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Sample records for air race detroit

  1. 75 FR 17106 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit... vessels from portions of the Detroit River during the Red Bull Air Race. This temporary safety zone is... (M-30), U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New...

  2. The Unintended Significance of Race: Environmental Racial Inequality in Detroit.

    PubMed

    Downey, Liam

    2005-03-01

    This article addresses shortcomings in the literature on environmental inequality by (a) setting forth and testing four models of environmental inequality and (b) explicitly linking environmental inequality research to spatial mismatch theory and to the debate on the declining significance of race. The explanatory models ask whether the distribution of blacks and whites around environmental hazards is the result of black/white income inequality, racist siting practices, or residential segregation. The models are tested using manufacturing facility and census data from the Detroit metropolitan area. It turns out that the distribution of blacks and whites around this region's polluting manufacturing facilities is largely the product of residential segregation which, paradoxically, has reduced black proximity to manufacturing facility pollution.

  3. The Unintended Significance of Race: Environmental Racial Inequality in Detroit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Liam

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses shortcomings in the literature on environmental inequality by (a) setting forth and testing four models of environmental inequality and (b) explicitly linking environmental inequality research to spatial mismatch theory and to the debate on the declining significance of race. The explanatory models ask whether the…

  4. Race-Ethnicity, Poverty, Urban Stressors, and Telomere Length in a Detroit Community-based Sample.

    PubMed

    Geronimus, Arline T; Pearson, Jay A; Linnenbringer, Erin; Schulz, Amy J; Reyes, Angela G; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2015-06-01

    Residents of distressed urban areas suffer early aging-related disease and excess mortality. Using a community-based participatory research approach in a collaboration between social researchers and cellular biologists, we collected a unique data set of 239 black, white, or Mexican adults from a stratified, multistage probability sample of three Detroit neighborhoods. We drew venous blood and measured telomere length (TL), an indicator of stress-mediated biological aging, linking respondents' TL to their community survey responses. We regressed TL on socioeconomic, psychosocial, neighborhood, and behavioral stressors, hypothesizing and finding an interaction between poverty and racial-ethnic group. Poor whites had shorter TL than nonpoor whites; poor and nonpoor blacks had equivalent TL; and poor Mexicans had longer TL than nonpoor Mexicans. Findings suggest unobserved heterogeneity bias is an important threat to the validity of estimates of TL differences by race-ethnicity. They point to health impacts of social identity as contingent, the products of structurally rooted biopsychosocial processes.

  5. Race-Ethnicity, Poverty, Urban Stressors, and Telomere Length in a Detroit Community-based Sample.

    PubMed

    Geronimus, Arline T; Pearson, Jay A; Linnenbringer, Erin; Schulz, Amy J; Reyes, Angela G; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2015-06-01

    Residents of distressed urban areas suffer early aging-related disease and excess mortality. Using a community-based participatory research approach in a collaboration between social researchers and cellular biologists, we collected a unique data set of 239 black, white, or Mexican adults from a stratified, multistage probability sample of three Detroit neighborhoods. We drew venous blood and measured telomere length (TL), an indicator of stress-mediated biological aging, linking respondents' TL to their community survey responses. We regressed TL on socioeconomic, psychosocial, neighborhood, and behavioral stressors, hypothesizing and finding an interaction between poverty and racial-ethnic group. Poor whites had shorter TL than nonpoor whites; poor and nonpoor blacks had equivalent TL; and poor Mexicans had longer TL than nonpoor Mexicans. Findings suggest unobserved heterogeneity bias is an important threat to the validity of estimates of TL differences by race-ethnicity. They point to health impacts of social identity as contingent, the products of structurally rooted biopsychosocial processes. PMID:25930147

  6. Race/Ethnicity, Poverty, Urban Stressors and Telomere Length in a Detroit Community-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Geronimus, Arline T.; Pearson, Jay A.; Linnenbringer, Erin; Schulz, Amy J.; Reyes, Angela G.; Epel, Elissa S.; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

    2015-01-01

    Residents of distressed urban areas suffer early aging-related disease and excess mortality. Using a community-based participatory research approach in a collaboration between social researchers and cellular biologists, we collected a unique data set of 239 black, white, or Mexican adults from a stratified, multi-stage probability sample of three Detroit neighborhoods. We drew venous blood and measured Telomere Length (TL), an indicator of stress-mediated biological aging, linking respondents’ TL to their community survey responses. We regressed TL on socioeconomic, psychosocial, neighborhood, and behavioral stressors, hypothesizing and finding an interaction between poverty and racial/ethnic group. Poor whites had shorter TL than nonpoor whites; poor and nonpoor blacks had equivalent TL; poor Mexicans had longer TL than nonpoor Mexicans. Findings suggest unobserved heterogeneity bias is an important threat to the validity of estimates of TL differences by race/ethnicity. They point to health impacts of social identity as contingent, the products of structurally-rooted biopsychosocial processes. PMID:25930147

  7. The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) - Article in National Ambient Air Quality Status and Trends through 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research study that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted in Detroit, Michigan, named the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS), will help develop data that improves our understanding of human exposure to various air pollutants in our environment.

  8. 77 FR 1513 - Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing TIME AND DATE: 9 a.m., Tuesday, January 10, 2012... hearing is to examine current regulations and oversight practices for air shows and air races,...

  9. 75 FR 30708 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ..., between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulatory Information On April 5, 2010, we published a notice of... Federal Register (75 FR 17106). We received zero comments on the proposed rule. No public meeting...

  10. 76 FR 39289 - Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit... waters immediately prior to, during, and immediately after the Detroit APBA Gold Cup boat race....

  11. Evaluating spatial outliers and integrating temporal data in air pollution models for the Detroit-Windsor airshed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Brendan F.

    The heterogeneous nature of urban air complicates human exposure estimates and creates a need for accurate, highly detailed spatiotemporal air contaminant models. The study expands on previous investigations by the Geospatial Determinants of Health Outcomes Consortium that examined relationships between air pollutant distributions and asthma exacerbations. Two approaches, the removal of spatial data outliers and the integration of spatial and temporal data, were used to refine air quality models in the Detroit and Windsor international airshed. The evaluation of associations between the resulting air quality models and asthma exacerbations in Detroit and Windsor revealed weaker correlations with spatial outliers removed but improved correlations with the addition of temporal data. Recommendations for future work include increasing the spatial and temporal resolution of the asthma datasets and incorporating Windsor NAPS data through temporal scaling to help confirm the findings of the Detroit temporal scaling.

  12. Modeling spatiotemporal variability of intra-urban air pollutants in Detroit: A pragmatic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Brendan F.; Lemke, Lawrence D.

    2014-09-01

    This study combined a three-year time series of air pollutant measurements from the Michigan Air Sampling Network (MASN) with spatially detailed datasets for two two-week periods in September 2008 and June 2009. The objective was to produce monthly pollutant concentration models for the city of Detroit, Michigan, USA from January 2008 through December 2010, in support of a related epidemiological study examining adverse birth outcomes in Detroit. Two gaseous analytes, NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) and total BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene), as well as two particulate matter size fractions, PM2.5 and PM10, were investigated. The September 2008 and June 2009 datasets were modeled using ordinary kriging to produce high spatial density concentration maps with 300 m by 300 m resolution across the city. A weighted average was applied to these maps to generate a series of monthly spatial models for each pollutant. Temporal variability was then incorporated by adjusting each monthly spatial model using an average bulk shift derived from MASN time series measurements for the corresponding month over the three-year study period. The resulting models incorporate temporal trends while preserving neighborhood scale spatial variability. Seasonal variation was evident in NO2 models, but not readily discernable in BTEX or PM models across the three year study period. The greatest spatial and temporal variability was observed in the BTEX distributions, which are inferred to be strongly influenced by local sources. The methodology employed assumes that the interpolated monthly models adequately capture spatial variability of the air pollutants across the study area, the spatial distribution of pollutant concentrations remained consistent while their magnitude fluctuated from month to month, and that the available time series measurements reflect temporal trends across the city of Detroit throughout the three-year study period.

  13. Modeling exposures to traffic-related air pollutants for the NEXUS respiratory health study of asthmatic children in Detroit, MI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Near-Road EXposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) was designed to investigate associations between exposure to traffic-related air pollution and the respiratory health of asthmatic children living near major roadways in Detroit, MI. A combination of modeli...

  14. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF MOBILE SOURCE AIR TOXICS IN THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from the first two years of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) were evaluated to determine spatial and temporal characteristics in concentrations of mobile source air toxics (MSATs). Outdoor concentrations of MSATs were significantly higher in samples co...

  15. Air pollutant exposure and preterm and term small-for-gestational-age births in Detroit, Michigan: Long-term trends and associations

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hien Q.; Batterman, Stuart A.; Wirth, Julia J.; Wahl, Robert L.; Hoggatt, Katherine J.; Sadeghnejad, Alireza; Hultin, Mary Lee; Depa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies in a number of countries have reported associations between exposure to ambient air pollutants and adverse birth outcomes, including low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB) and, less commonly, small for gestational age (SGA). Despite their growing number, the available studies have significant limitations, e.g., incomplete control of temporal trends in exposure, modest sample sizes, and a lack of information regarding individual risk factors such as smoking. No study has yet examined large numbers of susceptible individuals. We investigated the association between ambient air pollutant concentrations and term SGA and PTB outcomes among 164,905 singleton births in Detroit, Michigan occurring between 1990 and 2001. SO2, CO, NO2, O3 and PM10 exposures were used in single and multiple pollutant logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) for these outcomes, adjusted for the infant’s sex and gestational age, the mother’s race, age group, education level, smoking status and prenatal care, birth season, site of residence, and long-term exposure trends. Term SGA was associated with CO levels exceeding 0.75 ppm (OR=1.14, 95% confidence interval=1.02–1.27) and NO2 exceeding 6.8 ppb (1.11, 1.03–1.21) exposures in the first month, and with PM10 exceeding 35 μg/m3 (1.22, 1.03–1.46) and O3 (1.11, 1.02–1.20) exposure in the third trimester. PTB was associated with SO2 (1.07, 1.01–1.14) exposure in the last month, and with (hourly) O3 exceeding 92 ppb (1.08, 1.02–1.14) exposure in the first month. Exposure to several air pollutants at modest concentrations was associated with adverse birth outcomes. This study, which included a large Black population, suggests the importance of the early period of pregnancy for associations between term SGA with CO and NO2, and between O3 with PTB; and the late pregnancy period for associations between term SGA and O3 and PM10, and between SO2 with PTB. It also highlights the importance of accounting for

  16. Spatial Analysis and Land Use Regression of VOCs and NO2 from School-Based Urban Air Monitoring in Detroit-Dearborn, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive ambient air sampling for nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and volatioe organic compounds (VOCs) was conducted at 25 schools and two compliance sites in Detroit and Dearborne, Michigan. Geographic Information System (GIS) data were calculated at each of 116 schools. The ...

  17. Dispersion Modeling of Traffic-Related Air Pollutant Exposures and Health Effects Among Children with Asthma in Detroit, Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Ganguly, Rajiv; Isakov, Vlad; Burke, Janet; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Snyder, Michelle; Robins, Thomas; Lewis, Toby

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular traffic is a major source of ambient air pollution in urban areas. Traffic-related air pollutants, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter, and diesel exhaust emissions, have been associated with adverse human health effects, especially in areas near major roads. In addition to emissions from vehicles, ambient concentrations of air pollutants include contributions from stationary sources and background (or regional) sources. Although dispersion models have been widely used to evaluate air quality strategies and policies and can represent the spatial and temporal variation in environments near roads, the use of these models in health studies to estimate air pollutant exposures has been relatively limited. This paper summarizes the modeling system used to estimate exposures in the Near-Roadway Exposure and Urban Air Pollutant Study, an epidemiological study that examined 139 children with asthma or symptoms consistent with asthma, most of whom lived near major roads in Detroit, Michigan. Air pollutant concentrations were estimated with a hybrid modeling framework that included detailed inventories of mobile and stationary sources on local and regional scales; the RLINE, AERMOD, and CMAQ dispersion models; and monitored observations of pollutant concentrations. The temporal and spatial variability in emissions and exposures over the 2.5-year study period and at more than 300 home and school locations was characterized. The paper highlights issues with the development and understanding of the significance of traffic-related exposures through the use of dispersion models in urban-scale exposure assessments and epidemiology studies. PMID:26139957

  18. Linking source and effect: resuspended soil lead, air lead, and children's blood lead levels in Detroit, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; Laidlaw, Mark A S; McElmurry, Shawn P; Filippelli, Gabriel M; Taylor, Mark

    2013-03-19

    This study evaluates atmospheric concentrations of soil and Pb aerosols, and blood lead levels (BLLs) in 367839 children (ages 0-10) in Detroit, Michigan from 2001 to 2009 to test a hypothesized soil → air dust → child pathway of contemporary Pb risk. Atmospheric soil and Pb show near-identical seasonal properties that match seasonal variation in children's BLLs. Resuspended soil appears to be a significant underlying source of atmospheric Pb. A 1% increase in the amount of resuspended soil results in a 0.39% increase in the concentration of Pb in the atmosphere (95% CI, 0.28 to 0.50%). In turn, atmospheric Pb significantly explains age-dependent variation in child BLLs. Other things held equal, a change of 0.0069 μg/m(3) in atmospheric Pb increases BLL of a child 1 year of age by 10%, while approximately 3 times the concentration of Pb in air (0.023 μg/m(3)) is required to induce the same increase in BLL of a child 7 years of age. Similarly, a 0.0069 μg/m(3) change in air Pb increases the odds of a child <1 year of age having a BLL ≥ 5 μg/dL by a multiplicative factor of 1.32 (95% CI, 1.26 to 1.37). Overall, the resuspension of Pb contaminated soil explains observed seasonal variation in child BLLs.

  19. Local-Scale Exposure Assessment of Air Pollutants in Source-Impacted Neighborhoods in Detroit, MI (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vette, A. F.; Bereznicki, S.; Sobus, J.; Norris, G.; Williams, R.; Batterman, S.; Breen, M.; Isakov, V.; Perry, S.; Heist, D.; Community Action Against Asthma Steering Committee

    2010-12-01

    There has been growing interest in improving local-scale (< 1-km) exposure assessments to better understand the impact of local sources of air pollutants on adverse health outcomes. This paper describes two research studies aimed at understanding the impact of local sources contributing to spatial gradients at the neighborhood-scale in Detroit, MI. The first study, the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS), was designed to assess the variability in concentrations of air pollutants derived from local and regional sources on community, neighborhood and personal exposures to air pollutants. Homes were identified at random in six different neighborhoods throughout Wayne County, MI that varied proximally to local industrial and mobile sources. Data were collected in summer (July-August) and winter (January-March) at a total of 135 homes over a three-year period (2004-2007). For five consecutive days at each home in summer and winter concurrent samples were collected of personal exposures, residential indoor and outdoor concentrations, and at a community monitoring site. The samples were analyzed for PM2.5 (mass and composition), air toxics, O3 and NO2. The second study is on-going and focuses on characterizing the impacts of mobile sources on near-road air quality and exposures among a cohort of asthmatic children. The Near-road EXposures and effects from Urban air pollutants Study (NEXUS) is designed to examine the relationship between near-road exposures to traffic-related air pollutants (BC, CO, NOx and PM components) and respiratory health of asthmatic children who live close to major roadways. The study will investigate the effects of traffic-associated exposures on exaggerated airway responses, biomolecular responses of inflammatory and oxidative stress, and how these exposures affect the frequency and severity of adverse respiratory outcomes. The study will also examine different near-road exposure assessment metrics, including monitoring and

  20. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT II, MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) OPERATION AND FUNCTION, (2) AIR CLEANER, (3) AIR SHUT-DOWN HOUSING, (4) EXHAUST SYSTEM, (5) BLOWER, (6) TURBOCHARGER, AND (7) TROUBLE-SHOOTING TIPS ON THE AIR SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…

  1. Geospatial relationships of air pollution and acute asthma events across the Detroit-Windsor international border: study design and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Lawrence D; Lamerato, Lois E; Xu, Xiaohong; Booza, Jason C; Reiners, John J; Raymond Iii, Delbert M; Villeneuve, Paul J; Lavigne, Eric; Larkin, Dana; Krouse, Helene J

    2014-07-01

    The Geospatial Determinants of Health Outcomes Consortium (GeoDHOC) study investigated ambient air quality across the international border between Detroit, Michigan, USA and Windsor, Ontario, Canada and its association with acute asthma events in 5- to 89-year-old residents of these cities. NO2, SO2, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured at 100 sites, and particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at 50 sites during two 2-week sampling periods in 2008 and 2009. Acute asthma event rates across neighborhoods in each city were calculated using emergency room visits and hospitalizations and standardized to the overall age and gender distribution of the population in the two cities combined. Results demonstrate that intra-urban air quality variations are related to adverse respiratory events in both cities. Annual 2008 asthma rates exhibited statistically significant positive correlations with total VOCs and total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) at 5-digit zip code scale spatial resolution in Detroit. In Windsor, NO2, VOCs, and PM10 concentrations correlated positively with 2008 asthma rates at a similar 3-digit postal forward sortation area scale. The study is limited by its coarse temporal resolution (comparing relatively short term air quality measurements to annual asthma health data) and interpretation of findings is complicated by contrasts in population demographics and health-care delivery systems in Detroit and Windsor.

  2. Particle Concentrations and Effectiveness of Free-Standing Air Filters in Bedrooms of Children with Asthma in Detroit, Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Du, Liuliu; Batterman, Stuart; Parker, Edith; Godwin, Christopher; Chin, Jo-Yu; O'Toole, Ashley; Robins, Thomas; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma; Lewis, Toby

    2011-01-01

    Asthma can be exacerbated by environmental factors including airborne particulate matter (PM) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). We report on a study designed to characterize PM levels and the effectiveness of filters on pollutant exposures of children with asthma. 126 households with an asthmatic child in Detroit, Michigan, were recruited and randomized into control or treatment groups. Both groups received asthma education; the latter also received a free-standing high efficiency air filter placed in the child’s bedroom. Information regarding the home, emission sources, and occupant activities was obtained using surveys administered to the child's caregiver and a household inspection. Over a one-week period, we measured PM, carbon dioxide (CO2), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) tracers, and air exchange rates (AERs). Filters were installed at midweek. Before filter installation, PM concentrations averaged 28 µg m−3, number concentrations averaged 70,777 and 1,471 L−1 in 0.3–1.0 and 1–5 µm size ranges, respectively, and the median CO2 concentration was 1,018 ppm. ETS tracers were detected in 23 of 38 homes where smoking was unrestricted and occupants included smokers and, when detected, PM concentrations were elevated by an average of 15 µg m−3. Filter use reduced PM concentrations by an average of 69 to 80%. Simulation models representing location conditions show that filter air flow, room volume and AERs are the key parameters affecting PM removal, however, filters can achieve substantial removal in even "worst" case applications. While PM levels in homes with asthmatic children can be high, levels can be dramatically reduced using filters. PMID:21874085

  3. An evaluation of EPA’s National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA): Comparison with benzene measurements in Detroit, Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Barbara Jane; Schultz, Bradley D.; Palma, Ted; Vette, Alan F.; Whitaker, Donald A.; Williams, Ronald W.

    2011-06-01

    The U.S. EPA periodically evaluates ambient concentrations, human exposures, and health risks for 180 hazardous air pollutants plus diesel particulate matter using modeled estimates from the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). NATA publishes estimates at the spatial resolution of U.S. Census tracts, which are subdivisions of a county. These local scale, model-predicted estimates from NATA are used extensively in community-based assessments; however, evaluation of NATA's ambient concentrations and human exposure estimates against measurement data has been limited to date. This paper compares modeled annual average benzene results from the 2002 NATA with measured results from the 2004 to 2007 Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) as a case study of the quality of NATA results. NATA model estimates support community-scale characterization and assessment. Benzene is particularly important as it was estimated by the 2002 NATA as the largest single air toxic pollutant in terms of cancer risk in the U.S. We found that the average ambient concentrations of benzene predicted by NATA were within 5 percent, on average, of the 24-h integrated average ambient concentrations measured in DEARS. The NATA human exposure estimates, which include only outdoor sources for benzene, were, on average, approximately half the measured breathing zone concentrations from DEARS. Our analyses support that the factors driving higher DEARS personal benzene concentrations relative to the NATA predicted exposure values are likely due, at least in part, to indoor sources. This work points to further community-scale modeling research to improve characterizations and assessments of human exposures.

  4. DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DEARS is a three-year field monitoring study that will be conducted in Detroit, Michigan and is designed to measure exposure and describe exposure relationships for air toxics, PM components, PM from specific sources, and criteria pollutants. Detroit, Michigan was considered ...

  5. A Comparison of Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants: Application to Epidemiology Studies in Detroit, Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Burke, Janet; Isakov, Vlad; Lewis, Toby; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Robins, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studies would all benefit from an improved understanding of the key information and metrics needed to assess exposures, as well as the strengths and limitations of alternate exposure metrics. This study develops and evaluates several metrics for characterizing exposure to traffic-related air pollutants for the 218 residential locations of participants in the NEXUS epidemiology study conducted in Detroit (MI, USA). Exposure metrics included proximity to major roads, traffic volume, vehicle mix, traffic density, vehicle exhaust emissions density, and pollutant concentrations predicted by dispersion models. Results presented for each metric include comparisons of exposure distributions, spatial variability, intraclass correlation, concordance and discordance rates, and overall strengths and limitations. While showing some agreement, the simple categorical and proximity classifications (e.g., high diesel/low diesel traffic roads and distance from major roads) do not reflect the range and overlap of exposures seen in the other metrics. Information provided by the traffic density metric, defined as the number of kilometers traveled (VKT) per day within a 300 m buffer around each home, was reasonably consistent with the more sophisticated metrics. Dispersion modeling provided spatially- and temporally-resolved concentrations, along with apportionments that separated concentrations due to traffic emissions and other sources. While several of the exposure metrics showed broad agreement, including traffic density, emissions density and modeled concentrations, these alternatives still produced exposure classifications that differed for a substantial fraction of study participants, e.g., from 20% to 50% of

  6. A comparison of exposure metrics for traffic-related air pollutants: application to epidemiology studies in Detroit, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Batterman, Stuart; Burke, Janet; Isakov, Vlad; Lewis, Toby; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Robins, Thomas

    2014-09-15

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studies would all benefit from an improved understanding of the key information and metrics needed to assess exposures, as well as the strengths and limitations of alternate exposure metrics. This study develops and evaluates several metrics for characterizing exposure to traffic-related air pollutants for the 218 residential locations of participants in the NEXUS epidemiology study conducted in Detroit (MI, USA). Exposure metrics included proximity to major roads, traffic volume, vehicle mix, traffic density, vehicle exhaust emissions density, and pollutant concentrations predicted by dispersion models. Results presented for each metric include comparisons of exposure distributions, spatial variability, intraclass correlation, concordance and discordance rates, and overall strengths and limitations. While showing some agreement, the simple categorical and proximity classifications (e.g., high diesel/low diesel traffic roads and distance from major roads) do not reflect the range and overlap of exposures seen in the other metrics. Information provided by the traffic density metric, defined as the number of kilometers traveled (VKT) per day within a 300 m buffer around each home, was reasonably consistent with the more sophisticated metrics. Dispersion modeling provided spatially- and temporally-resolved concentrations, along with apportionments that separated concentrations due to traffic emissions and other sources. While several of the exposure metrics showed broad agreement, including traffic density, emissions density and modeled concentrations, these alternatives still produced exposure classifications that differed for a substantial fraction of study participants, e.g., from 20% to 50% of

  7. Gender and race in beliefs about outdoor air pollution.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B

    2002-08-01

    Universal need for, or reactions to, risk communications should not be assumed; potential differences across demographic groups in environmental risk beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors could affect risk levels or opportunities for risk reduction. This article reports relevant findings from a survey experiment involving 1,100 potential jurors in Philadelphia concerning public responses to outdoor air pollution and air quality information. Flynn et al. (1994) and Finucane et al. (2000) found significant differences in risk ratings for multiple hazards, and in generic risk beliefs, between white men (or a subset) and all others (white women, nonwhite men, and nonwhite women). This study examined whether white men had significantly different responses to air pollution and air pollution information. An opportunity sample of volunteers from those awaiting potential jury duty in city courts (matching census estimates for white versus nonwhite proportions, but more female than the city's adult population and more likely to have children) filled out questionnaires distributed quasi-randomly. On most measures there were no statistically significant differences among white men (N = 192), white women (N = 269), nonwhite men (N = 165), and nonwhite women (N = 272). Nonwhites overall (particularly women) reported more concern about and sensitivity to air pollution than whites, and were more concerned by (even overly sensitive to) air pollution information provided as part of the experiment. Nonwhites also were more likely (within-gender comparisons) to report being active outdoors for at least four hours a day, a measure of potential exposure to air pollution, and to report intentions to reduce such outdoor activity after reading air pollution information. Differences between men and women were less frequent than between whites and nonwhites; the most distinctive group was nonwhite women, followed by white men. Flynn et al. (1994) and Finucane et al. (2000) found a far larger

  8. A Comparison of Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants: Application to Epidemiology Studies in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studi...

  9. (PORTUGAL)THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) represents an intensive examination of personal, residential and community-based particulate matter and related co-pollutant measurements in Detroit, Michigan. Data from the DEARS will be used as inputs into air quality, la...

  10. Multiple Race Reporting. AIR 2001 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahra, Amita; Howard, Kyland

    For more than 20 years the standards set in Statistical Policy Directive No. 15 of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) have provided a common language to define and group the social constructs of "race" and "ethnicity." The definitions were developed to provide consistency in the collection of data by various federal agencies. Since the…

  11. 75 FR 39448 - Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 21191). We received zero comments on the proposed rule. No public meeting was... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit... Detroit River during the Detroit APBA Gold Cup. This special local regulation is necessary to...

  12. 75 FR 21191 - Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit... vessels from portions of the Detroit River during the Detroit APBA Gold Cup. This special local...

  13. An Evaluation of EPA's National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA): Comparison with Benzene Measurements in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA periodically evaluates ambient concentrations, human exposures, and health risks for 180 hazardous air pollutants plus diesel particulate matter using modeled estimates from the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). NATA publishes estimates at the spatial reso...

  14. Dispersion Modeling of Traffic-Related Air Pollutant Exposures and Health Effects among Children with Asthma in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicular traffic is a major source of ambient air pollution in urban areas, and traffic-related air pollutants, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter under 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) and diesel exhaust emissions, have been associated with...

  15. 75 FR 25794 - Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World Championship, Upper New York Bay, Lower Hudson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World... State Park, New Jersey and Ellis Island, New Jersey and New York for the Red Bull Air Race...

  16. Race-Based Differential Prediction in Air Force Technical Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Walter M.; Novick, Melvin R.

    1987-01-01

    Bayesian Johnson-Neyman methodology was used to investigate differential prediction by race in U.S. Air Force training programs. Meaningful differences were found in eight of nine comparisons. The setting of the cutting scores had an effect on whether the bias was positive or negative for Blacks. (Author/GDC)

  17. Can an egg-dropping race enhance students' conceptual understanding of air resistance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yeung Chung; Kwok, Ping Wai

    2009-03-01

    Children are familiar with situations in which air resistance plays an important role, such as parachuting. However, it is not known whether they have any understanding about the concept of air resistance, how air resistance affects falling objects, and the differential effect it has on different objects. The literature reveals that there are misconceptions even among undergraduate physics students about how air resistance is affected by the mass and size of falling objects. A study was carried out in Hong Kong to explore Grade 6 students' (aged 11-12) conceptions of air resistance with respect to falling objects of different size and mass, and whether the subjects showed any change in their conceptual understanding after participating in an egg-dropping race. The findings show that students had a wide range of conceptions, which could be characterized into different levels. Their conceptions seem rather robust, and more structured interventions are required to bring about changes in students' conceptual understanding of air resistance.

  18. Detroit River habitat inventory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.

    2003-01-01

    This inventory complements a previous survey of habitat in Ontario waters of the Detroit River (OMNR,1993). It is a starting point for balanced and sustained use of the river for natural resource conservation and economic development. The objectives of the inventory were to: (1) locate candidate sites for protection and restoration of fish and wildlife habitat in Michigan waters of the Detroit River; (2) describe the ownership and size of each site, as well as its potential for habitat protection and restoration; and (3) subjectively assess the extent to which existing habitat along the river is productive of fish and wildlife and protected from land uses that have degraded or destroyed such habitat.

  19. Detroit Commuter Hydrogen Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Jerry; Prebo, Brendan

    2010-07-31

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate the viability of using hydrogen as a fuel in an internal combustion engine vehicle for use as a part of a mass transit system. The advantages of hydrogen as a fuel include renew-ability, minimal environmental impact on air quality and the environment, and potential to reduce dependence on foreign energy sources for the transportation sector. Recognizing the potential for the hydrogen fuel concept, the Southeast Michigan Congress of Governments (SEMCOG) determined to consider it in the study of a proposed regional mass transit rail system for southeast Michigan. SEMCOG wanted to evaluate the feasibility of using hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine (H2ICE) vehicles in shuttle buses to connect the Detroit Metro Airport to a proposed, nearby rail station. Shuttle buses are in current use on the airport for passenger parking and inter-terminal transport. This duty cycle is well suited to the application of hydrogen fuel at this time because of the ability to re-fuel vehicles at a single nearby facility, overcoming the challenge of restricted fuel availability in the undeveloped hydrogen fuel infrastructure. A cooperative agreement between SEMCOG and the DOE was initiated and two H2ICE buses were placed in regular passenger service on March 29, 2009 and operated for six months in regular passenger service. The buses were developed and built by the Ford Motor Company. Wayne County Airport Authority provided the location for the demonstration with the airport transportation contractor, Metro Cars Inc. operating the buses. The buses were built on Ford E450 chassis and incorporated a modified a 6.8L V-10 engine with specially designed supercharger, fuel rails and injectors among other sophisticated control systems. Up to 30 kg of on-board gaseous hydrogen were stored in a modular six tank, 350 bar (5000 psi) system to provide a 150 mile driving range. The bus chassis and body were configured to carry nine passengers with

  20. ( DETROIT, MI ) STUDY DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE FINDINGS ASSOCIATED WITH THE DEARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) is a three-year field monitoring study initiated in 2004 that is designed to measure exposure and describe exposure relationships for air toxics, PM components, PM from specific sources, and criteria pollutants. Detroit, Mic...

  1. Determining Spatial Variability in PM2.5 Source Impacts across Detroit, MI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intra-urban variability in air pollution source impacts was investigated using receptor modeling of daily speciated PM2.5 measurements collected at residential outdoor locations across Detroit, MI (Wayne County) as part of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Stud...

  2. Tire Changes, Fresh Air, and Yellow Flags: Challenges in Predictive Analytics for Professional Racing.

    PubMed

    Tulabandhula, Theja; Rudin, Cynthia

    2014-06-01

    Our goal is to design a prediction and decision system for real-time use during a professional car race. In designing a knowledge discovery process for racing, we faced several challenges that were overcome only when domain knowledge of racing was carefully infused within statistical modeling techniques. In this article, we describe how we leveraged expert knowledge of the domain to produce a real-time decision system for tire changes within a race. Our forecasts have the potential to impact how racing teams can optimize strategy by making tire-change decisions to benefit their rank position. Our work significantly expands previous research on sports analytics, as it is the only work on analytical methods for within-race prediction and decision making for professional car racing.

  3. Traffic-related air pollution and circulating levels of total and allergen-specific IgE among children in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: There is a growing body of literature suggesting a relationship between traffic-related air pollution and allergic health outcomes. Animal studies have demonstrated that air pollution, particularly diesel exhaust particles, may stimulate or enhance atopic responses...

  4. Assessing Spatial and Temporal Variability of VOCs and PM-Components in Outdoor Air during the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure models for air pollutants often adjust for effects of the physical environment (e.g., season, urban vs. rural populations) in order to improve exposure and risk predictions. Yet attempts are seldom made to attribute variability in observed outdoor air measurements to spe...

  5. Environmental Racial Inequality in Detroit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Liam

    2006-01-01

    This study uses industrial pollution data from the Environmental Protection Agency's Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and tract-level demographic data from the 2000 U.S. census to determine whether environmental racial inequality existed in the Detroit metropolitan area in the year 2000. This study differs from prior environmental inequality…

  6. Sources of fine urban particulate matter in Detroit, MI.

    PubMed

    Gildemeister, Amy E; Hopke, Philip K; Kim, Eugene

    2007-10-01

    Data from the speciation trends network (STN) was used to evaluate the amount and temporal patterns of particulate matter originating from local industrial sources and long-range transport at two sites in Detroit, MI: Allen Park, MI, southwest of both Detroit and the areas of heavy industrial activity; Dearborn, MI, located on the south side of Detroit near the most heavily industrialized region. Using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and comparing source contributions at Allen Park to those in Dearborn, contributions made by local industrial sources (power plants, coke refineries, iron smelting, waste incineration), local area sources (automobile and diesel truck) and long range sources of PM(2.5) can be distinguished in greater Detroit. Overall, the mean mass concentration measured at Dearborn was 19% higher than that measured at Allen Park. The mass at Allen Park was apportioned as: secondary sulfate 31%, secondary nitrate 28%, soil 8%, mixed aged sea and road salts 4%, gasoline 15%, diesel 4%, and biomass burning 3%. At Dearborn the mass was apportioned as: secondary sulfate 25%, secondary nitrate 20%, soil 12%, mixed aged sea and road salts 4%, gasoline 20%, diesel 8%, iron and steel, 5%, and mixed industrial 7%. The impact of the iron and steel, soil, and mixed aged sea and road salt was much higher at the Dearborn site than at the Allen Park site, suggesting that close proximity to a local industrial complex has a direct negative impact on local air quality.

  7. Environmental Racial Inequality in Detroit.

    PubMed

    Downey, Liam

    2006-12-01

    This study uses industrial pollution data from the Environmental Protection Agency's Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and tract-level demographic data from the 2000 U.S. census to determine whether environmental racial inequality existed in the Detroit metropolitan area in the year 2000. This study differs from prior environmental inequality research in two important ways. First, it offers a positive rationale for using hazard proximity indicators. Second, it uses a distance decay modeling technique to estimate hazard proximity. This technique weights each hazard's estimated negative effect by distance such that the estimated negative effect declines continuously as distance from the hazard increases, thus providing more accurate estimates of proximity-based environmental risk than can be obtained using other variable construction techniques currently found in the literature. Using this technique, I find that Detroit's black neighborhoods were disproportionately burdened by TRI facility activity in 2000 and that neighborhood racial composition had a strong independent effect on neighborhood proximity to TRI activity.

  8. Detroit Edison conquers zebra mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, D.B.; Buda, D.J. )

    1993-11-01

    A potentially troublesome zebra mussel infestation at Detroit Edison's Harbor Beach Power Plant was nipped in time. Reducing the oxygen content of water inside the plant's water systems and using steam to thermally treat a colony of mussels that was established in the plant's screenhouse prevented the problem. So successful was the temperature treatment that it will be used regularly as part of the plant's annual mussel removal program.

  9. 33 CFR 100.918 - Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit, MI. 100.918 Section 100.918 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.918 Detroit APBA Gold...

  10. 33 CFR 100.918 - Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit, MI. 100.918 Section 100.918 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.918 Detroit APBA Gold...

  11. 33 CFR 100.918 - Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit, MI. 100.918 Section 100.918 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.918 Detroit APBA Gold...

  12. 33 CFR 100.918 - Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit, MI. 100.918 Section 100.918 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.918 Detroit APBA Gold...

  13. 33 CFR 100.918 - Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit, MI. 100.918 Section 100.918 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.918 Detroit APBA Gold...

  14. Long-term assessment of ultrafine particles on major roadways in Las Vegas, Nevada and Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation at the National Air Monitoring conference, given at the request of OAQPS partners. The presentation will cover ultrafine particle data collected at three locations - Las Vegas, Detroit, and Research Triangle Park.

  15. 76 FR 27284 - Special Local Regulation; Partnership in Education, Dragon Boat Race; Maumee River, Toledo, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ..., Dragon Boat Race; Maumee River, Toledo, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed... during the Dragon Boat Races which take place during the third or fourth weekend in July each year. This... from other vessel traffic. The Captain of the Port Detroit has determined dragon boat races in...

  16. Creating locally-resolved mobile-source emissions inputs for air quality modeling in support of an exposure study in Detroit, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Michelle; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Isakov, Vlad; Talgo, Kevin; Naess, Brian; Valencia, Alejandro; Omary, Mohammad; Davis, Neil; Cook, Rich; Hanna, Adel

    2014-12-09

    This work describes a methodology for modeling the impact of traffic-generated air pollutants in an urban area. This methodology presented here utilizes road network geometry, traffic volume, temporal allocation factors, fleet mixes, and emission factors to provide critical modeling inputs. These inputs, assembled from a variety of sources, are combined with meteorological inputs to generate link-based emissions for use in dispersion modeling to estimate pollutant concentration levels due to traffic. A case study implementing this methodology for a large health study is presented, including a sensitivity analysis of the modeling results reinforcing the importance of model inputs and identify those having greater relative impact, such as fleet mix. In addition, an example use of local measurements of fleet activity to supplement model inputs is described, and its impacts to the model outputs are discussed. We conclude that with detailed model inputs supported by local traffic measurements and meteorology, it is possible to capture the spatial and temporal patterns needed to accurately estimate exposure from traffic-related pollutants.

  17. Restoring Detroit's Street Lighting System

    SciTech Connect

    Kinzey, Bruce R.

    2015-10-21

    The City of Detroit is undertaking a comprehensive restoration of its street lighting system that includes transitioning the existing high-pressure sodium (HPS) sources to light-emitting diode (LED). Detroit’s well-publicized financial troubles over the last several years have added many hurdles and constraints to this process. Strategies to overcome these issues have largely been successful, but have also brought some mixed results. This document provides an objective review of the circumstances surrounding the system restoration, the processes undertaken and decisions made, and the results so far.

  18. Can an Egg-Dropping Race Enhance Students' Conceptual Understanding of Air Resistance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yeung Chung; Kwok, Ping Wai

    2009-01-01

    Children are familiar with situations in which air resistance plays an important role, such as parachuting. However, it is not known whether they have any understanding about the concept of air resistance, how air resistance affects falling objects, and the differential effect it has on different objects. The literature reveals that there are…

  19. Detroit Pursues Training with a Purpose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, William B.

    1978-01-01

    This article presents a six-week basic training course implemented in Detroit for operation and maintenance of a newly upgraded wastewater treatment plant. Each phase of the program, including manual preparation and use, is outlined and discussed. (CS)

  20. 76 FR 33643 - Safety Zone; Nicole Cerrito Birthday Fireworks, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Nicole Cerrito Birthday Fireworks, Detroit... vessels from a portion of the Detroit River during the Nicole Cerrito Birthday Fireworks. This temporary.... Background and Purpose On June 11, 2011, a private party is holding a land-based birthday celebration...

  1. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Manning Brothers, Detroit, Photographers, circa ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Manning Brothers, Detroit, Photographers, circa 1920. Courtesy Save Orchestra Hall, Inc. Photocopy by Jack E. Boucher, 1973 AUDITORIUM, LOOKING NORTH - Orchestra Hall, 3711 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, MI

  2. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Manning Brothers, Detroit, Photographers, circa ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Manning Brothers, Detroit, Photographers, circa 1920. Courtesy Save Orchestra Hall, Inc. Photocopy by Jack E. Boucher, 1973 EAST (FRONT) AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS - Orchestra Hall, 3711 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, MI

  3. 75 FR 60133 - Detroit Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC); Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Detroit Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC); Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Detroit Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC) to submit their applications for membership to the Captain of the Port Sector Detroit. DATES: Requests for membership should reach the U.S. Coast...

  4. 33 CFR 100.912 - Detroit Bell Isle Grand Prix, Detroit, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.912 Detroit Bell Isle Grand... Detroit River near Belle Isle, bounded by a line extending from a point of land on the southern shore of... position 42°20′28″; 082°59′43″ on the northern side of Belle Isle, adjacent to a point on land at...

  5. Mexicans of Detroit. Peopling of Michigan Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baba, Marietta Lynn; Abonyi, Malvina Hauk

    Tracing the background and history of Mexican Americans in Detroit, Michigan, the booklet briefly reviews the early stages of Meso-American history, the Spaniards' arrival in Mexico, colonial Mexico, Mexico's revolt for independence, and the internal turmoil in Mexico which continued until early in 1861. The accomplishments of such Mexicans as…

  6. Spatial Stigma and Health in Postindustrial Detroit.

    PubMed

    Graham, Louis F; Padilla, Mark B; Lopez, William D; Stern, Alexandra M; Peterson, Jerry; Keene, Danya E

    2016-01-01

    An emerging body of research suggests that those who reside in socially and economically marginalized places may be marked by a stigma of place, referred to as spatial stigma, which influences their sense of self, their daily experiences, and their relations with outsiders. Researchers conducted 60 semistructured interviews at partnering community-based organizations during summer 2011 with African American and Latina/o, structurally disadvantaged youth of diverse gender and sexual identities who were between 18 and 26 years of age residing in Detroit, Michigan. The disadvantaged structural conditions and dilapidated built environment were common themes in participants' narratives. Beyond these descriptions, participants' framings and expressions of their experiences in and perceptions of these spaces alluded to reputational qualities of their city and particular areas of their city that appear related to spatial stigma. Young Detroit residents articulated the ways that they experience and navigate the symbolic degradation of their city.

  7. Spatial Stigma and Health in Postindustrial Detroit.

    PubMed

    Graham, Louis F; Padilla, Mark B; Lopez, William D; Stern, Alexandra M; Peterson, Jerry; Keene, Danya E

    2016-01-01

    An emerging body of research suggests that those who reside in socially and economically marginalized places may be marked by a stigma of place, referred to as spatial stigma, which influences their sense of self, their daily experiences, and their relations with outsiders. Researchers conducted 60 semistructured interviews at partnering community-based organizations during summer 2011 with African American and Latina/o, structurally disadvantaged youth of diverse gender and sexual identities who were between 18 and 26 years of age residing in Detroit, Michigan. The disadvantaged structural conditions and dilapidated built environment were common themes in participants' narratives. Beyond these descriptions, participants' framings and expressions of their experiences in and perceptions of these spaces alluded to reputational qualities of their city and particular areas of their city that appear related to spatial stigma. Young Detroit residents articulated the ways that they experience and navigate the symbolic degradation of their city. PMID:26833796

  8. DAILY VARIATION IN ORGANIC COMPOSITION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was investigated as a part of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS). A high volume (113 liters/minute) sampler was used at the Allen Park community air monitoring station to collect PM2.5 for analysis by ga...

