Science.gov

Sample records for air regulations update

  1. 76 FR 43230 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Virginia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 55 Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Virginia AGENCY... Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Air Regulations. Requirements applying to OCS sources located within...

  2. 75 FR 51968 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Massachusetts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 55 Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Massachusetts AGENCY... update to a portion of the Outer Continental Shelf (``OCS'') Air Regulations. Requirements applying...

  3. 75 FR 9780 - Technical Amendment to the Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 55 Technical Amendment to the Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency... Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations for Alaska. DATES: Effective on March 22, 2010. FOR FURTHER... Information This Notice is to provide a technical correction to the final regulation published at 75 FR...

  4. 77 FR 72744 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... 30, 2012 (77 FR 52630), EPA proposed to incorporate various Santa Barbara County APCD air pollution... action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR... Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999); Is not an economically significant regulatory...

  5. 75 FR 55277 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations; Consistency Update for California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... To Emit Limitations (Adopted 03/16/01) XXXI Acid Rain Permit Program (Adopted 02/10/95... FR 67845), EPA proposed to incorporate various South Coast AQMD air pollution control requirements... action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58...

  6. 78 FR 59263 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... 333 Control of Emissions from Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (Adopted 06/19/08) Rule 342... 22, 2011 (76 FR 15898), EPA proposed to incorporate various Santa Barbara County APCD air pollution... action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58...

  7. 76 FR 37274 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... refer to the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, December 5, 1991 (56 FR 63774), and the preamble to the final rule promulgated September 4, 1992 (57 FR 40792) for further background and information on the OCS... February 10, 2011, (76 FR 7518), EPA proposed to approve requirements into the OCS Air...

  8. 78 FR 14917 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... October 9, 2012 (77 FR 61308), EPA proposed to incorporate various Ventura County APCD air pollution... action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR... Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999); Is not an economically significant regulatory...

  9. 75 FR 3387 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... reader may refer to the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, December 5, 1991 (56 FR 63774), and the preamble to the final rule promulgated September 4, 1992 (57 FR 40792) for further background and information on the OCS regulations. On March 3, 2009, (74 FR 1980), EPA proposed to approve requirements into...

  10. 75 FR 3617 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Update To Include New Jersey State Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... degrees longitude. \\1\\ The reader may refer to the Proposed Rulemaking, December 5, 1991 (56 FR 63774), and the preamble to the final rule promulgated September 4, 1992 (57 FR 40792) for further background and information on the OCS regulations. On October 2, 2009 (74 FR 50939), EPA proposed to...

  11. 77 FR 52630 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Rulemaking, December 5, 1991 (56 FR 63774), and the preamble to the final rule promulgated September 4, 1992 (57 FR 40792) for further background and information on the OCS regulations. Pursuant to section 55.12.../21/12 321 Solvent Cleaning 6/21/12 Machines and Solvent Cleaning. 330 Surface Coating of...

  12. 75 FR 3392 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ....regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know your identity or... Information On September 4, 1992, EPA promulgated 40 CFR part 55,\\1\\ which established requirements to control... FR 63774), and the preamble to the final rule promulgated September 4, 1992 (57 FR 40792) for...

  13. Air-quality-model update

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.; Walton, J.J.

    1982-01-15

    The Livermore Regional Air Quality Model (LIRAQ) has been updated and improved. This report describes the changes that have been made in chemistry, species treatment, and boundary conditions. The results of smog chamber simulations that were used to verify the chemistry as well as simulations of the entire air quality model for two prototype days in the Bay Area are reported. The results for the prototype day simulations are preliminary due to the need for improvement in meteorology fields, but they show the dependence and sensitivity of high hour ozone to changes in selected boundary and initial conditions.

  14. Updating the International Health Regulations.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Jonathan B

    2005-01-01

    First adopted in 1951, the International Health Regulations (IHR) provide the international legal framework for efforts to prevent and control the cross-border spread of communicable diseases. In 1995, after outbreaks of emerging infections had rendered the IHR increasingly obsolete, the 192 member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) requested a major updating of the regulations to adapt them to the highly mobile, globalized world of the 21st century. After negotiations in 2004 and 2005, the revised IHR text was adopted unanimously by the World Health Assembly, WHO's highest policymaking body. This article reviews the 2005 regulations and discusses their implications for the international response to natural epidemics and to incidents involving the accidental or deliberate release of biological or chemical agents or radiological materials. PMID:16366843

  15. Wood stove air flow regulating

    SciTech Connect

    Brefka, P.E.

    1983-10-04

    A wood stove has primary and secondary air regulator doors at the bottom and top, respectively, of the stove door each rotating about the axis of a tightening knob in the center of the door opposite a baffle plate that defines with the door inside an air channel open at the top and bottom.

  16. Regulation of air traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DEVALUEZ

    1922-01-01

    The ways in which the international and internal French air traffic accords interact with each other is outlined in this report. The principal questions covered by the present legislation are as follows: 1) Conditions of safety which must be fulfilled by aircraft; 2) Licenses for members of the crew; 3) Traffic rules to be observed by French and foreign aircraft.

  17. Air traffic control surveillance accuracy and update rate study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craigie, J. H.; Morrison, D. D.; Zipper, I.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an air traffic control surveillance accuracy and update rate study are presented. The objective of the study was to establish quantitative relationships between the surveillance accuracies, update rates, and the communication load associated with the tactical control of aircraft for conflict resolution. The relationships are established for typical types of aircraft, phases of flight, and types of airspace. Specific cases are analyzed to determine the surveillance accuracies and update rates required to prevent two aircraft from approaching each other too closely.

  18. Colorado Air Quality Control Regulations and Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver. Div. of Air Pollution Control.

    Regulations and standards relative to air quality control in Colorado are defined in this publication. Presented first are definitions of terms, a statement of intent, and general provisions applicable to all emission control regulations adopted by the Colorado Air Pollution Control Commission. Following this, three regulations are enumerated: (1)…

  19. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been re-evaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding 50 years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross-section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  20. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-07-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been reevaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding fifty years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  1. ISS Ambient Air Quality: Updated Inventory of Known Aerosol Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Marit

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft cabin air quality is of fundamental importance to crew health, with concerns encompassing both gaseous contaminants and particulate matter. Little opportunity exists for direct measurement of aerosol concentrations on the International Space Station (ISS), however, an aerosol source model was developed for the purpose of filtration and ventilation systems design. This model has successfully been applied, however, since the initial effort, an increase in the number of crewmembers from 3 to 6 and new processes on board the ISS necessitate an updated aerosol inventory to accurately reflect the current ambient aerosol conditions. Results from recent analyses of dust samples from ISS, combined with a literature review provide new predicted aerosol emission rates in terms of size-segregated mass and number concentration. Some new aerosol sources have been considered and added to the existing array of materials. The goal of this work is to provide updated filtration model inputs which can verify that the current ISS filtration system is adequate and filter lifetime targets are met. This inventory of aerosol sources is applicable to other spacecraft, and becomes more important as NASA considers future long term exploration missions, which will preclude the opportunity for resupply of filtration products.

  2. 76 FR 8989 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updated Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting References

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... 9000-AM00 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updated Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting... to amend the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to update references to authoritative accounting standards owing to the Financial Accounting Standards Board's (FASB's) Accounting Standards...

  3. Autoimmune regulator, Aire, is a novel regulator of chondrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Si, Yuan; Inoue, Kazuki; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Kanno, Jun; Imai, Yuuki

    2013-08-01

    Chondrocyte differentiation is controlled by various regulators, such as Sox9 and Runx2, but the process is complex. To further understand the precise underlying molecular mechanisms of chondrocyte differentiation, we aimed to identify a novel regulatory factor of chondrocyte differentiation using gene expression profiles of micromass-cultured chondrocytes at different differentiation stages. From the results of microarray analysis, the autoimmune regulator, Aire, was identified as a novel regulator. Aire stable knockdown cells, and primary cultured chondrocytes obtained from Aire(-/-) mice, showed reduced mRNA expression levels of chondrocyte-related genes. Over-expression of Aire induced the early stages of chondrocyte differentiation by facilitating expression of Bmp2. A ChIP assay revealed that Aire was recruited on an Airebinding site (T box) in the Bmp2 promoter region in the early stages of chondrocyte differentiation and histone methylation was modified. These results suggest that Aire can facilitate early chondrocyte differentiation by expression of Bmp2 through altering the histone modification status of the promoter region of Bmp2. Taken together, Aire might play a role as an active regulator of chondrocyte differentiation, which leads to new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of chondrocyte differentiation.

  4. [Establishing IAQ Metrics and Baseline Measures.] "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update #20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This issue of "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update ("IAQ TfS" Update) contains the following items: (1) News and Events; (2) IAQ Profile: Establishing Your Baseline for Long-Term Success (Feature Article); (3) Insight into Excellence: Belleville Township High School District #201, 2009 Leadership Award Winner; and (4) Have Your Questions…

  5. [Reduce Energy Costs While Maintaining Healthy IAQ.] "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update #17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This issue of "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update ("IAQ TfS" Update) contains the following items: (1) News and Events; (2) Feature Article: Reduce Energy Costs while Maintaining Healthy IAQ; (3) Insight into Excellence: North East Independent School District ; (4) School Building Week 2009; and (5) Have Your Questions Answered!

  6. In Brief: Hazardous waste and air regulation compliance data released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released, on 6 November, new information on the enforcement of hazardous waste and air regulations by the agency and states. The information includes new summary reports and data from 2004 through 2008 on federal and state enforcement program performance with Clean Air Act (CAA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. The agency also updated its Enforcement and Compliance Online (ECHO) Web site. Information on facility compliance with water, air, and hazardous waste requirements provides the public with more information about the environmental footprint of each facility. EPA noted that the compliance data do not relate directly to overall hazardous waste management or air quality, which have improved in the United States over the past 30 years owing to the implementation of various environmental programs. More information is available at http://www.epa.gov/compliance/data/results/performance/rcra/index.html, http://www.epa.gov/compliance/data/results/performance/caa/index.html, and http://www.epa-echo.gov/echo/.

  7. Emerging Latin American air quality regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hosmer, A.W.; Vitale, E.M.; Guerrero, C.R.; Solorzano-Vincent, L.

    1998-12-31

    Latin America is the most urbanized region in the developing world. In recent years, significant economic growth has resulted in population migration from rural areas to urban centers, as well as in a substantial rise in the standard of living within the Region. These changes have impacted the air quality of Latin American countries as increased numbers of industrial facilities and motor vehicles release pollutants into the air. With the advent of new free trade agreements such as MERCOSUR and NAFTA, economic activity and associated pollutant levels can only be expected to continue to expand in the future. In order to address growing air pollution problems, many Latin America countries including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, and Mexico have passed, or will soon pass, new legislation to develop and strengthen their environmental frameworks with respect to air quality. As a first step toward understanding the impacts that this increased environmental regulation will have, this paper will examine the regulatory systems in six Latin American countries with respect to ambient air quality and for each of these countries: review a short history of the air quality problems within the country; outline the legal and institutional framework including key laws and implementing institutions; summarize in brief the current status of the country in terms of program development and implementation; and identify projected future trends. In addition, the paper will briefly review the international treaties that have bearing on Latin American air quality. Finally, the paper will conclude by identifying and exploring emerging trends in individual countries and the region as a whole.

  8. Model Update of a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) Flexible Wing Frame with Uncertainty Quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.; Waszak, Martin R.; Morgan, Benjamin G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure to update parameters in the finite element model of a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) to improve displacement predictions under aerodynamics loads. Because of fabrication, materials, and geometric uncertainties, a statistical approach combined with Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) is used to modify key model parameters. Static test data collected using photogrammetry are used to correlate with model predictions. Results show significant improvements in model predictions after parameters are updated; however, computed probabilities values indicate low confidence in updated values and/or model structure errors. Lessons learned in the areas of wing design, test procedures, modeling approaches with geometric nonlinearities, and uncertainties quantification are all documented.

  9. An updated model for millimeter wave propagation in moist air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebe, H. J.

    1985-10-01

    A practical atmospheric Millimeter-Wave Propagation Model is formulated that predicts attenuation, delay, and noise properties of moist air for frequencies up to 1000 GHz. Input variables are height distributions (0-30 km) of pressure, temperature, humidity, and suspended droplet concentration along an anticipated radio path. Spectroscopic data consists of more than 450 parameters describing local O2 and H2O absorption lines complemented by continuum spectra for dry air, water vapor, and hydrosols. For a model limited to frequencies below GHz, the number of spectroscopic parameters can be reduced to less than 200. Recent laboratory measurements at 138 GHz absolute attenuation rates for simulated air with water vapor pressures up to saturation allow the formulation of an improved, though empirical water vapor continuum. Model predictions are compared with selected (2.5-430 GHz) data from both laboratory and field experiments. In general, good agreement is obtained.

  10. Updating sea spray aerosol emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sea spray aerosols (SSA) impact the particle mass concentration and gas-particle partitioning in coastal environments, with implications for human and ecosystem health. In this study, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is updated to enhance fine mode SSA emissions,...

  11. The aluminum-air battery for electric vehicles - An update

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The development of aluminum-air batteries as mechanically rechargeable power sources to be used in electric vehicles is discussed. The chemistry of the aluminum-air battery, which has a potential for providing the range, acceleration and rapid refueling capability of contemporary automobiles and is based on the reaction of aluminum metal with atmospheric oxygen in the presence of an aqueous sodium hydroxide/sodium aluminate electrolyte, is examined, and it is pointed out that the electric vehicle would be practically emissionless. The battery development program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which includes evaluations of electrochemical and chemical phenomena, studies of the economics and energy balance of a transportation system based on aluminum, and power cell design and performance analysis, is presented. It is concluded that although difficult problems must be overcome before the technical and economic feasibility of aluminum-air batteries for electric vehicles can be established, projections indicate that the aluminum-air vehicle is potentially competitive with internal combustion vehicles powered by synthetic liquid fuels.

  12. NASA Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations have greatly impacted materials and processes utilized in the manufacture of aerospace hardware. Code JE/ NASA's Environmental Management Division at NASA Headquarters recognized the need for a formal, Agency-wide review process of CAA regulations. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was selected as the 'Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations'. This presentation describes the centralized support provided by MSFC for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process.

  13. 78 FR 71675 - Update of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation's Electronic Operating Reactor Correspondence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Update of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation's Electronic Operating Reactor Correspondence... Regulatory Commission. Michele G. Evans, Director, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of...

  14. Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.

    2012-07-06

    Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life

  15. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  16. 78 FR 46516 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Update to Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), the Air and Radiation Docket and Information Center... Protection Agency, Region III, 1650 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103; the Air and Radiation... revisions containing new and/or revised regulations as being part of the SIP. On May 22, 1997 (62 FR...

  17. Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

  18. 77 FR 38717 - Updating Regulations Issued Under the Fair Labor Standards Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 531 and 553 Updating Regulations Issued Under the Fair Labor Standards Act CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 500 to 899, revised as of July...

  19. 76 FR 73564 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updates to Contract Reporting and Central Contractor Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... 52 RIN 9000-AL99 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updates to Contract Reporting and Central Contractor... to amend the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to limit the use of generic substitutes instead of... and the data will be maintained now in FPDS only. FAR 4.603(d) language encouraging...

  20. 78 FR 8963 - Update of Existing Privacy Act-NASA Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... document contains corrections to the final regulations (NASA-2012-0005), which were published in the Federal Register of Thursday, October 4, 2012 (77 FR 60620). The regulations relate to requests to access... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Part 1212 RIN 2700-AD86 Update of Existing Privacy Act--NASA...

  1. Regulation of human autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene translation by miR-220b.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tomohito; Noguchi, Yukiko; Shindo, Mieko; Morita, Yoshifumi; Oda, Yoshie; Yoshida, Eiko; Hamada, Hiroko; Harada, Mine; Shiokawa, Yuichi; Nishida, Takahiro; Tominaga, Ryuji; Kikushige, Yoshikane; Akashi, Koichi; Kudoh, Jun; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Yuka; Umemura, Tsukuru; Taniguchi, Taketoshi; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Takashi; Mitsuyama, Masao; Kurisaki, Hironori; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Nagafuchi, Seiho

    2013-11-01

    Although mutations of autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene are responsible for autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), presenting a wide spectrum of many characteristic and non-characteristic clinical features, some patients lack AIRE gene mutations. Therefore, something other than a mutation, such as dysregulation of AIRE gene, may be a causal factor for APECED or its related diseases. However, regulatory mechanisms for AIRE gene expression and/or translation have still remained elusive. We found that IL-2-stimulated CD4(+) T (IL-2T) cells showed a high expression of AIRE gene, but very low AIRE protein production, while Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B (EBV-B) cells express both AIRE gene and AIRE protein. By using microarray analysis, we could identify miR-220b as a possible regulatory mechanism for AIRE gene translation in IL-2T cells. Here we report that miR-220b significantly reduced the expression of AIRE protein in AIRE gene with 3'UTR region transfected 293T cells, whereas no alteration of AIRE protein production was observed in the open reading frame of AIRE gene alone transfected cells. In addition, anti-miR-220b reversed the inhibitory function of miR-220b for the expression of AIRE protein in AIRE gene with 3'UTR region transfected cells. Moreover, when AIRE gene transfected cells with mutated 3'UTR were transfected with miR-220b, no reduction of AIRE protein production was observed. Taken together, it was concluded that miR-220b inhibited the AIRE gene translation through the 3'UTR region of AIRE gene, indicating that miR-220b could serve as a regulator for human AIRE gene translation.

  2. 40 CFR 55.12 - Consistency updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consistency updates. 55.12 Section 55.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.12 Consistency updates. (a) The Administrator will...

  3. Responding to Changes in Building Legislation. Updating Training for the Building Regulations 1985 and Supporting Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Robert; Phillips, Alan

    A project sought to develop a means of updating and retraining those required to comply with Britain's 1985 Building Regulations, which are substantially different from the previous ones in regard to procedures and technical content. The training needs analysis conducted indicated that the new training should be flexible and use practical and…

  4. 77 FR 202 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updated Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting References

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ..., and NASA published a proposed rule in the Federal Register at 76 FR 8989 on February 16, 2011, to... 9000-AM00 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updated Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting... accounting standards owing to the Financial Accounting Standards Board's Accounting Standards Codification...

  5. Environmental Protection Agency update on mixed waste regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.

    1989-11-01

    This paper is divided into discussion of the following four basic areas: (1) dual regulation; (2) the state role; (3) an overview of current agency activities; and (4) current issues. The first area, dual regulation of mixed waste, requires the cooperation between regulatory agencies, whether federal or state, for managing the chemical and radioactive aspects of mixed waste. Dual or joint regulation of mixed waste is now a well established fact. The second area is state involvement. Dual regulation involves not only the EPA, DOE, and NRC, but also state authorities. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is implemented for the most part by the individual states. Congress intended that the states be the primary implementers of RCRA and created provisions in the Act to authorize state programs. The third area discussed in this paper is concerned with EPA`s progress on current issues. EPA has progressed on several promises to create strong centralized guidance. Fourth and finally, there are many issues outstanding and some may have direct specific significant impact on DOE facility operations. Perhaps the biggest outstanding issue is how the land disposal restrictions will affect the treatment, storage, and disposal of mixed waste at DOE facilities.

  6. From Syncitium to Regulated Pump: A Cardiac Muscle Cellular Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korzick, Donna H.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to present a basic overview of some key teaching concepts that should be considered for inclusion in an six- to eight-lecture introductory block on the regulation of cardiac performance for graduate students. Within the context of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling, this review incorporates information…

  7. CAQI Common Air Quality Index--update with PM(2.5) and sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    van den Elshout, Sef; Léger, Karine; Heich, Hermann

    2014-08-01

    The CAQI or Common Air Quality Index was proposed to facilitate the comparison of air quality in European cities in real-time. There are many air quality indices in use in the world. All are somewhat different in concept and presentation and comparing air quality presentations of cities on the internet was virtually impossible. The CAQI and the accompanying website www.airqualitynow.eu and app were proposed to overcome this problem in Europe. This paper describes the logic of making an index, in particular the CAQI and its update with a grid for PM2.5. To assure a smooth transition to the new calculation scheme we studied the behaviour of the index before and after the changes. We used 2006 Airbase data from 31 urban background and 27 street stations all across Europe (that were monitoring PM2.5 in 2006). The CAQI characterises a city by a roadside and urban background situation. It also insists on a minimum number of pollutants to be included in the calculation. Both were deemed necessary to improve the basis for comparing one city to another. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates the comparative behaviour of the street and urban background stations and presents the sensitivity of the CAQI outcome to the pollutants included in its calculation. PMID:24238948

  8. 78 FR 44884 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Update to Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... environmental effects, using practicable and legally permissible methods, under Executive Order 12898 (59 FR... unique air pollution problems. Therefore, EPA, from time to time, must take action on SIP revisions containing new and/or revised regulations as being part of the SIP. On May 22, 1997 (62 FR 27968),...

  9. Standards, Regulation and Registration of Dental Laboratories. An Industry Update.

    PubMed

    Giovannone, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    State dental associations are showing increased interest in maintaining current standards and regulations affecting the dental laboratory industry as mandated by the Food and Drug Administration. The domestic dental laboratory industry is being significantly stressed by foreign competition, rapid technology development and unprecedented consolidation, which are changing the way that prosthetic devices and restorations are manufactured and delivered to dentists. Of paramount importance to the prescribing dentist is the accurate documentation of the source and materials being used in prostheses being delivered to patients. PMID:26373035

  10. Standards, Regulation and Registration of Dental Laboratories. An Industry Update.

    PubMed

    Giovannone, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    State dental associations are showing increased interest in maintaining current standards and regulations affecting the dental laboratory industry as mandated by the Food and Drug Administration. The domestic dental laboratory industry is being significantly stressed by foreign competition, rapid technology development and unprecedented consolidation, which are changing the way that prosthetic devices and restorations are manufactured and delivered to dentists. Of paramount importance to the prescribing dentist is the accurate documentation of the source and materials being used in prostheses being delivered to patients.

  11. International laser-safety regulations: a status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, Robert M.

    1990-07-01

    There is an increase in international laser safety requirements as part of the emphasis on world-wide standardization of products and regulations. In particular the documents which will evolve from the 1992 consolidation efforts of the European Community (EC) will impact both laser manufacturers and users. This paper provides a discussion of the current status of the various laser radiation standards. NORTH AMERICAN REQUIREMENTS United States Requirements on manufacturers from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have been in effect since 1975. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) within that agency ensures that these mandatory requirements [1] are satisfied. The CDRH regulations include the division of products into classes depending on their potential for hazard criteria for power measurement and requirements for product features labels and manuals and records and reports. Manufacturers must test products and certify that they comply with the CDRH requirements. User requirements are found in a standard published by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and in requirements from several individual states. Specific ANSI standards have also been published for fiber communications systems [34] and for lasers in medical applications [35]. Please note that the Appendix includes additional information on the standards discussed in this paper including sources for obtaining the documents. Canada In the past Canada has had requirements for two specified product categories (bar code scanners and educational lasers) [26 These will be replaced

  12. 78 FR 54200 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Maintenance Plan Update...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... Plan Update for Lake County, Indiana for Sulfur Dioxide AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA..., Indiana sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) maintenance area. This plan update demonstrates that Lake County...

  13. Surveying air traffic control specialist perception of scheduling regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Darrius E.

    While there have been several studies conducted on air traffic controller fatigue, there is a lack of research on the subject since the scheduling policy changes that took place in 2012. The effectiveness of these changes has yet to be measured. The goal of this study was to investigate air traffic control specialist views towards the number of hours scheduled between shifts, changes in perception since 2012 regulation changes, and external factors that impact fatigue. A total of 54 FAA air traffic control specialist completed an online questionnaire. The results from the survey showed that the majority of respondents felt the 2012 regulation changes were not sufficient to address fatigue issues, and work with some amount sleep deprivation. The factors that appeared to have the most significant effect on fatigue included facility level, age group, availability of recuperative breaks, and children under 18 in the home.

  14. NASA's Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    2003-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was selected as the Principal Center for review of Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations. The CAA Principal Center is tasked to: 1) Provide centralized support to NASA/HDQ Code JE for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process; 2) Identify potential impact from proposed CAA regulations to NASA program hardware and supporting facilities. The Shuttle Environmental Assurance Initiative, one of the responsibilities of the NASA CAA Working Group (WG), is described in part of this viewgraph presentation.

  15. Effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on Electric Utilities: An Update, The

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on SO2 emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. It updates and expands the EIA report, Electric Utility Phase I Acid Rain Compliance Strategies for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  16. When Coughing Can Cause Stroke - A Case-Based Update on Cerebral Air Embolism Complicating Biopsy of the Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Kau, Thomas Rabitsch, Egon; Celedin, Stefan; Habernig, Sandra M.; Weber, Joerg R.; Hausegger, Klaus A.

    2008-09-15

    Introducing gas to the circulation is a largely iatrogenic problem which can result in serious morbidity and even death. We report a case of CT-guided needle biopsy of a pulmonary lesion complicated by acute stroke. The English literature on cerebral air embolism is reviewed, including an update of current opinions on its pathomechanism, diagnostic findings, therapeutic strategies, and means of prevention.

  17. Health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Andrew; Kumar, Naresh

    2011-03-01

    This, the first systematic study, quantifies the health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, which adopted radical measures to improve air quality, including, for example, the conversion of all commercial vehicles to compressed natural gas (CNG), and the closure of polluting industries in residential areas from 2000 to 2002. Air pollution data, collected at 113 sites (spread across Delhi and its neighboring areas) from July-December 2003, were used to compute exposure at the place of residence of 3989 subjects. A socio-economic and respiratory health survey was administered in 1576 households. This survey collected time-use, residence histories, demographic information, and direct measurements of lung function with subjects. The optimal interpolation methods were used to link air pollution and respiratory health data at the place of their residence. Resident histories, in combination with secondary data, were used to impute cumulative exposure prior to the air-quality interventions, and the effects of recent air quality measures on lung function were then evaluated. Three important findings emerge from the analysis. First, the interventions were associated with a significant improvement in respiratory health. Second, the effect of these interventions varied significantly by gender and income. Third, consistent with a causal interpretation of these results, effects were the strongest among those individuals who spend a disproportionate share of their time out-of-doors.

  18. Health Effects of Air Quality Regulations in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew; Kumar, Naresh

    2011-01-01

    This, the first systematic study, quantifies the health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, which adopted radical measures to improve air quality, including, for example, the conversion of all commercial vehicles to compressed natural gas (CNG), and the closure of polluting industries in residential areas from 2000 to 2002. Air pollution data, collected at 113 sites (spread across Delhi and its neighboring areas) from July-December 2003, were used to compute exposure at the place of residence of 3,989 subjects. A socio-economic and respiratory health survey was administered in 1,576 households. This survey collected time-use, residence histories, demographic information, and direct measurements of lung function with subjects. The optimal interpolation methods were used to link air pollution and respiratory health data at the place of their residence. Resident histories, in combination with secondary data, were used to impute cumulative exposure prior to the air-quality interventions, and the effects of recent air quality measures on lung function were then evaluated. Three important findings emerge from the analysis. First, the interventions were associated with a significant improvement in respiratory health. Second, the effect of these interventions varied significantly by gender and income. Third, consistent with a causal interpretation of these results, effects were the strongest among those individuals who spend a disproportionate share of their time out-of-doors. PMID:21461142

  19. Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deVillemeur, Etienne Billette

    2003-01-01

    Despite deregulation on the air-transportation markets, many connections are still operated by a single operator. Regulation is thus a central issue in this industry. There is however a great concern for the (possibly negative) consequences of price regulation on the quality of services. We argue that both aspects should be considered jointly and propose a mechanism that allow to decentralize the optimal structure of services in this industry. The regulatory procedure is robust to the introduction of heterogeneity in the travellers' valuation of the connections' frequency.

  20. Updating sea spray aerosol emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.0.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantt, B.; Kelly, J. T.; Bash, J. O.

    2015-11-01

    Sea spray aerosols (SSAs) impact the particle mass concentration and gas-particle partitioning in coastal environments, with implications for human and ecosystem health. Model evaluations of SSA emissions have mainly focused on the global scale, but regional-scale evaluations are also important due to the localized impact of SSAs on atmospheric chemistry near the coast. In this study, SSA emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model were updated to enhance the fine-mode size distribution, include sea surface temperature (SST) dependency, and reduce surf-enhanced emissions. Predictions from the updated CMAQ model and those of the previous release version, CMAQv5.0.2, were evaluated using several coastal and national observational data sets in the continental US. The updated emissions generally reduced model underestimates of sodium, chloride, and nitrate surface concentrations for coastal sites in the Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) near Tampa, Florida. Including SST dependency to the SSA emission parameterization led to increased sodium concentrations in the southeastern US and decreased concentrations along parts of the Pacific coast and northeastern US. The influence of sodium on the gas-particle partitioning of nitrate resulted in higher nitrate particle concentrations in many coastal urban areas due to increased condensation of nitric acid in the updated simulations, potentially affecting the predicted nitrogen deposition in sensitive ecosystems. Application of the updated SSA emissions to the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) study period resulted in a modest improvement in the predicted surface concentration of sodium and nitrate at several central and southern California coastal sites. This update of SSA emissions enabled a more realistic simulation of the atmospheric chemistry in coastal environments where marine air mixes with urban pollution.

  1. Updating exposure models of indoor air pollution due to vapor intrusion: Bayesian calibration of the Johnson-Ettinger model.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jill E; Sun, Qiang; Gibson, Jacqueline Macdonald

    2014-02-18

    The migration of chlorinated volatile organic compounds from groundwater to indoor air--known as vapor intrusion--is an important exposure pathway at sites with contaminated groundwater. High-quality screening methods to prioritize homes for monitoring and remediation are needed, because measuring indoor air quality in privately owned buildings is often logistically and financially infeasible. We demonstrate an approach for improving the accuracy of the Johnson-Ettinger model (JEM), which the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends as a screening tool in assessing vapor intrusion risks. We use Bayesian statistical techniques to update key Johnson-Ettinger input parameters, and we compare the performance of the prior and updated models in predicting indoor air concentrations measured in 20 homes. Overall, the updated model reduces the root mean squared error in the predicted concentration by 66%, in comparison to the prior model. Further, in 18 of the 20 homes, the mean measured concentration is within the 90% confidence interval of the concentration predicted by the updated model. The resulting calibrated model accounts for model uncertainty and variability and decreases the false negatives rate; hence, it may offer an improved screening approach, compared to the current EPA deterministic approach.

  2. 77 FR 38731 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Updates to Wide Area WorkFlow (DFARS Case 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 218, 232 and 252 RIN Number 0750-AH40 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Updates to Wide Area WorkFlow (DFARS Case 2011-D027) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: DoD is issuing...

  3. Regulation of indoor air quality: The last frontier of environmental regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, R.B.

    1994-12-31

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) is ranked by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) among the top five environmental risks to human health. The World Health Organization estimates that nearly one in every six commercial buildings in the United States suffers from sick-building syndrome and that occupants of another one in twelve suffer from building-related illnesses. Indoor air quality (IAQ) problems cost American business $10 billion per year through lowered productivity, absenteeism, and medical costs. Yet despite the importance and high cost of IAQ problems, indoor air is not yet specifically addressed in any federal regulatory program. The reason probably is because indoor air is a quanitatively different environment in which traditional modes of regulation, based on pollutant-by pollutant risk assessments, are of limited utility. This paper covers the following topics: four factors influencing IAQ regulation; EPA regulation of indoor air; the role of the consumer product safety commission; OSHA and IAQ issues; state regulation and economic concerns; the pressure for legislation.

  4. PETRO-SAFE '92 conference papers: Volume 1 (Keynote session, environmental and safety regulations update, management strategies update, safety regulations) and Volume 2 (Environmental regulations)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This book is the first of three volumes generated from a conference on the environment and safety aspects of the oil, gas, and petrochemical industries. This volume presents papers on environmental and safety regulations, methods for developing safety programs, hazardous operations/training regulations, and management planning strategies to meet these regulations. Papers discuss remediation of contaminated sites, emergency response planning, pending and developing regulations, and waste management practices.

  5. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  10. 78 FR 58985 - Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water Quality Criteria for pH AGENCY: Delaware River Basin Commission. ACTION: Proposed... on proposed amendments to the Commission's Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and...

  11. IDEA 1997: Implications for Secondary Education and Transition Services. Policy Update: Summarizing Recent Laws and Federal Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Secondary Education and Transition, Minneapolis, MN.

    In 1997, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) was reauthorized and new regulations took effect May 11, 1999. Several sections of the regulations pertain to the transition of students with disabilities from school to adult life. This policy update presents the regulatory language and describes potential implications in 11 areas…

  12. Examining the Impact of an Updated Toluene Mechanism on Air Quality in the Eastern US

    EPA Science Inventory

    Model simulations were performed using the CB05 chemical mechanism containing the base and an updated toluene mechanisms for the eastern US. The updated toluene mechanism increased monthly mean 8-hr ozone by 1.0-2.0 ppbv in urban areas of Chicago, the northeast US, Detroit, Cleve...

  13. 75 FR 18377 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Regulation Restructuring: Issuance Regulation Update...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ...(e). 274.12(n) 274.1(e). Implementation In accordance with the parameters set forth in 62 FR 55141... (48 FR 29115), this Program is excluded from the scope of Executive Order 12372, which requires... / Monday, April 12, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  19. The regulation of hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Effects on the Portland cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Mikols, E.H.; Dougherty, A.

