between competitors. There is considerable evidence to support the use of sports drinks, gels and bars, as they are a convenient and portable source of carbohydrate that can be consumed during exercise, in training and in competition. Similarly, protein and amino acid supplements can be useful to help meet periods of increased protein requirements. Caffeine can be used as an ergogenic aid to help competitors stay awake during prolonged periods, enhance glycogen resynthesis and enhance endurance performance. PMID:23006142

  20. Space race functional responses.

    PubMed

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-02-22

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats. PMID:25589602

  1. Space race functional responses

    PubMed Central

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-01-01

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis–Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka–Volterra predator–prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats. PMID:25589602

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN TO ADDRESS AIR POLLUTION AND EQUITY IN SOUTHWESTERN DETROIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project supplements current regulations with creative mitigation strategies, and requires interdisciplinary thinking in order to achieve a balance between local economic, social, and environmental needs by combining scientific knowledge, community engagement and education...

  3. TRAFFIC-RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS AND CHILDREN'S RESPIRATORY HEALTH IN EL PASO AND DETROIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypotheses -Specific Agent • Diesel exhaust particles • Ultrafine particles • Coarse-mode particles (road dust) • Noise and stress • Nonspecific irritants Previous Epidemiology • Kanawha Valley Health Study • Munich Traffic Study • Dutch Traffic Studies • S....

  4. Advanced Communication and Control of Distributed Energy Resources at Detroit Edison

    SciTech Connect

    Haukur Asgeirsson; Richard Seguin

    2004-01-31

    The project objective was to create the communication and control system, the process and the economic procedures that will allow owners (e.g., residential, commercial, industrial, manufacturing, etc.) of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) connected in parallel to the electric distribution to have their resources operated in a manner that protects the electric utility distribution network and personnel that may be working on the network. The Distribution Engineering Workstation (DEW) (a power flow and short circuit modeling tool) was modified to calculate the real-time characteristics of the distribution network based on the real-time electric distribution network information and provide DER operating suggestions to the Detroit Edison system operators so that regional electric stability is maintained. Part of the suggestion algorithm takes into account the operational availability of DER’s, which is known by the Energy Aggregator, DTE Energy Technologies. The availability information will be exchanged from DTE Energy Technologies to Detroit Edison. For the calculated suggestions to be used by the Detroit Edison operators, procedures were developed to allow an operator to operate a DER by requesting operation of the DER through DTE Energy Technologies. Prior to issuing control of a DER, the safety of the distribution network and personnel needs to be taken into account. This information will be exchanged from Detroit Edison to DTE Energy Technologies. Once it is safe to control the DER, DTE Energy Technologies will issue the control signal. The real-time monitoring of the DECo system will reflect the DER control. Multi-vendor DER technologies’ representing approximately 4 MW of capacity was monitored and controlled using a web-based communication path. The DER technologies included are a photovoltaic system, energy storage, fuel cells and natural gas/diesel internal combustion engine generators. This report documents Phase I result for the Detroit Edison

  5. Molecular Variation at the SLC6A3 Locus Predicts Lifetime Risk of PTSD in the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shun-Chiao; Koenen, Karestan C.; Galea, Sandro; Aiello, Allison E.; Soliven, Richelo; Wildman, Derek E.; Uddin, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Recent work suggests that the 9-repeat (9R) allele located in the 3′UTR VNTR of the SLC6A3 gene increases risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, no study reporting this association to date has been based on population-based samples. Furthermore, no study of which we are aware has assessed the joint action of genetic and DNA methylation variation at SLC6A3 on risk of PTSD. In this study, we assessed whether molecular variation at SLC6A3 locus influences risk of PTSD. Participants (n = 320; 62 cases/258 controls) were drawn from an urban, community-based sample of predominantly African American Detroit adult residents, and included those who had completed a baseline telephone survey, had provided blood specimens, and had a homozygous genotype for either the 9R or 10R allele or a heterozygous 9R/10R genotype. The influence of DNA methylation variation in the SLC6A3 promoter locus was also assessed in a subset of participants with available methylation data (n = 83; 16 cases/67 controls). In the full analytic sample, 9R allele carriers had almost double the risk of lifetime PTSD compared to 10R/10R genotype carriers (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.02–3.86), controlling for age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, number of traumas, smoking, and lifetime depression. In the subsample of participants with available methylation data, a significant (p = 0.008) interaction was observed whereby 9R allele carriers showed an increased risk of lifetime PTSD only in conjunction with high methylation in the SLC6A3 promoter locus, controlling for the same covariates. Our results confirm previous reports supporting a role for the 9R allele in increasing susceptibility to PTSD. They further extend these findings by providing preliminary evidence that a “double hit” model, including both a putatively reduced-function allele and high methylation in the promoter region, may more accurately capture molecular risk of PTSD at the SLC6A3 locus. PMID:22745713

  6. Prismatic Metropolis: Race and Residential Segregation in the City of the Angels

    PubMed

    Zubrinsky; Bobo

    1996-12-01

    Most major urban areas remain segregated by race, especially in terms of black segregation from whites. We replicate and extend the innovative approach developed by Farley and colleagues for understanding processes of racial residential segregation with data collected in Los Angeles. Using a large (N = 4025) multiracial sample of adults, we examine (1) actual and perceived differences in economic status, (2) mutual preference for same race neighbors, and (3) racial prejudice and discrimination as hypotheses for the persistence of residential segregation. With a systematic experimental design we gauge respondent openness to living in areas with varying proportions of black, white, Latino, or Asian neighbors. We find no support for actual or perceived cost of housing as a barrier to integration. Although all groups exhibit some degree of ethnocentric preference for same race neighbors, this tendency is strongest among whites rather than blacks and plays only a small role in perpetuating segregation. Blacks face the greatest hostility in the search for housing and are consensually recognized as most likely to face discrimination in the housing market. Racial minorities are more open to sharing residential space with whites than with other minorities. We find generally higher rates of openness to integration than Farley and colleagues found in their recent Detroit survey. PMID:8980078

  7. The Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS): Study Design and Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Near-road EXposures and effects of urban air pollutants Study (NEXUS) was designed to examine the relationship between near-roadway exposures to air pollutants and respiratory outcomes in a cohort of asthmatic children who live close to major roadways in Detroit, Michigan USA...

  8. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) investigating the respiratory health impacts of traffic-related air pollutants on asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan, residential dust samples were collected to quantify mold exposure. Sett...

  9. Attractiveness of own-race, other-race, and mixed-race faces.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Gillian; Lee, Kieran; Palermo, Romina; Weiss, Mahi; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Clissa, Peter; Williams, Tamsyn; Peters, Marianne; Winkler, Chris; Jeffery, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Averaged face composites, which represent the central tendency of a familiar population of faces, are attractive. If this prototypicality contributes to their appeal, then averaged composites should be more attractive when their component faces come from a familiar, own-race population than when they come from a less familiar, other-race population. We compared the attractiveness of own-race composites, other-race composites, and mixed-race composites (where the component faces were from both races). In experiment 1, Caucasian participants rated own-race composites as more attractive than other-race composites, but only for male faces. However, mixed-race (Caucasian/Japanese) composites were significantly more attractive than own-race composites, particularly for the opposite sex. In experiment 2, Caucasian and Japanese participants living in Australia and Japan, respectively, selected the most attractive face from a continuum with exaggerated Caucasian characteristics at one end and exaggerated Japanese characteristics at the other, with intervening images including a Caucasian averaged composite, a mixed-race averaged composite, and a Japanese averaged composite. The most attractive face was, again, a mixed-race composite, for both Caucasian and Japanese participants. In experiment 3, Caucasian participants rated individual Eurasian faces as significantly more attractive than either Caucasian or Asian faces. Similar results were obtained with composites. Eurasian faces and composites were also rated as healthier than Caucasian or Asian faces and composites, respectively. These results suggest that signs of health may be more important than prototypicality in making average faces attractive. PMID:15895630

  10. Racing with the sun - Sunrayce 95

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, M.

    1995-11-01

    Sunrayce 95, a biennial cross country solar car race for college students, is profiled in this article. The article describes the origins of the race, the rules, the actual race itself, and how it finished.

  11. The Detroit River: Effects of contaminants and human activities on aquatic plants and animals and their habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Kenaga, David

    1991-01-01

    Despite the extensive urbanization of its watershed, the Detroit River still supports diverse fish and wildlife populations. Conflicting uses of the river for waste disposal, water withdrawals, shipping, recreation, and fishing require innovative management. Chemicals added by man to the Detroit River have adversely affected the health and habitats of the river's plants and animals. In 1985, as part of an Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channels Study sponsored by Environment Canada and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, researchers exposed healthy bacteria, plankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, fish, and birds to Detroit River sediments and sediment porewater. Negative impacts included genetic mutations in bacteria; death of macroinvertebrates; accumulation of contaminants in insects, clams, fish, and ducks; and tumor formation in fish. Field surveys showed areas of the river bottom that were otherwise suitable for habitation by a variety of plants and animals were contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy metals and occupied only by pollution-tolerant worms. Destruction of shoreline wetlands and disposal of sewage and toxic substances in the Detroit River have reduced habitat and conflict with basic biological processes, including the sustained production of fish and wildlife. Current regulations do not adequately control pollution loadings. However, remedial actions are being formulated by the U.S. and Canada to restore degraded benthic habitats and eliminate discharges of toxic contaminants into the Detroit River.

  12. Life history characteristics of a recovering lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis stock in the Detroit River, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Manny, Bruce A.; Boase, James; McFee, James; Tallman, Ross F., (Edited By); Howland, Kimberly L.; Rennie, Michael D.; Mills, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    The Detroit River is part of a channel connecting Lakes Huron and Erie and was once a prolific spawning area for lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis. Large numbers of lake whitefish migrated into the river to spawn where they were harvested by commercial fisheries and for fish culture operations. Prior to our study, the last lake whitefish was landed from the Detroit River in 1925. Loss of spawning habitat during shipping channel construction and over-fishing, likely reduced lake whitefish spawning runs. Because lake whitefish are recovering in Lake Erie, and spawning in the western basin, we suspected they may also be spawning in the Detroit River. We sampled in the Detroit River for lake whitefish adults and eggs in October–December 2005–07 and for larvae during March–May 2006–08. A total of 15 spawning-ready lake whitefish from 4 to 18 years old, were collected. Viable eggs were collected during mid-November 2006–07; highest egg densities were found mid-river. Sac-fry whitefish larvae were collected in the river and near the river mouth. No whitefish larvae were retained in the river. Because high numbers of larvae were collected from mid- and downstream river sites, reproduction of lake whitefish in the Detroit River could contribute substantially to the Lake Erie lake whitefish metapopulation.

  13. Solar powered model vehicle races

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, Nazmi; Serpengüzel, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Koç University SPIE student chapter has been organizing the solar powered model vehicle race and outreaching K-12 students. The solar powered model vehicle race for car, boat, blimp, all solar panel boat, submarine, underwater rower, amphibian, and glider have been successfully organized.

  14. Race and Child Custody Disputes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myricks, Noel; Ferullo, Donna L.

    1986-01-01

    Examines race as a factor in determining the custody of children through judicial decisions of the federal and state courts and case reviews in journals and periodicals. Results revealed that where race becomes an issue in custody disputes it will be the most controversial factor. (Author/BL)

  15. Two Patterns of Race Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla, Eduardo Seda

    What North Americans term "race" is not structurally isomorphic to and, thus, not synonymous with what Latin Americans apply the term to. The social identities determined by "race", and consequently the expected behavior ascribed to these identities, are so dissimilar that meetings between persons of both cultures produce uncertainty and discord.…

  16. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Outdoor Coarse Particulate Matter Mass Concentrations Measured with a New Coarse Particulate Sampler during the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) provided data to compare outdoor residential coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5) concentrations in six different areas of Detroit with data from a central monitoring site. Daily and seasonal influences on the spa...

  17. Heritability of racing performance in the Australian Thoroughbred racing population.

    PubMed

    Velie, B D; Hamilton, N A; Wade, C M

    2015-02-01

    Performance data for 164,046 Thoroughbreds entered in a race or official barrier trial in Australia were provided by Racing Information Services Australia. Analyses estimating the heritability for a range of racing performance traits using a single-trait animal model were performed using ASREML-R. Log of cumulative earnings (LCE; 0.19 ± 0.01), log of earnings per race start (0.23 ± 0.02) and best race distance (0.61 ± 0.03) were all significantly heritable. Fixed effects for sex were significant (P < 0.001) for all performance traits aside from LCE (P = 0.382). With the exception of annual earnings, trainer was also significant for all performance traits. As the application of modern genetic selection methodologies continues to gain popularity in the racing industry, contemporary heritability estimates from the current population of Thoroughbreds will play a vital role in identifying which traits are better suited to selection and in the development of more accurate genomic evaluations for racing performance. PMID:25393770

  18. Simulations of a hypothetical temperature control structure at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River, northwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buccola, Norman L.; Stonewall, Adam J.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2015-01-01

    Estimated egg-emergence days for endangered Upper Willamette River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River winter steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were assessed for all scenarios. Estimated spring Chinook fry emergence under SlidingWeir scenarios was 9 days later immediately downstream of Big Cliff Dam, and 4 days later at Greens Bridge compared with existing structural scenarios at Detroit Dam. Despite the inclusion of a hypothetical sliding weir at Detroit Dam, temperatures exceeded without-dams temperatures during November and December. These late-autumn exceedances likely represent the residual thermal effect of Detroit Lake operated to meet minimum dry-season release rates (supporting instream habitat and irrigation requirements) and lake levels specified by the current (2014) operating rules (supporting recreation and flood mitigation).

  19. A Life Course Perspective on Stress and Health Among Caregivers of Children With Asthma in Detroit

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Natalie R.; Parker, Edith A.; Cheezum, Rebecca R.; Lewis, Toby C.; O’Toole, Ashley; Patton, Jean; Zuniga, Adriana; Robins, Thomas G.; Keirns, Carla C.

    2014-01-01

    Low-income caregivers raising children with asthma experience many obstacles to their own health, including stress. To understand and describe their daily experiences, researchers conducted 40 qualitative interviews supplemented with descriptive quantitative surveys in Detroit, Michigan, as part of a community-based participatory research partnership of Community Action Against Asthma. Prevalence of chronic illness is noticeably higher among participants than the general US population. Caregivers identified stress processes that may influence disproportionate health outcomes and risk-related behaviors over their lifetime. Applying a life course perspective, findings suggest that public health interventions should address family-level comorbidities, increase instrumental social support, and acknowledge practical coping mechanisms. PMID:23168346

  20. The effects of September 11 on Arab American nurses in metropolitan Detroit.

    PubMed

    Kulwicki, Anahid; Khalifa, Rose; Moore, Gary

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine the effects of 9/11 on Arab American nurses' workplace discrimination in the Detroit metropolitan area. Thirty-four Arab American nurses completed a survey about perceptions and experiences related to discrimination before and after the terror attacks on 9/11. Most participants did not experience demotion, but some experienced intimidation and patient rejection more often or with the same frequency following 9/11. September 11 continues to negatively affect Arab Americans in the work environment. Studies are needed to further examine the workplace discrimination relationship with specific health indicators for Arab Americans. PMID:18263850

  1. Positron Emission Tomography-Scanner at Children`s Hospital of Michigan at Detroit, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The Department of Energy has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0795, to support the DOE decision to provide a grant of $7,953,600 to be used in support of a proposed Positron Emission Tomography Scanner at Children`s Hospital of Michigan at Detroit, Michigan. Based upon the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affected the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  2. Freedom, equality, race.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jeffrey B

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores come of the reasons for the continuing power of racial categorization in our era, and thus offers some friendly amendments to the more optimistic renderings of the term post-racial. Focusing mainly on the relationship between black and white Americans, it argues that the widespread embrace of universal values of freedom and equality, which most regard as antidotes to racial exclusion, actually reinforce it. The internal logic of these categories requires the construction of the "other." In America, where freedom and equality still stand at the contested center of collective identity, a history of racial oppression informs the very meaning of these terms. Thus the irony: much of the effort exerted to transcend race tends to fuel continuing division. PMID:21469393

  3. Preventing homicide: an evaluation of the efficacy of a Detroit gun ordinance.

    PubMed Central

    O'Carroll, P W; Loftin, C; Waller, J B; McDowall, D; Bukoff, A; Scott, R O; Mercy, J A; Wiersema, B

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In November 1986, a Detroit, Michigan city ordinance requiring mandatory jail sentences for illegally carrying a firearm in public was passed to preserve "the public peace, health, safety, and welfare of the people." METHODS: We conducted a set of interrupted time-series analyses to evaluate the impact of the law on the incidence of homicides, hypothesizing that the ordinance, by its nature, would affect only firearm homicides and homicides committed outside (e.g., on the street). RESULTS: The incidence of homicide in general increased after the law was passed, but the increases in non-firearm homicides and homicides committed inside (e.g., in a home) were either statistically significant or approached statistical significance (p = .006 and p = .070, respectively), whereas changes in the incidence of firearm homicides and homicides committed outside were not statistically significant (p = .238 and p = .418, respectively). We also determined that the ordinance was essentially unenforced, apparently because of a critical shortage of jail space. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with a model in which the ordinance had a dampening effect on firearm homicides occurring in public in Detroit. The apparent preventive effect evident in the time series analyses may have been due to publicity about the ordinance, whereas the small nature of the effect may have been due to the lack of enforcement. PMID:2014857

  4. Association of West Nile virus illness and urban landscapes in Chicago and Detroit

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Marilyn O; Walker, Edward D; Foster, Erik S; Haramis, Linn D; Kitron, Uriel D

    2007-01-01

    Background West Nile virus infection in humans in urban areas of the Midwestern United States has exhibited strong spatial clustering during epidemic years. We derived urban landscape classes from the physical and socio-economic factors hypothesized to be associated with West Nile Virus (WNV) transmission and compared those to human cases of illness in 2002 in Chicago and Detroit. The objectives were to improve understanding of human exposure to virus-infected mosquitoes in the urban context, and to assess the degree to which environmental factors found to be important in Chicago were also found in Detroit. Results Five urban classes that partitioned the urban space were developed for each city region. The classes had many similarities in the two settings. In both regions, the WNV case rate was considerably higher in the urban class associated with the Inner Suburbs, where 1940–1960 era housing dominates, vegetation cover is moderate, and population density is moderate. The land cover mapping approach played an important role in the successful and consistent classification of the urban areas. Conclusion The analysis demonstrates how urban form and past land use decisions can influence transmission of a vector-borne virus. In addition, the results are helpful to develop hypotheses regarding urban landscape features and WNV transmission, they provide a structured method to stratify the urban areas to locate representative field study sites specifically for WNV, and this analysis contributes to the question of how the urban environment affects human health. PMID:17352825

  5. Long-term ecosystem monitoring and assessment of the Detroit River and Western Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Hartig, J H; Zarull, M A; Ciborowski, J J H; Gannon, J E; Wilke, E; Norwood, G; Vincent, A N

    2009-11-01

    Over 35 years of US and Canadian pollution prevention and control efforts have led to substantial improvements in environmental quality of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie. However, the available information also shows that much remains to be done. Improvements in environmental quality have resulted in significant ecological recovery, including increasing populations of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcons (Falco columbarius), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), walleye (Sander vitreus), and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia spp.). Although this recovery is remarkable, many challenges remain, including population growth, transportation expansion, and land use changes; nonpoint source pollution; toxic substances contamination; habitat loss and degradation; introduction of exotic species; and greenhouse gases and global warming. Research/monitoring must be sustained for effective management. Priority research and monitoring needs include: demonstrating and quantifying cause-effect relationships; establishing quantitative endpoints and desired future states; determining cumulative impacts and how indicators relate; improving modeling and prediction; prioritizing geographic areas for protection and restoration; and fostering long-term monitoring for adaptive management. Key management agencies, universities, and environmental and conservation organizations should pool resources and undertake comprehensive and integrative assessments of the health of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie at least every 5 years to practice adaptive management for long-term sustainability. PMID:18850284

  6. Eating patterns and cardiovascular disease risk in a Detroit Mexican American population.

    PubMed

    Artinian, Nancy T; Schim, Stephanie Myers; Vander Wal, Jillon S; Nies, Mary A

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in Hispanic adults living in Southwest Detroit. A descriptive design was used. Self-report baseline data were collected using The Rate Your Plate and Personal Health Risk Assessment questionnaires. A nonrandom sample of 32 Mexican American adults was recruited from a large Roman Catholic Church in Southwest Detroit. Participants were selected if they were enrolled in the larger parent research study to test the effects of a lay health educator intervention and planned to participate in the nutrition education portion of the intervention. Unhealthy eating patterns outnumbered heart healthy eating practices. The majority used higher fat salad dressings; ate fried foods, sweets, and high fat snacks; consumed greater than the desired amounts of regular cheese; drank whole milk; and ate few fruits and vegetables. Lack of physical activity, being overweight, and exposure to second-hand smoke were the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors. The data suggest that effective community-based heart disease prevention programs that emphasize risk factor screening and cardiovascular risk reduction through heart healthy eating are needed. PMID:15363023

  7. A hell of a life: addiction and marginality in post-industrial Detroit

    PubMed Central

    Draus, Paul J.; Roddy, Juliette K.; Greenwald, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on concepts from Foucault and Agamben, we maintain that the lives of daily heroin users provide a prime illustration of bare life in the zone of indistinction that is contemporary Detroit. First, we consider the case of Detroit as a stigmatized and racially segregated city, with concrete consequences for its residents. We then present evidence from in-depth ethnographic and economic interviews to illustrate the various spaces of confinement—that of addiction, that of economic marginality, and that of gender—occupied by these men and women, as well as the indeterminacy of their daily lives, captured through their descriptions of daily routines and interactions. We examine their expressions of worth as expressed in economic, emotional and moral terms. Finally, we draw connections between the sustained marginality of these individuals, as a contemporary category of homo sacer, and the policies and powers that both despise and depend upon them. Heroin, we contend, helps to fill and numb this social void, making bare life bearable, but also cementing one’s marginality into semi-permanence. PMID:25983655

  8. Adventure Racing for the Rest of Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorman, Marta K.; English, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Adventure racing got started in the 1990s. The Eco-Challenge and Primal Quest races were multi-day events that included challenging physical activities and extreme conditions. Today, highly publicized adventure races like the Eco-Challenge and Amazing Race usually feature elite athletes or celebrities completing exotic tasks or globe-hopping to…

  9. Maximizing Peak Running on Race Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consolo, Kitty

    2008-01-01

    Distance runners spend many hours training assiduously for competition, yet on race day they can often make mistakes that sabotage their performance. This article addresses five common race-day mistakes: (1) failure to bring proper equipment to the race; (2) failure to eat an appropriate race-day meal; (3) failure to hydrate properly; (4) failure…

  10. Race trouble: attending to race and racism in online interaction.

    PubMed

    Durrheim, Kevin; Greener, Ross; Whitehead, Kevin A

    2015-03-01

    This article advocates the concept of race trouble as a way of synthesizing variation in racial discourse, and as a way of studying how social interaction and institutional life continue to be organized by conceptions of 'race' and 'racism'. Our analysis of an online discussion at a South African University about the defensibility of a characterization of (black) student protesters as 'savages' revealed a number of familiar strategies: participants avoided explicit racism, denied racism, and denied racism on behalf of others. However, the aim of this analysis was not to identify the 'real' racism, but to show how race and racism were used in the interaction to develop perspectives on transformation in the institution, to produce social division in the University, and to create ambivalently racialized and racializing subject positions. We demonstrate how, especially through uses of deracialized discourse, participants' actions were observably shaped by the potential ways in which others could hear 'race' and 'racism'. Race trouble thus became manifest through racial suggestion, allusion, innuendo, and implication. We conclude with a call to social psychologists to study the ways in which meanings of 'race' and 'racism' are forged and contested in relation to each other. PMID:24689369

  11. What's the Use of Race? Investigating the Concept of Race in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Marc Phillip

    2013-01-01

    What's the use of race and does race matter? These two questions serve as the foundation for this dissertation comprised of three studies examining: (1) how scholars "use" race in their research and how their decisions matter for the way race is interpreted; (2) how students make meaning of race (as a social construct) during a time…

  12. An alternative hypothesis for sink development above salt cavities in the Detroit area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stump, Daniel; Nieto, A.S.; Ege, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Subsidence and sink formation resulting from brining operations in the Windsor-Detroit area include the 1954 sink at the Canadian Salt Company brine field near Windsor, Ontario, and the 1971 sinks at the BASF Wyandotte Corporation brine field at Grosse Ile, Mich. Earlier investigations into both occurrences concluded that the mechanism of sink development consisted of the gradual stoping of poorly supported brine-gallery roof rock to the near surface with subsequent surface collapse. A more recent study attempted to describe the mechanism of sink development in terms of the geometry of a cylindrical chimney formed by stoping of roof rock, the height of a cavity at depth, the depth of overlying rock, and the bulking ratio of the rubble formed during stoping. Persons with extensive experience in solution mining in the Windsor-Detroit area have expressed doubt that the stoping mechanism could fully explain the development of these sinks. Further, they have proposed that the relatively shallow (300-ft-deep) Sylvania Sandstone, in this case, may be responsible for the sinks by a secondary undermining mechanism to be examined in this paper. The mechanism involves downwarping of the beds overlying the salt cavity and development of a shallower cavity in the Sylvania Sandstone by downward migration of cohesionless sand grains from the Sylvania through openings in the disturbed rock to the lower cavity. This study indicates that under natural conditions the Sylvania will not migrate, even in the presence of large underground water flows because the sandstone possesses some cohesion throughout its depth. However, further investigation has formulated a mechanism that could allow the Sylvania Sandstone to loose its cohesion in response to high horizontal stresses. These stresses could be the result of deformation that accompanies general subsidence and (or) of past geologic processes. Included in this study were experimental and analytical investigations. As determined by

  13. Lake sturgeon response to a spawning reef constructed in the Detroit river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.; Manny, B.; Boase, J.; Child, M.; Kennedy, G.; Craig, J.; Soper, K.; Drouin, R.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the First World War, the bi-national Detroit River provided vast areas of functional fish spawning and nursery habitat. However, ongoing conflicting human uses of these waters for activities such as waste disposal, water withdrawals, shoreline development, shipping, recreation, and fishing have altered many of the chemical, physical, and biological processes of the Detroit River. Of particular interest and concern to resource managers and stakeholders is the significant loss and impairment of fish spawning and nursery habitat that led to the decline in abundance of most fish species using this ecosystem. Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations for example, were nearly extirpated by the middle of the 20th century, leaving only a small fraction of their former population. Fisheries managers recognized that the loss of suitable fish spawning habitat is a limiting factor in lake sturgeon population rehabilitation in the Detroit River. In efforts to remediate this beneficial water use impairment, a reef consisting of a mixture of natural rock and limestone was constructed at the upstream end of Fighting Island in 2008. This paper focuses on the response by lake sturgeon to the different replicates of suitable natural materials used to construct the fish spawning habitat at Fighting Island in the Detroit River. Pre-construction fisheries assessment during 2006–2008 showed that along with the presence of adult lake sturgeon, spawning conditions were favorable. However, no eggs were found in assessments conducted prior to reef construction. The 3300 m2 Fighting Island reef was placed at the upstream end of the island in October of 2008. The construction design included 12 spawning beds of three replicates each consisting of either round rock, small or large (shot-rock) diameter limestone or a mixture thereof. An observed response by spawning lake sturgeon occurred the following year when spawning-ready adults (ripe), viable eggs, and larvae were

  14. Participant-Based Monitoring of Indoor and Outdoor Nitrogen Dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons among MICA-Air Households

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma (MICA) study in Detroit, Michigan introduced a participant-based approach to reduce the resource burden associated with collection of indoor and outdoor residential air sampling data. A subset of participants designated as MICA-Air c...