  9. Imaging Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhardt, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have recently begun to use the tools of neuroscience to examine the social psychological responses associated with race. This article serves as a review of the developing literature in this area. It advances the argument that neuroscience studies of race have the potential to shape fundamental assumptions about race, and the interplay…

  10. Detroit Healthy Youth Initiative: Creating Successful School-University Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaughtry, Nate; Krause, Joyce; McAuliffe, Patrice; Miotke, Rick; Price, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    The Detroit Healthy Youth Initiative is a 10-year partnership between the Detroit Public Schools (DPS) and Wayne State University (WSU) with the goal of improving the quality of school health and physical education programs throughout the city schools. Drawing on the experiences of WSU and DPS faculty, administrators, teachers, and project staff,…

  11. The Children: Shapes of Child Care in Detroit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smock, Sue Marx

    This study presented in this report attempts to describe the child care delivery system in Detroit by examining the types of child care provided by urban Detroit families for their preschool children. Data were collected by means of questionnaires sent to 197 child day care centers and 228 family day care homes and interviews conducted with…

  12. Dialect Leveling and /ai/ Monopthongization among African American Detroiters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Bridget L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents evidence that Detroit African Americans are participating in a recent sound change that is typically associated with some White but not African American varieties in the American South. Reports a leveling pattern in which /ai/ monothongization has expanded to the salient pre-voiceless context in Detroit African American English (AAE).…

  13. Sources of ambient fine particulate matter at two community sites in Detroit, Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Davyda M.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Keeler, Gerald J.; Parker, Edith A.; Kamal, Ali S.; Barres, James A.; Yip, Fuyuen Y.; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma

    Detroit, Michigan is a non-attainment area of the annual PM 2.5 (particles ⩽2.5 μm in diameter) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), and contains a host of local pollution contributors including high diesel traffic from a nearby international border crossing. A source apportionment analysis was conducted using PM 2.5 data collected from 1999 to 2002 by the Community Action Against Asthma (CAAA) project in Detroit, Michigan. CAAA used a community-based participatory research approach to identify and address the environmental triggers for asthma among children residing in southwest and east Detroit. The data used for the study included 24-h measurements of PM 2.5 mass, elemental and organic carbon, and a suite of trace element species, along with hourly measurements of PM 2.5 mass and black carbon. Positive matrix factorization (PMF2) was used to quantitatively apportion the sources of ambient PM 2.5 at each of two Detroit community sites. Results showed that southwest Detroit PM 2.5 levels can be apportioned to seven source categories: secondary sulfate/coal combustion, gasoline vehicles, diesel vehicles, refinery/oil combustion, iron-steel manufacturing/waste incineration, automotive electroplating, and sewage sludge incineration that includes crustal material from runoff. The PMF2 model apportioned the east Detroit PM 2.5 data into five source categories: secondary sulfate/coal combustion, motor vehicles/combustion, refinery/oil combustion, iron-steel manufacturing/waste incineration, and automotive electroplating. For both locations, approximately over 60% of the PM 2.5 mass was attributed to secondary sulfate/coal combustion sources, approximately 30% to vehicular sources, and 1-5% to local industrial sources. The unexplained mass accounted for <2% of the measured PM 2.5 mass. This study illustrates that regional secondary sulfate/coal combustion and local motor vehicle emissions alone are enough for this mid-western US city to be in non

  14. 77 FR 38484 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. ] SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce various safety zones for annual fireworks events in the Captain of the Port Detroit... Adrian Palomeque, Prevention, U.S. Coast Guard Sector Detroit, 110 Mount Elliot Ave., Detroit MI,...

  15. 76 FR 34867 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce various safety zones for annual fireworks events in the Captain of the Port Detroit... Sector Detroit, 110 Mount Elliot Ave., Detroit, MI 48207; telephone (313)-568- 9508, e-mail...

  16. 75 FR 32661 - Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Exhibition, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... spectators and vessels from the hazards associated with powerboat races. DATES: This regulation is effective... safety of vessels during the race, and immediate action is necessary to prevent possible loss of life and... of vessels and spectators from hazards associated with a powerboat race. The Captain of the...

  17. Access to Music Education with Regard to Race in Two Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Karen; Allegood, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study examined access to school music instruction with regard to race in two urban areas: Detroit, Michigan, and Washington, DC, in 2009-2010. We found significant differences in the provision of music instruction between schools with high and low proportions of nonwhite enrollment, in categories including curricular offerings,…

  18. Determining spatial variability in PM 2.5 source impacts across Detroit, MI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvall, Rachelle M.; Norris, Gary A.; Burke, Janet M.; Olson, David A.; Vedantham, Ram; Williams, Ron

    2012-02-01

    Intra-urban variability in air pollution source impacts was investigated using receptor modeling of daily speciated PM 2.5 measurements collected at residential outdoor locations across Detroit, MI (Wayne County) as part of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) during summer and winter from 2004 to 2006. Six areas were selected for the residential monitoring in the DEARS to capture impacts from different sources including local industry, motor vehicles, and upwind regional sources. PM 2.5 measurements were also collected at the Allen Park, MI Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) site for comparison with the residential outdoor sites. Sources impacting PM 2.5 were quantified using the EPA Chemical Mass Balance Model (CMB 8.2). Published source profiles were used as input to CMB along with a mixed industrial profile and a steel manufacturing profile obtained by applying the EPA Positive Matrix Factorization Model (PMF 4.0) to CSN data from a Midwestern U.S. site with industrial sources similar to Detroit. Major PM 2.5 sources impacting the Allen Park and residential monitoring areas during DEARS included motor vehicles (24-36% by mass), secondary sulfate/coal combustion (17-35%), secondary nitrate (16-37%) and organic matter (17-21%). Road dust, steel manufacturing, and mixed industrial sources contributed less than 11% by mass. CMB source contribution estimates for Allen Park during the DEARS generally compared well to CMB estimates from the collocated year-long CSN measurements using the same source profiles. CMB source contributions during DEARS showed similar contributions across the residential monitoring areas for secondary sulfate/coal combustion and secondary nitrate consistent with regional impacts for these sources. Contributions from motor vehicles, steel manufacturing, and mixed industrial sources varied across the DEARS monitoring areas, indicating impacts from local sources within the Detroit airshed that may not be well characterized by

  19. Electric vehicles in fleet operation at Detroit Edison

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, G.O.; Ostrowski, G.J.

    1982-06-01

    Detroit Edison operates a fleet of 24 electric cars in a cost-sharing demonstration program with the United States Department of Energy. The program features a unique lease program in which electric passenger cars are used by Detroit Edison employees for their personal driving needs, such as commuting to work, shopping, etc. Over 50,000 miles have been logged on the 24 cars during the first six months of operation. The project began in June, 1981. This paper describes the lease program and the Electric Car Service Center, charging stations and other facilities which Detroit Edison has set up to support the program.

  20. Measurement and Correlation of Ambient VOCs in Windsor, Ontario, Canada and Detroit, Michigan, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L. J.; You, H.; Xu, X.; Molaroni, S.; Lemke, L.; Weglicki, L.; Krouse, H.; Krajenta, R.

    2009-05-01

    An air quality study has been carried out in Windsor, Ontario, Canada and Detroit, Michigan, USA as part of a pilot research study undertaken by the Geospatial Determinants of Health Outcomes Consortium (GeoDHOC), a multidisciplinary, international effort aimed at understanding the health effects of air pollution in urban environments. Exposure to volatile organic compounds has long been associated with adverse health conditions such as atrophy of skeletal muscles, loss of coordination, neurological damage, dizziness, throat, nose, and eye irritation, nervous system depression, liver damage, and respiratory symptoms. Twenty-six species of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored during a 2-week period in September, 2008 at 100 sites across Windsor and Detroit, using 3M # 3500 Organic Vapour Monitors. Ten species with highest concentrations were selected for further investigation; Toluene (mean concentration =4.14 μm/m3), (m+p)-Xylene (2.30 μm/m3), Hexane (1.87 μm/m3), Benzene (1.37 μm/m3), 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene (0.87 μm/m3), Dichloromethane (0.77 μm/m3), Ethylbenzene (0.68 μm/m3), o-Xylene (0.63 μm/m3), n-Decane (0.42 μm/m3), and 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene (0.39 μm/m3). Comparison to a similar investigation in Sarnia, Ontario in October 2005 revealed that the mean concentrations of VOCs were higher in Windsor-Detroit for all species by a significant margin (31-958%), indicating substantial impact of local industrial and vehicular emissions in the WindsorVDetroit area. For most VOCs, the concentrations were higher in Detroit than in Windsor. The mean concentration of total VOC was 9.7 μm/m3 in Windsor, which is slightly higher than that in Sarnia in 2005 (7.9 um/m3), whilst total VOC concentration in Detroit was much higher (16.5 μm/m3). There were strong correlations among several of the 10 species, with the highest Pearson correlation coefficients (r=0.78 - 0.99, p<0.05) amongst the BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) group

  1. The Detroit River, Michigan: an ecological profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Jaworski, Eugene

    1988-01-01

    A part of the connecting channel system between Lake Huron and Lake Erie, the Detroit River forms an integral link between the two lakes for both humans and biological resources such as fish, nutrients, and plant detritus. This profile summarizes existing scientific information on the ecological structure and functioning of this ecosystem. Topics include the geological history of the region, climatic influences, river hydrology, lower trophic-level biotic components, native and introduced fishes, waterfowl use, ecological interrelationships, commercial and recreational uses of the river, and current management issues. Despite urbanization, the river still supports diverse fish, waterfowl, and benthic populations. Management issues include sewer overflows; maintenance dredging for navigation and port activities; industrial discharges of potentially hazardous materials; and wetland, fishery, and waterfowl protection and enhancement.

  2. The Detroit River, Michigan: An ecological profile

    SciTech Connect

    Manny, B.A.; Edsall, T.A.; Jaworski, E.

    1988-04-01

    A part of the connecting channel system between Lake Huron and Lake Erie, the Detroit River forms an integral link between the two lakes for both humans and biological resources such as fish, nutrients, and plant detritus. This profile summarizes existing scientific information on the ecological structure and functioning of this ecosystem, river hydrology, lower trophic-level biotic components, native and introduced fishes, waterfowl use, ecological interrelationships, commercial and recreational uses of the river, and current management issues. Despite urbanization, the river still supports diverse fish, waterfowl, and benthic populations. Management issues include sewer overflows; maintenance dredging for navigation and port activities; industrial discharges of potentially hazardous materials; and wetland, fishery, and waterfowl protection and enhancement. 210 refs., 30 figs., 41 tabs.

  3. THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY (DEARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field data collections for the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) have completed one-half of the planned study design. The DEARS is collecting personal, residential indoor, residential outdoor and central community monitoring data involving particulate matter, v...

  4. (DETROIT) SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF SUMMER 2004 DATA FROM DEARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) represents a multi-year assessment field study involving summer and winter season collection of personal, residential indoor, residential outdoor and central community monitoring measurements.

  5. SEDIMENTS: A RESERVOIR OF HISTORIC CONTAMINATION OF THE DETROIT RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation to a citizen's environment alliance regarding contamination of the Detroit River. Types and amounts of contaminants were outlined and major pollution sources were identified. Outline for remediation plan was presented. However, before remediation can be done, upstre...

  6. 2. View of pier #3, West approach, Detroit Superior High ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of pier #3, West approach, Detroit Superior High Level bridge (1914-1917). Pier #3 and #4 support the steel rive span. They are 116 feet by 80 feet at the base and rest on stiff blue clay 45 feet below the surface of the river. Cast-steel bolsters of the three-hinge steel arch are anchored by structural steel grillage to the masory piers. - Detroit Superior High Level Bridge, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. Trends in PM2.5 emissions, concentrations and apportionments in Detroit and Chicago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milando, Chad; Huang, Lei; Batterman, Stuart

    2016-03-01

    PM2.5 concentrations throughout much of the U.S. have decreased over the last 15 years, but emissions and concentration trends can vary by location and source type. Such trends should be understood to inform air quality management and policies. This work examines trends in emissions, concentrations and source apportionments in two large Midwest U.S. cities, Detroit, Michigan, and Chicago, Illinois. Annual and seasonal trends were investigated using National Emission Inventory (NEI) data for 2002 to 2011, speciated ambient PM2.5 data from 2001 to 2014, apportionments from positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor modeling, and quantile regression. Over the study period, county-wide data suggest emissions from point sources decreased (Detroit) or held constant (Chicago), while emissions from on-road mobile sources were constant (Detroit) or increased (Chicago), however changes in methodology limit the interpretation of inventory trends. Ambient concentration data also suggest source and apportionment trends, e.g., annual median concentrations of PM2.5 in the two cities declined by 3.2-3.6%/yr (faster than national trends), and sulfate concentrations (due to coal-fired facilities and other point source emissions) declined even faster; in contrast, organic and elemental carbon (tracers of gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust) declined more slowly or held constant. The PMF models identified nine sources in Detroit and eight in Chicago, the most important being secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate and vehicle emissions. A minor crustal dust source, metals sources, and a biomass source also were present in both cities. These apportionments showed that the median relative contributions from secondary sulfate sources decreased by 4.2-5.5% per year in Detroit and Chicago, while contributions from metals sources, biomass sources, and vehicles increased from 1.3 to 9.2% per year. This first application of quantile regression to trend analyses of speciated PM2.5 data reveals

  8. Race, poverty, and potential exposure of middle-school students to air emissions from confined swine feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Mirabelli, Maria C; Wing, Steve; Marshall, Stephen W; Wilcosky, Timothy C

    2006-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that airborne effluent from swine confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) may affect the health and quality of life of adults and the prevalence of asthma symptoms among children. To investigate the extent to which public school students may be exposed to airborne effluent from swine CAFOs and to evaluate the association between schools' demographic characteristics and swine CAFO exposures, we assessed the proximity of 226 schools to the nearest swine CAFO and conducted a survey of school employees to identify schools with noticeable livestock odor. We used publicly available information describing the enrollment of each school to assess the association between race and socioeconomic status (SES) and swine CAFO exposure. Odor from livestock was noticeable outside (n = 47, 21%) and inside (n = 19, 8%) school buildings. Schools with < 63% enrollment of white students and > or = 47% of students receiving subsidized lunches at school were located closer to swine CAFOs (mean = 4.9 miles) than were the remaining schools (mean = 10.8 miles) and were more likely to be located within 3 miles of an operation than were schools with high-white/high-SES enrollment (prevalence ratio = 2.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-4.33). The prevalence of reported livestock odor varied with SES (low SES, 25%; high SES, 17%). These analyses indicate that the potential for in-school exposure to pollution arising from swine CAFOs in North Carolina and the environmental health risks associated with such exposures vary according to the racial and economic characteristics of enrolled students. PMID:16581551

  9. Air Quality Modeling in Support of the Near-road EXposures and effects of Urban air pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the results of the model applications to estimate exposure metrics in support of an epidemiologic study in Detroit, Michigan. The Near-road Exposures to Urban air pollutant Study (NEXUS) design includes determining if children in Detroit, MI with asthma living ...

  10. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 84-484-1754, Detroit Fire Fighters, Detroit, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.E.; Melius, J.M.

    1986-12-01

    In response to a request from the International Association of Fire Fighters on behalf of the Detroit Fire Fighters Association, Detroit, Michigan, a health hazard evaluation was made of respiratory symptoms and skin irritation in fire fighters involved in a large fire and explosion at a warehouse. Over 200 fire fighters from fire-fighting organizations in three communities were involved in the incident. Site runoff water contained chlordane and malathion in low parts per million; other samples were negative. Nose and throat irritation, cough, and shortness of breath were experienced by a large proportion of fire fighters following the fire, and in 14, 15, and 17 percent, respectively, symptoms persisted over 2 months. Symptoms were significantly associated with time spent at the scene and time spent in heavy smoke. Pulmonary function tests were abnormal in 14 cases, ten due to obstructive lung disease, three to restrictive lung disease, and one to a combination. The authors conclude that better protective equipment is needed for fire fighters at chemical fires. Recommendations include development of a hazardous-materials response team, and implementation of a routine medical surveillance program.

  11. 33 CFR 100.920 - Tug Across the River, Detroit, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... east by 083°02′ W, and on the north by the U.S. shoreline (DATUM: NAD 83). This position is located on the Detroit River in front of Hart Plaza, Detroit, MI. (b) Special Local Regulations. The...

  12. 33 CFR 100.920 - Tug Across the River, Detroit, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... east by 083°02′ W, and on the north by the U.S. shoreline (DATUM: NAD 83). This position is located on the Detroit River in front of Hart Plaza, Detroit, MI. (b) Special Local Regulations. The...

  13. Bike Racing Helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, the U.S. Cycling Federation ruled that all racing bikers must wear helmets that meet American National Safety Institute Standards. Existing helmets were hot and heavy. Jim Gentes, president of Giro Sport Design, Inc. turned to Raymond Hicks an aerodynamicist at Ames Research Center for a design for a cool, lightweight helmet. Hicks created an aerodynamic helmet shape using technology from a NACA airfoil section. Air vents make the air flow laminar and reduce drag. Since 1986, Giro helmets have evolved and expanded. One was worn by the 1989 Tour de France winner.

  14. Racing Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jim; Gavin, Carl; Owen, Martin

    2004-09-01

    This paper outlines an innovative education project that, by using a cutting-edge racing car physics simulation, will help create the next generation of engineers. The article gives an overview of this genre of games to give a background to the non-games expert. It also identifies key educational methodologies that have helped to form the goals of the project.

  15. Talking Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darden, Jenee

    2009-01-01

    In many classrooms across America, race and ethnicity are very much on the table. Teachers dream of seeing their students discuss difference in a constructive way. Some educators actively encourage their classes to get outside their comfort zones and confront the country's racial history, but in many faculty rooms, there's little to no talk about…

  16. 77 FR 48856 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Event in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce a safety zone for an annual fireworks event in the Captain of the Port Detroit zone... email LT Adrian Palomeque, Prevention, U.S. Coast Guard Sector Detroit, 110 Mount Elliot Ave.,...

  17. 78 FR 27032 - Safety Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone... enforce various safety zones for annual marine events in the Captain of the Port Detroit zone from May 24... 165.941, Safety Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone, at the following...

  18. 77 FR 29898 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the safety zones for annual fireworks events in the Captain of the Port Detroit zone... the Port Detroit Zone, at the following times for the following events: (1) Put-In-Bay Fourth of...

  19. 77 FR 25073 - Special Local Regulation; Hebda Cup Rowing Regatta, Trenton Channel; Detroit River, Wyandotte, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ..., Trenton Channel; Detroit River, Wyandotte, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... the Detroit River, Wyandotte, Michigan. This action is necessary and intended to ensure safety of life... Department, Sector Detroit, Coast Guard; telephone 313-568-9508, email Adrian.F.Palomeque@uscg.mil . If...

  20. 76 FR 33154 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce various safety zones for annual fireworks events in the Captain of the Port Detroit... Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone, at the following time for the following...

  1. Levels and composition of volatile organic compounds on commuting routes in Detroit, Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, Stuart A.; Peng, Chung-Yu; Braun, James

    Vehicle emissions can constitute a major share of ambient concentrations of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other air pollutants in urban areas. Especially high concentrations may occur at curbsides, vehicle cabins, and other microenvironments. Such levels are not reflected by monitoring at fixed sites. This study reports on measurements of VOCs made from buses and cars in Detroit, MI. A total of 74 adsorbent tube samples were collected on 40 trips and analyzed by GC-MS for 77 target compounds. Three bus routes, selected to include residential, commercial and heavily industrialized areas, were sampled simultaneously on four sequential weeks during morning and afternoon rush hour periods. Nineteen compounds were regularly detected and quantified, the most prevalent of which included hexane/2-methyl pentane (15.6±5.8 μg m -3), toluene (10.2±7.9 μg m -3), m,p-xylene (6.8±4.7 μg m -3), benzene (4.5±3.0 μg m -3), 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (4.0±2.6 μg m -3), o-xylene (2.2±1.6 μg m -3), and ethylbenzene (2.1±1.5 μg m -3). VOC levels in bus interiors and outdoor levels along the roadway were similar. Despite the presence of large industrial sources, route-to-route variation was small, but temporal variation was large and statistically significant. VOC compositions and trends indicate the dominance of vehicle sources over the many industrial sources in Detroit with the possible exceptions of styrene and several chlorinated VOCs. In-bus levels exceeded concentrations at fixed site monitors by a factor of 2-4. VOC concentrations in Detroit traffic are generally comparable to levels measured elsewhere in the US and Canada, but considerably lower than measured in Asia and Europe.

  2. Source identification of ambient PM 2.5 during summer inhalation exposure studies in Detroit, MI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Masako; Keeler, Gerald J.; Wagner, James G.; Harkema, Jack R.

    Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in heavily populated urban centers of the United States. Because ambient fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ⩽2.5 μm; PM 2.5) is a complex mixture resulting from multiple sources and variable atmospheric conditions, it is difficult to identify specific components of PM 2.5 that are responsible for adverse health effects. During four consecutive summers from 2000 to 2003 we characterized the ambient gaseous and PM 2.5 air quality in an urban southwest Detroit community where childhood asthma hospitalization rates are more than twice the statewide average. Both integrated and continuous PM measurements together with gaseous air pollution measurements were performed using a mobile air research facility, AirCARE1, in which concurrent toxicological studies were being conducted. Chemical and physical characterizations of PM 2.5 as well as receptor modeling using positive matrix factorization (PMF) were completed. Results from PMF indicated that six major sources contributed to the observed ambient PM 2.5 mass during the summer months. Primary sources included (1) coal combustion/secondary sulfate aerosol, (2) motor vehicle/urban road dust, (3) municipal waste incinerators, (4) oil combustion/refineries, (5) sewage sludge incinerators, and (6) iron/steel manufacturing. Although the contribution of the coal/secondary sulfate aerosol source was greater than other factors, increased levels of urban PM 2.5 from local combustion sources were also observed. In addition to characterization of ambient PM 2.5 and their sources in southwest Detroit, this paper discusses possible associations of ambient PM 2.5 from local combustion sources, specifically incinerator and refinery emissions and the observed adverse health effects during the inhalation exposure campaigns.

  3. Obesity and overweight in ethnic minorities of the Detroit metropolitan area of Michigan.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Hikmet J; Rajan, Ambili Kariaparambil; Grzybowski, Mary; Fakhouri, Monty; Arnetz, Bengt

    2014-04-01

    Race, ethnicity and socioeconomic factors influence the prevalence of obesity and overweight, which are major public health problems. Our objectives were (1) to calculate the prevalence of self-reported obesity and overweight in whites, blacks, Chaldeans, and Arabs in the Detroit metropolitan area; and (2) to examine the odds for self-reported overweight and obesity in the racial and ethnic minorities when compared to whites. The responses to a self-administered survey conducted among the adult residents (n = 2,883) of the Detroit metropolitan area of Michigan were analyzed. Prevalence of overweight and obesity were 47.4 and 34.6 % respectively for the whole sample, while it was 39.9 and 43.6 % for whites, 42.3 and 47.8 % for blacks, 46.2 and 30.3 % for Chaldeans, and 52.2 and 28.5 % for Arabs. The odds for obesity was significantly lower in Arabs [odds ratio (OR) 0.31; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.13-0.72] and Chaldeans (OR 0.14; 95 % CI 0.06-0.33) when compared to whites. Chaldeans (OR 0.36; 95 % CI 0.15-0.86) had significantly decreased likelihood for being overweight compared to whites. Odds for obesity and overweight can vary in the different ethnic minorities within whites. Sharing similar living conditions decreases the differences in the odds for overweight and obesity between whites and blacks. Taking into consideration the racial and ethnic differences of the target population may help in developing better programs for fighting overweight and obesity.

  4. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  5. Soil Contamination as a Legacy of the U.S. Auto Industry, Southwest Detroit, Michigan USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, K.; Peterman, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Delray community of southwest Detroit is one of the most depressed areas in southeast Michigan. Historically, Delray was a working class, racially diverse community that depended heavily on industrial jobs provided by nearby factories. However, decades of industrial waste discharges have left Delray with extensive air and soil pollution. Although high unemployment and poverty are major challenges confronting residents in Delray today, the threat to public health from Pb, Hg, As and Cr [VI] in the soil may become an even bigger issue and a significant source of concern. Newspaper headlines cite crime, substance abuse, high school and labor force dropout, as being prevalent in Delray, but recent research suggest that soil contamination, which has resulted in elevated blood Pb levels may be an underlying factor. Recent interest in this area as a potential site for a new bridge to Canada, has offered new hope to the residents by potentially opening the door for redevelopment. The initial step in this process is an environmental assessment of the Delray community. This investigation is being conducted by the University of Michigan-Dearborn in consortium with local community groups and the Detroit Public School. Although preliminary, an analysis of soil samples from over 400 residences has indicated that significant levels of As, and Pb are present in the upper 0.1 meter of soil throughout the Delray area. The high levels of metals present in the soil suggest that further investigation and possible remedial action will be necessary prior to redevelopment.

  6. The Detroit Riot: A Profile of 500 Prisoners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Following the July 1967 riots in Detroit, 496 Negroes who had been arrested and imprisoned were questioned about their economic and employment status, family status, views about the riot and its causes, and rankings of Negro leaders. Negro interviewers conducted the survey at the prisons. Despite some stated shortcomings in the data collection…

  7. Moving, Writing, Failing: Spatialities of Ambivalence in Detroit's Ruinscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mary Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In Detroit, the creative impulse to work in and around sites of ruin presents both aesthetic and ethical dilemmas. Creative practices that make use of ruined sites in the city are controversial to the extent that they present aesthetically attractive representations of real, unresolved social and environmental problems. This article examines the…

  8. Setting priorities for conserving and rehabilitating Detroit River habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Hartig, John H.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discusses habitat for wild animals and plants in the Detroit River. Such habitat has been defined as places in the river where physical, chemical, and biological factors, including soil and water quality sustain all life stages of fish and wildlife, including their reproduction.

  9. Fixing Detroit's Broken School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robin; Jochim, Ashley; DeArmond, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In January 2014, as part of a multicity study, researchers from the Center on Reinventing Public Education (CRPE) met with a dozen parents in Detroit to learn about their experiences with education in the city. Parents struggle to navigate the city's complex education marketplace. A lack of information, confusing paperwork, and transportation…

  10. Summary of Job Training Programs in Detroit; A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerfeld, Donald Alfred

    A followup study was made of 200 graduates (50 from each program) of different kinds of job training in Detroit, Michigan, during 1968 through the Northern Systems Company Training Center, the McNamara Skills Center, the Concentrated Employment Program Orientation and Operation Mainstream (CEPO-Mainstream), and the Direct On-the-job Training…

  11. Management of flowering rush in the Detroit Lakes, Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering rush (Butomus umbellatus) is an invasive aquatic plant introduced to North America from Eurasia in 1897. Flowering rush can grow either submersed or emergent from wet soil habitats to waters that are up to 5 m deep. Flowering rush was first observed in the Detroit Lake system in the 196...

  12. Detroit High School Profiles: Criteria-Based Monitoring of Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kenneth A.; Dowe, Ronald R.

    A criterion-based assessment procedure was used to evaluate the success of court-ordered desegregation and educational programs in Detroit, Michigan. A monitoring commission was appointed to effect this assessment. This report begins by describing the commission and assessment procedures. The next portion of the report is devoted to materials…

  13. A University in Detroit Pins New Hopes on Old Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2009-01-01

    With the help of Wayne State University, facelifts of a handful of old buildings, many of them once at the heart of the automotive industry, are leading the way in the revitalization of one small corner of Detroit. Building by building, block by block, the university is gradually helping to transform an area that was, until very recently, known…

  14. The Politics of Educational Retrenchment in Detroit, 1929-1935.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirel, Jeffrey

    1984-01-01

    Retrenchment controversies as they influenced school policy and as they related to changes in educational politics in Detroit (Michigan) from 1929 to 1935 are examined. Investigated are questions such as, How was massive retrenchment undertaken?, What political alignments arose over the retrenchment issue?, and What were the long term…

  15. Area contingency plan southeast Michigan coastal zone. (COTP Detroit)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Southeast Michigan Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Detroit Coastal Zone.

  16. 33 CFR 110.206 - Detroit River, Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detroit River, Michigan. 110.206..., 800 feet to the point of beginning. (b) The regulations. (1) Vessels shall be anchored so as not to... unless it maintains a continuous bridge watch, guards and answers channel 16 FM and channel 12 FM...

  17. Social Studies Education and Public Art: The Detroit Billboard Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Julie Anne; Iroha, Okezie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this action-research project was to evaluate the impact of high school students' involvement in community-oriented, art-based work in the social studies. In Detroit, high school students engaged in persuasive writing and design while exploring community issues. The project culminated in the installation of student artwork on a billboard…

  18. Spawning by lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in the Detroit River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caswell, N.M.; Peterson, D.L.; Manny, B.A.; Kennedy, G.W.

    2004-01-01

    Overfishing and habitat destruction in the early 1900s devastated lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations in the Great Lakes. Although a comprehensive restoration strategy for this species was recently drafted by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, a lack of current data on Great Lakes sturgeon stocks has hindered rehabilitation efforts. Historically, the Detroit River supported one of the largest lake sturgeon populations in the Great Lakes; however, little is known about the current population or its habitat use. The main objective of this study was to determine if lake sturgeon spawns in the Detroit River. As part of a larger study, baited setlines were used to capture lake sturgeon in the Detroit River in the spring and summer of 2000 and 2001. In each year of the study, ultrasonic transmitters were surgically implanted in 10 adult fish to track their movements, evaluate habitat use and identify possible spawning sites. Using telemetry and egg mats to verify spawning activity, one spawning site was located and verified in the Detroit River. Spawning was verified by recovering sturgeon eggs deposited on egg collection mats anchored at the site. Telemetry data suggested that several other possible spawning sites also may exist, however, spawning activity was not verified at these sites.

  19. THE DETROIT GREAT CITIES SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PROJECT. PROGRAM SUMMARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MITCHELL, CHARLES

    TO MEET THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF CHILDREN OF LIMITED BACKGROUNDS (COMPRISING ONE-THIRD OF THE CHILDREN ENROLLED IN AMERICA'S FOURTEEN LARGEST SCHOOL SYSTEMS) THE GREAT CITIES HAVE EMBARKED ON A COOPERATIVE EFFORT TO IMPLEMENT, STUDY, AND EVALUATE AN APPROPRIATE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM. IN DETROIT THE PROJECT NOW INVOLVES 27 SCHOOLS, 1,250 SCHOOL…

  20. An Assessment of the Detroit Public Schools Construction Systems Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featherstone, Richard L.

    The Construction Systems Program (CSP) is the management process utilized in the construction of additions to four schools in the Detroit School District. The objectives of CSP were (1) to reduce the time required to plan and construct new buildings and additions, (2) to reduce the cost of new buildings and additions, and (3) to maintain or…

  1. RACE pulls for shared control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, M. B., Jr.; Cassiday, B. K.

    1993-01-01

    Maintaining and supporting an aircraft fleet, in a climate of reduced manpower and financial resources, dictates effective utilization of robotics and automation technologies. To help develop a winning robotics and automation program the Air Force Logistics Command created the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE). RACE is a command wide focal point. Race is an organic source of expertise to assist the Air Logistic Center (ALC) product directorates in improving process productivity through the judicious insertion of robotics and automation technologies. RACE is a champion for pulling emerging technologies into the aircraft logistic centers. One of those technology pulls is shared control. Small batch sizes, feature uncertainty, and varying work load conspire to make classic industrial robotic solutions impractical. One can view ALC process problems in the context of space robotics without the time delay. The ALC's will benefit greatly from the implementation of a common architecture that supports a range of control actions from fully autonomous to teleoperated. Working with national laboratories and private industry, we hope to transition shared control technology to the depot floor. This paper provides an overview of the RACE internal initiatives and customer support, with particular emphasis on production processes that will benefit from shared control technology.

  2. RACE pulls for shared control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, M. B., Jr.; Cassiday, B. K.

    1993-02-01

    Maintaining and supporting an aircraft fleet, in a climate of reduced manpower and financial resources, dictates effective utilization of robotics and automation technologies. To help develop a winning robotics and automation program the Air Force Logistics Command created the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE). RACE is a command wide focal point. Race is an organic source of expertise to assist the Air Logistic Center (ALC) product directorates in improving process productivity through the judicious insertion of robotics and automation technologies. RACE is a champion for pulling emerging technologies into the aircraft logistic centers. One of those technology pulls is shared control. Small batch sizes, feature uncertainty, and varying work load conspire to make classic industrial robotic solutions impractical. One can view ALC process problems in the context of space robotics without the time delay. The ALC's will benefit greatly from the implementation of a common architecture that supports a range of control actions from fully autonomous to teleoperated. Working with national laboratories and private industry, we hope to transition shared control technology to the depot floor. This paper provides an overview of the RACE internal initiatives and customer support, with particular emphasis on production processes that will benefit from shared control technology.

  3. Race concepts in medicine.

    PubMed

    Hardimon, Michael O

    2013-02-01

    Confusions about the place of race in medicine result in part from a failure to recognize the plurality of race concepts. Recognition that the ordinary concept of race is not identical to the racialist concept of race makes it possible to ask whether there might be a legitimate place for the deployment of concepts of race in medical contexts. Two technical race concepts are considered. The concept of social race is the concept of a social group that is taken to be a racialist race. It is apt for use in examining and addressing the medical effects of discrimination. The populationist concept of race represents race as a kind of biological population. It makes it possible to frame the question whether biological race is a factor in disease susceptibility and drug responsiveness. It is apt for use in determining whether biological race is a medically significant category.

  4. University of Detroit and the University of Detroit Professors' Union Affiliated with the MEA/NEA. Collective Bargaining Agreement, January 15, 1985-August 15,1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the University of Detroit and the University of Detroit Professors' Union (183 members), an affiliate of the National Education Association and the Michigan Education Association, covering the period January 15, 1985-August 15, 1986 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: unit recognition;…

  5. The Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research Center: development, implementation, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Israel, B A; Lichtenstein, R; Lantz, P; McGranaghan, R; Allen, A; Guzman, J R; Softley, D; Maciak, B

    2001-09-01

    There is increasing research evidence that stressors in the social and physical environment (e.g., poverty, inadequate housing, air pollution, and racism) are associated with poor health outcomes. Given the complex set of determinants of health status, the disproportionate burden of disease experienced within marginalized communities, and the limited effectiveness of traditional prevention research, particularly within communities of color, there have been growing calls for more comprehensive and participatory approaches to public health research and practice. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the process of establishing, implementing, and evaluating the Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research Center (URC), a community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership involving community-based organizations, a local health department, academia, and an integrated health care system. Lessons learned and recommendations for creating effective CBPR partnerships are presented.

  6. Restoration of the Detroit Observatory at the University of Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitesell, P. S.; Seitzer, P.

    1996-12-01

    The Detroit Observatory, located on the University of Michigan's campus, was erected in 1854 and named in honor of its many benefactors from the City of Detroit. It is the most significant unaltered mid-nineteenth century observatory in America with its original astronomical instruments still intact and operational, and was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. The Observatory is an important physical legacy of the University's early scientific preeminence, since it served as the training ground for many of the most prominent astronomers of the 19th century. A full restoration of the building is currently underway. When completed, the Observatory will serve as a museum of astronomical and meteorological science. As part of the project, the 12 5/8 inch Henry Fitz refracting telescope (1857) and the 6 inch Pistor & Martins meridian circle (1854) will undergo historical restoration.

  7. Captive audience? Strategies for acquiring food in two Detroit neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Rose, Daniel J

    2011-05-01

    Research has shown elevated rates of diet-related health problems in Detroit, Michigan compared to state and national averages. Using 47 in-depth interviews of African American residents in two Detroit neighborhoods, I examine the interplay between agency and social structure in food acquisition. Participants discussed numerous difficulties obtaining food, including availability, cost, quality, and accessibility. Residents employed many strategies to address these issues, including carefully examining food before purchase, sharing transportation to leave the neighborhood, and using multiple sources. However, the potential to pursue food acquisition strategies varied, in part, according to community contextual factors, including resident concerns about safety, the availability of food banks, and resources in surrounding areas. Nutritional knowledge among participants was sophisticated, suggesting that health education efforts, as opposed to addressing lack of access to high-quality food, might be misguided. I found that accounting for both agency and structural context aids in understanding diet-related behaviors.

  8. Detroit Observatory: nineteenth-century training ground for astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitesell, Patricia S.

    2003-12-01

    Detroit Observatory was founded in 1854 at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, by Henry Philip Tappan, the University's first President. In 2004, the University celebrates Detroit Observatory's sesquicentennial year. Tappan named his creation the "Detroit Observatory" to honour the city's major benefactors. Tappan, who was inaugurated in 1852, was a visionary leader in the history of higher education. The creation of an astronomical observatory was one of his first steps toward the integration of a new scientific course with the traditional classical course of study, following the Prussian model of higher education. Tappan's observatory was built in the frontier state of Michigan at a modest cost, yet it was equipped with the best European and American instruments available. The facility was impressive, but Tappan's success in launching the University of Michigan to the forefront of American astronomical science was achieved through the recruitment of the renowned Prussian astronomer, Franz Brünnow, of the Berlin Observatory. The instruction in precision astronomy Brünnow offered to American students produced some of the most notable astronomers of the era, which led to the recognition of an "Ann Arbor School of Astronomy". Subsequent Directors and Assistants, including James Watson, Mark Harrington, J. Martin Schaeberle, and Asaph Hall Jr., produced students with exceptional talent in astronomy, geodesy, surveying and meteorology. Michigan's talent pool was the widely deployed across the nation. This paper documents and preserves the history, and serves as a focal point for celebrating in 2004 the 150-year milestone in Detroit Observatory's fascinating history.

  9. Where You Live Matters: Structural Correlates of HIV Risk Behavior Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in Metro Detroit.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A; Eaton, Lisa; Andrzejewski, Jack; Loveluck, Jimena; VanHemert, William; Pingel, Emily S

    2015-12-01

    Structural characteristics are linked to HIV/STI risks, yet few studies have examined the mechanisms through which structural characteristics influence the HIV/STI risk of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Using data from a cross-sectional survey of YMSM (ages 18-29) living in Detroit Metro (N = 328; 9 % HIV-positive; 49 % Black, 27 % White, 15 % Latino, 9 % Other race), we used multilevel modeling to examine the association between community-level characteristics (e.g., socioeconomic disadvantage; distance to LGBT-affirming institutions) and YMSM's HIV testing behavior and likelihood of engaging in unprotected anal intercourse with serodiscordant partner(s). We accounted for individual-level factors (race/ethnicity, poverty, homelessness, alcohol and marijuana use) and contextual factors (community acceptance and stigma regarding same-sex sexuality). YMSM in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage and nearer to an AIDS Service Organization were more likely to have tested for HIV and less likely to report serodiscordant partners. Community acceptance was associated with having tested for HIV. Efforts to address YMSM's exposure to structural barriers in Detroit Metro are needed to inform HIV prevention strategies from a socioecological perspective.

  10. RACE pulls for shared control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Michael B., Jr.; Cassiday, Brian K.

    1992-11-01

    Maintaining and supporting an aircraft fleet, in a climate of reduced manpower and financial resources, dictates effective utilization of robotics and automation technologies. To help develop a winning robotics and automation program the Air Force Logistics Command created the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE). RACE is a command wide focal point. An organic source of expertise to assist the Air Logistic Center (ALC) product directorates in improving process productivity through the judicious insertion of robotics and automation technologies. RACE is a champion for pulling emerging technologies into the aircraft logistic centers. One of those technology pulls is shared control. The small batch sizes, feature uncertainty, and varying work load conspire to make classic industrial robotic solutions impractical. One can view ALC process problems in the context of space robotics without the time delay. The ALCs will benefit greatly from the implementation of a common architecture that supports a range of control actions from fully autonomous to teleoperated. Working with national laboratories and private industry we hope to transition shared control technology to the depot floor. This paper provides an overview of the RACE internal initiatives and customer support, with particular emphasis on production processes that will benefit from shared control technology.

  11. 78 FR 24063 - Special Local Regulation; Hebda Cup Rowing Regatta, Trenton Channel; Detroit River, Wyandotte, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed..., Trenton Channel; Detroit River, Wyandotte, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... the Detroit River, Wyandotte, Michigan. This action is necessary and intended to ensure safety of...

  12. 75 FR 38126 - UAW-Chrysler National Training Center, Detroit, MI; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... of determination was published in the Federal Register on May 20, 2010 (75 FR 28301). The initial... Employment and Training Administration UAW-Chrysler National Training Center, Detroit, MI; Notice of... of the workers in the UAW-Chrysler National Training Center, Detroit, Michigan, had not...

  13. 78 FR 10129 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 70 Under Alternative Site Framework, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ..., notice inviting public comment was given in the Federal Register (77 FR 38037-38038, 6/26/2012) and the..., Detroit, MI Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U... or reorganization of zones; Whereas, the Greater Detroit Foreign-Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of...

  14. 76 FR 38304 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Register on August 8, 2008 (73 FR 46197) and on June 9, 2010 (75 FR 32666): ] Section 165.941(a)(39) Port... Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce two safety zones for annual fireworks events in the Captain of the Port Detroit...

  15. 77 FR 48476 - Proposed Amendment to Class B Airspace; Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Wayne County Airport), Terminal Control Area (TCA) (39 FR 11085). The Detroit TCA airspace, renamed... was in 1975 (40 FR 12253) to redefine certain lateral boundaries and floor altitudes in the vicinity of the Detroit River. The second modification was in 1985 (50 FR 37994) to redefine...

  16. The Race Race: Assimilation in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balis, Andrea; Aman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Can race and assimilation be taught? Interdisciplinary pedagogy provides a methodology, context, and use of nontraditional texts culled from American cultural history such as from, theater and historical texts. This approach and these texts prove useful for an examination of race and assimilation in America. The paper describes a course that while…

  17. Yacht Race Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Observer Single-handed Transatlantic Race (OSTAR) participants were aided by a French-American space-based monitoring system which reported the yacht's positions throughout the race, and also served as an emergency locator service. Originating from NASA's Nimbus 6 Satellite, use of this system, called ARGOS made the OSTAR competition the most accurately reported sea race ever conducted. Each boat carried a portable transmitter allowing 88 new sources of oceanographic data available during the race.

  18. An Ethnomedical Analysis of Hypertension Among Detroit Afro-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Eric J.