    1996-07-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) addresses the control of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from major sources of air pollution in the US. In the CAAA, Congress defined 189 compounds as hazardous air pollutants in need of additional control by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Congress directed EPA to identify the major source categories which emit HAPs and to prepare regulations that would reduce and control future HAP emissions. This paper outlines the activities undertaken by EPA to regulate HAP emissions from Portland cement plants and the program developed by the Portland cement manufacturing industry to cope with Title III.

  20. Implications of a stochastic approach to air-quality regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Witten, A.J.; Kornegay, F.C.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Long, E.C. Jr.; Sharp, R.D.; Walsh, P.J.; Zeighami, E.A.; Gordon, J.S.; Lin, W.L.

    1982-09-01

    This study explores the viability of a stochastic approach to air quality regulations. The stochastic approach considered here is one which incorporates the variability which exists in sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) emissions from coal-fired power plants. Emission variability arises from a combination of many factors including variability in the composition of as-received coal such as sulfur content, moisture content, ash content, and heating value, as well as variability which is introduced in power plant operations. The stochastic approach as conceived in this study addresses variability by taking the SO/sub 2/ emission rate to be a random variable with specified statistics. Given the statistical description of the emission rate and known meteorological conditions, it is possible to predict the probability of a facility exceeding a specified emission limit or violating an established air quality standard. This study also investigates the implications of accounting for emissions variability by allowing compliance to be interpreted as an allowable probability of occurrence of given events. For example, compliance with an emission limit could be defined as the probability of exceeding a specified emission value, such as 1.2 lbs SO/sub 2//MMBtu, being less than 1%. In contrast, compliance is currently taken to mean that this limit shall never be exceeded, i.e., no exceedance probability is allowed. The focus of this study is on the economic benefits offered to facilities through the greater flexibility of the stochastic approach as compared with possible changes in air quality and health effects which could result.

  1. 14 CFR 221.61 - Rules and regulations governing foreign air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rules and regulations governing foreign air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Governing Tariffs § 221.61 Rules and regulations governing foreign air transportation. Instead of being included in the fares tariffs, the rules...

  2. 14 CFR 221.61 - Rules and regulations governing foreign air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rules and regulations governing foreign air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Governing Tariffs § 221.61 Rules and regulations governing foreign air transportation. Instead of being included in the fares tariffs, the rules...

  3. 14 CFR § 1300.3 - Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM General § 1300.3 Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board. (a)...

  4. 14 CFR 1300.3 - Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM General § 1300.3 Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board. (a)...

  5. Lymphopenia-induced proliferation in the absence of functional Autoimmune regulator (Aire) induces colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kekäläinen, Eliisa; Lehto, Maija-Katri; Smeds, Eero; Pöntynen, Nora; Pekkarinen, Pirkka T; Ulmanen, Ismo; Miettinen, Aaro; Arstila, T Petteri

    2015-09-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is caused by mutations in Autoimmune regulator (Aire), a transcriptional regulator of negative selection in thymus. However, Aire is also expressed in periphery, but the full range of Aire's peripheral function is unknown. Here, we transferred lymphocytes from wildtype donors into lymphopenic recipients with or without functional Aire. Following cell proliferation thus took place in Aire-sufficient or deficient environment. The wildtype lymphocytes hyperproliferated and induced disease in lymphopenic Aire(-/-) but not in Aire(+/+) recipients. The disease was characterized by diarrhea, inflammation, and colitis, and in some recipients pancreatitis, gastritis, and hepatitis was also found. Our results identify Aire as an important regulator of peripheral T cell homeostasis in gastrointestinal tissues. Given a suitable trigger the absence of peripheral Aire leads to dysregulated T cell proliferation and disease.

  6. 76 FR 16285 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... CFR Part 410 Incorporation by reference, Water audit, Water pollution control, Water reservoirs, Water... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water Quality Criteria for Toxic Pollutants in the Delaware Estuary and Extend These Criteria...

  7. 77 FR 44231 - Delegation of Authority To Implement and Enforce Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... AGENCY Delegation of Authority To Implement and Enforce Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations to the... enforce sections of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Air Regulations. To inform regulated facilities and... the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55 (Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations). On February...

  8. Bibliography of work on the heterogeneous photocatalytic removal of hazardous compounds from water and air, Update Number 2 to October 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Solar Industrial Program has developed processes that destroy hazardous substances in or remove them from water and air. The processes of interest in this report are based on the application of heterogeneous photocatalysts, principally titanium dioxide or modifications thereof, but work on other heterogeneous catalysts is included in this compilation. This report continues bibliographies that were published in May, 1994, and October, 1995. The previous reports included 663 and 574 citations, respectively. This update contains an additional 518 references. These were published during the period from June 1995 to October 1996, or are references from prior years that were not included in the previous reports. The work generally focuses on removing hazardous contaminants from air or water to meet environmental or health regulations. This report also references work on properties of semiconductor photocatalysts and applications of photocatalytic chemistry in organic synthesis. This report follows the same organization as the previous publications. The first part provides citations for work done in a few broad categories that are generic to the process. Three tables provide references to work on specific substances. The first table lists organic compounds that are included in various lists of hazardous substances identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The second table lists compounds not included in those categories, but which have been treated in a photocatalytic process. The third table covers inorganic compounds that are on EPA lists of hazardous materials or that have been treated by a photocatalytic process. A short update on companies that are active in providing products or services based on photocatalytic processes is provided.

  9. 78 FR 48323 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Update of the Motor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... nitrogen oxides (NO X ) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and an updated point source inventory for NO..., Incorporation by reference, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Volatile organic compounds. Dated: July 18, 2013. W.C... inventory for nitrogen oxides (NO X ) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for the Lancaster 1997...

  10. 78 FR 78310 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Update of the Motor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... (MVEBs) for nitrogen oxides (NO X ) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for the 1997 8-Hour Ozone... Maintenance Area''). The other SIP revision updates the point source inventory for NO X and VOCs. In the Final... files should avoid the use of special characters, any form of encryption, and be free of any defects...

  11. 75 FR 81474 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Update to Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... to make them part of the SIP. On May 22, 1997 (62 FR 27968), EPA revised the procedures for... February 10, 2005 (70 FR 7024), EPA published a Federal Register beginning the new IBR procedure for West Virginia. On February 28, 2007 (72 FR 8903) and February 10, 2009 (74 FR 6542), EPA published updates...

  12. Serious air gun injuries in children: update of injury statistics and presentation of five cases.

    PubMed

    Myre, L E; Black, R E

    1987-09-01

    There were over 70,000 injuries to children caused by air guns reported from 1981 to 1984. The majority of these injuries were minor; however, serious injury resulted in eight deaths. Reported injuries include corneal perforation, liver laceration, stomach and intestinal perforation, intracranial bleeding, cardiac perforation, and hemopneumothorax. Primary care physicians must be aware of the potentially serious or lethal nature of air gun injury and educate their patients accordingly. Legislation is also needed to restrict the sale of these guns, or increase the safety of air gun use. We report five cases of potentially life-threatening injury caused by air guns, three of which required emergency laparotomy. PMID:3313302

  13. 14 CFR 1300.3 - Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation Stabilization Board. 1300.3 Section 1300.3 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM General § 1300.3 Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  19. 14 CFR 1300.3 - Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board. 1300.3 Section 1300.3 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM General § 1300.3 Supplementary...

  20. 14 CFR 1300.3 - Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board. 1300.3 Section 1300.3 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN...

  1. Roles of cardiovascular risk factors in endothelial nitric oxide synthase regulation: an update.

    PubMed

    Jamaluddin, Md Saha; Liang, Zhengdong; Lu, Jian-Ming; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the number one killer in the United States and many other countries. Each year, there are enormous research efforts on its pathogenesis, prevention and treatment led by scientists worldwide. One of the most significant research areas is the impact and mechanisms of existing or new cardiovascular risk factors on the vascular system. The current review provides the most updated research advances in the area of the regulation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide (eNOS-NO) system by several cardiovascular risk factors. There are many exciting discoveries made from the studies of several major cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, cigarette smoking, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus as well as emerging risk factors such as HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy, genomic variability, and cytokines. In general, cardiovascular risk factors could impair the eNOS-NO system with a variety of molecular mechanisms including decrease in NO bioavailability by excess reactive oxygen species, inhibition of eNOS expression and activity, and deficiency of eNOS cofactors. Special attention is paid to the impact of several new or emerging risk factors on cardiovascular disease and the eNOS-NO system. These mechanistic studies are clinically significant because they may lead towards new and effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  2. An update for the controversies and hypotheses of regulating nonthyroidal illness syndrome in chronic kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gaosi; Yan, Wenjun; Li, Jingzhen

    2014-12-01

    Nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is widely found in the patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or critical illness. However, the exact pathogenesis and reasonable treatment remain unclear. To identify suitable studies for inclusion in present review, a search for articles using PubMed search engine with combined terms: (thyroid OR hypothyroidism OR hyperthyroidism OR triiodothyronine) AND (glomerulonephritis OR chronic kidney disease OR chronic renal failure OR end stage renal disease OR hemodialysis OR peritoneal dialysis OR kidney transplantation OR renal transplantation) was performed. The bibliographies of relevant articles were also hand searched. The search was updated on November 8, 2013. Mechanisms for the alternations of thyroid hormone concentrations in NTIS are complicated. Inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress may play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of NTIS in patients with CKD. It was controversial whether CKD patients with NTIS should be treated with thyroid hormone replacement. N-Acetyl cysteine or sodium bicarbonate may negatively regulate the progress of micro-inflammation in CKD. Large-scale, multi-centered randomized controlled trials should be conducted to verify the NTIS hypothesis in CKD patients.

  3. 78 FR 54173 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Maintenance Plan Update...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ....regulations.gov or email. The www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA... material, such as copyrighted material, will be publicly available only in hard copy. Publicly available docket materials are available either electronically in ] www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at...

  4. Improvement of the GEOS-5 AGCM upon Updating the Air-Sea Roughness Parameterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garfinkel, C. I.; Molod, A.; Oman, L. D.; Song, I.-S.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of an air-sea roughness parameterization over the ocean that more closely matches recent observations of air-sea exchange is examined in the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5 (GEOS-5) atmospheric general circulation model. Surface wind biases in the GEOS-5 AGCM are decreased by up to 1.2m/s. The new parameterization also has implications aloft as improvements extend into the stratosphere. Many other GCMs (both for operational weather forecasting and climate) use a similar class of parameterization for their air-sea roughness scheme. We therefore expect that results from GEOS-5 are relevant to other models as well.

  5. Improvement of the GEOS-5 AGCM upon updating the air-sea roughness parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfinkel, C. I.; Molod, A. M.; Oman, L. D.; Song, I.-S.

    2011-09-01

    The impact of an air-sea roughness parameterization over the ocean that more closely matches recent observations of air-sea exchange is examined in the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5 (GEOS-5) atmospheric general circulation model. Surface wind biases in the GEOS-5 AGCM are decreased by up to 1.2m/s. The new parameterization also has implications aloft as improvements extend into the stratosphere. Many other GCMs (both for operational weather forecasting and climate) use a similar class of parameterization for their air-sea roughness scheme. We therefore expect that results from GEOS-5 are relevant to other models as well.

  6. Self-regulation of frontal-midline theta facilitates memory updating and mental set shifting

    PubMed Central

    Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Huster, René J.; Figge, Christian; Herrmann, Christoph S.

    2014-01-01

    Frontal-midline (fm) theta oscillations as measured via the electroencephalogram (EEG) have been suggested as neural “working language” of executive functioning. Their power has been shown to increase when cognitive processing or task performance is enhanced. Thus, the question arises whether learning to increase fm-theta amplitudes would functionally impact the behavioral performance in tasks probing executive functions (EFs). Here, the effects of neurofeedback (NF), a learning method to self-up-regulate fm-theta over fm electrodes, on the four most representative EFs, memory updating, set shifting, conflict monitoring, and motor inhibition are presented. Before beginning and after completing an individualized, eight-session gap-spaced NF intervention, the three-back, letter/number task-switching, Stroop, and stop-signal tasks were tested while measuring the EEG. Self-determined up-regulation of fm-theta and its putative role for executive functioning were compared to an active control group, the so-called pseudo-neurofeedback group. Task-related fm-theta activity after training differed significantly between groups. More importantly, though, after NF significantly enhanced behavioral performance was observed. The training group showed higher accuracy scores in the three-back task and reduced mixing and shifting costs in letter/number task-switching. However, this specific protocol type did not affect performance in tasks probing conflict monitoring and motor inhibition. Thus, our results suggest a modulation of proactive but not reactive mechanisms of cognitive control. Furthermore, task-related EEG changes show a distinct pattern for fm-theta after training between the NF and the pseudo-neurofeedback group, which indicates that NF training indeed tackles EFs-networks. In sum, the modulation of fm-theta via NF may serve as potent treatment approach for executive dysfunctions. PMID:25538585

  7. Respiratory health effects of air pollution: update on biomass smoke and traffic pollution.

    PubMed

    Laumbach, Robert J; Kipen, Howard M

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued importance of emissions from domestic fires burning biomass fuels, primarily in the less-developed world. Emissions from these sources lead to personal exposures to complex mixtures of air pollutants that change rapidly in space and time because of varying emission rates, distances from source, ventilation rates, and other factors. Although the high degree of variability in personal exposure to pollutants from these sources remains a challenge, newer methods for measuring and modeling these exposures are beginning to unravel complex associations with asthma and other respiratory tract diseases. These studies indicate that air pollution from these sources is a major preventable cause of increased incidence and exacerbation of respiratory disease. Physicians can help to reduce the risk of adverse respiratory effects of exposure to biomass and traffic air pollutants by promoting awareness and supporting individual and community-level interventions.

  8. Respiratory Health Effects of Air Pollution: Update on Biomass Smoke and Traffic Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Laumbach, Robert J.; Kipen, Howard M.

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued importance of emissions from domestic fires burning biomass fuels primarily in the less-developed world. Emissions from these sources lead to personal exposures to complex mixtures of air pollutants that change rapidly in space and time due to varying emission rates, distances from source, ventilation rates, and other factors. Although the high degree of variability in personal exposure to pollutants from these sources remains a challenge, newer methods for measuring and modeling these exposures are beginning to unravel complex associations with asthma and other respiratory disease. These studies indicate that air pollution from these sources is a major preventable cause of increased incidence and exacerbation of respiratory disease. Physicians can help to reduce the risk of adverse respiratory effects of exposure to biomass and traffic air pollutants by promoting awareness and supporting individual and community-level interventions. PMID:22196520

  9. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-31

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts on governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  10. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts an governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  11. Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Pope, C Arden; Brook, Jeffrey R; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Holguin, Fernando; Hong, Yuling; Luepker, Russell V; Mittleman, Murray A; Peters, Annette; Siscovick, David; Smith, Sidney C; Whitsel, Laurie; Kaufman, Joel D

    2010-06-01

    In 2004, the first American Heart Association scientific statement on "Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease" concluded that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the interim, numerous studies have expanded our understanding of this association and further elucidated the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved. The main objective of this updated American Heart Association scientific statement is to provide a comprehensive review of the new evidence linking PM exposure with cardiovascular disease, with a specific focus on highlighting the clinical implications for researchers and healthcare providers. The writing group also sought to provide expert consensus opinions on many aspects of the current state of science and updated suggestions for areas of future research. On the basis of the findings of this review, several new conclusions were reached, including the following: Exposure to PM <2.5 microm in diameter (PM(2.5)) over a few hours to weeks can trigger cardiovascular disease-related mortality and nonfatal events; longer-term exposure (eg, a few years) increases the risk for cardiovascular mortality to an even greater extent than exposures over a few days and reduces life expectancy within more highly exposed segments of the population by several months to a few years; reductions in PM levels are associated with decreases in cardiovascular mortality within a time frame as short as a few years; and many credible pathological mechanisms have been elucidated that lend biological plausibility to these findings. It is the opinion of the writing group that the overall evidence is consistent with a causal relationship between PM(2.5) exposure and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This body of evidence has grown and been strengthened substantially since the first American Heart Association scientific statement was published. Finally, PM(2.5) exposure is deemed a modifiable factor

  12. Intronic regulation of Aire expression by Jmjd6 for self-tolerance induction in the thymus

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, Toyoshi; Sanematsu, Fumiyuki; Sato, Tetsuya; Uruno, Takehito; Duan, Xuefeng; Tomino, Takahiro; Harada, Yosuke; Watanabe, Mayuki; Wang, Yuqing; Tanaka, Yoshihiko; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Suyama, Mikita; Yoshinori, Fukui

    2015-01-01

    The thymus has spatially distinct microenvironments, the cortex and the medulla, where the developing T-cells are selected to mature or die through the interaction with thymic stromal cells. To establish the immunological self in the thymus, medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) express diverse sets of tissue-specific self-antigens (TSAs). This ectopic expression of TSAs largely depends on the transcriptional regulator Aire, yet the mechanism controlling Aire expression itself remains unknown. Here, we show that Jmjd6, a dioxygenase that catalyses lysyl hydroxylation of splicing regulatory proteins, is critical for Aire expression. Although Jmjd6 deficiency does not affect abundance of Aire transcript, the intron 2 of Aire gene is not effectively spliced out in the absence of Jmjd6, resulting in marked reduction of mature Aire protein in mTECs and spontaneous development of multi-organ autoimmunity in mice. These results highlight the importance of intronic regulation in controlling Aire protein expression. PMID:26531897

  13. Intronic regulation of Aire expression by Jmjd6 for self-tolerance induction in the thymus.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Toyoshi; Sanematsu, Fumiyuki; Sato, Tetsuya; Uruno, Takehito; Duan, Xuefeng; Tomino, Takahiro; Harada, Yosuke; Watanabe, Mayuki; Wang, Yuqing; Tanaka, Yoshihiko; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Suyama, Mikita; Yoshinori, Fukui

    2015-11-04

    The thymus has spatially distinct microenvironments, the cortex and the medulla, where the developing T-cells are selected to mature or die through the interaction with thymic stromal cells. To establish the immunological self in the thymus, medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) express diverse sets of tissue-specific self-antigens (TSAs). This ectopic expression of TSAs largely depends on the transcriptional regulator Aire, yet the mechanism controlling Aire expression itself remains unknown. Here, we show that Jmjd6, a dioxygenase that catalyses lysyl hydroxylation of splicing regulatory proteins, is critical for Aire expression. Although Jmjd6 deficiency does not affect abundance of Aire transcript, the intron 2 of Aire gene is not effectively spliced out in the absence of Jmjd6, resulting in marked reduction of mature Aire protein in mTECs and spontaneous development of multi-organ autoimmunity in mice. These results highlight the importance of intronic regulation in controlling Aire protein expression.

  14. 76 FR 24372 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Update to Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... ``Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions--Kent and Sussex Counties.'' 11. Regulation 1111 ``Carbon Monoxide... revisions containing new and/or revised regulations as being part of the SIP. On May 22, 1997 (62 FR 27968... 22, 1997 Federal Register document. On December 7, 1998, (63 FR 67407) EPA published a document...

  15. The Integration of Women Cadets into the Air Force Academy (An Update).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John W., Jr.

    A review of changes at the U.S. Air Force Academy since women entered as cadets in 1976 focuses on male student attitudes and male and female performance. It is found that in general women are succeeding well at the institution, competing favorably with men in academics, military training, and athletics. Overall attrition rates for women in the…

  16. 78 FR 78263 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Update of the Motor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... using the Highway Mobile Source Emission Factor Model (MOBILE6.2). On March 2, 2010 (75 FR 9411), EPA...-2013-0058, Cristina Fernandez, Associate Director, Office of Air Program Planning, Mailcode 3AP30, U.S... the index, some information is not publicly available, i.e., CBI or other information whose...

  17. 76 FR 52278 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Update to Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... for Floor Wax Strippers. 26.11.32.08 Requirements for 6/18/07 12/10/07 72 FR 69621 New Regulation... ] * * * * * * * 26.11.10.06 Control of Volatile 12/25/00 11/7/01 66 FR 56222 (c)(163). Organic Compounds from Iron... containing new and/or revised regulations as being part of the SIP. On May 22, 1997 (62 FR 27968),...

  18. Air Pollution Exposure and Blood Pressure: An Updated Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Giorgini, Paolo; Di Giosia, Paolo; Grassi, Davide; Rubenfire, Melvyn; Brook, Robert D; Ferri, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Both high arterial blood pressure (BP) and elevated levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution have been associated with an increased risk for several cardiovascular (CV) diseases, including stroke, heart failure, and myocardial infarction. Given that PM2.5 and high BP are each independently leading risk factors for premature mortality worldwide, a potential relationship between these factors would have tremendous public health repercussions. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize recent evidence linking air pollution and BP. Epidemiological findings demonstrate that particulate pollutants cause significant increases in BP parameters in relation to both short and long-term exposures, with robust evidence for exposures to PM2.5. Moreover, recent epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between residence within regions with higher levels of ambient PM and an increased incidence and prevalence of overt hypertension. Studies provide consistent results that elevated concentrations of pollutants increase hospital admissions and/or emergency visits for hypertensive disorders and also support that PM levels increases BP in vulnerable subsets of individuals (pregnant women, high CV risk individuals). In this context, PM-mediated BP elevations may be an important pathway which acts as a potential triggering factor for acute CV events. Mechanistic evidence illustrates plausible pathways by which acute and chronic exposures to air pollutants might disrupt hemodynamic balance favoring vasoconstriction, including autonomic imbalance and augmented release of various pro-oxidative, inflammatory and/or hemodynamically-active mediators. Together these responses may underlie PM-induced BP elevations; however, full details regarding the responsible mechanisms require further studies. As a consequence of the ubiquity of air pollution, even a small effect on raising BP and/or the prevalence of hypertension, i.e. the major risk factor for mortality

  19. Recent Developments in the Quantification and Regulation of Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations.

    PubMed

    Heinzen, Tarah

    2015-03-01

    Animal feeding operations (AFOs) emit various air pollutants, including ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, methane, and nitrous oxide. Several of these pollutants are regulated under federal clean air statutes, yet AFOs have largely escaped regulation under these laws because of challenges in accurately estimating the rate and quantity of emissions from various types of livestock operations. Recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) efforts to collect emissions data, develop an emissions model capable of estimating emissions at AFOs nationwide, and establish emissions estimating methodologies for certain key livestock air pollutants suffered from design flaws and omitted pollutants of concern. Moreover, this process seems to have stalled, delaying other regulatory reforms needed to increase transparency and increase regulation of these facilities. Until EPA establishes these methodologies, significant AFO pollution regulation under the Clean Air Act or emissions reporting statutes will be very difficult to achieve, and the public health and environmental impacts of these emissions will continue unabated. PMID:26231239

  20. Recent Developments in the Quantification and Regulation of Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations.

    PubMed

    Heinzen, Tarah

    2015-03-01

    Animal feeding operations (AFOs) emit various air pollutants, including ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, methane, and nitrous oxide. Several of these pollutants are regulated under federal clean air statutes, yet AFOs have largely escaped regulation under these laws because of challenges in accurately estimating the rate and quantity of emissions from various types of livestock operations. Recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) efforts to collect emissions data, develop an emissions model capable of estimating emissions at AFOs nationwide, and establish emissions estimating methodologies for certain key livestock air pollutants suffered from design flaws and omitted pollutants of concern. Moreover, this process seems to have stalled, delaying other regulatory reforms needed to increase transparency and increase regulation of these facilities. Until EPA establishes these methodologies, significant AFO pollution regulation under the Clean Air Act or emissions reporting statutes will be very difficult to achieve, and the public health and environmental impacts of these emissions will continue unabated.

  1. Autoimmunity, Not a Developmental Defect, is the Cause for Subfertility of Autoimmune Regulator (Aire) Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Kekäläinen, E; Pöntynen, N; Meri, S; Arstila, T P; Jarva, H

    2015-05-01

    Autoimmune regulator's (AIRE) best characterized role is in the generation immunological tolerance, but it is also involved in many other processes such as spermatogenesis. Loss-of-function mutations in AIRE cause a disease called autoimmune polyendocrinopathy, candidiasis and ectodermal dystrophy (APECED; also called autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1, APS-1) that is dominated by various autoimmune manifestations, mainly endocrinopathies. Both patients with APECED and Aire(-/-) mice suffer from varying levels of infertility, but it is not clear if it is a result of an autoimmune tissue damage or more of a developmental defect. In this study, we wanted to resolve whether or not the reduced fertility of Aire(-/-) mice is dependent on the adaptive immune system and therefore a manifestation of autoimmunity in these mice. We generated lymphopenic mice without Aire expression that were devoid of the autoimmune manifestations previously reported in immunocompetent Aire(-/-) mice. These Aire(-/-) Rag1(-/-) mice regained full fertility. This confirms that the development of infertility in Aire(-/-) mice requires a functional adaptive immune system. We also show that only the male Aire(-/-) mice are subfertile, whereas Aire(-/-) females produce litters normally. Moreover, the male subfertility can be adoptively transferred with lymphocytes from Aire(-/-) donor mice to previously fertile lymphopenic Aire(-/-) recipients. Our data show that subfertility in Aire(-/-) mice is dependent on a functional adaptive immune system thus confirming its autoimmune aetiology.

  2. Impact of Clean Air Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated impacts of Clean Air Act (CAA) nitrogen emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) models were used. Two scenar...

  3. Exploring Faraday's Law of Electrolysis Using Zinc-Air Batteries with Current Regulative Diodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamata, Masahiro; Paku, Miei

    2007-01-01

    Current regulative diodes (CRDs) are applied to develop new educational experiments on Faraday's law by using a zinc-air battery (PR2330) and a resistor to discharge it. The results concluded that the combination of zinc-air batteries and the CRD array is simpler, less expensive, and quantitative and gives accurate data.

  4. 76 FR 71881 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Update to Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... * * * * * * * Article 5 CAIR SO2 Allowance Allocations 5-140-3400 CAIR SO2 Annual 12/12/07 3/12/10, 75 FR 11738 1. In.../or revised regulations as being part of the SIP. On May 22, 1997 (62 FR 27968), EPA revised the... Register document. On April 21, 2000 (65 FR 21315), EPA published a Federal Register action beginning...

  5. 75 FR 6112 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Georgia: Update to Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    .../16/00 7/10/01, 66 FR 35906 Finishing and Cleaning Operations. 391-3-1-.02(2)(jjj) NOX Emissions from... containing new and/or revised regulations as being part of the SIP. On May 22, 1997, (62 FR 27968), EPA.... EPA's 1997 revised procedures were formally applied to Georgia on May 21, 1999 (64 FR 27699)....

  6. 78 FR 58465 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Update to Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    .../or revised regulations as being part of the SIP. On May 22, 1997 (62 FR 27968), EPA revised the... Register document. On December 7, 1998 (63 FR 67407), EPA published a document in the Federal Register beginning the new IBR procedure for Delaware. On June 21, 2004 (69 FR 34285), April 3, 2007 (72 FR...

  7. 76 FR 9652 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; District of Columbia; Update to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... revised regulations as being part of the SIP. On May 22, 1997 (62 FR 27968), EPA revised the procedures.... On December 7, 1998, (63 FR 67407) EPA ] published a document in the Federal Register beginning the new IBR procedure for the District of Columbia. On August 6, 2004 (69 FR 47773), September 6, 2005...

  8. Research Update: Direct conversion of amorphous carbon into diamond at ambient pressures and temperatures in air

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, Jagdish Bhaumik, Anagh

    2015-10-01

    We report on fundamental discovery of conversion of amorphous carbon into diamond by irradiating amorphous carbon films with nanosecond lasers at room-temperature in air at atmospheric pressure. We can create diamond in the form of nanodiamond (size range <100 nm) and microdiamond (>100 nm). Nanosecond laser pulses are used to melt amorphous diamondlike carbon and create a highly undercooled state, from which various forms of diamond can be formed upon cooling. The quenching from the super undercooled state results in nucleation of nanodiamond. It is found that microdiamonds grow out of highly undercooled state of carbon, with nanodiamond acting as seed crystals.

  9. An updated global grid point surface air temperature anomaly data set: 1851--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Sepanski, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Daniels, R.C.

    1991-10-01

    This document presents land-based monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1951--1970 reference period mean) on a 5{degree} latitude by 10{degree} longitude global grid. Monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1957--1975 reference period mean) for the Antarctic (grid points from 65{degree}S to 85{degree}S) are presented in a similar way as a separate data set. The data were derived primarily from the World Weather Records and the archives of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office. This long-term record of temperature anomalies may be used in studies addressing possible greenhouse-gas-induced climate changes. To date, the data have been employed in generating regional, hemispheric, and global time series for determining whether recent (i.e., post-1900) warming trends have taken place. This document also presents the monthly mean temperature records for the individual stations that were used to generate the set of gridded anomalies. The periods of record vary by station. Northern Hemisphere station data have been corrected for inhomogeneities, while Southern Hemisphere data are presented in uncorrected form. 14 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Navajo Generating Station and Air Visibility Regulations: Alternatives and Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Brinkman, G.; Funk, K.; Gelman, R.; Lantz, E.; Larney, C.; Peterson, D.; Worley, C.; Liebsch, E.

    2012-01-01

    Pursuant to the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in 2009 its intent to issue rules for controlling emissions from Navajo Generating Station that could affect visibility at the Grand Canyon and at several other national parks and wilderness areas. The final rule will conform to what EPA determines is the best available retrofit technology (BART) for the control of haze-causing air pollutants, especially nitrogen oxides. While EPA is ultimately responsible for setting Navajo Generating Station's BART standards in its final rule, it will be the U.S. Department of the Interior's responsibility to manage compliance and the related impacts. This study aims to assist both Interior and EPA by providing an objective assessment of issues relating to the power sector.

  11. An empirical analysis of exposure-based regulation to abate toxic air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Marakovits, D.M.; Considine, T.J.

    1996-11-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments requires the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate 189 air toxics, including emissions from by-product coke ovens. Economists criticize the inefficiency of uniform standards, but Title III makes no provision for flexible regulatory instruments. Environmental health scientists suggest that population exposure, not necessarily ambient air quality, should motivate environmental air pollution policies. Using an engineering-economic model of the United States steel industry, we estimate that an exposure-based policy can achieve the same level of public health as coke oven emissions standards and can reduce compliance costs by up to 60.0%. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  13. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Shindell, D. T.; Faluvegi, G.; Pinder, R. W.

    2015-11-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that reduces 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using NASA GISS ModelE2, we look at the impacts in year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions and the rest of the world emissions are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in the future but result in positive radiative forcing. Surface PM2.5 is reduced by ~ 2 μg m-3 on average over the US, and surface ozone by ~ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the US, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (~ 74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduces the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) by both aerosols direct and indirect forcing: total RF is ~ 0.04 W m-2 over the globe; ~ 0.8 W m-2 over the US. Under the hypothetical climate policy, future US energy relies less on coal and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it leads to climate dis-benefits over the US. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22 W m-2 due to positive aerosol direct and indirect forcing, while the global mean total RF is -0.06 W m-2 due to the dominant negative CO2 RF (instantaneous RF). To achieve a regional-scale climate benefit via a climate policy, it is critical (1) to have multi-national efforts to reduce GHGs emissions and (2) to target emission reduction of light-absorbing species (e.g., BC and O3) on top of long-lived species. The latter is very desirable as the

  14. Update Heat injuries, active component, U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, 2015.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    The incidence rate of heat stroke among active component members of the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps in 2015 was higher than rates in the previous 4 years. Incidence rates of heat stroke were higher among males, those younger than 20 years of age, Asian/Pacific Islanders, Marine Corps and Army members, and service members in combat-specific occupations, compared to their respective counterparts. More service members were treated for "other heat injuries" in 2015 (n=1,933) than in either of the previous 2 years. The incidence rate of "other heat injuries" was higher among females than males and rates were highest among service members younger than 20 years of age, among Army and Marine Corps members, among recruit trainees, and among service members in combat-specific occupations. During 2011-2015, 720 diagnoses of heat injuries were documented among service members serving in Iraq/Afghanistan; 6.9% (n=50) of those diagnoses were for heat stroke. PMID:27030928

  15. Old, the new, the states, the evolution of the regulation of air toxics. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Vecera, D.R.

    1993-02-14

    The activism associated with America in the 1960s spilled over into many areas, one of which was a new environmental movement. A product of that movement was the Clean Air Act passed in 1970. The new law included a selection aimed specifically at controlling emissions of hazardous or toxic air pollutants. However, over the next 20 years there was very little government regulation of air toxics, and this section of the Clean Air Act was considered to be a resounding failure. What went wrong. How did this lofty goal to protect human health and the environment end up on the back burner. The article will address the idealism that led to the Clean Air Act legislation, in particular the air toxics program, and explore the realities that scuttled those ideals when it came time to implement the law.