  15. Some Ideas on Racing Seaplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegna, Giovanni

    1932-01-01

    This report presents the author's designs and construction of various seaplanes to raced in the Schneider Cup. The results of tests are presented as well as discussions of various structures like floats and wings.

  16. Securing Bearing Races To Turbopump Shafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, Dale H.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed method of attaching inner race of roller bearing to shaft prevents loosening now caused by difference between coefficients of thermal expansion of race and shaft materials. Intended for cryogenic turbopump in which race made of 440C stainless-steel alloy and shaft made of Inconel(R) 100 nickel alloy. Flanges of race replaced by tension bands that shrink faster as they are cooled. Tension band engages race on slightly sloping surface so axial forces do not dislodge it.

  17. On Race and Time.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, Gordon B; Olcaysoy Okten, Irmak; Gooch, Cynthia M

    2015-11-01

    Arousal is known to shape time perception, and heightened arousal causes one to perceive that time has slowed (i.e., a given length of time feels longer than it actually is). The current experiments illustrate that among White people who experience arousal when contemplating race (specifically those for whom appearing biased is an ongoing concern), time perception slows when they observe faces of Black men. We asked participants to judge the duration of presentation for faces of White and Black men (shown for periods ranging from 300 to 1,200 ms) relative to a standard duration of 600 ms. Evidence of bias emerged when White participants concerned with bias saw faces of Black men (e.g., durations of less than 600 ms were perceived as being greater than 600 ms). The current findings have implications for intergroup interactions in which timing is essential-for example, length of job interviews, police officers' perception of the length of an encounter and when force should be initiated, and doctors' perception of the length of medical encounters. Racially biased time perception is a new form of implicit bias, one exerted at the perceptual level. PMID:26423460

  18. An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Survey of Flow Velocities in Detroit River, a Connecting Channel of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holtschlag, David J.; Koschik, John A.

    2003-01-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) were used to survey flow velocities in Detroit River from July 8-19, 2002, as part of a study to assess the susceptibility of public water intakes to contaminants on the St. Clair-Detroit River Waterway. More than 3.5 million point velocities were measured at 130 cross sections. Cross sections were generally spaced about 1,800 ft apart along the river from the head of Detroit River at the outlet of Lake St. Clair to the mouth of Detroit River on Lake Erie. Two transects were surveyed at each cross section, one in each direction across the river. Along each transect, velocity profiles were generally obtained 0.8-2.2 ft apart. At each velocity profile, average water velocity data were obtained at 1.64 ft intervals of depth. The raw position and velocity data from the ADCP field survey were adjusted for local magnetic anomalies using global positioning system (GPS) measurements at the end points of the transects. The adjusted velocity and ancillary data can be retrieved though the internet and extracted to column-oriented data files.

  19. Changing the Rules: Making Space for Interactive Learning in the Galleries of the Detroit Institute of Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czajkowski, Jennifer Wild

    2011-01-01

    Three years after the Detroit Institute of Arts opened with all new, "visitor-centered" galleries, the museum's executive director of learning and interpretation shares the processes, successes, and lessons learned at an institution that embraced an array of hands-on learning models. The models are discussed as components of a comprehensive…

  20. ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKER ANALYSIS OF LOW VOLUME RESIDENTIAL SAMPLES FOR SOURCE APPORTIONMENT IN THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This abstract describes a poster on results for organic speciation analysis for Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) to be presented at the 2006 International Aerosol Conference sponsored by the American Association for Aerosol Research in St. Paul, Minnesota on Se...

  1. Associations between personal exposures to VOCs and alterations in cardiovascular physiology: Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) - presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: An adult cohort consisting of 63 participants engaged in the US EPA’s recent Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) and a University of Michigan cardiovascular sub-study conducted during summer and winter periods over 3 years between 2004 and 2007...

  2. 33 CFR 165.941 - Safety Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone. 165.941 Section 165.941 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific...

  3. A model to locate potential areas for lake sturgeon spawning habitat construction in the St. Clair–Detroit River System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennion, David; Manny, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    In response to a need for objective scientific information that could be used to help remediate loss of fish spawning habitat in the St. Clair River and Detroit River International Areas of Concern, this paper summarizes a large-scale geographic mapping investigation. Our study integrates data on two variables that many riverine fishes respond to in selecting where to spawn in these waters (water flow velocity and water depth) with available maps of the St. Clair–Detroit River System (SC–DRS). Our objectives were to locate and map these two physical components of fish habitat in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers and Lake St. Clair using a geographic information system (GIS) and to identify where, theoretically, fish spawning habitat could be remediated in these rivers. The target fish species to which this model applies is lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), but spawning reefs constructed for lake sturgeon in this system have been used for spawning by 17 species of fish. Our analysis revealed areas in each river that possessed suitable water velocity and depth for fish spawning and therefore could theoretically be remediated by the addition of rock-rubble substrate like that used at two previously remediated sites in the Detroit River at Belle Isle and Fighting Island. Results of our analysis revealed that only 3% of the total area of the SC–DRS possesses the necessary combination of water depth and high flow velocity to be indicated by the model as potential spawning habitat for lake sturgeon.

  4. Associations between Personal Exposures to VOCs and Alterations in Cardiovascular Physiology: Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: An adult cohort consisting of 63 participants engaged in the US EPA’s recent Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) and a University of Michigan cardiovascular sub-study conducted during summer and winter periods over 3 years between 2004 and 2007 (5 seas...

  5. 33 CFR 3.45-20 - Sector Detroit Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sector Detroit Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.45-20 Section 3.45-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Ninth...

  6. 75 FR 52981 - Chrysler, LLC, Detroit Axle Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Caravan Knight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... from Caravan Knight Facilities Management LLC, and Syncreon, Detroit, MI; Amended Certification... was published in the Federal Register on February 2, 2009 (74 FR 5870). The notice was amended on March 4, 2010 to include on-site leased workers from Caravan Knight Facilities Management LLC....

  7. The Detroit Center for Professional Growth and Development: A Teacher Center for Bridging the Professional Development Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Jessie M.

    The efforts of the Detroit Center for Professional Growth and Development in improving the professional standards of elementary-secondary teachers are discussed. Operating since March 1976, the Center focuses on staff development activities linking inservice programs to teachers' and students' needs. Activities are decentralized, being offered on…

  8. Flirtation and Flight: Alternatives to Ethnic Confrontation in White Anglo-American Protestant Detroit, 1880-1940.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janis, Ralph

    1978-01-01

    Marriage, baptism, membership, and church committee records are used in this paper to trace the form and evolution of the social boundaries which Detroit's white Anglo-American Protestants created for themselves at various levels of social contact. Together, these records provide an indication of small group associational patterns in an urban…

  9. 78 FR 10128 - Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Subzone 70T; Marathon Petroleum Company LP; Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Marathon Petroleum Company LP refinery in Detroit, Michigan. (B-42-2012, docketed 6/1/2012); Whereas, notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (77 FR 33716-33717) and the... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Subzone 70T; Marathon...

  10. Evidence of the St. Clair-Detroit River system as a dispersal corridor and nursery habitat for transient larval burbot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullough, Darrin E.; Roseman, Edward F.; Keeler, Kevin M.; DeBruyne, Robin L.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Thompson, Patricia A.; Ireland, Stacey A.; Ross, Jason E.; Bowser, Dustin; Hunter, Robert D.; Castle, Dana Kristina; Fischer, Jason; Provo, Stacy A.

    2015-01-01

    Burbot Lota lota are distributed across the Laurentian Great Lakes where they occupy a top piscivore role. The St. Clair-Detroit River System is known to provide a migration corridor as well as spawning and nursery habitat for many indigenous fishes of economic and ecological significance. However, knowledge is scant of the early life history of burbot and the importance of this system in their dispersal, survival, and recruitment. In order to assess the role of the St. Clair-Detroit River System to burbot ecology, we collected larval burbot during ichthyoplankton surveys in this system from 2010 to 2013 as part of a habitat restoration monitoring program. More and larger burbot larvae were found in the St. Clair River than in the lower Detroit River, although this may be due to differences in sampling methods between the two rivers. Consistent with existing studies, larval burbot exhibited ontogenesis with a distinct transition from a pelagic zooplankton-based diet to a benthic macroinvertebrate-based diet. Our results demonstrate that the St. Clair-Detroit Rivers provide food resources, required habitat, and a migration conduit between the upper and lower Great Lakes, but the contribution of these fish to the lower lakes requires further examination.

  11. Field Demonstration of a 24-kV Superconducting Cable at Detroit Edison

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Nathan; Corsaro, Pietro

    2004-12-01

    Customer acceptance of high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable technology requires a substantial field demonstration illustrating both the system's technical capabilities and its suitability for installation and operation within the utility environment. In this project, the world's first underground installation of an HTS cable using existing ductwork, a 120 meter demonstration cable circuit was designed and installed between the 24 kV bus distribution bus and a 120 kV-24 kV transformer at Detroit Edison's Frisbie substation. The system incorporated cables, accessories, a refrigeration system, and control instrumentation. Although the system was never put in operation because of problems with leaks in the cryostat, the project significantly advanced the state-of-the-art in the design and implementation of Warm Dielectric cable systems in substation applications. Lessons learned in this project are already being incorporated in several ongoing demonstration projects.

  12. Fire ring wear assessment on a 6V92TA Detroit diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, R.A.; Dymock, K.R.; Webster, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    Initial work has been completed on a fire ring (top piston ring) wear assessment in a military pattern heavy duty high speed diesel running on a range of fuel qualities. The technique was based upon isolating Chromium sources in a Detroit Diesel Corp. (DDC) 6V92TA (two-stroke cycle, turbocharged, and aftercooled) to the fire rings by component substitution in the liner kit assembly. This paper reports on fire ring wear associated with three fuel qualities, three injection types, and three injection timing set-ups. It is shown that fire ring wear rates were minimized at neutral (base) injection timing, higher injector pressures, and higher fuel ignition qualities. The most significant effect was that of fuel quality.

  13. Toxicity of Detroit River sediment interstitial water to the bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect

    Giesy, J.P.; Rosiu, C.J.; Graney, R.L.; Nested, J.L.; Benda, A. ); Kreis, R.G. Jr. ); Horvath, F.J. )

    1988-01-01

    The authors used the Photobacterium phosphoreum bacterial luminescence assay (Microtox{sup R}) to survey the distribution of the toxicity of the sediments from the lower Detroit River during the summer of 1986. Of the 136 locations tested, 25 were classified as very toxic, 60 as moderately toxic, 10 as slightly toxic, and 41 were classified as being non-toxic. The greatest number of very toxic sites was observed on the western shore of the Trenton Channel; however, some very toxic locations were observed throughout the study area. The least toxic areas were observed at the eastern-most locations studied. The Microtox{sup R} assay has been found to be a sensitive assay, which can be calibrated to the responses of other organisms such as macroinvertebrates and can be related to the potential for distribution of macroinvertebrates in sediments. Therefore, the Microtox{sup R} assay is useful for rapid screening and mapping of toxicity of sediments.

  14. Evaluation of Fish Passage Conditions for Juvenile Salmonids Using Sensor Fish at Detroit Dam, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Joanne P.

    2010-01-29

    Fish passage conditions through two spillways at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions through Spillbay 3 and Spillbay 6 at 1.5- and 3.5-ft gate openings, identifying potential fish injury regions of the routes. The study was performed in July 2009, concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish and live fish were deployed at elevations approximately 3 ft above structure at depths determined using a computational fluid dynamics model. Data collected were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates.

  15. High-Level Data Races

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artho, Cyrille; Havelund, Klaus; Biere, Armin; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Data races are a common problem in concurrent and multi-threaded programming. They are hard to detect without proper tool support. Despite the successful application of these tools, experience shows that the notion of data race is not powerful enough to capture certain types of inconsistencies occurring in practice. In this paper we investigate data races on a higher abstraction layer. This enables us to detect inconsistent uses of shared variables, even if no classical race condition occurs. For example, a data structure representing a coordinate pair may have to be treated atomically. By lifting the meaning of a data race to a higher level, such problems can now be covered. The paper defines the concepts view and view consistency to give a notation for this novel kind of property. It describes what kinds of errors can be detected with this new definition, and where its limitations are. It also gives a formal guideline for using data structures in a multi-threading environment.

  16. Scaling properties of marathon races

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Rodriguez, Eduardo

    2006-06-01

    Some regularities in popular marathon races are identified in this paper. It is found for high-performance participants (i.e., racing times in the range [2:15,3:15] h), the average velocity as a function of the marathoner's ranking behaves as a power-law, which may be suggesting the presence of critical phenomena. Elite marathoners with racing times below 2:15 h can be considered as outliers with respect to this behavior. For the main marathon pack (i.e., racing times in the range [3:00,6:00] h), the average velocity as a function of the marathoner's ranking behaves linearly. For this racing times, the interpersonal velocity, defined as the difference of velocities between consecutive runners, displays a continuum of scaling behavior ranging from uncorrelated noise for small scales to correlated 1/f-noise for large scales. It is a matter of fact that 1/f-noise is characterized by correlations extended over a wide range of scales, a clear indication of some sort of cooperative effect.

  17. "Race" and the difficulties of language.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Debby A; Drevdahl, Denise J

    2003-01-01

    "Race," a construct created by scientists, is deeply ingrained in everyday discourses. Using postmodern theories to help us think through the complexities of language in relation to race, we come to understand that truths about race are changing, contingent, and contested products of cultural construction. It is impossible to understand or represent race as an object of study such that it can be known, yet untouched, by language. Health effects are one important consequence of race, particularly related to quality, access, marginalization, and privilege. Analyzing the effects of race bring it visibly into being, and makes evident how language shapes our understandings of the world and its human inhabitants. PMID:12611427

  18. Construction of shipping channels in the Detroit River—History and environmental consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennion, David H.; Manny, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The Detroit River is one of the most biologically diverse areas in the Great Lakes basin. It has been an important international shipping route since the 1820s and is one of the busiest navigation centers in the United States. Historically, it supported one of the most profitable Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) commercial fisheries in the Great Lakes. Since 1874, the lower Detroit River has been systematically and extensively modified, by construction of deepwater channels, to facilitate commercial shipping. Large-scale dredging, disposal of dredge spoils, and construction of water-level compensating works has greatly altered channel morphology and flow dynamics of the river, disrupting ecological function and fishery productivity of the river and influencing Great Lakes water levels. From 1874 to 1968, major construction projects created 96.5 kilometers (60 miles) of shipping channels, removed over 46,200,000 m3 of material, covered 4,050 hectares (40.5 square kilometers) of river bottom with dredge spoils, and built 85 hectares of above-waterline compensating works at a total cost of US$283 million. Interest by industries and government agencies to develop the river further for shipping is high and increasing. Historically, as environmental protection agencies were created, construction impacts on natural resources were increasingly addressed during the planning process and, in some cases, assessments of these impacts greatly altered or halted proposed construction projects. Careful planning of future shipping-channel construction and maintenance projects, including a thorough analysis of the expected environmental impacts, could greatly reduce financial costs and ecological damages as compared to past shipping-channel construction projects.

  19. Interaction between polygenic risk for cigarette use and environmental exposures in the Detroit neighborhood health study

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, J L; Cerdá, M; Galea, S; Keyes, K M; Aiello, A E; Uddin, M; Wildman, D E; Koenen, K C

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is influenced both by genetic and environmental factors. Until this year, all large-scale gene identification studies on smoking were conducted in populations of European ancestry. Consequently, the genetic architecture of smoking is not well described in other populations. Further, despite a rich epidemiologic literature focused on the social determinants of smoking, few studies have examined the moderation of genetic influences (for example, gene–environment interactions) on smoking in African Americans. In the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study (DNHS), a sample of randomly selected majority African American residents of Detroit, we constructed a genetic risk score (GRS), in which we combined top (P-value <5 × 10−7) genetic variants from a recent meta-analysis conducted in a large sample of African Americans. Using regression (effective n=399), we first tested for association between the GRS and cigarettes per day, attempting to replicate the findings from the meta-analysis. Second, we examined interactions with three social contexts that may moderate the genetic association with smoking: traumatic events, neighborhood social cohesion and neighborhood physical disorder. Among individuals who had ever smoked cigarettes, the GRS significantly predicted the number of cigarettes smoked per day and accounted for ∼3% of the overall variance in the trait. Significant interactions were observed between the GRS and number of traumatic events experienced, as well as between the GRS and average neighborhood social cohesion; the association between genetic risk and smoking was greater among individuals who had experienced an increased number of traumatic events in their lifetimes, and diminished among individuals who lived in a neighborhood characterized by greater social cohesion. This study provides support for the utility of the GRS as an alternative approach to replication of common polygenic variation, and in gene–environment interaction, for

  20. Interaction between polygenic risk for cigarette use and environmental exposures in the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study.

    PubMed

    Meyers, J L; Cerdá, M; Galea, S; Keyes, K M; Aiello, A E; Uddin, M; Wildman, D E; Koenen, K C

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is influenced both by genetic and environmental factors. Until this year, all large-scale gene identification studies on smoking were conducted in populations of European ancestry. Consequently, the genetic architecture of smoking is not well described in other populations. Further, despite a rich epidemiologic literature focused on the social determinants of smoking, few studies have examined the moderation of genetic influences (for example, gene-environment interactions) on smoking in African Americans. In the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study (DNHS), a sample of randomly selected majority African American residents of Detroit, we constructed a genetic risk score (GRS), in which we combined top (P-value <5 × 10(-7)) genetic variants from a recent meta-analysis conducted in a large sample of African Americans. Using regression (effective n=399), we first tested for association between the GRS and cigarettes per day, attempting to replicate the findings from the meta-analysis. Second, we examined interactions with three social contexts that may moderate the genetic association with smoking: traumatic events, neighborhood social cohesion and neighborhood physical disorder. Among individuals who had ever smoked cigarettes, the GRS significantly predicted the number of cigarettes smoked per day and accounted for ~3% of the overall variance in the trait. Significant interactions were observed between the GRS and number of traumatic events experienced, as well as between the GRS and average neighborhood social cohesion; the association between genetic risk and smoking was greater among individuals who had experienced an increased number of traumatic events in their lifetimes, and diminished among individuals who lived in a neighborhood characterized by greater social cohesion. This study provides support for the utility of the GRS as an alternative approach to replication of common polygenic variation, and in gene-environment interaction, for smoking

  1. Predictive Modeling in Race Walking

    PubMed Central

    Wiktorowicz, Krzysztof; Przednowek, Krzysztof; Lassota, Lesław; Krzeszowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the use of linear and nonlinear multivariable models as tools to support training process of race walkers. These models are calculated using data collected from race walkers' training events and they are used to predict the result over a 3 km race based on training loads. The material consists of 122 training plans for 21 athletes. In order to choose the best model leave-one-out cross-validation method is used. The main contribution of the paper is to propose the nonlinear modifications for linear models in order to achieve smaller prediction error. It is shown that the best model is a modified LASSO regression with quadratic terms in the nonlinear part. This model has the smallest prediction error and simplified structure by eliminating some of the predictors. PMID:26339230

  2. Medical support for Adventure Racing.

    PubMed

    Greenland, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Adventure Racing has recently become a popular sport. In the past medical and paramedical staff were frequently positioned at checkpoints throughout the course of the race. Presently there is a developing role for appropriately qualified individuals to access the course by biking, running or swimming and then providing injured racers with on-site first aid prior to their transfer to the nearest medical checkpoint. These medical staff should have not only appropriate first aid skills but also rock rescue techniques, rappelling and other basic rope work as well as be athletically fit. This article explores the new role and attempts to outline what characteristics may be required. PMID:15537411

  3. "Race" and Community Care. "Race," Health and Social Care Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Waqar I. U., Ed.; Atkin, Karl, Ed.

    This collection offers a wide-ranging introduction to contemporary issues surrounding the health care needs of members of minority ethnic communities within the framework of community care in Britain. The following chapters consider state welfare, minority communities, family structures, and social change: (1) "'Race' and Community Care: An…

  4. Race from the Inside: An Emerging Heterogeneous Race Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celious, Aaron; Oyserman, Daphna

    2001-01-01

    Recommends moving beyond simple racial dichotomies to unpack differences among African Americans in order to better understand the experience of being Black in America, arguing that African Americans do not experience race homogeneously but distinguish between and among themselves on such features as socioeconomic status, gender, and skin tone.…

  5. Re-suspension of lead contaminated urban soil as a dominant source of atmospheric lead in Birmingham, Chicago, Detroit and Pittsburgh, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laidlaw, Mark A. S.; Zahran, Sammy; Mielke, Howard W.; Taylor, Mark P.; Filippelli, Gabriel M.