    1988-01-01

    To analyze Afro-American ethnomedical beliefs and practices concerning disease and health care, the author investigated the health-care-seeking behavior among 285 Afro-Americans and 178 Euro-Americans in the Detroit metropolitan area with respect to hypertension. Hypertension was chosen because more than 60 million individuals in the United States have elevated blood pressure (140/90 mmHg or greater). Quantitative and qualitative data revealed five themes associated with hypertension: (1) degree of activity and responsibility, (2) individual and familial moral strength, (3) naturalistic causation, (4) family, folk, or personal care, and (5) physical and spiritual balance. In addition to these ethnohealth and ethnocaring modes, the decisive sociocultural factors in the utilization of the health screening were (1) the health beliefs of the extended lay network, (2) the type of health facility, (3) the lifestyle and behavioral patterns of Detroiters from 1910 to the present, and (4) the adherence to traditional Afro-American cultural beliefs. Once health care professionals recognize the multitude of factors that affect health-care-seeking behavior among Afro-Americans, many health care issues can be resolved. PMID:3249315

  19. Source-to-receptor pathways of anthropogenic PM 2.5 in Detroit, Michigan: Comparison of two inhalation exposure studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Masako; Keeler, Gerald J.; McDonald, Jacob D.; Wagner, James G.; Young, Li-Hao; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Ewing, Rodney C.; Harkema, Jack R.

    Recent studies have attributed toxic effects of ambient fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm; PM 2.5) to physical and/or chemical properties rather than total mass. However, identifying specific components or sources of a complex mixture of ambient PM 2.5 that are responsible for adverse health effects is still challenging. In order to improve our understanding of source-to-receptor pathways for ambient PM 2.5 (links between sources of ambient PM 2.5 and measures of biologically relevant dose), integrated inhalation toxicology studies using animal models and concentrated air particles (CAPs) were completed in southwest Detroit, a community where the pediatric asthma rate is more than twice the national average. Ambient PM 2.5 was concentrated with a Harvard fine particle concentrator housed in AirCARE1, a mobile air research laboratory which facilitates inhalation exposure studies in real-world settings. Detailed characterizations of ambient PM 2.5 and CAPs, identification of major emission sources of PM 2.5, and quantification of trace elements in the lung tissues of laboratory rats that were exposed to CAPs for two distinct 3-day exposure periods were completed. This paper describes the physical/chemical properties and sources of PM 2.5, pulmonary metal concentrations and meteorology from two different 3-day exposure periods—both conducted at the southwest Detroit location in July 2003—which resulted in disparate biological effects. More specifically, during one of the exposure periods, ambient PM 2.5-derived trace metals were recovered from lung tissues of CAPs-exposed animals, and these metals were linked to local combustion point sources in southwest Detroit via receptor modeling and meteorology; whereas in the other exposure period, no such trace metals were observed. By comparing these two disparate results, this investigation was able to define possible links between PM 2.5 emitted from refineries and incinerators and biologically

  20. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF AIR POLLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF A LAND-USE REGRESSION ( LUR ) MODEL IN AN URBAN AIRSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Children's Health Study is an epidemiologic study examining associations between chronic ambient environmental exposures to gaseous air pollutants and respiratory health outcomes among elementary school-age children in an urban airshed. The exposure component of this...

  1. Biological Races in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not. Adaptive traits, such as skin color, have frequently been used to define races in humans, but such adaptive traits reflect the underlying environmental factor to which they are adaptive and not overall genetic differentiation, and different adaptive traits define discordant groups. There are no objective criteria for choosing one adaptive trait over another to define race. As a consequence, adaptive traits do not define races in humans. Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree. A tree-like structure among humans has been falsified whenever tested, so this practice is scientifically indefensible. It is also socially irresponsible as these pictorial representations of human evolution have more impact on the general public than nuanced phrases in the text of a scientific paper. Humans have much genetic diversity, but the vast majority of this diversity reflects individual uniqueness and not race. PMID:23684745

  2. Detecting neighborhood vacancy level in Detroit city using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Wang, R.; Yang, A.; Vojnovic, I.

    2015-12-01

    With the decline of manufacturing industries, many Rust Belt cities, which enjoyed prosperity in the past, are now suffering from financial stress, population decrease and urban poverty. As a consequence, urban neighborhoods deteriorate. Houses are abandoned and left to decay. Neighborhood vacancy brings on many problems. Governments and agencies try to survey the vacancy level by going through neighborhoods and record the condition of each structure, or by buying information of active mailing addresses to get approximate neighborhood vacancy rate. But these methods are expensive and time consuming. Remote sensing provides a quick and comparatively cost-efficient way to access spatial information on social and demographical attributes of urban area. In our study, we use remote sensing to detect a major aspect of neighborhood deterioration, the vacancy levels of neighborhoods in Detroit city. We compared different neighborhoods using Landsat 8 images in 2013. We calculated NDVI that indicates the greenness of neighborhoods with the image in July 2013. Then we used thermal infrared information from image in February to detect human activities. In winter, abandoned houses will not consume so much energy and therefore neighborhoods with more abandoned houses will have smaller urban heat island effect. Controlling for the differences in terms of the greenness obtained from summer time image, we used thermal infrared from winter image to determine the temperatures of urban surface. We find that hotter areas are better maintained and have lower house vacancy rates. We also compared the changes over time for neighborhoods using Landsat 7 images from 2003 to 2013. The results show that deteriorated neighborhoods have increased NDVI in summer and get colder in winter due to abandonment of houses. Our results show the potential application of remote sensing as an easily accessed and efficient way to obtain data about social conditions in cities. We used the neighborhood

  3. The neuroscience of race.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Jennifer T; Banaji, Mahzarin R; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2012-07-01

    As the racial composition of the population changes, intergroup interactions are increasingly common. To understand how we perceive and categorize race and the attitudes that flow from it, scientists have used brain imaging techniques to examine how social categories of race and ethnicity are processed, evaluated and incorporated in decision-making. We review these findings, focusing on black and white race categories. A network of interacting brain regions is important in the unintentional, implicit expression of racial attitudes and its control. On the basis of the overlap in the neural circuitry of race, emotion and decision-making, we speculate as to how this emerging research might inform how we recognize and respond to variations in race and its influence on unintended race-based attitudes and decisions. PMID:22735516

  4. The Second Space Race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawkes, S.

    This paper compares and contrasts the characteristics of the first space race, which ran from the late 1950s to the late 1990s, and the second space race that began with the successful space flight of SpaceShipOne in 2004. The first space race was between superpowers seeking to establish geo-political dominance in the Cold War. The second space race will be between competing companies seeking to establish low cost access to space for ordinary people. The first space race achieved its geo- political objectives but did not open up low cost access to space but rather restricted access to a select few, highly trained astronauts and cosmonauts. The second space race, driven by the size and growth of the travel and tourism industry, promises to open up access to space to millions of space tourists.

  5. Race-based therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Clyde W

    2008-08-01

    The issue of race in medicine is problematic. Race is not a physiologic grouping, and all persons of a given race do not necessarily share the same clinical phenotype or genetic substrate. Despite clear signals that certain risk factors and diseases vary as a function of race, translating those differences into race-based therapeutics has been awkward and has done little to change the natural history of cardiovascular disease as it affects special populations. Among the varied special populations, the African American population appears to have the most significant and adverse variances for cardiovascular disease as well as worrisome signals that drug responsiveness varies. Recent guideline statements have now acknowledged certain treatment options that are most appropriate for African Americans with cardiovascular disease, especially hypertension and heart failure. As more physiologic markers of disease and drug responsiveness become available, the need for racial designations in medicine may lessen, and therapies can be optimized for all patients without regard to race or ethnicity.

  6. The Biological Case Against Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Joseph L., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Though modern science considers race a social concept, not a scientific truth, many still believe there are innate racial differences among people. Discusses the development of biology and race theory; basic definitions of race; genes, human variation, and race; genetic variation within and between races; modern genome studies that dismiss…

  7. The Amazing Mathematical Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noblitt, Bethany A.; Buckley, Brooke E.

    2011-01-01

    Teams, pit stops, clues, time limits, fast forwards, challenges, and prizes are all components of the CBS hit show "The Amazing Race." They were also elements of the Amazing Mathematical Race sponsored by the Math and Stats Club at Northern Kentucky University in April 2009. Held in recognition of Math Awareness Month, which is advocated by the…

  8. RACE AS LIVED EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, John A.; Sanchez, Gabriel R.; Sanchez-Youngman, Shannon; Vargas, Edward D.; Ybarra, Vickie D.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of social science research has sought to conceptualize race as a multidimensional concept in which context, societal relations, and institutional dynamics are key components. Utilizing a specially designed survey, we develop and use multiple measures of race (skin color, ascribed race, and discrimination experiences) to capture race as “lived experience” and assess their impact on Latinos’ self-rated health status. We model these measures of race as a lived experience to test the explanatory power of race, both independently and as an integrated scale with categorical regression, scaling, and dimensional analyses. Our analyses show that our multiple measures of race have significant and negative effects on Latinos’ self-reported health. Skin color is a dominant factor that impacts self-reported health both directly and indirectly. We then advocate for the utilization of multiple measures of race, adding to those used in our analysis, and their application to other health and social outcomes. Our analysis provides important contributions across a wide range of health, illness, social, and political outcomes for communities of color. PMID:26681972

  9. Prejudice and Race Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Raymond W., Ed.

    Contents of this book comprises: Introduction--A decade of change; (1) Race and its consequences: Beliefs and acts; (2) Race relations in different societies: A comparative perspective; (3) Implementing discrimination: the institutional impact of prejudice; (4) Leaders in change: A set of profiles; and (5) Options facing Americans: Pathos to…

  10. The Kinesiology of Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Myosha

    2014-01-01

    In this research article, Myosha McAfee presents findings from her grounded theory and microethnographical study of math instruction in a racially and socioeconomically diverse public school. Her analysis puts forth a new theory-the kinesiology of race-which conceptualizes race as a verb rather than a noun. It centrally considers how racial…

  11. Hybrid Air Quality Modeling Approach For Use in the Near-Road Exposures to Urban Air Pollutant Study (NEXUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Near-road EXposures to Urban air pollutant Study (NEXUS) investigated whether children with asthma living in close proximity to major roadways in Detroit, MI, (particularly near roadways with high diesel traffic) have greater health impacts associated with exposure to air pol...

  12. Detroit Edison's Fermi 1 - Preparation for Reactor Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Swindle, Danny

    2008-01-15

    This paper is intended to provide information about the ongoing decommissioning tasks at Detroit Edison's Fermi 1 plant, and in particular, the work being performed to prepare the reactor for removal and disposal. In 1972 Fermi 1 was shutdown and the fuel returned to the Atomic Energy Commission. By the end of 1975, a retirement plan was prepared, the bulk sodium removed, and the plant placed in a safe store condition. The plant systems were left isolated with the sodium containing systems inert with carbon dioxide in an attempt to form a carbonate layer, thus passivating the underlying reactive sodium. In 1996, Detroit Edison determined to evaluate the condition of the plant and to make recommendations in relation to the Fermi 1 future plans. At the end of 1997 approval was obtained to remove the bulk asbestos and residual alkali-metals (i.e., sodium and sodium potassium (NaK)). In 2000, full nuclear decommissioning of the plant was approved. To date, the bulk asbestos insulation has been removed, and the only NaK remaining is located in six capillary instrument tubes. The remaining sodium is contained within the reactor, two of the three primary loops, and miscellaneous removed pipes and equipment to be processed. The preferred method for removing or reacting sodium at Fermi 1 is by injecting superheated steam into a heated, nitrogen inert system. The byproducts of this reaction are caustic sodium hydroxide, hydrogen gas, and heat. The decision was made to separate the three primary loops from the reactor for better control prior to processing each loop and the reactor separately. The first loop has already been processed. The main focus is now to process the reactor to allow removal and disposal of the Class C waste prior to the anticipated June 2008 closure of the Barnwell radioactive waste disposal facility located in South Carolina. Lessons learnt are summarized and concern: the realistic schedule and adherence to the schedule, time estimates, personnel

  13. PTSD and Obesity in the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Karen S.; Aiello, Allison E.; Galea, Sandro; Uddin, Monica; Wildman, Derek; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with adverse health consequences, including overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. African Americans, particularly women, have among the highest rates of overweight and obesity in the U.S. compared to other racial groups. High rates of violence exposure in urban African Americans may lead to the development of PTSD and increase risk for overweight and obesity. The current study investigated the comorbidity of lifetime PTSD and overweight/obesity in a population-based African American, urban sample. Method Data were from 463 African American male and female participants of the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated the impact of lifetime PTSD on risk for overweight and obesity. Results The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among women (60.9%) than men (33.1%; p<0.001). In sex-stratified models, after controlling for demographic variables, PTSD was associated obesity (OR=4.4, 95% CI: 1.3, 14.3) only among women. Conclusions PTSD was associated with obesity, after controlling for confounding variables, among African American women. Results underscore the contribution of PTSD to obesity among African American women and the importance of addressing the physical health correlates of women with PTSD. PMID:24035634

  14. Fuel-saving mandate drives a hard bargain for Detroit

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, G.

    1988-09-19

    This article discusses the pros and cons of deregulation of the corporate average fuel efficiency (CAFE) program, which was developed in the 1970s as a solution to the problems of fuel shortages and rising fuel costs. The CAFE program is administered by the DOT and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Detroit automakers state that the CAFE program forces the decline of larger, safer cars in lieu of smaller more fuel efficient models, therefore eliminating jobs for Americans as the smaller cars are foreign-made. The automakers and several Washington lobbies want a relaxation or even elimination of these regulations as it will increase jobs in America, increase safety, and encourage competition in the larger car markets, as the regulations drive the cost to produce larger cars up. The opponents to the easing of standards want the regulations doubled as it will lead to savings to the consumer for reduced gasoline consumption, decreased reliance on petroleum imports, environmental protection, and more jobs. The DOT is holding hearing on its latest proposal to ease efficiency standards for 1989-1990, and bills to repeal the law are pending in Congress.

  15. Air Quality Modeling of Traffic-related Air Pollutants for the NEXUS Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the results of the model applications to estimate exposure metrics in support of an epidemiologic study in Detroit, Michigan. A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characteriz...

  16. Cardiopulmonary responses in spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats exposed to concentrated ambient particles from Detroit, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Annette C; Wagner, James G; Morishita, Masako; Kamal, Ali; Keeler, Gerald J; Harkema, Jack R

    2010-05-01

    Toxicological effects have been observed in rats exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiopulmonary and systemic effects of CAPs in Detroit. The authors stationed a mobile concentrator at a location near major traffic and industrial sources. Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were exposed to fine CAPs (diameter < 0.1-2.5 microm) 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days. Animals were implanted with telemeters, and electrocardiogram data were recorded continuously. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and plasma were analyzed. Comprehensive exposure monitoring was conducted, including CAPs components. CAPs exposure concentrations were 103-918 microg/m(3) (mean = 502 microg/m(3)). The authors found no statistically significant differences in heart rate or SDNN (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals), a measure of heart rate variability, between CAPs-exposed and control rats. The authors found significantly higher levels of C-reactive protein in the serum of CAPs-exposed SH rats compared with air-exposed animals. Protein in BAL fluid was elevated in WKY rats exposed to CAPs. Measurement of trace metals in lung tissue showed elevated concentrations of V, Sb, La, and Ce in CAPs-exposed SH animals versus controls. These elements are generally associated with oil combustion, oil refining, waste incineration, and traffic. Examination of wind rose data from the exposure period confirmed that the predominant wind direction was SSW, the direction of many of the aforementioned sources. These results indicate that ambient particles in Detroit can cause mild pulmonary and systemic changes in rats, and suggest the importance of local PM(2.5) sources in these effects.

  17. Urban community intervention to prevent Halloween arson--Detroit, Michigan, 1985-1996.

    PubMed

    1997-04-11

    Arson, the second leading cause of residential fire-associated deaths in the United States, accounts for approximately 700 deaths annually, destroys homes, and destabilizes neighborhoods. In Detroit, Michigan (1990 population: 1,027,974), arson accounted for nearly half (46.3%) of all fire-related deaths since 1984. During the late 1970s, pre-Halloween pranks traditionally associated in some parts of the United States with the night of October 30 turned destructive in Detroit, with hundreds of fires set throughout the city. By 1984, October 30 became known as "Devil's Night" and had evolved to 3 consecutive nights of arson on October 29-31; in that year, a record 810 fires were reported. In 1985, Detroit began a citywide intervention campaign against arson and vandalism during the 3-day Halloween period using data from an ongoing fire surveillance system maintained by the Detroit Fire Department (DFD) to target areas at high risk for arson. This report describes the intervention implemented by the city of Detroit from 1985 through 1996 and the impact of the intervention in preventing Halloween arson; approximately 34,000 volunteers participated in 1996, and the number of fires during this 3-day period decreased to the average number of fires for any other 3-day period during the remainder of the year. PMID:9132582

  18. Urban community intervention to prevent Halloween arson--Detroit, Michigan, 1985-1996.

    PubMed

    1997-04-11

    Arson, the second leading cause of residential fire-associated deaths in the United States, accounts for approximately 700 deaths annually, destroys homes, and destabilizes neighborhoods. In Detroit, Michigan (1990 population: 1,027,974), arson accounted for nearly half (46.3%) of all fire-related deaths since 1984. During the late 1970s, pre-Halloween pranks traditionally associated in some parts of the United States with the night of October 30 turned destructive in Detroit, with hundreds of fires set throughout the city. By 1984, October 30 became known as "Devil's Night" and had evolved to 3 consecutive nights of arson on October 29-31; in that year, a record 810 fires were reported. In 1985, Detroit began a citywide intervention campaign against arson and vandalism during the 3-day Halloween period using data from an ongoing fire surveillance system maintained by the Detroit Fire Department (DFD) to target areas at high risk for arson. This report describes the intervention implemented by the city of Detroit from 1985 through 1996 and the impact of the intervention in preventing Halloween arson; approximately 34,000 volunteers participated in 1996, and the number of fires during this 3-day period decreased to the average number of fires for any other 3-day period during the remainder of the year.

  19. [Race and medicine].

    PubMed

    Doron, Claude-Olivier

    2013-10-01

    In this article, I argue that the problematic of "race and medicine", which has been the object of many recent debates, has a long history that it may be useful to understand better. I show more specifically that, from the very first uses of the concept of "race" in natural history during the XVIII(th) century, medical concepts and analogies served as important models. These medical models were especially useful to analyze "races" as alterations from an original identity. Different analogies are studied here. 1. The analogy between races' peculiar temperaments and morbid alterations of human constitution. 2. The analogy between the transmission of the alterations along generations and hereditary diseases. In this second analogy, I differentiate between two models: the degeneration of the human type and the transmission of a molecular alteration of one character.

  20. The Race Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darden, Edwin C.

    2003-01-01

    Argues that the biggest obstacle to urban education reform is the unwillingness of educators to discuss the impact of increased racial and ethnic segregation on student achievement. Poverty is discussed, but not race. (PKP)

  1. Intelligence, race, and genetics.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Robert J; Grigorenko, Elena L; Kidd, Kenneth K

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They further argue that race is a social construction with no scientific definition. Thus, studies of the relationship between race and other constructs may serve social ends but cannot serve scientific ends. No gene has yet been conclusively linked to intelligence, so attempts to provide a compelling genetic link of race to intelligence are not feasible at this time. The authors also show that heritability, a behavior-genetic concept, is inadequate in regard to providing such a link.

  2. Reversing the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    von Hippel, F. ); Sagdeev, R.Z. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper contains proceedings of Reversing The Arms Race. Topics covered include: Verifying Reductions of Nuclear Warheads; Verifying Limits on Nuclear-Armed Cruise Missiles; and The Technical Basis for Warhead Detection.

  3. Race, money and medicines.

    PubMed

    Bloche, M Gregg

    2006-01-01

    Taking notice of race is both risky and inevitable, in medicine no less than in other endeavors. On the one hand, race can be a useful stand-in for unstudied genetic and environmental factors that yield differences in disease expression and therapeutic response. Attention to race can make a therapeutic difference, to the point of saving lives. On the other hand, racial distinctions have social meanings that are often pejorative or worse, especially when these distinctions are cast as culturally or biologically fixed. I argue in this essay that we should start with a presumption against racial categories in medicine, but permit their use when it might prolong lives or meaningfully improve health. Use of racial categories should be understood as an interim step; follow-up inquiry into the factors that underlie race-correlated clinical differences is important both to improve the efficacy of clinical care and to prevent race in itself from being misunderstood as a biological determinant. If we pursue such inquiry with vigor, the pernicious effects of racial categories on public understanding can be managed. But perverse market and regulatory incentives create the danger that use of race will be "locked-in," once drugs or other therapies are approved. These incentives should be revisited. PMID:17144179

  4. Race, money and medicines.

    PubMed

    Bloche, M Gregg

    2006-01-01

    Taking notice of race is both risky and inevitable, in medicine no less than in other endeavors. On the one hand, race can be a useful stand-in for unstudied genetic and environmental factors that yield differences in disease expression and therapeutic response. Attention to race can make a therapeutic difference, to the point of saving lives. On the other hand, racial distinctions have social meanings that are often pejorative or worse, especially when these distinctions are cast as culturally or biologically fixed. I argue in this essay that we should start with a presumption against racial categories in medicine, but permit their use when it might prolong lives or meaningfully improve health. Use of racial categories should be understood as an interim step; follow-up inquiry into the factors that underlie race-correlated clinical differences is important both to improve the efficacy of clinical care and to prevent race in itself from being misunderstood as a biological determinant. If we pursue such inquiry with vigor, the pernicious effects of racial categories on public understanding can be managed. But perverse market and regulatory incentives create the danger that use of race will be "locked-in," once drugs or other therapies are approved. These incentives should be revisited.

  5. A Multilevel Analysis of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Transactional Sex with Casual Partners Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men Living in Metro Detroit.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José; Eaton, Lisa; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The role of structural factors when evaluating the vulnerability of human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risks among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men is an important area of focus for HIV prevention. Using cross-sectional data from young men living in Metro Detroit (N = 319; aged 18-29 years; 50% black, 25% white, 15% Latino, 9% other race/ethnicity; 9% HIV-positive), we examined whether transactional sex with casual partners was associated with neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage and individual-level factors (race/ethnicity and sexual identity, socioeconomic status, HIV/STI diagnoses, and substance use). Youth living in greater socioeconomic disadvantage reported more transactional sex (b = 0.11; SE = 0.04; p ≤ 0.01). This relationship was mitigated once individual-level correlates were entered into the model. Multilevel efforts to counteract socioeconomic deficits through community and individual level strategies may alleviate youth's exposure to transactional sex and reduce their vulnerability to HIV/STI risks.

  6. A Multilevel Analysis of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Transactional Sex with Casual Partners Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men Living in Metro Detroit.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José; Eaton, Lisa; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The role of structural factors when evaluating the vulnerability of human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risks among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men is an important area of focus for HIV prevention. Using cross-sectional data from young men living in Metro Detroit (N = 319; aged 18-29 years; 50% black, 25% white, 15% Latino, 9% other race/ethnicity; 9% HIV-positive), we examined whether transactional sex with casual partners was associated with neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage and individual-level factors (race/ethnicity and sexual identity, socioeconomic status, HIV/STI diagnoses, and substance use). Youth living in greater socioeconomic disadvantage reported more transactional sex (b = 0.11; SE = 0.04; p ≤ 0.01). This relationship was mitigated once individual-level correlates were entered into the model. Multilevel efforts to counteract socioeconomic deficits through community and individual level strategies may alleviate youth's exposure to transactional sex and reduce their vulnerability to HIV/STI risks. PMID:27337624

  7. 33 CFR 165.941 - Safety Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Federal Register as practicable, in accordance with 33 CFR 165.7(a). Such means of notification may also... Zones. The following areas are designated Safety zones: (1) Roostertail Fireworks (barge), Detroit, MI: (i) Location: All waters of the Detroit River within a 300-foot radius of the fireworks launch...

  8. 33 CFR 165.941 - Safety Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Federal Register as practicable, in accordance with 33 CFR 165.7(a). Such means of notification may also... Zones. The following areas are designated Safety zones: (1) Roostertail Fireworks (barge), Detroit, MI: (i) Location: All waters of the Detroit River within a 300-foot radius of the fireworks launch...

  9. 75 FR 11914 - Chrysler, LLC, Detroit Axle Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Caravan Knight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... the Federal Register on February 2, 2009 (74 FR 5870). At the request of the State agency, the... Employment and Training Administration Chrysler, LLC, Detroit Axle Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Caravan Knight Facilities Management LLC; Detroit, MI; Amended Certification Regarding...

  10. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Environmental Exposure Studies: Lessons from the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency’s Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) was a complex 3-year personal exposure study. The six geographically defined areas in the Detroit (Wayne County), Michigan, area used as study locations are ethnically diverse; the majority ...

  11. 76 FR 52266 - Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise, Detroit River, Ambassador Bridge to the Western Tip of Belle Isle

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise, Detroit River, Ambassador Bridge to the Western Tip of Belle Isle AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the Captain of the Port Detroit...

  12. 77 FR 40515 - Safety Zone; Detroit Symphony Orchestra at Ford House Fireworks, Lake St. Clair, Grosse Pointe...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Detroit Symphony Orchestra at Ford House... Detroit Symphony Orchestra at the Ford House Fireworks. This zone will be effective and enforced from...

  13. First evidence of egg deposition by walleye (Sander vitreus) in the Detroit River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, B.A.; Kennedy, G.W.; Allen, J.D.; French, J. R. P.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of fish spawning habitat in channels connecting the Great Lakes to fishery productivity in those lakes is poorly understood and has not been adequately documented. The Detroit River is a reputed spawning and nursery area for many fish, including walleye (Sander vitreus) that migrate between adjacent Lakes Erie and St. Clair. During April–May 2004, near the head of the Detroit River, we collected 136 fish eggs from the bottom of the river on egg mats. We incubated the eggs at the Great Lakes Science Center until they hatched. All eleven larvae that hatched from the eggs were identified as walleye. These eggs and larvae are the first credible scientific evidence that walleye spawn in the Detroit River. Their origin might be a stock of river-spawning walleye. Such a stock of walleye could potentially add resilience to production by walleye stocks that spawn and are harvested in adjacent waters.

  14. BiDil: race medicine or race marketing?

    PubMed

    Sankar, Pamela; Kahn, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of the first drug with a race-specific indication has fueled the controversy over the meaning of race and ethnicity and raised questions over whether this move should be seen as an advance or a setback in the struggle to address disparities in health status associated with race. The drug, BiDil, combines two generics long recognized as benefiting patients with heart failure, irrespective of race or ethnicity. The push to bring these drugs to market as a race-specific treatment was motivated by the culiarities of U.S. patent law and willingness exploit race to gain commercial and regulatory advantage.

  15. Parental Choice of Schools and Social Stratification in Education: The Paradox of Detroit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Valerie E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Using multilevel methods to analyze data from 710 household heads in 45 Detroit (Michigan) area school districts, results show that minority and disadvantaged respondents, especially from the city, favor parental school choice. Potential effects of an interdistrict choice plan are discussed, suggesting that choice might favor inequities. (SLD)

  16. Product Evaluation of the Uniform Code of Student Conduct Component of the Detroit Desegregation Court Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Charles A.

    The Uniform Code of Student Conduct Component of Detroit's (Michigan) school desegregation plan was ordered in 1975 by the court to promote a peaceful and orderly environment in the schools so that students could receive educational experiences in an atmosphere which would be substantially free from disruptions and violence. Uniform policies…

  17. Distribution and abundance of caddisflies (Trichoptera) in the St. Clair-Detroit River system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Bruce M.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Armitage, Brian J.

    1991-01-01

    Abundance and distribution patterns of the caddisflies of the St. Clair-Detroit River system were investigated in 1983–84. Collections of both adults and larvae yielded 70 species representing 34 genera and 12 families. Leptoceridae and Hydroptilidae were the most common families and Ceraclea the most common genus in number of species. This study adds 21 species to the Michigan record. The hydropsychidsCheumatopsyche (81, 63, 105 m−2; log-transformed values for mean and lower and upper 95% C.L.) and Hydropsyche (70, 57, 87 m−2) were the most abundant genera collected as larvae in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers, while Oecetis (41, 35, 47 m−2) was the most abundant in Lake St. Clair. Larval densities of caddisflies in the Detroit River were about twice those in the St. Clair River, but the number of genera collected in each river was about equal (22 vs. 23). Larval abundances were higher in October than May because most genera had substantial overwinter population declines. Low densities and species richness in some areas of the St. Clair-Detroit River system may reflect in part continued water quality problems, but community structure has markedly improved and representation of pollution-sensitive organisms has increased over a 12–15 year period.

  18. Spatial distributions and temporal trends in polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Detroit River suspended sediments.

    PubMed

    Marvin, Chris; Waltho, Jasmine; Jia, Julia; Burniston, Debbie

    2013-05-01

    Suspended sediments from the Detroit River were collected using sediment traps at sites ranging from western Lake Erie to southern Lake St. Clair to assess spatial distributions and temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The distribution of PBDEs in suspended sediments in the Detroit River appeared influenced by shoreline-based contemporary urban and industrial activities, which stood in contrast to PCBs that were associated with areas of historic industrial activity. Temporal trend data indicate that total PBDE concentrations decreased in the period after 2000 in response to cessation of production of the penta- and octa BDE formulations. Concentrations of total PBDEs ranged from roughly 7 ng g(-1) (4 ng g(-1) BDE 209) in southern Lake St. Clair to several hundred ng g(-1) (60-180 ng g(-1) BDE 209) in the lower reaches of the Detroit River. The widespread occurrence of PBDEs in Detroit River suspended sediments suggests that large urban areas can act as diffuse sources of these chemicals that are used in modern industrial applications and consumer products.

  19. 75 FR 19304 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... the Port Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes establishment of safety zones for annual events in the Captain of the Port...

  20. 77 FR 53159 - Proposed Amendment to Class B Airspace; Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Proposed Amendment to Class B Airspace; Detroit, MI Correction In proposed rule document 2012-19902, beginning on page 48476-48491 in the issue...

  1. Service Delivery Rules and the Distribution of Local Government Services: Three Detroit Bureaucracies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Bryan D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Argues that the routinized procedures governing delivery of local public services influence distribution of services to citizens by three municipal agencies in Detroit. Agencies are the Department of Parks and Recreation, the Sanitation Division, and the Environmental Enforcement Division of the Environmental Protection and Maintenance Department.…

  2. 75 FR 49535 - Lochmoor Chrysler Jeep; Detroit, MI; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Lochmoor Chrysler Jeep; Detroit, MI; Notice of Negative Determination... administrative reconsideration of the Department's negative determination regarding eligibility to apply for... July 1, 2010 (75 FR 38142). Pursuant to 29 CFR 90.18(c), reconsideration may be granted under...

  3. Survey of User Services in 42 Medical Libraries in Metropolitan Detroit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendell, Sandra Hanes

    Data regarding current services in hospital libraries of the metropolitan Detroit area form the nucleus of this study. The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to ascertain what services are given to users of hospital libraries and (2) to determine the value of the inventory as a means for obtaining information on user-services in hospital…

  4. White Gazes of Black Detroit: "Milliken v. Bradley I", Postcolonial Theory, and Persistent Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalifa, Muhammad A.; Douglas, Ty-Ron M. O.; Chambers, Terah T.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: This article employs critical policy analysis as it examines the historical underpinnings of racialized policy discrimination in Detroit. It considers histories, discourses, and oppressive structures as it seeks to understand how policies have been and currently are implemented by Whites in predominantly Black urban areas.…

  5. Detroit's Henry Ford Health System awarded Foster G. McGaw Prize.

    PubMed

    Rees, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, is named winner of the prestigious Foster G. McGaw Prize for excellence in community service. The organization received 100,000 dollars from the sponsors, the American Hospital Association, The Baxter International Foundation and the Cardinal Health Foundation.

  6. THE DETROIT RIVER AS A CHEMICAL LOADING SOURCE TO LAKE ERIE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit River, one of 42 designated areas of concern., has been classified as one of the most polluted rivers in North America. This system receives chemical loadings from a variety of sources including upstream discharges, industrial/municipal point sources, combined sewage ...

  7. Pursuit of Excellence: The Detroit Public Schools Action Plan 1994-95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detroit Board of Education, MI.

    "Pursuit of Excellence" is a plan developed through the cooperation of many stakeholders to guide the improvement efforts of the Detroit (Michigan) public schools in 1994-95. The first goal, to guarantee student success, includes objectives for achievement and results on achievement tests and objectives for accreditation, attendance, and student…

  8. 33 CFR 165.915 - Security zones; Captain of the Port Detroit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security zones; Captain of the Port Detroit. 165.915 Section 165.915 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas...

  9. 33 CFR 165.915 - Security zones; Captain of the Port Detroit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security zones; Captain of the Port Detroit. 165.915 Section 165.915 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas...

  10. VISION AND HEARING SCREENING IN SELECTED CLASSES FOR THE MENTALLY RETARDED, CITY OF DETROIT, MICHIGAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Bureau (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    TO DETERMINE (1) WHETHER ROUTINE SCREENING PROCEDURES COULD BE USED SUCCESSFULLY WITH RETARDED CHILDREN AND (2) THE PREVALENCE OF UNCORRECTED DEFECTS AMONG A PARTICULAR SCHOOL POPULATION, RETARDED CHILDREN FROM SCHOOLS LOCATED IN THE LOWEST SOCIOECONOMIC AREA OF DETROIT WERE SCREENED FOR VISION AND HEARING LOSSES. SUBJECTS' AGES RANGED FROM 3 TO…

  11. 77 FR 5787 - Consumers Energy Company, Detroit Edison Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Consumers Energy Company, Detroit Edison Company; Notice of Application... hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available for public inspection: a. Types...

  12. Decline and Fall: Crisis Financial Manager Tries to Fix Detroit Schools' Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2009-01-01

    Robert C. Bobb, the state-appointed emergency financial manager of the Detroit public school system, may have the biggest "turnaround" job in the nation. The district, with an annual budget of $1.2 billion, has a deficit projected to be $259 million and growing. Over the past 10 years, about half of the district's students have left, leaving…

  13. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VII, ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF TUNE-UP PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINES. TOPICS ARE SCHEDULING TUNE-UPS, AND TUNE-UP PROCEDURES. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE" AND OTHER MATERIALS. SEE VT 005 655 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION.…

  14. HIGHER ENVIRONMENTAL RELATIVE MOLDINESS INDEX (ERMISM) VALUES MEASURED IN DETROIT HOMES OF SEVERELY ASTHMATIC CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sieved vacuum bag dust from the homes of 143 children in Detroit was analyzed by mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) and the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMIsm) was calculated for each home. Children living in these homes were categorized into non-asthmatic (n=8...

  15. 75 FR 35648 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 46197): Sec. 165.941(a)(30) Bay-Rama Fishfly Festival Fireworks, New Baltimore, MI... enforced from 9:30 p.m. until 11 p.m. on July 24, 2010. Sec. 165.941(a)(13) Detroit International...

  16. Report of the Detroit Public Schools Kindergarten Teacher Survey, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Joyce, A.

    This study surveyed regular and extended-day kindergarten teachers in the Detroit public school system. Key findings included the following: (1) most respondents (63.6 percent) had 5 or more years experience in their current position; (2) respondents reported an average class size of 22.7 to 30.4 students; (3) most respondents perceived that their…

  17. A Systemwide Approach to Improving Early Childhood Program Quality in the Detroit Metropolitan Area. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shouse, A. Clay; Epstein, Ann S.

    This document is the final report of the McGregor-funded High/Scope training initiative, a system-wide approach to improving the quality of early childhood programs in the Detroit metropolitan area. The 3-year project was based on the validated High/Scope educational approach and training model, which advocates hands-on active learning for both…

  18. 75 FR 76036 - American Axle & Manufacturing Detroit Manufacturing Complex Holbrook Avenue and Saint Aubin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... December 10, 2008 (73 FR 75137). The Department's Notice was amended on January 8, 2009 to clarify that the... (subject firm). The Department's Notice was published in the Federal Register on January 15, 2009 (74 FR... Avenue and Saint Aubin Including On-Site Leased Workers From Paint Tech International Detroit,...

  19. 78 FR 26293 - Safety Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final Rule A. Public... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public... within U.S. waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port Detroit (73 FR 46194)....

  20. Use of main channel and two backwater habitats by larval fishes in the Detroit River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Erik A.; McNaught, A. Scott; Roseman, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations in the Detroit River have revealed renewed spawning activity by several important fishes, but little is known about their early life history requirements. We surveyed two main channel and two backwater areas in the lower Detroit River weekly from May to July 2007 to assess habitat use by larval fishes. Backwater areas included a soft-sediment embayment (FI) and a hard-sediment area (HIW). Main channel sites were located adjacent to each backwater area. Water temperature, velocity and clarity measurements and zooplankton samples were collected weekly. A macrophyte assessment was conducted in July. Growth and diet of larval yellow perch (Perca flavescens), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) were used to assess habitat quality. Macrophyte diversity and percent cover were higher and velocity lower at FI than HIW. Although larval fish diversity was highest in the main channel, yellow perch and bluegill larvae only grew beyond the yolk stage at FI, where they preferentially selected copepods, while Daphnia were selected in the main channel. Round goby ate harpacticoid copepods and Daphnia and grew at similar rates in HIW and the main channel. These data indicate that FI was a valuable nursery area for yellow perch and bluegill, whereas HIW was better suited to round goby. We only assessed two backwater areas, thus a complete census of wetland areas in the Detroit River is needed to identify valuable habitats. Restoration of shallow backwater areas is essential for rehabilitating fish populations and should be a priority in the Detroit River.

  1. 75 FR 68604 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 70; Detroit, Michigan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... given in the Federal Register (75 FR 11514, 3/11/2010 and 75 FR 15679, 3/30/2010) and the application... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 70; Detroit, Michigan Pursuant to its...

  2. 75 FR 15679 - Foreign-Trade Zone 70-Detroit, MI: Application for Expansion Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 70--Detroit, MI: Application for Expansion Correction The Federal Register notice published on March 11, 2010 (75 FR 11514) describing the expansion of FTZ...

  3. Study of Interlibrary Loan Policies of the Metropolitan Detroit Medical Library Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James F., II; And Others

    The increase in interlibrary loan (ILL) service, the desire of more institutions to share resources, and the unstable nature of grant funds to support such activity, led the Metropolitan Detroit Medical Library Group (MDMLG) to adopt a formal voluntary interlibrary loan agreement in 1970. In brief, the agreement states that borrowing libraries…

  4. EXPOSURE MONITORING COMPONENT FOR DETROIT CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY ( DCHS )

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional, regulatory-based air monitoring is expensive and, thus, conducted at one or few locations in a city. This provides limited info on intra-urban variability and spatial distribution of air pollution. Research-oriented urban network monitoring has progressed with inc...

  5. Comparison of asthma prevalence among African American teenage youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia and urban Detroit

    PubMed Central

    Ownby, Dennis R.; Tingen, Martha S.; Havstad, Suzanne; Waller, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Christine C.; Joseph, Christine C. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of asthma among urban African American (AA) populations has attracted research attention while the prevalence among rural AA populations is poorly documented. Objective To compare the prevalence of asthma among AA youth in rural Georgia and urban Detroit, Michigan. Methods The prevalence of asthma was compared in population-based samples of 7297 youth attending Detroit public high schools and in 2523 youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia. Current asthma was defined as a physician diagnosis and symptoms in the previous 12 months. Undiagnosed asthma was defined as multiple respiratory symptoms in the previous 12 months without a physician diagnosis. Results In Detroit, 6994 (95.8%) youth were AA compared to 1514 (60.0%) in GA. Average population density in high school ZIP codes was 5628 people/mi2 in Detroit and 45.1 people/mi2 in GA. The percent of poverty and of students qualifying for free or reduced lunches were similar in both areas. The prevalence of current diagnosed asthma among AA youth in Detroit and GA were similar: 15.0% (95% CI 14.1–15.8), and 13.7% (CI 12.0–17.1) (p=.22), respectively. Undiagnosed asthma prevalence in AA youth was 8.0% in Detroit and 7.5% in GA (p=.56). Asthma symptoms were reported more frequently among those with diagnosed asthma in Detroit while those with undiagnosed asthma in Georgia reported more symptoms. Conclusions Among AA youth living in similar socioeconomic circumstances, asthma prevalence is as high in rural Georgia as it is in urban Detroit suggesting that urban residence is not an asthma risk factor. Clinical Implications Asthma prevalence was as common among African American high school students in rural Georgia as among students in urban Detroit, Michigan. Asthma is more likely related to poverty than urban residence. PMID:25825215

  6. Addressing the Puzzle of Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Although racial discrimination poses a devastating instrument of oppression, social work texts lack a clear and consistent definition of "race". The solution lies in according race the status of an "actor version" concept, while exploring the origins and variations of race ideas using "scientific observer version" explanations. This distinction…

  7. Race, Racism, and Darwinism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeynes, William H.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the views of Darwinist evolution on issues regarding race and how this contributed to the spread of racism in the United States. The writings of Charles Darwin and a myriad of his followers are examined, including Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, and others. The influence of Darwinism in contributing to the growth of…

  8. Intelligence, Race, and Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They…

  9. Racing with the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    In 1,950 mile Australian race, the General Motors Sunraycer, was powered by space-derived solar cell technology incorporating a number of other aerospace technologies. The 547 lb one seater averaged better than 41 miles per hour and finished 600 miles ahead of the nearest competitor.

  10. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  11. Sports, Race, and Ressentiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the problem of college sports corruption and the debate over "the plight of the black athlete," suggesting that this debate is actually not about race or athletics but a code for examining contradictions between education and mass democracy. Calls this the problem of "ressentiment." Examines how athletes have used the "plight of the…

  12. “Applying Multi-scale Air Quality Models to Support Epidemiologic Studies”.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Near-road Exposures and Effects of Urban air pollutant Study (NEXUS) investigating whether children with asthma living near major roadways in Detroit, MI have greater health impacts from air pollutants than those living farther away, particularly near roadways with high diese...

  13. Race Is...Race Isn't: Critical Race Theory and Qualitative Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Laurence, Ed.; Deyhle, Donna, Ed.; Villenas, Sofia, Ed.

    Critical race theory offers a way to understand how ostensibly race-neutral structures in education--knowledge, merit, objectivity, and "good education"--in fact help form and police the boundaries of white supremacy and racism. Critical race theory can be used to deconstruct the meaning of "educational achievement," to recognize that the…

  14. DTE Energy Technologies With Detroit Edison Co. and Kinectrics Inc.: Distributed Resources Aggregation Modeling and Field Configuration Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-10-01

    Summarizes the work of DTE Energy Technologies, Detroit Edison, and Kinectrics, under contract to DOE's Distribution and Interconnection R&D, to develop distributed resources aggregation modeling and field configuration testing.