  16. Geologic investigation :an update of subsurface geology on Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hart, Dirk

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to generate a revised geologic model of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) incorporating the geological and geophysical data produced since the Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project (SWHC) of 1994 and 1995. Although this report has certain stand-alone characteristics, it is intended to complement the previous work and to serve as a status report as of late 2002. In the eastern portion of KAFB (Lurance Canyon and the Hubbell bench), of primary interest is the elevation to which bedrock is buried under a thin cap of alluvium. Elevation maps of the bedrock top reveal the paleodrainage that allows for the interpretation of the area's erosional history. The western portion of KAFB consists of the eastern part of the Albuquerque basin where bedrock is deeply buried under Santa Fe Group alluvium. In this area, the configuration of the down-to-the-west, basin-bounding Sandia and West Sandia faults is of primary interest. New geological and geophysical data and the reinterpretation of old data help to redefine the location and magnitude of these elements. Additional interests in this area are the internal stratigraphy and structure of the Santa Fe Group. Recent data collected from new monitoring wells in the area have led to a geologic characterization of the perched Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater system and have refined the known limits of the Ancestral Rio Grande fluvial sediments within the Santa Fe Group. Both the reinterpretation of the existing data and a review of the regional geology have shown that a segment of the boundary between the eastern and western portions of KAFB is a complicated early Tertiary (Laramide) wrench-fault system, the Tijeras/Explosive Ordnance Disposal Area/Hubbell Spring system. A portion of this fault zone is occupied by a coeval ''pull-apart'' basin filled with early Tertiary conglomerates, whose exposures form the ''Travertine Hills''.

  17. The economics of air quality regulation: the true costs of increased PM2.5 regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential best available control technologies (BACT) are being considered for promulgation by the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District and other jurisdictions in response to determinations of national ambient air quality standards non-attainment for ozone and PM2.5 by writing dairy-spec...

  18. Inconsistencies in Risk Analyses for Ambient Air Pollutant Regulations.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anne E

    2016-09-01

    This article describes inconsistencies between health risk analyses that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses to support its decisions on primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), and in the associated Regulatory Impact Analyses (RIAs) that accompany each NAAQS rulemaking. Quantitative risk estimates are prepared during the NAAQS-setting deliberations using inputs derived from statistical associations between measured pollutant concentrations and health effects. The resulting risk estimates are not directly used to set a NAAQS, but incorporated into a broader evidence-based rationale for the standard that is intended to demonstrate conformity with the statutory requirement that primary NAAQS protect the public health with a margin of safety. In a separate process, EPA staff rely on the same risk calculations to prepare estimates of the benefits of the rule that are reported in its RIA for the standard. Although NAAQS rules and their RIAs are released simultaneously, the rationales used to set the NAAQS have become inconsistent with their RIAs' estimates of benefits, with very large fractions of RIAs' risk-reduction estimates being attributed to populations living in areas that will already be attaining the respective NAAQS. This article explains the source of this inconsistency and provides a quantitative example based on the 2012 revision of the fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) primary NAAQS. This article also demonstrates how this inconsistency is amplified when criteria pollutant co-benefits are calculated in RIAs for non-NAAQS rules, using quantitative examples from the 2011 Mercury and Air Toxics Standards and the currently proposed Clean Power Plan.

  19. 75 FR 3423 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR... Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999); Is not an economically significant regulatory action based on health or safety risks subject to Executive Order 13045 (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997); Is not...

  20. 76 FR 15898 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations; Consistency Update for California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... Combustion Engines (Adopted 06/19/08) Rule 342 Control of Oxides of Nitrogen (NO X ) from Boilers, Steam... onshore requirements. \\1\\ See Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, December 5, 1991 (56 FR 63774), and the preamble to the final rule promulgated September 4, 1992 (57 FR 40792) for further background...

  1. 76 FR 43185 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Virginia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    .... Standard for dioxins/furans. 9VAC5-40-6050. Standard for hydrogen chloride. 9VAC5-40-6060. Standard for... for hydrogen chloride. 9VAC5-40-6310. Standard for sulfur dioxide. 9VAC5-40-6320. Standard for.... 9VAC5-40-6600. Standard for hydrogen chloride. 9VAC5-40-6610. Standard for sulfur dioxide....

  2. 75 FR 51950 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Massachusetts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    .../ 2010) Section 7.22: Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Reductions for the Purpose of Reducing Acid Rain... FR 63774), and the preamble to the final rule promulgated September 4, 1992 (57 FR 40792) for further... will be approved by EPA for inclusion in the SIP. On September 17, 2008 (73 FR 53718), EPA finalized...

  3. 76 FR 29156 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... (Adopted 06/11/79). Rule 333 Control of Emissions from Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (Adopted... Comment III. EPA Action IV. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews I. Background On January 10, 2011 (76 FR... action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58...

  4. 76 FR 1389 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... FR 63774), and the preamble to the final rule promulgated September 4, 1992 (57 FR 40792) for further... date 102 Definitions 09/20/10 202 Exemptions to Rule 201. 09/20/10 321 Solvent Cleaning 09/20/10 Machines and Solvent Cleaning. IV. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews A. Executive Order...

  5. 77 FR 61308 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations; Consistency Update for California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... 5, 1991 (56 FR 63774), and the preamble to the final rule promulgated September 4, 1992 (57 FR 40792... Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735 (October 4, 1993)), the Agency must determine whether the regulatory... on March 1, 2006 (71 FR 10499- 10500). The approval expires January 31, 2009. As EPA...

  6. 76 FR 7518 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... 5, 1991 (56 FR 63774), and the preamble to the final rule promulgated September 4, 1992 (57 FR 40792... A. Executive Order 12866: Regulatory Planning and Review Under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735... 13132: Federalism Executive Orders 13132, entitled ``Federalism'' (64 FR 43255 (August 10,...

  7. Autoimmune regulator (Aire) controls the expression of microRNAs in medullary thymic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Claudia; Evangelista, Adriane F; Marques, Márcia M; Octacílio-Silva, Shirlei; Donadi, Eduardo A; Sakamoto-Hojo, Elza T; Passos, Geraldo A

    2013-04-01

    The autoimmune regulator (Aire) is a transcription factor that controls the ectopic expression of a large set of peripheral tissue antigen (PTA) genes in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). Recent evidence has demonstrated that Aire releases stalled RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) from blockage at the promoter region of its target genes. Given that, in addition to messenger RNAs (mRNA), RNA Pol II also transcribes microRNAs (miRNAs), we raised the hypothesis that Aire might play a role as an upstream controller of miRNA transcription. To test this, we initially analyzed the expression profiles of 662 miRNAs in control and Aire-silenced (siRNA) murine mTEC 3.10 cells using microarrays. The bioinformatics programs SAM and Cluster-TreeView were then used to identify the differentially expressed miRNAs and their profiles, respectively. Thirty Aire-dependent miRNAs were identified in the Aire-silenced mTECs, of which 18 were up- and 12 were down-regulated. The down-regulated miR-376 family was the focus of this study because its members (miR-376a, miR-376b and miR-376c) are located in the genome within the Gm2922 open-reading frame (ORF) gene segment on the chromosome 12F1. The T-boxes (TTATTA) and G-boxes (GATTGG), which represent putative RNA Pol II promoter motifs, were located in a portion spanning 10 kb upstream of the ATG codon of Gm2922. Moreover, we found that Gm2922 encodes an mRNA, which was also down-regulated in Aire-silenced mTECs. These results represent the first evidence that Aire can play a role as a controller of transcription of miRNAs located within genomic regions encompassing ORF and/or mRNA genes.

  8. FBXO3 Protein Promotes Ubiquitylation and Transcriptional Activity of AIRE (Autoimmune Regulator).

    PubMed

    Shao, Wei; Zumer, Kristina; Fujinaga, Koh; Peterlin, B Matija

    2016-08-19

    The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is a transcription factor which is expressed in medullary thymic epithelial cells. It directs the expression of otherwise tissue-specific antigens, which leads to the elimination of autoreactive T cells during development. AIRE is modified post-translationally by phosphorylation and ubiquitylation. In this report we connected these modifications. AIRE, which is phosphorylated on two specific residues near its N terminus, then binds to the F-box protein 3 (FBXO3) E3 ubiquitin ligase. In turn, this SCF(FBXO3) (SKP1-CUL1-F box) complex ubiquitylates AIRE, increases its binding to the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), and potentiates its transcriptional activity. Because P-TEFb is required for the transition from initiation to elongation of transcription, this interaction ensures proper expression of AIRE-responsive tissue-specific antigens in the thymus.

  9. Environmental regulations on air pollution in China and their impact on infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shinsuke

    2015-07-01

    This study explores the impact of environmental regulations in China on infant mortality. In 1998, the Chinese government imposed stringent air pollution regulations, in one of the first large-scale regulatory attempts in a developing country. We find that the infant mortality rate fell by 20 percent in the treatment cities designated as "Two Control Zones." The greatest reduction in mortality occurred during the neonatal period, highlighting an important pathophysiologic mechanism, and was largest among infants born to mothers with low levels of education. The finding is robust to various alternative hypotheses and specifications. Further, a falsification test using deaths from causes unrelated to air pollution supports these findings.

  10. Air pollution prevention through urban heat island mitigation: An update on the urban heat island pilot project

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsevski, V.; Taha, H.; Quattrochi, D.; Luvall, J.

    1998-07-01

    Urban heat islands increase the demand for cooling energy and accelerate the formation of smog. They are created when natural vegetation is replaced by heat-absorbing surfaces such as building roofs and walls, parking lots, and streets. Through the implementation of measures designed to mitigate the urban heat island, communities can decrease their demand for energy and effectively cool the metropolitan landscape. In addition to the economic benefits, using less energy leads to reductions in emission of CO{sub 2}--a greenhouse gas--as well as ozone (smog) precursors such as NOx and VOCs. Because ozone is created when NOx and VOCs photochemically combine with heat and solar radiation, actions taken to lower ambient air temperature can significantly reduce ozone concentrations in certain areas. Measures to reverse the urban heat island include afforestation and the widespread use of highly reflective surfaces. To demonstrate the potential benefits of implementing these measures, EPA has teamed up with NASA and LBNL to initiate a pilot project with three US cities. As part of the pilot, NASA will use remotely-sensed data to quantify surface temperature, albedo, the thermal response number and NDVI vegetation of each city. This information will be used by scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) along with other data as inputs to model various scenarios that will help quantify the potential benefits of urban heat island mitigation measures in terms of reduced energy use and pollution. This paper will briefly describe this pilot project and provide an update on the progress to date.

  11. The effects of air pollution regulations on the US refining industry. Task 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Numerous air pollution regulations affecting petroleum refineries recently have been promulgated, have been proposed, or are under consideration at the federal, state, and local level. As shown in Figure ES-1, all of these environmental regulations are intended to take effect over the relatively short time period from 1989 through 1995. In the aggregate these regulatory activities have significant implications for the US refining industry and the Nation, including: Major investment requirements; changes in industry profitability; potential closure of some refineries; and potential changes in crude oil or product import dependence. At issue is whether the cumulative effect of these regulations could so adversely affect the US refining industry that US national security would be affected. In addition to the regulations outlined in Figure ES-1, President Bush recently presented a major new plan to improve the nation`s air quality. The aspects of the President`s plan that could strongly affect US refineries are summarized below.

  12. Potential Impact of a US Climate Policy and Air Quality Regulations on Future Air Quality and Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Faluvegi, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50% below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micron PM(sub 2:5) is reduced by 2 approximately µg/m(sup -3) on average over the USA, and surface ozone by approximately 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM(sub 2:5) reduction approximately (74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is approximately 0.04 W m(sup -2) over the globe, and approximately 0.8 W m(sup -2) over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US

  13. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yunha; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Pinder, Rob W.

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is reduced by ˜ 2 µg m-3 on average over the USA, and surface ozone by ˜ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (˜ 74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is ˜ 0.04 W m-2 over the globe, and ˜ 0.8 W m-2 over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22 W m-2 due to positive aerosol direct and indirect forcing

  14. The variable immunological self: Genetic variation and nongenetic noise in Aire-regulated transcription

    PubMed Central

    Venanzi, Emily S.; Melamed, Rachel; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    The Aire transcription factor plays an important role in immunological self-tolerance by mediating the ectopic expression of peripheral self-antigens by thymic medullary epithelial cells (MECs), and the deletion of thymocytes that recognize them. In Aire-deficient humans or mice, central tolerance is incomplete and multiorgan autoimmune disease results. We examined the variability of Aire's effects on ectopic transcription among individual mice of three different inbred strains. Aire's function was, overall, quite similar in the three backgrounds, although generally stronger in C57BL/6 than in BALB/c or NOD mice, and a minority of Aire-regulated genes did show clear differences. Gene expression profiling of wild-type MECs from single mice, or from the two thymic lobes of the same mouse, revealed significantly greater variability in Aire-controlled ectopic gene expression than in Aire-independent transcripts. This “noisy” ectopic expression did not result from parental or early developmental imprinting, but from programming occurring after the formation of the thymic anlage, resulting from epigenetic effects or from the stochastic nature of Aire activity. Together, genetic and nongenetic variability in ectopic expression of peripheral antigens in the thymus make for differences in the portion of self determinants presented for tolerance induction. This variable self may be beneficial in preventing uniform holes in the T-cell repertoire in individuals of a species, but at the cost of variable susceptibility to autoimmunity. PMID:18838677

  15. 77 FR 35921 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Item Unique Identifier Update (DFARS Case 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... and efficiency; and (e) Ensures item level traceability throughout lifecycle to strengthen supply... nonreparable); and (vi) High risk item identified by the requiring activity as vulnerable to supply chain... following methods: Regulations.gov : http://www.regulations.gov . Submit comments via the Federal...

  16. 75 FR 25772 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Revisions to Regulation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... available, e.g., CBI or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, will be publicly available only in hard copy. Publicly-available docket materials are available either electronically in www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the Air...

  17. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-...

  18. The biophysical and biochemical properties of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein.

    PubMed

    Perniola, Roberto; Musco, Giovanna

    2014-02-01

    AIRE (for autoimmune regulator) is a multidomain protein that performs a fundamental function in the thymus and possibly in the secondary lymphoid organs: the regulation, especially in the sense of activation, of the process of gene transcription in cell lines deputed to the presentation of self-antigens to the maturing T lymphocytes. The apoptosis of the elements bearing T-cell receptors with critical affinity for the exhibited self-antigens prevents the escape of autoreactive clones and represents a simple and efficient mechanism of deletional self-tolerance. However, AIRE action relies on an articulated complex of biophysical and biochemical properties, in most cases attributable to single subspecialized domains. Here a thorough review of the matter is presented, with a privileged look at the pathogenic changes of AIRE that interfere with such properties and lead to the impairment in its chief function.

  19. Models of aire-dependent gene regulation for thymic negative selection.

    PubMed

    Danso-Abeam, Dina; Humblet-Baron, Stephanie; Dooley, James; Liston, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene lead to autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1 (APS1), characterized by the development of multi-organ autoimmune damage. The mechanism by which defects in AIRE result in autoimmunity has been the subject of intense scrutiny. At the cellular level, the working model explains most of the clinical and immunological characteristics of APS1, with AIRE driving the expression of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in the epithelial cells of the thymic medulla. This TRA expression results in effective negative selection of TRA-reactive thymocytes, preventing autoimmune disease. At the molecular level, the mechanism by which AIRE initiates TRA expression in the thymic medulla remains unclear. Multiple different models for the molecular mechanism have been proposed, ranging from classical transcriptional activity, to random induction of gene expression, to epigenetic tag recognition effect, to altered cell biology. In this review, we evaluate each of these models and discuss their relative strengths and weaknesses.

  20. Urban air pollution produces up-regulation of myocardial inflammatory genes and dark chocolate provides cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Reed, William; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2012-05-01

    Air pollution is a serious environmental problem. Elderly subjects show increased cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with air pollution exposure. Mexico City (MC) residents are chronically exposed to high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and PM-associated lipopolysaccharides (PM-LPS). To test the hypothesis that chronic exposure to urban pollution produces myocardial inflammation, female Balb-c mice age 4 weeks were exposed for 16 months to two distinctly different polluted areas within MC: southwest (SW) and northwest (NW). SW mice were given either no treatment or chocolate 2g/9.5 mg polyphenols/3 times per week. Results were compared to mice kept in clean air. Key inflammatory mediator genes: cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the LPS receptor CD14 (cluster of differentiation antigen 14) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Also explored were target NFκB (nuclear factor κB), oxidative stress and antioxidant defense genes. TNF-α, IL-6, and COX-2 were significantly increased in both NW and SWMC mice (p=0.0001). CD14 was up-regulated in SW mice in keeping with the high exposures to particulate matter associated endotoxin. Chocolate administration resulted in a significant down-regulation of TNF-α (p<0.0001), IL-6 (p=0.01), and IL-1β (p=0.02). The up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and the down-regulation of potent oxidases, toll-like receptors, and pro-apoptotic signaling genes completed the protective profile. Exposure to air pollution produces up-regulation of inflammatory myocardial genes and endotoxin plays a key role in the inflammatory response. Regular consumption of dark chocolate may reduce myocardial inflammation and have cardioprotective properties in the setting of air pollution exposures. PMID:20932730

  1. Urban Air Pollution Produces Up-Regulation of Myocardial Inflammatory Genes and Dark Chocolate Provides Cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Reed, William; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is a serious environmental problem. Elderly subjects show increased cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with air pollution exposure. Mexico City (MC) residents are chronically exposed to high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and PM-associated lipopolysaccharides (PM-LPS). To test the hypothesis that chronic exposure to urban pollution produces myocardial inflammation, female Balb-c mice age 4 weeks were exposed for 16 months to two distinctly different polluted areas within MC: Southwest (SW) and Northwest (NW). SW mice were given either no treatment or chocolate 2g/9.5 mg polyphenols/3 times per week. Results were compared to mice kept in clean air. Key inflammatory mediator genes: cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the LPS receptor CD14 (cluster of differentiation antigen 14) were measured by real time polymerase chain reaction. Also explored were target NFκB (Nuclear Factor κ B), oxidative stress and antioxidant defense genes. TNF-α, IL-6, and COX-2 were significantly increased in both NW and SWMC mice (p=0.0001). CD14 was up-regulated in SW mice in keeping with the high exposures to particulate matter associated endotoxin. Chocolate administration resulted in a significant down-regulation of TNF-α (p<0.0001), IL-6 (p=0.01), and IL-1β (p=0.02). The up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and the down-regulation of potent oxidases, toll-like receptors, and pro-apoptotic signaling genes completed the protective profile. Exposure to air pollution produces up-regulation of inflammatory myocardial genes and endotoxin plays a key role in the inflammatory response. Regular consumption of dark chocolate may reduce myocardial inflammation and have cardioprotective properties in the setting of air pollution exposures. PMID:20932730

  2. Functional Domains of Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) Modulate INS-VNTR Transcription in Human Thymic Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Avis E; Chen, Chiachen; Breslin, Mary B; Lan, Michael S

    2016-05-20

    INS-VNTR (insulin-variable number of tandem repeats) and AIRE (autoimmune regulator) have been associated with the modulation of insulin gene expression in thymus, which is essential to induce either insulin tolerance or the development of insulin autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. We sought to analyze whether each functional domain of AIRE is critical for the activation of INS-VNTR in human thymic epithelial cells. Twelve missense or nonsense mutations in AIRE and two chimeric AIRE constructs were generated. A luciferase reporter assay and a pulldown assay using biotinylated INS-class I VNTR probe were performed to examine the transactivation and binding activities of WT, mutant, and chimeric AIREs on the INS-VNTR promoter. Confocal microscopy analysis was performed for WT or mutant AIRE cellular localization. We found that all of the AIRE mutations resulted in loss of transcriptional activation of INS-VNTR except mutant P252L. Using WT/mutant AIRE heterozygous forms to modulate the INS-VNTR target revealed five mutations (R257X, G228W, C311fsX376, L397fsX478, and R433fsX502) that functioned in a dominant negative fashion. The LXXLL-3 motif is identified for the first time to be essential for DNA binding to INS-VNTR, whereas the intact PHD1, PHD2, LXXLL-3, and LXXLL-4 motifs were important for successful transcriptional activation. AIRE nuclear localization in the human thymic epithelial cell line was disrupted by mutations in the homogenously staining region domain and the R257X mutation in the PHD1 domain. This study supports the notion that AIRE mutation could specifically affect human insulin gene expression in thymic epithelial cells through INS-VNTR and subsequently induce either insulin tolerance or autoimmunity. PMID:27048654

  3. Functional Domains of Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) Modulate INS-VNTR Transcription in Human Thymic Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Avis E; Chen, Chiachen; Breslin, Mary B; Lan, Michael S

    2016-05-20

    INS-VNTR (insulin-variable number of tandem repeats) and AIRE (autoimmune regulator) have been associated with the modulation of insulin gene expression in thymus, which is essential to induce either insulin tolerance or the development of insulin autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. We sought to analyze whether each functional domain of AIRE is critical for the activation of INS-VNTR in human thymic epithelial cells. Twelve missense or nonsense mutations in AIRE and two chimeric AIRE constructs were generated. A luciferase reporter assay and a pulldown assay using biotinylated INS-class I VNTR probe were performed to examine the transactivation and binding activities of WT, mutant, and chimeric AIREs on the INS-VNTR promoter. Confocal microscopy analysis was performed for WT or mutant AIRE cellular localization. We found that all of the AIRE mutations resulted in loss of transcriptional activation of INS-VNTR except mutant P252L. Using WT/mutant AIRE heterozygous forms to modulate the INS-VNTR target revealed five mutations (R257X, G228W, C311fsX376, L397fsX478, and R433fsX502) that functioned in a dominant negative fashion. The LXXLL-3 motif is identified for the first time to be essential for DNA binding to INS-VNTR, whereas the intact PHD1, PHD2, LXXLL-3, and LXXLL-4 motifs were important for successful transcriptional activation. AIRE nuclear localization in the human thymic epithelial cell line was disrupted by mutations in the homogenously staining region domain and the R257X mutation in the PHD1 domain. This study supports the notion that AIRE mutation could specifically affect human insulin gene expression in thymic epithelial cells through INS-VNTR and subsequently induce either insulin tolerance or autoimmunity.

  4. Projections of air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility combustion: Input for hazardous air pollutant regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required by the 1990 CAAA to promulgate rules for all ``major`` sources of any of these HAPs. According to the HAPs section of the new Title III, any stationary source emitting 10 tons per year (TPY) of one HAP or 25 TPY of a combination of HAPs will be considered and designated a major source. In contrast to the original National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which were designed to protect public health to ``an ample margin of safety,`` the new Title III, in its first phase, will regulate by industrial category those sources emitting HAPs in excess of the 10/25-TPY threshold levels, regardless of health risks. The trace elements normally associated with coal mineral matter and the various compounds formed during coal combustion have the potential to produce hazardous air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Under Title III, the EPA is required to perform certain studies, prior to any regulation of electric utilities; these studies are currently underway. Also, the US Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a vested interest in addressing those energy policy questions affecting electric utility generation, coal mining, and steel producing critical to this country`s economic well-being, where balancing the costs to the producers and users of energy with the benefits of environmental protection to the workers and the general populace remains of significant concern.

  5. Dominant Mutations in the Autoimmune Regulator AIRE Are Associated with Common Organ-Specific Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Oftedal, Bergithe E; Hellesen, Alexander; Erichsen, Martina M; Bratland, Eirik; Vardi, Ayelet; Perheentupa, Jaakko; Kemp, E Helen; Fiskerstrand, Torunn; Viken, Marte K; Weetman, Anthony P; Fleishman, Sarel J; Banka, Siddharth; Newman, William G; Sewell, W A C; Sozaeva, Leila S; Zayats, Tetyana; Haugarvoll, Kristoffer; Orlova, Elizaveta M; Haavik, Jan; Johansson, Stefan; Knappskog, Per M; Løvås, Kristian; Wolff, Anette S B; Abramson, Jakub; Husebye, Eystein S

    2015-06-16

    The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene is crucial for establishing central immunological tolerance and preventing autoimmunity. Mutations in AIRE cause a rare autosomal-recessive disease, autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1), distinguished by multi-organ autoimmunity. We have identified multiple cases and families with mono-allelic mutations in the first plant homeodomain (PHD1) zinc finger of AIRE that followed dominant inheritance, typically characterized by later onset, milder phenotypes, and reduced penetrance compared to classical APS-1. These missense PHD1 mutations suppressed gene expression driven by wild-type AIRE in a dominant-negative manner, unlike CARD or truncated AIRE mutants that lacked such dominant capacity. Exome array analysis revealed that the PHD1 dominant mutants were found with relatively high frequency (>0.0008) in mixed populations. Our results provide insight into the molecular action of AIRE and demonstrate that disease-causing mutations in the AIRE locus are more common than previously appreciated and cause more variable autoimmune phenotypes.

  6. Air quality in natural areas: interface between the public, science and regulation.

    PubMed

    Percy, K E; Karnosky, D F

    2007-10-01

    Natural areas are important interfaces between air quality, the public, science and regulation. In the United States and Canada, national parks received over 315million visits during 2004. Many natural areas have been experiencing decreased visibility, increased ozone (O(3)) levels and elevated nitrogen deposition. Ozone is the most pervasive air pollutant in North American natural areas. There is an extensive scientific literature on O(3) exposure-tree response in chambered environments and, lately, free-air exposure systems. Yet, less is known about O(3) impacts on natural terrestrial ecosystems. To advance scientifically defensible O(3) risk assessment for natural forest areas, species-level measurement endpoints must be socially, economically and ecologically relevant. Exposure-based indices, based on appropriate final endpoints, present an underused opportunity to meet this need. Exposure-plant indices should have a high degree of statistical significance, have high goodness of fit, be biologically plausible and include confidence intervals to define uncertainty. They must be supported by exposure-response functions and be easy to use within an air quality regulation context. Ozone exposure-response indices developed within an ambient air context have great potential for improving risk assessment in natural forest areas and enhancing scientific literacy.

  7. Keratin-dependent regulation of Aire and gene expression in skin tumor keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Ryan P; DePianto, Daryle J; Jacob, Justin T; Han, Minerva C; Chung, Byung-Min; Batazzi, Adriana S; Poll, Brian G; Guo, Yajuan; Han, Jingnan; Ong, SuFey; Zheng, Wenxin; Taube, Janis M; Čiháková, Daniela; Wan, Fengyi; Coulombe, Pierre A

    2015-08-01

    Expression of the intermediate filament protein keratin 17 (K17) is robustly upregulated in inflammatory skin diseases and in many tumors originating in stratified and pseudostratified epithelia. We report that autoimmune regulator (Aire), a transcriptional regulator, is inducibly expressed in human and mouse tumor keratinocytes in a K17-dependent manner and is required for timely onset of Gli2-induced skin tumorigenesis in mice. The induction of Aire mRNA in keratinocytes depends on a functional interaction between K17 and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein hnRNP K. Further, K17 colocalizes with Aire protein in the nucleus of tumor-prone keratinocytes, and each factor is bound to a specific promoter region featuring an NF-κB consensus sequence in a relevant subset of K17- and Aire-dependent proinflammatory genes. These findings provide radically new insight into keratin intermediate filament and Aire function, along with a molecular basis for the K17-dependent amplification of inflammatory and immune responses in diseased epithelia.

  8. Review of current and anticipated regulations on air protection in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Jilek, P.; Novotny, V.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental issues, especially the solution of the air pollution problem, have taken on great significance in the Czech Republic (which was a part of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic until the end of 1992) since the 1989 {open_quotes}Velvet{close_quotes} Revolution. The former CSFR Federal Committee for the Environment and both the Republic Ministries started immediately with creating new environmental legislation, which is the main governmental tool for protecting the environment in the newly developing democracy state system with a market oriented economy. The inspiration for that activity was found in legislation of developed countries - member states of the European Union, and in German environmental law in particular. This paper surveys the major laws and regulations that gradually came into force in the Czech Republic since 1990. The provisions of the primary significance are the Act No.309/1991 S.B., dated July 9, 1991, on the protection of the air against pollutants - The Clean Air Act, the Act No.218/1992 S.B., dated April 27, 1992, which changes and supplements the Act No.309 - The Clean Air Act, the Measure of the Federal Committee for the Environment of October 1, 1991 to the Clean Air Act, and its amended wordings of June 23, 1992, 84/1991 S.B., and 84/1992 S.B., the Act No.389/1991 S.B., dated September 10, 1991 on the state administration of air protection and charges for the pollution of air, and several regulations based on the Act No.389/1991 S.B., issued in the period 1992 -1993.

  9. 75 FR 53864 - Updated Statements of Legal Authority for the Export Administration Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ..., Inventions and patents, Research, Science and technology. 15 CFR Parts 736, 738, 770, and 772 Exports. 15 CFR... Regarding Export Control Regulations (74 FR 50681, August 16, 2010), which is the most recent such annual... recordkeeping requirements, Science and technology. 0 Accordingly, parts 730, 732, 734, 736, 738, 740, 742,...

  10. 76 FR 58393 - Updated Statements of Legal Authority for the Export Administration Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... procedure, Exports, Inventions and patents, Research, Science and technology. 15 CFR Parts 736, 738, 770... notice of August 12, 2011--Continuation of Emergency Regarding Export Control Regulations (76 FR 50661... procedure, Exports, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Science and technology. Accordingly, parts...

  11. 77 FR 56766 - Updated Statements of Legal Authority for the Export Administration Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... 746 of the EAR with respect to Syria is based in part on Executive Order 13338, 69 FR 26751, 3 CFR... August 15, 2012--Continuation of Emergency Regarding Export Control Regulations, 77 FR 49699 (August 16... Actions of the Government of Syria, 77 FR 27559 (May 10, 2012), which is the most recent such...

  12. 77 FR 76938 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Contracting Activity Updates (DFARS Case 2012...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation. Paragraph (a)(1) of the statute requires that a procurement policy... 13563 Executive Orders (E.O.s) 12866 and 13563 direct agencies to assess all costs and benefits of..., distributive impacts, and equity). E.O. 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and...

  13. 76 FR 5104 - Seaway Regulations and Rules: Periodic Update, Various Categories

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... Management and Budget review. List of Subjects in 33 CFR Part 401 Hazardous materials transportation.... Mail: Docket Management Facility; U.S. Department of Transportation, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., West....Regulations.gov ; or in person at the Docket Management Facility; U.S. Department of Transportation,...

  14. 76 FR 13088 - Seaway Regulations and Rules: Periodic Update, Various Categories

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... materials transportation, Navigation (water), Penalties, Radio, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements... TRANSPORTATION Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation 33 CFR Part 401 RIN 2135-AA29 Seaway Regulations and... Rulemaking was published in the Federal Register on January28, 2011 (76 FR 5104). No comments were...

  15. Down-regulation of microRNA-144 in air pollution-related lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hong-Li; Wen, Zhe-Sheng; Huang, Yun-Chao; Cheng, Xin; Wang, Gui-Zhen; Zhou, Yong-Chun; Wang, Zai-Yong; Guo, Yong-Qing; Cao, Yi; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2015-09-23

    Air pollution has been classified as a group 1 carcinogen in humans, but the underlying tumourigenic mechanisms remain unclear. In Xuanwei city of Yunnan Province, the lung cancer incidence is among the highest in China, owing to severe air pollution generated by the combustion of smoky coal, providing a unique opportunity to dissect lung carcinogenesis. To identify abnormal miRNAs critical for air pollution-related tumourigenesis, we performed microRNA microarray analysis in 6 Xuanwei non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and 4 NSCLCs from control regions where smoky coal was not used. We found 13 down-regulated and 2 up-regulated miRNAs in Xuanwei NSCLCs. Among them, miR-144 was one of the most significantly down-regulated miRNAs. The expanded experiments showed that miR-144 was down-regulated in 45/51 (88.2%) Xuanwei NSCLCs and 34/54 (63%) control region NSCLCs (p = 0.016). MiR-144 interacted with the oncogene Zeb1 at 2 sites in its 3' untranslated region, and a decrease in miR-144 resulted in increased Zeb1 expression and an epithelial mesenchymal transition phenotype. Ectopic expression of miR-144 suppressed NSCLCs in vitro and in vivo by targeting Zeb1. These results indicate that down-regulation of miR-144 is critical for air pollution-related lung cancer, and the miR-144-Zeb1 signalling pathway could represent a potential therapeutic target.

  16. Maryland's efforts to develop regulations creating an air emissions offset trading program

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, D.M.; Zaw-Mon, M.

    1999-07-01

    Under the federal Clean Air Act's New Source Review program, many companies located in or planning to locate in areas that do not meet federal air quality standards or in the Northeast Ozone Transport Region (northern Virginia to Maine) must obtain emission reductions (called offsets) of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides that are greater than the new emissions that will be released. This offset requirement allows growth in industry while protecting air quality against deterioration. Despite the federal offset requirement, a formal banking and trading program is not mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Still, a mechanism is needed to ensure that emission reduction credits (ERCs) are available for sources to use to meet the offset requirement. Currently, Maryland does not have regulations covering the sale or transfer of ERCs from one facility to another. Maryland works with industry on a case-by-case basis to identify potential sources of ERCs and to assist in obtaining them. Then, the offset requirement and the ERCs used to meet the offsets are incorporated into individual permits using various permitting mechanisms. Desiring certainty and stability in the banking and trading process, Maryland's business community has pressed for regulations to formalize Maryland's procedures. Working over several years through a stakeholder process, Maryland has developed concepts for a trading program and a draft regulation. This paper describes Maryland's current case-by-case banking and trading procedure and traces efforts to develop a regulation to formalize the process. The paper discusses complex policy issues related to establishing a banking and trading program, describes the principal elements of Maryland's draft regulation, and summarizes elements of other states' emissions banking and trading programs.