    2012-03-01

    Soils in older areas of cities are highly contaminated by lead, due largely to past use of lead additives in gasoline, the use of lead in exterior paints, and industrial lead sources. Soils are not passive repositories and periodic re-suspension of fine lead contaminated soil dust particulates (or aerosols) may create seasonal variations of lead exposure for urban dwellers. Atmospheric soil and lead aerosol data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) database were obtained for Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), Detroit (Michigan), Chicago (Illinois), and Birmingham (Alabama), USA. In this study the temporal variations of atmospheric soil and lead aerosols in these four US cities were examined to determine whether re-suspended lead contaminated urban soil was the dominant source of atmospheric lead. Soil and lead-in-air concentrations were examined to ascertain whether lead aerosols follow seasonal patterns with highest concentrations during the summer and/or autumn. In addition, atmospheric soil and lead aerosol concentrations on weekends and Federal Government holidays were compared to weekdays to evaluate the possibility that automotive turbulence results in re-suspension of lead contaminated urban soil. The results show that the natural logs of atmospheric soil and lead aerosols were associated in Pittsburgh from April 2004 to July 2005 (R2 = 0.31, p < 0.01), Detroit from November 2003 to July 2005 (R2 = 0.49, p <0.01), Chicago from November 2003 to August 2005 (R2 = 0.32, p < 0.01), and Birmingham from May 2004 to December 2006 (R2 = 0.47, p < 0.01). Atmospheric soil and lead aerosols followed seasonal patterns with highest concentrations during the summer and/or autumn. Atmospheric soil and lead aerosols are 3.15 and 3.12 times higher, respectively, during weekdays than weekends and Federal Government holidays, suggesting that automotive traffic turbulence plays a significant role in re-suspension of contaminated roadside soils and

  6. Researching Race within Educational Psychology Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Schutz, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we question why race as a sociohistorical construct has not traditionally been investigated in educational psychology research. To do so, we provide a historical discussion of the significance of race as well as present current dilemmas in the exploration of race, including an examination of the incidence and prevalence of…

  7. Children's Attitudes toward Race and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Juliet L.

    An implicit assumption in the majority of literature looking at development of prejudice in children is that race prejudice and sex prejudice are equivalent across groups; that is, sex bias is not conditional on race, and likewise race bias is not conditional on sex bias of the child. However, Warner, Fishbein, Ritchey and Case (2001) found strong…

  8. On the Complexity of Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyphur, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Although a variety of studies have indicated that using statistical clustering techniques to examine genetic information may allow for geographically based groupings of individuals that tenuously map onto some conceptions of race, these studies have also indicated that the amount of genetic variation within these groupings is significantly larger…

  9. Race, Social Class, and IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarr-Salapatek, Sandra

    1971-01-01

    Environmental influences were important determiners of aptitude and ability as measured by the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills in a twin study using black and white students. There were insufficient data to determine the relative contribution of environmental and genetic variance between races. (AL)

  10. Race, Culture and Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummett, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that the great need in moral education is to consider general moral standards and arguments first and apply these to behavior affecting racial inequality, rather than to start from a concentration on racism, working back towards morality. Considers the consequences of confusing race with culture or viewing religion only as a…

  11. Loca, Eco Tentokorkvtes (Terrapin Race).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Factor, Susannah

    Developed as part of the Seminole Bilingual Education Project, this story and coloring book presents the story of "The Terrapin Race" in both Seminole and English. Right-hand pages offer full-page illustrations for students to color; left-hand pages contain a brief narrative in the two languages in large type. The book uses the sounds which the…

  12. Racing toward the Finish Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents replies to published comments on the authors' original article (R. L. Sternberg, E. L. Grigorenko, and K. K. Kidd. G. Carey cited in his response to their article a study by Tang et al. (2005) showing that "of 3,636 subjects of varying race/ethnicity, only 5 (0.14%) showed genetic cluster membership different from their…

  13. Race to Top Applications Scrutinized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen; Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2010-01-01

    As peer reviewers for the U.S. Department of Education begin to comb through the thousands of pages of applications for $4 billion in federal Race to the Top Fund grants, they'll be under pressure to determine which are most worthy of funding: those that promise the most, or those with the best chance of delivering. In a competition whose criteria…

  14. Race, Ethnicity and Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Philip S., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This theme issue contains papers on race and ethnicity in public education: "Introduction" (Philip Hart); "Toward Democratic Education: The Importance of Culturally Responsive Leadership in 21st Century Schools" (Donna M. Davis); "Improving the Selection Process for Identifying Gifted Ethnic Minority Children" (John Dillard and Nettye R. Brazil);…

  15. Game Plan. Race against Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Presents a learning center game that will help children develop and improve skills with reference books while helping to familiarize them with the problem of endangered species. Emphasizes that saving endangered species is a race against time. Provides an alternative activity for younger learners. (CW)

  16. Gradient Tempering Of Bearing Races

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parr, Richardson A.

    1991-01-01

    Gradient-tempering process increases fracture toughness and resistance to stress-corrosion cracking of ball-bearing races made of hard, strong steels and subject to high installation stresses and operation in corrosive media. Also used in other applications in which local toughening of high-strength/low-toughness materials required.

  17. The Race To Be Wired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laramee, William

    1998-01-01

    Small colleges are under increasing pressure to spend on upgrading technology to win a real or imagined technology race against other institutions. However, the process of making this decision should be coordinated and focus on return on investment; strategic match of technology and mission; competitive advantage; knowledge of real needs;…

  18. Rethinking the American Race Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Roy L.

    Whereas political inequality was once seen as the key element of the American race problem, today the problem can be seen in terms of social and economic disparities. Three general socioeconomic classes have emerged in the United States, a middle class, a working class, and a poverty-stricken class. The status of African Americans can no longer be…

  19. Grower Recommendations: Fusarium Race 4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium, particularly race 4, has become a significant management issue in the San Joaquin Valley cotton production area of California. Recommendations for limiting spread of inoculum of this fungal disease have been modified somewhat over the approximately 10 years of experience with this disease,...

  20. Identification and influence of spatial outliers in air quality measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, B. F.; Lemke, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    The heterogeneous nature of urban air complicates the analysis of spatial and temporal variability in air quality measurements. Evaluation of potentially inaccurate measurements (i.e., outliers) poses particularly difficult challenges in extensive air quality datasets with multiple measurements distributed in time and space. This study investigated the identification and impact of outliers in measurements of NO­2, BTEX, PM2.5, and PM10 in the contiguous Detroit, Michigan, USA and Windsor, Ontario, Canada international airshed. Measurements were taken at 100 locations during September 2008 and June 2009 and modeled at a 300m by 300m scale resolution. The objective was to determine if outliers were present and, if so, to quantify the magnitude of their impact on modeled spatial pollution distributions. The study built upon previous investigations by the Geospatial Determinants of Health Outcomes Consortium that examined relationships between air pollutant distributions and asthma exacerbations in the Detroit and Windsor airshed. Four independent approaches were initially employed to identify potential outliers: boxplots, variogram clouds, difference maps, and the Local Moran's I statistic. Potential outliers were subsequently reevaluated for consistency among methods and individually assessed to select a final set of outliers. The impact of excluding individual outliers was subsequently determined by revising the spatially variable air pollution models and recalculating associations between air contaminant concentrations and asthma exacerbations in Detroit and Windsor in 2008. For the pollutants examined, revised associations revealed weaker correlations with spatial outliers removed. Nevertheless, the approach employed improves the model integrity by increasing our understanding of the spatial variability of air pollution in the built environment and providing additional insights into the association between acute asthma exacerbations and air pollution.

  1. Submersed macrophyte communities before and after an episodic ice jam in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Schloesser, Donald W.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    1989-01-01

    We conducted surveys in 1983 and 1984 of submersed macrophyte communities off six islands in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers using low altitude aerial photography and ground-truth collections. Sample collections in 1984 followed one of the coldest winters on record, during which ice up to 4 m thick developed in areas that were normally ice-free. Growth of many of the 20 taxa collected was delayed in the spring of 1984, as compared with the spring of 1983. By September 1984, however, total abundance of all taxa was equal to or greater than that in 1983. The location, size, and shape of plant beds in September 1984 were similar to those in 1983. We concluded that the unusual ice jam in early spring of 1984 had little, if any, permanent effect on submersed macrophytes in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers.

  2. Restoration of wildcelery, Vallisneria americana Michx., in the lower Detroit River of the Lake Huron-Lake Erie Corridor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, D.W.; Manny, B.A.

    2007-01-01

    American wildcelery (Vallisneria americana Michx.) is a valuable submersed aquatic plant that was negatively affected by pollution and urban runoff in the lower Detroit River for much of the 20th century. Following 25 years of water-pollution and urban-runoff abatement initiated in the early 1970s, we postulated that water clarity had increased and that this would allow restoration of wildcelery in the lower Detroit River. In addition, water clarity increased in the late 1980s due to water filtration and particulate removal by exotic dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis), which could contribute to potential wildcelery restoration. We sampled wildcelery in 1996–97 and compared these data to wildcelery data from 1950–51 and 1984–85. Over the 48-year period of comparison, areal density of wildcelery tubers decreased 72% (from 51.2 million to 14.4 million tubers) between 1950–51 and 1984–85 then increased 251% (from14.4 million to 50.5 million tubers) between 1984–85 and 1996–97. As a result, overall areal abundance was about the same in 1950–51 as in fall 1996–97. However, tuber densities in spring 1996 were similar to historical low abundances in springs of 1984–85. Then between spring and fall 1996, tuber densities increased 333% and remained relatively abundant through October 1997 indicating the beginning of the restoration of wildcelery in the lower Detroit River. In addition, we believe further reductions of turbidity through continued pollution-abatement programs and water filtration by dreissenid mussels combined with habitat protection and active management of wildcelery will contribute even further to the restoration of wildcelery in the Detroit River in the 21st century.

  3. Concentration and Spatial Distribution of Selected Constituents in Detroit River Bed Sediment Adjacent to Grassy Island, Michigan, August 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoard, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    In August 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, collected sediment?core samples from the bed of the Detroit River adjacent to Grassy Island. The goal of the sampling was to assess the distribution and concentration of chemical constituents in sediment adjacent to Grassy Island, which was operated from 1960 to 1982 as a confined disposal facility to hold dredge spoils. On August 31, 2006, seven samples were collected at four locations in the Detroit River on the north, south, east, and west sides of the island. Metals concentrations in the riverbed sediment tended to be higher on the west side of the island, whereas organic?compound concentrations were generally higher on the east side. Comparison of results from this sampling to concentrations reported in previous studies indicates that the concentrations of inorganic constituents, mainly metals, in the riverbed sediment around Grassy Island fell within the range of concentrations found regionally throughout the Detroit River and in most cases have lower mean and median values than found elsewhere regionally in the Detroit River. Comparison of results from the August 31, 2006, sampling to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency risk?based sediment?quality guidelines indicates that 18 organic constituents for which an ecological screening level (ESL), and (or) a threshold effect concentration (TEC), and (or) a probable effect concentration (PEC) has been defined exceeded one or more of these guidelines at least once. Further work would be needed to determine whether constituent concentrations in the river sediment are related to constituent runoff from Grassy Island.

  4. Comparisons of PBDE composition and concentration in fish collected from the Detroit River, MI and Des Plaines River, IL

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.P.; Chernyak, S.M.; Begnoche, L.; Quintal, R.; Hickey, J.

    2002-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were identified in fish collected from the Detroit River, MI and Des Plaines Rivers, IL. In the Detroit River fish, carp and large mouth bass, the congener patterns were dominated by the 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromo (BDE-47) congener; however, in Des Plaines River carp the dominant isomers were the heptabromo congeners BDE-181 and BDE-183 and lesser amounts of another heptabromo congener, BDE-190, and two hexabromo congeners, BDE-154 and BDE-153. Three possible sources exist for these less-commonly identified PBDE congeners: (a) waste discharge from manufacturing or discarded products near the river, (b) public owned treatment work (POTW) effluents which constitute more than 75% of the flow in the Des Plaines River, (c) or formation of these congeners by debromination of in-place deposits of decabromodiphenyl ether. Average concentration totals (sum of concentrations for seven of the dominant PBDE congeners) were similar on a wet weight bases for the carp (5.39 ng/g wet weight) and large mouth bass (5.25 ng/g) in the Detroit River samples; however, the bass were significantly higher, ρ=0.01, when compared on a lipid basis (bass-163 ng/g vs. carp-40.5 ng/g lipid weight). Some of the PBDE congeners were positively correlated with increasing lipid levels in both fish species. Average total PBDE concentrations in the carp from the Des Plaines River (12.48 ng/g wet weight) were significantly higher, ρ=0.01, than in carp from the Detroit River. The residues were isolated using standard organochlorine methods for fish and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-negative chemical ionization methods.

  5. Effects of anthropogenic particles on the chemical and geophysical properties of urban soils, Detroit, Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlicki, Katharine M.

    There is a great need in many cities for a better quality of urban soil maps. This is due to the increasing interest in repurposing vacant land for urban redevelopment, agriculture, and green infrastructure. Mapping vacant urban land in Detroit can be very difficult because anthropogenic soils were often highly variable and frequently contained demolition debris (such as brick), making it difficult to use a hand auger. This study was undertaken in Detroit, MI to create a more efficient way to map urban soils based on their geophysical and chemical properties. This will make the mapping process faster, less labor intensive, and therefore more cost effective. Optical and chemical criteria for the identification and classification of microartifacts (MAs) were made from a set of reference artifacts of a known origin. These MAs were then observed and tested in urban topsoil samples from sites in Detroit, Michigan that represent three different land use types (residential demolition, fly ash-impacted, and industrial). Optical analyses, SEM, EDAX, and XRD showed that reference MAs may be classified into five basic compositional types (carbonaceous, calcareous, siliceous, ferruginous and miscellaneous). Reference MAs were generally distinguishable using optical microscopy by color, luster, fracture and microtexture. MAs that were more difficult to classify were further differentiable when using SEM, EDAX, and XRD. MAs were found in all of the anthropogenic soils studied, but were highly variable. All three study sites had concentrations coal-related wastes were the most common types of MAs observed and often included coal, ash (microspheres, microagglomerate), cinders, and burnt shale. MAs derived from waste building materials such as brick, mortar, and glass, were typically found on residential demolition sites. Manufacturing waste MAs, which included iron-making slag and coked coal were commonly observed on industrial sites. Fly ash-impacted sites were composed of only

  6. 77 FR 25073 - Special Local Regulation; Hebda Cup Rowing Regatta, Trenton Channel; Detroit River, Wyandotte, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Hebda Cup Rowing Regatta... on the navigable waters immediately prior to, during, and immediately after the Hebda Cup Rowing... Purpose On April 28, 2012, the Wyandotte Boat Club is holding a rowing race that will require...

  7. Thinking about populations and races in time.

    PubMed

    Millstein, Roberta L

    2015-08-01

    Biologists and philosophers have offered differing concepts of biological race. That is, they have offered different candidates for what a biological correlate of race might be; for example, races might be subspecies, clades, lineages, ecotypes, or genetic clusters. One thing that is striking about each of these proposals is that they all depend on a concept of population. Indeed, some authors have explicitly characterized races in terms of populations. However, including the concept of population into concepts of race raises three puzzles, all having to do with time. In this paper, I extend the causal interactionist population concept (CIPC) by introducing some simple assumptions about how to understand populations through time. These assumptions help to shed light on the three puzzles, and in the process show that if we want to understand races in terms of populations, we will need to revise our concept(s) of race. PMID:25765868

  8. Organic contaminants in sediments from the Trenton Channel of the Detroit River, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Furlong, E.T.; Carter, D.S.; Hites, R.A. )

    1988-01-01

    Anthropogenic organic contaminants in sediments from the Trenton Channel of the Detroit River, a highly industrialized waterway connecting Lake St. Clair with Lake Erie, were identified and quantified. The four major classes of organic contaminants identified were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCN), and polychlorinated terphenyls (PCT). Distributions of total PAH, the homologues of PCB and PCN, and total PCT were measured in 33 sediment samples. Concentration range maps revealed one region of relatively low contaminant concentration (southwest shore of Grosse Ile) and one area of high contaminant concentration in the vicinity of Monguagon Creek, located on the northwestern side of the Trenton Channel. Closer examination of total compound class and homologue concentration distributions suggests a hierarchical ordering of contaminant distribution similarity. Total PCT and PCN concentration distributions are most similar to one another, suggesting a common source in the vicinity of the Monguagon Creek mouth. PAH and PCB distributions are less similar to each other and to total PCT and PCN distributions, suggesting different sources of these compound classes.

  9. Organic contaminants in sediments from the Trenton channel of the Detroit River, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Furlong, E.T.; Carter, D.S.; Hites, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Anthropogenic organic contaminants in sediments from the Trenton Channel of the Detroit River, a highly industrialized waterway connecting Lake St. Clair with Lake Erie, were identified and quantified. The four major classes of organic contaminants identified were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCN), and polychlorinated terphenyls (PCT). Distributions of total PAH, the homologues of PCB and PCN, and total PCT were measured in 33 sediment samples. Concentration range maps revealed one region of relatively low contaminant concentration (southwest shore of Grosse Ile) and one area of high contaminant concentration in the vicinity of Monguagon Creek, located on the northwestern side of the Trenton Channel. Closer examination of total compound class and homologue concentration distributions suggests a hierarchical ordering of contaminant distribution similarity. Total PCT and PCN concentration distributions are most similar to one another, suggesting a common source in the vicinity of the Monguagon Creek mouth. PAH and PCB distributions are less similar to each other and to total PCT and PCN distributions, suggesting different sources of these compound classes.

  10. The Detroit Diesel DELTA Engine for Light Trucks and SUVs - Year 2000 Update

    SciTech Connect

    Nabil S. Hakim; Charles E. Freese; Stanley P. Miller

    2000-06-19

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) is developing the DELTA 4.0L V6 engine, specifically for the North American light truck market. This market poses unique requirements for a diesel engine, necessitating a clean sheet engine design. DELTA was developed from a clean sheet of paper, with the first engine firing just 228 days later. The process began with a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis, which prioritized the development criteria. The development process integrated a co-located, fully cross-functional team. Suppliers were fully integrated and maintained on-site representation. The first demonstration vehicle moved under its own power 12 weeks after the first engine fired. It was demonstrated to the automotive press 18 days later. DELTA has repeatedly demonstrated its ability to disprove historical North American diesel perceptions and compete directly with gasoline engines. This paper outlines the Generation 0.0 development process and briefly defines the engine. A brief indication of the Generation 0.5 development status is given.

  11. An international comparison of cancer survival: Toronto, Ontario, and Detroit, Michigan, metropolitan areas.

    PubMed Central

    Gorey, K. M.; Holowaty, E. J.; Fehringer, G.; Laukkanen, E.; Moskowitz, A.; Webster, D. J.; Richter, N. L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether socioeconomic status has a differential effect on the survival of adults diagnosed with cancer in Canada and the United States. METHODS: The Ontario Cancer Registry and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program provided a total of 58,202 and 76,055 population-based primary malignant cancer cases for Toronto, Ontario, and Detroit, Mich, respectively. Socioeconomic data for each person's residence at time of diagnosis were taken from population censuses. RESULTS: In the US cohort, there was a significant association between socioeconomic status and survival for 12 of the 15 most common cancer sites; in the Canadian cohort, there was no such association for 12 of the 15 sites. Among residents of low-income areas, persons in Toronto experienced a survival advantage for 13 of 15 cancer sites at 1- and 5-year follow-up. No such between-country differentials were observed in the middle- or high-income groups. CONCLUSIONS: The consistent pattern of a survival advantage in Canada observed across various cancer sites and follow-up periods suggests that Canada's more equitable access to preventive and therapeutic health care services is responsible for the difference. PMID:9240106

  12. Catalyst evaluation on a detroit diesel Allison 6V-92TA methanol-fueled engine

    SciTech Connect

    Warburton, R.C.; McCabe, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.; Lipari, F.; Scruggs, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    The fresh catalytic activities of both a production Pt-Pd catalyst and a GMR Pd-promoted Ag catalyst were evaluated in back-to-back emissions tests on an experimental Detroit Diesel Allison (DDA) 6V-92TA methanol-fueled engine. Both the 13-mode steady-state and transient heavy-duty diesel engine Federal Test Procedures were employed. The production catalyst was characterized by relatively high conversions (70-90%) of unburned methanol and carbon monoxide in both the transient and 13-mode tests. However, the production catalyst promoted the partial oxidation of unburned methanol to formaldehyde, as indicated by large negative apparent conversions of formaldehyde in both the transient and steady-state tests (-77% transient; -188% 13-mode). In contrast, the Pd-promoted Ag catalyst converted formaldehyde with good efficiency (--90% in the 13-mode test and --50% in the hot transient test) but was much less efficient than the production catalyst for converting unburned methanol and carbon monoxide.

  13. Bacteremia in narcotic addicts at the Detroit Medical Center. II. Infectious endocarditis: a prospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Levine, D P; Crane, L R; Zervos, M J

    1986-01-01

    For one year all narcotic addicts admitted to the Detroit Medical Center with infectious endocarditis (74 cases) were compared with a control group of bacteremic addicts who had other infections (106 cases). Endocarditis was caused by Staphylococcus aureus (60.8% of cases), streptococci (16.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.5%), mixed bacteria (8.1%), and Corynebacterium JK (1.4%). S. aureus endocarditis most frequently involved the tricuspid valve; streptococci infected left-sided valves significantly more often than other organisms (P = .001). Biventricular and multiple-valve infections were commonest in patients with pseudomonas endocarditis (P = .05). Two-dimensional echocardiography, when combined with an abnormal chest roentgenogram, was highly predictive of endocarditis. Bacteremia in the absence of endocarditis was associated with primary skin and soft tissue infection, mycotic aneurysm at the site of narcotic injection, septic arthritis, septic thrombophlebitis, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, mediastinal abscess, and unclassified infection. Polymicrobial bacteremia in the nonendocarditis group was associated with markedly increased morbidity. Mild hyponatremia occurred in 41% of all patients and was also associated with significantly increased morbidity. Analysis of the two groups disclosed similarities and differences with implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of addicts with bacteremic infection. PMID:3755255

  14. Venter wins sequencing race - twice

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, R.

    1995-06-02

    This article discusses the end of the race to sequence the first complete genome of a free-living organism. Craig Venter of the Institute for Geonomic Research unveiled the complete sequences of two bacteria: Haemophilus influenzae and Mycoplasma genitalium at the American Society of Microbiology Meeting in May 1995. Because there are many similarities in bacterial and human biochemistry, the sequences will be useful for searching for human genes.

  15. Race in Biological and Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of race has had a significant influence on research in human biology since the early 19th century. But race was given its meaning and social impact in the political sphere and subsequently intervened in science as a foreign concept, not grounded in the dominant empiricism of modern biology. The uses of race in science were therefore often disruptive and controversial; at times, science had to be retrofitted to accommodate race, and science in turn was often used to explain and justify race. This relationship was unstable in large part because race was about a phenomenon that could not be observed directly, being based on claims about the structure and function of genomic DNA. Over time, this relationship has been characterized by distinct phases, evolving from the inference of genetic effects based on the observed phenotype to the measurement of base-pair variation in DNA. Despite this fundamental advance in methodology, liabilities imposed by the dual political-empirical origins of race persist. On the one hand, an optimistic prediction can be made that just as geology made it possible to overturn the myth of the recent creation of the earth and evolution told us where the living world came from, molecular genetics will end the use of race in biology. At the same time, because race is fundamentally a political and not a scientific idea, it is possible that only a political intervention will relieve us of the burden of race. PMID:24186487

  16. Navigation and Strategy in Ocean Racing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, J. H.

    This paper was originally published in Vol. 34 of the Journal (p. 286). In its reprinted form, it has been reduced in length by Robin Payne. It is followed by comments from Stuart Quarrie.Captain Illingworth's paper was read to an Ordinary Meeting of the Institute held at the Royal Geographical Society on 17 March 1950. Introducing the speaker, the chairman, Captain G. C. Saul, said that Captain Illingworth's name was familiar to anyone who had had any connection with ocean racing, and to most people who were interested in sailing. He was Commodore of the Royal Ocean Racing Club (RORC) and of the Royal Naval Sailing Association, and was a member of the Council of the Yacht Racing Association.He had had many years' experience of long distance racing and had won his first championship in 1929. In 194; he had won the Sydney—Hobart race in Rani and in 1947 won the Fastnet and the Channel Race in Myth of Malham (Fig. 1). In 1948 he took part in the Bermuda race in Myth of Malham and then sailed back across the Atlantic to compete in the Santander and Belle He races. In the latter race he beat the whole ocean racing fleet boat for boat. In 1949 he again won the Fastnet Cup and also won the points championship over the whole season.

  17. Determination of the Levels of Elementary Student Teachers in Putting the Stages of Technological Design Cycle into Practice: A Model Parachute Race Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Mirac; Bakirci, Hasan; Artun, Huseyin; Cepni, Salih

    2011-01-01

    In this study, within the scope of Science and Technology Laboratory Applications-II Course, elementary student teachers were made to design a model parachute that can stay in the air for a time by using technological design cycle and to race these parachutes. In this regard, we introduced an activity what we call "MODEL PARACHUTE RACE" and we…

  18. Genes, Race, and Culture in Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Linda M.; Truesdell, Nicole D.; Kreiner, Meta J.