  15. Simulating potential structural and operational changes for Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River, Oregon, for downstream temperature management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buccola, Norman L.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Sullivan, Annett B.; Risley, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Detroit Dam was constructed in 1953 on the North Santiam River in western Oregon and resulted in the formation of Detroit Lake. With a full-pool storage volume of 455,100 acre-feet and a dam height of 463 feet, Detroit Lake is one of the largest and most important reservoirs in the Willamette River basin in terms of power generation, recreation, and water storage and releases. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers operates Detroit Dam as part of a system of 13 reservoirs in the Willamette Project to meet multiple goals, which include flood-damage protection, power generation, downstream navigation, recreation, and irrigation. A distinct cycle in water temperature occurs in Detroit Lake as spring and summer heating through solar radiation creates a warm layer of water near the surface and isolates cold water below. Controlling the temperature of releases from Detroit Dam, therefore, is highly dependent on the location, characteristics, and usage of the dam's outlet structures. Prior to operational changes in 2007, Detroit Dam had a well-documented effect on downstream water temperature that was problematic for endangered salmonid fish species, releasing water that was too cold in midsummer and too warm in autumn. This unnatural seasonal temperature pattern caused problems in the timing of fish migration, spawning, and emergence. In this study, an existing calibrated 2-dimensional hydrodynamic water-quality model [CE-QUAL-W2] of Detroit Lake was used to determine how changes in dam operation or changes to the structural release points of Detroit Dam might affect downstream water temperatures under a range of historical hydrologic and meteorological conditions. The results from a subset of the Detroit Lake model scenarios then were used as forcing conditions for downstream CE-QUAL-W2 models of Big Cliff Reservoir (the small reregulating reservoir just downstream of Detroit Dam) and the North Santiam and Santiam Rivers. Many combinations of environmental, operational, and

  16. Evidence of lake whitefish spawning in the Detroit River: Implications for habitat and population recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, E.F.; Kennedy, G.W.; Boase, J.; Manny, B.A.; Todd, T.N.; Stott, W.

    2007-01-01

    Historic reports imply that the lower Detroit River was once a prolific spawning area for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) prior to the construction of the Livingstone shipping channel in 1911. Large numbers of lake whitefish migrated into the river in fall where they spawned on expansive limestone bedrock and gravel bars. Lake whitefish were harvested in the river during this time by commercial fisheries and for fish culture operations. The last reported landing of lake whitefish from the Detroit River was in 1925. Loss of suitable spawning habitat during the construction of the shipping channels as well as the effects of over-fishing, sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation, loss of riparian wetlands, and other perturbations to riverine habitat are associated with the disappearance of lake whitefish spawning runs. Because lake whitefish are recovering in Lake Erie with substantial spawning occurring in the western basin, we suspected they may once again be using the Detroit River to spawn. We sampled in the Detroit River for lake whitefish adults and eggs in late fall of 2005 and for lake whitefish eggs and fish larvae in 2006 to assess the extent of reproduction in the river. A spawning-ready male lake whitefish was collected in gillnets and several dozen viable lake whitefish eggs were collected with a pump in the Detroit River in November and December 2005. No lake whitefish eggs were found at lower river sites in March of 2006, but viable lake whitefish eggs were found at Belle Isle in the upper river in early April. Several hundred lake whitefish larvae were collected in the river during March through early May 2006. Peak larval densities (30 fish/1,000 m3 of water) were observed during the week of 3 April. Because high numbers of lake whitefish larvae were collected from mid- and downstream sample sites in the river, we believe that production of lake whitefish in the Detroit River may be a substantial contribution to the lake whitefish population

  17. Injuries from hovercraft racing.

    PubMed

    Cattermole, H R

    1997-01-01

    A 31-year-old man presented with a potentially serious neck injury following a racing hovercraft accident. Previous reports of hovercrafting injuries could not be found, and a review of the sport's own records was undertaken. This shows there to be a wide range of injuries sustained from the sport, although most of them are minor. However, there are some worrying trends, and further studies are being undertaking in order to improve the sport's safety record. PMID:9196622

  18. Nutrition for adventure racing.

    PubMed

    Ranchordas, Mayur K

    2012-11-01

    Adventure racing requires competitors to perform various disciplines ranging from, but not limited to, mountain biking, running, kayaking, climbing, mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating and orienteering over a rugged, often remote and wilderness terrain. Races can vary from 6 hours to expedition-length events that can last up to 10-consecutive days or more. The purpose of this article is to provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for adventure racing competitors. Energy expenditures of 365-750 kcal/hour have been reported with total energy expenditures of 18 000-80 000 kcal required to complete adventure races, and large negative energy balances during competitions have been reported. Nutrition, therefore, plays a major role in the successful completion of such ultra-endurance events. Conducting research in these events is challenging and the limited studies investigating dietary surveys and nutritional status of adventure racers indicate that competitors do not meet nutrition recommendations for ultra-endurance exercise. Carbohydrate intakes of 7-12 g/kg are needed during periods of prolonged training to meet requirements and replenish glycogen stores. Protein intakes of 1.4-1.7 g/kg are recommended to build and repair tissue. Adequate replacement of fluid and electrolytes are crucial, particularly during extreme temperatures; however, sweat rates can vary greatly between competitors. There is considerable evidence to support the use of sports drinks, gels and bars, as they are a convenient and portable source of carbohydrate that can be consumed during exercise, in training and in competition. Similarly, protein and amino acid supplements can be useful to help meet periods of increased protein requirements. Caffeine can be used as an ergogenic aid to help competitors stay awake during prolonged periods, enhance glycogen resynthesis and enhance endurance performance. PMID:23006142

  19. The arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, M.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive examination of the nature of the contemporary arms race, the forces that encourage arms competition, and the means by which these forces can be controlled. The author provides analyses of such specific issues as the viability of arms control agreements; the possibilities for nuclear disarmament; the means of deterrence, detection, and defense; and the methods of destruction themselves - nuclear, conventional, chemical, and space weapons.

  20. Space race functional responses.

    PubMed

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-02-22

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats. PMID:25589602

  1. Space race functional responses.

    PubMed

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-02-22

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats.

  2. Space race functional responses

    PubMed Central

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-01-01

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis–Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka–Volterra predator–prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats. PMID:25589602

  3. Preliminary study of the water-temperature regime of the North Santiam River downstream from Detroit and Big Cliff dams, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius

    1985-01-01

    A riverine-temperature model and associated data-collection system were developed to help the Corps of engineers determine cost benefits of selective-withdrawal structures for future use with dams on the Willamette River System. A U.S. Geological Survey Lagrangian reference frame, digital computer model was used to simulate stream temperatures on the North Santiam River downstream of the multipurpose Detroit dam and a reregulating dam (Big Cliff), from river mile 45.6 to 2.9. In simulation, only available air-temperature and windspeed information from a nearby National Weather Service station at Salem, Oregon were used. This preliminary investigation found that the model predicted mean daily temperatures to within 0.4 C standard deviation. Analysis of projected selective-withdrawal scenarios showed that the model has the sensitivity to indicate water-temperature changes 42.7 miles downstream on the North Santiam River. (USGS)

  4. Hexabromocyclododecane Flame Retardant Isomers in Sediments from Detroit River and Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Robert J; Lu, Zhe; Chu, Shaogang; Haffner, G Douglas; Drouillard, Ken; Marvin, Christopher H; Ciborowski, Jan J H

    2015-07-01

    Sediments collected in 2004 from along the Detroit River (n = 19) and across all of Lake Erie (n = 18) were analyzed for isomers of the flame retardant chemical, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Sediment samples had ΣHBCD concentrations ranging from not detected to 1.6 ng/g d.w. γ-HBCD (56 %-100 % of ΣHBCDs) was the predominate isomer, observed in 7 of 19 samples from the Detroit River and 6 of 18 samples from Lake Erie (all within the western basin). α-HBCD was found in 4 Detroit River and 2 Lake Erie western basin sites, while β-HBCD was only in two Detroit River samples. High ΣHBCD concentrations (>100 ng/g d.w.) were found in two sludge samples from two Windsor, ON, wastewater treatment plants that feed into the Detroit River upstream. HBCD contamination into the Detroit River is a major input vector into Lake Erie and with an apparent sediment dilution effect moving towards the eastern basin.

  5. Decline of wildcelery buds in the lower Detroit River, 1950-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Manny, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    American wildcelery buds (Vallisneria americana), an abundant food eaten by diving ducks (Aythini) during migrations, decreased in the lower Detroit River of the Great Lakes from 1950 to 1985. Bud densities decreased at 2 (-14 and -18 buds/mA?) of 5 locations and were similar at 3 (-2, +2, and +3 buds/mA?) of 5 locations. Net change in all 5 areas combined, however, was a decrease of 36,720,000 buds, a 72% decline. Estimated potential losses of waterfowl feeding days caused by the decreased bud densities were 147,000 for canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria), 241,000 for redhead ducks (A. americana), or 664,000 for lesser scaup (A. affinis). Thus, the decline of wildcelery in the Detroit River may have contributed to decreased use of Michigan migration routes by some waterfowl species between 1950 and 1985.

  6. Economic deprivation and racial segregation: comparing Superfund sites in Portland, Oregon and Detroit, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Smith, Chad L

    2009-09-01

    The research presented here weighs the ability of two major explanations of social inequality-Massey and Denton's racial segregation explanation and Wilson's emphasis on economic deprivation (concentrated poverty)-to predict environmental inequality. Two sets of logistic regression analyses are used to predict the location of Superfund sites in Portland, Oregon and Detroit, Michigan providing a conditional understanding of environmental inequality within a larger sociological context. The analysis includes a general examination of the two theories in all census tracts in both cities and a set of analyses focusing upon Black neighborhoods in Detroit. The findings indicate that there is support for explanations of environmental inequality that include both racial segregation and economic deprivation, but that the more powerful of the two is economic deprivation. The results suggest that even though African-American neighborhoods disproportionately house Superfund sites, these facilities are more likely to be located in Black neighborhoods that are economically deprived.

  7. Distribution of submersed macrophytes in the St. Clair-Detroit River System, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Manny, Bruce A.

    1986-01-01

    An extensive survey was conducted in fall 1978 to determine the distribution and abundance of submersed macrophytes through the St. Clair-Detroit River system from Lake Huron to Lake Erie. Submersed macrophytes, representing 19 taxa, were widely distributed in the system, being found on 358 km2 (30%) of the total 1185 km2 of substrate surveyed. Of the 19 taxa identified, 8 common taxa were found on 20 to 121 km2 of substrate. These commonly found taxa, in decreasing order of substrate coverage were Characeae, Vallisneria americana, Najas flexilis, Myriophyllum spicatum, Elodea canadensis, Potamogeton richardsonii, Potamogeton spp. (narrow-leaf forms), andHeteranthera dubia. In general, macrophyte beds of low, medium, and high biomass covered much less area but a higher proportion of the available substrate in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers than in Lake St. Clair.

  8. TRAFFIC-RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS AND CHILDREN'S RESPIRATORY HEALTH IN EL PASO AND DETROIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypotheses -Specific Agent • Diesel exhaust particles • Ultrafine particles • Coarse-mode particles (road dust) • Noise and stress • Nonspecific irritants Previous Epidemiology • Kanawha Valley Health Study • Munich Traffic Study • Dutch Traffic Studies • S....

  9. Combined-sewer overflow data and methods of sample collection for selected sites, Detroit, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweat, M.J.; Wolf, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    From October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995, four combined-sewer discharging to the Detroit River in Detroit, Michigan were monitored to characterize storm-related water quantity and quality. Water velocity, stage, discharge, and precipitation were measured continuously and recorded at 5-minute intervals. Water-quality samples were collected at discrete times during each storm and analyzed for inorganic and organic pollutants. This report includes the sampling approach, field collection and processing techniques, and methods of chemical analysis, as well as a compilation of combined sewer discharge volumes, chemical data, and quality control data. These data may be used by resource managers and scientists (1) to describe temporal variation for pollutant concentrations in combined-sewage for various overflow events; (2) to describe spatial distribution of selected pollutants in the four combined-sewer overflows discharging to the Detroit River; (3) to calculate pollutant loads to the Detroit River from the four overflow sites for the monitored storm events; (4) to estimate pollutant loadings form other overflow sites; and, (5) to provide data and information which can be used to define appropriate management methods to reduce or eliminate untreated combined-sewer overflows. Selected combined-sewers were sampled between 30 and 82 times for inorganic pollutants, and between 14 and 22 times for organic pollutants, depending on the site. These samples represented between 8 and 17 storms during which one or more combined-sewers overflowed. The monitored pollutants included fecal coliform, fecal streptococci, and Escherichia coli; antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, total chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, thallium and zinc; and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, volatile organic compounds, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. In general, metal and non-metal inorganic pollutants were detected at all

  10. 78 FR 40961 - Safety Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ..., OH. The safety zone listed in 33 CFR 165.941(a)(22) will be enforced from 10:15 p.m. until 10:30 p.m... enforce various safety zones for annual marine events in the Captain of the Port Detroit zone from 9:30 p.m. on June 20, 2013 through 11:59 p.m. on August 31, 2013. Enforcement of these zones is...

  11. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) investigating the respiratory health impacts of traffic-related air pollutants on asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan, residential dust samples were collected to quantify mold exposure. Sett...

  12. The Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS): Study Design and Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Near-road EXposures and effects of urban air pollutants Study (NEXUS) was designed to examine the relationship between near-roadway exposures to air pollutants and respiratory outcomes in a cohort of asthmatic children who live close to major roadways in Detroit, Michigan USA...

  13. Modeling Hydrodynamics, Water Temperature, and Suspended Sediment in Detroit Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Bragg, Heather M.

    2007-01-01

    Detroit Lake is a large reservoir on the North Santiam River in west-central Oregon. Water temperature and suspended sediment are issues of concern in the river downstream of the reservoir. A CE-QUAL-W2 model was constructed to simulate hydrodynamics, water temperature, total dissolved solids, and suspended sediment in Detroit Lake. The model was calibrated for calendar years 2002 and 2003, and for a period of storm runoff from December 1, 2005, to February 1, 2006. Input data included lake bathymetry, meteorology, reservoir outflows, and tributary inflows, water temperatures, total dissolved solids, and suspended sediment concentrations. Two suspended sediment size groups were modeled: one for suspended sand and silt with particle diameters larger than 2 micrometers, and another for suspended clay with particle diameters less than or equal to 2 micrometers. The model was calibrated using lake stage data, lake profile data, and data from a continuous water-quality monitor on the North Santiam River near Niagara, about 6 kilometers downstream of Detroit Dam. The calibrated model was used to estimate sediment deposition in the reservoir, examine the sources of suspended sediment exiting the reservoir, and examine the effect of the reservoir on downstream water temperatures.

  14. Pharmacogenetics, race and global injustice.

    PubMed

    Holm, Søren

    2008-08-01

    This paper discusses the link between pharmacogenetics and race, and the global justice issues that the introduction of pharmacogenetics in pharmaceutical research and clinical practice will raise. First, it briefly outlines the likely impact of pharmacogenetics on pharmaceutical research and clinical practice within the next five to ten years and then explores the link between pharmacogenetic traits and 'race'. It is shown that any link between apparent race and pharmacogenetics is problematic and that race cannot be used as a proxy for pharmacogenetic knowledge. The final section considers the implications of the development of pharmacogenetics for health care systems in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:19143085

  15. Advanced Communication and Control of Distributed Energy Resources at Detroit Edison

    SciTech Connect

    Haukur Asgeirsson; Richard Seguin

    2004-01-31

    The project objective was to create the communication and control system, the process and the economic procedures that will allow owners (e.g., residential, commercial, industrial, manufacturing, etc.) of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) connected in parallel to the electric distribution to have their resources operated in a manner that protects the electric utility distribution network and personnel that may be working on the network. The Distribution Engineering Workstation (DEW) (a power flow and short circuit modeling tool) was modified to calculate the real-time characteristics of the distribution network based on the real-time electric distribution network information and provide DER operating suggestions to the Detroit Edison system operators so that regional electric stability is maintained. Part of the suggestion algorithm takes into account the operational availability of DER’s, which is known by the Energy Aggregator, DTE Energy Technologies. The availability information will be exchanged from DTE Energy Technologies to Detroit Edison. For the calculated suggestions to be used by the Detroit Edison operators, procedures were developed to allow an operator to operate a DER by requesting operation of the DER through DTE Energy Technologies. Prior to issuing control of a DER, the safety of the distribution network and personnel needs to be taken into account. This information will be exchanged from Detroit Edison to DTE Energy Technologies. Once it is safe to control the DER, DTE Energy Technologies will issue the control signal. The real-time monitoring of the DECo system will reflect the DER control. Multi-vendor DER technologies’ representing approximately 4 MW of capacity was monitored and controlled using a web-based communication path. The DER technologies included are a photovoltaic system, energy storage, fuel cells and natural gas/diesel internal combustion engine generators. This report documents Phase I result for the Detroit Edison

  16. Molecular Variation at the SLC6A3 Locus Predicts Lifetime Risk of PTSD in the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shun-Chiao; Koenen, Karestan C.; Galea, Sandro; Aiello, Allison E.; Soliven, Richelo; Wildman, Derek E.; Uddin, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Recent work suggests that the 9-repeat (9R) allele located in the 3′UTR VNTR of the SLC6A3 gene increases risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, no study reporting this association to date has been based on population-based samples. Furthermore, no study of which we are aware has assessed the joint action of genetic and DNA methylation variation at SLC6A3 on risk of PTSD. In this study, we assessed whether molecular variation at SLC6A3 locus influences risk of PTSD. Participants (n = 320; 62 cases/258 controls) were drawn from an urban, community-based sample of predominantly African American Detroit adult residents, and included those who had completed a baseline telephone survey, had provided blood specimens, and had a homozygous genotype for either the 9R or 10R allele or a heterozygous 9R/10R genotype. The influence of DNA methylation variation in the SLC6A3 promoter locus was also assessed in a subset of participants with available methylation data (n = 83; 16 cases/67 controls). In the full analytic sample, 9R allele carriers had almost double the risk of lifetime PTSD compared to 10R/10R genotype carriers (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.02–3.86), controlling for age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, number of traumas, smoking, and lifetime depression. In the subsample of participants with available methylation data, a significant (p = 0.008) interaction was observed whereby 9R allele carriers showed an increased risk of lifetime PTSD only in conjunction with high methylation in the SLC6A3 promoter locus, controlling for the same covariates. Our results confirm previous reports supporting a role for the 9R allele in increasing susceptibility to PTSD. They further extend these findings by providing preliminary evidence that a “double hit” model, including both a putatively reduced-function allele and high methylation in the promoter region, may more accurately capture molecular risk of PTSD at the SLC6A3 locus. PMID:22745713

  17. Researching Race in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Danny Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Within mathematics education research, policy, and practice, race remains undertheorized in relation to mathematics learning and participation. Although race is characterized in the sociological and critical theory literatures as socially and politically constructed with structural expressions, most studies of differential outcomes in…

  18. Racing for an Early Edge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    States jockey for position as the U.S. Education Department readies billions of dollars in "Race to the Top" awards--the stimulus program's grand prize. Even before they've finished spending their first block of federal stimulus aid, states are getting a head start in a national "race to the top" for better public education, without even knowing…

  19. Two Patterns of Race Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla, Eduardo Seda

    What North Americans term "race" is not structurally isomorphic to and, thus, not synonymous with what Latin Americans apply the term to. The social identities determined by "race", and consequently the expected behavior ascribed to these identities, are so dissimilar that meetings between persons of both cultures produce uncertainty and discord.…

  20. The Detroit River: Effects of contaminants and human activities on aquatic plants and animals and their habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Kenaga, David

    1991-01-01

    Despite the extensive urbanization of its watershed, the Detroit River still supports diverse fish and wildlife populations. Conflicting uses of the river for waste disposal, water withdrawals, shipping, recreation, and fishing require innovative management. Chemicals added by man to the Detroit River have adversely affected the health and habitats of the river's plants and animals. In 1985, as part of an Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channels Study sponsored by Environment Canada and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, researchers exposed healthy bacteria, plankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, fish, and birds to Detroit River sediments and sediment porewater. Negative impacts included genetic mutations in bacteria; death of macroinvertebrates; accumulation of contaminants in insects, clams, fish, and ducks; and tumor formation in fish. Field surveys showed areas of the river bottom that were otherwise suitable for habitation by a variety of plants and animals were contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy metals and occupied only by pollution-tolerant worms. Destruction of shoreline wetlands and disposal of sewage and toxic substances in the Detroit River have reduced habitat and conflict with basic biological processes, including the sustained production of fish and wildlife. Current regulations do not adequately control pollution loadings. However, remedial actions are being formulated by the U.S. and Canada to restore degraded benthic habitats and eliminate discharges of toxic contaminants into the Detroit River.

  1. Life history characteristics of a recovering lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis stock in the Detroit River, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Manny, Bruce A.; Boase, James; McFee, James; Tallman, Ross F.; Howland, Kimberly L.; Rennie, Michael D.; Mills, Kenneth; Tallman, Ross F.; Howland, Kimberly L.; Rennie, Michael D.; Mills, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    The Detroit River is part of a channel connecting Lakes Huron and Erie and was once a prolific spawning area for lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis. Large numbers of lake whitefish migrated into the river to spawn where they were harvested by commercial fisheries and for fish culture operations. Prior to our study, the last lake whitefish was landed from the Detroit River in 1925. Loss of spawning habitat during shipping channel construction and over-fishing, likely reduced lake whitefish spawning runs. Because lake whitefish are recovering in Lake Erie, and spawning in the western basin, we suspected they may also be spawning in the Detroit River. We sampled in the Detroit River for lake whitefish adults and eggs in October–December 2005–07 and for larvae during March–May 2006–08. A total of 15 spawning-ready lake whitefish from 4 to 18 years old, were collected. Viable eggs were collected during mid-November 2006–07; highest egg densities were found mid-river. Sac-fry whitefish larvae were collected in the river and near the river mouth. No whitefish larvae were retained in the river. Because high numbers of larvae were collected from mid- and downstream river sites, reproduction of lake whitefish in the Detroit River could contribute substantially to the Lake Erie lake whitefish metapopulation.

  2. Freedom, equality, race.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jeffrey B

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores come of the reasons for the continuing power of racial categorization in our era, and thus offers some friendly amendments to the more optimistic renderings of the term post-racial. Focusing mainly on the relationship between black and white Americans, it argues that the widespread embrace of universal values of freedom and equality, which most regard as antidotes to racial exclusion, actually reinforce it. The internal logic of these categories requires the construction of the "other." In America, where freedom and equality still stand at the contested center of collective identity, a history of racial oppression informs the very meaning of these terms. Thus the irony: much of the effort exerted to transcend race tends to fuel continuing division. PMID:21469393

  3. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Outdoor Coarse Particulate Matter Mass Concentrations Measured with a New Coarse Particulate Sampler during the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) provided data to compare outdoor residential coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5) concentrations in six different areas of Detroit with data from a central monitoring site. Daily and seasonal influences on the spa...

  4. Participant-Based Monitoring of Indoor and Outdoor Nitrogen Dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons among MICA-Air Households

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma (MICA) study in Detroit, Michigan introduced a participant-based approach to reduce the resource burden associated with collection of indoor and outdoor residential air sampling data. A subset of participants designated as MICA-Air c...

  5. Simulations of a hypothetical temperature control structure at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River, northwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buccola, Norman L.; Stonewall, Adam J.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2015-01-01

    Estimated egg-emergence days for endangered Upper Willamette River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River winter steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were assessed for all scenarios. Estimated spring Chinook fry emergence under SlidingWeir scenarios was 9 days later immediately downstream of Big Cliff Dam, and 4 days later at Greens Bridge compared with existing structural scenarios at Detroit Dam. Despite the inclusion of a hypothetical sliding weir at Detroit Dam, temperatures exceeded without-dams temperatures during November and December. These late-autumn exceedances likely represent the residual thermal effect of Detroit Lake operated to meet minimum dry-season release rates (supporting instream habitat and irrigation requirements) and lake levels specified by the current (2014) operating rules (supporting recreation and flood mitigation).

  6. A Life Course Perspective on Stress and Health Among Caregivers of Children With Asthma in Detroit

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Natalie R.; Parker, Edith A.; Cheezum, Rebecca R.; Lewis, Toby C.; O’Toole, Ashley; Patton, Jean; Zuniga, Adriana; Robins, Thomas G.; Keirns, Carla C.

    2014-01-01

    Low-income caregivers raising children with asthma experience many obstacles to their own health, including stress. To understand and describe their daily experiences, researchers conducted 40 qualitative interviews supplemented with descriptive quantitative surveys in Detroit, Michigan, as part of a community-based participatory research partnership of Community Action Against Asthma. Prevalence of chronic illness is noticeably higher among participants than the general US population. Caregivers identified stress processes that may influence disproportionate health outcomes and risk-related behaviors over their lifetime. Applying a life course perspective, findings suggest that public health interventions should address family-level comorbidities, increase instrumental social support, and acknowledge practical coping mechanisms. PMID:23168346

  7. Positron Emission Tomography-Scanner at Children`s Hospital of Michigan at Detroit, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The Department of Energy has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0795, to support the DOE decision to provide a grant of $7,953,600 to be used in support of a proposed Positron Emission Tomography Scanner at Children`s Hospital of Michigan at Detroit, Michigan. Based upon the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affected the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  8. Race trouble: attending to race and racism in online interaction.

    PubMed

    Durrheim, Kevin; Greener, Ross; Whitehead, Kevin A

    2015-03-01

    This article advocates the concept of race trouble as a way of synthesizing variation in racial discourse, and as a way of studying how social interaction and institutional life continue to be organized by conceptions of 'race' and 'racism'. Our analysis of an online discussion at a South African University about the defensibility of a characterization of (black) student protesters as 'savages' revealed a number of familiar strategies: participants avoided explicit racism, denied racism, and denied racism on behalf of others. However, the aim of this analysis was not to identify the 'real' racism, but to show how race and racism were used in the interaction to develop perspectives on transformation in the institution, to produce social division in the University, and to create ambivalently racialized and racializing subject positions. We demonstrate how, especially through uses of deracialized discourse, participants' actions were observably shaped by the potential ways in which others could hear 'race' and 'racism'. Race trouble thus became manifest through racial suggestion, allusion, innuendo, and implication. We conclude with a call to social psychologists to study the ways in which meanings of 'race' and 'racism' are forged and contested in relation to each other. PMID:24689369

  9. Race trouble: attending to race and racism in online interaction.

    PubMed

    Durrheim, Kevin; Greener, Ross; Whitehead, Kevin A

    2015-03-01

    This article advocates the concept of race trouble as a way of synthesizing variation in racial discourse, and as a way of studying how social interaction and institutional life continue to be organized by conceptions of 'race' and 'racism'. Our analysis of an online discussion at a South African University about the defensibility of a characterization of (black) student protesters as 'savages' revealed a number of familiar strategies: participants avoided explicit racism, denied racism, and denied racism on behalf of others. However, the aim of this analysis was not to identify the 'real' racism, but to show how race and racism were used in the interaction to develop perspectives on transformation in the institution, to produce social division in the University, and to create ambivalently racialized and racializing subject positions. We demonstrate how, especially through uses of deracialized discourse, participants' actions were observably shaped by the potential ways in which others could hear 'race' and 'racism'. Race trouble thus became manifest through racial suggestion, allusion, innuendo, and implication. We conclude with a call to social psychologists to study the ways in which meanings of 'race' and 'racism' are forged and contested in relation to each other.

  10. Maximizing Peak Running on Race Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consolo, Kitty

    2008-01-01

    Distance runners spend many hours training assiduously for competition, yet on race day they can often make mistakes that sabotage their performance. This article addresses five common race-day mistakes: (1) failure to bring proper equipment to the race; (2) failure to eat an appropriate race-day meal; (3) failure to hydrate properly; (4) failure…

  11. Adventure Racing for the Rest of Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorman, Marta K.; English, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Adventure racing got started in the 1990s. The Eco-Challenge and Primal Quest races were multi-day events that included challenging physical activities and extreme conditions. Today, highly publicized adventure races like the Eco-Challenge and Amazing Race usually feature elite athletes or celebrities completing exotic tasks or globe-hopping to…

  12. What's the Use of Race? Investigating the Concept of Race in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Marc Phillip

    2013-01-01

    What's the use of race and does race matter? These two questions serve as the foundation for this dissertation comprised of three studies examining: (1) how scholars "use" race in their research and how their decisions matter for the way race is interpreted; (2) how students make meaning of race (as a social construct) during a time…

  13. Some Ideas on Racing Seaplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegna, Giovanni

    1932-01-01

    This report presents the author's designs and construction of various seaplanes to raced in the Schneider Cup. The results of tests are presented as well as discussions of various structures like floats and wings.

  14. Transition metals in coarse, fine, very fine and ultra-fine particles from an interstate highway transect near Detroit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Thomas A.; Barnes, David E.; Lawton, Jonathan A.; Miller, Roger; Spada, Nicholas; Willis, Robert D.; Kimbrough, Sue

    2016-11-01

    As one component of a study investigating the impact of vehicle emissions on near-road air quality, human exposures, and potential health effects, particles were measured from September 21 to October 30, 2010 on both sides of a major roadway (Interstate-96) in Detroit. Traffic moved freely on this 12 lane freeway with a mean velocity of 69 mi/hr. with little braking and acceleration. The UC Davis DELTA Group rotating drum (DRUM) impactors were used to collect particles in 8 size ranges at sites nominally 100 m south, 10 m north, 100 m north, and 300 m north of the highway. Ultra-fine particles were continuously collected at the 10 m north and 100 m north sites. Samples were analyzed every 3 h for mass (soft beta ray transmission), 42 elements (synchrotron-induced x-ray fluorescence) and optical attenuation (350-800 nm spectroscopy). A three day period of steady southerly winds along the array allowed direct measurement of freeway emission rates for coarse (10 > Dp > 1.0 μm), PM2.5, very fine (0.26 > Dp > 0.09 μm), and ultra-fine (Dp < 0.09 μm) particles. The PM2.5 mass concentrations were modeled using literature emission rates during the south to north wind periods, and averaged 1.6 ± 0.5 μg/m3, versus the measured value of 2.0 ± 0.7 μg/m3. Using European freeway emission rates from 2010, and modeling them at the I-96 site, we would predict roughly 3.1 μg/m3 of PM2.5 particles, corrected from the 4.9 PM10 value by their measured road dust contributions. Using California car and truck emission rates of 1973, this value would have been about 16 μg/m3, corrected down from the 19 μg/m3 PM5.0 using measured roadway dust contributions. This would have included 2.7 μg/m3 of lead, versus the 0.0033 μg/m3 measured. Very fine particles were distributed across the array with a relatively weak falloff versus distance. For the ultra-fine particles, emissions of soot and metals seen in vehicular braking studies correlated with traffic at the 10 m site, but only the

  15. A hell of a life: addiction and marginality in post-industrial Detroit

    PubMed Central

    Draus, Paul J.; Roddy, Juliette K.; Greenwald, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on concepts from Foucault and Agamben, we maintain that the lives of daily heroin users provide a prime illustration of bare life in the zone of indistinction that is contemporary Detroit. First, we consider the case of Detroit as a stigmatized and racially segregated city, with concrete consequences for its residents. We then present evidence from in-depth ethnographic and economic interviews to illustrate the various spaces of confinement—that of addiction, that of economic marginality, and that of gender—occupied by these men and women, as well as the indeterminacy of their daily lives, captured through their descriptions of daily routines and interactions. We examine their expressions of worth as expressed in economic, emotional and moral terms. Finally, we draw connections between the sustained marginality of these individuals, as a contemporary category of homo sacer, and the policies and powers that both despise and depend upon them. Heroin, we contend, helps to fill and numb this social void, making bare life bearable, but also cementing one’s marginality into semi-permanence. PMID:25983655

  16. Long-term ecosystem monitoring and assessment of the Detroit River and Western Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Hartig, J H; Zarull, M A; Ciborowski, J J H; Gannon, J E; Wilke, E; Norwood, G; Vincent, A N

    2009-11-01

    Over 35 years of US and Canadian pollution prevention and control efforts have led to substantial improvements in environmental quality of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie. However, the available information also shows that much remains to be done. Improvements in environmental quality have resulted in significant ecological recovery, including increasing populations of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcons (Falco columbarius), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), walleye (Sander vitreus), and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia spp.). Although this recovery is remarkable, many challenges remain, including population growth, transportation expansion, and land use changes; nonpoint source pollution; toxic substances contamination; habitat loss and degradation; introduction of exotic species; and greenhouse gases and global warming. Research/monitoring must be sustained for effective management. Priority research and monitoring needs include: demonstrating and quantifying cause-effect relationships; establishing quantitative endpoints and desired future states; determining cumulative impacts and how indicators relate; improving modeling and prediction; prioritizing geographic areas for protection and restoration; and fostering long-term monitoring for adaptive management. Key management agencies, universities, and environmental and conservation organizations should pool resources and undertake comprehensive and integrative assessments of the health of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie at least every 5 years to practice adaptive management for long-term sustainability. PMID:18850284

  17. Preventing homicide: an evaluation of the efficacy of a Detroit gun ordinance.

    PubMed Central

    O'Carroll, P W; Loftin, C; Waller, J B; McDowall, D; Bukoff, A; Scott, R O; Mercy, J A; Wiersema, B

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In November 1986, a Detroit, Michigan city ordinance requiring mandatory jail sentences for illegally carrying a firearm in public was passed to preserve "the public peace, health, safety, and welfare of the people." METHODS: We conducted a set of interrupted time-series analyses to evaluate the impact of the law on the incidence of homicides, hypothesizing that the ordinance, by its nature, would affect only firearm homicides and homicides committed outside (e.g., on the street). RESULTS: The incidence of homicide in general increased after the law was passed, but the increases in non-firearm homicides and homicides committed inside (e.g., in a home) were either statistically significant or approached statistical significance (p = .006 and p = .070, respectively), whereas changes in the incidence of firearm homicides and homicides committed outside were not statistically significant (p = .238 and p = .418, respectively). We also determined that the ordinance was essentially unenforced, apparently because of a critical shortage of jail space. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with a model in which the ordinance had a dampening effect on firearm homicides occurring in public in Detroit. The apparent preventive effect evident in the time series analyses may have been due to publicity about the ordinance, whereas the small nature of the effect may have been due to the lack of enforcement. PMID:2014857

  18. Neighborhood Racial Composition, Neighborhood Poverty, and the Spatial Accessibility of Supermarkets in Metropolitan Detroit

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Schulz, Amy J.; Israel, Barbara A.; James, Sherman A.; Bao, Shuming; Wilson, Mark L.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the spatial accessibility of large “chain” supermarkets in relation to neighborhood racial composition and poverty. Methods. We used a geographic information system to measure Manhattan block distance to the nearest supermarket for 869 neighborhoods (census tracts) in metropolitan Detroit. We constructed moving average spatial regression models to adjust for spatial autocorrelation and to test for the effect of modification of percentage African American and percentage poor on distance to the nearest supermarket. Results. Distance to the nearest supermarket was similar among the least impoverished neighborhoods, regardless of racial composition. Among the most impoverished neighborhoods, however, neighborhoods in which African Americans resided were, on average, 1.1 miles further from the nearest supermarket than were White neighborhoods. Conclusions. Racial residential segregation disproportionately places African Americans in more-impoverished neighborhoods in Detroit and consequently reduces access to supermarkets. However, supermarkets have opened or remained open close to middle-income neighborhoods that have transitioned from White to African American. Development of economically disadvantaged African American neighborhoods is critical to effectively prevent diet-related diseases among this population. PMID:15798127

  19. Eating patterns and cardiovascular disease risk in a Detroit Mexican American population.

    PubMed

    Artinian, Nancy T; Schim, Stephanie Myers; Vander Wal, Jillon S; Nies, Mary A

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in Hispanic adults living in Southwest Detroit. A descriptive design was used. Self-report baseline data were collected using The Rate Your Plate and Personal Health Risk Assessment questionnaires. A nonrandom sample of 32 Mexican American adults was recruited from a large Roman Catholic Church in Southwest Detroit. Participants were selected if they were enrolled in the larger parent research study to test the effects of a lay health educator intervention and planned to participate in the nutrition education portion of the intervention. Unhealthy eating patterns outnumbered heart healthy eating practices. The majority used higher fat salad dressings; ate fried foods, sweets, and high fat snacks; consumed greater than the desired amounts of regular cheese; drank whole milk; and ate few fruits and vegetables. Lack of physical activity, being overweight, and exposure to second-hand smoke were the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors. The data suggest that effective community-based heart disease prevention programs that emphasize risk factor screening and cardiovascular risk reduction through heart healthy eating are needed.

  20. Eating patterns and cardiovascular disease risk in a Detroit Mexican American population.

    PubMed

    Artinian, Nancy T; Schim, Stephanie Myers; Vander Wal, Jillon S; Nies, Mary A

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in Hispanic adults living in Southwest Detroit. A descriptive design was used. Self-report baseline data were collected using The Rate Your Plate and Personal Health Risk Assessment questionnaires. A nonrandom sample of 32 Mexican American adults was recruited from a large Roman Catholic Church in Southwest Detroit. Participants were selected if they were enrolled in the larger parent research study to test the effects of a lay health educator intervention and planned to participate in the nutrition education portion of the intervention. Unhealthy eating patterns outnumbered heart healthy eating practices. The majority used higher fat salad dressings; ate fried foods, sweets, and high fat snacks; consumed greater than the desired amounts of regular cheese; drank whole milk; and ate few fruits and vegetables. Lack of physical activity, being overweight, and exposure to second-hand smoke were the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors. The data suggest that effective community-based heart disease prevention programs that emphasize risk factor screening and cardiovascular risk reduction through heart healthy eating are needed. PMID:15363023

  1. Lake sturgeon response to a spawning reef constructed in the Detroit river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.; Manny, B.; Boase, J.; Child, M.; Kennedy, G.; Craig, J.; Soper, K.; Drouin, R.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the First World War, the bi-national Detroit River provided vast areas of functional fish spawning and nursery habitat. However, ongoing conflicting human uses of these waters for activities such as waste disposal, water withdrawals, shoreline development, shipping, recreation, and fishing have altered many of the chemical, physical, and biological processes of the Detroit River. Of particular interest and concern to resource managers and stakeholders is the significant loss and impairment of fish spawning and nursery habitat that led to the decline in abundance of most fish species using this ecosystem. Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations for example, were nearly extirpated by the middle of the 20th century, leaving only a small fraction of their former population. Fisheries managers recognized that the loss of suitable fish spawning habitat is a limiting factor in lake sturgeon population rehabilitation in the Detroit River. In efforts to remediate this beneficial water use impairment, a reef consisting of a mixture of natural rock and limestone was constructed at the upstream end of Fighting Island in 2008. This paper focuses on the response by lake sturgeon to the different replicates of suitable natural materials used to construct the fish spawning habitat at Fighting Island in the Detroit River. Pre-construction fisheries assessment during 2006–2008 showed that along with the presence of adult lake sturgeon, spawning conditions were favorable. However, no eggs were found in assessments conducted prior to reef construction. The 3300 m2 Fighting Island reef was placed at the upstream end of the island in October of 2008. The construction design included 12 spawning beds of three replicates each consisting of either round rock, small or large (shot-rock) diameter limestone or a mixture thereof. An observed response by spawning lake sturgeon occurred the following year when spawning-ready adults (ripe), viable eggs, and larvae were

  2. An alternative hypothesis for sink development above salt cavities in the Detroit area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stump, Daniel; Nieto, A.S.; Ege, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Subsidence and sink formation resulting from brining operations in the Windsor-Detroit area include the 1954 sink at the Canadian Salt Company brine field near Windsor, Ontario, and the 1971 sinks at the BASF Wyandotte Corporation brine field at Grosse Ile, Mich. Earlier investigations into both occurrences concluded that the mechanism of sink development consisted of the gradual stoping of poorly supported brine-gallery roof rock to the near surface with subsequent surface collapse. A more recent study attempted to describe the mechanism of sink development in terms of the geometry of a cylindrical chimney formed by stoping of roof rock, the height of a cavity at depth, the depth of overlying rock, and the bulking ratio of the rubble formed during stoping. Persons with extensive experience in solution mining in the Windsor-Detroit area have expressed doubt that the stoping mechanism could fully explain the development of these sinks. Further, they have proposed that the relatively shallow (300-ft-deep) Sylvania Sandstone, in this case, may be responsible for the sinks by a secondary undermining mechanism to be examined in this paper. The mechanism involves downwarping of the beds overlying the salt cavity and development of a shallower cavity in the Sylvania Sandstone by downward migration of cohesionless sand grains from the Sylvania through openings in the disturbed rock to the lower cavity. This study indicates that under natural conditions the Sylvania will not migrate, even in the presence of large underground water flows because the sandstone possesses some cohesion throughout its depth. However, further investigation has formulated a mechanism that could allow the Sylvania Sandstone to loose its cohesion in response to high horizontal stresses. These stresses could be the result of deformation that accompanies general subsidence and (or) of past geologic processes. Included in this study were experimental and analytical investigations. As determined by

  3. Associations between personal exposures to VOCs and alterations in cardiovascular physiology: Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) - presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: An adult cohort consisting of 63 participants engaged in the US EPA’s recent Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) and a University of Michigan cardiovascular sub-study conducted during summer and winter periods over 3 years between 2004 and 2007...

  4. 33 CFR 165.941 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Register as practicable, in accordance with 33 CFR 165.7(a). Such means of notification may also... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks... Guard District § 165.941 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit...

  5. 75 FR 52981 - Chrysler, LLC, Detroit Axle Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Caravan Knight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... was published in the Federal Register on February 2, 2009 (74 FR 5870). The notice was amended on... notice was published in the Federal Register on March 12, 2010 (75 FR 111914). At the request of a... Employment and Training Administration Chrysler, LLC, Detroit Axle Plant, Including On-Site Leased...

  6. An acoustic doppler current profiler survey of flow velocities in Detroit River, a connecting channel of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holtschlag, David J.; Koschik, John A.

    2003-01-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) were used to survey flow velocities in Detroit River from July 8-19, 2002, as part of a study to assess the susceptibility of public water intakes to contaminants on the St. Clair-Detroit River Waterway. More than 3.5 million point velocities were measured at 130 cross sections. Cross sections were generally spaced about 1,800 ft apart along the river from the head of Detroit River at the outlet of Lake St. Clair to the mouth of Detroit River on Lake Erie. Two transects were surveyed at each cross section, one in each direction across the river. Along each transect, velocity profiles were generally obtained 0.8-2.2 ft apart. At each velocity profile, average water velocity data were obtained at 1.64 ft intervals of depth. The raw position and velocity data from the ADCP field survey were adjusted for local magnetic anomalies using global positioning system (GPS) measurements at the end points of the transects. The adjusted velocity and ancillary data can be retrieved though the internet and extracted to column-oriented data files.