  17. RCRA/UST, superfund, and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Air emissions standards, updated as of July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The module provides a regulatory overview of the RCRA air emission standards as they apply to hazardous waste facilities. It outlines the history of RCRA air emission standards as well as the air emission controls required by the standards. It explains the differences between the parts 264/265, Subpart AA BB, CC, air emission standards and summarizes the requirements of each of these Subparts. It identifies the types of units subject to these requirements as well as specific exemptions.

  18. Irisin, an exercise-induced myokine as a metabolic regulator: an updated narrative review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ning; Li, Qingxue; Liu, Jun; Jia, Shaohui

    2016-01-01

    Irisin, as a new hormone-like myokine, is discovered in the presence of exercise-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1-alpha (PGC-1α). Which substance plays an important role in energy metabolism in each organ in the body and the regulation of metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The finding of irisin can contribute to the exploration of the novel and effective therapeutic targets or therapeutic strategies of these metabolic diseases or metabolism-associated health issues. To date, little is known regarding the functions and regulatory mechanisms of irisin with respect to metabolic diseases or metabolism-associated health issues. In this narrative review article, we systematically introduce its structural characteristics, production and distribution in tissues and organs, and the regulation and corresponding mechanisms for metabolic diseases or metabolism-associated health issues of irisin. Meanwhile, its future prospects and the development of irisin-related products for the promotion of human health have also been proposed, which will benefit future research and application of irisin. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Regulation of assimilate import into sink organs: update on molecular drivers of sink strength

    PubMed Central

    Bihmidine, Saadia; Hunter, Charles T.; Johns, Christine E.; Koch, Karen E.; Braun, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments have altered our view of molecular mechanisms that determine sink strength, defined here as the capacity of non-photosynthetic structures to compete for import of photoassimilates. We review new findings from diverse systems, including stems, seeds, flowers, and fruits. An important advance has been the identification of new transporters and facilitators with major roles in the accumulation and equilibration of sugars at a cellular level. Exactly where each exerts its effect varies among systems. Sugarcane and sweet sorghum stems, for example, both accumulate high levels of sucrose, but may do so via different paths. The distinction is central to strategies for targeted manipulation of sink strength using transporter genes, and shows the importance of system-specific analyses. Another major advance has been the identification of deep hypoxia as a feature of normal grain development. This means that molecular drivers of sink strength in endosperm operate in very low oxygen levels, and under metabolic conditions quite different than previously assumed. Successful enhancement of sink strength has nonetheless been achieved in grains by up-regulating genes for starch biosynthesis. Additionally, our understanding of sink strength is enhanced by awareness of the dual roles played by invertases (INVs), not only in sucrose metabolism, but also in production of the hexose sugar signals that regulate cell cycle and cell division programs. These contributions of INV to cell expansion and division prove to be vital for establishment of young sinks ranging from flowers to fruit. Since INV genes are themselves sugar-responsive “feast genes,” they can mediate a feed-forward enhancement of sink strength when assimilates are abundant. Greater overall productivity and yield have thus been attained in key instances, indicating that even broader enhancements may be achievable as we discover the detailed molecular mechanisms that drive sink strength in diverse

  20. Regulation of assimilate import into sink organs: update on molecular drivers of sink strength.

    PubMed

    Bihmidine, Saadia; Hunter, Charles T; Johns, Christine E; Koch, Karen E; Braun, David M

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments have altered our view of molecular mechanisms that determine sink strength, defined here as the capacity of non-photosynthetic structures to compete for import of photoassimilates. We review new findings from diverse systems, including stems, seeds, flowers, and fruits. An important advance has been the identification of new transporters and facilitators with major roles in the accumulation and equilibration of sugars at a cellular level. Exactly where each exerts its effect varies among systems. Sugarcane and sweet sorghum stems, for example, both accumulate high levels of sucrose, but may do so via different paths. The distinction is central to strategies for targeted manipulation of sink strength using transporter genes, and shows the importance of system-specific analyses. Another major advance has been the identification of deep hypoxia as a feature of normal grain development. This means that molecular drivers of sink strength in endosperm operate in very low oxygen levels, and under metabolic conditions quite different than previously assumed. Successful enhancement of sink strength has nonetheless been achieved in grains by up-regulating genes for starch biosynthesis. Additionally, our understanding of sink strength is enhanced by awareness of the dual roles played by invertases (INVs), not only in sucrose metabolism, but also in production of the hexose sugar signals that regulate cell cycle and cell division programs. These contributions of INV to cell expansion and division prove to be vital for establishment of young sinks ranging from flowers to fruit. Since INV genes are themselves sugar-responsive "feast genes," they can mediate a feed-forward enhancement of sink strength when assimilates are abundant. Greater overall productivity and yield have thus been attained in key instances, indicating that even broader enhancements may be achievable as we discover the detailed molecular mechanisms that drive sink strength in diverse

  1. 75 FR 19310 - Delegation of New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the State of Louisiana AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Environmental Quality (LDEQ) updated regulations for receiving delegation of EPA authority for...

  2. 78 FR 60225 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware, District of Columbia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Subjects in 40 CFR part 52 Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Environmental Protection Agency... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Updates to Citations to State Regulations Due to Recodification; Correction AGENCY:...

  3. Allograft update: the current status of tissue regulation, procurement, processing, and sterilization.

    PubMed

    McAllister, David R; Joyce, Michael J; Mann, Barton J; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2007-12-01

    Allografts are commonly used during sports medicine surgical procedures in the United States, and their frequency of use is increasing. Based on surgeon reports, it is estimated that more than 60 000 allografts were used in knee surgeries by members of the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine in 2005. In the United States, there are governmental agencies and other regulatory bodies involved in the oversight of tissue banks. In 2005, the Food and Drug Administration finalized its requirements for current good tissue practice and has mandated new rules regarding the "manufacture" of allogenic tissue. In response to well-publicized infections associated with the implantation of allograft tissue, some tissue banks have developed methods to sterilize allograft tissue. Although many surgeons have significant concerns about the safety of allografts, the majority believe that sterilized allografts are safe but that the sterilization process negatively affects tissue biology and biomechanics. However, most know very little about the principles of sterilization and the proprietary processes currently used in tissue banking. This article will review the current status of allograft tissue regulation, procurement, processing, and sterilization in the United States.

  4. Impact of aircraft emissions on air quality in the vicinity of airports. Volume II. An updated model assessment of aircraft generated air pollution at LAX, JFK, and ORD. Final report Jan 1978-Jul 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Yamartino, R.J.; Smith, D.G.; Bremer, S.A.; Heinold, D.; Lamich, D.

    1980-07-01

    This report documents the results of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)/Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) air quality study which has been conducted to assess the impact of aircraft emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in the vicinity of airports. This assessment includes the results of recent modeling and monitoring efforts at Washington National (DCA), Los Angeles International (LAX), Dulles International (IAD), and Lakeland, Florida airports and an updated modeling of aircraft generated pollution at LAX, John F. Kennedy (JFK) and Chicago O'Hare (ORD) airports. The Airport Vicinity Air Pollution (AVAP) model which was designed for use at civil airports was used in this assessment. In addition the results of the application of the military version of the AVAP model the Air Quality Assessment Model (AQAM), are summarized. Both the results of the pollution monitoring analyses in Volume I and the modeling studies in Volume II suggest that: maximum hourly average CO concentrations from aircraft are unlikely to exceed 5 parts per million (ppm) in areas of public exposure and are thus small in comparison to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 35 ppm; maximum hourly HC concentrations from aircraft can exceed 0.25 ppm over an area several times the size of the airport; and annual average NO2 concentrations from aircraft are estimated to contribute only 10 to 20 percent of the NAAQS limit level.

  5. 75 FR 25794 - Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World Championship, Upper New York Bay, Lower Hudson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World... State Park, New Jersey and Ellis Island, New Jersey and New York for the Red Bull Air Race...

  6. An update to the ambient ratio method for 1-h NO2 air quality standards dispersion modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podrez, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOX) gases are typically emitted by fuel combustion sources in the form of nitric oxide (NO), which then reacts with ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere to convert a portion of the NO to nitrogen dioxide (NO2). EPA has promulgated a 1-h average National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for NO2, and major sources of NOX emissions must estimate their NO2 air quality impacts as part of EPA's air quality permitting programs. The AERMOD dispersion model has been developed by EPA for these air quality impact analyses, and AERMOD contains three different NO to NO2 conversion methods for estimating the ambient concentrations of NO2. This paper describes a refinement to one of the methods, the Ambient Ratio Method version 2 (ARM2). ARM2 is an empirical approach that uses a variable conversion factor, based on an analysis of ambient air measurements of NO and NO2, to estimate the portion of the AERMOD predicted air concentration of total NOX species that is in the form of NO2. The performance of ARM2 has been evaluated and found to compare well to actual ambient measurements and to other more complex EPA conversion methods. EPA has included ARM2 as a "beta-testing" option in AERMOD version 14134, and provided guidance on the use of ARM2 for regulatory modeling analyses in a September 2014 memorandum. This paper also discusses this recent EPA guidance.

  7. Studies in mice deficient for the autoimmune regulator (Aire) and transgenic for the thyrotropin receptor reveal a role for Aire in tolerance for thyroid autoantigens.

    PubMed

    Misharin, Alexander V; Nagayama, Yuji; Aliesky, Holly A; Rapoport, Basil; McLachlan, Sandra M

    2009-06-01

    The autoimmune regulator (Aire) mediates central tolerance for many autoantigens, and autoimmunity occurs spontaneously in Aire-deficient humans and mice. Using a mouse model of Graves' disease, we investigated the role of Aire in tolerance to the TSH receptor (TSHR) in Aire-deficient and wild-type mice (hyperthyroid-susceptible BALB/c background). Mice were immunized three times with TSHR A-subunit expressing adenovirus. The lack of Aire did not influence T-cell responses to TSHR protein or TSHR peptides. However, antibody levels were higher in Aire-deficient than wild-type mice after the second (but not the third) immunization. After the third immunization, hyperthyroidism persisted in a higher proportion of Aire-deficient than wild-type mice. Aire-deficient mice were crossed with transgenic strains expressing high or low-intrathyroidal levels of human TSHR A subunits. In the low-expressor transgenics, Aire deficiency had the same effect on the pattern of the TSHR antibody response to immunization as in nontransgenics, although the amplitude of the response was lower in the transgenics. High-expressor A-subunit transgenics were unresponsive to immunization. We examined intrathymic expression of murine TSHR, thyroglobulin, and thyroid peroxidase (TPO), the latter two being the dominant autoantigens in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (particularly TPO). Expression of the TSHR and thyroglobulin were reduced in the absence of Aire. Dramatically, thymic expression of TPO was nearly abolished. In contrast, the human A-subunit transgene, lacking a potential Aire-binding motif, was unaffected. Our findings provide insight into how varying intrathymic autoantigen expression may modulate thyroid autoimmunity and suggest that Aire deficiency may contribute more to developing Hashimoto's thyroiditis than Graves' disease.

  8. Impact of Partial and Comprehensive Smoke-Free Regulations on Indoor Air Quality in Bars

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Ban, Hyunkyung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Ha, Kwonchul; Lee, Kiyoung

    2016-01-01

    In Korea, smoke-free regulations have been gradually implemented in bars based on venue size. Smoking bans were implemented in 2013 for bars ≥150 m2, in 2014 for bars ≥100 m2, and in 2015 for bars of all sizes. The purpose of this study was to determine indoor fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in bars before and after implementation of the smoke-free policies based on venue size. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were measured with real-time aerosol monitors at four time points: (1) pre-regulation (n = 75); (2) after implementing the ban in bars ≥150 m2 (n = 75); (3) after implementing the ban in bars ≥100 m2 (n = 107); and (4) when all bars were smoke-free (n = 79). Our results showed that the geometric mean of the indoor PM2.5 concentrations of all bars decreased from 98.4 μg/m3 pre-regulation to 79.5, 42.9, and 26.6 μg/m3 after the ban on smoking in bars ≥150 m2, ≥100 m2, and all bars, respectively. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations in bars of each size decreased only after the corresponding regulations were implemented. Although smoking was not observed in Seoul bars after smoking was banned in all bars, smoking was observed in 4 of 21 bars in Changwon. Our study concludes that the greatest decrease in PM2.5 concentrations in bars was observed after the regulation covering all bars was implemented. However, despite the comprehensive ban, smoking was observed in bars in Changwon. Strict compliance with the regulations is needed to improve indoor air quality further. PMID:27472349

  9. Impact of Partial and Comprehensive Smoke-Free Regulations on Indoor Air Quality in Bars.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Ban, Hyunkyung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Ha, Kwonchul; Lee, Kiyoung

    2016-07-26

    In Korea, smoke-free regulations have been gradually implemented in bars based on venue size. Smoking bans were implemented in 2013 for bars ≥150 m², in 2014 for bars ≥100 m², and in 2015 for bars of all sizes. The purpose of this study was to determine indoor fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in bars before and after implementation of the smoke-free policies based on venue size. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were measured with real-time aerosol monitors at four time points: (1) pre-regulation (n = 75); (2) after implementing the ban in bars ≥150 m² (n = 75); (3) after implementing the ban in bars ≥100 m² (n = 107); and (4) when all bars were smoke-free (n = 79). Our results showed that the geometric mean of the indoor PM2.5 concentrations of all bars decreased from 98.4 μg/m³ pre-regulation to 79.5, 42.9, and 26.6 μg/m³ after the ban on smoking in bars ≥150 m², ≥100 m², and all bars, respectively. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations in bars of each size decreased only after the corresponding regulations were implemented. Although smoking was not observed in Seoul bars after smoking was banned in all bars, smoking was observed in 4 of 21 bars in Changwon. Our study concludes that the greatest decrease in PM2.5 concentrations in bars was observed after the regulation covering all bars was implemented. However, despite the comprehensive ban, smoking was observed in bars in Changwon. Strict compliance with the regulations is needed to improve indoor air quality further.

  10. Impact of Partial and Comprehensive Smoke-Free Regulations on Indoor Air Quality in Bars.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Ban, Hyunkyung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Ha, Kwonchul; Lee, Kiyoung

    2016-01-01

    In Korea, smoke-free regulations have been gradually implemented in bars based on venue size. Smoking bans were implemented in 2013 for bars ≥150 m², in 2014 for bars ≥100 m², and in 2015 for bars of all sizes. The purpose of this study was to determine indoor fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in bars before and after implementation of the smoke-free policies based on venue size. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were measured with real-time aerosol monitors at four time points: (1) pre-regulation (n = 75); (2) after implementing the ban in bars ≥150 m² (n = 75); (3) after implementing the ban in bars ≥100 m² (n = 107); and (4) when all bars were smoke-free (n = 79). Our results showed that the geometric mean of the indoor PM2.5 concentrations of all bars decreased from 98.4 μg/m³ pre-regulation to 79.5, 42.9, and 26.6 μg/m³ after the ban on smoking in bars ≥150 m², ≥100 m², and all bars, respectively. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations in bars of each size decreased only after the corresponding regulations were implemented. Although smoking was not observed in Seoul bars after smoking was banned in all bars, smoking was observed in 4 of 21 bars in Changwon. Our study concludes that the greatest decrease in PM2.5 concentrations in bars was observed after the regulation covering all bars was implemented. However, despite the comprehensive ban, smoking was observed in bars in Changwon. Strict compliance with the regulations is needed to improve indoor air quality further. PMID:27472349

  11. The deacetylase Sirt1 is an essential regulator of Aire-mediated induction of central immunological tolerance.

    PubMed

    Chuprin, Anna; Avin, Ayelet; Goldfarb, Yael; Herzig, Yonatan; Levi, Ben; Jacob, Adi; Sela, Asaf; Katz, Shir; Grossman, Moran; Guyon, Clotilde; Rathaus, Moran; Cohen, Haim Y; Sagi, Irit; Giraud, Matthieu; McBurney, Michael W; Husebye, Eystein S; Abramson, Jakub

    2015-07-01

    Aire is a transcriptional regulator that induces the promiscuous expression of thousands of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), a step critical for the induction of immunological self-tolerance. Studies have offered molecular insights into how Aire operates, but more comprehensive understanding of this process still remains elusive. Here we found abundant expression of the protein deacetylase Sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) in mature Aire(+) mTECs, wherein it was required for the expression of Aire-dependent TRA-encoding genes and the subsequent induction of immunological self-tolerance. Our study elucidates a previously unknown molecular mechanism for Aire-mediated transcriptional regulation and identifies a unique function for Sirt1 in preventing organ-specific autoimmunity.

  12. Updating Older Fume Hoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, G. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Provides information on updating older fume hoods. Areas addressed include: (1) adjustment of the hood's back baffle; (2) hood air leakage; (3) light level; (4) hood location in relation to room traffic and room air; and (5) establishing and maintaining hood performance. (JN)

  13. Effects of negative air ions on activity of neural substrates involved in autonomic regulation in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Satoko; Yanagita, Shinya; Amemiya, Seiichiro; Kato, Yumi; Kubota, Natsuko; Ryushi, Tomoo; Kita, Ichiro

    2008-07-01

    The neural mechanism by which negative air ions (NAI) mediate the regulation of autonomic nervous system activity is still unknown. We examined the effects of NAI on physiological responses, such as blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) as well as neuronal activity, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), locus coeruleus (LC), nucleus ambiguus (NA), and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) with c-Fos immunohistochemistry in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats. In addition, we performed cervical vagotomy to reveal the afferent pathway involved in mediating the effects of NAI on autonomic regulation. NAI significantly decreased BP and HR, and increased HF power of the HRV spectrum. Significant decreases in c-Fos positive nuclei in the PVN and LC, and enhancement of c-Fos expression in the NA and NTS were induced by NAI. After vagotomy, these physiological and neuronal responses to NAI were not observed. These findings suggest that NAI can modulate autonomic regulation through inhibition of neuronal activity in PVN and LC as well as activation of NA neurons, and that these effects of NAI might be mediated via the vagus nerves.

  14. Aire regulates the transfer of antigen from mTECs to dendritic cells for induction of thymic tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hubert, François-Xavier; Kinkel, Sarah A; Davey, Gayle M; Phipson, Belinda; Mueller, Scott N; Liston, Adrian; Proietto, Anna I; Cannon, Ping Z F; Forehan, Simon; Smyth, Gordon K; Wu, Li; Goodnow, Christopher C; Carbone, Francis R; Scott, Hamish S; Heath, William R

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the role of Aire in thymic selection, we examined the cellular requirements for generation of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells in mice expressing OVA under the control of the rat insulin promoter. Aire deficiency reduced the number of mature single-positive OVA-specific CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells in the thymus, independent of OVA expression. Importantly, it also contributed in 2 ways to OVA-dependent negative selection depending on the T-cell type. Aire-dependent negative selection of OVA-specific CD8 T cells correlated with Aire-regulated expression of OVA. By contrast, for OVA-specific CD4 T cells, Aire affected tolerance induction by a mechanism that operated independent of the level of OVA expression, controlling access of antigen presenting cells to medullary thymic epithelial cell (mTEC)-expressed OVA. This study supports the view that one mechanism by which Aire controls thymic negative selection is by regulating the indirect presentation of mTEC-derived antigens by thymic dendritic cells. It also indicates that mTECs can mediate tolerance by direct presentation of Aire-regulated antigens to both CD4 and CD8 T cells.

  15. BCI federal legislative & regulatory update

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    Several updates on recent government actions that affect the battery industry are outlined. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is requesting public comments on how to regulate electric vehicles (EV) with respect to battery electrolyte spillage and electric shock hazard during crashes or rollovers, as well as during repair or maintenance. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was mentioned in two actions: the monitoring rule regarding major sources of air pollution and the reccomendation of reasearch concerning hazardous air pollutants from small stationary sources. OSHA will develop a new standards planning process to ensure that the agency`s limited resources are used appropriately. This includes a list of fifty workplace hazards or issues that would warrant OSHA action.

  16. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, M. C.; Knightes, C. D.; Dennis, R. L.; Cooter, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system were used. CMAQ simulated atmospheric chemical transport and nitrogen deposition. This data was entered into SWAT which simulated watershed hydrology and water quality. Two cases were investigated: one that incorporates CAAA regulatory emissions controls in CMAQ simulation (with) and a second case that does not (without). SWAT model results forecasted a 70% decrease in inorganic nitrogen discharge from the Little River watershed and a 50% decrease for the Nahunta watershed by 2020 under the emission control (with) scenario. Denitrification and plant nitrogen uptake played important roles in nitrogen discharge from each watershed. The nitrogen discharge response time following a change in atmospheric nitrogen deposition was 4 years for the Nahunta watershed and 2 years for the Little River watershed. The longer response time for Nahunta is primarily due to a higher percentage of soybean land cover (22.5% [Nahunta]; 1.6% [Little River]). Agricultural land covers had varied nitrogen response times to changes in atmospheric deposition, particularly for soybean, hay and corn. The studied watersheds retained >80% of all nitrogen delivered by agriculture fertilization, biological fixation and atmospheric deposition.

  17. Infrared Remote Sensing Through Clouds With the AIRS-AMSU-HSB Sounding System on Aqua: An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldering, A.; Lee, S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Fishbein, E. F.; Chen, L. L.; Olsen, E. T.; Irion, F. W.; Chahine, M. T.; Pagano, T. S.; Aumann, H. H.; Lambrigtsen, B. H.

    2004-05-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) experiment on NASA's Earth Observing System Aqua spacecraft is a combination of infrared and microwave instruments designed for remote sensing of the atmosphere in the presence of clouds. The instruments and associated ground-based processing system have been in near full-time operation since September 2002, and have generated over 300,000 retrievals daily. The primary retrieved products are daily global fields of surface temperature, cloud height and fraction, and height-resolved humidity, temperature and minor gases. These observations are relevant to altitudes from the surface to the upper stratosphere. Central to the AIRS retrieval process is cloud-cleared radiance --the emission from the cloud-free part of a scene-- generated from a combination of infrared and microwave observations. We present instantaneous and time-averaged observations of cloud-cleared radiances, cloud properties, temperature, humidity and minor gases. We describe progress toward the central objectives of uncertainties of 1 K / km for atmospheric temperature profiles, 5% for total precipitable water vapor, 20% for relative humidity profiles, 0.5 C for sea surface temperatures, and 1.0 K for land surface temperatures. Some examples of how these observations are being used to answer important outstanding questions in the atmospheric sciences are also described.

  18. Trend analysis of air temperature time series in Greece and their relationship with circulation using surface and satellite data: recent trends and an update to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feidas, H.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the surface and lower tropospheric temperature trends in Greece and their relationship to the atmospheric circulation for the period 1955-2013 were examined, updating the study of Feidas et al. (Theor Appl Climatol 79:185-208, 2004) for data observed during the 12-year period 2002-2013. The trend analysis is based on a combination of three statistical tests. The trends are now examined for all the seasonal time series, new atmospheric circulation indices were added in the analysis, and maps with the spatial distribution of correlation between air temperature and atmospheric circulation were constructed and analysed. The series updated to 2013 for 18 stations reveal a clearer positive trend than that found for the period 1955-2001 on both the annual and the seasonal timescales. The warming signal detected only in summer in the study of Feidas et al. (Theor Appl Climatol 79:185-208, 2004) has now intensified and spread in other seasons. This warming appears to be mainly caused by the very high temperatures in the last decade (after 2004) of the record. At the national scale, there is now a match between surface temperature trends in Greece and Northern Hemisphere (NH) but only for summer, spring and annual time series, which are the only time series presenting a statistically significant warming trend in Greece. Satellite-induced lower tropospheric temperatures now show a statistically significant tropospheric temperature warming trend for the period 1979-2013, for both areas (Greece and NH). Lower tropospheric and surface air temperatures for the same period (1979-2013) show a very good agreement, with differences only in winter and summer for Greece. The influence of atmospheric circulation on the temperature variability in Greece was also examined using two more circulation indices: the Eastern Mediterranean Pattern Index (EMPI) and the North-Sea Caspian Pattern Index (NCPI). EMPI and especially NCPI explain better now the temperature variance in

  19. A miniaturized piezoelectric turbine with self-regulation for increased air speed range

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Hailing Yeatman, Eric M.

    2015-12-14

    This paper presents the design and demonstration of a piezoelectric turbine with self-regulation for increased air speed range. The turbine's transduction is achieved by magnetic “plucking” of a piezoelectric beam by the passing rotor. The increased speed range is achieved by the self-regulating mechanism which can dynamically adjust the magnetic coupling between the magnets on the turbine rotor and the piezoelectric beam using a micro-spring. The spring is controlled passively by the centrifugal force of the magnet on the rotor. This mechanism automatically changes the relative position of the magnets at different rotational speeds, making the coupling weak at low airflow speeds and strong at high speeds. Hence, the device can start up with a low airflow speed, and the output power can be ensured when the airflow speed is high. A theoretical model was established to analyse the turbine's performance, advantages, and to optimize its design parameters. A prototype was fabricated and tested in a wind tunnel. The start-up airflow speed was 2.34 m/s, showing a 30% improvement against a harvester without the mechanism.

  20. A miniaturized piezoelectric turbine with self-regulation for increased air speed range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hailing; Yeatman, Eric M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the design and demonstration of a piezoelectric turbine with self-regulation for increased air speed range. The turbine's transduction is achieved by magnetic "plucking" of a piezoelectric beam by the passing rotor. The increased speed range is achieved by the self-regulating mechanism which can dynamically adjust the magnetic coupling between the magnets on the turbine rotor and the piezoelectric beam using a micro-spring. The spring is controlled passively by the centrifugal force of the magnet on the rotor. This mechanism automatically changes the relative position of the magnets at different rotational speeds, making the coupling weak at low airflow speeds and strong at high speeds. Hence, the device can start up with a low airflow speed, and the output power can be ensured when the airflow speed is high. A theoretical model was established to analyse the turbine's performance, advantages, and to optimize its design parameters. A prototype was fabricated and tested in a wind tunnel. The start-up airflow speed was 2.34 m/s, showing a 30% improvement against a harvester without the mechanism.

  1. Aire regulates the expression of differentiation-associated genes and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bin; Zhang, Jiarong; Chen, Qi; Tao, Bo; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Liangbiao; Liu, Yusen; Zhang, Ming

    2010-04-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent stem cells from early embryos. It has been well recognized that ESC genomes are maintained in a globally transcriptional hyperactive state, which genetically poised ESCs to the high differentiation potential. However, the transcription factors regulating the global transcription activities in ESCs are not well defined. We show here that mouse and human ESCs express two transcription factors, Aire and Deaf1. Previously known to function in the thymus stromal cells and peripheral lymphoid organs respectively, Aire and Deaf1 help regulate the ectopic expression of diverse tissue-specific antigens to establish self-immune tolerance. Differentiation of ESCs greatly reduced Aire and Deaf1 expression, in a pattern similar to the pluripotent factors, Oct4 and Nanog. Knockdown of Aire in mouse ESCs resulted in significantly decreased clone-forming efficiency as well as attenuated cell cycle, suggesting Aire plays a role in ESC self-renewal. In addition, some differentiation-associated genes that are sporadically expressed in ESCs were reduced in expression upon Aire knockdown. These results suggest that transcription factors such as Aire and Deaf1, which exert global transcriptional regulatory functions, may play important roles in self-renewal of ESCs and maintaining ESC in a transcriptionally hyperactive state.

  2. Research Update: Direct conversion of h-BN into pure c-BN at ambient temperatures and pressures in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Jagdish; Bhaumik, Anagh

    2016-02-01

    We report a direct conversion of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) into pure cubic boron nitride (c-BN) by nanosecond laser melting at ambient temperatures and atmospheric pressure in air. According to the phase diagram, the transformation from h-BN into c-BN can occur only at high temperatures and pressures, as the hBN-cBN-Liquid triple point is at 3500 K/9.5 GPa. Using nanosecond laser melting, we have created super undercooled state and shifted this triple point to as low as 2800 K and atmospheric pressure. The rapid quenching from super undercooled state leads to formation of super undercooled BN (Q-BN). The c-BN phase is nucleated from Q-BN depending upon the time allowed for nucleation and growth.

  3. The effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 on electric utilities: An update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report presents data and analyses related to Phase I implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendment by electric utilities. It describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on sulfur dioxide emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. The first year of Phase I demonstrated that the market-based sulfur dioxide emissions control system could achieve significant reductions in emissions at lower than expected costs. Some utilities reduced aggregate emissions below legal requirements due to economic incentives; other utilities purchased additional allowances to avoid noncompliance. More than half of the utilities switched to or blended with lower sulfur coal, due to price reductions in the coal market which were partially due to the allowance trading program. 21 figs., 20 tabs.

  4. Update to the Lightning Probability Forecast Equations at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2007-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May- September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equations showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability, and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  5. Update to the Lightning Probability Forecast Equations at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2007-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May-September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equations showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability, and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  6. Update to the Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool in use at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2013-01-01

    This conference poster describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May-September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equations showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  7. Update to the Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool in Use at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May-September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equaitions showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability, and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  8. Allowance trading under the Clean Air Act: Who should regulate, and when?

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, R.

    1993-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore how compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), especially Title IV and emission trading under it, will affect the current relationship between state and federal regulation. It is difficult, with the limited experience we have had under Title IV, to be definitive about or to be a very strong advocate of too many policy positions. What may be most helpful at this point is to identify where the difficult issues in state/federal relations might arise; and then to explore ways in which tensions might be either avoided or resolved. One anticipated conclusion is that a traditional regulatory mindset could be very destructive if applied to this new area of oversight without due sensitivity to what Congress is trying to achieve in Title IV. That concern pervaded the early legislative debates; and it persists today. Title IV presents some unique challenges to state regulators and will require some creative solutions and fresh thinking if the goals of Congress are to be realized and the full benefits that allowance trading can offer are to be reaped by electricity consumers. In the ultimate analysis, Title IV amounts to a massive internalization of the external costs imposed on society by acid rain deposition. (This places in serious question the notion of additional externality {open_quotes}adders{close_quotes} for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) at the state level for utility supply planning purposes.) The whole point of Title IV is to give those directly charged with compliance, namely power producers, the maximum flexibility to pursue least-cost compliance solutions. Perhaps the biggest single factor in how well they do this will be how state regulators respond to their compliance and allowance trading initiatives.

  9. Air emission regulations for small to moderate sized wood-fired boilers: Final report: Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, M.J.; Tennis, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    Potential commercial wood burners in the Northeast hold the general perception that air pollution regulations pose special difficulties for them. This notion is based on incomplete information regarding the regulations in place and their applicability to small to moderate sized commercial faciliaties (ie. <100 mmBtu/hr). This study was commission by the Coalition of Northeastern Governors (CONEG) Policy Research Center, Inc., under the Northeast Regional Biomass Program, to provide a review of the air quality regulations effecting commercial wood burning installations, specifically identifying those regulations applying to the small to medium size units. This report provides an organized regulatory comparison to relate the different state emission rates with various levels of control techniques. 3 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Update: Exertional hyponatremia, active component, U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, 2000-2015.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    From 2000 through 2015, there were 1,542 incident diagnoses of exertional hyponatremia among active component members of the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps. Annual incidence rates rose sharply from 2008 through 2010 but then decreased by more than 50% from 2010 through 2013. In 2015, the number of cases (n=116) increased by approximately 20% from the previous year. The recent increase in rates overall reflects increased rates in the Army and the Marine Corps. Relative to their respective counterparts, crude incidence rates of exertional hyponatremia for the entire 16-year surveillance period were higher among females, those in the youngest age group, Marines, and recruit trainees. Service members (particularly recruit trainees) and their supervisors must be vigilant for early signs of heat-related illnesses and must be knowledgeable of the dangers of excessive water consumption and the prescribed limits for water intake during prolonged physical activity (e.g., field training exercises, personal fitness training, recreational activities) in hot, humid weather. PMID:27030930

  11. An analysis of the background and development of regulations for the air transport of plutonium in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, J.D.; Luna, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Several aspects of special packagings of plutonium for air transport should be recognized. The accident cases cited by Congressman Scheuer were incidents of local plutonium contamination in military aircraft accidents that had nuclear weapons on board. There is no disputing the occurrence of these military accidents but military weapon shipments were exempted from the provisions of the Scheuer amendment. There have been no recorded civilian aircraft crashes involving plutonium dispersal although there have been civilian aircraft crashes that were severe. Shortly after the introduction of the amendment by Mr. Scheuer on June 20, 1975, there was a serious aircraft crash at JFK International. In his remarks to the House on July 24, 1975 Mr. Scheuer called attention to this event. The NRC originally opposed the provisions of the Scheuer amendment but with the passing of the amendment NRC compiled with its provisions. This led to the development of the plutonium air transport package PAT-1 in the US. The introduction of special rules for the air transport of plutonium into the US packaging regulations has been made them more severe than the provision of the international regulations, IAEA Safety Series 6. The IAEA is now discussing proposed regulations related to the air transport of plutonium. An additional legislative action was introduced the US in December 1987 which would require actual crash tests of packages intended for the air transport of plutonium, the Murkowski amendment. 13 refs.