    2015-01-01

    Race, although an unscientific concept, remains prominent in health research and clinical guidelines, and is routinely invoked in clinical practice. In interviews with 58 primary care clinicians we explored how they understand and apply concepts of racial difference. We found wide agreement that race is important to consider in clinical care. They explained the effect of race on health, drawing on common assumptions about the biological, class, and cultural characteristics of racial minorities. They identified specific race-based clinical strategies for only a handful of conditions and were inconsistent in the details of what they said should be done for minority patients. We conclude that using race in clinical medicine promotes and maintains the illusion of inherent racial differences and may result in minority patients receiving care aimed at presumed racial group characteristics, rather than care selected as specifically appropriate for them as individuals. [race and genetics, primary care, health disparities, racial profiling] PMID:23804331

  19. Race talk: the psychology of racial dialogues.

    PubMed

    Sue, Derald Wing

    2013-11-01

    Constructive dialogues on race have been proposed as a means to heal racial and ethnic divides, reduce prejudice and misinformation, increase racial literacy, and foster improved race relations. Studies on the psychology of racial dialogues indicate social and academic norms that dictate against race talk between White Americans and persons of color: (a) the politeness protocol, (b) the academic protocol, and (c) the color-blind protocol. These protocols discourage race talk and allow society to enter into a conspiracy of silence regarding the detrimental impact oppression plays on persons of color. Facilitating difficult dialogues on race requires educators to recognize what makes such discussions difficult. For people of color, engaging in race talk exposes them to microaggressions that invalidate and assail their racial/ethnic identities. For Whites, honest discussions are impeded by fears of appearing racist, of realizing their racism, of acknowledging White privilege, and of taking responsibility to combat racism. PMID:24320648

  20. Arms races between and within species.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, R; Krebs, J R

    1979-09-21

    An adaptation in one lineage (e.g. predators) may change the selection pressure on another lineage (e.g. prey), giving rise to a counter-adaptation. If this occurs reciprocally, an unstable runaway escalation or 'arms race' may result. We discuss various factors which might give one side an advantage in an arms race. For example, a lineage under strong selection may out-evolve a weakly selected one (' the life-dinner principle'). We then classify arms races in two independent ways. They may be symmetric or asymmetric, and they may be interspecific or intraspecific. Our example of an asymmetric interspecific arms race is that between brood parasites and their hosts. The arms race concept may help to reduce the mystery of why cuckoo hosts are so good at detecting cuckoo eggs, but so bad at detecting cuckoo nestlings. The evolutionary contest between queen and worker ants over relative parental investment is a good example of an intraspecific asymmetric arms race. Such cases raise special problems because the participants share the same gene pool. Interspecific symmetric arms races are unlikely to be important, because competitors tend to diverge rather than escalate competitive adaptations. Intraspecific symmetric arms races, exemplified by adaptations for male-male competition, may underlie Cope's Rule and even the extinction of lineages. Finally we consider ways in which arms races can end. One lineage may drive the other to extinction; one may reach an optimum, thereby preventing the other from doing so; a particularly interesting possibility, exemplified by flower-bee coevolution, is that both sides may reach a mutual local optimum; lastly, arms races may have no stable and but may cycle continuously. We do not wish necessarily to suggest that all, or even most, evolutionary change results from arms races, but we do suggest that the arms race concept may help to resolve three long-standing questions in evolutionary theory. PMID:42057

  1. Theodosius Dobzhansky and the genetic race concept.

    PubMed

    Gannett, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    The use of 'race' as a proxy for population structure in the genetic mapping of complex traits has provoked controversy about its legitimacy as a category for biomedical research, given its social and political connotations. The controversy has reignited debates among scientists and philosophers of science about whether there is a legitimate biological concept of race. This paper examines the genetic race concept as it developed historically in the work of Theodosius Dobzhansky from the 1930s to 1950s. Dobzhansky's definitions of race changed over this time from races as 'arrays of forms' or 'clusters' in 1933-1939, to races as genetically distinct geographical populations in 1940-1946, to races as genetically distinct 'Mendelian populations' in 1947-1955. Dobzhansky responded to nominalist challenges by appealing to the biological reality of race as a process. This response came into tension with the object ontology of race that was implied by Dobzhansky's increasingly holistic treatment of Mendelian populations, a tension, the paper argues, he failed to appreciate or resolve. PMID:23706915

  2. [Sled dog racing and animal welfare aspects].

    PubMed

    Schminke, A; Möbius, G

    1998-03-01

    Transport, housing and the dimensions of strain during training and race are important aspects of animal welfare. The race veterinarian has a great responsibility. He is responsible for the treatment of injured dogs and he has to give advice on all medical and animal welfare questions. The presence of the veterinarian during the entire race is very important. These veterinarians should have special knowledge of small animals and of sled dogs in particular. There should be health checks of sled dogs before and after racing similar to horse sport tournaments. PMID:9581387

  3. Geostatistical exploration of spatial variation of summertime temperatures in the Detroit metropolitan region

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Oswald, Evan M.; Brown, Daniel G.; Brines, Shannon J.; Gronlund, Carina J.; White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Rood, Richard B.; O’Neill, Marie S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Because of the warming climate urban temperature patterns have been receiving increased attention. Temperature within urban areas can vary depending on land cover, meteorological and other factors. High resolution satellite data can be used to understand this intra-urban variability, although they have been primarily studied to characterize urban heat islands at a larger spatial scale. Objective This study examined whether satellite-derived impervious surface and meteorological conditions from multiple sites can improve characterization of spatial variability of temperature within an urban area. Methods Temperature was measured at 17 outdoor sites throughout the Detroit metropolitan area during the summer of 2008. Kriging and linear regression were applied to daily temperatures and secondary information, including impervious surface and distance-to-water. Performance of models in predicting measured temperatures was evaluated by cross-validation. Variograms derived from several scenarios were compared to determine whether high-resolution impervious surface information could capture fine-scale spatial structure of temperature in the study area. Results Temperatures measured at the sites were significantly different from each other, and all kriging techniques generally performed better than the two linear regression models. Impervious surface values and distance-to-water generally improved predictions slightly. Restricting models to days with lake breezes and with less cloud cover also somewhat improved the predictions. In addition, incorporating high-resolution impervious surface information into cokriging or universal kriging enhanced the ability to characterize fine-scale spatial structure of temperature. Conclusions Meteorological and satellite-derived data can better characterize spatial variability in temperature across a metropolitan region. The data sources and methods we used can be applied in epidemiological studies and public health

  4. Lead levels in blood and saliva in a low-income population of Detroit, Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Nriagu, Jerome; Burt, Brian; Linder, Aaron; Ismail, Amid; Sohn, Woosung

    2006-01-01

    The relationships between blood lead (PbB) and saliva lead (PbSa) concentrations and the determinants of PbB and PbSa status in 970 low-income adults in the city of Detroit, Michigan were explored. Average PbB and PbSa values in the sample population were found to be 2.7 ± 0.1 μg/dl and 2.4 ± 0.13 μg/l (equivalent to 0.24 ± 0.13 μg/dl), respectively, and a weak but statistically significant association was found between the lead levels in the two types of body fluid samples. The average PbB level for men (4.0 ± 0.56 μg/dl) was higher than that for women (2.7 ± 0.11 μg/dl); other significant predictors of PbB included age, level of education, being employed, income level, the presence of peeling paint on the wall at home and smoking. There was no gender- or age-dependent difference in blood saliva values but statistically significant correlations were found between PbSa and level of education, employment, income level and smoking. Dental caries was severe in this population. Only 0.5% of the participants had no clinical signs of caries, over 80% had cavitated carious lesions (i.e., lesions that had progressed into dentin), and the number of lost teeth and carious lesions averaged 3.4 and 30, respectively. Weak but significant associations were found between PbB as well as PbSa and measures of dental caries in the study population. The positive associations are believed to be a reflection of the fact that the risk factors for dental caries, especially in low-income populations of the US, overlap extensively with those of lead poisoning and may not have a causal significance. PMID:16443391

  5. Successful Resident Engagement in Quality Improvement: The Detroit Medical Center Story.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Syed Ahmed; Arsene, Camelia; Hamstra, Corinne; Woehrlen, Tess H; Wiese-Rometsch, Wilhelmine; White, Suzanne R

    2016-05-01

    Background In 2014, the Detroit Medical Center launched a new program to engage residents and fellows in a strategy to deliver optimal care within 1 year, focusing on quality at an earlier stage of their careers and preparing them for working posttraining. Methods Residents from clinically relevant residency and fellowships programs were selected to be Resident Quality Directors. The project involved development of an interactive electronic health record (EHR) checklist to visually depict real time gaps in 40 process measures, while focusing on 14 areas related to stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis. We also implemented an incentive approach, using a pay-for-performance (P4P) model. Results The project included 800 residents led by 14 resident quality directors. We were able to achieve 100% resident participation. Prior compliance with VTE quality measures 6 months was 88.5%, with performance increasing to 94.2% (P < .006) at 6 months and 100% at 12 months (P < .005) after the intervention. The VTE prophylaxis score improved from the 89.7% to 92.9% range at inception to 100% by 12 months. A similar steady improvement of stroke process measures was observed, with a 100% compliance within 12 months. The institution made 4 incentive payments to trainees (ranging from $300 to $4,000 per year). The remaining 26 process measures remained at goal with above 95% compliance. Conclusions This quality improvement initiative was associated with system-wide quality performance on VTE prevention and stroke care process measures, which was facilitated by a interactive EHR-based checklist and linkage to P4P incentive payments. PMID:27168890

  6. Thermographic imaging of the superficial temperature in racing greyhounds before and after the race.

    PubMed

    Vainionpää, Mari; Tienhaara, Esa-Pekka; Raekallio, Marja; Junnila, Jouni; Snellman, Marjatta; Vainio, Outi

    2012-01-01

    A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp.) at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis) were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs. PMID:23097633

  7. Elevating the Role of Race in Ethnographic Research: Navigating Race Relations in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Keffrelyn D.

    2011-01-01

    Little work in the social sciences or in the field of education has fully explored the methodological issues related to the study of race and racism, yet qualitative researchers acknowledge that race plays (and should play) a role in the research process. Indeed, race frames and informs the context, practices and perspectives of everyday lived…

  8. Rediscovering "Race Traitor": Towards a Critical Race Theory Informed Public Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John; Chadderton, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to politically resituate Ignatiev and Garvey's conception of the "Race Traitor" within contemporary notions of Critical Race Theory and Public Pedagogy. Race Traitor has been critiqued both by those on the academic and neo-conservative right, who accuse advocates of the project of genocide and misuse of public funds, and has…

  9. Race Wrestling: Struggling Strategically with Race in Educational Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Mica

    2004-01-01

    As researchers try to understand, improve, and equalize U.S. schooling, we talk too little about how to study race well. It is particularly crucial, I argue, that researchers struggle to interrogate education's familiar racial practices more self-consciously and strategically. I suggest that researchers "race wrestle" by struggling with race on…

  10. Debate: Race, Labour and the Archbishop, or the Currency of Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Jacqui

    2001-01-01

    Explores how race is exploited to serve political agendas in Britain, examining the Labour Government's orientation to race. Argues that the Labour Government manipulates issues to suggest concern while actually removing race from the policy agenda in education. Reflects on the Archbishop of Canterbury's "Jesus 2000" to support the notion that…

  11. Thermographic Imaging of the Superficial Temperature in Racing Greyhounds before and after the Race

    PubMed Central

    Vainionpää, Mari; Tienhaara, Esa-Pekka; Raekallio, Marja; Junnila, Jouni; Snellman, Marjatta; Vainio, Outi

    2012-01-01

    A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp.) at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis) were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs. PMID:23097633

  12. Training with Own-Race Faces Can Improve Processing of Other-Race Faces: Evidence from Developmental Prosopagnosia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGutis, Joseph; DeNicola, Cristopher; Zink, Tyler; McGlinchey, Regina; Milberg, William

    2011-01-01

    Faces of one's own race are discriminated and recognized more accurately than faces of an other race (other-race effect--ORE). Studies have employed several methods to enhance individuation and recognition of other-race faces and reduce the ORE, including intensive perceptual training with other-race faces and explicitly instructing participants…

  13. A scientific basis for restoring fish spawning habitat in the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Roseman, Edward F.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Boase, James C.; Craig, Jaquelyn; Bennion, David H.; Read, Jennifer; Vaccaro, Lynn; Chiotti, Justin A.; Drouin, Richard; Ellison, Roseanne

    2015-01-01

    Loss of functional habitat in riverine systems is a global fisheries issue. Few studies, however, describe the decision-making approach taken to abate loss of fish spawning habitat. Numerous habitat restoration efforts are underway and documentation of successful restoration techniques for spawning habitat of desirable fish species in large rivers connecting the Laurentian Great Lakes are reported here. In 2003, to compensate for the loss of fish spawning habitat in the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers that connect the Great Lakes Huron and Erie, an international partnership of state, federal, and academic scientists began restoring fish spawning habitat in both of these rivers. Using an adaptive management approach, we created 1,100 m2 of productive fish spawning habitat near Belle Isle in the Detroit River in 2004; 3,300 m2 of fish spawning habitat near Fighting Island in the Detroit River in 2008; and 4,000 m2 of fish spawning habitat in the Middle Channel of the St. Clair River in 2012. Here, we describe the adaptive-feedback management approach that we used to guide our decision making during all phases of spawning habitat restoration, including problem identification, team building, hypothesis development, strategy development, prioritization of physical and biological imperatives, project implementation, habitat construction, monitoring of fish use of the constructed spawning habitats, and communication of research results. Numerous scientific and economic lessons learned from 10 years of planning, building, and assessing fish use of these three fish spawning habitat restoration projects are summarized in this article.

  14. Diet and habitat use by age-0 deepwater sculpins in northern Lake Huron, Michigan and the Detroit River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    Deepwater sculpins (Myoxocephalus thompsonii) are an important link in deepwater benthic foodwebs of the Great Lakes. Little information exists about deepwater sculpin spawning habits and early life history ecology due to difficulty in sampling deep offshore habitats. Larval and age-0 deepwater sculpins collected in northern Lake Huron and the Detroit River during 2007 were used to improve our understanding of their habitat use, diet, age, and growth. Peak larval density reached 8.4/1000 m3 in the Detroit River during April and was higher than that in Lake Huron. Offshore bottom trawls at DeTour and Hammond Bay first collected benthic age-0 deepwater sculpins in early September when fish were ≥ 25 mm TL. Otolith analysis revealed that hatch dates for pelagic larvae occurred during late March and larvae remained pelagic for 40 to 60 days. Diet of pelagic larvae (10–21 mm TL) was dominated by calanoid copepods at all sample locations. Diets of benthic age-0 fish varied by location and depth: Mysis and chironomids were prevalent in fish from Hammond Bay and the 91 m site at DeTour, but only chironomids were found in fish from the 37 m DeTour site. This work showed that nearshore epilimnetic sites were important for pelagic larvae and an ontogenetic shift from pelagic planktivore to benthivore occurred at about 25 mm TL in late summer. Age analysis showed that larvae remained pelagic long enough to be transported through the St. Clair–Detroit River system, Lake Erie, and the Niagara River, potentially contributing to populations in Lake Ontario.

  15. Federal Food Programs-1975. Hearings before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, First Session. Part 8--Administrative Failure of Food Stamp Program. Hearings held Detroit, Michigan, Februrary 6, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    These hearings before the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs focused on the Food Stamp Programs problems in Detroit, Michigan. Testimony was heard from such witnesses as the following: Coleman Young, Mayor of the City of Detroit; Eleanor Josatis, Chairwoman; Mayor-Common Council's Task Force on Hunger and Malnutrition; Muriel…

  16. Identification of ambient PM 2.5 sources and analysis of pollution episodes in Detroit, Michigan using highly time-resolved measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Masako; Keeler, Gerald J.; Kamal, Ali S.; Wagner, James G.; Harkema, Jack R.; Rohr, Annette C.

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the chemical composition of ambient PM 2.5, or fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm), may be closely associated with the health effects induced by PM. Thus, identification of the sources of these components of PM 2.5 is critical to understanding source-specific health risks posed by PM 2.5. However, ambient PM measurements are typically 24-h average concentrations, masking the temporal variability of individual sources. These daily samples can limit our understanding of the associations between sources and observed heath effect parameters. In the present study, highly time-resolved sampling methods were utilized to characterize trace element concentrations and to obtain information on potential emission sources impacting a site in urban Detroit where a complex mixture of local point and mobile sources, as well as regional sources, is observed. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to 117 8-h PM 2.5 filter samples from which six major factors were extracted including secondary aerosol, gasoline-powered vehicles, iron and steel manufacturing, diesel-powered vehicles, refining, and sludge incineration. In addition, PMF was applied to 268 30-min PM 2.5 samples where six major source factors were identified including secondary aerosol, gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles, iron and steel manufacturing, refining, sludge incineration, and cement/lime production. Contributions of various emission source factors and peak concentrations for each factor were characterized using detailed meteorology and, factor directionality analysis. Although some variations were observed between the 8-h integrated filter samples and the 30-min SEAS samples, the results from the two datasets are generally consistent, suggesting that 46% and 43% of ambient PM, respectively, is derived from local sources. These findings have advanced our understanding of temporal PM source-receptor relationships in a complex urban air shed.

  17. "Civil unrest does not stop ovulation": women's prenatal and family planning services in a 1960s Detroit neighborhood clinic.

    PubMed

    DeGuzman, Pamela B; Schminkey, Donna L; Koyen, Emily A

    2014-01-01

    In 1965, Nancy Milio established a prenatal and family planning clinic in Detroit, Michigan, to address health disparities and limited access to care among low-income, African American, urban women. Women's health disparities persist today nationally and internationally. Using historical methods, this research analyzes how Milio provided women's health services in the context of the social and political environment. Milio empowered neighborhood women to direct, plan, and participate in the care they received. Successful methods to address disparities in access to family and planning and prenatal care should include empowered participation from the women these programs are intending to serve. PMID:24892860

  18. Seasonal growth of the exotic submersed macrophyte Nitellopsis obtusa in the Detroit River of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Schloesser, Donald W.; Geis, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Seasonal growth and occurrence of an exotic submersed aquatic macrophyte, Nitellopsis obtusa, was monitored at the head of the Detroit River of the Great Lakes from June 1984 to April 1985.Nitellopsis obtusa first appeared in early July, increased in biomass from July to September, remained at relatively high biomass from September to late January, and decreased substantially as ice breakup began in mid-February. By March it had become senescent, lacking chlorophyll and disintegrating easily. Nitellopsis obtusa was therefore available as a source of food and shelter for benthic and juvenile fish populations in late fall and winter, when other macrophytes were absent.

  19. Genetics for the Human Race

    SciTech Connect

    Myles Axton; Francis Collins; Charles Rotimi; Charmaine Royal; David Goldstein, Daniel Drell; Georgia Dunston; Rick Kittles; Lynn Jorde; Mildred Cho; Joanna Mountain; Ari Patrinos; Neil Risch; Shomarka Keita; Kenneth Kidd; Mark Shriver; Sarah Tishkoff

    2004-11-01

    This supplement has its origins on May 15, 2003, when the National Human Genome Center at Howard University held a small but important workshop in Washington DC. The workshop, Human Genome Variation and 'Race', and this special issue of Nature Genetics were proposed by scientists at Howard University and financially supported by the Genome Programs of the US Department of Energy, through its Office of Science; the Irving Harris Foundation; the National Institutes of Health, through the National Human Genome Research Institute; and Howard University. As summarized by Francis Collins, director of the National Human Genome Research Institute, the workshop focused on several key questions: ''What does the current body of scientific information say about the connections among race, ethnicity, genetics and health? What remains unknown? What additional research is needed? How can this information be applied to benefit human health? How might this information be applied in nonmedical settings? How can we adopt policies that will achieve beneficial societal outcomes?'' This supplement, supported by the Department of Energy through a grant to Howard University, contains articles based on the presentations at this workshop.

  20. Assessing the effect of Michigan's smoke-free law on air quality inside restaurants and casinos: a before-and-after observational study

    PubMed Central

    Shamo, Farid; Wilson, Teri; Kiley, Janet; Repace, James

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effect of Michigan's smoke-free air (SFA) law on the air quality inside selected restaurants and casinos. The hypothesis of the study: if the SFA law is effectively implemented in restaurants and casinos, there will be a significant reduction in the particulate matter PM2.5 measured in the same establishments after the law is implemented. Setting Prelaw and postlaw design study. Participants 78 restaurants in 14 Michigan cities from six major regions of the state, and three Detroit casinos. Methods We monitored the real-time PM2.5 in 78 restaurants and three Detroit casinos before the SFA law, and again monitored the same restaurants and casinos after implementation of the law, which was enacted on 1 May 2010. Primary and secondary outcome measures Concentration measurements of secondhand smoke (SHS) fine particles (PM2.5) were compared in each restaurant in the prelaw period to measurements of PM2.5 in the same restaurants during the postlaw period. A second comparison was made for PM2.5 levels in three Detroit casinos prelaw and postlaw; these casinos were exempted from the SFA law. Results Prelaw data indicated that 85% of the restaurants had poor to hazardous air quality, with the average venue having ‘unhealthy’ air according to Michigan's Air Quality Index for PM2.5. Postlaw, air quality in 93% of the restaurants improved to ‘good’. The differences were statistically significant (p<0.0001). By comparison, the three casinos measured had ‘unhealthy’ air both before and after the law. Conclusions The significant air quality improvement in the Michigan restaurants after implementation of the SFA law indicates that the law was very effective in reducing exposure to SHS. Since the Detroit casinos were exempted from the law, the air quality was unchanged, and remained unhealthy in both prelaw and postlaw periods. PMID:26185176

  1. The Complexities of Conducting Ethnographic Race Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaas, Jongi

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges and dilemmas of conducting ethnographic race research in the context of the South African situation, forming part of my ethnographic race research PhD project, conducted in two historically white, single-sex schools in South Africa. First, it critically examines the theoretical dilemmas on crucial issues of…

  2. Another Inconvenient Truth: Race and Ethnicity Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Willis D.; Nieto, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to maximizing learning opportunities and outcomes for students from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds, race and ethnicity matter: They affect how students respond to instruction and curriculum, and they influence teachers' assumptions about how students learn. Effective implementation of race- and ethnicity-responsive…

  3. Science and the Concept of Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Margaret, Ed.; And Others

    The contents of this book, an outgrowth of a symposium held at the meetings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Washington on December 30, 1966, are organized in three sections. Section one, "Behavior-Genetic Analyses and Their Relevance to the Construct of Race," includes the following essays: "The Construct Race and the…

  4. "Egg Races" and Other Practical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This article presents ideas behind science and technology challenges and shares experiences of "egg races." Different challenges were set, but there was always the need to transport an egg across some obstacle course without breaking it. It was so popular in the 1980s that the term "egg race" came to mean any kind of simple…

  5. Race and Intelligence: What Are the Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singham, Mano

    1995-01-01

    Explains many well-known problems associated with trying to correlate "intelligence" measures with measures of "race," such as reification, circular arguments, biological definitions of race, comparison of individual and group differences, correlation versus causation, intelligence quotient heritability, and ideology/social policy ramifications.…

  6. Race to Top Draws out New Suitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The list of 61 finalists for the latest Race to the Top competition shows that the U.S. Department of Education was successful in enticing high-scoring applications from districts in rural America and in states that had not shared in the Race to the Top bounty before. But whether the ultimate winners, which will be announced this month, will be…

  7. Darwin on Race, Gender, and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Bhatia, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Darwin's theories of natural selection and sexual selection are significant scientific achievements, although his understanding of race and gender was defined and limited by his own life circumstances and the sociohistorical context within which he worked. This article considers the ways in which race, gender, and culture were represented and…

  8. Teachers Advised to "Get Real" on Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how educators are advised on tackling race-related issues in schools in a book due to be published in June by the New Press, of New York City. Called "Everyday Antiracism: Getting Real About Race in School," the volume contains 65 essays from scholars who offer advice for educators on recognizing when everyday classroom…

  9. Geneticists and the Biology of Race Crossing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provine, William B.

    1973-01-01

    Examines historically the attitudes of United States and British geneticists on the topic of race crossing. Between 1930 and 1950 the attitudes changed from a condemnation of wide race crosses because of deleterious effects to a belief that such inter-racial crosses were at worst biologically harmless. (JR)

  10. Facts on Women Workers of Minority Races.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This booklet on women workers of minority races includes all races in a minority other than white, Negroes constituting about 90 percent of all persons other than white in the United States; Spanish-speaking persons are included in the white population. The following topics are encompassed; labor force participation; unemployment; marital status;…

  11. Is Cross-Race Mentoring a Negative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Thomas G.

    2007-01-01

    The author discusses cross-race mentoring and examines whether this is necessarily a negative. Here, he presents the opinions of one African-American female Ph.D., two Hispanic female Ph.D.s, and one Hispanic male graduate student, who offer varied perspectives. Ten points are presented: (1) 1. Cross-race mentoring requires extra sensitivity; (2)…

  12. States Press Race to Top Blueprints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2010-01-01

    States are pushing ahead with efforts to make sweeping changes to education policy through the Race to the Top program, despite some of them having seen individual schools and districts back out of the process because of concerns over the time and money required to make those plans a reality. The Obama administration has envisioned Race to the…

  13. Answers to the Question: "Who Developed Race?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Having served as a college and university instructor at several institutions, the author has taught numerous history courses that have dealt with race relations in the United States. A class that he currently teaches, titled "Race in America," focuses specifically upon this topic. It is designed for non-history majors who are in their early years…

  14. Own- and other-race categorization of faces by race, gender, and age.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lun; Bentin, Shlomo

    2008-12-01

    We investigated how visual experience with faces of a particular race affects subordinate group-level categorizations in Chinese and Israeli participants living in the respective countries. Categorization of faces by race, gender, and age was examined within subjects with participants who had only minimal experience with the other-race faces. As would be predicted by the previously documented other-race advantage effect, both Chinese and Israeli participants classified the race of the face more quickly and more accurately for other-race than for own-race faces. In contrast, the observers' race did not interact with the race of the rated face either for gender or for age categorization. The absence of these interactions suggests that the physiognomic characteristics that determine the gender and age of a face are universal, rather than race specific. Furthermore, these data suggest that determining the race of a face is not imposed as a first step in face processing, preempting the perception of other category-defining physiognomic characteristics. PMID:19001573

  15. Race Matters? Examining and Rethinking Race Portrayal in Preclinical Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jennifer; Ucik, Laura; Baldwin, Nell; Hasslinger, Christopher; George, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Critical examination of "health disparities" is gaining consideration in medical schools across the United States, often as elective curricula that supplement required education. However, there is disconnect between discussions of race and disparities in these curricula and in core science courses. Specifically, required preclinical science lecturers often operationalize race as a biological concept, framing racialized disparities as inherent in bodies. A three- and five-month sampling of lecture slides at the authors' medical school demonstrated that race was almost always presented as a biological risk factor.This presentation of race as an essential component of epidemiology, risk, diagnosis, and treatment without social context is problematic, as a broad body of literature supports that race is not a robust biological category. The authors opine that current preclinical medical curricula inaccurately employ race as a definitive medical category without context, which may perpetuate misunderstanding of race as a bioscientific datum, increase bias among student-doctors, and ultimately contribute to worse patient outcomes.At the authors' institution, students approached the medical school administration with a letter addressing the current use of race, urging reform. The administration was receptive to proposals for further analysis of race in medical education and created a taskforce to examine curricular reform. Curricular changes were made as part of the construction of a longitudinal race-in-medicine curriculum. The authors seek to use their initiatives and this article to spark critical discussion on how to use teaching of race to work against racial inequality in health care. PMID:27166865

  16. The Spectre of Race in American Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Fofana, Mariam O.

    2014-01-01

    Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race—the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful—has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on medical research and clinical practice. In many ways, the use of race in medicine today reflects the internalization of racial hierarchies borne out of the history of slavery and state-mandated segregation, and there is still much uncertainty over its benefits and harms. Although using race in research can help elucidate disparities, the reflexive use of race as a variable runs the risk of reifying the biological concept of race and blinding researchers to important underlying factors such as socioeconomic status. Similarly, in clinical practice, the use of race in assessing a patient’s risk of certain conditions (e.g., sickle cell) turns harmful when the heuristic becomes a rule. Through selected historical and contemporary examples, I aim to show how the biological concept of race that gave rise to past abuses remains alive and harmful and propose changes in medical education as a potential solution. By learning from the past, today’s physicians will be better armed to discern—and correct—the ways in which contemporary medicine perpetuates historical injustices. PMID:23988563

  17. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the St. Clair-Detroit River waterway in the Great Lakes basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holtschlag, David J.; Koschik, John A.