  7. 78 FR 10128 - Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Subzone 70T; Marathon Petroleum Company LP; Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Marathon Petroleum Company LP refinery in Detroit, Michigan. (B-42-2012, docketed 6/1/2012); Whereas, notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (77 FR 33716-33717) and the... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Subzone 70T; Marathon...

  8. Evidence of the St. Clair-Detroit River system as a dispersal corridor and nursery habitat for transient larval burbot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullough, Darrin E.; Roseman, Edward F.; Keeler, Kevin M.; DeBruyne, Robin L.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Thompson, Patricia A.; Ireland, Stacey A.; Ross, Jason E.; Bowser, Dustin; Hunter, Robert D.; Castle, Dana Kristina; Fischer, Jason; Provo, Stacy A.

    2015-01-01

    Burbot Lota lota are distributed across the Laurentian Great Lakes where they occupy a top piscivore role. The St. Clair-Detroit River System is known to provide a migration corridor as well as spawning and nursery habitat for many indigenous fishes of economic and ecological significance. However, knowledge is scant of the early life history of burbot and the importance of this system in their dispersal, survival, and recruitment. In order to assess the role of the St. Clair-Detroit River System to burbot ecology, we collected larval burbot during ichthyoplankton surveys in this system from 2010 to 2013 as part of a habitat restoration monitoring program. More and larger burbot larvae were found in the St. Clair River than in the lower Detroit River, although this may be due to differences in sampling methods between the two rivers. Consistent with existing studies, larval burbot exhibited ontogenesis with a distinct transition from a pelagic zooplankton-based diet to a benthic macroinvertebrate-based diet. Our results demonstrate that the St. Clair-Detroit Rivers provide food resources, required habitat, and a migration conduit between the upper and lower Great Lakes, but the contribution of these fish to the lower lakes requires further examination.

  9. A model to locate potential areas for lake sturgeon spawning habitat construction in the St. Clair–Detroit River System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennion, David; Manny, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    In response to a need for objective scientific information that could be used to help remediate loss of fish spawning habitat in the St. Clair River and Detroit River International Areas of Concern, this paper summarizes a large-scale geographic mapping investigation. Our study integrates data on two variables that many riverine fishes respond to in selecting where to spawn in these waters (water flow velocity and water depth) with available maps of the St. Clair–Detroit River System (SC–DRS). Our objectives were to locate and map these two physical components of fish habitat in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers and Lake St. Clair using a geographic information system (GIS) and to identify where, theoretically, fish spawning habitat could be remediated in these rivers. The target fish species to which this model applies is lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), but spawning reefs constructed for lake sturgeon in this system have been used for spawning by 17 species of fish. Our analysis revealed areas in each river that possessed suitable water velocity and depth for fish spawning and therefore could theoretically be remediated by the addition of rock-rubble substrate like that used at two previously remediated sites in the Detroit River at Belle Isle and Fighting Island. Results of our analysis revealed that only 3% of the total area of the SC–DRS possesses the necessary combination of water depth and high flow velocity to be indicated by the model as potential spawning habitat for lake sturgeon.

  10. Changing the Rules: Making Space for Interactive Learning in the Galleries of the Detroit Institute of Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czajkowski, Jennifer Wild

    2011-01-01

    Three years after the Detroit Institute of Arts opened with all new, "visitor-centered" galleries, the museum's executive director of learning and interpretation shares the processes, successes, and lessons learned at an institution that embraced an array of hands-on learning models. The models are discussed as components of a comprehensive…

  11. Flirtation and Flight: Alternatives to Ethnic Confrontation in White Anglo-American Protestant Detroit, 1880-1940.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janis, Ralph

    1978-01-01

    Marriage, baptism, membership, and church committee records are used in this paper to trace the form and evolution of the social boundaries which Detroit's white Anglo-American Protestants created for themselves at various levels of social contact. Together, these records provide an indication of small group associational patterns in an urban…

  12. 77 FR 53252 - Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement for the Chicago, IL, to Detroit-Pontiac, MI, Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... for the reasonable build alternatives. Identifying, at a corridor planning level, the infrastructure... Federal Railroad Administration Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement for the Chicago, IL, to Detroit-Pontiac, MI, Regional Passenger Rail System AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), U.S....

  13. Associations between Personal Exposures to VOCs and Alterations in Cardiovascular Physiology: Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: An adult cohort consisting of 63 participants engaged in the US EPA’s recent Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) and a University of Michigan cardiovascular sub-study conducted during summer and winter periods over 3 years between 2004 and 2007 (5 seas...

  14. Increasing the Employability of Applicants in Professional Occupations Who are not Competitive in the Detroit Job Market. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Thomas H., Jr.

    This demonstration project determined if the application of diagnostic techniques, remedial services, and intensive job development efforts on an individualized basis could develop or improve the employability of applicants in professional occupations who were not competitive in the Detroit job market. A comparison was made of the experiences of…

  15. PERSONAL, RESIDENTIAL AND CENTRAL SITE PM MASS CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY ( DEARS )

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DEARS is a three year field monitoring study being performed by the US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory in the Detroit, Michigan area. Two years of monitoring have been completed and data from the first year of the study is currently being analyzed. This report ...

  16. "Race", ethnicity and haemoglobin disorders.

    PubMed

    Dyson, S M

    1998-07-01

    The new genetics has brought forth concerns that such developments as screening for genetic diseases will accentuate the oppression of minority ethnic groups [Bradby (1996) Genetics and racism. In The Troubled Helix: social and psychological aspects of the new human genetics, ed. T. Marteau and M. Richards, pp. 295-316. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]. Haemoglobin disorders primarily affect minority ethnic groups in the U.K. but have been the subject of protest regarding lack of services as much as the unwelcome advent of them. This paper examines various conceptions of "race", from biological reductionism, through notions of ethnicity, racialized groups, sociological conceptions of "race", political and analytical uses of the term "Black" and so-called "new ethnicities" such as situational and plastic ethnicity in order to examine the consequences of these competing conceptions of race for a social analysis of sickle cell anaemia and beta-thalassaemia. The paper concludes that any group of people associated with the haemoglobin disorders are subject both to constraints upon their actions and opportunities for re-interpreting their social world. In conclusion it is proposed that no nomenclature classifies the phenomenon unproblematically. The notion of race as a political construct [Goldberg (1993) Racist Culture: Philosophy and the Politics of Meaning. Blackwell, Oxford] is used to suggest that attempts to construct all-embracing definitions themselves signal the potential abuses which may be attendant upon programmatic or mechanistic conceptions of the relationship between race and haemoglobin disorders.

  17. High-Level Data Races

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artho, Cyrille; Havelund, Klaus; Biere, Armin; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Data races are a common problem in concurrent and multi-threaded programming. They are hard to detect without proper tool support. Despite the successful application of these tools, experience shows that the notion of data race is not powerful enough to capture certain types of inconsistencies occurring in practice. In this paper we investigate data races on a higher abstraction layer. This enables us to detect inconsistent uses of shared variables, even if no classical race condition occurs. For example, a data structure representing a coordinate pair may have to be treated atomically. By lifting the meaning of a data race to a higher level, such problems can now be covered. The paper defines the concepts view and view consistency to give a notation for this novel kind of property. It describes what kinds of errors can be detected with this new definition, and where its limitations are. It also gives a formal guideline for using data structures in a multi-threading environment.

  18. Occurrence, habitat, and movements of the endangered northern madtom (Noturus stigmosus) in the Detroit River, 2003-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Daley, Bryon A.; Boase, James C.; Horne, Ashlee N.; Chiotti, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    The northern madtom (Noturus stigmosus or NOM) is a small catfish, native to North America. It is globally vulnerable and endangered in Canada, Ontario, and Michigan. In 1994 and 1996, it was found in the St. Clair River and in Lake St. Clair, respectively. However, it had not been found downstream in the Detroit River since 1978. We report catches of 304 NOM from 2003 to 2011 and describe their mud and sand habitats in the deep (10 m), dark, Detroit River. We found adult NOM, including 3 ripe males (90–107 mm SL) in head waters of the river near Belle Isle in Michigan waters, and both adult and 4 juvenile NOM (21–30 mm SL) near Peche Island in Ontario waters. From 2009 to 2011, in the river's middle reach, we caught 7 adult NOM for the first time near Fighting Island in Ontario waters, but no NOM in the river's lower reach. Our mark–recapture results showed that within 6 weeks, 2 adult NOM moved east 2.0 km from Michigan waters near Belle Isle across the deep (10 m) Fleming Channel of the Detroit River to Canadian waters near Peche Island. Analysis of annuli from pectoral spines of 7 dead NOM revealed that they live to at least 6 years of age in the Detroit River. This is the first age data that we could find for a NOM population. Our findings extended our knowledge of habitat, reproductive ecology, age, and distribution of NOM in the Detroit River corridor.

  19. Simulating potential structural and operational changes for Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River, Oregon, for downstream temperature management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buccola, Norman L.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Sullivan, Annett B.; Risley, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Detroit Dam was constructed in 1953 on the North Santiam River in western Oregon and resulted in the formation of Detroit Lake. With a full-pool storage volume of 455,100 acre-feet and a dam height of 463 feet, Detroit Lake is one of the largest and most important reservoirs in the Willamette River basin in terms of power generation, recreation, and water storage and releases. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers operates Detroit Dam as part of a system of 13 reservoirs in the Willamette Project to meet multiple goals, which include flood-damage protection, power generation, downstream navigation, recreation, and irrigation. A distinct cycle in water temperature occurs in Detroit Lake as spring and summer heating through solar radiation creates a warm layer of water near the surface and isolates cold water below. Controlling the temperature of releases from Detroit Dam, therefore, is highly dependent on the location, characteristics, and usage of the dam's outlet structures. Prior to operational changes in 2007, Detroit Dam had a well-documented effect on downstream water temperature that was problematic for endangered salmonid fish species, releasing water that was too cold in midsummer and too warm in autumn. This unnatural seasonal temperature pattern caused problems in the timing of fish migration, spawning, and emergence. In this study, an existing calibrated 2-dimensional hydrodynamic water-quality model [CE-QUAL-W2] of Detroit Lake was used to determine how changes in dam operation or changes to the structural release points of Detroit Dam might affect downstream water temperatures under a range of historical hydrologic and meteorological conditions. The results from a subset of the Detroit Lake model scenarios then were used as forcing conditions for downstream CE-QUAL-W2 models of Big Cliff Reservoir (the small reregulating reservoir just downstream of Detroit Dam) and the North Santiam and Santiam Rivers. Many combinations of environmental, operational, and

  20. "Race" and Community Care. "Race," Health and Social Care Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Waqar I. U., Ed.; Atkin, Karl, Ed.

    This collection offers a wide-ranging introduction to contemporary issues surrounding the health care needs of members of minority ethnic communities within the framework of community care in Britain. The following chapters consider state welfare, minority communities, family structures, and social change: (1) "'Race' and Community Care: An…

  1. Identification and influence of spatial outliers in air quality measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, B. F.; Lemke, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    The heterogeneous nature of urban air complicates the analysis of spatial and temporal variability in air quality measurements. Evaluation of potentially inaccurate measurements (i.e., outliers) poses particularly difficult challenges in extensive air quality datasets with multiple measurements distributed in time and space. This study investigated the identification and impact of outliers in measurements of NO­2, BTEX, PM2.5, and PM10 in the contiguous Detroit, Michigan, USA and Windsor, Ontario, Canada international airshed. Measurements were taken at 100 locations during September 2008 and June 2009 and modeled at a 300m by 300m scale resolution. The objective was to determine if outliers were present and, if so, to quantify the magnitude of their impact on modeled spatial pollution distributions. The study built upon previous investigations by the Geospatial Determinants of Health Outcomes Consortium that examined relationships between air pollutant distributions and asthma exacerbations in the Detroit and Windsor airshed. Four independent approaches were initially employed to identify potential outliers: boxplots, variogram clouds, difference maps, and the Local Moran's I statistic. Potential outliers were subsequently reevaluated for consistency among methods and individually assessed to select a final set of outliers. The impact of excluding individual outliers was subsequently determined by revising the spatially variable air pollution models and recalculating associations between air contaminant concentrations and asthma exacerbations in Detroit and Windsor in 2008. For the pollutants examined, revised associations revealed weaker correlations with spatial outliers removed. Nevertheless, the approach employed improves the model integrity by increasing our understanding of the spatial variability of air pollution in the built environment and providing additional insights into the association between acute asthma exacerbations and air pollution.

  2. Superfund record of decision amendment (EPA Region 5): Carter Industrials Site, Detroit, MI, February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This decision document changes a decision made on September 18, 1991 in which the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) chose low-temperature thermal desorption as the remedy for PCB contamination at the Carter Industrials Site in Detroit, Michigan. U.S. EPA is hereby amending the 1991 Record of Decision (PB92-964126) to select off-site disposal as the remedy. This response action addresses remediation of PCB-contaminated soil, debris, and buildings at the Carter Industrials Site. The principal threats posed by conditions at the Site include inhalation of volatilized PCBs and fugitive dust, and dermal contact with contaminated materials. The amended remedy will eliminate these threats.

  3. Making sense of the transition from the Detroit streets to drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Draus, Paul; Roddy, Juliette; Asabigi, Kanzoni

    2015-02-01

    In this article we consider the process of adjustment from active street sex work to life in structured substance abuse treatment among Detroit-area women who participated in a semicoercive program administered through a drug court. We examine this transition in terms of changes in daily routines and social networks, drawing on extensive qualitative data to illuminate the ways in which women defined their own situations. Using concepts from Bourdieu and Latour as analytical aids, we analyze the role of daily routines, environments, and networks in producing the shifts in identity that those who embraced the goals of recovery demonstrated. We conclude with a discussion of how the restrictive environments and redundant situations experienced by women in treatment could be paradoxically embraced as a means to achieve expanded opportunity and enhanced individual responsibility because women effectively reassembled their social networks and identities to align with the goals of recovery.

  4. Intimate partner violence among Iraqi immigrant women in Metro Detroit: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Barkho, Evone; Fakhouri, Monty; Arnetz, Judith E

    2011-08-01

    Violence against women is an important public health problem. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among immigrant Iraqi women, and to explore the association between IPV and self-rated health. A pilot study using a previously published, self-report questionnaire was carried out among a convenience sampling of 55 Iraqi women in greater Detroit. The overall prevalence of controlling behavior, threatening behavior, and physical violence was 93, 76, and 80%, respectively. Approximately 40% of the women reported having poor or fair health, and 90% reported experiencing one or more types of psychosomatic symptoms. Self-rated health was inversely related to exposure to threatening behavior and physical violence, and positively related to knowledge of one's legal rights. The prevalence of IPV in this sample was high. Results indicated a significant association between exposure to IPV and women's physical health and psychosomatic symptoms.

  5. Making sense of the transition from the Detroit streets to drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Draus, Paul; Roddy, Juliette; Asabigi, Kanzoni

    2015-02-01

    In this article we consider the process of adjustment from active street sex work to life in structured substance abuse treatment among Detroit-area women who participated in a semicoercive program administered through a drug court. We examine this transition in terms of changes in daily routines and social networks, drawing on extensive qualitative data to illuminate the ways in which women defined their own situations. Using concepts from Bourdieu and Latour as analytical aids, we analyze the role of daily routines, environments, and networks in producing the shifts in identity that those who embraced the goals of recovery demonstrated. We conclude with a discussion of how the restrictive environments and redundant situations experienced by women in treatment could be paradoxically embraced as a means to achieve expanded opportunity and enhanced individual responsibility because women effectively reassembled their social networks and identities to align with the goals of recovery. PMID:25246332

  6. Pedogenesis, geochemical forms of heavy metals, and artifact weathering in an urban soil chronosequence, Detroit, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Howard, Jeffrey L; Olszewska, Dorota

    2011-03-01

    An urban soil chronosequence in downtown Detroit, MI was studied to determine the effects of time on pedogenesis and heavy metal sequestration. The soils developed in fill derived from mixed sandy and clayey diamicton parent materials on a level late Pleistocene lakebed plain under grass vegetation in a humid-temperate (mesic) climate. The chronosequence is comprised of soils in vacant lots (12 and 44 years old) and parks (96 and 120 years old), all located within 100 m of a roadway. An A-horizon 16 cm thick with 2% organic matter has developed after only 12 years of pedogenesis. The 12 year-old soil shows accelerated weathering of iron (e.g. nails) and cement artifacts attributed to corrosion by excess soluble salts of uncertain origin. Carbonate and Fe-oxide are immobilizing agents for heavy metals, hence it is recommended that drywall, plaster, cement and iron artifacts be left in soils at brownfield sites for their ameliorating effects.

  7. Evaluation of Fish Passage Conditions for Juvenile Salmonids Using Sensor Fish at Detroit Dam, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Joanne P.

    2010-01-29

    Fish passage conditions through two spillways at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions through Spillbay 3 and Spillbay 6 at 1.5- and 3.5-ft gate openings, identifying potential fish injury regions of the routes. The study was performed in July 2009, concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish and live fish were deployed at elevations approximately 3 ft above structure at depths determined using a computational fluid dynamics model. Data collected were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates.

  8. Toxicity of Detroit River sediment interstitial water to the bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect

    Giesy, J.P.; Rosiu, C.J.; Graney, R.L.; Nested, J.L.; Benda, A. ); Kreis, R.G. Jr. ); Horvath, F.J. )

    1988-01-01

    The authors used the Photobacterium phosphoreum bacterial luminescence assay (Microtox{sup R}) to survey the distribution of the toxicity of the sediments from the lower Detroit River during the summer of 1986. Of the 136 locations tested, 25 were classified as very toxic, 60 as moderately toxic, 10 as slightly toxic, and 41 were classified as being non-toxic. The greatest number of very toxic sites was observed on the western shore of the Trenton Channel; however, some very toxic locations were observed throughout the study area. The least toxic areas were observed at the eastern-most locations studied. The Microtox{sup R} assay has been found to be a sensitive assay, which can be calibrated to the responses of other organisms such as macroinvertebrates and can be related to the potential for distribution of macroinvertebrates in sediments. Therefore, the Microtox{sup R} assay is useful for rapid screening and mapping of toxicity of sediments.

  9. Field Demonstration of a 24-kV Superconducting Cable at Detroit Edison

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Nathan; Corsaro, Pietro

    2004-12-01

    Customer acceptance of high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable technology requires a substantial field demonstration illustrating both the system's technical capabilities and its suitability for installation and operation within the utility environment. In this project, the world's first underground installation of an HTS cable using existing ductwork, a 120 meter demonstration cable circuit was designed and installed between the 24 kV bus distribution bus and a 120 kV-24 kV transformer at Detroit Edison's Frisbie substation. The system incorporated cables, accessories, a refrigeration system, and control instrumentation. Although the system was never put in operation because of problems with leaks in the cryostat, the project significantly advanced the state-of-the-art in the design and implementation of Warm Dielectric cable systems in substation applications. Lessons learned in this project are already being incorporated in several ongoing demonstration projects.

  10. Interaction between polygenic risk for cigarette use and environmental exposures in the Detroit neighborhood health study

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, J L; Cerdá, M; Galea, S; Keyes, K M; Aiello, A E; Uddin, M; Wildman, D E; Koenen, K C

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is influenced both by genetic and environmental factors. Until this year, all large-scale gene identification studies on smoking were conducted in populations of European ancestry. Consequently, the genetic architecture of smoking is not well described in other populations. Further, despite a rich epidemiologic literature focused on the social determinants of smoking, few studies have examined the moderation of genetic influences (for example, gene–environment interactions) on smoking in African Americans. In the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study (DNHS), a sample of randomly selected majority African American residents of Detroit, we constructed a genetic risk score (GRS), in which we combined top (P-value <5 × 10−7) genetic variants from a recent meta-analysis conducted in a large sample of African Americans. Using regression (effective n=399), we first tested for association between the GRS and cigarettes per day, attempting to replicate the findings from the meta-analysis. Second, we examined interactions with three social contexts that may moderate the genetic association with smoking: traumatic events, neighborhood social cohesion and neighborhood physical disorder. Among individuals who had ever smoked cigarettes, the GRS significantly predicted the number of cigarettes smoked per day and accounted for ∼3% of the overall variance in the trait. Significant interactions were observed between the GRS and number of traumatic events experienced, as well as between the GRS and average neighborhood social cohesion; the association between genetic risk and smoking was greater among individuals who had experienced an increased number of traumatic events in their lifetimes, and diminished among individuals who lived in a neighborhood characterized by greater social cohesion. This study provides support for the utility of the GRS as an alternative approach to replication of common polygenic variation, and in gene–environment interaction, for

  11. Interaction between polygenic risk for cigarette use and environmental exposures in the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study.

    PubMed

    Meyers, J L; Cerdá, M; Galea, S; Keyes, K M; Aiello, A E; Uddin, M; Wildman, D E; Koenen, K C

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is influenced both by genetic and environmental factors. Until this year, all large-scale gene identification studies on smoking were conducted in populations of European ancestry. Consequently, the genetic architecture of smoking is not well described in other populations. Further, despite a rich epidemiologic literature focused on the social determinants of smoking, few studies have examined the moderation of genetic influences (for example, gene-environment interactions) on smoking in African Americans. In the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study (DNHS), a sample of randomly selected majority African American residents of Detroit, we constructed a genetic risk score (GRS), in which we combined top (P-value <5 × 10(-7)) genetic variants from a recent meta-analysis conducted in a large sample of African Americans. Using regression (effective n=399), we first tested for association between the GRS and cigarettes per day, attempting to replicate the findings from the meta-analysis. Second, we examined interactions with three social contexts that may moderate the genetic association with smoking: traumatic events, neighborhood social cohesion and neighborhood physical disorder. Among individuals who had ever smoked cigarettes, the GRS significantly predicted the number of cigarettes smoked per day and accounted for ~3% of the overall variance in the trait. Significant interactions were observed between the GRS and number of traumatic events experienced, as well as between the GRS and average neighborhood social cohesion; the association between genetic risk and smoking was greater among individuals who had experienced an increased number of traumatic events in their lifetimes, and diminished among individuals who lived in a neighborhood characterized by greater social cohesion. This study provides support for the utility of the GRS as an alternative approach to replication of common polygenic variation, and in gene-environment interaction, for smoking

  12. Time-Series Analysis of Mortality Effects of Fine Particulate Matter Components in Detroit and Seattle

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiang; Ito, Kazuhiko; Lall, Ramona; Lippmann, Morton; Thurston, George

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent toxicological and epidemiological studies have shown associations between particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects, but which PM components are most influential is less well known. Objectives In this study, we used time-series analyses to determine the associations between daily fine PM [PM ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] concentrations and daily mortality in two U.S. cities—Seattle, Washington, and Detroit, Michigan. Methods We obtained daily PM2.5 filters for the years of 2002–2004 and analyzed trace elements using X-ray fluorescence and black carbon using light reflectance as a surrogate measure of elemental carbon. We used Poisson regression and distributed lag models to estimate excess deaths for all causes and for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases adjusting for time-varying covariates. We computed the excess risks for interquartile range increases of each pollutant at lags of 0 through 3 days for both warm and cold seasons. Results The cardiovascular and respiratory mortality series exhibited different source and seasonal patterns in each city. The PM2.5 components and gaseous pollutants associated with mortality in Detroit were most associated with warm season secondary aerosols and traffic markers. In Seattle, the component species most closely associated with mortality included those for cold season traffic and other combustion sources, such as residual oil and wood burning. Conclusions The effects of PM2.5 on daily mortality vary with source, season, and locale, consistent with the hypothesis that PM composition has an appreciable influence on the health effects attributable to PM. PMID:21193387

  13. Construction of shipping channels in the Detroit River—History and environmental consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennion, David H.; Manny, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The Detroit River is one of the most biologically diverse areas in the Great Lakes basin. It has been an important international shipping route since the 1820s and is one of the busiest navigation centers in the United States. Historically, it supported one of the most profitable Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) commercial fisheries in the Great Lakes. Since 1874, the lower Detroit River has been systematically and extensively modified, by construction of deepwater channels, to facilitate commercial shipping. Large-scale dredging, disposal of dredge spoils, and construction of water-level compensating works has greatly altered channel morphology and flow dynamics of the river, disrupting ecological function and fishery productivity of the river and influencing Great Lakes water levels. From 1874 to 1968, major construction projects created 96.5 kilometers (60 miles) of shipping channels, removed over 46,200,000 m3 of material, covered 4,050 hectares (40.5 square kilometers) of river bottom with dredge spoils, and built 85 hectares of above-waterline compensating works at a total cost of US$283 million. Interest by industries and government agencies to develop the river further for shipping is high and increasing. Historically, as environmental protection agencies were created, construction impacts on natural resources were increasingly addressed during the planning process and, in some cases, assessments of these impacts greatly altered or halted proposed construction projects. Careful planning of future shipping-channel construction and maintenance projects, including a thorough analysis of the expected environmental impacts, could greatly reduce financial costs and ecological damages as compared to past shipping-channel construction projects.

  14. Race Categorization Modulates Holistic Face Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Caroline; Corneille, Olivier; Rossion, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that same-race (SR) faces are processed more holistically than other-race (OR) faces, a difference that may underlie the greater difficulty at recognizing OR than SR faces (the "other-race effect"). This article provides original evidence suggesting that the holistic processing of faces may be sensitive to the observers'…

  15. Researching Race within Educational Psychology Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Schutz, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we question why race as a sociohistorical construct has not traditionally been investigated in educational psychology research. To do so, we provide a historical discussion of the significance of race as well as present current dilemmas in the exploration of race, including an examination of the incidence and prevalence of…

  16. Race, Social Class, and IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarr-Salapatek, Sandra

    1971-01-01

    Environmental influences were important determiners of aptitude and ability as measured by the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills in a twin study using black and white students. There were insufficient data to determine the relative contribution of environmental and genetic variance between races. (AL)

  17. Race, Culture and Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummett, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that the great need in moral education is to consider general moral standards and arguments first and apply these to behavior affecting racial inequality, rather than to start from a concentration on racism, working back towards morality. Considers the consequences of confusing race with culture or viewing religion only as a…

  18. Race: scientific nonproblem, cultural quagmire.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Ian

    2004-05-01

    The matter of biological differentiation among human beings has been a perennial concern of physical anthropologists, whose profession grew out of the monogenist/polygenist debates of the 18th century, and who periodically feel impelled to issue sonorous pronouncements on the subject. In spite of (or perhaps because of) the extensive and difficult cultural ramifications of the race issue, such pronouncements have usually presented the matter of race as one that requires extensive bioanthropological exegesis. In reality, however, race is the most banal of biological issues. Within any species, including Homo sapiens, two biological processes are possible: physical differentiation (as routinely occurs in small population isolates) and reintegration (should the resulting differentiated populations come together in the absence of any barrier to mating). The history of Homo sapiens reflects both of these processes: initial differentiation among small, scattered populations in the later part of the Pleistocene, and subsequent reintegration as the human population expanded and these populations came together once more. It is for this reason that, while certain modal physical types can be recognized on any urban street today (differentiation), it is impossible to recognize any clear boundaries between them (reintegration). All of this is perfectly unremarkable in evolutionary terms, and requires no special explanation. The complexities of the race issue are real, of course, and it is important that we come to terms with them; but they will not be resolved by biologists.

  19. Race, Ethnicity and Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Philip S., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This theme issue contains papers on race and ethnicity in public education: "Introduction" (Philip Hart); "Toward Democratic Education: The Importance of Culturally Responsive Leadership in 21st Century Schools" (Donna M. Davis); "Improving the Selection Process for Identifying Gifted Ethnic Minority Children" (John Dillard and Nettye R. Brazil);…

  20. Game Plan. Race against Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Presents a learning center game that will help children develop and improve skills with reference books while helping to familiarize them with the problem of endangered species. Emphasizes that saving endangered species is a race against time. Provides an alternative activity for younger learners. (CW)

  1. Rethinking the American Race Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Roy L.

    Whereas political inequality was once seen as the key element of the American race problem, today the problem can be seen in terms of social and economic disparities. Three general socioeconomic classes have emerged in the United States, a middle class, a working class, and a poverty-stricken class. The status of African Americans can no longer be…

  2. Two-Dice Horse Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin; Martin, David

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the "two-dice horse race" task often used in lower secondary school, in which two ordinary dice are thrown repeatedly and each time the sum of the scores determines which horse (numbered 1 to 12) moves forwards one space.

  3. Race Relations in Western Nebraska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Melvin L.

    This report is derived from a community forum held in Scottsbluff (Nebraska) on April 28-29, 1993, by the Nebraska Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights. Views on race relations in selected areas of western Nebraska were expressed by concerned citizens; community leaders; government officials (federal, state, and…

  4. On the Complexity of Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyphur, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Although a variety of studies have indicated that using statistical clustering techniques to examine genetic information may allow for geographically based groupings of individuals that tenuously map onto some conceptions of race, these studies have also indicated that the amount of genetic variation within these groupings is significantly larger…

  5. Racing toward the Finish Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents replies to published comments on the authors' original article (R. L. Sternberg, E. L. Grigorenko, and K. K. Kidd. G. Carey cited in his response to their article a study by Tang et al. (2005) showing that "of 3,636 subjects of varying race/ethnicity, only 5 (0.14%) showed genetic cluster membership different from their…

  6. Grower Recommendations: Fusarium Race 4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium, particularly race 4, has become a significant management issue in the San Joaquin Valley cotton production area of California. Recommendations for limiting spread of inoculum of this fungal disease have been modified somewhat over the approximately 10 years of experience with this disease,...

  7. Re-suspension of lead contaminated urban soil as a dominant source of atmospheric lead in Birmingham, Chicago, Detroit and Pittsburgh, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laidlaw, Mark A. S.; Zahran, Sammy; Mielke, Howard W.; Taylor, Mark P.; Filippelli, Gabriel M.

    2012-03-01

    Soils in older areas of cities are highly contaminated by lead, due largely to past use of lead additives in gasoline, the use of lead in exterior paints, and industrial lead sources. Soils are not passive repositories and periodic re-suspension of fine lead contaminated soil dust particulates (or aerosols) may create seasonal variations of lead exposure for urban dwellers. Atmospheric soil and lead aerosol data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) database were obtained for Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), Detroit (Michigan), Chicago (Illinois), and Birmingham (Alabama), USA. In this study the temporal variations of atmospheric soil and lead aerosols in these four US cities were examined to determine whether re-suspended lead contaminated urban soil was the dominant source of atmospheric lead. Soil and lead-in-air concentrations were examined to ascertain whether lead aerosols follow seasonal patterns with highest concentrations during the summer and/or autumn. In addition, atmospheric soil and lead aerosol concentrations on weekends and Federal Government holidays were compared to weekdays to evaluate the possibility that automotive turbulence results in re-suspension of lead contaminated urban soil. The results show that the natural logs of atmospheric soil and lead aerosols were associated in Pittsburgh from April 2004 to July 2005 (R2 = 0.31, p < 0.01), Detroit from November 2003 to July 2005 (R2 = 0.49, p <0.01), Chicago from November 2003 to August 2005 (R2 = 0.32, p < 0.01), and Birmingham from May 2004 to December 2006 (R2 = 0.47, p < 0.01). Atmospheric soil and lead aerosols followed seasonal patterns with highest concentrations during the summer and/or autumn. Atmospheric soil and lead aerosols are 3.15 and 3.12 times higher, respectively, during weekdays than weekends and Federal Government holidays, suggesting that automotive traffic turbulence plays a significant role in re-suspension of contaminated roadside soils and

  8. Injuries in professional motor car racing drivers at a racing circuit between 1996 and 2000

    PubMed Central

    Minoyama, O; Tsuchida, H

    2004-01-01

    Background: Research on injuries in racing drivers is limited. Objective: To gain more information about such injuries. Methods: Injuries recorded during and after races between 1996 and 2000 were investigated using the medical charts from the circuit medical centre at Fuji Speedway, which is one of the biggest circuits in Japan. Races were in either single seat/formula cars or saloon cars. Results: Data were obtained from 39 races in single seat cars (1030 participating cars) and 42 races in saloon cars (1577 cars). Fifty injuries were recorded during the single seat car races, and 62 during the saloon car races (injury rate 1.2 per 1000 competitors per race and 0.9 per 1000 competitors per race respectively). Thirteen injuries were recorded after the race, 12 of them in saloon car racing. Bruises were the major injury in single seat car racing (58%). Lower limb bruising was more common than upper limb bruising. Most of the injuries in saloon car racing (53.2%) were neck sprains. The incidence of concussion was high in both groups compared with other high risk sports. Conclusions: There were some differences in injuries between the two types of car. No serious injuries occurred except for one death. However, the driver's body is subjected to large forces in a crash, hence the high incidence of concussion. The injuries recorded after the race emphasise that motor racing is a demanding sport. PMID:15388550

  9. Characterization of contaminants in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Lake Erie Areas of Concern: St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour.

    PubMed

    de Solla, Shane R; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2004-11-01

    PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and dioxins/furans in snapping turtle eggs and plasma (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated at three Areas of Concern (AOCs) on Lake Erie and its connecting channels (St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour), as well as two inland reference sites (Algonquin Provincial Park and Tiny Marsh) in 2001-2002. Eggs from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs had the highest levels of p,p'-DDE (24.4 and 57.9 ng/g) and sum PCBs (928.6 and 491.0 ng/g) wet weight, respectively. Contaminant levels in eggs from St. Clair River AOC were generally higher than those from Algonquin Park, but similar to those from Tiny Marsh. Dioxins appeared highest from the Detroit River. The PCB congener pattern in eggs suggested that turtles from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs were exposed to Aroclor 1260. TEQs of sum PCBs in eggs from all AOCs and p,p'-DDE levels in eggs from the Wheatley Harbour and the Detroit River AOCs exceeded the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Furthermore, sum PCBs in eggs from Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour exceeded partial restriction guidelines for consumption. Although estimated PCB body burdens in muscle tissue of females were well below consumption guidelines, estimated residues in liver and adipose were above guidelines for most sites. PMID:15276278

  10. The spectre of race in American medicine.

    PubMed

    Fofana, Mariam O

    2013-12-01

    Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race-the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful-has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on medical research and clinical practice. In many ways, the use of race in medicine today reflects the internalisation of racial hierarchies borne out of the history of slavery and state-mandated segregation, and there is still much uncertainty over its benefits and harms. Although using race in research can help elucidate disparities, the reflexive use of race as a variable runs the risk of reifying the biological concept of race and blinding researchers to important underlying factors such as socioeconomic status. Similarly, in clinical practice, the use of race in assessing a patient's risk of certain conditions (eg, sickle cell) turns harmful when the heuristic becomes a rule. Through selected historical and contemporary examples, I aim to show how the biological concept of race that gave rise to past abuses remains alive and harmful, and propose changes in medical education as a potential solution. By learning from the past, today's physicians will be better armed to discern-and correct-the ways in which contemporary medicine perpetuates historical injustices.

  11. Developmental craniofacial anthropometry: Assessment of Race effects

    PubMed Central

    Durtschi, Reid B.; Chung, Dongjun; Gentry, Lindell R.; Chung, Moo K.; Vorperian, Houri K.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in craniofacial anatomy among racial groups have been documented in a variety of structures but the oral and maxillofacial regions have been shown to be a particularly defining region of variability between different racial/ethnic groups. Such comparisons are informative, but they neither address developmental changes of the craniofacial anatomy, nor do they assess or take into account the natural variability within individual races that may account for similar reported, across-group variations. The purpose of this report was to compare – using medical imaging studies – the growth trend of select race sensitive craniofacial variables in the oral and pharyngeal regions when all races: White, Asian, Black, and Hispanic (AR) are included versus only a single race category: White (WR). Race effect was tested by comparing sex specific growth fits (4th degree polynomial model) for AR versus WR data. Findings indicate that the inclusion of all races versus a single race did not significantly alter the growth model fits. Thus, the inclusion of all races permits the advancement of general growth models; however, methodologically it is best to treat the race variable as a covariate in all future analysis to test for both potential all race effects or individual race effects, on general growth models. PMID:19753647

  12. The spectre of race in American medicine.

    PubMed

    Fofana, Mariam O

    2013-12-01

    Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race-the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful-has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on medical research and clinical practice. In many ways, the use of race in medicine today reflects the internalisation of racial hierarchies borne out of the history of slavery and state-mandated segregation, and there is still much uncertainty over its benefits and harms. Although using race in research can help elucidate disparities, the reflexive use of race as a variable runs the risk of reifying the biological concept of race and blinding researchers to important underlying factors such as socioeconomic status. Similarly, in clinical practice, the use of race in assessing a patient's risk of certain conditions (eg, sickle cell) turns harmful when the heuristic becomes a rule. Through selected historical and contemporary examples, I aim to show how the biological concept of race that gave rise to past abuses remains alive and harmful, and propose changes in medical education as a potential solution. By learning from the past, today's physicians will be better armed to discern-and correct-the ways in which contemporary medicine perpetuates historical injustices. PMID:23988563

  13. Visualization of drifting buoy deployments on upper Detroit River within the Great Lakes Waterway from August 28-30, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holtschlag, David J.; Aichele, Steve A.

    2002-01-01

    Detroit River is a connecting channel on the Great Lakes waterway that joins Lake St. Clair with Lake Erie. The river forms part of the international boundary between the United States and Canada in southeastern Michigan and southern Ontario. Drifting buoys were deployed on Detroit River to help investigate flow characteristics of four selected reaches as part of a source water assessment study of public water intakes. The drifting buoys contained global positioning system (GPS) receivers to help track their movements following their deployment. In some deployments, buoys were released across a transect at approximately uniform intervals to better understand flow patterns. In other deployments, buoys were released in clusters to investigate turbulent dispersion characteristics. Computer animations of buoy movements, which can be viewed through the Internet, are developed to help visualize the results of the buoy deployments.

  14. Submersed macrophyte communities before and after an episodic ice jam in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Schloesser, Donald W.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    1989-01-01

    We conducted surveys in 1983 and 1984 of submersed macrophyte communities off six islands in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers using low altitude aerial photography and ground-truth collections. Sample collections in 1984 followed one of the coldest winters on record, during which ice up to 4 m thick developed in areas that were normally ice-free. Growth of many of the 20 taxa collected was delayed in the spring of 1984, as compared with the spring of 1983. By September 1984, however, total abundance of all taxa was equal to or greater than that in 1983. The location, size, and shape of plant beds in September 1984 were similar to those in 1983. We concluded that the unusual ice jam in early spring of 1984 had little, if any, permanent effect on submersed macrophytes in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers.

  15. Thinking about populations and races in time.

    PubMed

    Millstein, Roberta L

    2015-08-01

    Biologists and philosophers have offered differing concepts of biological race. That is, they have offered different candidates for what a biological correlate of race might be; for example, races might be subspecies, clades, lineages, ecotypes, or genetic clusters. One thing that is striking about each of these proposals is that they all depend on a concept of population. Indeed, some authors have explicitly characterized races in terms of populations. However, including the concept of population into concepts of race raises three puzzles, all having to do with time. In this paper, I extend the causal interactionist population concept (CIPC) by introducing some simple assumptions about how to understand populations through time. These assumptions help to shed light on the three puzzles, and in the process show that if we want to understand races in terms of populations, we will need to revise our concept(s) of race.

  16. Restoration of wildcelery, Vallisneria americana Michx., in the lower Detroit River of the Lake Huron-Lake Erie Corridor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, D.W.; Manny, B.A.

    2007-01-01

    American wildcelery (Vallisneria americana Michx.) is a valuable submersed aquatic plant that was negatively affected by pollution and urban runoff in the lower Detroit River for much of the 20th century. Following 25 years of water-pollution and urban-runoff abatement initiated in the early 1970s, we postulated that water clarity had increased and that this would allow restoration of wildcelery in the lower Detroit River. In addition, water clarity increased in the late 1980s due to water filtration and particulate removal by exotic dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis), which could contribute to potential wildcelery restoration. We sampled wildcelery in 1996–97 and compared these data to wildcelery data from 1950–51 and 1984–85. Over the 48-year period of comparison, areal density of wildcelery tubers decreased 72% (from 51.2 million to 14.4 million tubers) between 1950–51 and 1984–85 then increased 251% (from14.4 million to 50.5 million tubers) between 1984–85 and 1996–97. As a result, overall areal abundance was about the same in 1950–51 as in fall 1996–97. However, tuber densities in spring 1996 were similar to historical low abundances in springs of 1984–85. Then between spring and fall 1996, tuber densities increased 333% and remained relatively abundant through October 1997 indicating the beginning of the restoration of wildcelery in the lower Detroit River. In addition, we believe further reductions of turbidity through continued pollution-abatement programs and water filtration by dreissenid mussels combined with habitat protection and active management of wildcelery will contribute even further to the restoration of wildcelery in the Detroit River in the 21st century.

  17. Concentration and spatial distribution of selected constituents in Detroit River bed sediment adjacent to Grassy Island, Michigan, August 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoard, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    In August 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, collected sediment?core samples from the bed of the Detroit River adjacent to Grassy Island. The goal of the sampling was to assess the distribution and concentration of chemical constituents in sediment adjacent to Grassy Island, which was operated from 1960 to 1982 as a confined disposal facility to hold dredge spoils. On August 31, 2006, seven samples were collected at four locations in the Detroit River on the north, south, east, and west sides of the island. Metals concentrations in the riverbed sediment tended to be higher on the west side of the island, whereas organic?compound concentrations were generally higher on the east side. Comparison of results from this sampling to concentrations reported in previous studies indicates that the concentrations of inorganic constituents, mainly metals, in the riverbed sediment around Grassy Island fell within the range of concentrations found regionally throughout the Detroit River and in most cases have lower mean and median values than found elsewhere regionally in the Detroit River. Comparison of results from the August 31, 2006, sampling to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency risk?based sediment?quality guidelines indicates that 18 organic constituents for which an ecological screening level (ESL), and (or) a threshold effect concentration (TEC), and (or) a probable effect concentration (PEC) has been defined exceeded one or more of these guidelines at least once. Further work would be needed to determine whether constituent concentrations in the river sediment are related to constituent runoff from Grassy Island.