  12. Impact of sulfur content regulations of shipping fuel on coastal air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Weigelt, Andreas; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Shipping traffic is a sector that faces an enormous growth rate and contributes substantially to the emissions from the transportation sector, but lacks regulations and controls. Shipping is not enclosed in the Kyoto Protocol. However, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) introduced sufhur limits for marine heavy fuels, nitrogen oxide limits for newly-built ship engines and established Emission Control Areas (ECA) in the North and Baltic Sea as well as around North America with the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI). Recently, on the 1st of January 2015, the allowed sulfur content of marine fuels inside Sulfur Emission Control Areas has been significantly decreased from 1.0% to 0.1%. However, measurements of reactive trace gases and the chemical composition of the marine troposphere along shipping routes are sparse and up to now there is no regular monitoring system available. The project MeSmarT (measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere) is a cooperation between the University of Bremen, the German Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, BSH) and the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht. This study aims to analyse the influence of shipping emissions on the coastal air quality by evaluating ground-based remote sensing measurements using the MAX-DOAS (Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) technique. Measurements of the atmospheric trace gases nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) have been carried out in the marine troposphere at the MeSmarT measurement sites in Wedel and on Neuwerk and on-board several ship cruises on the North and Baltic Sea. The capability of two-channel MAX-DOAS systems to do simultaneous measurements in the UV and visible spectral range has been used in the so called "onion-peeling" approach to derive spatial distributions of ship emissions and to analyse the movement of the exhausted

  13. Emergency medical kit for commercial airlines: an update.

    PubMed

    Thibeault, Claude

    2002-06-01

    As expected, the issue of medical kits for commercial airlines continues to attract attention, especially in light of the recent United States regulation on the subject. As promised in its first recommendation in 1998, the Air Transport Medicine (ATM) Committee has continued to monitor medical kit usage as well as pharmaceutical scientific developments and wishes to propose an update to its 1998 recommendation. Lists of contents are provided for emergency medical kits of two types: 1) those without defibrillator/monitor or monitor; and 2) those with defibrillator/monitor or monitor alone. Follow up and updates on this issue will be an ongoing task of the ATM Committee.

  14. Coal-fired power generaion, new air quality regulations, and future U.S. coal production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Tighter new regulation of stack gas emissions and competition in power generation are driving electrical utilities to demand cleaner, lower sulfur coal. Historical data on sulfur content of produced coals shows little variability in coal quality for individual mines and individual coal-producing counties over relatively long periods of time. If coal-using power generators follow the compliance patterns established in Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, then the industry's response to the tighter Phase II emissions standards will result in large amounts of coal production shifting from higher sulfur areas to areas with lower cost low sulfur coal. One reason this shift will likely occur is that currently only 30% of U.S. coal-fired electrical generating capacity is equipped with flue-gas scrubbers. In 1995, coal mines in the higher sulfur areas of the Illinois Basin and Northern and Central Appalachia employed 78% of all coal miners (>70,000 miners). A substantial geographical redistribution of the nation's coal supplies will likely lead to economic dislocations that will reach beyond local coal-producing areas.

  15. RACT update

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.H.

    1995-08-01

    Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) is a part of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) Title I, Non-Attainment and in particular Ozone non-attainment. Each state was to have submitted an implementation plan by November 15, 1993 and compliance was scheduled for May 31, 1995. In the early days of the act, states were feverishly writing regulations and deciding on RACT limits. The environmental departments of the states had little information on the ability of existing boiler sources to meet limits and had little information of the application of control technology to existing boilers. The Northeast States Coalition for Air Use Management (NESCAUM) prepared a report with recommended NO{sub x} limits. CIBO recognized that environmental personnel were not getting accurate information concerning the family of industrial and institutional boilers. Because of this lack, CIBO prepared a NO{sub x} RACT GUIDANCE DOCUMENT for the use of environmental regulators and others interested in the application of NO{sub x} control technologies to industrial and institutional boilers. This document explains the difference between industrial boilers and utility boilers. That is important since the regulators had been concentrating on utility boilers and many thought industrial boilers were no different. Test reports from industrial and institutional boilers were solicited and tabled in order to present as much available information as possible concerning NO{sub x} emissions from existing boilers. RACT to meet these limits can be combustion modifications such as low NO{sub x} burners, staged combustion, flue gas recirculation, overfire air, low excess air, burners out of service, or natural gas reburn. Many states considered post combustion processes as RACT such as selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) or selective catalytic reduction (SCR). In all cases RACT considered economic impacts.

  16. 77 FR 74355 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; San Joaquin Valley; Attainment Plan for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Federal Regulations (CFR) at 40 CFR 52.220(c). See 77 FR 12652 (March 1, 2012). The regulatory text for... beginning of this regulatory text (77 FR 12672) did not identify this paragraph and as a result this... the California Air Resources Board's commitment to update the air quality modeling in the San...

  17. Effects of agriculture upon the air quality and climate: research, policy, and regulations.

    PubMed

    Aneja, Viney P; Schlesinger, William H; Erisman, Jan Willem

    2009-06-15

    compounds, volatile organic compounds, greenhouse gases, odor and pathogens, the quantification of landscape processes, and the primary and secondary emissions of PM. Given the serious concerns raised regarding the amount and the impacts of agricultural air emissions, policies must be pursued and regulations must be enacted in orderto make real progress in reducing these emissions and their associated environmental impacts. PMID:19603628

  18. Autoimmune regulator (AIRE)-deficient CD8+CD28low regulatory T lymphocytes fail to control experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Pomié, Céline; Vicente, Rita; Vuddamalay, Yirajen; Lundgren, Brita Ardesjö; van der Hoek, Mark; Enault, Geneviève; Kagan, Jérémy; Fazilleau, Nicolas; Scott, Hamish S; Romagnoli, Paola; van Meerwijk, Joost P M

    2011-07-26

    Mutations in the gene encoding the transcription factor autoimmune regulator (AIRE) are responsible for autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy syndrome. AIRE directs expression of tissue-restricted antigens in the thymic medulla and in lymph node stromal cells and thereby substantially contributes to induction of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. Data from experimental mouse models showed that AIRE deficiency leads to impaired deletion of autospecific T-cell precursors. However, a potential role for AIRE in the function of regulatory T-cell populations, which are known to play a central role in prevention of immunopathology, has remained elusive. Regulatory T cells of CD8(+)CD28(low) phenotype efficiently control immune responses in experimental autoimmune and colitis models in mice. Here we show that CD8(+)CD28(low) regulatory T lymphocytes from AIRE-deficient mice are transcriptionally and phenotypically normal and exert efficient suppression of in vitro immune responses, but completely fail to prevent experimental colitis in vivo. Our data therefore demonstrate that AIRE plays an important role in the in vivo function of a naturally occurring regulatory T-cell population.

  19. Impact of a new gasoline benzene regulation on ambient air pollutants in Anchorage, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Yuriko; Morris, Stephen S.; Salerno, Christopher; Schlapia, Anne M.; Stichick, Mathew

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of a new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard that limits the amount of benzene allowed in gasoline on ambient benzene concentrations. This new standard, together with two companion regulations that limit cold-temperature automotive emissions and the permeability of portable fuel containers, was expected to lower the levels of ambient benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) nationwide. In this study the impact of the gasoline benzene standard was evaluated in Anchorage, Alaska in a two-phase ambient air monitoring study conducted before and after the new gasoline standard was implemented. Gasoline sold by Anchorage retailers was also evaluated in each phase to determine the content of benzene and other gasoline components. The average benzene content in Anchorage gasoline was reduced by 70%, from 5.05% (w/w) to 1.53% (w/w) following the implementation of the standard. The annual mean ambient benzene concentration fell by 51%, from 0.99 ppbv in Phase 1 to 0.49 ppbv in Phase 2. Analysis suggests the change in gasoline benzene content alone reduced benzene emissions by 46%. The changes in toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene content in gasoline between Phase 1 and 2 were relatively small and the differences in the mean ambient concentrations of these compounds between phases were modest. Our results suggest that cold winter communities in high latitude and mountainous regions may benefit more from the gasoline benzene standard because of high benzene emissions resulting from vehicle cold start and a tendency to develop atmospheric stagnation conditions in the winter.

  20. Air Pressure Responses to Sudden Vocal Tract Pressure Bleeds During Production of Stop Consonants: New Evidence of Aeromechanical Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, David J.; Weissler, Mark C.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate short-latency vocal tract air pressure responses to sudden pressure bleeds during production of voiceless bilabial stop consonants. It was hypothesized that the occurrence of respiratory reflexes would be indicated by distinct patterns of responses as a function of bleed magnitude. In Study 1, 19 adults produced syllable trains of /pΛ/ using a mouthpiece coupled to a computer-controlled perturbator. The device randomly created bleed apertures that ranged from 0 to 40 mm2 during production of the 2nd or 4th syllable of an utterance. Although peak oral air pressure dropped in a linear manner across bleed apertures, it averaged 2 to 3 cm H2O at the largest bleed. While slope of oral pressure also decreased in a linear trend, duration of the oral pressure pulse remained relatively constant. The patterns suggest that respiratory reflexes, if present, have little effect on oral air pressure levels. In Study 2, both oral and subglottal air pressure responses were monitored in 2 adults while bleed apertures of 20 and 40 mm2 were randomly created. For 1 participant, peak oral air pressure dropped across bleed apertures, as in Study 1. Subglottal air pressure and slope, however, remained relatively stable. These patterns provide some support for the occurrence of respiratory reflexes to regulate subglottal air pressure. Overall, the studies indicate that the inherent physiologic processes of the respiratory system, which may involve reflexes, and passive aeromechanical resistance of the upper airway are capable of developing oral air pressure in the face of substantial pressure bleeds. Implications for understanding speech production and the characteristics of individuals with velopharyngeal dysfunction are discussed. PMID:15324286

  1. Air pressure responses to sudden vocal tract pressure bleeds during production of stop consonants: new evidence of aeromechanical regulation.

    PubMed

    Zajac, David J; Weissler, Mark C

    2004-08-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate short-latency vocal tract air pressure responses to sudden pressure bleeds during production of voiceless bilabial stop consonants. It was hypothesized that the occurrence of respiratory reflexes would be indicated by distinct patterns of responses as a function of bleed magnitude. In Study 1, 19 adults produced syllable trains of "puh" using a mouthpiece coupled to a computer-controlled perturbator. The device randomly created bleed apertures that ranged from 0 to 40 mm2 during production of the 2nd or 4th syllable of an utterance. Although peak oral air pressure dropped in a linear manner across bleed apertures, it averaged 2 to 3 cm H2O at the largest bleed. While slope of oral pressure also decreased in a linear trend, duration of the oral pressure pulse remained relatively constant. The patterns suggest that respiratory reflexes, if present, have little effect on oral air pressure levels. In Study 2, both oral and subglottal air pressure responses were monitored in 2 adults while bleed apertures of 20 and 40 mm2 were randomly created. For 1 participant, peak oral air pressure dropped across bleed apertures, as in Study 1. Subglottal air pressure and slope, however, remained relatively stable. These patterns provide some support for the occurrence of respiratory reflexes to regulate subglottal air pressure. Overall, the studies indicate that the inherent physiologic processes of the respiratory system, which may involve reflexes, and passive aeromechanical resistance of the upper airway are capable of developing oral air pressure in the face of substantial pressure bleeds. Implications for understanding speech production and the characteristics of individuals with velopharyngeal dysfunction are discussed.

  2. Expression profile of peripheral tissue antigen genes in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) is dependent on mRNA levels of autoimmune regulator (Aire).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ernna H; Macedo, Claudia; Donate, Paula B; Almeida, Renata S; Pezzi, Nicole; Nguyen, Catherine; Rossi, Marcos A; Sakamoto-Hojo, Elza T; Donadi, Eduardo A; Passos, Geraldo A

    2013-01-01

    In the thymus of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, the expression of the autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene varies with age, and its down-regulation in young mice precedes the later emergence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). In addition, the insulin (Ins2) peripheral tissue antigen (PTA) gene, which is Aire-dependent, is also deregulated in these mice. Based in these findings, we hypothesized that the imbalance in PTA gene expression in the thymus can be associated with slight variations in Aire transcript levels. To test this, we used siRNA to knockdown Aire by in vivo electro-transfection of the thymus of BALB/c mice. The efficiency of the electro-transfection was monitored by assessing the presence of irrelevant Cy3-labeled siRNA in the thymic stroma. Importantly, Aire-siRNA reached medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) down-regulating Aire. As expected, the in vivo Aire knockdown was partial and transient; the maximum 59% inhibition occurred in 48 h. The Aire knockdown was sufficient to down-regulate PTA genes; however, surprisingly, several others, including Ins2, were up-regulated. The modulation of these genes after in vivo Aire knockdown was comparable to that observed in NOD mice before the emergence of T1D. The in vitro transfections of 3.10 mTEC cells with Aire siRNA resulted in samples featuring partial (69%) and complete (100%) Aire knockdown. In these Aire siRNA-transfected 3.10 mTECs, the expression of PTA genes, including Ins2, was down-regulated. This suggests that the expression profile of PTA genes in mTECs is affected by fine changes in the transcription level of Aire.

  3. Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance--Veterans' Group Life Insurance regulation update--ABO, VGLI application, SGLI 2-year disability extension. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-07-31

    This document amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) insurance regulations concerning Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (SGLI) to reflect the statutory provisions of the Veterans' Benefits Act of 2010, which became law on October 13, 2010, and resulted in the need for amendments to change the SGLI Disability Extension period from 1 year to 2 years in duration; provide SGLI Traumatic Injury Protection (TSGLI) retroactive coverage effective from October 7, 2001, for all qualifying injuries regardless of the geographic location and military operation in which the injuries were incurred; and remove the SGLI and Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) Accelerated Benefits Option (ABO) discount rate. This rule also clarifies that ``initial premium'' refers to ``initial Veterans' Group Life Insurance premium,'' updates the current address of the Office of Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (OSGLI), managed by Prudential Insurance Company of America, to reflect where the ABO application is mailed for processing, and corrects the OSGLI phone number. Finally, this rule removes the ABO application form from the regulation, and it corrects and clarifies language concerning the VGLI application period that was inadvertently incorrectly modified in a prior amendment of the regulations. PMID:25122940

  4. Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance--Veterans' Group Life Insurance regulation update--ABO, VGLI application, SGLI 2-year disability extension. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-07-31

    This document amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) insurance regulations concerning Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (SGLI) to reflect the statutory provisions of the Veterans' Benefits Act of 2010, which became law on October 13, 2010, and resulted in the need for amendments to change the SGLI Disability Extension period from 1 year to 2 years in duration; provide SGLI Traumatic Injury Protection (TSGLI) retroactive coverage effective from October 7, 2001, for all qualifying injuries regardless of the geographic location and military operation in which the injuries were incurred; and remove the SGLI and Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) Accelerated Benefits Option (ABO) discount rate. This rule also clarifies that ``initial premium'' refers to ``initial Veterans' Group Life Insurance premium,'' updates the current address of the Office of Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (OSGLI), managed by Prudential Insurance Company of America, to reflect where the ABO application is mailed for processing, and corrects the OSGLI phone number. Finally, this rule removes the ABO application form from the regulation, and it corrects and clarifies language concerning the VGLI application period that was inadvertently incorrectly modified in a prior amendment of the regulations.

  5. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) Between NASA Headquarters and MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) for NASA Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, Salvadore V.; Clark-Ingram, Marceia A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a memorandum of agreement on Clean Air Regulations. NASA headquarters (code JE and code M) has asked MSFC to serve as principle center for review of Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations. The purpose of the principle center is to provide centralized support to NASA headquarters for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process and to identify the potential impact of proposed CAA reguations on NASA program hardware and supporting facilities. The materials and processes utilized in the manufacture of NASA's programmatic hardware contain HAPs (Hazardous Air Pollutants), VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds), and ODC (Ozone Depleting Chemicals). This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  6. 75 FR 23589 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Guard will enforce a safety zone on Lake Washington, WA for the annual Seafair Blue Angels Air Show from... establish a safety zone on the waters of Lake Washington for the annual Seafair Blue Angels Air Show... area is designated as a safety zone: All waters of Lake Washington, Washington State, enclosed by...

  7. 75 FR 69080 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) Fly America Act; United States and European Union ``Open Skies... Services Administration (GSA). ] ACTION: Notice of FTR Bulletin 11-02, revising Fly America Act air... Bulletin 11-02, updating the Fly America Act information on the GSA web site with recent changes to the...

  8. RCRA, superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Air emission standards (40 cfr parts 264/265, subparts aa, bb, and cc) updated July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The module provides a regulatory overview of the RCRA air emission standards as they apply to hazardous waste facilities. It outlines the history of RCRA air emission standards as well as the air emission controls required by the standards. It explains the difference in the parts 264/265 and subparts AA, BB and CC, air emission standards. It summarizes the requirements of each of these subparts and identifies the types of units subject to these requirements as well as specific exemptions.

  9. Potential Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin: a Modeling Investigation Using CMAQ and SWAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been extensive analysis of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) regulation impacts to changes in atmospheric nitrogen deposition; however, few studies have focused on watershed nitrogen transfer particularly regarding long-term predictions. In this study, we investigated impa...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1319 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with the general regulations in 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart C, no person or vessel may enter or... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY...

  11. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 1993 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the 1993 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to commence the preparation of the permit to operate application for the INEL, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL and provides emissions estimates for both mobile and stationary sources.

  12. Mercury emission trend influenced by stringent air pollutants regulation for coal-fired power plants in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudasainee, Deepak; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2009-12-01

    Regulatory control of mercury emission from anthropogenic sources has become a global concern in the recent past. Coal-fired power plants are one of the largest sources of anthropogenic mercury emission into the atmosphere. This paper summarizes the current reducing trend of mercury emission as co-beneficial effect by more stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants with introducing test results from the commercial coal-fired facilities and suggesting a guideline for future regulatory development in Korea. On average, mercury emission concentrations ranged 16.3-2.7 μg Sm -3, 2.4-1.1 μg Sm -3, 3.1-0.7 μg Sm -3 from anthracite coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitator (ESP), bituminous coal-fired power plants with ESP + flue gas desulphurization (FGD) and bituminous coal-fired power plants with selective catalytic reactor (SCR) + cold side (CS) - ESP + wet FGD, respectively. Among the existing air pollution control devices, the best configuration for mercury removal in coal-fired power plants was SCR + CS - ESP + wet FGD, which were installed due to the stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants emission such as SO 2, NOx and dust. It was estimated that uncontrolled and controlled mercury emission from coal-fired power plants as 10.3 ton yr -1 and 3.2 ton yr -1 respectively. After the installation of ESP, FGD and SCR system, following the enforcement of the stringent regulation, 7.1 ton yr -1 of mercury emission has been reduced (nearly 69%) from coal-fired power plants as a co-benefit control. Based on the overall study, a sample guideline including emission limits were suggested which will be applied to develop a countermeasure for controlling mercury emission from coal-fired power plants.

  13. A Critical Review of the Effect of Air Pollution Control Regulations on Land Use Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, John J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Although a number of recent federal initiatives explicitly require greater coordination of land use and air quality management, viable working relationships among the planning and regulatory agencies have not been developed. The concept of emission density zoning is endorsed. (Author/BT)

  14. 76 FR 67600 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Regulations for Control of Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... follows: 0 a. By revising the entry for Sec. 116.116; 0 b. By adding new entries for Sec. Sec. 116.174 and... of Air Pollution by Permits for New Construction or Modification AGENCY: Environmental Protection... October 5, 2010. These revisions amend existing sections and create new sections in Title 30 of the...

  15. Diesel Exhaust Activates & Primes Microglia: Air Pollution, Neuroinflammation, & Regulation of Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution is linked to central nervous system (CNS) disease, but the mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. Rats exposed to Diesel Exhaust (DE, 2.0,0.5, and 0 mg/m3) by inhalation over 4 weeks demonstrated elevated levels of whole brain IL-6 protein, nitrated proteins,...

  16. Market effects of environmental regulation: coal, railroads, and the 1990 Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Busse, M.R.; Keohane, N.O.

    2007-01-01

    Many environmental regulations encourage the use of 'clean' inputs. When the suppliers of such an input have market power, environmental regulation will affect not only the quantity of the input used but also its price. We investigate the effect of the Title IV emissions trading program for sulfur dioxide on the market for low-sulfur coal. We find that the two railroads transporting coal were able to price discriminate on the basis of environmental regulation and geographic location. Delivered prices rose for plants in the trading program relative to other plants, and by more at plants near a low-sulfur coal source.

  17. Cation regulation by the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) during dehydration in air.

    PubMed

    Koh, Huishan; Wright, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Many terrestrial arthropods display tight osmotic and ionic regulation of the hemolymph during dehydration. In this study, we sought to quantify the level of regulation of the major hemolymph cations in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea). Inulin space measurements showed that the hemolymph comprises 52 ± 2.2% of the hydrated water content but contributes 71 ± 9.8% of water losses during desiccation. Hemolymph concentrations of Na+, K+ and Ca²+ were measured in variably dehydrated animals using ion-selective microelectrodes and compared with predicted concentrations assuming no regulation. Na+ and Ca²+ are quite tightly regulated, showing respective concentration increases of 20.8% and 7.1% following a 50% reduction in hemolymph volume, but K+ showed no measurable regulation. The excreted cation fraction during desiccation is negligible. Sites of ion sequestration were examined by injecting ²²Na and ⁴⁵Ca into the hemolymph of hydrated animals and assaying tissue-specific activities following dehydration. Na+ is apparently sequestered non-specifically by an unknown mechanism. Ca²+ accumulates in the dorsal somatic tissues, possibly in the calcium pool of the cuticle. How A. vulgare avoids significant disruptions of E(m) and neuromuscular function in the absence of K+ regulation, and how it sequesters Na+, both pose intriguing challenges for future work. PMID:21335098

  18. Cation regulation by the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) during dehydration in air.

    PubMed

    Koh, Huishan; Wright, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Many terrestrial arthropods display tight osmotic and ionic regulation of the hemolymph during dehydration. In this study, we sought to quantify the level of regulation of the major hemolymph cations in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea). Inulin space measurements showed that the hemolymph comprises 52 ± 2.2% of the hydrated water content but contributes 71 ± 9.8% of water losses during desiccation. Hemolymph concentrations of Na+, K+ and Ca²+ were measured in variably dehydrated animals using ion-selective microelectrodes and compared with predicted concentrations assuming no regulation. Na+ and Ca²+ are quite tightly regulated, showing respective concentration increases of 20.8% and 7.1% following a 50% reduction in hemolymph volume, but K+ showed no measurable regulation. The excreted cation fraction during desiccation is negligible. Sites of ion sequestration were examined by injecting ²²Na and ⁴⁵Ca into the hemolymph of hydrated animals and assaying tissue-specific activities following dehydration. Na+ is apparently sequestered non-specifically by an unknown mechanism. Ca²+ accumulates in the dorsal somatic tissues, possibly in the calcium pool of the cuticle. How A. vulgare avoids significant disruptions of E(m) and neuromuscular function in the absence of K+ regulation, and how it sequesters Na+, both pose intriguing challenges for future work.

  19. The Clean Air Act strictly regulates electric utility emissions and utilities are reducing their emissions significantly

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsman, J.D.

    1998-12-31

    Electric utility SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions have been reduced tremendously, beginning before the first deadlines (1995 for SO{sub 2} and 1996 for NO{sub x}) of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. For the Acid Rain Program, EPA reports that: (1) all 445 affected facilities demonstrated 100 percent compliance for both pollutants and even exceeded the compliance targets; (2) the Acid Rain Program has been very successful; and (3) due to these and other controls, air quality has improved in the United States. Furthermore, the new 8-hour ozone standard, the new PM2.5 standards, the EPA`s 22-state regional NO{sub x} program, the Northeast state petitions for upwind NO{sub x} reductions and EPA`s regional haze proposal will likely lead to substantially greater reductions of utility SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}.

  20. Vibration and recoil control of pneumatic hammers. [by air flow pressure regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinescu, I. N.; Darabont, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Vibration sources are described for pneumatic hammers used in the mining industry (pick hammers), in boiler shops (riveting hammers), etc., bringing to light the fact that the principal vibration source is the variation in air pressure inside the cylinder. The present state of the art of vibration control of pneumatic hammers as it is practiced abroad, and the solutions adopted for this purpose, are discussed. A new type of pneumatic hammer with a low noise and vibration level is presented.

  1. High relative air humidity and continuous light reduce stomata functionality by affecting the ABA regulation in rose leaves.

    PubMed

    Arve, Louise E; Terfa, Meseret T; Gislerød, Hans Ragnar; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2013-02-01

    Plants developed under high (90%) relative air humidity (RH) have previously been shown to have large, malfunctioning stomata, which results in high water loss during desiccation and reduced dark induced closure. Stomatal movement is to a large extent regulated by abscisic acid (ABA). It has therefore been proposed that low ABA levels contribute to the development of malfunctioning stomata. In this study, we investigated the regulation of ABA content in rose leaves, through hormone analysis and β-glucosidase quantification. Compared with high RH, rose plants developed in moderate RH (60%) and 20 h photoperiod contained higher levels of ABA and β-glucosidase activity. Also, the amount of ABA increased during darkness simultaneously as the ABA-glucose ester (GE) levels decreased. In contrast, plants developed under high RH with 20 h photoperiod showed no increase in ABA levels during darkness, and had low β-glucosidase activity converting ABA-GE to ABA. Continuous lighting (24 h) resulted in low levels of β-glucosidase activity irrespective of RH, indicating that a dark period is essential to activate β-glucosidase. Our results provide new insight into the regulation of ABA under different humidities and photoperiods, and clearly show that β-glucosidase is a key enzyme regulating the ABA pool in rose plants. PMID:22812416

  2. Comparison of the regulated air pollutant emission characteristics of real-world driving cycle and ECE cycle for motorcycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Lai, Yen-Ming; Lee, Ting-Yi

    2014-04-01

    Motorcycles are an important means of transportation, and their numbers have increased significantly in recent years. However, motorcycles can emit significant amounts of air pollutants; therefore, the emission characteristics and driving patterns of motorcycles are necessary baseline information for the implementation of control measures for motorcycles in urban areas. The selected motorcycles were equipped with global positioning systems (GPS) to obtain speed-time data for determination of the characteristics of real-world driving parameters, and an on-board exhaust gas analyser with data logger was employed to determine the instantaneous concentration of regulated air pollutants from motorcycle exhaust. Results indicated that the time proportions of acceleration, cruising, and deceleration are different from those of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) driving cycle, and the time percentages of acceleration and deceleration of the ECE cycle are much less than those in Taichung city. In general, the emission factors of the Taichung motorcycle driving cycle (TMDC) were higher HC and lower NOx emission than those of the ECE cycle. The average fuel consumption of tested motorcycles on three roads during workdays was 5% higher than that on weekends. The fuel consumption in the real-world motorcycle driving cycle was also about 7% higher than that of the ECE cycle, which again indicates that the ECE cycle is unsuitable for measuring fuel consumption in the Taichung metropolitan area. Therefore, understanding the local driving cycle is necessary for developing accurate emission data for air pollution control measures for urban areas.

  3. Effects of the updated national emission regulation in China on circulating fluidized bed boilers and the solutions to meet them.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingji; Yang, Hairui; Wu, Yuxin; Lv, Junfu; Yue, Guangxi

    2013-06-18

    The advantage of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers in China is their ability to utilize low rank coal with low cost emission control. However, the new National Emission Regulation (NER) issued in early 2012 brings much more stringent challenges on the CFB industries, which also causes much attention from other countries. Based on the principle of a CFB boiler and previous operating experience, it is possible for the CFB boilers to meet the new NER and maintain the advantage of low cost emission control, while, more influences should be considered in their design and operation. To meet the requirement of the new NER, the fly ash collector should adopt a bag house or combination of electrostatic precipitator and bag filter to ensure dust emissions of less than 30 mg · Nm(-3). For SO2 emission control, the bed temperature should be strictly lower than 900 °C to maintain high reactivity and pores. The limestone particle size distribution should be ranged within a special scope to optimize the residence time and gas-solid reaction. At the same time, the injecting point should be optimized to ensure fast contact of lime with oxygen. In such conditions, the desulfurization efficiency could be increased more than 90%. For lower sulfur content fuels (<1.5%, referred value based on the heating value of standard coal of China), increasing Ca/S enough could decrease SO2 emissions lower than that of the new NER, 100 mg · Nm(-3). For fuels with sulfur content higher than 1.5%, some simplified systems for flue gas desulfurization, such as flash dryer absorber (FDA), are needed. And the NOx emissions of a CFB can be controlled to less than 100 mg · Nm(-3) without any equipment at a bed temperature lower than 900 °C for fuels with low volatiles content (<12%), while for fuels with high volatiles, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) should be considered. Due to the unique temperature in CFB as well as the circulating ash, the efficiency of SNCR could reach as high as

  4. Legislative update.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    Updates are presented from nine States on HIV-related legislation. Legislative topics include HIV case surveillance, testing, corrections, safety of health-care workers, HIV status notification, the definition of disability, viatical settlements, and confidentiality breaches. PMID:11366638

  5. Technology diffusion and environmental regulation: Evidence from electric power plants under the Clean Air Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Elaine F.

    Even though environmental policy can greatly affect the path of technology diffusion, the economics literature contains limited empirical evidence of this relationship. My research will contribute to the available evidence by providing insight into the technology adoption decisions of electric generating firms. Since policies are often evaluated based on the incentives they provide to promote adoption of new technologies, it is important that policy makers understand the relationship between technological diffusion and regulation structure to make informed decisions. Lessons learned from this study can be used to guide future policies such as those directed to mitigate climate change. I first explore the diffusion of scrubbers, a sulfur dioxide (SO 2) abatement technology, in response to federal market-based regulations and state command-and-control regulations. I develop a simple theoretical model to describe the adoption decisions of scrubbers and use a survival model to empirically test the theoretical model. I find that power plants with strict command-and-control regulations have a high probability of installing a scrubber. These findings suggest that although market-based regulations have encouraged diffusion, many scrubbers have been installed because of state regulatory pressure. Although tradable permit systems are thought to give firms more flexibility in choosing abatement technologies, I show that interactions between a permit system and pre-existing command-and-control regulations can limit that flexibility. In a separate analysis, I explore the diffusion of combined cycle (CC) generating units, which are natural gas-fired generating units that are cleaner and more efficient than alternative generating units. I model the decision to consider adoption of a CC generating unit and the extent to which the technology is adopted in response to environmental regulations imposed on new sources of pollutants. To accomplish this, I use a zero-inflated Poisson

  6. 78 FR 2225 - Special Local Regulation; 2013 Lauderdale Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We... regulations, we have determined these actions will not significantly affect the human environment....

  7. 75 FR 10415 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; NSR Reform Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Regulations, Rule AM-06-04'' published December 17, 2008. The final rule approved certain revisions to... sought approval of rule AM-06-04 to implement the NSR Reform provisions that were not vacated by the... Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois 60604. This facility is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.,...

  8. POLICY AND SCIENCE: ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF REGULATIONS ON AIR QUALITY AND HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will discuss the NOx SIP call and the results of several studies investigating the impact of the regulation on NOx emissions and ozone levels across the northeastern United States. Current research plans to investigate linkages with human health will also be di...

  9. 33 CFR 165.1319 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... west highrise of the Interstate 90 bridge; thence westerly along the south side of the bridge to the shoreline on the western terminus of the bridge; thence southerly along the shoreline to Andrews Bay at 47... accordance with the general regulations in 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart C, no person or vessel may enter...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1319 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... west highrise of the Interstate 90 bridge; thence westerly along the south side of the bridge to the shoreline on the western terminus of the bridge; thence southerly along the shoreline to Andrews Bay at 47... accordance with the general regulations in 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart C, no person or vessel may enter...

  11. Methane, oxygen, photosynthesis, rubisco and the regulation of the air through time.

    PubMed

    Nisbet, Euan G; Nisbet, R Ellen R

    2008-08-27

    Rubisco I's specificity, which today may be almost perfectly tuned to the task of cultivating the global garden, controlled the balance of carbon gases and O(2) in the Precambrian ocean and hence, by equilibration, in the air. Control of CO(2) and O(2) by rubisco I, coupled with CH(4) from methanogens, has for the past 2.9 Ga directed the global greenhouse warming, which maintains liquid oceans and sustains microbial ecology.Both rubisco compensation controls and the danger of greenhouse runaway (e.g. glaciation) put limits on biological productivity. Rubisco may sustain the air in either of two permissible stable states: either an anoxic system with greenhouse warming supported by both high methane mixing ratios as well as carbon dioxide, or an oxygen-rich system in which CO(2) largely fulfils the role of managing greenhouse gas, and in which methane is necessarily only a trace greenhouse gas, as is N(2)O. Transition from the anoxic to the oxic state risks glaciation. CO(2) build-up during a global snowball may be an essential precursor to a CO(2)-dominated greenhouse with high levels of atmospheric O(2). Photosynthetic and greenhouse-controlling competitions between marine algae, cyanobacteria, and terrestrial C3 and C4 plants may collectively set the CO(2) : O(2) ratio of the modern atmosphere (last few million years ago in a mainly glacial epoch), maximizing the productivity close to rubisco compensation and glacial limits.