    2002-01-01

    The St. Clair-Detroit River waterway connects Lake Huron with Lake Erie in the Great Lakes basin to form part of the international boundary between the United States and Canada. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model is developed to compute flow velocities and water levels as part of a source water assessment of public water intakes. The model, which uses the generalized finite-element code RMA2, discretizes the waterway into a mesh formed by 13,783 quadratic elements defined by 42,936 nodes. Seven steady-state scenarios are used to calibrate the model by adjusting parameters associated with channel roughness in 25 material zones. An inverse modeling code is used to systematically adjust model parameters and to determine their associated uncertainty by use of nonlinear regression. Calibration results show close agreement between simulated and expected flows in major channels and water levels at gaging stations. Sensitivity analyses describe the amount of information available to estimate individual model parameters, and quantify the utility of flow measurements at selected cross sections and water-level measurements at gaging stations. Further data collection, model calibration analysis, and grid refinements are planned to assess and enhance two-dimensional flow simulation capabilities describing the horizontal flow distributions in St. Clair and Detroit Rivers and circulation patterns in Lake St. Clair.

  18. Spawning by walleye (Sander vitreus) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) in the Detroit River: Implications for spawning habitat enhancement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, B.A.; Kennedy, G.W.; Boase, J.C.; Allen, J.D.; Roseman, E.F.

    2010-01-01

    Few active fish spawning grounds have been found in channels connecting the Great Lakes. Here, we describe one near Belle Isle in the Detroit River, part of the channel connecting lakes Huron and Erie. There, in 2005, we collected 1,573 fish eggs, cultured them, and identified the hatched larvae as walleye (Sander vitreus) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni). Walleye spawning peaked during the week of April 12-19; white sucker spawning peaked on May 10. Average areal rate of egg deposition by walleye and white sucker at this spawning ground in 2005 was 346 and 25 eggs/m2, respectively. Our environmental measurements showed that bottom substrates on this spawning ground were largely sand, not optimal for fish reproduction. We hypothesize that reproduction of these fish at this spawning ground could be enhanced by adding rock and gravel substrates for protection of deposited fish eggs and suggest that reproduction by walleye in the Detroit River may add resilience to production of walleye in western Lake Erie. ?? 2010.

  19. Surgical Site Infections in Genital Reconstruction Surgery for Gender Reassignment, Detroit: 1984–2008

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing J.; Palla, Mohan B.; Bogan, Christopher W.; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Tansek, Ryan; Moshos, Judy; Muthusamy, Arunkumar; Kotra, Harikrishna; Lephart, Paul R.; Wilson, Alan N.; Kaye, Keith S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Gender reassignment surgery (i.e., male-to-female or female-to-male) entails a series of complex surgical procedures. We conducted a study to explore epidemiologic characteristics of patients who underwent genital reconstruction operations as components of gender reassignment and to analyze risk factors for surgical-site infections (SSIs) following these operations. Methods: The study was a retrospective cohort study conducted from 1984–2008 at Harper University Hospital, a tertiary hospital with 625 beds in Detroit, Michigan. Surgical site infection was defined according to established criteria. Results: Records were available for 82 patients who underwent a total of 1,383 operations as part of genital-reconstruction processes. Thirty-nine (47.6%) of the patients underwent female-to-male reassignment (FTM) and 43 (52.4%) underwent male-to-female reassignment (MTF). The average age of the study cohort was 39.5±9.8 y. Of the patients in the cohort, 56 (68.3%) were Caucasian and 67 (81.7%) were single. The average number of operative encounters per patient was 11.8±4.6 for FTM and 4.9±2.4 for MTF. Forty-three (52.4%) patients developed an SSI at least once during their genital reconstruction process, of whom 34 (87%) were in the FTM group and nine (21%) in the MTF group (p<0.001). Staphylococci were the most common pathogens (61%) isolated in these infections, followed by Enterobacteriaceae (50%), Enterococcus (39%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33.3%). Surgical site infection was associated independently with an increased frequency of operative procedures and operating room encounters. Conclusions: More than 50% of patients who underwent genital reconstruction operations developed an SSI at some point during the genital reconstruction process. Surgical site infections are more common in FTM than in MTF reconstruction operations, and for both FTM and MTF, SSIs are associated independently with an increased frequency of total operative

  20. Films on the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, J.

    1983-01-01

    Films convey the historical perspectives, the biographical stories, the insights of the participants, and the horror of nuclear war - far better than can any physicist. While films are not very efficient for covering details, derivation, or numbers, they can not be beaten in showing what really happens in a nuclear explosion, in getting across general concepts, in illustrating the parameters of a problem, and the problem itself. Most importantly, films and TV can reach the people who must be informed about these issues if we are to resolve the problems. The author points out how films can contribute to an understanding of the issues of the arms race and nuclear war, with references to specific films. An annotated bibliography of 37 films is then presented.

  1. Labs drive the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, H.E.

    1984-11-01

    The conviction of laboratory managers that high technology can provide safety and national security in a dangerous world and that technological solutions are paramount over political solutions has been a major driving force in perpetuating the nuclear arms race. The credo in the laboratories appears to be that there are never enough designs of nuclear weapons for deterrence so that there is always a need to develop such new ideas as the nuclear-pumped X-ray laser as a defense against energy missiles. The author outlines several alternative steps, including the ratification and reaffirmation of arms control treaties, negotiations, and a halt to the Star Wars program. A central point is to stop nuclear weapons testing. 7 references.

  2. Ethnicity/race, ethics, and epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Whaley, Arthur L.

    2003-01-01

    Ethnicity/race is a much-studied variable in epidemiology. There has been little consensus about what self-reported ethnicity/race represents, but it is a measure of some combination of genetic, socioeconomic, and cultural factors. The present article will attempt to: 1.) Elucidate the limitations of contemporary discourse on ethnicity/race that emphasizes the genetic and socioeconomic dimensions as competing explanatory frameworks; 2.) Demonstrate how considerable attention to the cultural dimension facilitates understanding of race differences in health-related outcomes; and 3.) Discuss interpretations of disparities in health status of African Americans versus European Americans from an ethical perspective. A major challenge to the discourse on ethnicity/race and health being limited to socioeconomic and genetic considerations is the lack of attention to the third alternative of a cultural perspective. The combined cultural ideologies of individualism and racism undermine the utility of epidemiologic research in health promotion and disease prevention campaigns aimed at reducing the racial gaps in health status. An ethical analysis supplements the cultural perspective. Ethics converge with culture on the notion of values influencing the study of ethnicity/race in epidemiology. A cultural approach to the use of ethnicity/race in epidemiologic research addresses methodological limitations, public health traditions, and ethical imperatives. PMID:12934873

  3. Physiological Demands of Flat Horse Racing Jockeys.

    PubMed

    Cullen, SarahJane; OʼLoughlin, Gillian; McGoldrick, Adrian; Smyth, Barry; May, Gregory; Warrington, Giles D

    2015-11-01

    The physiological demands of jockeys during competition remain largely unknown, thereby creating challenges when attempting to prescribe sport-specific nutrition and training guidelines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological demands and energy requirements of jockeys during flat racing. Oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) and heart rate (HR) were assessed in 18 male trainee jockeys during a race simulation trial on a mechanical horse racing simulator for the typical time duration to cover a common flat race distance of 1,400 m. In addition, 8 male apprentice jockeys participated in a competitive race, over distances ranging from 1,200 to 1,600 m, during which HR and respiratory rate (RR) were assessed. All participants performed a maximal incremental cycle ergometer test. During the simulated race, peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2 was 42.74 ± 5.6 ml·kg·min (75 ± 11% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) and below the mean ventilatory threshold (81 ± 5% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) reported in the maximal incremental cycle test. Peak HR was 161 ± 16 b·min (86 ± 7% of HRpeak). Energy expenditure was estimated as 92.5 ± 18.8 kJ with an associated value of 9.4 metabolic equivalents. During the competitive race trial, peak HR reached 189 ± 5 b·min (103 ± 4% of HRpeak) and peak RR was 50 ± 7 breaths per minute. Results suggest that horse racing is a physically demanding sport, requiring jockeys to perform close to their physiological limit to be successful. These findings may provide a useful insight when developing sport-specific nutrition and training strategies to optimally equip and prepare jockeys physically for the physiological demands of horse racing. PMID:25932980

  4. Progress and Understanding Spatial and Temporal Variability of PM2.5 and its Components in the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) measured personal exposures, ambient, residential indoor and residential outdoor concentrations of select PM2.5 aerosol components (SO4, NO3, Fe, Si, Ca, K, Mn, Pb, Zn, EC and OC) over a thr...

  5. Joint Factor Analysis of the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-Revised and the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude-Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Ron; And Others

    The organization of cognitive factors in a sample of older adults was investigated by a joint factor analysis of the subtests from the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-Revised (WJ-R) and the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude-Adult (DTLA-A). Two extensive batteries were administered, following R. W. Woodcock's recommendation that in…

  6. Michigan's Education Achievement Authority and the Future of Public Education in Detroit: The Challenge of Aligning Policy Design and Policy Goals. Working Paper #43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mary L.; Arsen, David

    2014-01-01

    As the City of Detroit emerges from municipal bankruptcy, the imperative for school improvement takes on an urgency rarely witnessed in a U.S. city. If the city is to experience the redevelopment boom that many now anticipate, its public schools must improve. While a variety of different reform strategies are possible, the establishment of a…

  7. Reforming and Improving the Detroit Public Schools: Report of the Strategic Support Teams of the Council of the Great City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of the Great City Schools, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Detroit Public Schools (DPS) have been battered by substantial outside forces over the last decade. The school system was taken over by the state; its elected school board was dissolved and replaced by an appointed body; its many operating systems were privatized; its citizenry were encouraged to flee to charter schools; and its resources have…

  8. Toward a Social Psychology of Race and Race Relations for the Twenty-First Century.

    PubMed

    Richeson, Jennifer A; Sommers, Samuel R

    2016-01-01

    The United States, like many nations, continues to experience rapid growth in its racial minority population and is projected to attain so-called majority-minority status by 2050. Along with these demographic changes, staggering racial disparities persist in health, wealth, and overall well-being. In this article, we review the social psychological literature on race and race relations, beginning with the seemingly simple question: What is race? Drawing on research from different fields, we forward a model of race as dynamic, malleable, and socially constructed, shifting across time, place, perceiver, and target. We then use classic theoretical perspectives on intergroup relations to frame and then consider new questions regarding contemporary racial dynamics. We next consider research on racial diversity, focusing on its effects during interpersonal encounters and for groups. We close by highlighting emerging topics that should top the research agenda for the social psychology of race and race relations in the twenty-first century. PMID:26361050

  9. Race Preferences in Children: Insights from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; Katz, Rachel C.; Tredoux, Colin; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2011-01-01

    Minority-race children in North America and Europe often show less own-race favoritism than children of the majority (White) race, but the reasons for this asymmetry are unresolved. The present research tested South African children in order to probe the influences of group size, familiarity, and social status on children's race-based social…

  10. From "Race-Consciousness" to "Colour-Consciousness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grange, L.

    2010-01-01

    At the heart of the discussion in this special issue on race and affirmative action is the issue of whether race should be used as a category in admissions policies of South African universities. In my contribution I shall argue that there are no races. By race I mean the idea that skin colour (or other phenotypical features) associated with…

  11. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Detroit Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project, North Santiam River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-02-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Detroit/Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project (Detroit Project) on the North Santiam River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric-related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1939, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each time period were determined. Ten wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Detroit Project extensively altered or affected 6324 acres of land and river in the North Santiam River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1,608 acres of conifer forest and 620 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Detroit Project included the loss of winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, river otter, beaver, ruffed grouse, pileated woodpecker, spotted owl, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Detroit Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  12. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Detroit Dam, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ham, Kenneth D.

    2012-11-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Detroit Dam (DET) on the North Santiam River, Oregon for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at DET and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to regulatory requirements necessitated by the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. The goal of the study was to provide information of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at DET from February 2011 through February 2012. The results of the hydroacoustic study provide new and, in some cases, first-ever data on passage estimates, run timing, distributions, and relationships between fish passage and environmental variables at the dam. This information will inform management decisions on the design and development of surface passage and collection devices to help restore Chinook salmon populations in the North Santiam River watershed above DET. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 182,526 smolt-size fish (±4,660 fish, 95% CI) passed through turbine penstock intakes. Run timing peaked in winter and early spring months. Passage rates were highest during late fall, winter and early spring months and low during summer. Horizontal distribution for hours when both turbine units were operated simultaneously indicated Unit 2 passed almost twice as much fish as Unit 1. Diel distribution for smolt-size fish during the study period was fairly uniform, indicating fish were passing the turbines at all times of the day. A total of 5,083 smolt-size fish (± 312 fish, 95% CI) were estimated passed via the spillway when it was open between June 23 and September 27, 2011. Daily passage was low at the spillway during the June-August period, and

  13. Searching for differences in race: is there evidence for preferential detection of other-race faces?

    PubMed

    Lipp, Ottmar V; Terry, Deborah J; Smith, Joanne R; Tellegen, Cassandra L; Kuebbeler, Jennifer; Newey, Mareka

    2009-06-01

    Previous research has suggested that like animal and social fear-relevant stimuli, other-race faces (African American) are detected preferentially in visual search. Three experiments using Chinese or Indonesian faces as other-race faces yielded the opposite pattern of results: faster detection of same-race faces among other-race faces. This apparently inconsistent pattern of results was resolved by showing that Asian and African American faces are detected preferentially in tasks that have small stimulus sets and employ fixed target searches. Asian and African American other-race faces are found slower among Caucasian face backgrounds if larger stimulus sets are used in tasks with a variable mapping of stimulus to background or target. Thus, preferential detection of other-race faces was not found under task conditions in which preferential detection of animal and social fear-relevant stimuli is evident. Although consistent with the view that same-race faces are processed in more detail than other-race faces, the current findings suggest that other-race faces do not draw attention preferentially. PMID:19485612

  14. Dynamic representations of race: processing goals shape race decoding in the fusiform gyri

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Christian; Ratner, Kyle G.

    2014-01-01

    People perceive and evaluate others on the basis of social categories, such as race, gender and age. Initial processing of targets in terms of visually salient social categories is often characterized as inevitable. In the current study, we investigated the influence of processing goals on the representation of race in the visual processing stream. Participants were assigned to one of two mixed-race teams and categorized faces according to their group membership or skin color. To assess neural representations of race, we employed multivariate pattern analysis to examined neural activity related to the presentation of Black and White faces. As predicted, patterns of neural activity within the early visual cortex and fusiform gyri (FG) could decode the race of face stimuli above chance and were moderated by processing goals. Race decoding in early visual cortex was above chance in both categorization tasks and below chance in a prefrontal control region. More importantly, race decoding was greater in the FG during the group membership vs skin color categorization task. The results suggest that, ironically, explicit racial categorization can diminish the representation of race in the FG. These findings suggest that representations of race are dynamic, reflecting current processing goals. PMID:23196632

  15. Electro-cortical implicit race bias does not vary with participants’ race or sex

    PubMed Central

    Mallan, Kimberley M.; Martin, Frances H.; Terry, Deborah J.; Smith, Joanne R.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research found evidence for electro-cortical race bias towards black target faces in white American participants irrespective of the task relevance of race. The present study investigated whether an implicit race bias generalizes across cultural contexts and racial in- and out-groups. An Australian sample of 56 Chinese and Caucasian males and females completed four oddball tasks that required sex judgements for pictures of male and female Chinese and Caucasian posers. The nature of the background (across task) and of the deviant stimuli (within task) was fully counterbalanced. Event-related potentials (ERPs) to deviant stimuli recorded from three midline sites were quantified in terms of mean amplitude for four components: N1, P2, N2 and a late positive complex (LPC; 350–700 ms). Deviants that differed from the backgrounds in sex or race elicited enhanced LPC activity. These differences were not modulated by participant race or sex. The current results replicate earlier reports of effects of poser race relative to background race on the LPC component of the ERP waveform. In addition, they indicate that an implicit race bias occurs regardless of participant’s or poser’s race and is not confined to a particular cultural context. PMID:21097957

  16. The effects of prediction on the perception for own-race and other-race faces.

    PubMed

    Ran, Guangming; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Xu; Pan, Yangu

    2014-01-01

    Human beings do not passively perceive important social features about others such as race and age in social interactions. Instead, it is proposed that humans might continuously generate predictions about these social features based on prior similar experiences. Pre-awareness of racial information conveyed by others' faces enables individuals to act in "culturally appropriate" ways, which is useful for interpersonal relations in different ethnicity groups. However, little is known about the effects of prediction on the perception for own-race and other-race faces. Here, we addressed this issue using high temporal resolution event-related potential techniques. In total, data from 24 participants (13 women and 11 men) were analyzed. It was found that the N170 amplitudes elicited by other-race faces, but not own-race faces, were significantly smaller in the predictable condition compared to the unpredictable condition, reflecting a switch to holistic processing of other-race faces when those faces were predictable. In this respect, top-down prediction about face race might contribute to the elimination of the other-race effect (one face recognition impairment). Furthermore, smaller P300 amplitudes were observed for the predictable than for unpredictable conditions, which suggested that the prediction of race reduced the neural responses of human brains. PMID:25422892

  17. The RACE Program of the European Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, J. F.

    1988-08-01

    The background of R and D in Advanced Communications technology for Europe (RACE), the program for research and development in advanced communications technology for Europe is discussed. Progress in switching, transmission, customer access, terminal and display, and coding are discussed.

  18. Ceramic Rail-Race Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balzer, Mark A.; Mungas, Greg S.; Peters, Gregory H.

    2010-01-01

    Non-lubricated ball bearings featuring rail races have been proposed for use in mechanisms that are required to function in the presence of mineral dust particles in very low-pressure, dry environments with extended life. Like a conventional ball bearing, the proposed bearing would include an inner and an outer ring separated by balls in rolling contact with the races. However, unlike a conventional ball bearing, the balls would not roll in semi-circular or gothic arch race grooves in the rings: instead, the races would be shaped to form two or more rails (see figure). During operation, the motion of the balls would push dust particles into the spaces between the rails where the particles could not generate rolling resistance for the balls

  19. Chronicle of Race, Sex, and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Integrated Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Discusses legal and legislative decisions, Department of Education mandates, and other events that are relevant to race and sex desegregation throughout the nation. Briefly updates desegregation news from 36 states and the District of Columbia. (MK)

  20. Semantic information influences race categorization from faces.

    PubMed

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Rule, Nicholas O

    2015-06-01

    It is well established that low-level visual features affect person categorization in a bottom-up fashion. Few studies have examined top-down influences, however, and have largely focused on how information recalled from memory or from motivation influences categorization. Here, we investigated how race categorizations are affected by the context in which targets are perceived by manipulating semantic information associated with the faces being categorized. We found that presenting faces that systematically varied in racial ambiguity with race-congruent (vs. incongruent) semantic labels shifted the threshold at which perceivers distinguished between racial groups. The semantic information offered by the labels therefore appeared to influence the categorization of race. These findings suggest that semantic information creates a context for the interpretation of perceptual cues during social categorization, highlighting an active role of top-down information in race perception. PMID:25810414

  1. Taking Race out of Scare Quotes: Race-Conscious Social Analysis in an Ostensibly Post-Racial World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmington, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Academics and activists concerned with race and racism have rightly coalesced around the sociological project to refute biologistic conceptions of race. By and large, our default position as teachers, writers and researchers is that race is a social construct. However, the deconstruction of race and its claims to theoretical intelligibility has…

  2. Does Perceived Race Affect Discrimination and Recognition of Ambiguous-Race Faces? A Test of the Sociocognitive Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Gillian; Lie, Hanne C.; Ewing, Louise; Evangelista, Emma; Tanaka, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Discrimination and recognition are often poorer for other-race than own-race faces. These other-race effects (OREs) have traditionally been attributed to reduced perceptual expertise, resulting from more limited experience, with other-race faces. However, recent findings suggest that sociocognitive factors, such as reduced motivation to…

  3. Physiological parameters of endurance horses pre- compared to post-race, correlated with performance: a two race study from scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Larsson, J; Pilborg, P H; Johansen, M; Christophersen, M T; Holte, A; Roepstorff, L; Olsen, L H; Harrison, A P

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the physiological parameters of endurance horses in Scandinavia. Hence, this two race study has focused on the effects of endurance racing in terms of equine clinicopathological blood parameters, heart score, and fluid use. Race A involved 15 horses (120 km). Two pre- and one post-race blood samples were taken, body condition score was assessed in triplicate pre-race, and an ECG was used to determine heart score. Race B involved 16 horses (65-120 km). One pre- and two post-race blood samples were taken. For both races, horse data as well as fluid intake estimates and cooling water were noted. Race A showed that blood haematocrit, albumin, sodium, and triglycerides increased significantly with endurance racing, whilst chloride, glucose, iron, and potassium decreased significantly. In race B, blood creatinine, cholesterol, and inorganic phosphate continued to increase significantly during the first post-race sampling period compared to pre-race levels, whilst iron, which decreased significantly during the race, increased significantly over the two post-race sampling periods. It is concluded that whilst no correlation between heart score and speed was observed, a significant correlation exists between experience and changes in blood parameters with endurance racing and between fluid intake and average speed. PMID:24167733

  4. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals’ behavior. Harsh and unpredictable (“desperate”) ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable (“hopeful”) ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2–4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person’s race (but not ecology), individuals’ inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals’ inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals’ inferences reflect the targets’ ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one’s ecology influences behavior. PMID:26712013

  5. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Keelah E G; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-01-12

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals' behavior. Harsh and unpredictable ("desperate") ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable ("hopeful") ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology's influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans' stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups' presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2-4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person's race (but not ecology), individuals' inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals' inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals' inferences reflect the targets' ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one's ecology influences behavior. PMID:26712013

  6. Learning Race from Face: A Survey.

    PubMed

    Fu, Siyao; He, Haibo; Hou, Zeng-Guang

    2014-12-01

    Faces convey a wealth of social signals, including race, expression, identity, age and gender, all of which have attracted increasing attention from multi-disciplinary research, such as psychology, neuroscience, computer science, to name a few. Gleaned from recent advances in computer vision, computer graphics, and machine learning, computational intelligence based racial face analysis has been particularly popular due to its significant potential and broader impacts in extensive real-world applications, such as security and defense, surveillance, human computer interface (HCI), biometric-based identification, among others. These studies raise an important question: How implicit, non-declarative racial category can be conceptually modeled and quantitatively inferred from the face? Nevertheless, race classification is challenging due to its ambiguity and complexity depending on context and criteria. To address this challenge, recently, significant efforts have been reported toward race detection and categorization in the community. This survey provides a comprehensive and critical review of the state-of-the-art advances in face-race perception, principles, algorithms, and applications. We first discuss race perception problem formulation and motivation, while highlighting the conceptual potentials of racial face processing. Next, taxonomy of feature representational models, algorithms, performance and racial databases are presented with systematic discussions within the unified learning scenario. Finally, in order to stimulate future research in this field, we also highlight the major opportunities and challenges, as well as potentially important cross-cutting themes and research directions for the issue of learning race from face. PMID:26353153

  7. The Computational Complexity of RaceTrack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, Markus; McKenzie, Pierre

    Martin Gardner in the early 1970's described the game of RaceTrack [M. Gardner, Mathematical games - Sim, Chomp and Race Track: new games for the intellect (and not for Lady Luck), Scientific American, 228(1):108-115, Jan. 1973]. Here we study the complexity of deciding whether a RaceTrack player has a winning strategy. We first prove that the complexity of RaceTrack reachability, i.e., whether the finish line can be reached or not, crucially depends on whether the car can touch the edge of the carriageway (racetrack): the non-touching variant is NL-complete while the touching variant is equivalent to the undirected grid graph reachability problem, a problem in L but not known to be L-hard. Then we show that single-player RaceTrack is NL-complete, regardless of whether driving on the track boundary is allowed or not, and that deciding the existence of a winning strategy in Gardner's original two-player game is P-complete. Hence RaceTrack is an example of a game that is interesting to play despite the fact that deciding the existence of a winning strategy is most likely not NP-hard.