  18. Concentration and Spatial Distribution of Selected Constituents in Detroit River Bed Sediment Adjacent to Grassy Island, Michigan, August 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoard, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    In August 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, collected sediment?core samples from the bed of the Detroit River adjacent to Grassy Island. The goal of the sampling was to assess the distribution and concentration of chemical constituents in sediment adjacent to Grassy Island, which was operated from 1960 to 1982 as a confined disposal facility to hold dredge spoils. On August 31, 2006, seven samples were collected at four locations in the Detroit River on the north, south, east, and west sides of the island. Metals concentrations in the riverbed sediment tended to be higher on the west side of the island, whereas organic?compound concentrations were generally higher on the east side. Comparison of results from this sampling to concentrations reported in previous studies indicates that the concentrations of inorganic constituents, mainly metals, in the riverbed sediment around Grassy Island fell within the range of concentrations found regionally throughout the Detroit River and in most cases have lower mean and median values than found elsewhere regionally in the Detroit River. Comparison of results from the August 31, 2006, sampling to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency risk?based sediment?quality guidelines indicates that 18 organic constituents for which an ecological screening level (ESL), and (or) a threshold effect concentration (TEC), and (or) a probable effect concentration (PEC) has been defined exceeded one or more of these guidelines at least once. Further work would be needed to determine whether constituent concentrations in the river sediment are related to constituent runoff from Grassy Island.

  19. Comparisons of PBDE composition and concentration in fish collected from the Detroit River, MI and Des Plaines River, IL

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.P.; Chernyak, S.M.; Begnoche, L.; Quintal, R.; Hickey, J.

    2002-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were identified in fish collected from the Detroit River, MI and Des Plaines Rivers, IL. In the Detroit River fish, carp and large mouth bass, the congener patterns were dominated by the 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromo (BDE-47) congener; however, in Des Plaines River carp the dominant isomers were the heptabromo congeners BDE-181 and BDE-183 and lesser amounts of another heptabromo congener, BDE-190, and two hexabromo congeners, BDE-154 and BDE-153. Three possible sources exist for these less-commonly identified PBDE congeners: (a) waste discharge from manufacturing or discarded products near the river, (b) public owned treatment work (POTW) effluents which constitute more than 75% of the flow in the Des Plaines River, (c) or formation of these congeners by debromination of in-place deposits of decabromodiphenyl ether. Average concentration totals (sum of concentrations for seven of the dominant PBDE congeners) were similar on a wet weight bases for the carp (5.39 ng/g wet weight) and large mouth bass (5.25 ng/g) in the Detroit River samples; however, the bass were significantly higher, ρ=0.01, when compared on a lipid basis (bass-163 ng/g vs. carp-40.5 ng/g lipid weight). Some of the PBDE congeners were positively correlated with increasing lipid levels in both fish species. Average total PBDE concentrations in the carp from the Des Plaines River (12.48 ng/g wet weight) were significantly higher, ρ=0.01, than in carp from the Detroit River. The residues were isolated using standard organochlorine methods for fish and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-negative chemical ionization methods.

  20. Effects of anthropogenic particles on the chemical and geophysical properties of urban soils, Detroit, Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlicki, Katharine M.

    There is a great need in many cities for a better quality of urban soil maps. This is due to the increasing interest in repurposing vacant land for urban redevelopment, agriculture, and green infrastructure. Mapping vacant urban land in Detroit can be very difficult because anthropogenic soils were often highly variable and frequently contained demolition debris (such as brick), making it difficult to use a hand auger. This study was undertaken in Detroit, MI to create a more efficient way to map urban soils based on their geophysical and chemical properties. This will make the mapping process faster, less labor intensive, and therefore more cost effective. Optical and chemical criteria for the identification and classification of microartifacts (MAs) were made from a set of reference artifacts of a known origin. These MAs were then observed and tested in urban topsoil samples from sites in Detroit, Michigan that represent three different land use types (residential demolition, fly ash-impacted, and industrial). Optical analyses, SEM, EDAX, and XRD showed that reference MAs may be classified into five basic compositional types (carbonaceous, calcareous, siliceous, ferruginous and miscellaneous). Reference MAs were generally distinguishable using optical microscopy by color, luster, fracture and microtexture. MAs that were more difficult to classify were further differentiable when using SEM, EDAX, and XRD. MAs were found in all of the anthropogenic soils studied, but were highly variable. All three study sites had concentrations coal-related wastes were the most common types of MAs observed and often included coal, ash (microspheres, microagglomerate), cinders, and burnt shale. MAs derived from waste building materials such as brick, mortar, and glass, were typically found on residential demolition sites. Manufacturing waste MAs, which included iron-making slag and coked coal were commonly observed on industrial sites. Fly ash-impacted sites were composed of only

  1. PCB levels and trends within the Detroit River-Western Lake Erie basin: a historical perspective of ecosystem monitoring.

    PubMed

    Heidtke, Thomas; Hartig, John H; Zarull, Michael A; Yu, Bonnie

    2006-01-01

    An international workshop held in the spring of 2002 convened a group of technical experts to address monitoring, modeling, and management of PCBs within the Detroit River-Western Lake Erie basin. Participants shared and discussed a diverse set of research data bases pertaining to PCB levels within the region, discussed observed changes within different components of the local ecosystem, and identified several primary issues impacting future PCB management strategies. Results presented at the workshop indicate dramatic reductions in PCB contamination levels have been observed in much of study area between the late 1970s and mid-1990s. Estimates of loadings attributable to water and atmospheric sources have generally declined, as have PCB concentrations in herring gull eggs, smelt and walleye. Nevertheless, additional improvements have not been observed during recent years and elevated contamination levels remain a concern within local hot spots, particularly in the lower Detroit River and Trenton Channel. A primary recommendation broadly supported by workshop participants is the need to maintain, support, and coordinate a comprehensive ecosystem monitoring program for the Detroit River-Western Lake Erie basin, one that incorporates both near-field and far-field monitoring elements. Such a program is crucial to provide necessary data in support of understanding ecosystem trends, calculating annual mass loadings to the system, assessing impacts of remediation actions, developing improved modeling frameworks, and formulating cost-effective management strategies for the future.

  2. The bare bones of race.

    PubMed

    Fausto-Sterling, Anne

    2008-10-01

    In this paper I examine claims of racial difference in bone density and find that the use and definitions of race in medicine lack a theoretical foundation. My central argument is that the social produces the biological in a system of constant feedback between body and social experience. By providing a different angle of vision on claimed racial differences I hope to move the conversation away from an ultimately futile discussion of nature versus nurture, where time is held constant and place seen as irrelevant, and begin to build a new paradigm for examining the contributions of geographic ancestry, individual lifecycle experience, race, and gender to varied patterns of health and disease. PMID:19227817

  3. Venter wins sequencing race - twice

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, R.

    1995-06-02

    This article discusses the end of the race to sequence the first complete genome of a free-living organism. Craig Venter of the Institute for Geonomic Research unveiled the complete sequences of two bacteria: Haemophilus influenzae and Mycoplasma genitalium at the American Society of Microbiology Meeting in May 1995. Because there are many similarities in bacterial and human biochemistry, the sequences will be useful for searching for human genes.

  4. The effect of residential development on ground-water quality near Detroit, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Two water-quality studies were done on the outskirts of the Detroit metropolitan area to determine how recent residential development has affected ground-water quality. Pairs of monitor and domestic wells were sampled in areas where residential land use overlies glacial outwash deposits. Young, shallow waters had significantly higher median concentrations of nitrate, chloride, and dissolved solids than older, deeper waters. Analysis of chloride/bromide ratios indicates that elevated salinities are due to human activities rather than natural factors, such as upward migration of brine. Trace concentrations of volatile organic compounds were detected in samples from 97 percent of the monitor wells. Pesticides were detected infrequently even though they are routinely applied to lawns and roadways in the study area. The greatest influence on ground-water quality appears to be from septic-system effluent (domestic sewage, household solvents, water-softener backwash) and infiltration of stormwater runoff from paved surfaces (road salt, fuel residue). No health-related drinking-water standards were exceeded in samples from domestic wells. However, the effects of human activities are apparent in 76 percent of young waters, and at depths far below 25 feet, which is the current minimum well-depth requirement.Two water-quality studies were done on the outskirts of the Detroit metropolitan area to determine how recent residential development has affected ground-water quality. Pairs of monitor and domestic wells were sampled in areas where residential land use overlies glacial outwash deposits. Young, shallow waters had significantly higher median concentrations of nitrate, chloride, and dissolved solids than older, deeper waters. Analysis of chloride/bromide ratios indicates that elevated salinities are due to human activities rather than natural factors, such as upward migration of brine. Trace concentrations of volatile organic compounds were detected in samples from 97

  5. Race in Biological and Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of race has had a significant influence on research in human biology since the early 19th century. But race was given its meaning and social impact in the political sphere and subsequently intervened in science as a foreign concept, not grounded in the dominant empiricism of modern biology. The uses of race in science were therefore often disruptive and controversial; at times, science had to be retrofitted to accommodate race, and science in turn was often used to explain and justify race. This relationship was unstable in large part because race was about a phenomenon that could not be observed directly, being based on claims about the structure and function of genomic DNA. Over time, this relationship has been characterized by distinct phases, evolving from the inference of genetic effects based on the observed phenotype to the measurement of base-pair variation in DNA. Despite this fundamental advance in methodology, liabilities imposed by the dual political-empirical origins of race persist. On the one hand, an optimistic prediction can be made that just as geology made it possible to overturn the myth of the recent creation of the earth and evolution told us where the living world came from, molecular genetics will end the use of race in biology. At the same time, because race is fundamentally a political and not a scientific idea, it is possible that only a political intervention will relieve us of the burden of race. PMID:24186487

  6. Determination of the Levels of Elementary Student Teachers in Putting the Stages of Technological Design Cycle into Practice: A Model Parachute Race Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Mirac; Bakirci, Hasan; Artun, Huseyin; Cepni, Salih

    2011-01-01

    In this study, within the scope of Science and Technology Laboratory Applications-II Course, elementary student teachers were made to design a model parachute that can stay in the air for a time by using technological design cycle and to race these parachutes. In this regard, we introduced an activity what we call "MODEL PARACHUTE RACE" and we…

  7. Nightwatch: Sleep Disruption of Caregivers of Children With Asthma in Detroit

    PubMed Central

    Cheezum, Rebecca R.; Parker, Edith A.; Sampson, Natalie R.; Lewis, Toby C.; O’Toole, Ashley; Patton, Jean; Robins, Thomas G.; Keirns, Carla C.

    2014-01-01

    Caregiving for ill loved ones can affect sleep quality and quantity. Insufficient sleep has been associated with worse physical and mental health outcomes, and it is known to affect work performance and ability to accomplish necessary tasks. While some research has looked at the sleep of caregivers of loved ones with chronic illness and found that they experience poorer sleep, little is known about the impact of caring for a child with asthma on the caregiver’s sleep and the ways in which their sleep may be affected. Community Action Against Asthma, a community-based participatory research partnership, conducted interviews with semistructured and open-ended questions with 40 caregivers of children with asthma who live in Detroit. Findings showed that caregivers regularly experience poor quality sleep because of sleeping lightly in order to listen for the child’s symptoms, wake multiple times to check on the child because of worry, and provide care for child when he or she experiences symptoms in the middle of the night. Results of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale indicate that 12.5% of caregivers received a score of 16 or more, the score on the scale used to indicate likely presence of a sleep disorder, and 42.5% had a score of 10 or more, indicating excessive sleepiness. Sleep disturbance in caregivers is an underrecognized consequence of childhood asthma, with implications for providers caring for children with asthma. PMID:25419470

  8. Rotavirus infections in Detroit, USA, a region of low vaccine prevalence.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Haq, Nahed; Amjad, Muhammad; McGrath, Eric; Salimnia, Hossein; Fairfax, Marilynn; Asmar, Basim I

    2016-06-01

    After a sharp drop of rotavirus (RV) infections at Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, USA in 2010 season, we noted an increase in the number of cases during the 2011 season including some RV vaccine (RVV) recipients. This study was conducted to determine the circulating genotypes during 2011 season and whether the increase in RV diarrhea was caused by replacement genotypes. G and P genotypes were determined by RT PCR and nucleotide sequencing of selected strains was performed. The vaccination rate among study patients was 24 %. RV strains from 68 stool samples were genotyped including 18 from vaccinated children and 50 from unvaccinated children. The predominant G genotype was G1 (58.8 %) followed by G9 (17.7 %) and G4 (15.5 %). P[8] was the predominant P genotype (68 %) followed by P[6] (17.6 %) and P[4] (3 %). All G9 strains were associated with P[6]. The most prevalent G-P combination was G1P[8] (56 %), followed by G9P[6] (17.6 %). Similar proportions of RV genotypes were found among vaccinated and unvaccinated children. Our local data suggest that 5 years after the introduction of RVV there has been no genotype replacement. Although a small increase in G9P[6] frequency was noted, G1P[8] remained the predominant strain of RV in our inner city community in the Midwestern USA.

  9. Assessment of decadal changes in sediment contamination in a large connecting channel (Detroit River, North America).

    PubMed

    Szalinska, Ewa; Grgicak-Mannion, Alice; Haffner, G Douglas; Drouillard, Ken G

    2013-11-01

    Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) and organic contaminants (PCBs, PAHs) were investigated in samples from the Detroit River (Great Lakes, North America) in 1999 and 2008/09 collected using a stratified random sampling design. Getis-Ord geospatial analysis was used to further establish locations of areas demonstrating significantly high and low contaminant concentrations in the river. Based on the stratified random sampling design, a majority of the examined metals and organic contaminants demonstrated little or no trends with respect to regional sediment concentrations and river-wide mass balances over the investigated time interval. The Getis-Ord analysis revealed local scales of contaminated and clean areas which did not conform to the original strata used in the geostatistical sampling design. It is suggested that geospatial analyses such as Getis-Ord be used in the design of future sediment quality surveys to refine locations of strata that can simultaneously address sediment recovery over system-wide, regional and local spatial scales.

  10. Lead poisoning among Arab American and African American children in the Detroit metropolitan area, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Nriagu, Jerome; Senthamarai-Kannan, Raghavendra; Jamil, Hikmet; Fakhori, Monty; Korponic, Summer

    2011-09-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that acculturation is a risk factor for childhood lead poisoning in the Detroit area of Michigan. Blood lead levels (BLLs) were determined in 429 Arab American and African American children, aged 6 months to 15 years, who were receiving well-child examination in three Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) clinics in the city. Mean BLL was 3.8 ± 2.3 μg/dL (range: 1-18 μg/dL) and 3.3% of the children tested had blood lead values above the 10 μg/dL level of concern. Neither the age of the dwelling units nor ethnicity of the child was significantly associated with the BLL. Multivariable analyses instead identified a number of acculturation-related factors that are associated with elevation in blood lead including paternal education, language spoken at home (English only, English and Arabic, or Arabic only), home ownership, smoking in the home, and exposure of child to home health remedies. The difference in blood lead between Arab American children from families where Arabic only versus Arabic and English is spoken at home was found to be statistically significant. This study provides information showing that immigrant children are at heightened risk of being poisoned by lead which can be useful in identifying groups at risk of atypical exposures.

  11. The Detroit Diesel DELTA Engine for Light Trucks and SUVs - Year 2000 Update

    SciTech Connect

    Nabil S. Hakim; Charles E. Freese; Stanley P. Miller

    2000-06-19

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) is developing the DELTA 4.0L V6 engine, specifically for the North American light truck market. This market poses unique requirements for a diesel engine, necessitating a clean sheet engine design. DELTA was developed from a clean sheet of paper, with the first engine firing just 228 days later. The process began with a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis, which prioritized the development criteria. The development process integrated a co-located, fully cross-functional team. Suppliers were fully integrated and maintained on-site representation. The first demonstration vehicle moved under its own power 12 weeks after the first engine fired. It was demonstrated to the automotive press 18 days later. DELTA has repeatedly demonstrated its ability to disprove historical North American diesel perceptions and compete directly with gasoline engines. This paper outlines the Generation 0.0 development process and briefly defines the engine. A brief indication of the Generation 0.5 development status is given.

  12. Race talk: the psychology of racial dialogues.

    PubMed

    Sue, Derald Wing

    2013-11-01

    Constructive dialogues on race have been proposed as a means to heal racial and ethnic divides, reduce prejudice and misinformation, increase racial literacy, and foster improved race relations. Studies on the psychology of racial dialogues indicate social and academic norms that dictate against race talk between White Americans and persons of color: (a) the politeness protocol, (b) the academic protocol, and (c) the color-blind protocol. These protocols discourage race talk and allow society to enter into a conspiracy of silence regarding the detrimental impact oppression plays on persons of color. Facilitating difficult dialogues on race requires educators to recognize what makes such discussions difficult. For people of color, engaging in race talk exposes them to microaggressions that invalidate and assail their racial/ethnic identities. For Whites, honest discussions are impeded by fears of appearing racist, of realizing their racism, of acknowledging White privilege, and of taking responsibility to combat racism. PMID:24320648

  13. Race talk: the psychology of racial dialogues.

    PubMed

    Sue, Derald Wing

    2013-11-01

    Constructive dialogues on race have been proposed as a means to heal racial and ethnic divides, reduce prejudice and misinformation, increase racial literacy, and foster improved race relations. Studies on the psychology of racial dialogues indicate social and academic norms that dictate against race talk between White Americans and persons of color: (a) the politeness protocol, (b) the academic protocol, and (c) the color-blind protocol. These protocols discourage race talk and allow society to enter into a conspiracy of silence regarding the detrimental impact oppression plays on persons of color. Facilitating difficult dialogues on race requires educators to recognize what makes such discussions difficult. For people of color, engaging in race talk exposes them to microaggressions that invalidate and assail their racial/ethnic identities. For Whites, honest discussions are impeded by fears of appearing racist, of realizing their racism, of acknowledging White privilege, and of taking responsibility to combat racism.

  14. Critical Race Theory, race equity, and public health: toward antiracism praxis.

    PubMed

    Ford, Chandra L; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O

    2010-04-01

    Racial scholars argue that racism produces rates of morbidity, mortality, and overall well-being that vary depending on socially assigned race. Eliminating racism is therefore central to achieving health equity, but this requires new paradigms that are responsive to structural racism's contemporary influence on health, health inequities, and research. Critical Race Theory is an emerging transdisciplinary, race-equity methodology that originated in legal studies and is grounded in social justice. Critical Race Theory's tools for conducting research and practice are intended to elucidate contemporary racial phenomena, expand the vocabulary with which to discuss complex racial concepts, and challenge racial hierarchies. We introduce Critical Race Theory to the public health community, highlight key Critical Race Theory characteristics (race consciousness, emphases on contemporary societal dynamics and socially marginalized groups, and praxis between research and practice) and describe Critical Race Theory's contribution to a study on racism and HIV testing among African Americans.

  15. Arms races between and within species.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, R; Krebs, J R

    1979-09-21

    An adaptation in one lineage (e.g. predators) may change the selection pressure on another lineage (e.g. prey), giving rise to a counter-adaptation. If this occurs reciprocally, an unstable runaway escalation or 'arms race' may result. We discuss various factors which might give one side an advantage in an arms race. For example, a lineage under strong selection may out-evolve a weakly selected one (' the life-dinner principle'). We then classify arms races in two independent ways. They may be symmetric or asymmetric, and they may be interspecific or intraspecific. Our example of an asymmetric interspecific arms race is that between brood parasites and their hosts. The arms race concept may help to reduce the mystery of why cuckoo hosts are so good at detecting cuckoo eggs, but so bad at detecting cuckoo nestlings. The evolutionary contest between queen and worker ants over relative parental investment is a good example of an intraspecific asymmetric arms race. Such cases raise special problems because the participants share the same gene pool. Interspecific symmetric arms races are unlikely to be important, because competitors tend to diverge rather than escalate competitive adaptations. Intraspecific symmetric arms races, exemplified by adaptations for male-male competition, may underlie Cope's Rule and even the extinction of lineages. Finally we consider ways in which arms races can end. One lineage may drive the other to extinction; one may reach an optimum, thereby preventing the other from doing so; a particularly interesting possibility, exemplified by flower-bee coevolution, is that both sides may reach a mutual local optimum; lastly, arms races may have no stable and but may cycle continuously. We do not wish necessarily to suggest that all, or even most, evolutionary change results from arms races, but we do suggest that the arms race concept may help to resolve three long-standing questions in evolutionary theory.

  16. Rediscovering "Race Traitor": Towards a Critical Race Theory Informed Public Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John; Chadderton, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to politically resituate Ignatiev and Garvey's conception of the "Race Traitor" within contemporary notions of Critical Race Theory and Public Pedagogy. Race Traitor has been critiqued both by those on the academic and neo-conservative right, who accuse advocates of the project of genocide and misuse of public funds, and has…

  17. Race Wrestling: Struggling Strategically with Race in Educational Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Mica

    2004-01-01

    As researchers try to understand, improve, and equalize U.S. schooling, we talk too little about how to study race well. It is particularly crucial, I argue, that researchers struggle to interrogate education's familiar racial practices more self-consciously and strategically. I suggest that researchers "race wrestle" by struggling with race on…

  18. Training with Own-Race Faces Can Improve Processing of Other-Race Faces: Evidence from Developmental Prosopagnosia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGutis, Joseph; DeNicola, Cristopher; Zink, Tyler; McGlinchey, Regina; Milberg, William

    2011-01-01

    Faces of one's own race are discriminated and recognized more accurately than faces of an other race (other-race effect--ORE). Studies have employed several methods to enhance individuation and recognition of other-race faces and reduce the ORE, including intensive perceptual training with other-race faces and explicitly instructing participants…

  19. Assessing the effect of Michigan's smoke-free law on air quality inside restaurants and casinos: a before-and-after observational study

    PubMed Central

    Shamo, Farid; Wilson, Teri; Kiley, Janet; Repace, James

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effect of Michigan's smoke-free air (SFA) law on the air quality inside selected restaurants and casinos. The hypothesis of the study: if the SFA law is effectively implemented in restaurants and casinos, there will be a significant reduction in the particulate matter PM2.5 measured in the same establishments after the law is implemented. Setting Prelaw and postlaw design study. Participants 78 restaurants in 14 Michigan cities from six major regions of the state, and three Detroit casinos. Methods We monitored the real-time PM2.5 in 78 restaurants and three Detroit casinos before the SFA law, and again monitored the same restaurants and casinos after implementation of the law, which was enacted on 1 May 2010. Primary and secondary outcome measures Concentration measurements of secondhand smoke (SHS) fine particles (PM2.5) were compared in each restaurant in the prelaw period to measurements of PM2.5 in the same restaurants during the postlaw period. A second comparison was made for PM2.5 levels in three Detroit casinos prelaw and postlaw; these casinos were exempted from the SFA law. Results Prelaw data indicated that 85% of the restaurants had poor to hazardous air quality, with the average venue having ‘unhealthy’ air according to Michigan's Air Quality Index for PM2.5. Postlaw, air quality in 93% of the restaurants improved to ‘good’. The differences were statistically significant (p<0.0001). By comparison, the three casinos measured had ‘unhealthy’ air both before and after the law. Conclusions The significant air quality improvement in the Michigan restaurants after implementation of the SFA law indicates that the law was very effective in reducing exposure to SHS. Since the Detroit casinos were exempted from the law, the air quality was unchanged, and remained unhealthy in both prelaw and postlaw periods. PMID:26185176

  20. Genetics for the Human Race

    SciTech Connect

    Myles Axton; Francis Collins; Charles Rotimi; Charmaine Royal; David Goldstein, Daniel Drell; Georgia Dunston; Rick Kittles; Lynn Jorde; Mildred Cho; Joanna Mountain; Ari Patrinos; Neil Risch; Shomarka Keita; Kenneth Kidd; Mark Shriver; Sarah Tishkoff

    2004-11-01

    This supplement has its origins on May 15, 2003, when the National Human Genome Center at Howard University held a small but important workshop in Washington DC. The workshop, Human Genome Variation and 'Race', and this special issue of Nature Genetics were proposed by scientists at Howard University and financially supported by the Genome Programs of the US Department of Energy, through its Office of Science; the Irving Harris Foundation; the National Institutes of Health, through the National Human Genome Research Institute; and Howard University. As summarized by Francis Collins, director of the National Human Genome Research Institute, the workshop focused on several key questions: ''What does the current body of scientific information say about the connections among race, ethnicity, genetics and health? What remains unknown? What additional research is needed? How can this information be applied to benefit human health? How might this information be applied in nonmedical settings? How can we adopt policies that will achieve beneficial societal outcomes?'' This supplement, supported by the Department of Energy through a grant to Howard University, contains articles based on the presentations at this workshop.

  1. Near-road enhancement and solubility of fine and coarse particulate matter trace elements near a major interstate in Detroit, Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakes, Michelle M.; Burke, Janet M.; Norris, Gary A.; Kovalcik, Kasey D.; Pancras, J. Patrick; Landis, Matthew S.

    2016-11-01

    Communities near major roadways are disproportionately affected by traffic-related air pollution which can contribute to adverse health outcomes. The specific role of particulate matter (PM) from traffic sources is not fully understood due to complex emissions processes and physical/chemical properties of PM in the near-road environment. To investigate the spatial profile and water solubility of elemental PM species near a major roadway, filter-based measurements of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10-2.5) PM were simultaneously collected at multiple distances (10 m, 100 m, and 300 m) from Interstate I-96 in Detroit, Michigan during September-November 2010. Filters were extracted in water, followed by a hot acid extraction, and analyzed by magnetic sector field high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICPMS) to quantify water-soluble and acid-soluble trace elements for each PM size fraction. PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 species measured in the near-road samples included elements associated with traffic activity, local industrial sources, and regional pollution. Metals indicative of brake wear (Ba, Cu) were dramatically enriched near the roadway during downwind conditions (factor of 5 concentration increase), with the largest increase within 100 m of the roadway. Moderate near-roadway increases were observed for crustal elements and other traffic-related PM (Fe, Ca), and the lowest increases observed for regional PM species (S). Water solubility varied by PM species and size, and for PM2.5 included highly (S, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Ba), moderately (Cu, Mn, Sb, Pb), and minimally (Fe, Ti) water-soluble species, with lower water solubility for most species in PM10-2.5. Results from this study indicate that water-soluble PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 metals, particularly from brake/tire wear, were enhanced in the near-roadway environment which may have human health implications.

  2. Identification of ambient PM 2.5 sources and analysis of pollution episodes in Detroit, Michigan using highly time-resolved measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Masako; Keeler, Gerald J.; Kamal, Ali S.; Wagner, James G.; Harkema, Jack R.; Rohr, Annette C.

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the chemical composition of ambient PM 2.5, or fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm), may be closely associated with the health effects induced by PM. Thus, identification of the sources of these components of PM 2.5 is critical to understanding source-specific health risks posed by PM 2.5. However, ambient PM measurements are typically 24-h average concentrations, masking the temporal variability of individual sources. These daily samples can limit our understanding of the associations between sources and observed heath effect parameters. In the present study, highly time-resolved sampling methods were utilized to characterize trace element concentrations and to obtain information on potential emission sources impacting a site in urban Detroit where a complex mixture of local point and mobile sources, as well as regional sources, is observed. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to 117 8-h PM 2.5 filter samples from which six major factors were extracted including secondary aerosol, gasoline-powered vehicles, iron and steel manufacturing, diesel-powered vehicles, refining, and sludge incineration. In addition, PMF was applied to 268 30-min PM 2.5 samples where six major source factors were identified including secondary aerosol, gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles, iron and steel manufacturing, refining, sludge incineration, and cement/lime production. Contributions of various emission source factors and peak concentrations for each factor were characterized using detailed meteorology and, factor directionality analysis. Although some variations were observed between the 8-h integrated filter samples and the 30-min SEAS samples, the results from the two datasets are generally consistent, suggesting that 46% and 43% of ambient PM, respectively, is derived from local sources. These findings have advanced our understanding of temporal PM source-receptor relationships in a complex urban air shed.

  3. Federal Food Programs-1975. Hearings before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, First Session. Part 8--Administrative Failure of Food Stamp Program. Hearings held Detroit, Michigan, Februrary 6, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    These hearings before the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs focused on the Food Stamp Programs problems in Detroit, Michigan. Testimony was heard from such witnesses as the following: Coleman Young, Mayor of the City of Detroit; Eleanor Josatis, Chairwoman; Mayor-Common Council's Task Force on Hunger and Malnutrition; Muriel…

  4. Flow distribution in selected branches of St. Clair and Detroit rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holtschlag, D.J.; Koschik, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    St. Clair and Detroit rivers, which are connecting channels between Lake Huron and Lake Erie in the Great Lakes basin, form part of the boundary between the state of Michigan and the province of Ontario. In 13 reaches, this flow divides locally around islands and dikes to form 31 branches. This study develops a set of simple linear regression equations for computing expected flow proportions in branches, generally as a function of the total flow within the reach. The equations are based on 533 acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements of flow obtained between 1996 and 2000. Root-mean-square errors of these regressions range from 0.00323 to 0.0895. In seven upstream reaches where flow is known because of flow specifications at the boundaries of the waterway and continuity constraints, the uncertainties of the flow proportions can be used to directly infer the uncertainties of the corresponding flows. In six downstream reaches, the uncertainties of flows are determined by both the uncertainties of the flow proportions and the uncertainties of the total flow in the reach. For these reaches, Monte Carlo simulations quantify the ratios of total uncertainty to flow proportion uncertainty, which range from 1.0026 to 13.984. To facilitate routine calculation, polynomial regression equations are developed to approximate these ratios as a function of flow. Results provide a mechanism for computing the magnitudes and uncertainties of steady-state flows within selected branches of the connecting channels by specifying inflows at the headwaters of St. Clair River, seven intervening tributaries, and Lake St. Clair.

  5. Successful Resident Engagement in Quality Improvement: The Detroit Medical Center Story.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Syed Ahmed; Arsene, Camelia; Hamstra, Corinne; Woehrlen, Tess H; Wiese-Rometsch, Wilhelmine; White, Suzanne R

    2016-05-01

    Background In 2014, the Detroit Medical Center launched a new program to engage residents and fellows in a strategy to deliver optimal care within 1 year, focusing on quality at an earlier stage of their careers and preparing them for working posttraining. Methods Residents from clinically relevant residency and fellowships programs were selected to be Resident Quality Directors. The project involved development of an interactive electronic health record (EHR) checklist to visually depict real time gaps in 40 process measures, while focusing on 14 areas related to stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis. We also implemented an incentive approach, using a pay-for-performance (P4P) model. Results The project included 800 residents led by 14 resident quality directors. We were able to achieve 100% resident participation. Prior compliance with VTE quality measures 6 months was 88.5%, with performance increasing to 94.2% (P < .006) at 6 months and 100% at 12 months (P < .005) after the intervention. The VTE prophylaxis score improved from the 89.7% to 92.9% range at inception to 100% by 12 months. A similar steady improvement of stroke process measures was observed, with a 100% compliance within 12 months. The institution made 4 incentive payments to trainees (ranging from $300 to $4,000 per year). The remaining 26 process measures remained at goal with above 95% compliance. Conclusions This quality improvement initiative was associated with system-wide quality performance on VTE prevention and stroke care process measures, which was facilitated by a interactive EHR-based checklist and linkage to P4P incentive payments.

  6. Lead levels in blood and saliva in a low-income population of Detroit, Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Nriagu, Jerome; Burt, Brian; Linder, Aaron; Ismail, Amid; Sohn, Woosung

    2006-01-01

    The relationships between blood lead (PbB) and saliva lead (PbSa) concentrations and the determinants of PbB and PbSa status in 970 low-income adults in the city of Detroit, Michigan were explored. Average PbB and PbSa values in the sample population were found to be 2.7 ± 0.1 μg/dl and 2.4 ± 0.13 μg/l (equivalent to 0.24 ± 0.13 μg/dl), respectively, and a weak but statistically significant association was found between the lead levels in the two types of body fluid samples. The average PbB level for men (4.0 ± 0.56 μg/dl) was higher than that for women (2.7 ± 0.11 μg/dl); other significant predictors of PbB included age, level of education, being employed, income level, the presence of peeling paint on the wall at home and smoking. There was no gender- or age-dependent difference in blood saliva values but statistically significant correlations were found between PbSa and level of education, employment, income level and smoking. Dental caries was severe in this population. Only 0.5% of the participants had no clinical signs of caries, over 80% had cavitated carious lesions (i.e., lesions that had progressed into dentin), and the number of lost teeth and carious lesions averaged 3.4 and 30, respectively. Weak but significant associations were found between PbB as well as PbSa and measures of dental caries in the study population. The positive associations are believed to be a reflection of the fact that the risk factors for dental caries, especially in low-income populations of the US, overlap extensively with those of lead poisoning and may not have a causal significance. PMID:16443391

  7. Successful Resident Engagement in Quality Improvement: The Detroit Medical Center Story.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Syed Ahmed; Arsene, Camelia; Hamstra, Corinne; Woehrlen, Tess H; Wiese-Rometsch, Wilhelmine; White, Suzanne R

    2016-05-01

    Background In 2014, the Detroit Medical Center launched a new program to engage residents and fellows in a strategy to deliver optimal care within 1 year, focusing on quality at an earlier stage of their careers and preparing them for working posttraining. Methods Residents from clinically relevant residency and fellowships programs were selected to be Resident Quality Directors. The project involved development of an interactive electronic health record (EHR) checklist to visually depict real time gaps in 40 process measures, while focusing on 14 areas related to stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis. We also implemented an incentive approach, using a pay-for-performance (P4P) model. Results The project included 800 residents led by 14 resident quality directors. We were able to achieve 100% resident participation. Prior compliance with VTE quality measures 6 months was 88.5%, with performance increasing to 94.2% (P < .006) at 6 months and 100% at 12 months (P < .005) after the intervention. The VTE prophylaxis score improved from the 89.7% to 92.9% range at inception to 100% by 12 months. A similar steady improvement of stroke process measures was observed, with a 100% compliance within 12 months. The institution made 4 incentive payments to trainees (ranging from $300 to $4,000 per year). The remaining 26 process measures remained at goal with above 95% compliance. Conclusions This quality improvement initiative was associated with system-wide quality performance on VTE prevention and stroke care process measures, which was facilitated by a interactive EHR-based checklist and linkage to P4P incentive payments. PMID:27168890

  8. Zebra Mussel control experiences at Detroit Edison Harbor Beach Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, D.B.; Buda, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    The Detroit Edison Co. Harbor Beach Power Plant on Lake Huron in Michigan`s thumb and is comprised of one 100 MW coal-fired unit. Zebra mussels first were discovered during a routine inspection of the plant screen house in August 1991. The initial population of 5 mussels/m{sup 2} increased to 650 mussels/m{sup 2} by March 1992. During this eight-month period the plant began to experience problems with zebra mussels clogging small coolers, check valves, and miscellaneous service water connections. Although the mussels had not affected the unit`s availability, it was evident that they soon might if left uncontrolled. A treatment program was devised in 1992 to eliminate the mussels living in the screen house and inside the plant. Targeted in-plant systems included the condenser cooling supply lines, plant service water system, and plant fire fighting system. An oxygen scavenger (sodium sulfate) was used in conjunction with thermal treatment (saturated steam) to asphyxiate and heat the mussels over a several day period. Inspection dives in the screen house before and after treatment as well as subsequent in-plant equipment inspections have revealed the treatment to be successful. Complete mortality was achieved in the screen house and in-plant systems. By April, 1993, the zebra mussel colony had re-established itself in the plant screen house to a level of 400 mussels/m{sup 2}. In October 1993, the colony had grown to 2,600 mussels/m{sup 2}. A second treatment was scheduled and completed on October 18--21, 1993. Thermal treatment was used alone during this treatment episode in which 100% mortality again wax achieved. Test bags, an in-line viewport, and post treatment dive inspections confirmed that the treatment was completely successful. Population monitoring and treatments continue on a regular basis.

  9. Lessons about Race in Introductory Sociology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritschner, Linda Marie

    2001-01-01

    Uses a relational approach to teach about race showing how it effects whites as well as people of color. Reveals differences in attitudes and feelings on race and age. Uses answers from nine questions submitted by each student as a basis for lecture and guided classroom discussion. (DAJ)

  10. Darwin on Race, Gender, and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Bhatia, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Darwin's theories of natural selection and sexual selection are significant scientific achievements, although his understanding of race and gender was defined and limited by his own life circumstances and the sociohistorical context within which he worked. This article considers the ways in which race, gender, and culture were represented and…

  11. Science and the Concept of Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Margaret, Ed.; And Others

    The contents of this book, an outgrowth of a symposium held at the meetings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Washington on December 30, 1966, are organized in three sections. Section one, "Behavior-Genetic Analyses and Their Relevance to the Construct of Race," includes the following essays: "The Construct Race and the…

  12. Geneticists and the Biology of Race Crossing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provine, William B.

    1973-01-01

    Examines historically the attitudes of United States and British geneticists on the topic of race crossing. Between 1930 and 1950 the attitudes changed from a condemnation of wide race crosses because of deleterious effects to a belief that such inter-racial crosses were at worst biologically harmless. (JR)

  13. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Keelah E G; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-01-12

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals' behavior. Harsh and unpredictable ("desperate") ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable ("hopeful") ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology's influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans' stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups' presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2-4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person's race (but not ecology), individuals' inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals' inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals' inferences reflect the targets' ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one's ecology influences behavior.

  14. Race to Top Draws out New Suitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The list of 61 finalists for the latest Race to the Top competition shows that the U.S. Department of Education was successful in enticing high-scoring applications from districts in rural America and in states that had not shared in the Race to the Top bounty before. But whether the ultimate winners, which will be announced this month, will be…

  15. Race and Intelligence: What Are the Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singham, Mano

    1995-01-01

    Explains many well-known problems associated with trying to correlate "intelligence" measures with measures of "race," such as reification, circular arguments, biological definitions of race, comparison of individual and group differences, correlation versus causation, intelligence quotient heritability, and ideology/social policy ramifications.…

  16. How Race Counts for Hispanic Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, John R.

    This report assesses racial differences among Hispanic Americans. Since 1970, the U.S. Census has asked all Americans to identify their race and, separately, whether they are Hispanic. This means Hispanics can be of any race. Data come from the 1980, 1990, and 2000 Censuses and from pre-tabulated summary files from Census 2000. This report…

  17. Is Cross-Race Mentoring a Negative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Thomas G.

    2007-01-01

    The author discusses cross-race mentoring and examines whether this is necessarily a negative. Here, he presents the opinions of one African-American female Ph.D., two Hispanic female Ph.D.s, and one Hispanic male graduate student, who offer varied perspectives. Ten points are presented: (1) 1. Cross-race mentoring requires extra sensitivity; (2)…

  18. Class, Race, and Gender in American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois, Ed.

    This volume of essays on class, race, and gender in American education contains an introduction by Lois Weis. Cameron McCarthy and Michael W. Apple contributed an overview, "Race, Class, and Gender in American Educational Research: Toward a Nonsynchronous Parallelist Position." The book has two parts. Part 1, "Different Knowledge, Unequal…

  19. Another Inconvenient Truth: Race and Ethnicity Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Willis D.; Nieto, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to maximizing learning opportunities and outcomes for students from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds, race and ethnicity matter: They affect how students respond to instruction and curriculum, and they influence teachers' assumptions about how students learn. Effective implementation of race- and ethnicity-responsive…

  20. Kinematics of cross-country ski racing.

    PubMed

    Bilodeau, B; Rundell, K W; Roy, B; Boulay, M R

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the evolution of skiing velocity, cycle length, and cycle rate in elite and subelite skiers during cross-country ski races. Senior male cross-country skiers engaged respectively in a 30-km skating race (N = 34) or a 50-km classical race (N = 27) were videotaped as they skied two different sections of 30 m, a 7 degrees uphill, and a flat section. In the skating race, most skiers used the offset technique on uphill and the 2-skate on flat, while the preferred techniques during the classical race were the diagonal stride for uphill and double-poling on flat. Results demonstrated that faster skiers had longer cycle lengths than slower skiers except for the flat sections of the classical race. Cycle rate was not different between skiers of different performance levels in any circumstances or races. Decreased velocity observed during the second half of the skating race was almost entirely due to a decrease in cycle length. We conclude that slower athletes should emphasize extending cycle length during their technical training. Therefore, skiers should place an emphasis on strength and power training to increase their kick and pole pushes and enhance cycle length.

  1. Answers to the Question: "Who Developed Race?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Having served as a college and university instructor at several institutions, the author has taught numerous history courses that have dealt with race relations in the United States. A class that he currently teaches, titled "Race in America," focuses specifically upon this topic. It is designed for non-history majors who are in their early years…

  2. Critical Race Theory and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closson, Rosemary B.

    2010-01-01

    Critical race theory (CRT) was developed to examine the persistence of racism. This literature review attempts to understand CRT as it has been applied in related fields such as higher education and possible reasons for its limited application in adult education theorizing about race and racism. This analysis of CRT is framed against a backdrop of…

  3. "Egg Races" and Other Practical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This article presents ideas behind science and technology challenges and shares experiences of "egg races." Different challenges were set, but there was always the need to transport an egg across some obstacle course without breaking it. It was so popular in the 1980s that the term "egg race" came to mean any kind of simple…

  4. Diet and habitat use by age-0 deepwater sculpins in northern Lake Huron, Michigan and the Detroit River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    Deepwater sculpins (Myoxocephalus thompsonii) are an important link in deepwater benthic foodwebs of the Great Lakes. Little information exists about deepwater sculpin spawning habits and early life history ecology due to difficulty in sampling deep offshore habitats. Larval and age-0 deepwater sculpins collected in northern Lake Huron and the Detroit River during 2007 were used to improve our understanding of their habitat use, diet, age, and growth. Peak larval density reached 8.4/1000 m3 in the Detroit River during April and was higher than that in Lake Huron. Offshore bottom trawls at DeTour and Hammond Bay first collected benthic age-0 deepwater sculpins in early September when fish were ≥ 25 mm TL. Otolith analysis revealed that hatch dates for pelagic larvae occurred during late March and larvae remained pelagic for 40 to 60 days. Diet of pelagic larvae (10–21 mm TL) was dominated by calanoid copepods at all sample locations. Diets of benthic age-0 fish varied by location and depth: Mysis and chironomids were prevalent in fish from Hammond Bay and the 91 m site at DeTour, but only chironomids were found in fish from the 37 m DeTour site. This work showed that nearshore epilimnetic sites were important for pelagic larvae and an ontogenetic shift from pelagic planktivore to benthivore occurred at about 25 mm TL in late summer. Age analysis showed that larvae remained pelagic long enough to be transported through the St. Clair–Detroit River system, Lake Erie, and the Niagara River, potentially contributing to populations in Lake Ontario.