  12. Methane, oxygen, photosynthesis, rubisco and the regulation of the air through time.

    PubMed

    Nisbet, Euan G; Nisbet, R Ellen R

    2008-08-27

    Rubisco I's specificity, which today may be almost perfectly tuned to the task of cultivating the global garden, controlled the balance of carbon gases and O(2) in the Precambrian ocean and hence, by equilibration, in the air. Control of CO(2) and O(2) by rubisco I, coupled with CH(4) from methanogens, has for the past 2.9 Ga directed the global greenhouse warming, which maintains liquid oceans and sustains microbial ecology.Both rubisco compensation controls and the danger of greenhouse runaway (e.g. glaciation) put limits on biological productivity. Rubisco may sustain the air in either of two permissible stable states: either an anoxic system with greenhouse warming supported by both high methane mixing ratios as well as carbon dioxide, or an oxygen-rich system in which CO(2) largely fulfils the role of managing greenhouse gas, and in which methane is necessarily only a trace greenhouse gas, as is N(2)O. Transition from the anoxic to the oxic state risks glaciation. CO(2) build-up during a global snowball may be an essential precursor to a CO(2)-dominated greenhouse with high levels of atmospheric O(2). Photosynthetic and greenhouse-controlling competitions between marine algae, cyanobacteria, and terrestrial C3 and C4 plants may collectively set the CO(2) : O(2) ratio of the modern atmosphere (last few million years ago in a mainly glacial epoch), maximizing the productivity close to rubisco compensation and glacial limits. PMID:18487133

  13. Assessing the Health Impacts of Air Pollution Regulations Using BenMAP, the Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbell, B.; McCubbin, D.; Hallberg, A.

    2003-12-01

    The U.S. EPA Office of Air and Radiation has developed BenMAP, the environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program, a new software tool for estimating the health and environmental impacts of environmental regulations. BenMAP is the US EPA's premier tool for estimating benefits associated with air pollution reduction strategies, and has recently been used in evaluating US EPA's Proposed Non-Road Diesel Vehicle Standards and the proposed Clear Skies Act legislation. BenMAP is a geographic information system (GIS) that uses modeled and monitored air quality data combined with population forecasts to develop estimates of changes in community level exposure to ambient environmental pollution (currently ambient air pollution, e.g. ozone and PM). These estimated changes in exposure to ambient pollution are used as inputs to concentration-response functions derived from the epidemiological literature, along with data on baseline incidence of health effects, i.e. county level age and cause specific mortality rates. The resulting point estimates of changes in incidence of health effects, along with their associated uncertainty distributions (currently based on reported standard errors in the literature), are then multiplied by economic unit values (represented by distributions), i.e. the cost of a hospital admission, to derive dollar estimates of health benefits. BenMAP is unique in that it uses highly detailed census and health data matched with spatially detailed environmental quality data to estimate health benefits. The program can also provide estimates of the uncertainty associated with the estimated benefits. Other features of the program include the ability to pool results from multiple studies of the same endpoint, using fixed or random effects weights, or user supplied weights. BenMAP also incorporates functions to manipulate and combine information on environmental quality from many different sources. For the current version focusing on air pollution, these

  14. 49 CFR 1002.3 - Updating user fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Updating user fees. 1002.3 Section 1002.3... OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FEES § 1002.3 Updating user fees. (a) Update. Each... associated with user fee activity. Actual updating of operations overhead will be accomplished by...

  15. Identification of novel monosodium urate crystal regulated mRNAs by transcript profiling of dissected murine air pouch membranes

    PubMed Central

    Pessler, Frank; Mayer, Christian T; Jung, Sung Mun; Behrens, Ed M; Dai, Lie; Menetski, Joseph P; Schumacher, H Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The murine air pouch is a bursa-like space that resembles the human synovial membrane. Injection of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals into the pouch elicits an acute inflammatory response similar to human gout. We conducted the present study to identify mRNAs that were highly regulated by MSU crystals in the pouch membrane. Methods Air pouch membranes were meticulously dissected away from the overlying skin. Gene expression differences between MSU crystal stimulated and control membranes were determined by oligonucleotide microarray analysis 9 hours after injection of MSU crystals or buffer only. Differential regulation of selected targets was validated by relative quantitative PCR in time course experiments with dissected air pouch membranes and murine peritoneal macrophages. Results Eleven of the 12 most highly upregulated mRNAs were related to innate immunity and inflammation. They included mRNAs encoding histidine decarboxylase (the enzyme that synthesizes histamine), IL-6, the cell surface receptors PUMA-g and TREM-1, and the polypeptides Irg1 and PROK-2. IL-6 mRNA rose 108-fold 1 hour after crystal injection, coinciding with a surge in mRNAs encoding IL-1β, tumour necrosis factor-α and the immediate early transcription factor Egr-1. The other mRNAs rose up to 200-fold within the subsequent 3 to 8 hours. MSU crystals induced these mRNAs in a dose-dependent manner in cultured macrophages, with similar kinetics but lower fold changes. Among the downregulated mRNAs, quantitative PCR confirmed significant decreases in mRNAs encoding TREM-2 (an inhibitor of macrophage activation) and granzyme D (a constituent of natural killer and cytotoxic T cells) within 50 hours after crystal injection. Conclusion This analysis identified several genes that were previously not implicated in MSU crystal inflammation. The marked rise of the upregulated mRNAs after the early surge in cytokine and Egr-1 mRNAs suggests that they may be part of a 'second wave' of factors

  16. Detection of an autoreactive T-cell population within the polyclonal repertoire that undergoes distinct autoimmune regulator (Aire)-mediated selection.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Ruth T; DeVoss, Jason J; Moon, James J; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Jenkins, Marc K; Anderson, Mark S

    2012-05-15

    The autoimmune regulator (Aire) plays a critical role in central tolerance by promoting the display of tissue-specific antigens in the thymus. To study the influence of Aire on thymic selection in a physiological setting, we used tetramer reagents to detect autoreactive T cells specific for the Aire-dependent tissue-specific antigen interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP), in the polyclonal repertoire. Two class II tetramer reagents were designed to identify T cells specific for two different peptide epitopes of IRBP. Analyses of the polyclonal T-cell repertoire showed a high frequency of activated T cells specific for both IRBP tetramers in Aire(-/-) mice, but not in Aire(+/+) mice. Surprisingly, although one tetramer-binding T-cell population was efficiently deleted in the thymus in an Aire-dependent manner, the second tetramer-binding population was not deleted and could be detected in both the Aire(-/-) and Aire(+/+) T-cell repertoires. We found that Aire-dependent thymic deletion of IRBP-specific T cells relies on intercellular transfer of IRBP between thymic stroma and bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells. Furthermore, our data suggest that Aire-mediated deletion relies not only on thymic expression of IRBP, but also on proper antigen processing and presentation of IRBP by thymic antigen-presenting cells.

  17. 40 CFR 68.190 - Updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Updates. 68.190 Section 68.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.190 Updates. (a) The owner or operator...

  18. 40 CFR 68.190 - Updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Updates. 68.190 Section 68.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.190 Updates. (a) The owner or operator...

  19. 40 CFR 68.190 - Updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Updates. 68.190 Section 68.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.190 Updates. (a) The owner or operator...

  20. 40 CFR 68.190 - Updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Updates. 68.190 Section 68.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.190 Updates. (a) The owner or operator...

  1. Regulating emission of air pollutants for near-term relief from global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, V.; Xu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The manmade greenhouse gases that are now blanketing the planet is thick enough to warm the system beyond the 20C threshold. Even with a targeted reduction in CO2 emission of 50% by 2050, we will still be adding more than 50 ppm of CO2 and add another 10C to the warming. Fortunately, there are still ways to contain the warming by reducing non-CO2 climate warmers (methane, lower atmosphere ozone, black carbon and HFCs), using available and field tested technologies. The major advantage of going for these 'low-hanging fruits' is that this approach will clean up the air and improve health and food security of south and east Asia, thus engaging developing nations more effectively in climate negotiations. These non-CO2 mitigation actions will have significant (beneficial) impacts on the chemistry, clouds and precipitation of the atmosphere and these have to be quantified adequately. For example, reducing black and organic carbon emissions (through cleaner cooking technologies in developing countries) will also lead to significant reductions in carbon monoxide, which is an ozone precursor. The institutional infrastructure for reducing non-CO2 climate warmers already exist and have a proven track record for successful climate mitigation.

  2. Regulating low-NOx and high-burnout deep-air-staging combustion under real-furnace conditions in a 600 MWe down-fired supercritical boiler by strengthening the staged-air effect.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Min; Wang, Zhihua; Zhu, Yanqun; Ling, Zhongqian; Li, Zhengqi

    2014-10-21

    A 600 MW(e) down-fired pulverized-coal supercritical boiler, which was equipped with a deep-air-staging combustion system for reducing the particularly high NOx emissions, suffered from the well-accepted contradiction between low NOx emissions and high carbon in fly ash, in addition to excessively high gas temperatures in the hopper that jeopardized the boiler's safe operations. Previous results uncovered that under low-NOx conditions, strengthening the staged-air effect by decreasing the staged-air angle and simultaneously increasing the staged-air damper opening alleviated the aforementioned problems to some extent. To establish low-NOx and high-burnout circumstances and control the aforementioned hopper temperatures, a further staged-air retrofit with horizontally redirecting staged air through an enlarged staged-air slot area was performed to greatly strengthen the staged-air effect. Full-load industrial-size measurements were performed to confirm the availability of this retrofit. The present data were compared with those published results before the retrofit. High NOx emissions, low carbon in fly ah, and high hopper temperatures (i.e., levels of 1036 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 3.72%, and about 1300 °C, respectively) appeared under the original conditions with the staged-air angle of 45° and without overfire air (OFA) application. Applying OFA and reducing the angle to 20° achieved an apparent NOx reduction and a moderate hopper temperature decrease while a sharp increase in carbon in fly ash (i.e., levels of 878 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, about 1200 °C, and 9.81%, respectively). Fortunately, the present staged-air retrofit was confirmed to be applicable in regulating low-NOx, high-burnout, and low hopper temperature circumstances (i.e., levels of 867 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 5.40%, and about 1100 °C, respectively).

  3. AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER CONFERENCE

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pavlish; Steven A. Benson

    1999-07-01

    This final report summarizes the planning/preparation, facilitation, and outcome of the conference entitled ''Air Quality: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter'' that was held December 1-4, 1998, in McLean, Virginia (on the outskirts of Washington, DC). The goal of the conference was to bring together industry, government, and the research community to discuss the critical issue of how air quality can impact human health and the ecosystem, specifically hazardous air pollutants and fine airborne particles; available and developing control technologies; strategies and research needs; and an update on federal and state policy and regulations, related implementation issues, and the framework of the future.

  4. Nuclear power meets the 101st Congress, a {open_quotes}one-act{close_quotes} comedy: Regulation of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees under the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, R.

    1992-12-31

    In the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, Congress directed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate all radioactive pollutants, including those emitted from facilities licensed and regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Thus began the era of so-called {open_quotes}dual regulation.{close_quotes} Thirteen years later, that era ended with the passage of section 112(d)(9) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which authorized the EPA to refrain from regulating any category of NRC-licensed facility if it found that NRC regulation was adequate to protect public health. This story of how Congress reversed regulatory policy is actually a story more about nuclear power than air pollution. Dual regulation was authorized in 1977 because of two concerns: fears about the public health risks associated with the nation`s growing commitment to nuclear power and doubts about the integrity of nuclear regulation by the NRC. Although neither of these concerns had abated by 1990, the legislative process was so adroitly manipulated by the proponents of nuclear power that Congress, unwittingly, restored the NRC`s regulatory monopoly.

  5. Update '98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mock, Karen R.

    1998-01-01

    Updates cases and issues previously discussed in this regular column on human rights in Canada, including racism and anti-Semitism, laws on hate crimes, hate sites on the World Wide Web, the use of the "free speech" defense by hate groups, and legal challenges to antiracist groups by individuals criticized by them. (DSK)

  6. Regulation of CO2 Air Sea Fluxes by Sediments in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, William; Thomas, Helmuth; Hagens, Mathilde; Brenner, Heiko; Pätsch, Johannes; Clargo, Nicola; Salt, Lesley

    2016-04-01

    A multi-tracer approach is applied to assess the impact of boundary fluxes (e.g. benthic input from sediments or lateral inputs from the coastline) on the acid-base buffering capacity, and overall biogeochemistry, of the North Sea. Analyses of both basin-wide observations in the North Sea and transects through tidal basins at the North-Frisian coastline, reveal that surface distributions of the δ13C signature of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) are predominantly controlled by a balance between biological production and respiration. In particular, variability in metabolic DIC throughout stations in the well-mixed southern North Sea indicates the presence of an external carbon source, which is traced to the European continental coastline using naturally-occurring radium isotopes (224Ra and 228Ra). 228Ra is also shown to be a highly effective tracer of North Sea total alkalinity (AT) compared to the more conventional use of salinity. Coastal inputs of metabolic DIC and AT are calculated on a basin-wide scale, and ratios of these inputs suggest denitrification as a primary metabolic pathway for their formation. The AT input paralleling the metabolic DIC release prevents a significant decline in pH as compared to aerobic (i.e. unbuffered) release of metabolic DIC. Finally, long-term pH trends mimic those of riverine nitrate loading, highlighting the importance of coastal AT production via denitrification in regulating pH in the southern North Sea.

  7. Efficient air pollution regulation of coal-fired power in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Therese

    This dissertation evaluates monetary external costs of electricity generation in the People's Republic of China and implications for efficient pollution control policy. It presents an integrated assessment of environmental damages of air emissions of a representative new coal-fired plant in urban areas of north and south China. The simulation evaluates the nature and magnitude of damages in China, transboundary effects in Japan and Korea, and global greenhouse gas warming impacts. The valuation is used to identify efficient abatement policy for Chinese plants over time; evaluate benefits of differentiated policies; and consider the importance of dynamic policy. Potential annual damages of operating a 600-MW power plant without controls in China today would be 43-45 million (U.S. 1995). Annual local damages of 37-40 million far exceed transboundary or greenhouse gas damages (1.4 million and $4.6 million respectively). The largest component of damages is the risk of human mortality and chronic morbidity from long-term exposure to fine particles. Efficient pollution control minimizes the sum of abatement costs and residual unabated damages. Because monetary damages reflect sufferers' willingness to pay to avoid environmental risks, the choice of efficient controls is fundamentally tied to societal values and preferences. The optimal path for Chinese abatement moves from modest dispersion measures at present to combined dispersion and emission controls approaching those of current-day United States, by 2050. The inclusion of transboundary and greenhouse damages does not substantively alter local policies. Welfare benefits are gained by differentiating abatement policy by pollutant, meteorological parameters, and by population density. An analysis of optimal one-time investment in abatement for a plant in a growing economy suggests that some investment is optimal at all incomes but no single level of abatement is suitable for all economies. Forward-looking policy

  8. Recovering from "amnesia" brought about by radiation. Verification of the "Over the air" (OTA) application software update mechanism On-Board Solar Orbiter's Energetic Particle Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, Antonio; Sánchez Prieto, Sebastián; Rodriguez Polo, Oscar; Parra Espada, Pablo

    Computer memories are not supposed to forget, but they do. Because of the proximity of the Sun, from the Solar Orbiter boot software perspective, it is mandatory to look out for permanent memory errors resulting from (SEL) latch-up failures in application binaries stored in EEPROM and its SDRAM deployment areas. In this situation, the last line in defense established by FDIR mechanisms is the capability of the boot software to provide an accurate report of the memories’ damages and to perform an application software update, that avoid the harmed locations by flashing EEPROM with a new binary. This paper describes the OTA EEPROM firmware update procedure verification of the boot software that will run in the Instrument Control Unit (ICU) of the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) on-board Solar Orbiter. Since the maximum number of rewrites on real EEPROM is limited and permanent memory faults cannot be friendly emulated in real hardware, the verification has been accomplished by the use of a LEON2 Virtual Platform (Leon2ViP) with fault injection capabilities and real SpaceWire interfaces developed by the Space Research Group (SRG) of the University of Alcalá. This way it is possible to run the exact same target binary software as if was run on the real ICU platform. Furthermore, the use of this virtual hardware-in-the-loop (VHIL) approach makes it possible to communicate with Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) through real SpaceWire interfaces in an agile, controlled and deterministic environment.

  9. RING Type E3 Ligase CaAIR1 in Pepper Acts in the Regulation of ABA Signaling and Drought Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Park, Chanmi; Lim, Chae Woo; Baek, Woonhee; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-09-01

    Several E3 ubiquitin ligases have been associated with the response to abiotic and biotic stresses in higher plants. Here, we report that the hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) ABA-Insensitive RING protein 1 gene (CaAIR1) is essential for a hypersensitive response to drought stress. CaAIR1 contains a C3HC4-type RING finger motif, which plays a role for attachment of ubiquitins to the target protein, and a putative transmembrane domain. The expression levels of CaAIR1 are up-regulated in pepper leaves by ABA treatments, drought and NaCl, suggesting its role in the response to abiotic stress. Our analysis showed that CaAIR1 displays self-ubiquitination and is localized in the nucleus. We generated CaAIR1-silenced peppers via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and CaAIR1-overexpressing (OX) transgenic Arabidopsis plants to evaluate their responses to ABA and drought. VIGS of CaAIR1 in pepper plants conferred an enhanced tolerance to drought stress, which was accompanied by low levels of transpirational water loss in the drought-treated leaves. CaAIR1-OX plants displayed an impaired sensitivity to ABA during seed germination, seedling and adult stages. Moreover, these plants showed enhanced sensitivity to drought stress because of reduced stomatal closure and decreased expression of stress-responsive genes. Thus, our data indicate that CaAIR1 is a negative regulator of the ABA-mediated drought stress tolerance mechanism.

  10. An Afg2/Spaf-related Cdc48-like AAA ATPase regulates the stability and activity of the C. elegans Aurora B kinase AIR-2

    PubMed Central

    Heallen, Todd R.; Adams, Henry P.; Furuta, Tokiko; Verbrugghe, Koen J.; Schumacher, Jill M.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The Aurora B kinase is the enzymatic core of the chromosomal passenger complex, which is a critical regulator of mitosis. To identify novel regulators of Aurora B, we performed a genome-wide screen for suppressors of a temperature-sensitive lethal allele of the C. elegans Aurora B kinase AIR-2. This screen uncovered a member of the Afg2/Spaf subfamily of Cdc48-like AAA ATPases as an essential inhibitor of AIR-2 stability and activity. Depletion of CDC-48.3 restores viability to air-2 mutant embryos and leads to abnormally high AIR-2 levels at the late telophase/G1 transition. Furthermore, CDC-48.3 binds directly to AIR-2 and inhibits its kinase activity from metaphase through telophase. While canonical p97/Cdc48 proteins have been assigned contradictory roles in the regulation of Aurora B, our results are the first to identify a member of the Afg2/Spaf AAA ATPases as a critical in vivo inhibitor of this kinase during embryonic development. PMID:18854144

  11. Factors Regulating the Seasonal Cycle of Inter-continental Air Pollution Transport between Asia, the United States and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L.; Kim, N.

    2002-12-01

    This talk will demonstrate the interdependency of air quality in the northern hemisphere on the emissions and subsequent transport of pollutants from each of the major industrialized continental regions. We examine the contribution that emissions from continental regions in the northern hemisphere make to the composition of the remote troposphere. We also examine the processes that control the concentration of reactive pollutants in continental boundary layers over the United States, Europe and East Asia and export from these boundary layers to the global troposphere. We use the MOZART-2 (Model of Ozone and Related Tracers, version 2) global chemical tracer model with tagged CO from fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions from each region. In conjunction with CO measurements from the Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Lab (CMDL), we examine the influence that each regions' emissions have on remote surface locations in the northern hemisphere. We find that the remote troposphere of the northern hemisphere contains a mélange of CO emitted from different continental regions the contributions of which vary seasonally as a function of emissions, meteorology and atmospheric lifetime. To examine factors regulating the concentration distributions of O3, CO, NOx, PAN and HNO3 over the United States, Europe and Asia and their export to the global troposphere, we quantify and compare the seasonal contributions of chemistry, advection, convection and deposition to boundary layer concentrations of each chemical species and examine the horizontal and vertical fluxes of each species out of each regions boundary layer to the global troposphere.

  12. DNA-PKcs interacts with Aire and regulates the expression of toll-like receptors in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Zhu, W; Fu, H; Zhang, Y; Sun, J; Yang, W; Li, Y

    2012-05-01

    The autoimmune regulator (Aire) is a key mediator of the central tolerance for peripheral tissue self-antigen (PTAs) and is involved in the transcriptional control of many antigens in thymic medullary epithelial cells (mTECs). However, the function of Aire in peripheral lymphoid tissues and haematopoietic cells, particularly in monocytes and macrophages, remains poorly understood. We previously found that the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 1, TLR3 and TLR8 was notably upregulated in pEGFPC1/Aire stably transfected RAW264.7 (GFP-Aire/RAW) cells, while the expressions of other TLRs were not significantly changed. The mechanism by which Aire affects TLR1, TLR3 and TLR8 expression is not clear. Interactions with other proteins, such as DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), are crucial for regulating the transcriptional activity of Aire. In this study, we found that Aire and DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) were co-located in the nucleus of GFP-Aire/RAW cells, and they interact with each other. Small interfering RNA knock-down of DNA-PKcs in these cells decreased the expression of TLR1, TLR3 and TLR8, but no change was observed in pEGFPC1 stably transfected RAW264.7 (GFP/RAW) cells. We did not observe any change in the expressions of other TLRs after DNA-PKcs knock-down in GFP-Aire/RAW or GFP/RAW cells. A similar observation has been made in pEGFPC1/Aire or pEGFPC1 transiently transfected primary peritoneal macrophages. Using a luciferase activity assay, we found the that the transcriptional activity of TLR1, TLR3 and TLR8 promoters was also decreased after knock-down of DNA-PKcs in GFP-Aire/RAW cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that DNA-PKcs may interact with Aire to promote the expression of TLRs in RAW264.7 cells.

  13. Colloid update.

    PubMed

    Argalious, Maged Y

    2012-01-01

    This update aims to provide an evidence based review of natural and synthetic colloids with a special emphasis on the various generations of the synthetic colloid hydroxyethyl starch. The effect of 1(st), 2(nd) and 3(rd) generation hetastarches on bleeding, coagulopathy, acute kidney injury and mortality will be discussed. The results of randomised controlled trials addressing morbidity and mortality outcomes of colloid versus crystalloid resuscitation in critically ill patients will be described. In addition, the rationale and evidence behind early goal directed fluid therapy (EGDFT) including a practical approach to assessment of dynamic measures of fluid responsiveness will be presented.

  14. Rhabdomyolysis updated

    PubMed Central

    Efstratiadis, G; Voulgaridou, A; Nikiforou, D; Kyventidis, A; Kourkouni, E; Vergoulas, G

    2007-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis constitutes a common cause of acute renal failure and presents paramount interest. A large variety of causes with different pathogenetic mechanisms can involve skeletal muscles resulting in rhabdomyolysis with or without acute renal failure. Crush syndrome, one of the most common causes of rhabdomyolysis presents increased clinical interest, particularly in areas often involved by earthquakes, such as Greece and Turkey. Drug abusers are another sensitive group of young patients prone to rhabdomyolysis, which attracts the clinical interest of a variety of medical specialties. We herein review the evidence extracted from updated literature concerning the data related to pathogenetic mechanisms and pathophysiology as well as the management of this interesting syndrome. PMID:19582207

  15. Updated Abraham solvation parameters for polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    van Noort, Paul C M; Haftka, Joris J H; Parsons, John R

    2010-09-15

    This study shows that the recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Abraham solvation parameters predict PCB air-n-hexadecane and n-octanol-water partition coefficients very poorly, especially for highly ortho-chlorinated congeners. Therefore, an updated set of PCB solvation parameters was derived from four PCB properties and associated Abraham solvation equations. Additionally, the influence of ortho-chlorination on PCB solvent accessible volume and surface area was investigated. The updated PCB solvation parameters were tested on partitioning between five other phase combinations. Compared to the original PCB solvation parameter set, the updated PCB solvation parameters resulted in substantially improved estimates from Abraham solvation equations for (subcooled) liquid vapor pressures, aqueous solubilities, HPLC capacity factors, and for coefficients of air-n-hexadecane, air-water, organic carbon-water, and n-octanol-water partitioning. For water to polydimethyl siloxane and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) partitioning, the updated PCB solvation parameters yielded no improvement compared to the original data set. The main difference between the updated and the original parameter set is that updated PCB McGowan specific volumes depend on the degree of ortho-chlorination, which is qualitatively confirmed by trends in the PCB solvent accessible volumes and surface areas. The use of the updated PCB solvation parameters instead of the original values is therefore recommended.

  16. Regulating low-NOx and high-burnout deep-air-staging combustion under real-furnace conditions in a 600 MWe down-fired supercritical boiler by strengthening the staged-air effect.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Min; Wang, Zhihua; Zhu, Yanqun; Ling, Zhongqian; Li, Zhengqi

    2014-10-21

    A 600 MW(e) down-fired pulverized-coal supercritical boiler, which was equipped with a deep-air-staging combustion system for reducing the particularly high NOx emissions, suffered from the well-accepted contradiction between low NOx emissions and high carbon in fly ash, in addition to excessively high gas temperatures in the hopper that jeopardized the boiler's safe operations. Previous results uncovered that under low-NOx conditions, strengthening the staged-air effect by decreasing the staged-air angle and simultaneously increasing the staged-air damper opening alleviated the aforementioned problems to some extent. To establish low-NOx and high-burnout circumstances and control the aforementioned hopper temperatures, a further staged-air retrofit with horizontally redirecting staged air through an enlarged staged-air slot area was performed to greatly strengthen the staged-air effect. Full-load industrial-size measurements were performed to confirm the availability of this retrofit. The present data were compared with those published results before the retrofit. High NOx emissions, low carbon in fly ah, and high hopper temperatures (i.e., levels of 1036 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 3.72%, and about 1300 °C, respectively) appeared under the original conditions with the staged-air angle of 45° and without overfire air (OFA) application. Applying OFA and reducing the angle to 20° achieved an apparent NOx reduction and a moderate hopper temperature decrease while a sharp increase in carbon in fly ash (i.e., levels of 878 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, about 1200 °C, and 9.81%, respectively). Fortunately, the present staged-air retrofit was confirmed to be applicable in regulating low-NOx, high-burnout, and low hopper temperature circumstances (i.e., levels of 867 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 5.40%, and about 1100 °C, respectively). PMID:25256210

  17. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to establish national ambient air quality standards and to regulate as necessary, hazardous air pollutants. EPA uses ambient air monitoring to determine current air quality conditions, and to assess progress toward meeting these standards and relat...

  18. Closed loop engine control for regulating NOx emissions, using a two-dimensional fuel-air curve

    DOEpatents

    Bourn, Gary D.; Smith, Jack A.; Gingrich, Jess W.

    2007-01-30

    An engine control strategy that ensures that NOx emissions from the engine will be maintained at an acceptable level. The control strategy is based on a two-dimensional fuel-air curve, in which air manifold pressure (AMP) is a function of fuel header pressure and engine speed. The control strategy provides for closed loop NOx adjustment to a base AMP value derived from the fuel-air curve.

  19. Document Update and Compare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoch, C. F.; Caldwell, D. C.; Caldwell, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Document Update and Compare programs provide simple computerized documentmaintenance system on Data General NOVA 840 computer. Document Update program allows user to update document either by batch or terminal input. Documents are modified and lists of modifications printed out.

  20. Method of regulating the amount of underfire air for combustion of wood fuels in spreader-stroke boilers

    DOEpatents

    Tuttle, Kenneth L.

    1980-01-01

    A method of metering underfire air for increasing efficiency and reducing particulate emissions from wood-fire, spreader-stoker boilers is disclosed. A portion of the combustion air, approximately one pound of air per pound of wood, is fed through the grate into the fuel bed, while the remainder of the combustion air is distributed above the fuel in the furnace, and the fuel bed is maintained at a depth sufficient to consume all oxygen admitted under fire and to insure a continuous layer of fresh fuel thereover to entrap charred particles inside the fuel bed.

  1. A new approach for monthly updates of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions from space: Application to China and implications for air quality forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Henze, Daven K.; Wang, Yuxuan; Qu, Zhen

    2016-09-01

    SO2 emissions, the largest source of anthropogenic aerosols, can respond rapidly to economic and policy driven changes. However, bottom-up SO2 inventories have inherent limitations owing to 24-48 months latency and lack of month-to-month variation in emissions (especially in developing countries). This study develops a new approach that integrates Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) SO2 satellite measurements and GEOS-Chem adjoint model simulations to constrain monthly anthropogenic SO2 emissions. The approach's effectiveness is demonstrated for 14 months in East Asia; resultant posterior emissions not only capture a 20% SO2 emission reduction in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games but also improve agreement between modeled and in situ surface measurements. Further analysis reveals that posterior emissions estimates, compared to the prior, lead to significant improvements in forecasting monthly surface and columnar SO2. With the pending availability of geostationary measurements of tropospheric composition, we show that it may soon be possible to rapidly constrain SO2 emissions and associated air quality predictions at fine spatiotemporal scales.

  2. Epidemiologic investigation of health effects in Air Force personnel following exposure to herbicides. Summary mortality update, 1989. Interim report 1979-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.H.; Michalek, J.E.; Miner, J.C.

    1989-04-17

    The purpose of the Air Force Health Study is to determine whether those individuals involved in the spraying of herbicides in Vietnam during the Ranch Hand operation have experienced any adverse health effects as a result of their participation in that program. The study is designed to evaluate both the mortality (death) and morbidity (disease) in these individuals over a 20-year beginning in 1982. The Baseline Mortality Report was released in June 1983, the Baseline Morbidity Report in February 1984. Follow-up mortality reports were released in 1984, 1985, and 1986. This study has not demonstrated health effects which can be conclusively attributed to herbicide or dioxin exposure. This report contains analyses of cumulative deaths occurring up to 31 December 1987. The overall cumulative mortality of the Ranch Hands remains statistically indistinguishable from that of both their matched Comparisons and the entire Comparison, population, although there is a statistically significant increasing trend in post-1983 death rates among Ranch Hand flying officers and a statistically significant increase in Ranch Hand digestive system deaths relative to the Comparison population; these findings are not suggestive of a herbicide effect. Ranch Hands are equivalent to all Comparisons in cumulative accidental, malignant neoplasm and circulatory system mortality.

  3. 77 FR 10650 - Annual Update of Filing Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 381 Annual Update of Filing Fees AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Final rule; annual update of Commission filing fees. SUMMARY: In accordance with its regulations, the Commission issues this update of its filing fees. This notice...

  4. [Pharmacovigilance update].

    PubMed

    Diezi, Léonore; Renard, Delphine; Rothuizen, Laura E; Livio, Françoise

    2014-01-15

    The main pharmacovigilance updates in 2013 are reviewed. Nitrofurantoin: lower efficacy and an increased risk of adverse events when creatinine clearance is below 60 ml/min. Dabigatran: contraindicated in patients with mechanical heart valves. Azithromycin: QT prolongation and increased risk of death. Zolpidem: towards a lower dosage. Roflumilast: avoid in patients known or at risk for mood disorders. Retigabine: indication restricted to last-line use and new monitoring requirements after reports of pigment changes in retina and other tissues. Telaprevir and rituximab: severe mucocutaneous reactions. Fingolimod: rare cases of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy. Tolvaptan: potential for hepatotoxicity. Nicotinic acid/laropiprant: suspension of marketing authorization as benefits no longer outweigh risks. PMID:24558915

  5. In pursuit of clean air: a data book of problems and strategies at the state level. Supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, D.B.; Moser, S.B.; Streets, D.G.

    1980-08-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 and EPA regulations set stringent requirements for the control of emissions in areas where the National Ambient Air Quality Standards were being exceeded. This supplement updates a previous five-volume summary of nonattainment area designations and attainment strategies of the states as of July 1, 1980. It also contains maps of PSD Class I areas and additional information on coal production, coal reserves, and coal quality.

  6. The systematic regulation of oyster CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5 in response to air exposure.