  8. Nutrition assessment of horse-racing athletes.

    PubMed

    Cotugna, Nancy; Snider, O Sue; Windish, Jennifer

    2011-04-01

    Athletes involved in horse racing face weight restrictions like wrestlers and dancers; however, the literature is sparse pertaining to nutritional habits of jockeys. The practice of "making weight" causes these athletes to engage in potentially unhealthy practices. A gap in nutritionally sound practices and methods used by jockeys was identified and a desire for nutrition education was expressed to Cooperative Extension of Delaware by representatives of the riders at Delaware Park Race Track. Nutrition assessment was done using the Nutrition Care Process. Twenty jockeys were interviewed using an assessment form developed to target areas of disordered eating. Body mass index (BMI), mean weight loss on race day, methods of weight loss and ease of weight maintenance were examined. The jockeys were also asked for areas they wished to receive nutrition education on in the future. The BMI of the 20 jockeys ranged from 17.0 to 21.4 during racing season, with only one jockey in the "underweight" category. This range increased to 19.1-24.0 when the riders were not riding. The most common method of weight loss was the use of steam rooms, to lose an average 2.5 lb in 1 day. Eight of 20, the most common response, reported it very easy to maintain their racing weight. The jockeys reported interest in future education sessions on meal planning and healthy food ideas. The assessment was used as the basis to develop nutrition education materials and presentations for the riders at the race track. PMID:20803166

  9. Sinkhole development in Windsor-Detroit solution mines and the role of downward mass transfer in subsidence

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, A.S.; Russell, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    The main portion of this paper deals with the development of three sinkholes of unexpected size and depth in the WindsorDetroit area. The roles of the Sylvania Sandstone - a unit of unique mechanical properties - and of the high in situ horizontal stresses are evaluated. It is proposed that the Sylvania fails under high horizontal loads, converts into sand, flows downward through cracks towards deeper solution-mine caverns, and creates a shallow void that generates the deep sinkholes. Linear-arch theory is used to evaluate subsidence-induced horizontal stress increments. It is concluded that sinkholes are likely to occur in other areas where the Sylvania is close to the surface (less than 200 m) and active subsidence bowls have surface gradients of a few millimeters per meter. The last section contains a brief discussion of the role of downward mass transfer of slurries in surface subsidence with examples from the Midwest.

  10. “I Always Kept a Job”: Income Generation, Heroin Use and Economic Uncertainty in 21st Century Detroit

    PubMed Central

    DRAUS, PAUL J.; RODDY, JULIETTE; GREENWALD, MARK

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study, based on a series of 30 in-depth interviews and 109 economic surveys conducted with active heroin users residing in and around Detroit, Michigan, describes reported patterns of heroin use and income generation activities. In spite of lack of access to regular, legal employment, we found that many participants displayed a dedication to regular daily routine and a sense of risk management or control. These findings are discussed relative to past research on heroin addiction as well as recent research on the changing nature of employment. We argue that this sample fits somewhere in between the controlled or working addict, and the “junkie” or “righteous dope fiend” of urban lore. We draw a connection between these stable patterns of addiction and income generation and the demands of informal and insecure labor markets. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for further research, interventions, and public policy. PMID:25983342

  11. Growth of submersed macrophyte communities in the St. Clair - Detroit River system between Lake Huron and Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Manny, Bruce A.

    1985-01-01

    Growth of submersed aquatic macrophytes was determined from observation and on the basis of biomass of samples collected from April to November 1978 at seven study sites in a major river system of the Great Lakes, the St. Clair – Detroit river system between Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Growth usually began between April and June, peaked between July and October, and decreased by late November. Maximum biomass at six of the seven sites (118–427 g dry weight m−2) was similar or greater than that reported in other rivers at similar latitudes. Seasonal growth of the abundant taxa followed one of three seasonal patterns at each study site: one dominant taxon grew alone; codominant taxa grew sympatrically without species succession; and codominant taxa grew sympatrically with species succession. Differences in growth and seasonal succession of some taxa were apparently caused by the presence or absence of overwintering plant material, competition, and life-cycle differences.

  12. The arms race between fishers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Quirijns, Floor J.; HilleRisLambers, Reinier; De Wilde, Jan W.; Den Heijer, Willem M.

    An analysis of the changes in the Dutch demersal fishing fleet since the 1950s revealed that competitive interactions among vessels and gear types within the constraints imposed by biological, economic and fisheries management factors are the dominant processes governing the dynamics of fishing fleets. Double beam trawling, introduced in the early 1960s, proved a successful fishing method to catch deep burying flatfish, in particular sole. In less than 10 years, the otter trawl fleet was replaced by a highly specialised beam trawling fleet, despite an initial doubling of the loss rate of vessels due to stability problems. Engine power, size of the beam trawl, number of tickler chains and fishing speed rapidly increased and fishing activities expanded into previously lightly fished grounds and seasons. Following the ban on flatfish trawling within the 12 nautical mile zone for vessels of more than 300 hp in 1975 and with the restriction of engine power to 2000 hp in 1987, the beam trawl fleet bifurcated. Changes in the fleet capacity were related to the economic results and showed a cyclic pattern with a period of 6-7 years. The arms race between fishers was fuelled by competitive interactions among fishers: while the catchability of the fleet more than doubled in the ten years following the introduction of the beam trawl, a decline in catchability was observed in reference beam trawlers that remained the same. Vessel performance was not only affected by the technological characteristics but also by the number and characteristics of competing vessels.

  13. Altered Heart Rate Variability in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Is Associated with Specific Particulate Matter Components in Detroit, Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, Annette C.; Kamal, Ali; Morishita, Masako; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Keeler, Gerald J.; Harkema, Jack R.; Wagner, James G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to fine particulate matter [aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5)] is linked to adverse cardiopulmonary health effects; however, the responsible constituents are not well defined. Objective We used a rat model to investigate linkages between cardiac effects of concentrated ambient particle (CAP) constituents and source factors using a unique, highly time-resolved data set. Methods Spontaneously hypertensive rats inhaled Detroit Michigan, CAPs during summer or winter (2005–2006) for 13 consecutive days. Electrocardiogram data were recorded continuously, and heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) metrics were derived. Extensive CAP characterization, including use of a Semicontinuous Elements in Aerosol Sampler (SEAS), was performed, and positive matrix factorization was applied to investigate source factors. Results Mean CAP exposure concentrations were 518 μg/m3 and 357 μg/m3 in the summer and winter, respectively. Significant reductions in the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) in the summer were strongly associated with cement/lime, iron/steel, and gasoline/diesel factors, whereas associations with the sludge factor and components were less consistent. In winter, increases in HR were associated with a refinery factor and its components. CAP-associated HR decreases in winter were linked to sludge incineration, cement/lime, and coal/secondary sulfate factors and most of their associated components. Specific relationships for increased root mean square of the standard deviation of successive normal-to-normal intervals (RMSSD) in winter were difficult to determine because of lack of consistency between factors and associated constituents. Conclusions Our results indicate that specific modulation of cardiac function in Detroit was most strongly linked to local industrial sources. Findings also highlight the need to consider both factor analytical results and component-specific results when interpreting

  14. Child maltreatment increases sensitivity to adverse social contexts: Neighborhood physical disorder and incident binge drinking in Detroit

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Goldmann, Emily; Uddin, Monica; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with elevated risk for behavioral disorders in adulthood. One explanation for this life-course association is that child maltreatment increases vulnerability to the effects of subsequent stressors; however, the extent to which maltreatment increases sensitivity to social context has never been examined. We evaluated whether the association between neighborhood physical disorder and binge drinking was modified by child maltreatment exposure. METHODS Data were drawn from the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study, a prospective representative sample of predominately African Americans in the Detroit population. Neighborhood physical disorder was measured via systematic neighborhood assessment. Child maltreatment indicators included self-reported physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Incident binge drinking was defined as at least one episode of ≥5 drinks (men) or ≥4 drinks (women) in the past 30-day period among those with no binge drinking at baseline (N=1,013). RESULTS Child maltreatment and neighborhood physical disorder interacted to predict incident binge drinking (B=0.16, p=0.02) and maximum number of past 30-day drinks (B=0.15, p=0.04), such that neighborhood physical disorder predicted problematic alcohol use only among individuals with high exposure to child maltreatment. CONCLUSION The results add to the growing literature that African Americans in the U.S. are exposed to an array of stressors that have pernicious consequences for problematic alcohol use. Our results document the need for increased attention to the potential for at-risk alcohol use among populations with a high degree of stress exposure. PMID:21981990

  15. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN NEIGHBORHOOD AVAILABILITY AND INDIVIDUAL CONSUMPTION OF DARK-GREEN AND ORANGE VEGETABLES AMONG ETHNICALLY DIVERSE ADULTS IN DETROIT

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Betty T.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Schulz, Amy J.; Mentz, Graciela B.; Wilson, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Diets rich in dark-green and orange vegetables have been associated with a reduction in chronic diseases. However, most Americans do not consume the number of daily servings recommended by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. An increasing number of studies suggest that changes to the neighborhood food environment may be critical to achieving population-wide improvements in eating. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between observed neighborhood availability and individual consumption of dark-green and orange vegetables among low- to moderate-income and ethnically diverse adults in Detroit. This study used a cross-sectional design that drew upon a 2002–2003 community survey and 2002 in-person audit of food stores. A total of 919 adults (mean age 46.3 years, 52.2% female) including African Americans (56.7 %), Latinos (22.2%), and whites (18.7%) residing in three Detroit communities participated in the survey. Two-level weighted, hierarchical linear regression was used to analyze the data. On average, survey respondents ate 0.61 daily servings of dark-green and orange vegetables. Residents of neighborhoods with no stores carrying five or more varieties of dark-green and orange vegetables were associated with an average of 0.17 fewer daily servings of these foods compared with residents of neighborhoods with two stores carrying five or more varieties of dark-green and orange vegetables (P=0.047). These findings suggest that living in a neighborhood with multiple opportunities to purchase dark-green and orange vegetables may make an important contribution toward meeting recommended intakes. PMID:21272702

  16. Verticillium dahliae race 2-specific PCR reveals a high frequency of race 2 strains in commercial spinach seed lots and delineates race structure.

    PubMed

    Short, Dylan P G; Gurung, Suraj; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Atallah, Zahi K; Subbarao, Krishna V

    2014-07-01

    Two pathogenic races of Verticillium dahliae have been described on lettuce and tomato. Host resistance to race 1 is governed by plant immune receptors that recognize the race 1-specific fungal effector Ave1. Only partial resistance to race 2 exists in lettuce. Although polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays are available to identify race 1, no complementary test exists to positively identify race 2, except for lengthy pathogenicity assays on host differentials. Using the genome sequences of two isolates of V. dahliae, one each from races 1 and 2, we identified potential markers and PCR primers to distinguish the two races. Several primer pairs based on polymorphisms between the races were designed and tested on reference isolates of known race. One primer pair, VdR2F-VdR2R, consistently yielded a 256-bp amplicon in all race 2 isolates exclusively. We screened DNA from 677 V. dahliae isolates, including 340 from spinach seedlots, with the above primer pair and a previously published race 1-specific primer pair. DNA from isolates that did not amplify with race 1-specific PCRs amplified with the race 2-specific primers. To validate this, two differential lines of lettuce were inoculated with 53 arbitrarily selected isolates from spinach seed and their pathogenicity and virulence were assessed in a greenhouse. The reactions of the differential cultivars strongly supported the PCR data. V. dahliae race structure was investigated in crops in coastal California and elsewhere using primers specific to the two races. All artichoke isolates from California were race 1, whereas nearly all tomato isolates were race 2. Isolates from lettuce, pepper, and strawberry from California as well as isolates from spinach seed from two of four countries comprised both races, whereas only race 2 was observed in cotton, mint, olive, and potato. This highlights the importance of identifying resistance against race 2 in different hosts. The technique developed in this study will benefit

  17. Air Quality Modeling in Support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    PubMed Central

    Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Batterman, Stuart; Bereznicki, Sarah; Burke, Janet; Dionisio, Kathie; Garcia, Val; Heist, David; Perry, Steve; Snyder, Michelle; Vette, Alan

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characterization. Air quality modeling can provide spatially and temporally varying exposure estimates for examining relationships between traffic-related air pollutants and adverse health outcomes. A hybrid air quality modeling approach was used to estimate exposure to traffic-related air pollutants in support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) conducted in Detroit (Michigan, USA). Model-based exposure metrics, associated with local variations of emissions and meteorology, were estimated using a combination of the American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) and Research LINE-source dispersion model for near-surface releases (RLINE) dispersion models, local emission source information from the National Emissions Inventory, detailed road network locations and traffic activity, and meteorological data from the Detroit City Airport. The regional background contribution was estimated using a combination of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) and the Space-Time Ordinary Kriging (STOK) models. To capture the near-road pollutant gradients, refined “mini-grids” of model receptors were placed around participant homes. Exposure metrics for CO, NOx, PM2.5 and its components (elemental and organic carbon) were predicted at each home location for multiple time periods including daily and rush hours. The exposure metrics were evaluated for their ability to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of multiple ambient air pollutants compared to measurements across the study area. PMID:25166917

  18. Air quality modeling in support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS).

    PubMed

    Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Batterman, Stuart; Bereznicki, Sarah; Burke, Janet; Dionisio, Kathie; Garcia, Val; Heist, David; Perry, Steve; Snyder, Michelle; Vette, Alan

    2014-09-01

    A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characterization. Air quality modeling can provide spatially and temporally varying exposure estimates for examining relationships between traffic-related air pollutants and adverse health outcomes. A hybrid air quality modeling approach was used to estimate exposure to traffic-related air pollutants in support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) conducted in Detroit (Michigan, USA). Model-based exposure metrics, associated with local variations of emissions and meteorology, were estimated using a combination of the American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) and Research LINE-source dispersion model for near-surface releases (RLINE) dispersion models, local emission source information from the National Emissions Inventory, detailed road network locations and traffic activity, and meteorological data from the Detroit City Airport. The regional background contribution was estimated using a combination of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) and the Space-Time Ordinary Kriging (STOK) models. To capture the near-road pollutant gradients, refined "mini-grids" of model receptors were placed around participant homes. Exposure metrics for CO, NOx, PM2.5 and its components (elemental and organic carbon) were predicted at each home location for multiple time periods including daily and rush hours. The exposure metrics were evaluated for their ability to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of multiple ambient air pollutants compared to measurements across the study area. PMID:25166917

  19. Norming Suburban: How Teachers Talk about Race without Using Race Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Dyan

    2012-01-01

    This study explores teachers' beliefs about urban students and urban teaching. The author discusses some cultural aspects of these teachers' definitions of urban and points out their highlighting of race as an essential component of urban teaching. Even though race is rarely named, it is often at play in the teachers' descriptions of urban…

  20. Black Leadership, White Leadership: Race and Race Relations in an Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Jeffrey S.; Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate how race and race relations influence school leadership practice. Design/methodology/approach: This ethnographic study was conducted in a high-poverty, high-minority, urban high school in the Southeastern USA. The authors utilized an anthropological conceptual framework called a moiety, through…

  1. Discovering Race in a "Post-Racial" World: Teaching Race through Primetime Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, Nikki; Harris, Cherise A.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching students about race remains a challenging task for instructors, made even more difficult in the context of a growing "post-racial" discourse. Given this challenge, it is important for instructors to find engaging ways to help students understand the continuing significance of race and racial/ethnic inequality. In this article,…

  2. The Illusion of Inclusion: A Critical Race Theory Textual Analysis of Race and Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilig, Julian Vasquez; Brown, Keffrelyn D.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, Julian Vasquez Heilig, Keffrelyn Brown, and Anthony Brown offer findings from a close textual analysis of how the Texas social studies standards address race, racism, and communities of color. Using the lens of critical race theory, the authors uncover the sometimes subtle ways that the standards can appear to adequately address…

  3. Deciding on race: a diffusion model analysis of race-categorisation.

    PubMed

    Benton, Christopher P; Skinner, Andrew L

    2015-06-01

    It has long been known that a person's race can affect their decisions about people of another race; an observation that clearly taps into some deep societal issues. However, in order to behave differently in response to someone else's race, you must first categorise that person as other-race. The current study investigates the process of race-categorisation. Two groups of participants, Asian and Caucasian, rapidly classified facial images that varied from strongly Asian, through racially intermediate, to strongly Caucasian. In agreement with previous findings, there was a difference in category boundary between the two groups. Asian participants more frequently judged intermediate images as Caucasian and vice versa. We fitted a decision model, the Ratcliff diffusion model, to our two choice reaction time data. This model provides an account of the processes thought to underlie binary choice decisions. Within its architecture it has two components that could reasonably lead to a difference in race category boundary, these being evidence accumulation rate and a priori bias. The latter is the expectation or prior belief that a participant brings to the task, whilst the former indexes sensitivity to race-dependent perceptual cues. Whilst we find no good evidence for a difference in a priori bias between our two groups, we do find evidence for a difference in evidence accumulation rate. Our Asian participants were more sensitive to Caucasian cues within the images than were our Caucasian participants (and vice versa). These results support the idea that differences in perceptual sensitivity to race-defining visual characteristics drive differences in race categorisation. We propose that our findings fit with a wider view in which perceptual adaptation plays a central role in the visual processing of own and other race. PMID:25797455

  4. Race, punishment, and the Michael Vick experience.

    PubMed

    Piquero, Alex R; Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Gertz, Marc; Baker, Thomas; Batton, Jason; Barnes, J C

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The relationship between race and crime has been contentious, focusing primarily on offending and incarceration patterns among minorities. There has been some limited work on public perceptions of criminal punishment, and findings show that while minorities believe in the role and rule of law, they simultaneously perceive the justice system as acting in a biased and/or unfair manner. Two limitations have stalled this literature. First, research has focused mainly on criminal punishments to the neglect of noncriminal punishments. Second, most studies have not examined whether race remains salient after considering other demographic variables or discrimination and legitimacy attitudes.Methods. Using data from 400 adults, we examine how race affects perceptions of criminal punishment and subsequent reinstatement into the National Football League in the case of Michael Vick, a star professional quarterback who pled guilty to charges of operating an illegal dog-fighting ring.Results. Findings show that whites are more likely to view Vick's punishment as too soft and that he should not be reinstated, while nonwhites had the opposite views. Race remained significant after controlling for other variables believed to be related to punishment perceptions.Conclusion. Attitudes toward both criminal punishment and NFL reinstatement vary across race such that there exists important divides in how individuals perceive the system meting out punishment and subsequently reintegrating offenders back into society. These results underscore that white and nonwhites perceive the law and its administration differently. PMID:21919273

  5. Testing and Lubrication for Single Race Bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhoff, R.G.

    1998-03-04

    Three ES and H-compatible lubricants (Environment, Safety and Health) for single race bearing applications and one hybrid-material single race bearings were evaluated and compared against single race bearings with trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon) deposition of low molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bearing lubricant extracted from Vydax{trademark}. Vydax is a product manufactured by DuPont consisting of various molecular weights of PTFE suspended in trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon), which is an ozone-depleting solvent. Vydax has been used as a bearing lubricant in stronglink mechanisms since 1974. Hybrid bearings with silicon nitride balls and molded glass-nylon-Teflon retainers, bearings lubricated with titanium carbide (TiC) on the balls, bearings lubricated with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on races and retainers, and bearings lubricated with electrophoretically deposited MoS{sub 2} were evaluated. The bearings were maintained in a preloaded state in bearing cartridges during cycling and vibration tests. Bearings with electrophoretically deposited MoS{sub 2} performed as well as bearings lubricated with Vydax and were the best performing candidate. All candidates were suitable for low preload applications. Bearings with TiC coated balls and bearings lubricated with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers performed well at high preloads, though not as well as bearings lubricated with electrophoretic deposition of MoS{sub 2}. Bearings with silicon nitride balls were not suitable for high preload applications.

  6. The uncanny return of the race concept.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Andreas; Müller, Daniel J; Krach, Sören; Cabanis, Maurice; Kluge, Ulrike P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this Hypothesis and Theory is to question the recently increasing use of the "race" concept in contemporary genetic, psychiatric, neuroscience as well as social studies. We discuss "race" and related terms used to assign individuals to distinct groups and caution that also concepts such as "ethnicity" or "culture" unduly neglect diversity. We suggest that one factor contributing to the dangerous nature of the "race" concept is that it is based on a mixture of traditional stereotypes about "physiognomy", which are deeply imbued by colonial traditions. Furthermore, the social impact of "race classifications" will be critically reflected. We then examine current ways to apply the term "culture" and caution that while originally derived from a fundamentally different background, "culture" is all too often used as a proxy for "race", particularly when referring to the population of a certain national state or wider region. When used in such contexts, suggesting that all inhabitants of a geographical or political unit belong to a certain "culture" tends to ignore diversity and to suggest a homogeneity, which consciously or unconsciously appears to extend into the realm of biological similarities and differences. Finally, we discuss alternative approaches and their respective relevance to biological and cultural studies. PMID:25408642

  7. 9th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico and South America came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 9th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Seventy-seven teams, representing high schools and colleges from 21 states, Puerto Rico, and Columbia, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. In this photograph, the team from Lafayette County High school in Higginsville, Missouri, designated Lafayette County team #1, races through the course to cross the finish line to win the high school division. The team beat out 26 other teams representing high schools from 9 states. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by the development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems, similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team.

  8. 9th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico and South America came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 9th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Seventy-seven teams, representing high schools and colleges from 21 states, Puerto Rico, and Columbia, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. A team from Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, took the first place honor in the college division. This photograph shows the Cornell #2 team driving their vehicle through the course. The team finished the race in second place in the college division. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle, that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems, similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team.

  9. 77 FR 45532 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Michigan; Detroit-Ann Arbor Nonattainment Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Reviews I. Background On July 18, 1997 (62 FR 38652), EPA established an annual PM 2.5 NAAQS at 15.0... January 5, 2005 (70 FR 944), EPA published its air quality designations and classifications for the 1997... monitoring data for the 2007-2009 and 2008-2010 design value periods. On July 5, 2012 (77 FR 39659)...

  10. The neural correlates of memory encoding and recognition for own-race and other-race faces.

    PubMed

    Herzmann, Grit; Willenbockel, Verena; Tanaka, James W; Curran, Tim

    2011-09-01

    People are generally better at recognizing faces from their own race than from a different race, as has been shown in numerous behavioral studies. Here we use event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate how differences between own-race and other-race faces influence the neural correlates of memory encoding and recognition. ERPs of Asian and Caucasian participants were recorded during the study and test phases of a Remember-Know paradigm with Chinese and Caucasian faces. A behavioral other-race effect was apparent in both groups, neither of which recognized other-race faces as well as own-race faces; however, Caucasian subjects showed stronger behavioral other-race effects. In the study phase, memory encoding was assessed with the ERP difference due to memory (Dm). Other-race effects in memory encoding were only found for Caucasian subjects. For subsequently "recollected" items, Caucasian subjects showed less positive mean amplitudes for own-race than other-race faces indicating that less neural activation was required for successful memory encoding of own-race faces. For the comparison of subsequently "recollected" and "familiar" items, Caucasian subjects showed similar brain activation only for own-race faces suggesting that subsequent familiarity and recollection of own-race faces arose from similar memory encoding processes. Experience with a race also influenced old/new effects, which are ERP correlates of recollection measured during recognition testing. Own-race faces elicited a typical parietal old/new effect, whereas old/new effects for other-race faces were prolonged and dominated by activity in frontal brain regions, suggesting a stronger involvement of post-retrieval monitoring processes. These results indicate that the other-race effect is a memory encoding- and recognition-based phenomenon. PMID:21807008

  11. The physics of bump drafting in car racing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiolhais, Miguel C. N.; Amor dos Santos, Susana

    2014-11-01

    The technique of bump drafting, also known as two-car drafting in motorsports, is analysed in the framework of Newtonian mechanics and simple aerodynamic drag forces. As an apparent unnatural effect that often pleases the enthusiasts of car racing, bump drafting provides a unique pedagogical opportunity for students to gain insights into the physics of drag in moving vehicles. In the context of a physics undergraduate course, it is shown that the dynamics of two moving cars in the same air slipstream on a straight line allows them to increase their speed up to a factor of \\sqrt{2} . This conclusion is also extended to an arbitrary number of n identical moving cars, resulting in an increase of \\sqrt{n} .