  5. A scientific basis for restoring fish spawning habitat in the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Roseman, Edward F.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Boase, James C.; Craig, Jaquelyn; Bennion, David H.; Read, Jennifer; Vaccaro, Lynn; Chiotti, Justin A.; Drouin, Richard; Ellison, Roseanne

    2015-01-01

    Loss of functional habitat in riverine systems is a global fisheries issue. Few studies, however, describe the decision-making approach taken to abate loss of fish spawning habitat. Numerous habitat restoration efforts are underway and documentation of successful restoration techniques for spawning habitat of desirable fish species in large rivers connecting the Laurentian Great Lakes are reported here. In 2003, to compensate for the loss of fish spawning habitat in the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers that connect the Great Lakes Huron and Erie, an international partnership of state, federal, and academic scientists began restoring fish spawning habitat in both of these rivers. Using an adaptive management approach, we created 1,100 m2 of productive fish spawning habitat near Belle Isle in the Detroit River in 2004; 3,300 m2 of fish spawning habitat near Fighting Island in the Detroit River in 2008; and 4,000 m2 of fish spawning habitat in the Middle Channel of the St. Clair River in 2012. Here, we describe the adaptive-feedback management approach that we used to guide our decision making during all phases of spawning habitat restoration, including problem identification, team building, hypothesis development, strategy development, prioritization of physical and biological imperatives, project implementation, habitat construction, monitoring of fish use of the constructed spawning habitats, and communication of research results. Numerous scientific and economic lessons learned from 10 years of planning, building, and assessing fish use of these three fish spawning habitat restoration projects are summarized in this article.

  6. Telemetry narrows the search for sea lamprey spawning locations in the St. Clair-Detroit River System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holbrook, Christopher; Jubar, Aaron K.; Barber, Jessica M.; Tallon, Kevin; Hondorp, Darryl W.

    2016-01-01

    Adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) abundance in Lake Erie has remained above targets set by fishery managers since 2005, possibly due to increased recruitment in the St. Clair-Detroit River System (SCDRS). Sea lamprey recruitment in the SCDRS poses an enormous challenge to sea lamprey control and assessment in Lake Erie because the SCDRS contains no dams to facilitate capture and discharge is at least an order of magnitude larger in the SCDRS than most other sea lamprey-producing tributaries in the Great Lakes. As a first step toward understanding population size, spatial distribution, and spawning habitat of adult sea lampreys in the SCDRS, we used acoustic telemetry to determine where sea lampreys ceased migration (due to spawning, death, or both) among major regions of the SCDRS. All tagged sea lampreys released in the lower Detroit River (N = 27) moved upstream through the Detroit River and entered Lake St. Clair. After entering Lake St. Clair, sea lampreys entered the St. Clair River (N = 22), Thames River (N = 1), or were not detected again (N = 4). Many sea lampreys (10 of 27) were last observed moving downstream (“fallback”) but we were unable to determine if those movements occurred before or after spawning, or while sea lampreys were dead or alive. Regardless of whether estimates of locations where sea lampreys ceased migration were based on the most upstream region occupied or final region occupied, most sea lampreys ceased migration in the St. Clair River or Lake St. Clair. Results suggest that spawning and rearing in the St. Clair River could be an important determinant of sea lamprey recruitment in the SCDRS and may direct future assessment and control activities in that system.

  7. Race Matters? Examining and Rethinking Race Portrayal in Preclinical Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jennifer; Ucik, Laura; Baldwin, Nell; Hasslinger, Christopher; George, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Critical examination of "health disparities" is gaining consideration in medical schools across the United States, often as elective curricula that supplement required education. However, there is disconnect between discussions of race and disparities in these curricula and in core science courses. Specifically, required preclinical science lecturers often operationalize race as a biological concept, framing racialized disparities as inherent in bodies. A three- and five-month sampling of lecture slides at the authors' medical school demonstrated that race was almost always presented as a biological risk factor.This presentation of race as an essential component of epidemiology, risk, diagnosis, and treatment without social context is problematic, as a broad body of literature supports that race is not a robust biological category. The authors opine that current preclinical medical curricula inaccurately employ race as a definitive medical category without context, which may perpetuate misunderstanding of race as a bioscientific datum, increase bias among student-doctors, and ultimately contribute to worse patient outcomes.At the authors' institution, students approached the medical school administration with a letter addressing the current use of race, urging reform. The administration was receptive to proposals for further analysis of race in medical education and created a taskforce to examine curricular reform. Curricular changes were made as part of the construction of a longitudinal race-in-medicine curriculum. The authors seek to use their initiatives and this article to spark critical discussion on how to use teaching of race to work against racial inequality in health care.

  8. Race Matters? Examining and Rethinking Race Portrayal in Preclinical Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jennifer; Ucik, Laura; Baldwin, Nell; Hasslinger, Christopher; George, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Critical examination of "health disparities" is gaining consideration in medical schools across the United States, often as elective curricula that supplement required education. However, there is disconnect between discussions of race and disparities in these curricula and in core science courses. Specifically, required preclinical science lecturers often operationalize race as a biological concept, framing racialized disparities as inherent in bodies. A three- and five-month sampling of lecture slides at the authors' medical school demonstrated that race was almost always presented as a biological risk factor.This presentation of race as an essential component of epidemiology, risk, diagnosis, and treatment without social context is problematic, as a broad body of literature supports that race is not a robust biological category. The authors opine that current preclinical medical curricula inaccurately employ race as a definitive medical category without context, which may perpetuate misunderstanding of race as a bioscientific datum, increase bias among student-doctors, and ultimately contribute to worse patient outcomes.At the authors' institution, students approached the medical school administration with a letter addressing the current use of race, urging reform. The administration was receptive to proposals for further analysis of race in medical education and created a taskforce to examine curricular reform. Curricular changes were made as part of the construction of a longitudinal race-in-medicine curriculum. The authors seek to use their initiatives and this article to spark critical discussion on how to use teaching of race to work against racial inequality in health care. PMID:27166865

  9. "Civil unrest does not stop ovulation": women's prenatal and family planning services in a 1960s Detroit neighborhood clinic.

    PubMed

    DeGuzman, Pamela B; Schminkey, Donna L; Koyen, Emily A

    2014-01-01

    In 1965, Nancy Milio established a prenatal and family planning clinic in Detroit, Michigan, to address health disparities and limited access to care among low-income, African American, urban women. Women's health disparities persist today nationally and internationally. Using historical methods, this research analyzes how Milio provided women's health services in the context of the social and political environment. Milio empowered neighborhood women to direct, plan, and participate in the care they received. Successful methods to address disparities in access to family and planning and prenatal care should include empowered participation from the women these programs are intending to serve.

  10. "Civil unrest does not stop ovulation": women's prenatal and family planning services in a 1960s Detroit neighborhood clinic.

    PubMed

    DeGuzman, Pamela B; Schminkey, Donna L; Koyen, Emily A

    2014-01-01

    In 1965, Nancy Milio established a prenatal and family planning clinic in Detroit, Michigan, to address health disparities and limited access to care among low-income, African American, urban women. Women's health disparities persist today nationally and internationally. Using historical methods, this research analyzes how Milio provided women's health services in the context of the social and political environment. Milio empowered neighborhood women to direct, plan, and participate in the care they received. Successful methods to address disparities in access to family and planning and prenatal care should include empowered participation from the women these programs are intending to serve. PMID:24892860

  11. Seasonal growth of the exotic submersed macrophyte Nitellopsis obtusa in the Detroit River of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Schloesser, Donald W.; Geis, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Seasonal growth and occurrence of an exotic submersed aquatic macrophyte, Nitellopsis obtusa, was monitored at the head of the Detroit River of the Great Lakes from June 1984 to April 1985.Nitellopsis obtusa first appeared in early July, increased in biomass from July to September, remained at relatively high biomass from September to late January, and decreased substantially as ice breakup began in mid-February. By March it had become senescent, lacking chlorophyll and disintegrating easily. Nitellopsis obtusa was therefore available as a source of food and shelter for benthic and juvenile fish populations in late fall and winter, when other macrophytes were absent.

  12. The Spectre of Race in American Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Fofana, Mariam O.

    2014-01-01

    Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race—the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful—has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on medical research and clinical practice. In many ways, the use of race in medicine today reflects the internalization of racial hierarchies borne out of the history of slavery and state-mandated segregation, and there is still much uncertainty over its benefits and harms. Although using race in research can help elucidate disparities, the reflexive use of race as a variable runs the risk of reifying the biological concept of race and blinding researchers to important underlying factors such as socioeconomic status. Similarly, in clinical practice, the use of race in assessing a patient’s risk of certain conditions (e.g., sickle cell) turns harmful when the heuristic becomes a rule. Through selected historical and contemporary examples, I aim to show how the biological concept of race that gave rise to past abuses remains alive and harmful and propose changes in medical education as a potential solution. By learning from the past, today’s physicians will be better armed to discern—and correct—the ways in which contemporary medicine perpetuates historical injustices. PMID:23988563

  13. Geneticists and the biology of race crossing.

    PubMed

    Provine, W B

    1973-11-23

    Geneticists in England and the United States clearly reversed their published remarks on the effects of race crossing between 1930 and 1950. The reversal occurred in two steps. First came the change in the 1930's from a condemnation of wide race crosses to an agnostic view. The second change, from the agnostic view to the belief that wide race crosses were at worst biologically harmless, took place during and shortly after World War II. The entire reversal occurred in the light of little new compelling data from studies of actual human race crosses. The lack of new data is unsurprising. Few geneticists wished to initiate experiments that took three human generations to complete. And controlled race crosses are hard to arrange, even with government grants. What might be more surprising was the willingness of geneticists to make such positive statements about race crossing when they had so little reliable genetic evidence. I interviewed or wrote to ten prominent geneticists who worked on human genetics between 1930 and 1950. Not one believed that new evidence on race crossing was the primary reason why geneticists changed their minds about the effects of race crossing. One plausible explanation, that the rise of "population thinking" (44) caused geneticists to change their minds, does not fit the evidence. Castle was no more of a "population" thinker than East, yet they differed radically in their conclusions about race crossing. What, then, did cause geneticists to change their minds? Most important was the revulsion of educated people in the United States and England to Nazi race doctrines and their use in justifying extermination of Jews. Few geneticists wanted to argue, as had the Nazis, that biology showed race crossing was harmful. Instead, having witnessed the horrible toll, geneticists naturally wanted to argue that biology showed race crossing was at worst harmless. No racist nation could misuse that conclusion. And geneticists did revise their biology to

  14. Labs drive the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, H.E.

    1984-11-01

    The conviction of laboratory managers that high technology can provide safety and national security in a dangerous world and that technological solutions are paramount over political solutions has been a major driving force in perpetuating the nuclear arms race. The credo in the laboratories appears to be that there are never enough designs of nuclear weapons for deterrence so that there is always a need to develop such new ideas as the nuclear-pumped X-ray laser as a defense against energy missiles. The author outlines several alternative steps, including the ratification and reaffirmation of arms control treaties, negotiations, and a halt to the Star Wars program. A central point is to stop nuclear weapons testing. 7 references.

  15. Films on the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, J.

    1983-01-01

    Films convey the historical perspectives, the biographical stories, the insights of the participants, and the horror of nuclear war - far better than can any physicist. While films are not very efficient for covering details, derivation, or numbers, they can not be beaten in showing what really happens in a nuclear explosion, in getting across general concepts, in illustrating the parameters of a problem, and the problem itself. Most importantly, films and TV can reach the people who must be informed about these issues if we are to resolve the problems. The author points out how films can contribute to an understanding of the issues of the arms race and nuclear war, with references to specific films. An annotated bibliography of 37 films is then presented.

  16. Human genome, race and medicine.

    PubMed

    Dawson, George

    2003-04-01

    In closing, with the new revelations of the Human Genome Project, notions on whether land-based race identity or ethnicity with genetic markers has been proven valid, with few exceptions. This has caused me to revisit the attempted effort to discard concepts on race, especially in medicine. Obviously there are outliers to this new work. But contrary to popular belief, and to some, the unthinkable, there may be, in fact, a biologic basis for our human distinctions. And I for one do not feel shame or seem perplexed by it. Moreover, it appears that Dr. Welsing in her earlier work was onto something, and was indeed ahead of her time. The problem African Americans, and other persons of color face, to some extent, has to do with the social political context of racism, and the biologic impact it has and is often expressed in the form of stress and injuries, simply put. Therefore, and more importantly, eliminating the nomenclature of how we classify ourselves in our intellectual interchange in science and other areas, will not correct our problems, but may in fact, if abandon, spell our doom. Because what we are murderously burdened by has to do with racism and its effects. Which are in effect, based on physical features, not mere classification. Further, the current thought on racism and why it is practiced by some is that racism serves an evolutionary drive to survive by humans, by forming alliances in among similar groups of people. Therefore, if that is the case, we had better be ready for the long haul in this battle as our history and ongoing struggles tell us. Besides, if not for racism, "we would not have had all of these problems over all these years." The National Medical Association and its publishing instruments must remain vigilant and stay focused.

  17. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder scan own-race faces differently from other-race faces.

    PubMed

    Yi, Li; Quinn, Paul C; Fan, Yuebo; Huang, Dan; Feng, Cong; Joseph, Lisa; Li, Jiao; Lee, Kang

    2016-01-01

    It has been well documented that people recognize and scan other-race faces differently from faces of their own race. The current study examined whether this cross-racial difference in face processing found in the typical population also exists in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Participants included 5- to 10-year-old children with ASD (n=29), typically developing (TD) children matched on chronological age (n=29), and TD children matched on nonverbal IQ (n=29). Children completed a face recognition task in which they were asked to memorize and recognize both own- and other-race faces while their eye movements were tracked. We found no recognition advantage for own-race faces relative to other-race faces in any of the three groups. However, eye-tracking results indicated that, similar to TD children, children with ASD exhibited a cross-racial face-scanning pattern: they looked at the eyes of other-race faces longer than at those of own-race faces, whereas they looked at the mouth of own-race faces longer than at that of other-race faces. The findings suggest that although children with ASD have difficulty with processing some aspects of faces, their ability to process face race information is relatively spared.

  18. Ethnicity/race, ethics, and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Whaley, Arthur L

    2003-08-01

    Ethnicity/race is a much-studied variable in epidemiology. There has been little consensus about what self-reported ethnicity/race represents, but it is a measure of some combination of genetic, socioeconomic, and cultural factors. The present article will attempt to: 1.) Elucidate the limitations of contemporary discourse on ethnicity/race that emphasizes the genetic and socioeconomic dimensions as competing explanatory frameworks; 2.) Demonstrate how considerable attention to the cultural dimension facilitates understanding of race differences in health-related outcomes; and 3.) Discuss interpretations of disparities in health status of African Americans versus European Americans from an ethical perspective. A major challenge to the discourse on ethnicity/race and health being limited to socioeconomic and genetic considerations is the lack of attention to the third alternative of a cultural perspective. The combined cultural ideologies of individualism and racism undermine the utility of epidemiologic research in health promotion and disease prevention campaigns aimed at reducing the racial gaps in health status. An ethical analysis supplements the cultural perspective. Ethics converge with culture on the notion of values influencing the study of ethnicity/race in epidemiology. A cultural approach to the use of ethnicity/race in epidemiologic research addresses methodological limitations, public health traditions, and ethical imperatives.

  19. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the St. Clair-Detroit River waterway in the Great Lakes basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holtschlag, David J.; Koschik, John A.

    2002-01-01

    The St. Clair–Detroit River Waterway connects Lake Huron with Lake Erie in the Great Lakes basin to form part of the international boundary between the United States and Canada. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model is developed to compute flow velocities and water levels as part of a source-water assessment of public water intakes. The model, which uses the generalized finite-element code RMA2, discretizes the waterway into a mesh formed by 13,783 quadratic elements defined by 42,936 nodes. Seven steadystate scenarios are used to calibrate the model by adjusting parameters associated with channel roughness in 25 material zones in sub-areas of the waterway. An inverse modeling code is used to systematically adjust model parameters and to determine their associated uncertainty by use of nonlinear regression. Calibration results show close agreement between simulated and expected flows in major channels and water levels at gaging stations. Sensitivity analyses describe the amount of information available to estimate individual model parameters, and quantify the utility of flow measurements at selected cross sections and water-level measurements at gaging stations. Further data collection, model calibration analysis, and grid refinements are planned to assess and enhance two-dimensional flow simulation capabilities describing the horizontal flow distributions in St. Clair and Detroit Rivers and circulation patterns in Lake St. Clair.

  20. Spawning by walleye (Sander vitreus) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) in the Detroit River: Implications for spawning habitat enhancement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, B.A.; Kennedy, G.W.; Boase, J.C.; Allen, J.D.; Roseman, E.F.

    2010-01-01

    Few active fish spawning grounds have been found in channels connecting the Great Lakes. Here, we describe one near Belle Isle in the Detroit River, part of the channel connecting lakes Huron and Erie. There, in 2005, we collected 1,573 fish eggs, cultured them, and identified the hatched larvae as walleye (Sander vitreus) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni). Walleye spawning peaked during the week of April 12-19; white sucker spawning peaked on May 10. Average areal rate of egg deposition by walleye and white sucker at this spawning ground in 2005 was 346 and 25 eggs/m2, respectively. Our environmental measurements showed that bottom substrates on this spawning ground were largely sand, not optimal for fish reproduction. We hypothesize that reproduction of these fish at this spawning ground could be enhanced by adding rock and gravel substrates for protection of deposited fish eggs and suggest that reproduction by walleye in the Detroit River may add resilience to production of walleye in western Lake Erie. ?? 2010.

  1. The impact of the Urban Systemic Initiative on mathematics and science education in the Detroit Public Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Juanita Clay

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the Urban Systemic Initiative on the improvement of mathematics and science education in Detroit Public Schools. The initiative was examined from six perspectives: the implementation of standards that articulate what is important for students to know and do in mathematics and science; improved delivery systems; professional development; student enhancement activities; parental involvement and policy alignment. The study identified factors that influence the development of an infrastructure for change. The effectiveness of the initiative was analyzed across three tiers (cohorts) of schools. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered to provide both process and outcome data to examine the impact of the implementation efforts. Surveys were conducted from two primary stakeholder groups (teachers and students) over four years of the initiative. Comparisons were made using students and teachers before and after they experienced the Detroit USI Program. Students and teachers completing the program were compared to those beginning the program. Data from the surveys were analyzed over the life of the initiative to determine progress. Findings revealed that the initiative has demonstrated an impact on both student and teacher measures in mathematics and science. Notable progress has been made on the state and district assessments in mathematics and science, and implementation of standards-based instruction. An infrastructure has been created through professional development and restructured learning environments to sustain the improvement efforts.

  2. Physiological Demands of Flat Horse Racing Jockeys.

    PubMed

    Cullen, SarahJane; OʼLoughlin, Gillian; McGoldrick, Adrian; Smyth, Barry; May, Gregory; Warrington, Giles D

    2015-11-01

    The physiological demands of jockeys during competition remain largely unknown, thereby creating challenges when attempting to prescribe sport-specific nutrition and training guidelines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological demands and energy requirements of jockeys during flat racing. Oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) and heart rate (HR) were assessed in 18 male trainee jockeys during a race simulation trial on a mechanical horse racing simulator for the typical time duration to cover a common flat race distance of 1,400 m. In addition, 8 male apprentice jockeys participated in a competitive race, over distances ranging from 1,200 to 1,600 m, during which HR and respiratory rate (RR) were assessed. All participants performed a maximal incremental cycle ergometer test. During the simulated race, peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2 was 42.74 ± 5.6 ml·kg·min (75 ± 11% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) and below the mean ventilatory threshold (81 ± 5% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) reported in the maximal incremental cycle test. Peak HR was 161 ± 16 b·min (86 ± 7% of HRpeak). Energy expenditure was estimated as 92.5 ± 18.8 kJ with an associated value of 9.4 metabolic equivalents. During the competitive race trial, peak HR reached 189 ± 5 b·min (103 ± 4% of HRpeak) and peak RR was 50 ± 7 breaths per minute. Results suggest that horse racing is a physically demanding sport, requiring jockeys to perform close to their physiological limit to be successful. These findings may provide a useful insight when developing sport-specific nutrition and training strategies to optimally equip and prepare jockeys physically for the physiological demands of horse racing. PMID:25932980

  3. Race and microaggression in nursing knowledge development.

    PubMed

    Hall, Joanne M; Fields, Becky

    2012-01-01

    Race is a social environmental element in many nursing knowledge contexts. We explore how race and racism have been conceptualized in nursing research and theory, situating these issues in the debate between Critical Race Theory and postracialism. Contemporarily, racism is more subtle than overt. Subtle racism takes the form of microaggressions in everyday discourse and practices by whites toward African Americans. This occurs with little to no awareness on the part of whites. Using this concept, practice and education are explored. We hold that microaggressions contribute to stress for the target person, which may partly account for racial health disparities.

  4. Race and microaggression in nursing knowledge development.

    PubMed

    Hall, Joanne M; Fields, Becky

    2012-01-01

    Race is a social environmental element in many nursing knowledge contexts. We explore how race and racism have been conceptualized in nursing research and theory, situating these issues in the debate between Critical Race Theory and postracialism. Contemporarily, racism is more subtle than overt. Subtle racism takes the form of microaggressions in everyday discourse and practices by whites toward African Americans. This occurs with little to no awareness on the part of whites. Using this concept, practice and education are explored. We hold that microaggressions contribute to stress for the target person, which may partly account for racial health disparities. PMID:22228388

  5. The racing-game effect: why do video racing games increase risk-taking inclinations?

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Odenwälder, Jörg

    2009-10-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation seeking, and attitudes toward reckless driving. Study 1 ruled out the role of experimental demand in creating such effects. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the effect of playing video racing games on risk taking was partially mediated by changes in self-perceptions as a reckless driver. These effects were evident only when the individual played racing games that reward traffic violations rather than racing games that do not reward traffic violations (Study 3) and when the individual was an active player of such games rather than a passive observer (Study 4). In sum, the results underline the potential negative impact of racing games on traffic safety.

  6. Toward a Social Psychology of Race and Race Relations for the Twenty-First Century.

    PubMed

    Richeson, Jennifer A; Sommers, Samuel R

    2016-01-01

    The United States, like many nations, continues to experience rapid growth in its racial minority population and is projected to attain so-called majority-minority status by 2050. Along with these demographic changes, staggering racial disparities persist in health, wealth, and overall well-being. In this article, we review the social psychological literature on race and race relations, beginning with the seemingly simple question: What is race? Drawing on research from different fields, we forward a model of race as dynamic, malleable, and socially constructed, shifting across time, place, perceiver, and target. We then use classic theoretical perspectives on intergroup relations to frame and then consider new questions regarding contemporary racial dynamics. We next consider research on racial diversity, focusing on its effects during interpersonal encounters and for groups. We close by highlighting emerging topics that should top the research agenda for the social psychology of race and race relations in the twenty-first century.

  7. From "Race-Consciousness" to "Colour-Consciousness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grange, L.

    2010-01-01

    At the heart of the discussion in this special issue on race and affirmative action is the issue of whether race should be used as a category in admissions policies of South African universities. In my contribution I shall argue that there are no races. By race I mean the idea that skin colour (or other phenotypical features) associated with…

  8. Race Preferences in Children: Insights from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; Katz, Rachel C.; Tredoux, Colin; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2011-01-01

    Minority-race children in North America and Europe often show less own-race favoritism than children of the majority (White) race, but the reasons for this asymmetry are unresolved. The present research tested South African children in order to probe the influences of group size, familiarity, and social status on children's race-based social…

  9. Tilting at Windmills: The Paradox of Researching Mixed-Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renn, Kristen A.

    This paper addresses the growing interest among social scientists in studying the experiences of so-called mixed-race (or multiracial, biracial, or mixed heritage) individuals, when the study of multiraciality risks reinforcing the notion of fixed races. Distinguishing mixed-race people as a category assumes that there are pure races to begin with…

  10. Reforming and Improving the Detroit Public Schools: Report of the Strategic Support Teams of the Council of the Great City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of the Great City Schools, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Detroit Public Schools (DPS) have been battered by substantial outside forces over the last decade. The school system was taken over by the state; its elected school board was dissolved and replaced by an appointed body; its many operating systems were privatized; its citizenry were encouraged to flee to charter schools; and its resources have…

  11. Progress and Understanding Spatial and Temporal Variability of PM2.5 and its Components in the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) measured personal exposures, ambient, residential indoor and residential outdoor concentrations of select PM2.5 aerosol components (SO4, NO3, Fe, Si, Ca, K, Mn, Pb, Zn, EC and OC) over a thr...

  12. Michigan's Education Achievement Authority and the Future of Public Education in Detroit: The Challenge of Aligning Policy Design and Policy Goals. Working Paper #43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mary L.; Arsen, David

    2014-01-01

    As the City of Detroit emerges from municipal bankruptcy, the imperative for school improvement takes on an urgency rarely witnessed in a U.S. city. If the city is to experience the redevelopment boom that many now anticipate, its public schools must improve. While a variety of different reform strategies are possible, the establishment of a…

  13. Ceramic Rail-Race Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balzer, Mark A.; Mungas, Greg S.; Peters, Gregory H.

    2010-01-01

    Non-lubricated ball bearings featuring rail races have been proposed for use in mechanisms that are required to function in the presence of mineral dust particles in very low-pressure, dry environments with extended life. Like a conventional ball bearing, the proposed bearing would include an inner and an outer ring separated by balls in rolling contact with the races. However, unlike a conventional ball bearing, the balls would not roll in semi-circular or gothic arch race grooves in the rings: instead, the races would be shaped to form two or more rails (see figure). During operation, the motion of the balls would push dust particles into the spaces between the rails where the particles could not generate rolling resistance for the balls

  14. Human nomenclature: from race to racism.

    PubMed

    Zubaran, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Throughout time, evolutionary biologists have attempted to classify human beings according to a nomenclature based on supposed patterns of biological differences that have been used to suggest hierarchical categories. Recent genetic evidence disproves the assumption that races are genetically distinct human populations. Several studies refute human categorization as a severely flawed yardstick. For many, race is a construct that must be overcome in order to eradicate racism. Personal experiences of racism, harassment and discrimination are associated with multiple indicators of poorer physical and mental health status. Additionally, socio-economic differentials are likely to be a fundamental explanation for the observed inequalities in health status among minority groups. This commentary examines the discrepancies that race, ethnicity and similar human nomenclatures present. Furthermore, the potentially harmful consequences of the "scientific" use of race, in the form of stereotyping and racism, are discussed.

  15. New technologies and the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Schaerf, C.; Reid, B.H.; Carlton, D.

    1989-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the International Conference on Technology, the Arms Race and Arms Control. Topics covered include: Cosmic space and the role of Europe and Non-military justification for investments in military technologies.

  16. Semantic information influences race categorization from faces.

    PubMed

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Rule, Nicholas O

    2015-06-01

    It is well established that low-level visual features affect person categorization in a bottom-up fashion. Few studies have examined top-down influences, however, and have largely focused on how information recalled from memory or from motivation influences categorization. Here, we investigated how race categorizations are affected by the context in which targets are perceived by manipulating semantic information associated with the faces being categorized. We found that presenting faces that systematically varied in racial ambiguity with race-congruent (vs. incongruent) semantic labels shifted the threshold at which perceivers distinguished between racial groups. The semantic information offered by the labels therefore appeared to influence the categorization of race. These findings suggest that semantic information creates a context for the interpretation of perceptual cues during social categorization, highlighting an active role of top-down information in race perception. PMID:25810414

  17. Semantic information influences race categorization from faces.

    PubMed

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Rule, Nicholas O

    2015-06-01

    It is well established that low-level visual features affect person categorization in a bottom-up fashion. Few studies have examined top-down influences, however, and have largely focused on how information recalled from memory or from motivation influences categorization. Here, we investigated how race categorizations are affected by the context in which targets are perceived by manipulating semantic information associated with the faces being categorized. We found that presenting faces that systematically varied in racial ambiguity with race-congruent (vs. incongruent) semantic labels shifted the threshold at which perceivers distinguished between racial groups. The semantic information offered by the labels therefore appeared to influence the categorization of race. These findings suggest that semantic information creates a context for the interpretation of perceptual cues during social categorization, highlighting an active role of top-down information in race perception.

  18. Searching for differences in race: is there evidence for preferential detection of other-race faces?

    PubMed

    Lipp, Ottmar V; Terry, Deborah J; Smith, Joanne R; Tellegen, Cassandra L; Kuebbeler, Jennifer; Newey, Mareka

    2009-06-01

    Previous research has suggested that like animal and social fear-relevant stimuli, other-race faces (African American) are detected preferentially in visual search. Three experiments using Chinese or Indonesian faces as other-race faces yielded the opposite pattern of results: faster detection of same-race faces among other-race faces. This apparently inconsistent pattern of results was resolved by showing that Asian and African American faces are detected preferentially in tasks that have small stimulus sets and employ fixed target searches. Asian and African American other-race faces are found slower among Caucasian face backgrounds if larger stimulus sets are used in tasks with a variable mapping of stimulus to background or target. Thus, preferential detection of other-race faces was not found under task conditions in which preferential detection of animal and social fear-relevant stimuli is evident. Although consistent with the view that same-race faces are processed in more detail than other-race faces, the current findings suggest that other-race faces do not draw attention preferentially.

  19. Searching for differences in race: is there evidence for preferential detection of other-race faces?

    PubMed

    Lipp, Ottmar V; Terry, Deborah J; Smith, Joanne R; Tellegen, Cassandra L; Kuebbeler, Jennifer; Newey, Mareka

    2009-06-01

    Previous research has suggested that like animal and social fear-relevant stimuli, other-race faces (African American) are detected preferentially in visual search. Three experiments using Chinese or Indonesian faces as other-race faces yielded the opposite pattern of results: faster detection of same-race faces among other-race faces. This apparently inconsistent pattern of results was resolved by showing that Asian and African American faces are detected preferentially in tasks that have small stimulus sets and employ fixed target searches. Asian and African American other-race faces are found slower among Caucasian face backgrounds if larger stimulus sets are used in tasks with a variable mapping of stimulus to background or target. Thus, preferential detection of other-race faces was not found under task conditions in which preferential detection of animal and social fear-relevant stimuli is evident. Although consistent with the view that same-race faces are processed in more detail than other-race faces, the current findings suggest that other-race faces do not draw attention preferentially. PMID:19485612

  20. Race, self-disclosure, and "forbidden talk": race and ethnicity in contemporary clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Leary, K

    1997-04-01

    In this paper I attempt to extend the psychoanalytic conversation about race and ethnicity by discussing the intersubjectivity of race and racial difference. I present clinical material from an interracial treatment in which disclosures about race played an important role in deepening the clinical process. The resulting interactions permitted the patient to admit more of herself into the treatment space. I suggest that contemporary psychoanalytic formulations and multicultural perspectives from outside of psychoanalysis can together create more meaningful conceptualizations which take into account the lived realities of race and the ways in which these may be shaped by individual psychology.

  1. Dynamic representations of race: processing goals shape race decoding in the fusiform gyri

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Christian; Ratner, Kyle G.

    2014-01-01

    People perceive and evaluate others on the basis of social categories, such as race, gender and age. Initial processing of targets in terms of visually salient social categories is often characterized as inevitable. In the current study, we investigated the influence of processing goals on the representation of race in the visual processing stream. Participants were assigned to one of two mixed-race teams and categorized faces according to their group membership or skin color. To assess neural representations of race, we employed multivariate pattern analysis to examined neural activity related to the presentation of Black and White faces. As predicted, patterns of neural activity within the early visual cortex and fusiform gyri (FG) could decode the race of face stimuli above chance and were moderated by processing goals. Race decoding in early visual cortex was above chance in both categorization tasks and below chance in a prefrontal control region. More importantly, race decoding was greater in the FG during the group membership vs skin color categorization task. The results suggest that, ironically, explicit racial categorization can diminish the representation of race in the FG. These findings suggest that representations of race are dynamic, reflecting current processing goals. PMID:23196632

  2. ["Human races": history of a dangerous illusion].

    PubMed

    Louryan, S

    2014-01-01

    The multiplication of offences prompted by racism and the increase of complaints for racism leads us to consider the illusory concept of "human races". This idea crossed the history, and was reinforced by the discovery of remote tribes and human fossils, and by the development of sociobiology and quantitative psychology. Deprived of scientific base, the theory of the "races" must bow before the notions of genetic variation and unicity of mankind.

  3. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals’ behavior. Harsh and unpredictable (“desperate”) ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable (“hopeful”) ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2–4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person’s race (but not ecology), individuals’ inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals’ inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals’ inferences reflect the targets’ ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one’s ecology influences behavior. PMID:26712013

  4. Does Perceived Race Affect Discrimination and Recognition of Ambiguous-Race Faces? A Test of the Sociocognitive Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Gillian; Lie, Hanne C.; Ewing, Louise; Evangelista, Emma; Tanaka, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Discrimination and recognition are often poorer for other-race than own-race faces. These other-race effects (OREs) have traditionally been attributed to reduced perceptual expertise, resulting from more limited experience, with other-race faces. However, recent findings suggest that sociocognitive factors, such as reduced motivation to…

  5. Taking Race out of Scare Quotes: Race-Conscious Social Analysis in an Ostensibly Post-Racial World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmington, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Academics and activists concerned with race and racism have rightly coalesced around the sociological project to refute biologistic conceptions of race. By and large, our default position as teachers, writers and researchers is that race is a social construct. However, the deconstruction of race and its claims to theoretical intelligibility has…

  6. The arms race between fishers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Quirijns, Floor J.; HilleRisLambers, Reinier; De Wilde, Jan W.; Den Heijer, Willem M.

    An analysis of the changes in the Dutch demersal fishing fleet since the 1950s revealed that competitive interactions among vessels and gear types within the constraints imposed by biological, economic and fisheries management factors are the dominant processes governing the dynamics of fishing fleets. Double beam trawling, introduced in the early 1960s, proved a successful fishing method to catch deep burying flatfish, in particular sole. In less than 10 years, the otter trawl fleet was replaced by a highly specialised beam trawling fleet, despite an initial doubling of the loss rate of vessels due to stability problems. Engine power, size of the beam trawl, number of tickler chains and fishing speed rapidly increased and fishing activities expanded into previously lightly fished grounds and seasons. Following the ban on flatfish trawling within the 12 nautical mile zone for vessels of more than 300 hp in 1975 and with the restriction of engine power to 2000 hp in 1987, the beam trawl fleet bifurcated. Changes in the fleet capacity were related to the economic results and showed a cyclic pattern with a period of 6-7 years. The arms race between fishers was fuelled by competitive interactions among fishers: while the catchability of the fleet more than doubled in the ten years following the introduction of the beam trawl, a decline in catchability was observed in reference beam trawlers that remained the same. Vessel performance was not only affected by the technological characteristics but also by the number and characteristics of competing vessels.

  7. The Computational Complexity of RaceTrack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, Markus; McKenzie, Pierre

    Martin Gardner in the early 1970's described the game of RaceTrack [M. Gardner, Mathematical games - Sim, Chomp and Race Track: new games for the intellect (and not for Lady Luck), Scientific American, 228(1):108-115, Jan. 1973]. Here we study the complexity of deciding whether a RaceTrack player has a winning strategy. We first prove that the complexity of RaceTrack reachability, i.e., whether the finish line can be reached or not, crucially depends on whether the car can touch the edge of the carriageway (racetrack): the non-touching variant is NL-complete while the touching variant is equivalent to the undirected grid graph reachability problem, a problem in L but not known to be L-hard. Then we show that single-player RaceTrack is NL-complete, regardless of whether driving on the track boundary is allowed or not, and that deciding the existence of a winning strategy in Gardner's original two-player game is P-complete. Hence RaceTrack is an example of a game that is interesting to play despite the fact that deciding the existence of a winning strategy is most likely not NP-hard.

  8. Nutrition assessment of horse-racing athletes.

    PubMed

    Cotugna, Nancy; Snider, O Sue; Windish, Jennifer

    2011-04-01

    Athletes involved in horse racing face weight restrictions like wrestlers and dancers; however, the literature is sparse pertaining to nutritional habits of jockeys. The practice of "making weight" causes these athletes to engage in potentially unhealthy practices. A gap in nutritionally sound practices and methods used by jockeys was identified and a desire for nutrition education was expressed to Cooperative Extension of Delaware by representatives of the riders at Delaware Park Race Track. Nutrition assessment was done using the Nutrition Care Process. Twenty jockeys were interviewed using an assessment form developed to target areas of disordered eating. Body mass index (BMI), mean weight loss on race day, methods of weight loss and ease of weight maintenance were examined. The jockeys were also asked for areas they wished to receive nutrition education on in the future. The BMI of the 20 jockeys ranged from 17.0 to 21.4 during racing season, with only one jockey in the "underweight" category. This range increased to 19.1-24.0 when the riders were not riding. The most common method of weight loss was the use of steam rooms, to lose an average 2.5 lb in 1 day. Eight of 20, the most common response, reported it very easy to maintain their racing weight. The jockeys reported interest in future education sessions on meal planning and healthy food ideas. The assessment was used as the basis to develop nutrition education materials and presentations for the riders at the race track.

  9. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Detroit Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project, North Santiam River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-02-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Detroit/Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project (Detroit Project) on the North Santiam River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric-related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1939, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each time period were determined. Ten wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Detroit Project extensively altered or affected 6324 acres of land and river in the North Santiam River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1,608 acres of conifer forest and 620 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Detroit Project included the loss of winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, river otter, beaver, ruffed grouse, pileated woodpecker, spotted owl, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Detroit Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  10. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Detroit Dam, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ham, Kenneth D.

    2012-11-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Detroit Dam (DET) on the North Santiam River, Oregon for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at DET and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to regulatory requirements necessitated by the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. The goal of the study was to provide information of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at DET from February 2011 through February 2012. The results of the hydroacoustic study provide new and, in some cases, first-ever data on passage estimates, run timing, distributions, and relationships between fish passage and environmental variables at the dam. This information will inform management decisions on the design and development of surface passage and collection devices to help restore Chinook salmon populations in the North Santiam River watershed above DET. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 182,526 smolt-size fish (±4,660 fish, 95% CI) passed through turbine penstock intakes. Run timing peaked in winter and early spring months. Passage rates were highest during late fall, winter and early spring months and low during summer. Horizontal distribution for hours when both turbine units were operated simultaneously indicated Unit 2 passed almost twice as much fish as Unit 1. Diel distribution for smolt-size fish during the study period was fairly uniform, indicating fish were passing the turbines at all times of the day. A total of 5,083 smolt-size fish (± 312 fish, 95% CI) were estimated passed via the spillway when it was open between June 23 and September 27, 2011. Daily passage was low at the spillway during the June-August period, and

  11. A Crystal Stratigraphy Approach to Deciphering the Petrogenesis of the Detroit Seamount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonetti, A.; Davenport, J.; Neal, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Detroit Seamount (DSM) erupted ~76-81 Ma ago, and is the northwestern terminus of the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount chain. The Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount chain has drastically furthered our understanding of how and where mantle plumes originate, the dynamics of interactions between plumes and mantle, and plate movement in the recent past. DSM Basalts from Site 1203 of Leg 197 of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) contain, by rock volume, a large quantity of plagioclase and olivine phenocrysts. Previous investigations into magma chamber processes via phenocryst analysis such as those occurring at the DSM have largely relied solely on major and trace element analyses. However, since both are easily susceptible to post-solidification alteration processes, in this study we are undertaking a multi-faceted approach to deciphering the petrogenetic history of the DSM basalts via crystal stratigraphy, crystal size distributions (CSDs), electron microprobe analysis (EPMA), laser ablation and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA- and MC-ICP-MS), microdilling and phase separation, and isotope analysis of whole-rock, olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts and their associated melt inclusions. A preliminary Sr isotope and trace element investigation of DSM whole rock basalts from Site 884 yielded a range of values between 0.70262 and 0.70276, as well as MORB-like trace element patterns. Notably, the plagioclase rims analyzed possessed a more radiogenic (87Sr/86Sr)I than the core (0.70361 ± 2 vs. 0.70347 ± 2). Our initial interpretation of this radiogenic increase from core-to-rim was crystal growth in an OIB-rich magma source that was not cogenetic with its matrix. Eight olivine phenocrysts from DSM basalts were analyzed for major elements using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) techniques. Fosterite contents of the olivine phenocrysts range from 84-86. Olivines from basalt sample 10R-4 exhibit a well

  12. The Design and Field Implementation of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the study was to evaluate and describe the relationship between air toxics, particulate matter (PM), PM constituents, and PM from specific sources measured at a central site monitor with those from the residential and personal locations.

  13. Verticillium dahliae race 2-specific PCR reveals a high frequency of race 2 strains in commercial spinach seed lots and delineates race structure.

    PubMed

    Short, Dylan P G; Gurung, Suraj; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Atallah, Zahi K; Subbarao, Krishna V

    2014-07-01

    Two pathogenic races of Verticillium dahliae have been described on lettuce and tomato. Host resistance to race 1 is governed by plant immune receptors that recognize the race 1-specific fungal effector Ave1. Only partial resistance to race 2 exists in lettuce. Although polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays are available to identify race 1, no complementary test exists to positively identify race 2, except for lengthy pathogenicity assays on host differentials. Using the genome sequences of two isolates of V. dahliae, one each from races 1 and 2, we identified potential markers and PCR primers to distinguish the two races. Several primer pairs based on polymorphisms between the races were designed and tested on reference isolates of known race. One primer pair, VdR2F-VdR2R, consistently yielded a 256-bp amplicon in all race 2 isolates exclusively. We screened DNA from 677 V. dahliae isolates, including 340 from spinach seedlots, with the above primer pair and a previously published race 1-specific primer pair. DNA from isolates that did not amplify with race 1-specific PCRs amplified with the race 2-specific primers. To validate this, two differential lines of lettuce were inoculated with 53 arbitrarily selected isolates from spinach seed and their pathogenicity and virulence were assessed in a greenhouse. The reactions of the differential cultivars strongly supported the PCR data. V. dahliae race structure was investigated in crops in coastal California and elsewhere using primers specific to the two races. All artichoke isolates from California were race 1, whereas nearly all tomato isolates were race 2. Isolates from lettuce, pepper, and strawberry from California as well as isolates from spinach seed from two of four countries comprised both races, whereas only race 2 was observed in cotton, mint, olive, and potato. This highlights the importance of identifying resistance against race 2 in different hosts. The technique developed in this study will benefit

  14. Verticillium dahliae race 2-specific PCR reveals a high frequency of race 2 strains in commercial spinach seed lots and delineates race structure.