    PubMed

    Xin, Lusheng; Zhang, Huan; Du, Xinyu; Li, Yiqun; Li, Meijia; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Hao; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2016-10-01

    As a proinflammatory cytokine, vertebrate interleukin 17 (IL17) plays a vital role in the balance of inflammation and homeostasis, and is involved in a systemic regulation of glucose homeostasis. In the present study, a remarkable increase of glucose concentration was observed in oyster serum after 2 d air exposure, which was followed by a rapid up-regulation of CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5. After oysters was received an injection of extra glucose, the mRNA expressions of CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5 were also significantly up-regulated. The histopathological changes of hepatopancreas were observed after the oysters were treated by the recombinant proteins of CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5 in vivo or subjected to air exposure. A significant decrease of GSK3β (Glycogen synthase kinase-3β) protein was also observed after the injection of CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5 recombinant proteins in vivo. When the oysters with CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5 genes knocked down were subjected to air exposure, the decline of GSK3β concentration was slowed down and it could still be obviously detected after 7 d compared with that in the control. Meanwhile, the expression of CgDefensin and CgDFFA was inhibited, while CgIAP was up-regulated when CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5 genes were knocked down, and the oysters exhibited higher mortality (p < 0.05) at 3 d, whereas lower at the late stage of air exposure compared with that in the controls. The results collectively suggested that once oysters were exposed to air, the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5 was induced by the up-regulated glucose concentration in oyster serum, which would be not only a negative feedback to the high glucose concentration through mediating the regulation of GSK3β, but also an inducer on tissue damage and immunocompetence as well as the adaptability to stresses. PMID:27268575

  7. Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) Is Expressed in Spermatogenic Cells, and It Altered the Expression of Several Nucleic-Acid-Binding and Cytoskeletal Proteins in Germ Cell 1 Spermatogonial (GC1-spg) Cells.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Karthika; Bhagya, Kongattu P; Kumar, Anil Tr; Devi, Anandavalli N; Sengottaiyan, Jeeva; Kumar, Pradeep G

    2016-08-01

    Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is a gene associated with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). AIRE is expressed heavily in the thymic epithelial cells and is involved in maintaining self-tolerance through regulating the expression of tissue-specific antigens. The testes are the most predominant extrathymic location where a heavy expression of AIRE is reported. Homozygous Aire-deficient male mice were infertile, possibly due to impaired spermatogenesis, deregulated germ cell apoptosis, or autoimmunity. We report that AIRE is expressed in the testes of neonatal, adolescent, and adult mice. AIRE expression was detected in glial cell derived neurotrophic factor receptor alpha (GFRα)(+) (spermatogonia), GFRα(-)/synaptonemal complex protein (SCP3)(+) (meiotic), and GFRα(-)/Phosphoglycerate kinase 2 (PGK2)(+) (postmeiotic) germ cells in mouse testes. GC1-spg, a germ-cell-derived cell line, did not express AIRE. Retinoic acid induced AIRE expression in GC1-spg cells. Ectopic expression of AIRE in GC1-spg cells using label-free LC-MS/MS identified a total of 371 proteins that were differentially expressed. 100 proteins were up-regulated, and 271 proteins were down-regulated. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002511. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed proteins showed increased levels of various nucleic-acid-binding proteins and transcription factors and a decreased level of various cytoskeletal and structural proteins in the AIRE overexpressing cells as compared with the empty vector-transfected controls. The transcripts of a select set of the up-regulated proteins were also elevated. However, there was no corresponding decrease in the mRNA levels of the down-regulated set of proteins. Molecular function network analysis indicated that AIRE influenced gene expression in GC1-spg cells by acting at multiple levels, including transcription, translation, RNA processing, protein transport, protein

  8. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…

  9. Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Aug 30,2016 ... or Longer-Term Acute short-term effects of air pollution tend to strike people who are elderly or ...

  10. RCRA, Superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Oil Pollution Prevention Regulation and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (updated February 1998); Directive

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The goal of this module is to explain the purpose, scope, and reporting requirements under the Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures (SPCC) and related regulations and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990.

  11. 21 CFR 1.234 - How and when do you update your facility's registration information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Registration of Food Facilities Procedures... update. (1) To update your registration electronically, you must update at http://www.fda.gov/furls. (2) Once you complete your electronic update, FDA will automatically provide you with an...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.202 - Data updating, recording, and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 1065.202 Section 1065.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.202 Data updating, recording... Intake-air or raw-exhaust flow rate N/A 1 Hz means. § 1065.530, § 1065.545 Dilution air if...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.202 - Data updating, recording, and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 1065.202 Section 1065.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.202 Data updating, recording... Intake-air or raw-exhaust flow rate N/A 1 Hz means. § 1065.530, § 1065.545 Dilution air if...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.202 - Data updating, recording, and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 1065.202 Section 1065.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.202 Data updating, recording...; § 1065.545 Intake-air or raw-exhaust flow rate 1 Hz means. § 1065.530; § 1065.545 Dilution air flow...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.202 - Data updating, recording, and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 1065.202 Section 1065.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.202 Data updating, recording... Intake-air or raw-exhaust flow rate N/A 1 Hz means. § 1065.530, § 1065.545 Dilution air if...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.202 - Data updating, recording, and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 1065.202 Section 1065.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.202 Data updating, recording... Intake-air or raw-exhaust flow rate N/A 1 Hz means. § 1065.530, § 1065.545 Dilution air if...

  17. ARS NP212 Climate change, soils and emissions program update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service National Program 212 (Climate Change, Soils, and Emissions) has a significant component focused on air quality studies. Presented here for the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force is an update on the status of ARS programs with focus on air quality. National Program ...

  18. Update on Regulation of Sand Transport in the Colorado River by Changes in the Surface Grain Size of Eddy Sandbars over Multiyear Timescales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Schmidt, John C.

    2008-01-01

    In settings where the transport of sand is partially or fully supply limited, changes in the upstream supply of sand are coupled to changes in the grain size of sand on the bed. In this manner, the transport of sand under the supply-limited case is ?grain-size regulated.? Since the closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, the downstream reach of the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons has exhibited evidence of sand-supply limitation. Sand transport in the river is now about equally regulated by changes in the discharge of water and changes in the grain sizes of sand on the channel bed and eddy sandbars. Previous work has shown that changes in the grain size of sand on the channel bed (driven by changes in the upstream supply of sand owing to both tributary floods and high dam releases) are important in regulating sand transport over timescales of days to months. In this study, suspended-sand data are analyzed in conjunction with bed grain-size data to determine whether changes in the sand grain size on the channel bed, or changes in the sand grain size on the surface of eddy sandbars, have been more important in regulating sand transport in the postdam Colorado River over longer, multiyear timescales. The results of this study show that this combined theory- and field-based approach can be used to deduce which environments in a complicated setting are most important for regulating sediment transport. In the case of the regulated Colorado River in Marble and upper Grand Canyons, suspended-sand transport has been regulated mostly by changes in the surface grain size of eddy sandbars.

  19. Neuroinflammation, hyperphosphorylated tau, diffuse amyloid plaques, and down-regulation of the cellular prion protein in air pollution exposed children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Kavanaugh, Michael; Block, Michelle; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Osnaya, Norma; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Guo, Ruixin; Hua, Zhaowei; Zhu, Hongtu; Perry, George; Diaz, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution exposures have been linked to neuroinflammation and neuropathology. Autopsy samples of the frontal cortex from control (n = 8) and pollution-exposed (n = 35) children and young adults were analyzed by RT-PCR (n = 43) and microarray analysis (n = 12) for gene expression changes in oxidative stress, DNA damage signaling, NFκB signaling, inflammation, and neurodegeneration pathways. The effect of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype on the presence of protein aggregates associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology was also explored. Exposed urbanites displayed differential (>2-fold) regulation of 134 genes. Forty percent exhibited tau hyperphosphorylation with pre-tangle material and 51% had amyloid-β (Aβ) diffuse plaques compared with 0% in controls. APOE4 carriers had greater hyperphosphorylated tau and diffuse Aβ plaques versus E3 carriers (Q = 7.82, p = 0.005). Upregulated gene network clusters included IL1, NFκB, TNF, IFN, and TLRs. A 15-fold frontal down-regulation of the prion-related protein (PrP(C)) was seen in highly exposed subjects. The down-regulation of the PrP(C) is critical given its important roles for neuroprotection, neurodegeneration, and mood disorder states. Elevation of indices of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, down-regulation of the PrP(C) and AD-associated pathology are present in young megacity residents. The inducible regulation of gene expression suggests they are evolving different mechanisms in an attempt to cope with the constant state of inflammation and oxidative stress related to their environmental exposures. Together, these data support a role for air pollution in CNS damage and its impact upon the developing brain and the potential etiology of AD and mood disorders. PMID:21955814

  20. Insulin Pumps and Remote Software Updates

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Noel E.; Parks, Linda J.; Verhoef, Erik T.; Morgan, Corey A.; Stal, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the future direction of insulin pump technology and its relationship to the software update process. A user needs analysis revealed that respondents wanted an insulin pump software update process to function much in the same way as smartphone updates. Users of insulin pumps have the same expectations as with other ubiquitous technology such as smartphones, tablets, and laptops. The development of a software update system within a regulated environment that meets the needs of insulin pump users by allowing optional software updates that provide access to pump improvements, feature additions, or access to algorithms that provide therapy-changing technologies is a new way forward for the management of a complicated disease that affects more than 450,000 people using insulin pumps in the United States. PMID:26385400

  1. The role of integrated resource planning, environmental externalities, and anticipation of future regulation in compliance planning under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bernow, S.; Biewald, B.; Wulfsberg, K.

    1993-07-01

    Utilities are developing sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission compliance plans to meet limitations of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). Compliance plans will have long-term effects on resource selection, fuel choice, and system dispatch. Use of integrated resource planning (IRP) is necessary to ensure compliance plans are consistent with the overall societal goals. In particular, environmental externalities must be integrated with the compliance planning process. The focus of the CAAA is on air pollution reduction, specifically acid gases and toxics, and attainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants. Title IV specifically focuses on sulfur dioxide with a national allowance trading system, while further regulation of toxics and nitrogen oxides is slated for additional study. Yet, compliance planning based narrowly upon today`s environmental regulations could fail to meet the broad goals of IRP if a larger array of environmental externalities is excluded from the analysis. Compliance planning must consider a broad range of environmental effects from energy production and use to (1) protect society`s long-term stake in environmental quality, and (2) ensure that today`s plans are rich enough to accommodate potential changes in regulation and national environmental goals. The explicit recognition of environmental effects, such as those associated with CO{sub 2} release, will result in prudent compliance plans that take advantage of current opportunities for pollution avoidance and have long-term viability in the face of regulatory change. By including such considerations, the mix of resources acquired and operated (supply and demand, existing and new, conventional and renewable, fuel type and fuel quality, pollution control, and dispatch protocols) will be robust and truly least-cost.

  2. Towards an agent based traffic regulation and recommendation system for the on-road air quality control.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Abderrahmane; El Fazziki, Abdelaziz; Ouarzazi, Jamal; Sadgal, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated and adaptive problem-solving approach to control the on-road air quality by modeling the road infrastructure, managing traffic based on pollution level and generating recommendations for road users. The aim is to reduce vehicle emissions in the most polluted road segments and optimizing the pollution levels. For this we propose the use of historical and real time pollution records and contextual data to calculate the air quality index on road networks and generate recommendations for reassigning traffic flow in order to improve the on-road air quality. The resulting air quality indexes are used in the system's traffic network generation, which the cartography is represented by a weighted graph. The weights evolve according to the pollution indexes and path properties and the graph is therefore dynamic. Furthermore, the systems use the available pollution data and meteorological records in order to predict the on-road pollutant levels by using an artificial neural network based prediction model. The proposed approach combines the benefits of multi-agent systems, Big data technology, machine learning tools and the available data sources. For the shortest path searching in the road network, we use the Dijkstra algorithm over Hadoop MapReduce framework. The use Hadoop framework in the data retrieve and analysis process has significantly improved the performance of the proposed system. Also, the agent technology allowed proposing a suitable solution in terms of robustness and agility.

  3. Towards an agent based traffic regulation and recommendation system for the on-road air quality control.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Abderrahmane; El Fazziki, Abdelaziz; Ouarzazi, Jamal; Sadgal, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated and adaptive problem-solving approach to control the on-road air quality by modeling the road infrastructure, managing traffic based on pollution level and generating recommendations for road users. The aim is to reduce vehicle emissions in the most polluted road segments and optimizing the pollution levels. For this we propose the use of historical and real time pollution records and contextual data to calculate the air quality index on road networks and generate recommendations for reassigning traffic flow in order to improve the on-road air quality. The resulting air quality indexes are used in the system's traffic network generation, which the cartography is represented by a weighted graph. The weights evolve according to the pollution indexes and path properties and the graph is therefore dynamic. Furthermore, the systems use the available pollution data and meteorological records in order to predict the on-road pollutant levels by using an artificial neural network based prediction model. The proposed approach combines the benefits of multi-agent systems, Big data technology, machine learning tools and the available data sources. For the shortest path searching in the road network, we use the Dijkstra algorithm over Hadoop MapReduce framework. The use Hadoop framework in the data retrieve and analysis process has significantly improved the performance of the proposed system. Also, the agent technology allowed proposing a suitable solution in terms of robustness and agility. PMID:27652177

  4. 77 FR 14354 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review; U.S.-Flag Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of request for public comments regarding an extension to an existing OMB clearance. SUMMARY: Under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act, the Regulatory Secretariat will be... the necessity for foreign-flag air transportation, to disallow expenditures from funds,...

  5. Air Pressure Responses to Sudden Vocal Tract Pressure Bleeds during Production of Stop Consonants: New Evidence of Aeromechanical Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, David J.; Weissler, Mark C.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate short-latency vocal tract air pressure responses to sudden pressure bleeds during production of voiceless bilabial stop consonants. It was hypothesized that the occurrence of respiratory reflexes would be indicated by distinct patterns of responses as a function of bleed magnitude. In Study 1, 19 adults…

  6. Hanford Site air operating permit application

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which amended the Federal Clean Air Act of 1977, required that the US Environmental Protection Agency develop a national Air Operating Permit Program, which in turn would require each state to develop an Air Operating Permit Program to identify all sources of ``regulated`` pollutants. Regulated pollutants include ``criteria`` pollutants (oxides of nitrogen, sulfur oxides, total suspended particulates, carbon monoxide, particulate matter greater than 10 micron, lead) plus 189 other ``Hazardous`` Air Pollutants. The Hanford Site, owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, is located in southcentral Washington State and covers 560 square miles of semi-arid shrub and grasslands located just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. This land, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas historically used for the production of nuclear materials, waste storage, and waste disposal. About 6 percent of the land area has been disturbed and is actively used. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application consists of more than 1,100 sources and in excess of 300 emission points. Before January 1995, the maintenance and operations contractor and the environmental restoration contractor for the US Department of Energy completed an air emission inventory on the Hanford Site. The inventory has been entered into a database so that the sources and emission points can be tracked and updated information readily can be retrieved. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application contains information current as of April 19, 1995.

  7. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  8. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  9. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  10. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  11. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  12. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  13. Up-Regulation of mRNA Ventricular PRNP Prion Protein Gene Expression in Air Pollution Highly Exposed Young Urbanites: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Glucose Regulated Protein 78, and Nanosized Particles

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Franco-Lira, Maricela; González-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Harritt, Lou; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Drecktrah, Dan; Zhu, Hongtu; Sun, Qiang; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana; Diaz, Philippe; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area children and young adults exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants including fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) vs. clean air controls, exhibit myocardial inflammation and inflammasome activation with a differential right and left ventricular expression of key inflammatory genes and inflammasomes. We investigated the mRNA expression levels of the prion protein gene PRNP, which plays an important role in the protection against oxidative stress and metal toxicity, and the glucose regulated protein 78, a key protein in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling, in ventricular autopsy samples from 30 children and young adults age 19.97 ± 6.8 years with a lifetime of low (n:4) vs. high (n:26) air pollution exposures. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies were carried out in human ventricles, and electron microscopy studies were also done in 5 young, highly exposed Mexico City dogs. There was significant left ventricular PRNP and bi-ventricular GRP78 mRNA up-regulation in Mexico City young urbanites vs. controls. PRNP up-regulation in the left ventricle was significantly different from the right, p < 0.0001, and there was a strong left ventricular PRNP and GRP78 correlation (p = 0.0005). Marked abnormalities in capillary endothelial cells, numerous nanosized particles in myocardial ER and in abnormal mitochondria characterized the highly exposed ventricles. Early and sustained cardiac ER stress could result in detrimental irreversible consequences in urban children, and while highly complex systems maintain myocardial homeostasis, failure to compensate for chronic myocardial inflammation, oxidative and ER stress, and particles damaging myocardial organelles may prime the development of pathophysiological cardiovascular states in young urbanites. Nanosized PM could play a key cardiac myocyte toxicity role. PMID:24287918

  14. Up-regulation of mRNA ventricular PRNP prion protein gene expression in air pollution highly exposed young urbanites: endoplasmic reticulum stress, glucose regulated protein 78, and nanosized particles.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Franco-Lira, Maricela; González-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Harritt, Lou; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Drecktrah, Dan; Zhu, Hongtu; Sun, Qiang; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana; Diaz, Philippe; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area children and young adults exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants including fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) vs. clean air controls, exhibit myocardial inflammation and inflammasome activation with a differential right and left ventricular expression of key inflammatory genes and inflammasomes. We investigated the mRNA expression levels of the prion protein gene PRNP, which plays an important role in the protection against oxidative stress and metal toxicity, and the glucose regulated protein 78, a key protein in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling, in ventricular autopsy samples from 30 children and young adults age 19.97 ± 6.8 years with a lifetime of low (n:4) vs. high (n:26) air pollution exposures. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies were carried out in human ventricles, and electron microscopy studies were also done in 5 young, highly exposed Mexico City dogs. There was significant left ventricular PRNP and bi-ventricular GRP78 mRNA up-regulation in Mexico City young urbanites vs. controls. PRNP up-regulation in the left ventricle was significantly different from the right, p < 0.0001, and there was a strong left ventricular PRNP and GRP78 correlation (p = 0.0005). Marked abnormalities in capillary endothelial cells, numerous nanosized particles in myocardial ER and in abnormal mitochondria characterized the highly exposed ventricles. Early and sustained cardiac ER stress could result in detrimental irreversible consequences in urban children, and while highly complex systems maintain myocardial homeostasis, failure to compensate for chronic myocardial inflammation, oxidative and ER stress, and particles damaging myocardial organelles may prime the development of pathophysiological cardiovascular states in young urbanites. Nanosized PM could play a key cardiac myocyte toxicity role. PMID:24287918

  15. Up-regulation of mRNA ventricular PRNP prion protein gene expression in air pollution highly exposed young urbanites: endoplasmic reticulum stress, glucose regulated protein 78, and nanosized particles.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Franco-Lira, Maricela; González-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Harritt, Lou; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Drecktrah, Dan; Zhu, Hongtu; Sun, Qiang; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana; Diaz, Philippe; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2013-11-28

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area children and young adults exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants including fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) vs. clean air controls, exhibit myocardial inflammation and inflammasome activation with a differential right and left ventricular expression of key inflammatory genes and inflammasomes. We investigated the mRNA expression levels of the prion protein gene PRNP, which plays an important role in the protection against oxidative stress and metal toxicity, and the glucose regulated protein 78, a key protein in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling, in ventricular autopsy samples from 30 children and young adults age 19.97 ± 6.8 years with a lifetime of low (n:4) vs. high (n:26) air pollution exposures. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies were carried out in human ventricles, and electron microscopy studies were also done in 5 young, highly exposed Mexico City dogs. There was significant left ventricular PRNP and bi-ventricular GRP78 mRNA up-regulation in Mexico City young urbanites vs. controls. PRNP up-regulation in the left ventricle was significantly different from the right, p < 0.0001, and there was a strong left ventricular PRNP and GRP78 correlation (p = 0.0005). Marked abnormalities in capillary endothelial cells, numerous nanosized particles in myocardial ER and in abnormal mitochondria characterized the highly exposed ventricles. Early and sustained cardiac ER stress could result in detrimental irreversible consequences in urban children, and while highly complex systems maintain myocardial homeostasis, failure to compensate for chronic myocardial inflammation, oxidative and ER stress, and particles damaging myocardial organelles may prime the development of pathophysiological cardiovascular states in young urbanites. Nanosized PM could play a key cardiac myocyte toxicity role.

  16. Effort to regulate acid aerosol pollution, based on new human health data, still up in the air

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.F.

    1990-08-01

    Acid aerosols in the atmosphere are having acute short- and long-term respiratory effects. That is the view of David V. Bates, MD, who spoke recently at the World Conference on Lung Health in Boston, Mass. Bates, who is professor emeritus of medicine in the Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, has spent nearly 40 years in studies that make him, according to colleagues, the guru of respiratory physiology. Acid aerosols are colloidal suspensions of hydrogen ion-containing particles that form the misty air pollution called summer haze. They are generated commonly by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions from coalfired industrial plants. The emissions are transformed into ammonium bisulfate or sulfuric acid and nitric acid, well-known air pollutants. In the ambient air they mix with ozone. Although researchers do not yet have the sort of massive and unidirectional proof that there is for cigarette smoking causing lung cancer, Bates says, if you want early detection and early action to ameliorate the situation, the kinds of indicators that are now positive are very important indeed.

  17. Measles update.

    PubMed

    1998-08-01

    province of Misiones, which borders Paraguay and Brazil, then spread to Buenos Aires.

  18. Energy resources law: Update on environmental and health and safety regulatory issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, T.R.; Porter, J.M.; Hannapel, J.S.; Panzik, S.

    1993-12-31

    This article provides an update on several environmental and health and safety issues that impact the development, management, and use of energy resources. Specifically, regulatory developments involving waste management activities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), including threshold issues such as the definition of waste under RCRA (i.e., the mixture and derived-from rules), are included in this article. In addition, new regulations on used oil recycling management standards and land disposal restriction for hazardous debris also are summarized. An update on the regulatory developments under the Clean Air Act Amendments, such as nonattainment, mobile sources, hazardous air pollutants, acid rain, operating permits, and enforcement is provided. This article also includes a summary of developments in occupational health and safety, such as Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) enforcement initiatives; new regulations on bloodborne pathogens and progress safety management; recent court decisions on preemption of state standards, air contaminants rulemaking, and disclosure of self-audits; and legislative reforms. The regulatory developments discussed in this article illustrate how the development, management, and use of energy resources are impacted, as compliance with expanding regulatory controls continues to represent an increasing percentage of facilities` operating budgets and as civil and criminal enforcement efforts are accelerated. 102 refs.

  19. Survey of environmental regulations applying to geothermal exploration, development, and use.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeland, G.V.

    1984-03-01

    Federal, State, and local environmental laws and regulations that apply to geothermal energy development are summarized. Most attention is given to those regulations which deal with air pollution, water pollution, solid wastes and impact assessments. Analyses are made of the regulations with respect to resource definition, pollutants currently not controlled, duplicity and overlap in permit and impact assessment requirements, the lack of uniformity of regulations between states, and the probable future approaches to the regulatory problems. This project updates a similar document (EPA/600/7-78-014) dated February 1978.

  20. A Review of the Current Geographic Distribution of and Debate Surrounding Electronic Cigarette Clean Air Regulations in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Joy; Vuolo, Mike; Kelly, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present the results of a systematic review of state, county, and municipal restrictions on the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in public spaces within the United States, alongside an overview of the current legal landscape. The lack of federal guidance leaves lower-level jurisdictions to debate the merits of restrictions on use in public spaces without sufficient scientific research. As we show through a geographic assessment of restrictions, this has resulted in an inconsistent patchwork of e-cigarette use bans across the United States of varying degrees of coverage. Bans have emerged over time in a manner that suggests a “bottom up” diffusion of e-cigarette clean air policies. Ultimately, the lack of clinical and scientific knowledge on the risks and potential harm reduction benefits has led to precautionary policymaking, which often lacks grounding in empirical evidence and results in spatially uneven diffusion of policy. PMID:25463920

  1. Development of gas exchange and ion regulation in two species of air-breathing fish, Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Aquatic air-breathing anabantoids, a group of fish species characterized by the presence of a labyrinth organ and some gills, exhibit morphological variations. This study aimed to examine whether unequal gill growth begins during the early stages and described the sequence of the early gill developmental events in Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis. To determine when the ion regulatory and gas exchange abilities first appear in the gills, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) and neuroepithelial cells (NECs) were examined in young B. splendens. To evaluate the relative importance of the gills and the labyrinth organ under different levels of oxygen uptake stress, the levels of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) protein expressions in 2 gills and the labyrinth organ were examined in M. opercularis. We found that the first 3 gills developed earlier than the 4th gill in both species, an indication that the morphological variation begins early in life. In B. splendens, the MRCs and NECs clearly appeared in the first 3 gills at 4 dph and were first found in the 4th gill until 11 dph. The oxygen-sensing ability of the gills was concordant with the ionoregulatory function. In M. opercularis, the hypoxic group had a significantly higher air-breathing frequency. CAII protein expression was higher in the labyrinth organ in the hypoxic group. The gills exhibited increased NKA protein expression in the hypoxic and restricted groups, respectively. Functional plasticity in CAII and NKA protein expressions was found between the gills and the labyrinth organ in adult M. opercularis.

  2. Development of gas exchange and ion regulation in two species of air-breathing fish, Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Aquatic air-breathing anabantoids, a group of fish species characterized by the presence of a labyrinth organ and some gills, exhibit morphological variations. This study aimed to examine whether unequal gill growth begins during the early stages and described the sequence of the early gill developmental events in Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis. To determine when the ion regulatory and gas exchange abilities first appear in the gills, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) and neuroepithelial cells (NECs) were examined in young B. splendens. To evaluate the relative importance of the gills and the labyrinth organ under different levels of oxygen uptake stress, the levels of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) protein expressions in 2 gills and the labyrinth organ were examined in M. opercularis. We found that the first 3 gills developed earlier than the 4th gill in both species, an indication that the morphological variation begins early in life. In B. splendens, the MRCs and NECs clearly appeared in the first 3 gills at 4 dph and were first found in the 4th gill until 11 dph. The oxygen-sensing ability of the gills was concordant with the ionoregulatory function. In M. opercularis, the hypoxic group had a significantly higher air-breathing frequency. CAII protein expression was higher in the labyrinth organ in the hypoxic group. The gills exhibited increased NKA protein expression in the hypoxic and restricted groups, respectively. Functional plasticity in CAII and NKA protein expressions was found between the gills and the labyrinth organ in adult M. opercularis. PMID:25783787

  3. The autoimmune regulator (AIRE), which is defective in autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy patients, is expressed in human epidermal and follicular keratinocytes and associates with the intermediate filament protein cytokeratin 17.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vipul; Pedroza, Luis A; Mace, Emily M; Seeholzer, Steven; Cotsarelis, George; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Payne, Aimee S; Orange, Jordan S

    2011-03-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) syndrome, which is caused by mutation of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, is a highly variable disease characterized by multiple endocrine failure, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and various ectodermal defects. AIRE is a transcriptional regulator classically expressed in medullary thymic epithelial cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Previous studies have suggested that AIRE can shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells, although its cytoplasmic functions are poorly characterized. Through mass spectrometry analysis of proteins co-immunoprecipitating with cytoplasmic AIRE, we identified a novel association of AIRE with the intermediate filament protein cytokeratin 17 (K17) in the THP-1 monocyte cell line. We confirmed AIRE expression in HaCaT epidermal keratinocytes, as well as its interaction with K17. Confocal microscopy of human fetal and adult scalp hair follicles demonstrated a cytoplasmic pattern of AIRE staining that moderately colocalized with K17. The cytoplasmic association of AIRE with the intermediate filament network in human epidermal and follicular keratinocytes may provide a new path to understanding the ectodermal abnormalities associated with the APECED syndrome.

  4. The role of oxytocin in social bonding, stress regulation and mental health: an update on the moderating effects of context and interindividual differences.

    PubMed

    Olff, Miranda; Frijling, Jessie L; Kubzansky, Laura D; Bradley, Bekh; Ellenbogen, Mark A; Cardoso, Christopher; Bartz, Jennifer A; Yee, Jason R; van Zuiden, Mirjam

    2013-09-01

    In this review we summarize the results and conclusions of five studies as presented in a symposium at the 42nd annual meeting of the International Society for Psychoneuroendocrinology, in New York in September 2012. Oxytocin administration has received increasing attention for its role in promoting positive social behavior and stress regulation, and its potential as a therapeutic intervention for addressing various aspects of psychiatric disorders. However, it has been noted that the observed effects are not uniformly beneficial. In this paper we present five new studies each concluding that contextual and interindividual factors moderate the effects of oxytocin, as well as peripheral oxytocin levels. These findings are in accordance with the recent idea that oxytocin administration may increase sensitivity to social salience cues and that the interpretation of these cues may be influenced by contextual (i.e. presence of a stranger versus friend) or interindividual factors (i.e. sex, attachment style, or the presence of psychiatric symptoms). When social cues in the environment are interpreted as "safe" oxytocin may promote prosociality but when the social cues are interpreted as "unsafe" oxytocin may promote more defensive and, in effect, "anti-social" emotions and behaviors. Likewise, oxytocin appears to promote such agonistic tendencies in individuals who are chronically pre-disposed to view the social milieu in uncertain and/or in negative terms (e.g., those with borderline personality disorder, severe attachment anxiety and/or childhood maltreatment). In all, these studies in pre-clinical animal, healthy humans and patients samples further reinforce the importance of considering both contextual and interindividual factors when trying to understand the role of oxytocin as a biological substrate underlying social bonding and stress regulatory processes and when studying the effects of oxytocin administration in particular in patients with (increased risk for

  5. The role of oxytocin in social bonding, stress regulation and mental health: an update on the moderating effects of context and interindividual differences.

    PubMed

    Olff, Miranda; Frijling, Jessie L; Kubzansky, Laura D; Bradley, Bekh; Ellenbogen, Mark A; Cardoso, Christopher; Bartz, Jennifer A; Yee, Jason R; van Zuiden, Mirjam

    2013-09-01

    In this review we summarize the results and conclusions of five studies as presented in a symposium at the 42nd annual meeting of the International Society for Psychoneuroendocrinology, in New York in September 2012. Oxytocin administration has received increasing attention for its role in promoting positive social behavior and stress regulation, and its potential as a therapeutic intervention for addressing various aspects of psychiatric disorders. However, it has been noted that the observed effects are not uniformly beneficial. In this paper we present five new studies each concluding that contextual and interindividual factors moderate the effects of oxytocin, as well as peripheral oxytocin levels. These findings are in accordance with the recent idea that oxytocin administration may increase sensitivity to social salience cues and that the interpretation of these cues may be influenced by contextual (i.e. presence of a stranger versus friend) or interindividual factors (i.e. sex, attachment style, or the presence of psychiatric symptoms). When social cues in the environment are interpreted as "safe" oxytocin may promote prosociality but when the social cues are interpreted as "unsafe" oxytocin may promote more defensive and, in effect, "anti-social" emotions and behaviors. Likewise, oxytocin appears to promote such agonistic tendencies in individuals who are chronically pre-disposed to view the social milieu in uncertain and/or in negative terms (e.g., those with borderline personality disorder, severe attachment anxiety and/or childhood maltreatment). In all, these studies in pre-clinical animal, healthy humans and patients samples further reinforce the importance of considering both contextual and interindividual factors when trying to understand the role of oxytocin as a biological substrate underlying social bonding and stress regulatory processes and when studying the effects of oxytocin administration in particular in patients with (increased risk for

  6. CESM/CAM5 improvement and application: comparison and evaluation of updated CB05_GE and MOZART-4 gas-phase mechanisms and associated impacts on global air quality and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.; Zhang, Y.; Tilmes, S.; Emmons, L.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Glotfelty, T.; Hodzic, A.; Vitt, F.

    2015-08-01

    Atmospheric chemistry plays a key role in determining the amounts and distributions of oxidants and gaseous precursors that control the formation of secondary gaseous and aerosol pollutants; all of those species can interact with the climate system. To understand the impacts of different gas-phase mechanisms on global air quality and climate predictions, in this work, a comprehensive comparative evaluation is performed using the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) Version 5 with comprehensive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM5-chem) within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) with two most commonly-used gas-phase chemical mechanisms: the 2005 Carbon Bond mechanism with Global Extension (CB05_GE) and the Model of OZone and Related chemical Tracers version 4 (MOZART-4) mechanism with additional updates (MOZART-4x). MOZART-4x and CB05_GE use different approaches to represent volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and different surrogates for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors. MOZART-4x includes a more detailed representation of isoprene chemistry compared to CB05_GE. CB05_GE includes additional oxidation of SO2 by O3 over the surface of dust particles, which is not included in MOZART-4x. The results show that the two CAM5-chem simulations with CB05_GE and MOZART-4x predict similar chemical profiles for major gases (e.g., O3, CO, and NOx) compared to the aircraft measurements, with generally better agreement for NOy profile by CB05_GE than MOZART-4x. The concentrations of SOA at four sites in CONUS and organic carbon (OC) over the IMPROVE sites are well predicted by MOZART-4x (with NMBs of -1.9 and 2.1 %, respectively) but moderately underpredicted by CB05_GE (with NMBs of -23.1 and -20.7 %, respectively). This is mainly due to the higher biogenic emissions and hydroxyl radical levels simulated with MOZART-4x than with CB05_GE. The concentrations of OC over Europe are largely underpredicted by both MOZART-4x and CB05_GE, with NMBs of -73.0 and -75

  7. CESM/CAM5 improvement and application: comparison and evaluation of updated CB05_GE and MOZART-4 gas-phase mechanisms and associated impacts on global air quality and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.; Zhang, Y.; Tilmes, S.; Emmons, L.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Glotfelty, T.; Hodzic, A.; Vitt, F.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric chemistry plays a key role in determining the amounts and distributions of oxidants and gaseous precursors that control the formation of secondary gaseous and aerosol pollutants; all of those species can interact with the climate system. To understand the impacts of different gas-phase mechanisms on global air quality and climate predictions, in this work, a comprehensive comparative evaluation is performed using the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) Version 5 with comprehensive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM5-chem) within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) with the two most commonly used gas-phase chemical mechanisms: the 2005 Carbon Bond mechanism with Global Extension (CB05_GE) and the Model of OZone and Related chemical Tracers version 4 (MOZART-4) mechanism with additional updates (MOZART-4x). MOZART-4x and CB05_GE use different approaches to represent volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and different surrogates for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors. MOZART-4x includes a more detailed representation of isoprene chemistry compared to CB05_GE. CB05_GE includes additional oxidation of SO2 by O3 over the surface of dust particles, which is not included in MOZART-4x. The results show that the two CAM5-chem simulations with CB05_GE and MOZART-4x predict similar chemical profiles for major gases (e.g., O3, CO, and NOx) compared to the aircraft measurements, with generally better agreement for NOy profiles by CB05_GE than MOZART-4x. The concentrations of SOA at four sites in the continental US (CONUS) and organic carbon (OC) over the IMPROVE sites are well predicted by MOZART-4x (with normalized mean biases (NMBs) of -1.9 and 2.1 %, respectively) but moderately underpredicted by CB05_GE (with NMBs of -23.1 and -20.7 %, respectively). This is mainly due to the higher biogenic emissions and OH levels simulated with MOZART-4x than with CB05_GE. The concentrations of OC over Europe are largely underpredicted by both MOZART-4x and CB05

  8. Effects of hypoxia on ionic regulation, glycogen utilization and antioxidative ability in the gills and liver of the aquatic air-breathing fish Trichogaster microlepis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Hui-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Huang

    2015-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that Trichogaster microlepis, a fish with an accessory air-breathing organ, uses a compensatory strategy involving changes in both behavior and protein levels to enhance its gas exchange ability. This compensatory strategy enables the gill ion-regulatory metabolism to maintain homeostasis during exposure to hypoxia. The present study aimed to determine whether ionic regulation, glycogen utilization and antioxidant activity differ in terms of expression under hypoxic stresses; fish were sampled after being subjected to 3 or 12h of hypoxia and 12h of recovery under normoxia. The air-breathing behavior of the fish increased under hypoxia. No morphological modification of the gills was observed. The expression of carbonic anhydrase II did not vary among the treatments. The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase enzyme activity did not decrease, but increases in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase protein expression and ionocyte levels were observed. The glycogen utilization increased under hypoxia as measured by glycogen phosphorylase protein expression and blood glucose level, whereas the glycogen content decreased. The enzyme activity of several components of the antioxidant system in the gills, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxidase dismutase, increased in enzyme activity. Based on the above data, we concluded that T. microlepis is a hypoxia-tolerant species that does not exhibit ion-regulatory suppression but uses glycogen to maintain energy utilization in the gills under hypoxic stress. Components of the antioxidant system showed increased expression under the applied experimental treatments.