  12. Surgical Sterilization, Regret, and Race: Contemporary Patterns*

    PubMed Central

    Shreffler, Karina M.; McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L.; Johnson, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical sterilization is a relatively permanent form of contraception that has been disproportionately used by Black, Hispanic, and Native American women in the United States in the past. We use a nationally representative sample of 4,609 women ages 25 to 45 to determine whether sterilization continues to be more common and consequential by race for reproductive-age women. Results indicate that Native American and Black women are more likely to be sterilized than non-Hispanic White women, and Hispanic and Native American women are more likely than non-Hispanic White women to report that their sterilization surgeries prevent them from conceiving children they want. Reasons for sterilization differ significantly by race. These findings suggest that stratified reproduction has not ended in the United States and that the patterns and consequences of sterilization continue to vary by race. PMID:25592919

  13. Race and Tobacco Use: A Global Perspective.

    PubMed

    Agaku, Israel; Caixeta, Roberta; de Souza, Mirian Carvalho; Blanco, Adriana; Hennis, Anselm

    2016-04-01

    These findings suggest that there are no "fixed" racial patterns of tobacco use around the globe. Cross-country differences in tobacco use among races could be modified by cultural influences, domestic tobacco control, or socioeconomic factors. There is need for enhanced efforts to monitor tobacco use by race/ethnicity to identify existing and emerging patterns in tobacco use by race, as well as identify opportunities for interventions. Tailored interventions to reduce tobacco use within different settings and countries may help reduce tobacco use among racial/ethnic minorities. Implementation of comprehensive tobacco control measures could be facilitated by community-based efforts, ensuring that disadvantaged populations are engaged as partners to adapt tobacco control policies and interventions to local contexts and health equity issues. PMID:26980869

  14. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Andrea; Anzures, Gizelle; Quinn, Paul C; Pascalis, Olivier; Omrin, Danielle S; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37) have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication. PMID:21533235

  15. Kinematic and electromyographic patterns of Olympic race walkers.

    PubMed

    Murray, M P; Guten, G N; Mollinger, L A; Gardner, G M

    1983-01-01

    The performance of two Olympic race walkers was studied during free-speed, fast, and race walking. Measurements of the stride and temporal components of gait, as well as the simultaneous displacement patterns of the body segments, and the electromyographic activity of muscles of the trunk and upper and lower limbs were recorded during the three walking speeds. During the testing, the race walkers achieved an average speed of 12.5 km/hr as compared to the 8.7 km/hr average speed achieved by normal men of the same age during fast walking. Race walking was characterized by an increase in cadence and stride length beyond that of normal controls (in a prior study) during fast walking, with stride lengths averaging 125% of stature during race walking, and 115% during normal fast walking. In the two race walkers the amplitudes of most of the movement patterns of the trunk and upper and lower limbs were exaggerated during race walking as compared to normal controls' fast walking. Several mechanisms were used by the race walkers to minimize the vertical excursion of the center of gravity of the body during race walking. All of the muscles monitored in the race walkers showed an increase in the amplitude of electromyographic activity during race walking as compared to fast walking; duration of muscle activity was also usually increased during race walking. Several suggestions for prevention of injuries associated with race walking are made. PMID:6846684

  16. In-reservoir behavior, dam passage, and downstream migration of juvenile Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead from Detroit Reservoir and Dam to Portland, Oregon, February 2013-February 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Adams, Noah S.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the evaluations conducted at Detroit Dam, we continued to refine and improve methods for monitoring fish movements in the Willamette River. The goal was to develop stable, cost-effective, long-term monitoring arrays suitable for detection of any Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS)-tagged fish in the Willamette River. These data then could be used to estimate timing, migration rates, and survival of JSATS-tagged fish from various studies in the Willamet

  17. Stock-car racing makes intuitive physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Formula One races involve cars festooned with gadgets and complex electronic devices, in which millions of dollars are spent refining a vehicle's aerodynamics and reducing its weight. But in events run by America's National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR), cars hurtle round an oval track at speeds of about 300 km h-1 without the help of the complex sensors that are employed in Formula One cars. To avoid crashing, drivers must make their own adjustments to track conditions, engine problems and the traffic around them.

  18. HPV-Associated Vulvar Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Doing Related Links Stay Informed Rates by Race and Ethnicity for Other Kinds of Cancer All ... Cancer Home HPV-Associated Vulvar Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ...

  19. Race May Influence Risk for Irregular Heart Beat

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158687.html Race May Influence Risk for Irregular Heart Beat Whites ... between the heart rhythm disorder atrial fibrillation and race, a new study says. Whites with heart failure ...

  20. 14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race and trestle used to carry excavated rock and construction materials across tail race. Photo c. 1909. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

  1. Substance Use during Pregnancy Varies by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... 10, 2012 Substance Use during Pregnancy Varies by Race and Ethnicity When pregnant women use alcohol, tobacco, ... indicate that substance use during pregnancy varies by race and ethnicity and suggest that health care providers ...

  2. Critical Race Theory and Counselor Education Pedagogy: Creating Equitable Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Natoya H.; Singh, Anneliese

    2015-01-01

    Infusing critical race theory, the authors discuss specific pedagogical strategies to enhance educational experiences of counselor trainees. The authors then provide an evaluative checklist to facilitate and evaluate curricular integration of critical race theory.

  3. Race-ing through the School Day: African American Educators' Experiences with Race and Racism in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the ways African American educators experience themselves as raced individuals in their school settings and explores their perceptions of racial discrimination, subordination, and isolation. For this study, five African American educators participated in in-depth phenomenological interviews. Qualitative data analysis of their…

  4. The Geosciences Institute for Research and Education: Bringing awareness of the geosciences to minorities in Detroit MI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalepa, N. A.; Murray, K. S.; Napieralski, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    According to recent studies, more than 40% of students within the Detroit Public Schools (DPS) drop out and only 21% graduate within 4 years. In an attempt to improve these statistics, The Geosciences Institute for Research and Education was developed by the University of Michigan-Dearborn (UM-D) and funded by two grants from the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) OEDG Program. The Geosciences Institute, a collaboration between the UM-D, DPS, and local corporations, aims to generate awareness of the geosciences to middle school students, facilitate an enthusiastic learning environment, encourage underrepresented minorities to stay in school, and consider the geosciences as a viable career option. This is accomplished by involving their teachers, UM-D faculty and students, and local geoscience professionals in community-based research problems relevant to SE Michigan. Students use the geosciences as a tool in which they are actively participating in research that is in their backyards. Through a mixture of field trips, participation, and demonstrational activities the students become aware of local environmental and social problems and how a background in the geosciences can prepare them. As part of the Geosciences Institute, students participate in three ongoing research projects with UM-D faculty: (1) build, install, and monitor groundwater wells along the Lower Rouge River, (2) collect soil samples from and mapping brownfields in SW Detroit, and (3) learn basic GPS and GIS skills to map local natural resources. The students also work with faculty on creating video diaries that record ideas, experiences, and impressions throughout the Institute, including during fieldtrips, modules, research, and editing. Finally, small teams of students collaborate to design and print a poster that summarizes their experience in the Institute. The Geosciences Institute concludes with a ceremony that celebrates student efforts (posters and videos) and involves school

  5. The Nation's Report Card Mathematics 2011 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Detroit Public Schools. Grade 4, Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This one-page report presents overall results, achievement level percentages and average score results, scores at selected percentiles, average scores for district and large cities, results for student groups (school race, gender, and eligibility for National School Lunch Program) in 2011, and score gaps for student groups. In 2011, the average…

  6. A new Colletotrichum trifolii race identified in Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthracnose of alfalfa was identified as a potential economic problem on alfalfa in the US in the late 1960's. Colletotrichum trifolii, the causal agent of anthracnose of alfalfa, exists in the US as two distinct races, race 1 and race 2. Anthracnose disease management relies solely on the use of ...

  7. Race and Rape: The Black Woman as Legitimate Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Linda Meyer

    Scientific investigations of the relationship between race and rape have been flawed by the acceptance of official statistics and have been influenced by prevailing myths about rape and race. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for understanding rape and race. The thesis is presented that only the black victim of sexual assault is viewed…

  8. Read, Listen, and Watch: Media Resources for Conversing about Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Anthony R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Facilitating discussions about race can be challenging for even the most experienced educator. In this article, the author provides a framework for using multimedia resources to guide student reflection and discussion on race. He suggests three types of media resources that educators can use to engage students in dialogues on race. For each of…

  9. Teaching Race as a Social Construction: Two Interactive Class Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, Nikki; Harris, Cherise A.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching the social construction of race remains one of the most challenging tasks for instructors, yet understanding this concept is integral to student success in race and other inequality-themed courses. Instructors have access to an array of readings to help students understand race as a social construction, but few known inclass activities to…

  10. What White Children Need to Know about Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Ali; Bartoli, Eleonora

    2014-01-01

    While white parents' intention is to convey to their children the belief that race should not matter, the message their children receive is that race, in fact, does not matter. The intent and aim are noble, but in order for race not to matter in the long run, we have to acknowledge that, currently, it does matter a great deal. If white…

  11. A Review of Race Socialization within Black Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesane-Brown, Chase L.

    2006-01-01

    This manuscript provides a critical and comprehensive review of research on race socialization within Black families. Race socialization is defined as specific verbal and non-verbal messages transmitted to younger generations for the development of values, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs regarding the meaning and significance of race and racial…

  12. Viewing Race: A Videoforum Publication. A Videography & Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noriega, Chon, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document lists curated films in the subject area of race. It includes essays by experts in the field and additional resources. It is the fourth in a series of such publications by National Video Resources. Essays and bibliographies in this volume include: (1) "Race Matters, Media Matters" (Chon Noriega); (2) "Race, Video and Dialogue" (Howard…

  13. The Use of Race-Related Variables in Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Thad Q.; Lee, D. John; Trahan, Emily; Kaufman, Aimee; Pritchett, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    This study provides a detailed analysis of all race-related articles published in prominent counseling journals between 1995 and 2004. Findings indicate that 75% of articles did not define race variables and in the absence of an operational definition, authors tended to conceptualize race as an inherent biological variable. (Contains 3 tables.)

  14. The Use of Social Media in Teaching Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakagawa, Kathy; Arzubiaga, Angela E.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores ways in which race pedagogy interrogates social media as a significant influence on racism and source for race understandings. Social media serves as a context in which to learn about, challenge, and address issues of race. We discuss how social media may be used to promote racial literacy and question and resist racism,…

  15. A new Colletotrichum trifolii race identified in Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colletotrichum trifolii, the causal agent of anthracnose of alfalfa, exists in the US as two distinct races, race 1 and race 2. An isolate of C. trifolii was identified at the Ohio State University's Waterman Agricultural and Natural Resources Laboratory, Columbus, OH, in 2003. The isolate (designat...

  16. The Mapping of a Framework: Critical Race Theory and TESOL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liggett, Tonda

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I attempt to elucidate some key intersections between critical race theory (CRT) in synthesis with English language learning as a way to examine linguistic and racial identity in English language teaching. I ask: How does critical race theory apply to English language learners when language rather than race is fore-grounded? What…

  17. Lessons Learned: Teaching the Race Concept in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Helen

    2011-01-01

    For a faculty member of East Asian ancestry, raised in Latin America, race became a salient part of the author's identity during adulthood while living and working in the southern United States. While the race-related experiences the author continues to have on and off campus are deeply personal, race became an academic undertaking, and centering…

  18. 33 CFR 100.1301 - Seattle seafair unlimited hydroplane race.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydroplane race. 100.1301 Section 100.1301 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... unlimited hydroplane race. (a) This section is in effect annually during the last week in July and the first... hydroplane race course and then to the northerly tip of Ohlers Island in Andrews Bay. The western zone...

  19. After the Glow: Race Ambivalence and Other Educational Prognoses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonardo, Zeus

    2011-01-01

    The Right has a long history of questioning the importance of race analysis. Recently, the conceptual and political status of race has come under increased scrutiny from the Left. Bracketing the language of "race" has meant that the discourse of skin groups remains at the level of abstraction and does not speak to real groups as such. As a…

  20. 33 CFR 100.1301 - Seattle seafair unlimited hydroplane race.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hydroplane race. 100.1301 Section 100.1301 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... unlimited hydroplane race. (a) This section is in effect annually during the last week in July and the first... hydroplane race course and then to the northerly tip of Ohlers Island in Andrews Bay. The western zone...

  1. 76 FR 42549 - Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races; Kennewick, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races; Kennewick, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Local Regulation for the Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races. This regulation which restricts navigation... Hydroplane Races (Water Follies). During the enforcement period, no person or vessel may operate...

  2. 77 FR 33307 - Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races; Kennewick, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races; Kennewick, WA... enforce the Special Local Regulation for the Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races from Tuesday, July 24th... involved in the Annual Kennewick, Washington, Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races (Water Follies)....

  3. 33 CFR 100.1301 - Seattle seafair unlimited hydroplane race.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hydroplane race. 100.1301 Section 100.1301 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... unlimited hydroplane race. (a) This section is in effect annually during the last week in July and the first... hydroplane race course and then to the northerly tip of Ohlers Island in Andrews Bay. The western zone...

  4. 33 CFR 100.1301 - Seattle seafair unlimited hydroplane race.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hydroplane race. 100.1301 Section 100.1301 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... unlimited hydroplane race. (a) This section is in effect annually during the last week in July and the first... hydroplane race course and then to the northerly tip of Ohlers Island in Andrews Bay. The western zone...

  5. 33 CFR 100.1301 - Seattle seafair unlimited hydroplane race.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydroplane race. 100.1301 Section 100.1301 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... unlimited hydroplane race. (a) This section is in effect annually during the last week in July and the first... hydroplane race course and then to the northerly tip of Ohlers Island in Andrews Bay. The western zone...

  6. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  7. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  8. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  9. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  10. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  11. Confronting the Categories: Equitable Admissions without Apartheid Race Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erasmus, Z.

    2010-01-01

    South Africa's government requires information on apartheid race classification to implement and monitor racial redress. This has sparked resistance to race classification as a criterion for redress in higher education admissions. I argue that (1) jettisoning apartheid race categories now in favour of either class or "merit" would set back the few…

  12. Unequal Legacies: Race and Multiculturalism in the LIS Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawley, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Race remains poorly understood and inadequately represented in library and information science (LIS) education. Educators tend to avoid the term "race," preferring the more inclusive "multiculturalism." Yet these terms are far from equivalent: the various dimensions of multiculturalism, including race, ethnicity, class, and gender, have different…

  13. Mapping the time course of other-race face classification advantage: a cross-race ERP study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gang; Zhang, Guoping; Yang, Yanjie; Bentin, Shlomo; Zhao, Lun

    2014-09-01

    The current study investigated the time course of the other-race advantage (ORA) in the subordinate classification of faces by race. A significant ORA was found on RTs for both races. The ERP data showed that the categorization processes follow basic level classification of physiognomic stimuli, which is not influenced by the stimulus race. The most conspicuous difference between own-race and other-race faces was found in the modulation of the amplitude of the P3. Since the amplitude of the P3 is sensitive primarily to the perceptual demands of a task, these data suggest that the delay of the own-race classification is caused by an own-race specific process that precedes or interferes with the subordinate classification. PMID:24375283

  14. Physicians' implicit and explicit attitudes about race by MD race, ethnicity, and gender.

    PubMed

    Sabin, Janice; Nosek, Brian A; Greenwald, Anthony; Rivara, Frederick P

    2009-08-01

    Recent reports suggest that providers' implicit attitudes about race contribute to racial and ethnic health care disparities. However, little is known about physicians' implicit racial attitudes. This study measured implicit and explicit attitudes about race using the Race Attitude Implicit Association Test (IAT) for a large sample of test takers (N=404,277), including a sub-sample of medical doctors (MDs) (n=2,535). Medical doctors, like the entire sample, showed an implicit preference for White Americans relative to Black Americans. We examined these effects among White, African American, Hispanic, and Asian MDs and by physician gender. Strength of implicit bias exceeded self-report among all test takers except African American MDs. African American MDs, on average, did not show an implicit preference for either Blacks or Whites, and women showed less implicit bias than men. Future research should explore whether, and under what conditions, MDs' implicit attitudes about race affect the quality of medical care. PMID:19648715

  15. Race to Top Districts "Personalize" Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    The 16 Race to the Top district winners, pushed by $400 million in federal grants that put a premium on personalized learning, are embarking on vastly different makeovers of the classroom experience--from districtwide approaches to a narrower blueprint focused on middle school math. Despite the divergent approaches, a review of the winning…

  16. Debating Values: Race, Class and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Penny

    2008-01-01

    The relationships among race, class and academic achievement are complex, yet have been well documented in Canada for the last thirty years. Generations of students have experienced them--lowered expectations for achievement, gross generalizations about parents' backgrounds and aspirations, negative stereotypes of communities, and curricula that…

  17. Hurdles Ahead in "Race to Top"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    As states scramble to spend and report on millions of dollars of education stimulus funds already flowing their way, they face another daunting task if they want a shot at even more money: navigating the complex application process for $4 billion from the Race to the Top Fund. Merely filling out the award application will take each state 642…

  18. Children's Essentialist Reasoning about Language and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzler, Katherine D.; Dautel, Jocelyn B.

    2012-01-01

    Across four studies, we directly compared children's essentialist reasoning about the stability of race and language throughout an individual's lifespan. Monolingual English-speaking children were presented with a series of images of children who were either White or Black; each face was paired with a voice clip in either English or French.…

  19. Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... P25–1130). For more information, see the USCS technical notes. †Race categories are not mutually exclusive ... with caution. For more information, see the USCS technical notes. ¶ Data are compiled from cancer registries ...

  20. Cervical Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... P25–1130). For more information, see the USCS technical notes. †Race categories are not mutually exclusive ... with caution. For more information, see the USCS technical notes. ¶ Data are compiled from cancer registries ...

  1. Breast Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... P25–1130). For more information, see the USCS technical notes. †Race categories are not mutually exclusive ... with caution. For more information, see the USCS technical notes. ¶ Data are compiled from cancer registries ...

  2. Race, Drug Use and Risky Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, Clifford L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines drug use, including alcohol, as a factor in risky sexual behavior while considering patterns across sex and race. Both factors have been given insufficient attention in prior research. The data for this study come from a survey of 1,052 college students from a Midwestern state. Findings indicate that drug use is associated with…

  3. Income, race, and surgery in Maryland.

    PubMed Central

    Gittelsohn, A M; Halpern, J; Sanchez, R L

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND. We describe common surgical and medical hospital admission rates for Maryland residents, exploring systematic effects of race and income. METHODS. The data comprise Maryland hospital discharges and population estimates for 1985 to 1987. Patient income is the race-specific median family income of residence zip code. Logistic regression is used to measure incidence by race, income, and residence for surgical and medical reasons for admission. RESULTS. Population rates for discretionary orthopedic, vascular, and laryngologic surgery tend to increase with community income levels. Coronary and carotid artery surgery rates are two to three times higher among Whites. The more discretionary the procedure, the lower is the relative incidence among Blacks. By contrast, admission rates for most medical reasons decline with increasing income levels and are elevated among Blacks. The affluent receive coronary artery procedures whereas the poor are hospitalized for coronary artery disease. CONCLUSIONS. Blacks and the poor appear to have higher illness burdens requiring hospital care. Discretionary surgeries have a White predominance and increase with income; medical admissions have a Black predominance and decline with income. Race and community income level are important factors in differential hospital utilization rates. PMID:1951800

  4. Race Equality Scheme 2005-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education (HMIE) is strongly committed to promoting race equality in the way that HMIE staff go about performing their role within Scottish education. Scottish society reflects cultural, ethnic, religious and linguistic diversity and Scottish education should be accessible to all. No-one should be disadvantaged or…

  5. Cooperative Learning: A Foundation for Race Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    In hundreds of schools across the U.S., cooperative learning has helped administrators and teachers increase academic achievement and equip students with the ability to speak and work across lines of race, class and gender. Cooperative learning encourages education in a democratic environment. Student interaction at every level of school fosters…

  6. Race, Education, and the Politics of Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Loomis

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the legacies of the 1954 "Brown v. Board of Education" Supreme Court decision within the historical context of race relations in the United States. The pursuit by African Americans to exercise their rights of citizenship is described as influenced by the changing face of fear. The Supreme Court decisions that determined the…

  7. A question of blood, race, and politics.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Michael G

    2006-10-01

    This article explores the political and intellectual context of a controversy arising from a proposal made at the 1959 meetings of the American Society of Blood Banks to divide the blood supply by race. The authors, a group of blood-bankers and surgeons in New York, outlined difficulties in finding compatible blood for transfusion during open-heart surgery, which they attributed to prior sensitization of their patient, a Caucasian, by a previous transfusion from an African American donor. Examining the statistical distribution of blood-group antigens among the various races, they concluded that risk of adverse hemolytic reactions and the cost of testing could be reduced by establishing separate donor pools. The media reported the suggestion, which, given the political climate of the day, rapidly became a public issue involving geneticists, blood-bankers, physical anthropologists, and the African American medical community. Liberals condemned it, whereas eugenically inclined segregationists used the finding to support their views concerning evolutionary distance between the races and the dangers of miscegenation. Here we examine the contribution of comparative racial serology to this affair, the arguments and background of the main players, and the relevance of the debate to discussions about the role of "race" in post-genomic medicine. PMID:16788092

  8. Group Caution at the Race Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Robert E.; Safford, R. Kirk

    1976-01-01

    McCauley, Stitt, Woods and Lipton's finding that groups were more conservative than individuals when betting at a race track has been criticized on statistical and methodological grounds. This study evaluates their research and sustains their general results and conclusions. (Editor/RK)

  9. Chimerical categories: caste, race, and genetics.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Sharjeel

    2003-12-01

    Is discrimination based on caste equivalent to racism? This paper explores the complex relationship between genetic, race and caste. It also discusses the debate over the exclusion of a discussion of caste-based discrimination at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance held in Durban, South Africa. PMID:14768649

  10. Strategic Elites, the Press, and Race Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domke, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines 2 important congressional debates about race relations, and the relationship of journalism to these debates, in the late 19th century. Suggests that political elites commonly used news, opinion, and perceptions in press content and by journalists to support, defend, and buttress certain policy positions in these debates. (SR)

  11. A World View of Race Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Charles P.

    2004-01-01

    "Globalization" is the hot new term to explain an old phenomenon. As early as 1936, Ralph Bunche contended that the "inequality of peoples" was becoming an organizing theme for political and economic life across the globe. He introduced the concept of "social race" to explain the consciousness of environmental and social conditions when manifested…

  12. Representing Race in Basic Writing Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center, Carole

    2007-01-01

    Using Susanmarie Harrington's investigation of the presence and absence of basic writing students in articles in the "Journal of Basic Writing" as a starting point, this article investigates the visibility or invisibility of race in student-present articles from 1995 to 2005. The investigation reveals that the discursive practice of colorblindness…

  13. Teaching Race, Place, and History through Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, John C.; Mazzocca, Ann E.; Goetz, Evan; Gibson, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the March 2014 workshop that the authors organized with approximately thirty pre-and in-service teachers from around the state of Virginia. The authors' broad focus in this workshop was the connection between race and the cultural landscape in Virginia. The goals were relatively simple: to get teachers and…

  14. Rankings and the Global Reputation Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This chapter delves into the growing influence and impact of rankings on higher education, as a lens through which to view how the race for reputation and status is changing the higher education landscape, both globally and nationally. The author considers the extent to which rankings are driving policy choices and institutional decisions and the…

  15. Class, Race and Gender in American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Audrey

    Research bears out the assertion that the traditional tests and measures used to define achievement have incorporated societal attitudes about class, race, and gender. Cultural factors, teacher behaviors, and teacher bias can account for early differences in the reading achievement of girls and boys. Furthermore, girls' grades for English and…

  16. Race Discourse and the US Confederate Flag

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyfield, Lori; Moltz, Matthew Ryan; Bradley, Mindy S.

    2009-01-01

    Research reveals that racial hierarchies and "color-blind" racism is maintained through discourse. The current study utilizes exploratory data from focus groups in a predominantly white southern university in the United States to examine race talk, the Confederate Flag, and the construction of southern white identity. Drawing from critical…

  17. Race Socialization Messages across Historical Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tony N.; Lesane-Brown, Chase L.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether the content of race socialization messages varied by birth cohort, using data from a national probability sample. Most respondents recalled receiving messages about what it means to be black from their parents or guardians; these messages were coded into five mutually exclusive content categories: individual…

  18. Race, Racial Projects, and Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Danny Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Critical scholars have argued that mathematics education is in danger of becoming increasingly influenced by and aligned with neoliberal and neoconservative market-focused projects. Although this larger argument is powerful, there are often 2 peculiar responses to issues of race and racism within these analyses. These responses are characterized…

  19. Ovarian Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... any other group, followed by black, Hispanic, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Asian/Pacific Islander women. Ovarian Cancer Death Rates* by Race and Ethnicity, U.S., 1999–2012 Mortality source: U.S. Mortality Files, National Center for Health ...

  20. Common Factors in Sex and Race Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Margaret E.; And Others

    Factors that might be common to sex and race discrimination were studied with a sample of 86 black and white graduate students enrolled in two Southern colleges. Attitudes toward changing economic roles for women and blacks were also assessed. Thirty-seven percent of the sample was under 30 years old, and 93 percent was from the Southeastern…

  1. Vibrations Caused By Cracked Turbopump Bearing Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goggin, David G.; Dweck, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    Expansion gives rise to eccentricity. Report presents analysis of dynamic effects caused by cracking of inner race of ball bearing in turbopump. Crack manifested itself via increase in vibrations synchronous with rotation and smaller increase at twice frequency of rotation. Analysis conducted to verify these increases were caused solely by crack and to understand implications for future such cracks.