    PubMed

    Short, Dylan P G; Gurung, Suraj; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Atallah, Zahi K; Subbarao, Krishna V

    2014-07-01

    Two pathogenic races of Verticillium dahliae have been described on lettuce and tomato. Host resistance to race 1 is governed by plant immune receptors that recognize the race 1-specific fungal effector Ave1. Only partial resistance to race 2 exists in lettuce. Although polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays are available to identify race 1, no complementary test exists to positively identify race 2, except for lengthy pathogenicity assays on host differentials. Using the genome sequences of two isolates of V. dahliae, one each from races 1 and 2, we identified potential markers and PCR primers to distinguish the two races. Several primer pairs based on polymorphisms between the races were designed and tested on reference isolates of known race. One primer pair, VdR2F-VdR2R, consistently yielded a 256-bp amplicon in all race 2 isolates exclusively. We screened DNA from 677 V. dahliae isolates, including 340 from spinach seedlots, with the above primer pair and a previously published race 1-specific primer pair. DNA from isolates that did not amplify with race 1-specific PCRs amplified with the race 2-specific primers. To validate this, two differential lines of lettuce were inoculated with 53 arbitrarily selected isolates from spinach seed and their pathogenicity and virulence were assessed in a greenhouse. The reactions of the differential cultivars strongly supported the PCR data. V. dahliae race structure was investigated in crops in coastal California and elsewhere using primers specific to the two races. All artichoke isolates from California were race 1, whereas nearly all tomato isolates were race 2. Isolates from lettuce, pepper, and strawberry from California as well as isolates from spinach seed from two of four countries comprised both races, whereas only race 2 was observed in cotton, mint, olive, and potato. This highlights the importance of identifying resistance against race 2 in different hosts. The technique developed in this study will benefit

  15. Norming Suburban: How Teachers Talk about Race without Using Race Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Dyan

    2012-01-01

    This study explores teachers' beliefs about urban students and urban teaching. The author discusses some cultural aspects of these teachers' definitions of urban and points out their highlighting of race as an essential component of urban teaching. Even though race is rarely named, it is often at play in the teachers' descriptions of urban…

  16. Recognition of own-race and other-race caricatures: implications for models of face recognition.

    PubMed

    Byatt, G; Rhodes, G

    1998-08-01

    Valentine's (Valentine T. Q J Exp Psychol 1991;43A:161-204) face recognition framework supports both a norm-based coding (NBC) and an exemplar-only, absolute coding, model (ABC). According to NBC; (1) faces are represented in terms of deviations from a prototype or norm; (2) caricatures are effective because they exaggerate this norm deviation information; and (3) other-race faces are coded relative to the (only available) own-race norm. Therefore NBC predicts that, for European subjects, caricatures of Chinese faces made by distorting differences from the European norm would be more effective than caricatures made relative to the Chinese norm. According to ABC; (1) faces are encoded as absolute values on a set of shared dimensions with the norm playing no role in recognition; (2) caricatures are effective because they minimise exemplar density and (3) the dimensions of face-space are inappropriate for other-race faces leaving them relatively densely clustered. ABC predicts that all faces would be recognised more accurately when caricatured against their own-race norm. We tested European subjects' identification of European and Chinese faces, caricatured against both race norms. The ABC model's prediction was supported. European faces were also rated as more distinctive and recognised more easily than Chinese faces. However, the own-race recognition bias held even when the races were equated for distinctiveness which suggests that the ABC model may not provide a complete account of race effects in recognition.

  17. Reasoning about Race and Pedagogy in Two Preservice Science Teachers: A Critical Race Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Douglas B.; Maloney, Tanya; Perry-Ryder, Gail M.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the experiences of two preservice science teachers as they progress through their respective teacher education programs and uses critical race theory to examine the manner in which conceptions about race and its pedagogical implications change over time. Using a longitudinal case study method, participants' conceptual…

  18. Discovering Race in a "Post-Racial" World: Teaching Race through Primetime Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, Nikki; Harris, Cherise A.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching students about race remains a challenging task for instructors, made even more difficult in the context of a growing "post-racial" discourse. Given this challenge, it is important for instructors to find engaging ways to help students understand the continuing significance of race and racial/ethnic inequality. In this article,…

  19. Race and Ethical Reasoning: The Importance of Race to Journalistic Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Renita

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effects of race of news subjects on student journalists' ethical reasoning. Explains that journalism students were presented with four ethical dilemmas that working journalists might encounter. Concludes that the race of the people in the ethical dilemmas presented had a significant impact on ethical reasoning. (PM)

  20. The Illusion of Inclusion: A Critical Race Theory Textual Analysis of Race and Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilig, Julian Vasquez; Brown, Keffrelyn D.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, Julian Vasquez Heilig, Keffrelyn Brown, and Anthony Brown offer findings from a close textual analysis of how the Texas social studies standards address race, racism, and communities of color. Using the lens of critical race theory, the authors uncover the sometimes subtle ways that the standards can appear to adequately address…

  1. Black Leadership, White Leadership: Race and Race Relations in an Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Jeffrey S.; Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate how race and race relations influence school leadership practice. Design/methodology/approach: This ethnographic study was conducted in a high-poverty, high-minority, urban high school in the Southeastern USA. The authors utilized an anthropological conceptual framework called a moiety, through…

  2. “I Always Kept a Job”: Income Generation, Heroin Use and Economic Uncertainty in 21st Century Detroit

    PubMed Central

    DRAUS, PAUL J.; RODDY, JULIETTE; GREENWALD, MARK

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study, based on a series of 30 in-depth interviews and 109 economic surveys conducted with active heroin users residing in and around Detroit, Michigan, describes reported patterns of heroin use and income generation activities. In spite of lack of access to regular, legal employment, we found that many participants displayed a dedication to regular daily routine and a sense of risk management or control. These findings are discussed relative to past research on heroin addiction as well as recent research on the changing nature of employment. We argue that this sample fits somewhere in between the controlled or working addict, and the “junkie” or “righteous dope fiend” of urban lore. We draw a connection between these stable patterns of addiction and income generation and the demands of informal and insecure labor markets. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for further research, interventions, and public policy. PMID:25983342

  3. Sinkhole development in Windsor-Detroit solution mines and the role of downward mass transfer in subsidence

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, A.S.; Russell, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    The main portion of this paper deals with the development of three sinkholes of unexpected size and depth in the WindsorDetroit area. The roles of the Sylvania Sandstone - a unit of unique mechanical properties - and of the high in situ horizontal stresses are evaluated. It is proposed that the Sylvania fails under high horizontal loads, converts into sand, flows downward through cracks towards deeper solution-mine caverns, and creates a shallow void that generates the deep sinkholes. Linear-arch theory is used to evaluate subsidence-induced horizontal stress increments. It is concluded that sinkholes are likely to occur in other areas where the Sylvania is close to the surface (less than 200 m) and active subsidence bowls have surface gradients of a few millimeters per meter. The last section contains a brief discussion of the role of downward mass transfer of slurries in surface subsidence with examples from the Midwest.

  4. Growth of submersed macrophyte communities in the St. Clair - Detroit River system between Lake Huron and Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Manny, Bruce A.

    1985-01-01

    Growth of submersed aquatic macrophytes was determined from observation and on the basis of biomass of samples collected from April to November 1978 at seven study sites in a major river system of the Great Lakes, the St. Clair – Detroit river system between Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Growth usually began between April and June, peaked between July and October, and decreased by late November. Maximum biomass at six of the seven sites (118–427 g dry weight m−2) was similar or greater than that reported in other rivers at similar latitudes. Seasonal growth of the abundant taxa followed one of three seasonal patterns at each study site: one dominant taxon grew alone; codominant taxa grew sympatrically without species succession; and codominant taxa grew sympatrically with species succession. Differences in growth and seasonal succession of some taxa were apparently caused by the presence or absence of overwintering plant material, competition, and life-cycle differences.

  5. Freshwater polychaetes (Manayunkia speciosa) near the Detroit River, western Lake Erie: Abundance and life‐history characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Malakauskas, David M.; Malakauskas, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater polychaetes are relatively rare and little-studied members of the benthos of lakes and rivers. We studied one polychaete species (Manayunkia speciosa) in Lake Erie near the mouth of the Detroit River. Abundances at one site were determined between 1961 and 2013 and life‐history characteristics at two sites were determined seasonally (March–November) in 2009–2010 and 2012–2013. Life‐history characteristics included abundances, length‐frequency distributions, presence/absence of constructed tubes, sexual maturity, and number and maturation of young of year (YOY) in tubes. Long-term abundances decreased in successive time periods between 1961 and 2003 (mean range = 57,570 to 2583/m2) but few changes occurred between 2003 and 2013 (mean = 5007/m2; range/y = 2355–8216/m2). Seasonal abundances varied substantially between sites and years, but overall, abundances were low in March–April, high in May–August, and low in September–November. Although reproduction was continuous throughout warmer months, en masse recruitment, as revealed by length–frequency distributions, occurred in a brief period late‐June to mid-July, and possibly in early-September. All life history characteristics, including tube construction, were dependent on water temperatures (> 5 °C in spring and < 15 °C in fall). These results generally agree with and complement laboratory studies of M. speciosa in the Pacific Northwest where M. speciosa hosts parasites that cause substantial fish mortalities. Although abundance ofM. speciosa near the mouth of the Detroit River was 33-fold lower in 2013 than it was in 1961, this population has persisted for five decades and, therefore, has the potential to harbor parasites that may cause fish mortalities in the Great Lakes.

  6. Deciding on race: a diffusion model analysis of race-categorisation.

    PubMed

    Benton, Christopher P; Skinner, Andrew L

    2015-06-01

    It has long been known that a person's race can affect their decisions about people of another race; an observation that clearly taps into some deep societal issues. However, in order to behave differently in response to someone else's race, you must first categorise that person as other-race. The current study investigates the process of race-categorisation. Two groups of participants, Asian and Caucasian, rapidly classified facial images that varied from strongly Asian, through racially intermediate, to strongly Caucasian. In agreement with previous findings, there was a difference in category boundary between the two groups. Asian participants more frequently judged intermediate images as Caucasian and vice versa. We fitted a decision model, the Ratcliff diffusion model, to our two choice reaction time data. This model provides an account of the processes thought to underlie binary choice decisions. Within its architecture it has two components that could reasonably lead to a difference in race category boundary, these being evidence accumulation rate and a priori bias. The latter is the expectation or prior belief that a participant brings to the task, whilst the former indexes sensitivity to race-dependent perceptual cues. Whilst we find no good evidence for a difference in a priori bias between our two groups, we do find evidence for a difference in evidence accumulation rate. Our Asian participants were more sensitive to Caucasian cues within the images than were our Caucasian participants (and vice versa). These results support the idea that differences in perceptual sensitivity to race-defining visual characteristics drive differences in race categorisation. We propose that our findings fit with a wider view in which perceptual adaptation plays a central role in the visual processing of own and other race. PMID:25797455

  7. Identifying housing and meteorological conditions influencing residential air exchange rates in the DEARS and RIOPA studies: development of distributions for human exposure modeling.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Kristin; Burke, Janet; Smith, Luther; Williams, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate prediction of residential air exchange rate (AER) is important for estimating human exposures in the residential microenvironment, as AER drives the infiltration of outdoor-generated air pollutants indoors. AER differences among homes may result from a number of factors, including housing characteristics and meteorological conditions. Residential AER data collected in the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) and the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) study were analyzed to determine whether the influence of a number of housing and meteorological conditions on AER were consistent across four cities in different regions of the United States (Detroit MI, Elizabeth NJ, Houston TX, Los Angeles, CA). Influential factors were identified and used as binning variables for deriving final AER distributions for the use in exposure modeling. In addition, both between-home and within-home variance in AER in DEARS were quantified with the goal of identifying reasonable AER resampling frequencies for use in longitudinal exposure modeling efforts. The results of this analysis indicate that residential AER is depended on ambient temperature, the presence (or not) of central air conditioning, and the age of the home. Furthermore, between-home variability in AER accounted for the majority (67%) of the total variance in AER for Detroit homes, indicating lower within-home variability. These findings are compared with other previously published AER distributions, and the implications for exposure modeling are discussed.

  8. Race influences warfarin dose changes associated with genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Limdi, Nita A; Brown, Todd M; Yan, Qi; Thigpen, Jonathan L; Shendre, Aditi; Liu, Nianjun; Hill, Charles E; Arnett, Donna K; Beasley, T Mark

    2015-07-23

    Warfarin dosing algorithms adjust for race, assigning a fixed effect size to each predictor, thereby attenuating the differential effect by race. Attenuation likely occurs in both race groups but may be more pronounced in the less-represented race group. Therefore, we evaluated whether the effect of clinical (age, body surface area [BSA], chronic kidney disease [CKD], and amiodarone use) and genetic factors (CYP2C9*2, *3, *5, *6, *11, rs12777823, VKORC1, and CYP4F2) on warfarin dose differs by race using regression analyses among 1357 patients enrolled in a prospective cohort study and compared predictive ability of race-combined vs race-stratified models. Differential effect of predictors by race was assessed using predictor-race interactions in race-combined analyses. Warfarin dose was influenced by age, BSA, CKD, amiodarone use, and CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1 variants in both races, by CYP2C9*2 and CYP4F2 variants in European Americans, and by rs12777823 in African Americans. CYP2C9*2 was associated with a lower dose only among European Americans (20.6% vs 3.0%, P < .001) and rs12777823 only among African Americans (12.3% vs 2.3%, P = .006). Although VKORC1 was associated with dose decrease in both races, the proportional decrease was higher among European Americans (28.9% vs 19.9%, P = .003) compared with African Americans. Race-stratified analysis improved dose prediction in both race groups compared with race-combined analysis. We demonstrate that the effect of predictors on warfarin dose differs by race, which may explain divergent findings reported by recent warfarin pharmacogenetic trials. We recommend that warfarin dosing algorithms should be stratified by race rather than adjusted for race.

  9. 9th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico and South America came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 9th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Seventy-seven teams, representing high schools and colleges from 21 states, Puerto Rico, and Columbia, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. In this photograph, the team from Lafayette County High school in Higginsville, Missouri, designated Lafayette County team #1, races through the course to cross the finish line to win the high school division. The team beat out 26 other teams representing high schools from 9 states. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by the development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems, similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team.

  10. 9th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico and South America came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 9th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Seventy-seven teams, representing high schools and colleges from 21 states, Puerto Rico, and Columbia, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. A team from Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, took the first place honor in the college division. This photograph shows the Cornell #2 team driving their vehicle through the course. The team finished the race in second place in the college division. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle, that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems, similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team.

  11. The uncanny return of the race concept.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Andreas; Müller, Daniel J; Krach, Sören; Cabanis, Maurice; Kluge, Ulrike P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this Hypothesis and Theory is to question the recently increasing use of the "race" concept in contemporary genetic, psychiatric, neuroscience as well as social studies. We discuss "race" and related terms used to assign individuals to distinct groups and caution that also concepts such as "ethnicity" or "culture" unduly neglect diversity. We suggest that one factor contributing to the dangerous nature of the "race" concept is that it is based on a mixture of traditional stereotypes about "physiognomy", which are deeply imbued by colonial traditions. Furthermore, the social impact of "race classifications" will be critically reflected. We then examine current ways to apply the term "culture" and caution that while originally derived from a fundamentally different background, "culture" is all too often used as a proxy for "race", particularly when referring to the population of a certain national state or wider region. When used in such contexts, suggesting that all inhabitants of a geographical or political unit belong to a certain "culture" tends to ignore diversity and to suggest a homogeneity, which consciously or unconsciously appears to extend into the realm of biological similarities and differences. Finally, we discuss alternative approaches and their respective relevance to biological and cultural studies.

  12. Testing and Lubrication for Single Race Bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhoff, R.G.

    1998-03-04

    Three ES and H-compatible lubricants (Environment, Safety and Health) for single race bearing applications and one hybrid-material single race bearings were evaluated and compared against single race bearings with trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon) deposition of low molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bearing lubricant extracted from Vydax{trademark}. Vydax is a product manufactured by DuPont consisting of various molecular weights of PTFE suspended in trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon), which is an ozone-depleting solvent. Vydax has been used as a bearing lubricant in stronglink mechanisms since 1974. Hybrid bearings with silicon nitride balls and molded glass-nylon-Teflon retainers, bearings lubricated with titanium carbide (TiC) on the balls, bearings lubricated with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on races and retainers, and bearings lubricated with electrophoretically deposited MoS{sub 2} were evaluated. The bearings were maintained in a preloaded state in bearing cartridges during cycling and vibration tests. Bearings with electrophoretically deposited MoS{sub 2} performed as well as bearings lubricated with Vydax and were the best performing candidate. All candidates were suitable for low preload applications. Bearings with TiC coated balls and bearings lubricated with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers performed well at high preloads, though not as well as bearings lubricated with electrophoretic deposition of MoS{sub 2}. Bearings with silicon nitride balls were not suitable for high preload applications.

  13. Race, punishment, and the Michael Vick experience.

    PubMed

    Piquero, Alex R; Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Gertz, Marc; Baker, Thomas; Batton, Jason; Barnes, J C

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The relationship between race and crime has been contentious, focusing primarily on offending and incarceration patterns among minorities. There has been some limited work on public perceptions of criminal punishment, and findings show that while minorities believe in the role and rule of law, they simultaneously perceive the justice system as acting in a biased and/or unfair manner. Two limitations have stalled this literature. First, research has focused mainly on criminal punishments to the neglect of noncriminal punishments. Second, most studies have not examined whether race remains salient after considering other demographic variables or discrimination and legitimacy attitudes.Methods. Using data from 400 adults, we examine how race affects perceptions of criminal punishment and subsequent reinstatement into the National Football League in the case of Michael Vick, a star professional quarterback who pled guilty to charges of operating an illegal dog-fighting ring.Results. Findings show that whites are more likely to view Vick's punishment as too soft and that he should not be reinstated, while nonwhites had the opposite views. Race remained significant after controlling for other variables believed to be related to punishment perceptions.Conclusion. Attitudes toward both criminal punishment and NFL reinstatement vary across race such that there exists important divides in how individuals perceive the system meting out punishment and subsequently reintegrating offenders back into society. These results underscore that white and nonwhites perceive the law and its administration differently.

  14. The physics of bump drafting in car racing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiolhais, Miguel C. N.; Amor dos Santos, Susana

    2014-11-01

    The technique of bump drafting, also known as two-car drafting in motorsports, is analysed in the framework of Newtonian mechanics and simple aerodynamic drag forces. As an apparent unnatural effect that often pleases the enthusiasts of car racing, bump drafting provides a unique pedagogical opportunity for students to gain insights into the physics of drag in moving vehicles. In the context of a physics undergraduate course, it is shown that the dynamics of two moving cars in the same air slipstream on a straight line allows them to increase their speed up to a factor of \\sqrt{2} . This conclusion is also extended to an arbitrary number of n identical moving cars, resulting in an increase of \\sqrt{n} .

  15. Anthropometrical data and coefficients of regression related to gender and race.

    PubMed

    Shan, Gongbing; Bohn, Christiane

    2003-07-01

    As a result of migration and globalization, the requirement for anthropometrical data of distinct races and gender has augmented whilst the availability remained minimal. Therefore, several sets of estimation equations, which depend on gender, race, body height (BH), and body mass (BM), were established in this study to fulfill this necessity. The method consisted of: (a) an inexpensive device to scan the body surface, (b) the electronic reconstruction of the body surface and (c) a module to calculate segmental lengths, segmental masses, radii of gyration and moments of inertia, using the 16-segment model (Zatsiorsky, 1983) and density data of Dempster (Space requirements of the seated operator, WADC Technical Report, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 1995, pp. 55-159), and (d) the establishment of regression equations. One hundred young Chinese and Germans, representing the Asian and Caucasian races, were randomly recruited to participate in this study. The results revealed contrasting trunk, limb lengths and relative skull volume (skull volume/body volume) between the two races as well as the independence of head mass from body height. The regression equations, which were successfully derived based on the above-unveiled differences, are capable of supplying a prompt way to obtain all anthropometrical parameters of different genders and race groups through individual BM and BH. Anthropometrical data are related to gender, race, BH and BM. In order to obtain the data, one can utilize various measurements, which might have enormous financial expenditure in addition to time-consumption or employ the convenient and economical short-cut-regression-to obtain such data. The results of this study reveal that the accuracy of such estimations is high. The errors of predictions lie under 0.7 Standard deviation, which will satisfy most of applications.

  16. Race, Gender, and Conceptualizations of Fear

    PubMed Central

    Muroff, Jordana; Spencer, Michael S.; Ross, Abigail M.; Williams, David R.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Jackson, James S.

    2015-01-01

    This study used qualitative methods and quantitative statistical analyses to examine whether race and gender are associated with reasons for which adults perceive a situation or object as fearful. The sample consists of 197 African-American and White adults (ages 18–85) recruited through a convenience sample and community sources in the Midwest. A cognitive interviewing instrument was utilized to examine respondents understanding of words and phrases from a mental health instrument. Using qualitative methods, free-response answers were content coded using 5 “fear-codes” (i.e., harm/danger, external locus of control, self-perception, and past experience), developed by the researchers. Results from logistic regression analyses indicate that race significantly predicts usage of specific fear codes (p<.05). In addition, a race by gender interaction was found. PMID:26538802

  17. Surgical Sterilization, Regret, and Race: Contemporary Patterns*

    PubMed Central

    Shreffler, Karina M.; McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L.; Johnson, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical sterilization is a relatively permanent form of contraception that has been disproportionately used by Black, Hispanic, and Native American women in the United States in the past. We use a nationally representative sample of 4,609 women ages 25 to 45 to determine whether sterilization continues to be more common and consequential by race for reproductive-age women. Results indicate that Native American and Black women are more likely to be sterilized than non-Hispanic White women, and Hispanic and Native American women are more likely than non-Hispanic White women to report that their sterilization surgeries prevent them from conceiving children they want. Reasons for sterilization differ significantly by race. These findings suggest that stratified reproduction has not ended in the United States and that the patterns and consequences of sterilization continue to vary by race. PMID:25592919

  18. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Andrea; Anzures, Gizelle; Quinn, Paul C; Pascalis, Olivier; Omrin, Danielle S; Lee, Kang

    2011-04-13

    Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37) have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication.

  19. Stock-car racing makes intuitive physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Formula One races involve cars festooned with gadgets and complex electronic devices, in which millions of dollars are spent refining a vehicle's aerodynamics and reducing its weight. But in events run by America's National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR), cars hurtle round an oval track at speeds of about 300 km h-1 without the help of the complex sensors that are employed in Formula One cars. To avoid crashing, drivers must make their own adjustments to track conditions, engine problems and the traffic around them.

  20. 75 FR 26891 - Proposed Modification of the Detroit, MI, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... meetings. SUMMARY: This notice announces three fact-finding informal airspace meetings to solicit... informal airspace meetings will be held on Tuesday, July 20, 2010, at 1:30 p.m.; Wednesday, July 21, 2010...: Anthony D. Roetzel, Manager, Operations Support Group, Central Service Center, Air Traffic...

  1. 75 FR 81316 - Detroit Edison Company; FERMI 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... Edison Company (the licensee), for operation of Fermi 2, located in Monroe County, Michigan. Therefore... County due to a storm front moving through southeast Michigan. At 0238 hours, a tornado swept across the... does not have any foreseeable impacts to land, air, or water resources, including impacts to biota....

  2. Critical Race Theory and Counselor Education Pedagogy: Creating Equitable Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Natoya H.; Singh, Anneliese

    2015-01-01

    Infusing critical race theory, the authors discuss specific pedagogical strategies to enhance educational experiences of counselor trainees. The authors then provide an evaluative checklist to facilitate and evaluate curricular integration of critical race theory.

  3. 14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race and trestle used to carry excavated rock and construction materials across tail race. Photo c. 1909. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

  4. In-reservoir behavior, dam passage, and downstream migration of juvenile Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead from Detroit Reservoir and Dam to Portland, Oregon, February 2013-February 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Adams, Noah S.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the evaluations conducted at Detroit Dam, we continued to refine and improve methods for monitoring fish movements in the Willamette River. The goal was to develop stable, cost-effective, long-term monitoring arrays suitable for detection of any Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS)-tagged fish in the Willamette River. These data then could be used to estimate timing, migration rates, and survival of JSATS-tagged fish from various studies in the Willamet

  5. Geospatial relationships of air pollution and acute asthma events across the Detroit–Windsor international border: Study design and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Lemke, Lawrence D; Lamerato, Lois E; Xu, Xiaohong; Booza, Jason C; Reiners, John J; Raymond III, Delbert M; Villeneuve, Paul J; Lavigne, Eric; Larkin, Dana; Krouse, Helene J

    2014-01-01

    The Geospatial Determinants of Health Outcomes Consortium (GeoDHOC) study investigated ambient air quality across the international border between Detroit, Michigan, USA and Windsor, Ontario, Canada and its association with acute asthma events in 5- to 89-year-old residents of these cities. NO2, SO2, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured at 100 sites, and particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at 50 sites during two 2-week sampling periods in 2008 and 2009. Acute asthma event rates across neighborhoods in each city were calculated using emergency room visits and hospitalizations and standardized to the overall age and gender distribution of the population in the two cities combined. Results demonstrate that intra-urban air quality variations are related to adverse respiratory events in both cities. Annual 2008 asthma rates exhibited statistically significant positive correlations with total VOCs and total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) at 5-digit zip code scale spatial resolution in Detroit. In Windsor, NO2, VOCs, and PM10 concentrations correlated positively with 2008 asthma rates at a similar 3-digit postal forward sortation area scale. The study is limited by its coarse temporal resolution (comparing relatively short term air quality measurements to annual asthma health data) and interpretation of findings is complicated by contrasts in population demographics and health-care delivery systems in Detroit and Windsor. PMID:24220215

  6. 33 CFR 100.1301 - Seattle seafair unlimited hydroplane race.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hydroplane race. 100.1301 Section 100.1301 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... unlimited hydroplane race. (a) This section is in effect annually during the last week in July and the first... hydroplane race course and then to the northerly tip of Ohlers Island in Andrews Bay. The western zone...

  7. 33 CFR 100.1301 - Seattle seafair unlimited hydroplane race.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hydroplane race. 100.1301 Section 100.1301 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... unlimited hydroplane race. (a) This section is in effect annually during the last week in July and the first... hydroplane race course and then to the northerly tip of Ohlers Island in Andrews Bay. The western zone...

  8. 77 FR 33307 - Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races; Kennewick, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races; Kennewick, WA... enforce the Special Local Regulation for the Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races from Tuesday, July 24th... involved in the Annual Kennewick, Washington, Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races (Water Follies)....

  9. 76 FR 42549 - Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races; Kennewick, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races; Kennewick, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Local Regulation for the Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races. This regulation which restricts navigation... Hydroplane Races (Water Follies). During the enforcement period, no person or vessel may operate...

  10. 33 CFR 100.1301 - Seattle seafair unlimited hydroplane race.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydroplane race. 100.1301 Section 100.1301 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... unlimited hydroplane race. (a) This section is in effect annually during the last week in July and the first... hydroplane race course and then to the northerly tip of Ohlers Island in Andrews Bay. The western zone...

  11. Viewing Race: A Videoforum Publication. A Videography & Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noriega, Chon, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document lists curated films in the subject area of race. It includes essays by experts in the field and additional resources. It is the fourth in a series of such publications by National Video Resources. Essays and bibliographies in this volume include: (1) "Race Matters, Media Matters" (Chon Noriega); (2) "Race, Video and Dialogue" (Howard…

  12. A new Colletotrichum trifolii race identified in Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colletotrichum trifolii, the causal agent of anthracnose of alfalfa, exists in the US as two distinct races, race 1 and race 2. An isolate of C. trifolii was identified at the Ohio State University's Waterman Agricultural and Natural Resources Laboratory, Columbus, OH, in 2003. The isolate (designat...

  13. Lessons Learned: Teaching the Race Concept in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Helen

    2011-01-01

    For a faculty member of East Asian ancestry, raised in Latin America, race became a salient part of the author's identity during adulthood while living and working in the southern United States. While the race-related experiences the author continues to have on and off campus are deeply personal, race became an academic undertaking, and centering…

  14. What White Children Need to Know about Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Ali; Bartoli, Eleonora

    2014-01-01

    While white parents' intention is to convey to their children the belief that race should not matter, the message their children receive is that race, in fact, does not matter. The intent and aim are noble, but in order for race not to matter in the long run, we have to acknowledge that, currently, it does matter a great deal. If white…

  15. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  16. The Use of Race-Related Variables in Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Thad Q.; Lee, D. John; Trahan, Emily; Kaufman, Aimee; Pritchett, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    This study provides a detailed analysis of all race-related articles published in prominent counseling journals between 1995 and 2004. Findings indicate that 75% of articles did not define race variables and in the absence of an operational definition, authors tended to conceptualize race as an inherent biological variable. (Contains 3 tables.)

  17. Unequal Legacies: Race and Multiculturalism in the LIS Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawley, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Race remains poorly understood and inadequately represented in library and information science (LIS) education. Educators tend to avoid the term "race," preferring the more inclusive "multiculturalism." Yet these terms are far from equivalent: the various dimensions of multiculturalism, including race, ethnicity, class, and gender, have different…

  18. The Use of Social Media in Teaching Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakagawa, Kathy; Arzubiaga, Angela E.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores ways in which race pedagogy interrogates social media as a significant influence on racism and source for race understandings. Social media serves as a context in which to learn about, challenge, and address issues of race. We discuss how social media may be used to promote racial literacy and question and resist racism,…

  19. After the Glow: Race Ambivalence and Other Educational Prognoses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonardo, Zeus

    2011-01-01

    The Right has a long history of questioning the importance of race analysis. Recently, the conceptual and political status of race has come under increased scrutiny from the Left. Bracketing the language of "race" has meant that the discourse of skin groups remains at the level of abstraction and does not speak to real groups as such. As a…

  20. Read, Listen, and Watch: Media Resources for Conversing about Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Anthony R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Facilitating discussions about race can be challenging for even the most experienced educator. In this article, the author provides a framework for using multimedia resources to guide student reflection and discussion on race. He suggests three types of media resources that educators can use to engage students in dialogues on race. For each of…

  1. Confronting the Categories: Equitable Admissions without Apartheid Race Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erasmus, Z.

    2010-01-01

    South Africa's government requires information on apartheid race classification to implement and monitor racial redress. This has sparked resistance to race classification as a criterion for redress in higher education admissions. I argue that (1) jettisoning apartheid race categories now in favour of either class or "merit" would set back the few…

  2. Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: Census 2000 Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieco, Elizabeth M.; Cassidy, Rachel C.

    This report describes race and Hispanic origin in the United States and discusses their distributions at the national level. It is based on the Census 2000 Redistricting Summary File. Census 1990 questions on race and Hispanic origin were changed for Census 2000, because the federal government considers race and Hispanic origin to be two separate,…

  3. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  4. Teaching Race as a Social Construction: Two Interactive Class Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, Nikki; Harris, Cherise A.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching the social construction of race remains one of the most challenging tasks for instructors, yet understanding this concept is integral to student success in race and other inequality-themed courses. Instructors have access to an array of readings to help students understand race as a social construction, but few known inclass activities to…

  5. The Mapping of a Framework: Critical Race Theory and TESOL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liggett, Tonda

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I attempt to elucidate some key intersections between critical race theory (CRT) in synthesis with English language learning as a way to examine linguistic and racial identity in English language teaching. I ask: How does critical race theory apply to English language learners when language rather than race is fore-grounded? What…

  6. Why we should continue to study race...but do a better job: an essay on race, racism and health.

    PubMed

    La Veist, T A

    1996-01-01

    For at least a century, American medical and public health researchers have used race as a marker for biology, and have documented race-associated differences in health and illness behavior. The research has often been inappropriate and has led to abuses and erroneous conclusions about the role played by race in the production of disparities in health status. Consequently, some researchers have begun to advocate the abolition of medical and public health research using race. In this essay, I argue that, although the arguments against continuing to study race have some merit, more rather than fewer studies of race are needed. Researchers should be more careful in the use of race and more conscious of the limitations of the race concept.

  7. Class, Race, and Higher Education in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trow, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that U.S. higher education reinforces the nation's individualistic values, including rejection of socialism's group orientation. Explains that the university promoted social mobility in the postwar era. Suggests that U.S. guilt about race relations gave rise to affirmative action. Argues that the policy ironically has heightened awareness…

  8. Rhetoric of Race: Critical Pedagogy without Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkery, Caleb

    2009-01-01

    Like many compositions at majority schools, the author felt disturbed by his students' lack of racial awareness. During the 2007-08 academic year, the author tried a completely different approach to teaching composition that targeted white racial awareness. Identifying race as the course theme, he developed a curriculum that teaches rhetorical…

  9. Race to Top Districts "Personalize" Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    The 16 Race to the Top district winners, pushed by $400 million in federal grants that put a premium on personalized learning, are embarking on vastly different makeovers of the classroom experience--from districtwide approaches to a narrower blueprint focused on middle school math. Despite the divergent approaches, a review of the winning…

  10. Cross-Cultural Perception of Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, John S.

    A study was made of differential perception and definition of race in the distinct cultures of Brazil, the U.S.A., and the North American Indian; and in two subcultural regions: the Intermountain West and the Pacific Coast. The data, except for Brazil, were gathered in a university context. The Brazil sample was 118; U.S.A, 136; and, for the North…

  11. 9th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico and South America came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 9th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Seventy-seven teams, representing high schools and colleges from 21 states, Puerto Rico, and Columbia, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. In this photograph, the New Orleans area schools team #2 from New Orleans, Louisiana maneuvers through an obstacle course. The team captured second place in the high school division competition. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by the development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems, similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team.

  12. 10th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 10th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Sixty-eight teams, representing high schools and colleges from all over the United States, and Puerto Rico, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team. In this photograph, racers from C-1 High School in Lafayette County, Missouri, get ready to tackle the course. The team pedaled its way to victory over 29 other teams to take first place honors. It was the second year in a row a team from the school has placed first in the high school division. (NASA/MSFC)

  13. 10th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 10th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Sixty-eight teams, representing high schools and colleges from all over the United States, and Puerto Rico, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team. In this photograph, Team No. 1 from North Dakota State University in Fargo conquers one of several obstacles on their way to victory. The team captured first place honors in the college level competition.

  14. 9th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico and South America came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 9th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Seventy-seven teams, representing high schools and colleges from 21 states, Puerto Rico, and Columbia, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. A team from Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, took the first place honor in the college division. In this photograph, the Cornell #1 team, the collegiate first place winner, maneuvers their vehicle through the course. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a humanpowered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team.

  15. The Issue of Race in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Jay C.

    2005-01-01

    The articles in this issue of "The Counseling Psychologist" discuss race and have implications for counseling psychology. Bryant-Davis and Ocampo?s (2005 [this issue]) article is about evaluation and treatment of racial-ethnic minority clients and patients and has implications for practice. Utsey, Gernat, and Hammar's (2005 [this issue]) article…

  16. Race to Top Round Two Heating Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2010-01-01

    With the second-round deadline for federal Race to the Top Fund grants less than six weeks away, states are rushing to raise the stakes on their education reform plans as they fight over the remaining $3.4 billion in prize money. But in doing so, states from Massachusetts to Colorado are tangling with their teachers' unions as they test how far…

  17. Race, Racial Projects, and Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Danny Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Critical scholars have argued that mathematics education is in danger of becoming increasingly influenced by and aligned with neoliberal and neoconservative market-focused projects. Although this larger argument is powerful, there are often 2 peculiar responses to issues of race and racism within these analyses. These responses are characterized…

  18. Chimerical categories: caste, race, and genetics.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Sharjeel

    2003-12-01

    Is discrimination based on caste equivalent to racism? This paper explores the complex relationship between genetic, race and caste. It also discusses the debate over the exclusion of a discussion of caste-based discrimination at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance held in Durban, South Africa.

  19. Race and Kinship: Children's Categorization Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudley, Cynthia; Wakefield, David; Scott, Whitney; Bui, Kerra; Cuellar, Marcela

    Public schooling provides an opportunity for children of various races to interact more closely. School experience can create a consistent level of cross-racial contact that may not be duplicated in other social settings. However, cross-racial contacts in schools are not always positive. Research suggests that children may differ in their racial…

  20. The Truth about Mentoring Minorities: Race Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, David A.

    2001-01-01

    A 3-year study of mentoring patterns at 3 corporations reveals that whites and minorities follow distinct patterns of advancement and should be mentored in very different ways. Cross-race mentoring must acknowledge issues of negative stereotypes, role modeling, peer resentment, skepticism about intimacy, and network management. (JOW)

  1. The Old Jalopy Races into the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Considine, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Discusses alternative transportation technological advances in speed, range, battery strategies, and safety facilitated by motor car racing. Presents a historical perspective of the development of steam, electric and gas-powered vehicles and modern versions of electric, and mixed power source cars being tested today. (MCO)

  2. Hurdles Ahead in "Race to Top"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    As states scramble to spend and report on millions of dollars of education stimulus funds already flowing their way, they face another daunting task if they want a shot at even more money: navigating the complex application process for $4 billion from the Race to the Top Fund. Merely filling out the award application will take each state 642…

  3. A White Teacher Talks about Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsman, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Veteran teacher Julie Landsman leads the reader through a day of teaching and reflection about her work with high school students who are from a variety of cultures. She speaks honestly about issues of race, poverty, institutional responsibility, and white privilege by engaging the reader in the experiences of a day in the classroom with some of…

  4. A White Teacher Talks about Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsman, Julie

    In this book, a veteran teacher examines a typical day of teaching and reflects on her work with high school students from a variety of cultures, speaking honestly about issues of race, poverty, institutional responsibility, and white privilege by describing her experiences in the classroom. Throughout the day, she encounters bigotry, deals with…

  5. Debating Values: Race, Class and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Penny

    2008-01-01

    The relationships among race, class and academic achievement are complex, yet have been well documented in Canada for the last thirty years. Generations of students have experienced them--lowered expectations for achievement, gross generalizations about parents' backgrounds and aspirations, negative stereotypes of communities, and curricula that…

  6. Collaboration, Race, and the Rhetoric of Evasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leverenz, Carrie Shively

    1996-01-01

    Shares a participant-observer's close look at small group experiences in a course called "American Experience" taught at an urban university. Considers the issue of how race can be discussed in the classroom when even collaborative approaches with emphasis on student contributions can be undone by the power of the dominant discourse. (TB)

  7. Sex, Race, and Reactions to Injustice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persico, Barbara; And Others

    The present study examines the reactions to injustice between individuals as a function of the race and sex of the subject. Two contrasting hypotheses derived from research on altruism and personality differences indicate that white females/black males and white males/black females differ in their response to inequity. The study supports the…

  8. Rapid Assessment for Conservation Education (RACE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Susan K.

    1997-01-01

    The Rapid Assessment for Conservation Education (RACE) provides guidelines and tools for identifying conservation education needs and recommending subsequent actions. Interviews, surveys, workshops, and public meetings are among the methods of qualitative and quantitative data collection used to gather information quickly and inexpensively.…

  9. Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... P25–1130). For more information, see the USCS technical notes. †Race categories are not mutually exclusive ... with caution. For more information, see the USCS technical notes. ¶ Data are compiled from cancer registries ...

  10. Cervical Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... P25–1130). For more information, see the USCS technical notes. †Race categories are not mutually exclusive ... with caution. For more information, see the USCS technical notes. ¶ Data are compiled from cancer registries ...

  11. Breast Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... P25–1130). For more information, see the USCS technical notes. †Race categories are not mutually exclusive ... with caution. For more information, see the USCS technical notes. ¶ Data are compiled from cancer registries ...

  12. A World View of Race Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Charles P.

    2004-01-01

    "Globalization" is the hot new term to explain an old phenomenon. As early as 1936, Ralph Bunche contended that the "inequality of peoples" was becoming an organizing theme for political and economic life across the globe. He introduced the concept of "social race" to explain the consciousness of environmental and social conditions when manifested…

  13. A question of blood, race, and politics.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Michael G

    2006-10-01

    This article explores the political and intellectual context of a controversy arising from a proposal made at the 1959 meetings of the American Society of Blood Banks to divide the blood supply by race. The authors, a group of blood-bankers and surgeons in New York, outlined difficulties in finding compatible blood for transfusion during open-heart surgery, which they attributed to prior sensitization of their patient, a Caucasian, by a previous transfusion from an African American donor. Examining the statistical distribution of blood-group antigens among the various races, they concluded that risk of adverse hemolytic reactions and the cost of testing could be reduced by establishing separate donor pools. The media reported the suggestion, which, given the political climate of the day, rapidly became a public issue involving geneticists, blood-bankers, physical anthropologists, and the African American medical community. Liberals condemned it, whereas eugenically inclined segregationists used the finding to support their views concerning evolutionary distance between the races and the dangers of miscegenation. Here we examine the contribution of comparative racial serology to this affair, the arguments and background of the main players, and the relevance of the debate to discussions about the role of "race" in post-genomic medicine. PMID:16788092

  14. Class, Race and Gender in American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Audrey

    Research bears out the assertion that the traditional tests and measures used to define achievement have incorporated societal attitudes about class, race, and gender. Cultural factors, teacher behaviors, and teacher bias can account for early differences in the reading achievement of girls and boys. Furthermore, girls' grades for English and…

  15. Race-Based Programs and Good Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thernstrom, Abigail

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the College Board's report, "Reaching the Top," which addresses educational underrepresentation of high-achieving minority students, suggesting that race-based programs are usually just a quick fix and asserting that until minorities are seen as equals, they will not be viewed as individuals, and until color takes a back seat to…

  16. Race Discourse and the US Confederate Flag

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyfield, Lori; Moltz, Matthew Ryan; Bradley, Mindy S.

    2009-01-01

    Research reveals that racial hierarchies and "color-blind" racism is maintained through discourse. The current study utilizes exploratory data from focus groups in a predominantly white southern university in the United States to examine race talk, the Confederate Flag, and the construction of southern white identity. Drawing from critical…

  17. Race Socialization Messages across Historical Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tony N.; Lesane-Brown, Chase L.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether the content of race socialization messages varied by birth cohort, using data from a national probability sample. Most respondents recalled receiving messages about what it means to be black from their parents or guardians; these messages were coded into five mutually exclusive content categories: individual…

  18. Rankings and the Global Reputation Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This chapter delves into the growing influence and impact of rankings on higher education, as a lens through which to view how the race for reputation and status is changing the higher education landscape, both globally and nationally. The author considers the extent to which rankings are driving policy choices and institutional decisions and the…

  19. Teaching Race, Place, and History through Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, John C.; Mazzocca, Ann E.; Goetz, Evan; Gibson, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the March 2014 workshop that the authors organized with approximately thirty pre-and in-service teachers from around the state of Virginia. The authors' broad focus in this workshop was the connection between race and the cultural landscape in Virginia. The goals were relatively simple: to get teachers and…

  20. Race, Identity and Representation in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Cameron, Ed.; Crichlow, Warren, Ed.

    This book presents 24 essays, written by scholars in the humanities and social sciences, that offer cultural and poststructural appraisals of race. The essays illustrate the range, scope, diversity, appeal, and power of work currently underway in the field. They attempt to intervene in the increasingly acrimonious debate over racial inequality and…