  2. 10th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 10th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Sixty-eight teams, representing high schools and colleges from all over the United States, and Puerto Rico, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team. In this photograph, racers from C-1 High School in Lafayette County, Missouri, get ready to tackle the course. The team pedaled its way to victory over 29 other teams to take first place honors. It was the second year in a row a team from the school has placed first in the high school division. (NASA/MSFC)

  3. 9th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico and South America came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 9th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Seventy-seven teams, representing high schools and colleges from 21 states, Puerto Rico, and Columbia, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. A team from Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, took the first place honor in the college division. In this photograph, the Cornell #1 team, the collegiate first place winner, maneuvers their vehicle through the course. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a humanpowered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team.

  4. 10th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 10th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Sixty-eight teams, representing high schools and colleges from all over the United States, and Puerto Rico, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team. In this photograph, Team No. 1 from North Dakota State University in Fargo conquers one of several obstacles on their way to victory. The team captured first place honors in the college level competition.

  5. 9th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico and South America came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 9th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Seventy-seven teams, representing high schools and colleges from 21 states, Puerto Rico, and Columbia, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. In this photograph, the New Orleans area schools team #2 from New Orleans, Louisiana maneuvers through an obstacle course. The team captured second place in the high school division competition. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by the development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems, similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team.

  6. Magnetic perturbation inspection of inner bearing races

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, J. R.; Lankford, J.

    1972-01-01

    Approximately 100 inner race bearings were inspected nondestructively prior to endurance testing. Two of the bearings which failed during testing spalled at the sites of subsurface inclusions previously detected by using magnetic field perturbation. At other sites initially judged to be suspect, subsurface inclusion-nucleated cracking was observed. Inspection records and metallurgical sectioning results are presented and discussed.

  7. Race to Top Now Faces Acid Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2010-01-01

    With the conclusion of the second round of the federal Race to the Top competition, states across the country--winners and losers alike--are vowing to move forward with ambitious plans to reshape teacher-evaluation systems, fix struggling schools, revamp antiquated data systems, and make other changes aimed at raising student achievement. Yet…

  8. Race to Top Round Two Heating Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2010-01-01

    With the second-round deadline for federal Race to the Top Fund grants less than six weeks away, states are rushing to raise the stakes on their education reform plans as they fight over the remaining $3.4 billion in prize money. But in doing so, states from Massachusetts to Colorado are tangling with their teachers' unions as they test how far…

  9. The Truth about Mentoring Minorities: Race Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, David A.

    2001-01-01

    A 3-year study of mentoring patterns at 3 corporations reveals that whites and minorities follow distinct patterns of advancement and should be mentored in very different ways. Cross-race mentoring must acknowledge issues of negative stereotypes, role modeling, peer resentment, skepticism about intimacy, and network management. (JOW)

  10. Ideological Repositioning: Race, Social Justice, and Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I engage in discourse centrally located in the ideology of race in the United States of America juxtaposed to social justice with promise for tomorrow in higher education and beyond. I assert that social justice in kinesiology requires that once hired, retaining, securing tenured status, and promoting faculty of color means having…

  11. The Issue of Race in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Jay C.

    2005-01-01

    The articles in this issue of "The Counseling Psychologist" discuss race and have implications for counseling psychology. Bryant-Davis and Ocampo?s (2005 [this issue]) article is about evaluation and treatment of racial-ethnic minority clients and patients and has implications for practice. Utsey, Gernat, and Hammar's (2005 [this issue]) article…

  12. Race, Identity and Representation in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Cameron, Ed.; Crichlow, Warren, Ed.

    This book presents 24 essays, written by scholars in the humanities and social sciences, that offer cultural and poststructural appraisals of race. The essays illustrate the range, scope, diversity, appeal, and power of work currently underway in the field. They attempt to intervene in the increasingly acrimonious debate over racial inequality and…

  13. The Old Jalopy Races into the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Considine, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Discusses alternative transportation technological advances in speed, range, battery strategies, and safety facilitated by motor car racing. Presents a historical perspective of the development of steam, electric and gas-powered vehicles and modern versions of electric, and mixed power source cars being tested today. (MCO)

  14. A White Teacher Talks about Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsman, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Veteran teacher Julie Landsman leads the reader through a day of teaching and reflection about her work with high school students who are from a variety of cultures. She speaks honestly about issues of race, poverty, institutional responsibility, and white privilege by engaging the reader in the experiences of a day in the classroom with some of…

  15. Race and Ethnicity in Fragile Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummer, Robert A.; Hamilton, Erin R.

    2010-01-01

    Robert Hummer and Erin Hamilton note that the prevalence of fragile families varies substantially by race and ethnicity. African Americans and Hispanics have the highest prevalence; Asian Americans, the lowest; and whites fall somewhere in the middle. The share of unmarried births is lower among most foreign-born mothers than among their U.S.-born…

  16. Race--Social, Biological, or Lemonade?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents comments on an article by R. L. Sternberg, E. L. Grigorenko, and K. K. Kidd and another article by H. Tang, T. Quertermous, B. Rodriguez, S. L. Kardia, X. Zhu, X., A. Brown, et al. (2005). On the day that the author of this paper reads Sternberg, Grigorenko, and Kidd's (January 2005) article on race, an article from the…

  17. Ecological factors contributing to variability of persistent organic pollutant bioaccumulation within forage fish communities of the Detroit River, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Anne M; Paterson, Gord; Drouillard, Ken G; Haffner, G Douglas

    2014-08-01

    Understanding variability of contaminant bioaccumulation within and among fish populations is critical for distinguishing between the chemical and biological mechanisms that contribute to food web biomagnification and quantifying contaminant exposure risks in aquatic ecosystems. The present study examined the relative contributions of chemical hydrophobicity (octanol-water partition coefficient [KOW ]) and habitat use as factors regulating variability in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener bioaccumulation in 3 lower trophic level cyprinid species across spatial and temporal scales. Bluntnose minnows (Pimephales notatus), spottail shiners (Notropis hudsonius), and emerald shiners (Notropis atherinoides) were sampled at 3 locations in the Detroit River, Ontario, Canada. Variability in PCB concentration was evaluated with respect to several factors, including chemical hydrophobicity, site, season, species, and weight using sum of squares and Levene's test of homogeneity of variance. Individual variability in bioaccumulated congener-specific residues depended on chemical hydrophobicity with mid- and high-range KOW congeners (log KOW  >6.0), demonstrating the highest amount of variance compared with low KOW congeners. Different feeding strategies also contributed to the variance observed for mid-range KOW congeners among species. In the present study, benthic feeding specialists exhibited lower variance in PCB concentrations compared with the 2 generalist species. The results indicate that chemical hydrophobicity and feeding ecology not only contribute to differences in the biomagnification potentials of fish, but also regulate between-individual variation in PCB concentrations both across and within fish species. PMID:24729083

  18. Determining the Appropriate Package and Transportation Methodology for the Detroit Edison, Fermi II Msrs and Associated Components

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, B.

    2007-07-01

    During the spring of 2005, Detroit Edison, Enrico Fermi II Nuclear Power Station (Fermi) decided to disposition two MSRs and associated components scheduled for replacement in the spring of 2006 during the MSR Replacement Outage. Of concern to Fermi was the proper packaging and transportation methodology when dis-positioning a component measuring approximately 110' in length and 13' in diameter and weighing over 300 tons. Upon removal from the Turbine Deck the retired MSRs and associated components were turned over to the Rad Waste Group for packaging and final disposition. Fermi requested quotations from vendors to package, transport, and disposition the MSRs and associated components. However, multiple Vendors informed Fermi that the size and weight of the MSRs were questionable in passing permitting requirements and would require segmentation and volume reduction on site or at a waste processor. Fermi contracted with MHF Logistical Solutions (MHF-LS) based on their ability to receive clearances for shipping the MSRs in one piece via two heavy haul rail conveyances acting as a bolstered load with professionally engineered blocking and bracing configured to support the retired MSRs. (authors)

  19. Mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus maculosus ) spatial distribution, breeding water depth, and use of artificial spawning habitat in the Detroit River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, Jaquelyn; Mifsud, David A.; Briggs, Andrew S.; Boase, James C.; Kennedy, Gregory W.

    2015-01-01

    Mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus maculosus) populations have been declining in the Great Lakes region of North America. However, during fisheries assessments in the Detroit River, we documented Mudpuppy reproduction when we collected all life stages from egg through adult as by-catch in fisheries assessments. Ten years of fisheries sampling resulted in two occurrences of Mudpuppy egg collection and 411 Mudpuppies ranging in size from 37–392 mm Total Length, collected from water 3.5–15.1 m deep. Different types of fisheries gear collected specific life stages; spawning females used cement structures for egg deposition, larval Mudpuppies found refuge in eggmats, and we caught adults with baited setlines and minnow traps. Based on logistic regression models for setlines and minnow traps, there was a higher probability of catching adult Mudpuppies at lower temperatures and in shallower water with reduced clarity. In addition to documenting the presence of all life stages of this sensitive species in a deep and fast-flowing connecting channel, we were also able to show that standard fisheries research equipment can be used for Mudpuppy research in areas not typically sampled in herpetological studies. Our observations show that typical fisheries assessments and gear can play an important role in data collection for Mudpuppy population and spawning assessments.

  20. Neighborhood Social Cohesion and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Community-Based Sample: Findings from the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Lauren; Aiello, Allison E.; Cheng, Caroline; Galea, Sandro; Koenen, Karestan; Uddin, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common and debilitating. Although research has identified individual-level risk factors for PTSD, the role of macro-social factors in PTSD etiology remains unknown. This study tests whether perceived neighborhood social cohesion (NSC), measured at the both the individual and neighborhood levels, plays a role in determining past-year risk of PTSD among those exposed to trauma. Methods Data (n=1,221) was obtained from an ongoing prospective epidemiologic study in the city of Detroit. Assessment of traumatic event exposure and PTSD was consistent with DSM-IV criteria. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) logistic regression models were used to estimate the association of neighborhood-level perceived NSC with the risk of PTSD, adjusting for individual-level perceptions of NSC and other covariates. Results The odds of past-year PTSD were significantly higher among those residing in a neighborhood with low social cohesion compared to high (OR=2.44, 95%CI: 1.58, 3.78), independent of individual sociodemographic characteristics, number of traumas, and individual-level perceptions of NSC. The odds of past-year PTSD were not significantly associated with individual-level perceptions of NSC. Conclusions These results demonstrate that social context shapes risk of PTSD and suggest that changing the social context may shift vulnerability to this disorder. PMID:22526824

  1. Comparison of Exposures Among Arab American and Non-Hispanic White Female Thyroid Cancer Cases in Metropolitan Detroit

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, L.; Soliman, A.; Ruterbusch, J. J.; Smith, N.

    2013-01-01

    Arab American (ArA) women may be at greater risk for thyroid cancer (TC) than White women. This case-case comparison explored differences in known and proposed risk factors of TC among ArA and non-Hispanic White (NHW) female TC cases in metropolitan Detroit. Cases of invasive TC identified from a population-based registry responded to a telephone survey regarding potential TC risk factors. Thirty ArA women (response rate 52%) and 70 NHW women (67%) participated. NHW women reported significantly more prior thyroid disease (TD), family history of TD, hormone use, cumulative years of hormone use, cigarette and alcohol consumption. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, ArA women had significantly higher odds of exposure to dental x-rays (OR = 3.48, CI 1.01–12.00) and medical radiation (OR = 13.58, CI 1.49–124.04) than NHW women. Risk factors for TC may differ among ArA women and their NHW counterparts. PMID:21647624

  2. America's Cup yacht racing: race analysis and physical characteristics of the athletes.

    PubMed

    Neville, Vernon; Calefato, Julian; Pérez-Encinas, Cristina; Rodilla-Sala, Enrique; Rada-Ruiz, Sergio; Dorochenko, Paul; Folland, Jonathan P

    2009-07-01

    The America's Cup is the oldest competing trophy in sport, yet little is known of the nature and intensity of racing or the physical characteristics of the athletes. In this study, aspects of the physical demands of America's Cup yacht racing were analysed, including the intensity of exercise and activity pattern of "grinding". Anthropometric data were collected from 92 professional male America's Cup sailors, and fitness data from a top-4 and a lower-7 ranking team during the 32nd America's Cup. Over the 135 races, mean race duration was 82 min (s = 9), with 20 tacks (s = 10) and 8 gybes (s = 3) per race. Grinding bouts were 5.5 s (s = 5.4; range: 2.2-66.3) long, with 143 exercise bouts per race and an exercise-to-rest ratio of 1:6. Mean and peak heart rate was 64% and 92% of maximum for all positions, with bowmen highest (71% and 96%). Grinders were taller, heavier, and stronger than all other positions. Body fat was similar between positions (13%, s = 4). The higher-standard team was stronger and had greater strength endurance, which probably contributed to their quicker manoeuvres. Intensity of exercise was dependent on the similarity of competing boats and the role of the athlete. The short duration and intermittent nature of grinding is indicative of predominantly anaerobic energy provision. PMID:19629841

  3. Contributions of Racial and Sociobehavioral Homophily to Friendship Stability and Quality among Same-Race and Cross-Race Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Kristina L.; Dashiell-Aje, Ebony; Menzer, Melissa M.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Oh, Wonjung; Bowker, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined how racial and sociobehavioral similarities were associated with friendship stability and friendship quality. Cross-race friends were not significantly similar to each other in peer-nominated shyness/withdrawal, victimization, exclusion, and popularity/sociability. Relative to same-race friends, cross-race friends were…

  4. Double-Checking the Race Box: Examining Inconsistency between Survey Measures of Observed and Self-Reported Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saperstein, Aliya

    2006-01-01

    Social constructivist theories of race suggest no two measures of race will capture the same information, but the degree of "error" this creates for quantitative research on inequality is unclear. Using unique data from the General Social Survey, I find observed and self-reported measures of race yield substantively different results when used to…

  5. Geospatial relationships of air pollution and acute asthma events across the Detroit–Windsor international border: Study design and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Lemke, Lawrence D; Lamerato, Lois E; Xu, Xiaohong; Booza, Jason C; Reiners, John J; Raymond III, Delbert M; Villeneuve, Paul J; Lavigne, Eric; Larkin, Dana; Krouse, Helene J

    2014-01-01

    The Geospatial Determinants of Health Outcomes Consortium (GeoDHOC) study investigated ambient air quality across the international border between Detroit, Michigan, USA and Windsor, Ontario, Canada and its association with acute asthma events in 5- to 89-year-old residents of these cities. NO2, SO2, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured at 100 sites, and particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at 50 sites during two 2-week sampling periods in 2008 and 2009. Acute asthma event rates across neighborhoods in each city were calculated using emergency room visits and hospitalizations and standardized to the overall age and gender distribution of the population in the two cities combined. Results demonstrate that intra-urban air quality variations are related to adverse respiratory events in both cities. Annual 2008 asthma rates exhibited statistically significant positive correlations with total VOCs and total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) at 5-digit zip code scale spatial resolution in Detroit. In Windsor, NO2, VOCs, and PM10 concentrations correlated positively with 2008 asthma rates at a similar 3-digit postal forward sortation area scale. The study is limited by its coarse temporal resolution (comparing relatively short term air quality measurements to annual asthma health data) and interpretation of findings is complicated by contrasts in population demographics and health-care delivery systems in Detroit and Windsor. PMID:24220215

  6. Effect of wind and altitude on record performance in foot races, pole vault, and long jump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    1985-08-01

    Using only elementary physics, one can estimate the effect of wind and altitude on performance in several track and field events. Experiments have shown that the power lost to aerodynamic drag forces is about a tenth of the total power expended in running at sprint speeds. From this observation one can calculate the effect of wind or of air density changes on sprinting speed. In pole vaulting, the sprinter converts his kinetic energy into potential energy to clear the bar. In long jumping, he is a projectile, but he is prevented from reaching his optimum distance expected for his initial velocity by the height which he can attain during his jump. For each of these events, performance in moderate winds of 2.0 m/s or at altitudes comparable to Mexico City differ by several percent from performances at sea level or in still air. In longer running races and in bicycle races, aerodynamic forces play an important role in racing strategy. However, since the athletes perform in groups it is difficult to calculate the effect on individual performances.

  7. Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, L.; Baier, A.; Buchacz, A.; Majzner, M.; Sobek, M.

    2015-11-01

    Aerodynamics is one of the most important factors which influence on every aspect of a design of a car and car driving parameters. The biggest influence aerodynamics has on design of a shape of a race car body, especially when the main objective of the race is the longest distance driven in period of time, which can not be achieved without low energy consumption and low drag of a car. Designing shape of the vehicle body that must generate the lowest possible drag force, without compromising the other parameters of the drive. In the article entitled „Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars” are being presented problems solved by computer analysis of cars aerodynamics and free form modelling. Analysis have been subjected to existing race car of a Silesian Greenpower Race Team. On a basis of results of analysis of existence of Kammback aerodynamic effect innovative car body were modeled. Afterwards aerodynamic analysis were performed to verify existence of aerodynamic effect for innovative shape and to recognize aerodynamics parameters of the shape. Analysis results in the values of coefficients and aerodynamic drag forces. The resulting drag forces Fx, drag coefficients Cx(Cd) and aerodynamic factors Cx*A allowed to compare all of the shapes to each other. Pressure distribution, air velocities and streams courses were useful in determining aerodynamic features of analyzed shape. For aerodynamic tests was used Ansys Fluent CFD software. In a paper the ways of surface modeling with usage of Realize Shape module and classic surface modeling were presented. For shapes modeling Siemens NX 9.0 software was used. Obtained results were used to estimation of existing shapes and to make appropriate conclusions.

  8. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  9. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  10. Race, class, and environmental health: a review and systematization of the literature.

    PubMed

    Brown, P

    1995-04-01

    This paper analyzes and systematizes the race and class differentials in exposure to toxic hazards and actual health outcomes. Research is categorized into the following: Proximity to known hazards includes (1) presence of hazardous waste sites and facilities (landfills, incinerators, Superfund sites), (2) exposure to air pollution, (3) exposure to various environmental hazards, e.g., toxic releases and hazards in pesticides and foods; Regulation, amelioration and cleanup includes (4) record of decisions (RODs) and cleanups at NPL sites, (5) regulatory action, as measured by assessed fines for environmental pollution; Health effects includes (6) specific health outcomes which are related to environmental burden (e.g., blood lead levels). Proximity to prospective hazards includes (7) sitting decisions for incinerators, hazardous waste sites, and nuclear storage sites. The overwhelming bulk of evidence supports the "environmental justice" belief that environmental hazards are inequitably distributed by class, and especially race. PMID:7588491

  11. Philosophy of race meets population genetics.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Quayshawn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, I respond to four common semantic and metaphysical objections that philosophers of race have launched at scholars who interpret recent human genetic clustering results in population genetics as evidence for biological racial realism. I call these objections 'the discreteness objection', 'the visibility objection', 'the very important objection', and 'the objectively real objection.' After motivating each objection, I show that each one stems from implausible philosophical assumptions about the relevant meaning of 'race' or the nature of biological racial realism. In order to be constructive, I end by offering some advice for how we can productively critique attempts to defend biological racial realism based on recent human genetic clustering results. I also offer a clarification of the relevant human-population genetic research. PMID:25963045

  12. RACE, ETHNICITY, AND NIH RESEARCH AWARDS

    PubMed Central

    Ginther, Donna K.; Schaffer, Walter T.; Schnell, Joshua; Masimore, Beth; Liu, Faye; Haak, Laurel L.; Kington, Raynard

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the association between a U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) R01 applicant’s self-identified race or ethnicity and the probability of receiving an award by using data from the NIH IMPAC II grant database, the Thomson Reuters Web of Science, and other sources. Although proposals with strong priority scores were equally likely to be funded regardless of race, we find that Asians are 4 percentage points and black or African-American applicants are 13 percentage points less likely to receive NIH investigator-initiated research funding compared with whites. After controlling for the applicant’s educational background, country of origin, training, previous research awards, publication record, and employer characteristics, we find that black or African-American applicants remain 10 percentage points less likely than whites to be awarded NIH research funding. Our results suggest some leverage points for policy intervention. PMID:21852498

  13. Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirshfeld, A. W.

    2001-05-01

    The new book "Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos" chronicles the centuries-long struggle to secure the first distance to a star through detection of stellar parallax. Beginning with the naked-eye attempts of Tycho Brahe and proceeding through the telescopic studies of Robert Hooke, James Bradley, and William Herschel, all three of whom employed observational strategies suggested by Galileo, the effort to measure stellar parallax gained momentum in the early 19th century with dramatic improvements in telescope technology by German craftsmen such as Joseph Fraunhofer. Three near-contemporaneous announcements of stellar parallaxes were made in the late 1830s by Thomas Henderson (Alpha Centauri), Wilhelm Struve (Vega), and Friedrich Bessel (61 Cygni). By consensus of the astronomical community, Bessel was credited with the first successful measurement of a star's distance. With its biographical focus, "Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos" highlights the human dimensions of scientific achievement.

  14. Race and the Politics of Polio

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Naomi

    2007-01-01

    The Tuskegee Institute opened a polio center in 1941, funded by the March of Dimes. The center’s founding was the result of a new visibility of Black polio survivors and the growing political embarrassment around the policy of the Georgia Warm Springs polio rehabilitation center, which Franklin Roosevelt had founded in the 1920s before he became president and which had maintained a Whites-only policy of admission. This policy, reflecting the ubiquitous norm of race-segregated health facilities of the era, was also sustained by a persuasive scientific argument about polio itself: that Blacks were not susceptible to the disease. After a decade of civil rights activism, this notion of polio as a White disease was challenged, and Black health professionals, emboldened by a new integrationist epidemiology, demanded that in polio, as in American medicine at large, health care should be provided regardless of race, color, or creed. PMID:17395849

  15. Race to Top Enters Home Stretch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele; Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2010-01-01

    When 16 finalists come to Washington next week to make their final pitches in the $4 billion Race to the Top competition, most can expect to go home empty-handed. U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan, in announcing the finalists last week, said that no more than $2 billion will be divided among "very few winners" when the awards are given out…

  16. Being specific about race-specific medicine.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Jonathan; Sankar, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    Gary Puckrein's paper "BiDil: From Another Vantage Point" misrepresents rather than refutes our previously published analysis of BiDil. Puckrein claims that if our analysis were to prevail, patients would be denied life-saving therapy. Any reasonable reading of our paper suggests exactly the opposite. Indeed, based on the evidence, we urge doctors to prescribe the generics or BiDil itself as they see fit, but without regard to the race of their patient. PMID:16912052

  17. Slow Pace for Race to Top Spending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Almost two years into the federal Race to the Top program, states are spending their shares of the $4 billion prize at a snail's pace--a reflection of the challenges the 12 winners face as they try to get ambitious education improvement plans off the ground. Through the end of March, the 11 states and the District of Columbia had spent just 14…

  18. Race, gender, class, sexuality (RGCS) and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2013-07-01

    Informed by intersectionality theory, a tradition that theorizes intersecting power relations of racism, patriarchy, classism and heterosexism, this paper investigates the degree to which race, gender, class and sexuality manifest distinct and interconnected associations with self-reported hypertension in nationally-representative survey data from Canada. Binary logistic regression is used to model the main effects of, and interactions between, race, gender, education, household income and sexual orientation on hypertension, controlling for age, using data from the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 90,310). From a main effects ('additive') perspective, Black respondents, respondents with less than high school and poorer respondents were significantly more likely than White respondents, university-educated Canadians and wealthier Canadians, respectively, to report hypertension. However, the interactive models indicate that the additive models were poor predictors of hypertension for wealthy Black men, wealthy South Asian women, women with less than a high school diploma and wealthy bisexual respondents, who were more likely than expected to report hypertension, and for poor Black men, poor South Asian women, poor South Asian men and women with a university degree, who were less likely than expected to report hypertension. It appears that, with regard to blood pressure at least, Canadians experience the health effects of education differently by their genders and the health effects of income differently by their identities defined at the intersection of race and gender. This study provides empirical support for the intersectional approach to cardiovascular health inequalities by demonstrating that race, gender, class and sexuality cannot be disentangled from one another as predictors of hypertension. PMID:23726211

  19. Districts Dumping At-Large Races

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Luis Carlos Ayala treks up and down hilly driveways in a local neighborhood on a recent weeknight, going door to door to deliver his short campaign spiel and a flier. Even though the 18,650-student Pasadena Unified district serves a locale of more than 202,300 residents, Mr. Ayala aims to reach voters in an area of only 28,900 for this race, as a…

  20. Injuries in short track asphalt racing.

    PubMed

    Busby, J D

    1978-10-01

    Stock car racing is a popular activity. Although spectators are seldom injured, drivers at short asphalt tracks often sustain minor injuries. The neck and the knee are the most commonly injured areas. Rigid safety requirements are essential and help to prevent serious injuries. Severe injuries occur on an average of once a year, but no fatalities have been recorded at one short track that has been studied for a six-year period. PMID:707264