  9. Updating Positive and Negative Stimuli in Working Memory in Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levens, Sara M.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    Difficulties in the ability to update stimuli in working memory (WM) may underlie the problems with regulating emotions that lead to the development and perpetuation of mood disorders such as depression. To examine the ability to update affective material in WM, the authors had diagnosed depressed and never-disordered control participants perform…

  10. 10 CFR 603.885 - Updated program plans and budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Updated program plans and budgets. 603.885 Section 603.885 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award... requiring the recipient to annually prepare an updated technical plan for future conduct of the...

  11. 10 CFR 603.885 - Updated program plans and budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Updated program plans and budgets. 603.885 Section 603.885 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award... requiring the recipient to annually prepare an updated technical plan for future conduct of the...

  12. 10 CFR 603.885 - Updated program plans and budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Updated program plans and budgets. 603.885 Section 603.885 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award... requiring the recipient to annually prepare an updated technical plan for future conduct of the...

  13. 10 CFR 603.885 - Updated program plans and budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Updated program plans and budgets. 603.885 Section 603.885 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award... requiring the recipient to annually prepare an updated technical plan for future conduct of the...

  14. 10 CFR 603.885 - Updated program plans and budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Updated program plans and budgets. 603.885 Section 603.885 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award... requiring the recipient to annually prepare an updated technical plan for future conduct of the...

  15. ISS Update: Suitport

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Lynnette Madison interviews Mallory Jennings, Suitport Human Testing Lead, about making spacewalks easier and more efficient with the Suitport. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @...

  16. Healthy Air: Signs of Potential Problems in the Workplace

    MedlinePlus

    ... If so, you may have an indoor air pollution problem and should explore the following potential sources. ... Association Applauds EPA’s Update to Cross-State Air Pollution Rule News: New Truck Efficiency Standards Expected to ...

  17. Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoung-Ju; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently, prospective cohort studies using more accurate measurements of individual exposure to air pollution have been conducted and have provided definitive evidence of the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Particulate matter and ground-level ozone are the most frequent air pollutants that cause harmful effects, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be related to oxidative stress. The reactive oxidative species produced in response to air pollutants can overwhelm the redox system and damage the cell wall, lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Pollutants may also cause harmful effects via epigenetic mechanisms, which control the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms are likely to be a target for the prevention of allergies. Further studies are necessary to identify children at risk and understand how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions. This review provides an update of the current understanding on the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases in children and facilitates the integration of issues regarding air pollution and allergies into pediatric practices, with the goal of improving pediatric health.

  18. Update on Banned Substances 2013

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Kenneth P.; Rainbow, Catherine R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Doping has been pervasive throughout the history of athletic competitions and has only recently been regulated by organizations such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), US Anti-Doping Agency (USADA), and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). These regulatory bodies were created to preserve fair play and maintain the safety of the participants. Their updated 2013 lists of banned substances and practices include a variety of drugs and practices that could cause harm to an athlete or give one an unfair competitive advantage. Evidence Acquisition: Published websites for the WADA, USADA, and NCAA were investigated. These governing bodies update and publish their lists annually. Results: The WADA, USADA, and NCAA monitor anabolic steroids, hormones, growth factors, β-agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, masking agents, street drugs, manipulation of blood and blood components, chemical and physical manipulation, gene doping, stimulants, narcotics, glucocorticosteroids, and β-blockers. Some substances may be used by athletes but require formal exemption. The WADA has also recently created a category of nonapproved substances that have yet to be identified to curb athletes from experimenting with new doping agents. Conclusion: The lists of banned substances and practices per the WADA, USADA, and NCAA are in place to ensure the integrity of sports and maintain safe competition. Health care providers who work with athletes under the jurisdiction of these organizations should review updated lists of banned substances when prescribing medications. PMID:24427415

  19. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  20. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  1. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  2. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  3. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  4. 77 FR 1513 - Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing TIME AND DATE: 9 a.m., Tuesday, January 10, 2012... hearing is to examine current regulations and oversight practices for air shows and air races,...

  5. Genomics and Health Impact Update

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genomics in Practice Newborn Screening Pharmacogenomics Reproductive Health Tools and Databases About the Genomics & Health Impact Update The Office of Public Health Genomics provides updated and credible ...

  6. An update on the regulation of adipogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity, a major risk factor for the development of type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer, is rising at an alarming rate worldwide. Obesity is caused by a chronic imbalance between energy expenditure and energy storage by adipose tissue. Adipogenesis is the process governing the form...

  7. Packaging and the environment: a regulation update.

    PubMed

    Fielding, P

    2000-04-01

    This article reports on the progress that is being made on standards and associated documents to support the Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive. Potential revisions are also discussed. PMID:10947328

  8. EPA's Implementation of Laws Regulating Asbestos Hazards in Schools and in the Air. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Operations.

    A hearing was held by the Subcommittee on Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) implementation of laws regulating asbestos hazards in schools and in the air. Presented are testimony as well as letters and statements submitted for the record by leading authorities in the area including: (1) James…

  9. Soil and water warming accelerates phenology and down-regulation of leaf photosynthesis of rice plants grown under free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE).

    PubMed

    Adachi, Minaco; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Fukayama, Hiroshi; Tokida, Takeshi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Matsunami, Toshinori; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Sameshima, Ryoji; Okada, Masumi

    2014-02-01

    To enable prediction of future rice production in a changing climate, we need to understand the interactive effects of temperature and elevated [CO2] (E[CO2]). We therefore examined if the effect of E[CO2] on the light-saturated leaf photosynthetic rate (Asat) was affected by soil and water temperature (NT, normal; ET, elevated) under open-field conditions at the rice free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) facility in Shizukuishi, Japan, in 2007 and 2008. Season-long E[CO2] (+200 µmol mol(-1)) increased Asat by 26%, when averaged over two years, temperature regimes and growth stages. The effect of ET (+2°C) on Asat was not significant at active tillering and heading, but became negative and significant at mid-grain filling; Asat in E[CO2]-ET was higher than in ambient [CO2] (A[CO2])-NT by only 4%. Photosynthetic down-regulation at E[CO2] also became apparent at mid-grain filling; Asat compared at the same [CO2] in the leaf cuvette was significantly lower in plants grown in E[CO2] than in those grown in A[CO2]. The additive effects of E[CO2] and ET decreased Asat by 23% compared with that of A[CO2]-NT plants. Although total crop nitrogen (N) uptake was increased by ET, N allocation to the leaves and to Rubisco was reduced under ET and E[CO2] at mid-grain filling, which resulted in a significant decrease (32%) in the maximum rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation on a leaf area basis. Because the change in N allocation was associated with the accelerated phenology in E[CO2]-ET plants, we conclude that soil and water warming accelerates photosynthetic down-regulation at E[CO2].

  10. Soil and water warming accelerates phenology and down-regulation of leaf photosynthesis of rice plants grown under free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE).

    PubMed

    Adachi, Minaco; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Fukayama, Hiroshi; Tokida, Takeshi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Matsunami, Toshinori; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Sameshima, Ryoji; Okada, Masumi

    2014-02-01

    To enable prediction of future rice production in a changing climate, we need to understand the interactive effects of temperature and elevated [CO2] (E[CO2]). We therefore examined if the effect of E[CO2] on the light-saturated leaf photosynthetic rate (Asat) was affected by soil and water temperature (NT, normal; ET, elevated) under open-field conditions at the rice free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) facility in Shizukuishi, Japan, in 2007 and 2008. Season-long E[CO2] (+200 µmol mol(-1)) increased Asat by 26%, when averaged over two years, temperature regimes and growth stages. The effect of ET (+2°C) on Asat was not significant at active tillering and heading, but became negative and significant at mid-grain filling; Asat in E[CO2]-ET was higher than in ambient [CO2] (A[CO2])-NT by only 4%. Photosynthetic down-regulation at E[CO2] also became apparent at mid-grain filling; Asat compared at the same [CO2] in the leaf cuvette was significantly lower in plants grown in E[CO2] than in those grown in A[CO2]. The additive effects of E[CO2] and ET decreased Asat by 23% compared with that of A[CO2]-NT plants. Although total crop nitrogen (N) uptake was increased by ET, N allocation to the leaves and to Rubisco was reduced under ET and E[CO2] at mid-grain filling, which resulted in a significant decrease (32%) in the maximum rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation on a leaf area basis. Because the change in N allocation was associated with the accelerated phenology in E[CO2]-ET plants, we conclude that soil and water warming accelerates photosynthetic down-regulation at E[CO2]. PMID:24406632

  11. ISS Update: Suitport Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Lynnette Madison interviews Joel Maganza, Test Director, about thermal vacuum chambers and unmanned and human-testing with the Suitport. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Jo...

  12. ISS Update: NEEMO 16

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Josh Byerly interviews astronaut Stan Love about the NEEMO 16 mission from Aquarius Base. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For ...

  13. ACS Updates Environmental Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes a new publication of a report prepared by the American Chemical Society's Committee on Environmental Improvement. This is a new version that updates a 1969 report and contains additional material and expanded recommendations. (GA)

  14. Environmental regulatory update table

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.J.; Langston, M.E.; Tucker, C.S.; Reed, R.M.

    1987-06-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  15. Long Noncoding RNA: Recent Updates in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Zhu, Hongming; Ge, Junbo

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs belong to a class of noncoding RNAs longer than 200 nucleotides with the epigenetic regulation potential. As a novel molecular regulator, lncRNAs are often dysregulated in various pathological conditions and display multiple functions in a wide range of biological processes. Given that recent studies have indicated that lncRNAs are involved in atherosclerosis-related smooth muscle cell, endothelial cell, macrophage and lipid metabolism regulation, it is pertinent to understand the potential function of lncRNAs in atherosclerosis development. This review will highlight the recent updates of lncRNAs in atherogenesis and also discuss their potential roles as novel therapeutic targets. PMID:27314829

  16. Cell volume regulation in the perfused liver of a freshwater air-breathing cat fish Clarias batrachus under aniso-osmotic conditions: roles of inorganic ions and taurine.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Carina; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2006-12-01

    The roles of various inorganic ions and taurine, an organic osmolyte, in cell volume regulation were investigated in the perfused liver of a freshwater air-breathing catfish Clarias batrachus under aniso-osmotic conditions. There was a transient increase and decrease of liver cell volume following hypotonic (-80 mOsmol/l) and hypertonic (+80 mOsmol/l) exposures,respectively, which gradually decreased/increased near to the control level due to release/uptake of water within a period of 25-30 min. Liver volume decrease was accompanied by enhanced efflux of K+ (9.45 +/- 0.54 micromol/g liver) due to activation of Ba(2+)- and quinidine-sensitive K(+) channel, and to a lesser extent due to enhanced efflux of Cl(-) (4.35+/- 0.25 micromol/g liver) and Na+ (3.68+/- 0.37 micromol/g liver). Conversely, upon hypertonic exposure, there was amiloride-and ouabain-sensitive uptake of K+ (9.78+/- 0.65 micromol/g liver), and also Cl(-) (3.72 +/- 0.25 micromol/g liver).The alkalization/acidification of the liver effluents under hypo-/hypertonicity was mainly due to movement of various ions during volume regulatory processes. Taurine,an important organic osmolyte, appears also to play a very important role in hepatocyte cell volume regulation in the walking catfish as evidenced by the fact that hypo- and hyper-osmolarity caused transient efflux (5.68 +/- 0.38 micromol/g liver) and uptake (6.38 +/- 0.45 micromol/g liver) of taurine, respectively. The taurine efflux was sensitive to 4,4' -di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS, an anion channel blocker), but the uptake was insensitive to DIDS, thus indicating that the release and uptake of taurine during volume regulatory processes are unidirectional. Although the liver of walking catfish possesses the RVD and RVI mechanisms, it is to be noted that liver cells remain partly swollen and shrunken during anisotonic exposures,thereby possibly causing various volume-sensitive metabolic changes in the liver as reported earlier

  17. Air Pollution and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  18. Ambient salinity modifies the action of triiodothyronine in the air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus Bloch: effects on mitochondria-rich cell distribution, osmotic and metabolic regulations.

    PubMed

    Peter, M C Subhash; Leji, J; Peter, Valsa S

    2011-04-01

    The hydromineral and metabolic actions of thyroid hormone on osmotic acclimation in fish is less understood. We, therefore, studied the short-term action of triiodothyronine (T(3)), the potent thyroid hormone, on the distribution and the function of gill mitochondria-rich (MR) cells and on the whole body hydromineral and metabolic regulations of air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus) adapted to either freshwater (FW) or acclimated to seawater (SA; 30 g L(-1)). As expected, 24 h T(3) injection (100 ng g(-1)) elevated (P<0.05) plasma T(3) but classically reduced (P<0.05) plasma T(4). The higher Na(+), K(+)-ATPase immunoreactivity and the varied distribution pattern of MR cells in the gills of T(3)-treated FW and SA fish, suggest an action of T(3) on gill MR cell migration, though the density of these cells remained unchanged after T(3) treatment. The ouabain-sensitive Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, a measure of hydromineral competence, showed increases (P<0.05) in the gills of both FW and SA fish after T(3) administration, but inhibited (P<0.05) in the kidney of the FW fish and not in the SA fish. Exogenous T(3) reduced glucose (P<0.05) and urea (P<0.05) in the plasma of FW fish, whereas these metabolites were elevated (P<0.05) in the SA fish, suggesting a modulatory effect of ambient salinity on the T(3)-driven metabolic actions. Our data identify gill MR cell as a target for T(3) action as it promotes the spatial distribution and the osmotic function of these cells in both fresh water and in seawater. The results besides confirming the metabolic and osmotic actions of T(3) in fish support the hypothesis that the differential actions of T(3) may be due to the direct influence of ambient salinity, a major environmental determinant that alters the osmotic and metabolic strategies of fish.

  19. Brd4 bridges the transcriptional regulators, Aire and P-TEFb, to promote elongation of peripheral-tissue antigen transcripts in thymic stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hideyuki; Bansal, Kushagra; Schaefer, Uwe; Chapman, Trevor; Rioja, Inmaculada; Proekt, Irina; Anderson, Mark S; Prinjha, Rab K; Tarakhovsky, Alexander; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane

    2015-08-11

    Aire controls immunologic tolerance by inducing a battery of thymic transcripts encoding proteins characteristic of peripheral tissues. Its unusually broad effect is achieved by releasing RNA polymerase II paused just downstream of transcriptional start sites. We explored Aire's collaboration with the bromodomain-containing protein, Brd4, uncovering an astonishing correspondence between those genes induced by Aire and those inhibited by a small-molecule bromodomain blocker. Aire:Brd4 binding depended on an orchestrated series of posttranslational modifications within Aire's caspase activation and recruitment domain. This interaction attracted P-TEFb, thereby mobilizing downstream transcriptional elongation and splicing machineries. Aire:Brd4 association was critical for tolerance induction, and its disruption could account for certain point mutations that provoke human autoimmune disease. Our findings evoke the possibility of unanticipated immunologic mechanisms subtending the potent antitumor effects of bromodomain blockers.

  20. Insulin Pumps and Remote Software Updates: A New Way Forward.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Noel E; Parks, Linda J; Verhoef, Erik T; Morgan, Corey A; Stal, Mikhail

    2015-09-18

    This article discusses the future direction of insulin pump technology and its relationship to the software update process. A user needs analysis revealed that respondents wanted an insulin pump software update process to function much in the same way as smartphone updates. Users of insulin pumps have the same expectations as with other ubiquitous technology such as smartphones, tablets, and laptops. The development of a software update system within a regulated environment that meets the needs of insulin pump users by allowing optional software updates that provide access to pump improvements, feature additions, or access to algorithms that provide therapy-changing technologies is a new way forward for the management of a complicated disease that affects more than 450,000 people using insulin pumps in the United States.

  1. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  2. An Updated Performance Assessment For A New Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility In West Texas - 12192

    SciTech Connect

    Dornsife, William P.; Kirk, J. Scott; Shaw, Chris G.

    2012-07-01

    This Performance Assessment (PA) submittal is an update to the original PA that was developed to support the licensing of the Waste Control Specialists LLC Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) disposal facility. This update includes both the Compact Waste Facility (CWF) and the Federal Waste Facility (FWF), in accordance with Radioactive Material License (RML) No. R04100, License Condition (LC) 87. While many of the baseline assumptions supporting the initial license application PA were incorporated in this update, a new transport code, GoldSim, and new deterministic groundwater flow codes, including HYDRUS and MODFLOWSURFACT{sup TM}, were employed to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives codified in the regulations and RML No. R04100, LC 87. A revised source term, provided by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality staff, was used to match the initial 15 year license term. This updated PA clearly confirms and demonstrates the robustness of the characteristics of the site's geology and the advanced engineering design of the disposal units. Based on the simulations from fate and transport models, the radiation doses to members of the general public and site workers predicted in the initial and updated PA were a small fraction of the criterion doses of 0.25 mSv and 50 mSv, respectively. In a comparison between the results of the updated PA against the one developed in support of the initial license, both clearly demonstrated the robustness of the characteristics of the site's geology and engineering design of the disposal units. Based on the simulations from fate and transport models, the radiation doses to members of the general public predicted in the initial and updated PA were a fraction of the allowable 25 mrem/yr (0.25 m sievert/yr) dose standard for tens-of-thousands of years into the future. Draft Texas guidance on performance assessment (TCEQ, 2004) recommends a period of analysis equal to 1,000 years or until peak doses from the more

  3. Effect of display update interval, update type, and background on perception of aircraft separation on a cockpit display on traffic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jago, S.; Baty, D.; Oconnor, S.; Palmer, E.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) includes the integration of air traffic, navigation, and other pertinent information in a single electronic display in the cockpit. Concise display symbology was developed for use in later full-mission simulator evaluations of the CDTI concept. Experimental variables used included the update interval motion of the aircraft, the update type, (that is, whether the two aircraft were updated at the same update interval or not), the background (grid pattern or no background), and encounter type (straight or curved). Only the type of encounter affected performance.

  4. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. 77 FR 15004 - Updating of Employer Identification Numbers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ...This document contains proposed regulations that provide rules requiring any person assigned an employer identification number (EIN) to provide updated information to the IRS in the manner and frequency prescribed by forms, instructions, or other appropriate guidance. These proposed regulations affect persons with EINs and will enhance the IRS's ability to maintain accurate information as to......

  6. U.S. EPA'S RESEARCH TO UPDATE GUIDANCE FOR QUANTIFYING LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill emissions, if left uncontrolled, contribute to air toxics, climate change, tropospheric ozone, and urban smog. EPA's Office of Research and Development is conducting research to help update EPA's landfill gas emission factors. The last update to EPA's landfill gas emiss...

  7. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  8. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  9. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  10. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  11. An update of the federal regs

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, F.W.

    1996-03-01

    This article reports the current developments related to rules promulgated or proposed under the Safe Drinking Water Act, such as the Lead and Copper Rule, Phase V Rule, the Disinfectants/Disinfection By-products Rule (including the Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule and the Information Collection Rule), the Radionuclides Rule, and the Sulfate Rule. Anticipated new rules that will update analytical methods, reestablish regulatory priorities, and streamline revisions to current regulations are reviewed as well.

  12. Updating: Learning versus Supposing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jiaying; Crupi, Vincenzo; Tentori, Katya; Fitelson, Branden; Osherson, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian orthodoxy posits a tight relationship between conditional probability and updating. Namely, the probability of an event "A" after learning "B" should equal the conditional probability of "A" given "B" prior to learning "B". We examine whether ordinary judgment conforms to the orthodox view. In three experiments we found substantial…

  13. ''Smart Gun'' Technology Update

    SciTech Connect

    WIRSBINSKI, JOHN W.

    2001-11-01

    This report is an update to previous ''smart gun'' work and the corresponding report that were completed in 1996. It incorporates some new terminology and expanded definitions. This effort is the product of an open source look at what has happened to the ''smart gun'' technology landscape since the 1996 report was published.

  14. Updated opal opacities

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesias, C.A.; Rogers, F.J.

    1996-06-01

    The reexamination of astrophysical opacities has eliminated gross discrepancies between a variety of observations and theoretical calculations; thus allowing for more detailed tests of stellar models. A number of such studies indicate that model results are sensitive to modest changes in the opacity. Consequently, it is desirable to update available opacity databases with recent improvements in physics, refinements of element abundance, and other such factors affecting the results. Updated OPAL Rosseland mean opacities are presented. The new results have incorporated improvements in the physics and numerical procedures as well as corrections. The main opacity changes are increases of as much as 20{percent} for Population I stars due to the explicit inclusion of 19 metals (compared to 12 metals in the earlier calculations) with the other modifications introducing opacity changes smaller than 10{percent}. In addition, the temperature and density range covered by the updated opacity tables has been extended. As before, the tables allow accurate interpolation in density and temperature as well as hydrogen, helium, carbon, oxygen, and metal mass fractions. Although a specific metal composition is emphasized, opacity tables for different metal distributions can be made readily available. The updated opacities are compared to other work. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Astronomical Society.}

  15. SEI: An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peach, Lewis L., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An update on the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include the key prerequisites of human exploration, project planning, Mars and lunar explorations, supporting technologies, near-term strategies for SEI, human support elements, and Space Station Freedom SEI accommodations.

  16. Veterinary medicines update.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:27365238

  17. Veterinary medicines update.

    PubMed

    2016-06-11

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:27288166

  18. Veterinary medicines update.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:27493045

  19. Supreme Court Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    "Chief Justice Flubs Oath." "Justice Ginsburg Has Cancer Surgery." At the start of this year, those were the news headlines about the U.S. Supreme Court. But January 2009 also brought news about key education cases--one resolved and two others on the docket--of which school administrators should take particular note. The Supreme Court updates on…

  20. Community Update, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document consists of 10 issues (covering January through December 2000) of the newsletter, "Community Update," which features articles on community and family involvement in education. In addition to the articles, each issue (except the Special Issue) includes a preview of the month's Satellite Town Meeting; events and information discussed…

  1. Veterinary medicines update.

    PubMed

    2016-09-10

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:27609956

  2. Veterinary medicines update.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:27687269

  3. Update: Biological Nitrogen Fixation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Alan; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Updates knowledge on nitrogen fixation, indicating that investigation of free-living nitrogen-fixing organisms is proving useful in understanding bacterial partners and is expected to lead to development of more effective symbioses. Specific areas considered include biochemistry/genetics, synthesis control, proteins and enzymes, symbiotic systems,…

  4. Technology Update-87

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    The five papers in this issue of Technology Update reflect improvements in equipment reliability, inspection techniques, data storage techniques, and production technology - all aimed at reducing process variations. Each paper represents an achievement by our technical staff that allows Mound to make more effective use of our resources. A separate abstract has been prepared for one of the papers.

  5. 40 CFR 68.36 - Review and update.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Review and update. 68.36 Section 68.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL... operator shall complete a revised analysis within six months of the change and submit a revised...

  6. 40 CFR 68.36 - Review and update.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review and update. 68.36 Section 68.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL... operator shall complete a revised analysis within six months of the change and submit a revised...

  7. 40 CFR 68.36 - Review and update.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Review and update. 68.36 Section 68.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL... operator shall complete a revised analysis within six months of the change and submit a revised...

  8. 40 CFR 68.36 - Review and update.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Review and update. 68.36 Section 68.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL... operator shall complete a revised analysis within six months of the change and submit a revised...

  9. Air Composition and Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, Peter

    1996-01-01

    This book is about the atmosphere and humanity's influence on it. For this new edition, Brimblecombe has rewritten and updated much of the book. In the early chapters, he discusses the geochemical, biological and maritime sources of the trace gases. Next, he examines the chemistry of atmospheric gases, suspended particles, and rainfall. After dealing with the natural atmosphere, he examines the sources of air pollution and its effects, with all scenarios updated from the last edition. Scenarios include decline in health, damage to plants and animals, indoor pollution, and acid rain. The final chapters, also revised, are concerned with the chemistry and evolution of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. Students with an interest in chemistry and the environmental sciences will find this book highly valuable.

  10. [Air transport, aeronautic medicine, health].

    PubMed

    Cupa, Michel

    2009-10-01

    There were 3.2 billion airline passengers in 2006, compared to only 30 million in 1950. Intercontinental health disparities create a risk of pandemics such as SARS and so-called bird flu. Precautions are now being implemented both in airports and in aircraft, in addition to measures intended to prevent the spread of malaria and arboviral diseases, such as vector eradication, elimination of stagnant water, malaria prophylaxis, vaccination, and use of repellents. These measures are dealt with in international health regulations, which have existed since 1851 and were last updated on 15 June 2007. Flying on an airliner also carries a risk of hypobaria (cabin pressure at 2000 m), which can aggravate respiratory problems. Other problems include relative hypoxia, gas expansion, air dryness, ozone, cosmic rays, airsickness, jet lag, the effects of alcohol and tobacco, and, more recently, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), collectively known as "coach class syndrome". A new type of medicine has appeared, in the form of on-board medical assistance. The European Civil Aviation Committee has recommended first-aid training for cabin crews and onboard medical equipment such as first-aid kits and defibrillators. Airline statistics show that one in-flight medical incident occurs per 20 000 passengers, as well as one death per 5 million passengers and one medical reroute per 20 000 flights (40% of reroutes turn out to be unjustified). More than 80% of long-haul flights have a physician travelling on board. However, depending on his or her specialty, problems of competence and legal responsibility may arise. Ground-based medical centers can provide help via satellite telephone, but this implies the need for airline staff training. International cooperation is the only way to minimize the health risks associated with the growth in global air travel.

  11. [Air transport, aeronautic medicine, health].

    PubMed

    Cupa, Michel

    2009-10-01

    There were 3.2 billion airline passengers in 2006, compared to only 30 million in 1950. Intercontinental health disparities create a risk of pandemics such as SARS and so-called bird flu. Precautions are now being implemented both in airports and in aircraft, in addition to measures intended to prevent the spread of malaria and arboviral diseases, such as vector eradication, elimination of stagnant water, malaria prophylaxis, vaccination, and use of repellents. These measures are dealt with in international health regulations, which have existed since 1851 and were last updated on 15 June 2007. Flying on an airliner also carries a risk of hypobaria (cabin pressure at 2000 m), which can aggravate respiratory problems. Other problems include relative hypoxia, gas expansion, air dryness, ozone, cosmic rays, airsickness, jet lag, the effects of alcohol and tobacco, and, more recently, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), collectively known as "coach class syndrome". A new type of medicine has appeared, in the form of on-board medical assistance. The European Civil Aviation Committee has recommended first-aid training for cabin crews and onboard medical equipment such as first-aid kits and defibrillators. Airline statistics show that one in-flight medical incident occurs per 20 000 passengers, as well as one death per 5 million passengers and one medical reroute per 20 000 flights (40% of reroutes turn out to be unjustified). More than 80% of long-haul flights have a physician travelling on board. However, depending on his or her specialty, problems of competence and legal responsibility may arise. Ground-based medical centers can provide help via satellite telephone, but this implies the need for airline staff training. International cooperation is the only way to minimize the health risks associated with the growth in global air travel. PMID:20669640

  12. Air Quality in Mexico City: Policies Implemented for its Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramo, V.

    2007-12-01

    Ozone and suspended particles (PM) are two pollutants in the atmosphere of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) that still exceed the recommended Mexican health standards. The other criteria pollutants very seldom exceed their corresponding standards. In 2006, the maximum ozone concentrations were above the health standard (0.11 ppm in 1 hour) during 59 percent of the days for an average of 2.2 hours and 130 points of the Air Quality Index (Índice Metropolitano de la Calidad del Aire - IMECA). In contrast, in 1991, 98 percent of the days exceeded the ozone health standard for an average of 6.6 hours and 200 IMECA points. With regards to PM10, in 2006, 80 percent of the sampled concentrations were below the health standard of 120 µg/m3 in 24 hours. However, the annual health standard of 50 µg/m3 is still exceeded. The air quality management in the MCMA is a difficult task due to several adverse factors. The main one is the large population that increased from nearly 15 million in 1992 to more than 18 million at present. As a result, the urban area grows in the adjoined municipalities of the State of Mexico. The vehicular fleet increases also to almost 4 million and the number of industrial facilities is at present 50,000. Consequently, the fuel consumption is very high. The daily energy consumption is estimated to be 44 million liters of equivalent of gasoline. Despite the fact that the air quality has improved in recent years, the related health standards are still exceeded and therefore it is necessary to continue applying the most cost-effective actions to improve the environment quality. Some actions that have contributed most to the reduction of pollutant emissions are the following: Continuous update of the inspection and maintenance program of the vehicular fleet; substitution of the catalytic converters at the end of their useful life; self-regulation of the diesel fleet; use of alternative fuels; update the No-Driving-Day program; establishment of more

  13. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  14. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  15. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  16. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  17. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  18. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR OZONE AND RELATED PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires periodic (5-year) update revision of criteria and National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Ozone. The previous revision of the criteria contained in the Air Quality Criteria Document (AQCD) for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants was co...

  19. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  20. Integrin traffic – the update

    PubMed Central

    De Franceschi, Nicola; Hamidi, Hellyeh; Alanko, Jonna; Sahgal, Pranshu; Ivaska, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Integrins are a family of transmembrane cell surface molecules that constitute the principal adhesion receptors for the extracellular matrix (ECM) and are indispensable for the existence of multicellular organisms. In vertebrates, 24 different integrin heterodimers exist with differing substrate specificity and tissue expression. Integrin–extracellular-ligand interaction provides a physical anchor for the cell and triggers a vast array of intracellular signalling events that determine cell fate. Dynamic remodelling of adhesions, through rapid endocytic and exocytic trafficking of integrin receptors, is an important mechanism employed by cells to regulate integrin–ECM interactions, and thus cellular signalling, during processes such as cell migration, invasion and cytokinesis. The initial concept of integrin traffic as a means to translocate adhesion receptors within the cell has now been expanded with the growing appreciation that traffic is intimately linked to the cell signalling apparatus. Furthermore, endosomal pathways are emerging as crucial regulators of integrin stability and expression in cells. Thus, integrin traffic is relevant in a number of pathological conditions, especially in cancer. Nearly a decade ago we wrote a Commentary in Journal of Cell Science entitled ‘Integrin traffic’. With the advances in the field, we felt it would be appropriate to provide the growing number of researchers interested in integrin traffic with an update. PMID:25663697

  1. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, S.C.

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  2. Air quality co-benefits and costs under state, regional, or national cooperation to regulate CO2 from existing power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, R.; Selin, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    We examine the effect of state, regional, and national cooperation on the costs and air quality co-benefits of a policy to limit the carbon intensity of existing electricity generation. Electricity generation is a significant source of both greenhouse gases and air pollutant emissions that harm human health. Previous studies have shown that air quality co-benefits can be substantial compared to the costs of limiting carbon emissions in the energy system. The EPA's proposed Clean Power Plan seeks to impose carbon intensity limits for each state, but allows states to cooperate in order to meet combined limits. We explore how such cooperation might produce trade-offs between lower costs, widespread pollution reductions, and local reductions. We employ a new state-level model of the US energy system and economy to examine the costs and emissions as states reduce demand or deploy cleaner generation. We use an advanced air quality impacts modeling system, including SMOKE, CAMx, and BenMAP, to estimate health-related air quality co-benefits and compare these to costs under different levels of cooperation. We draw conclusions about the potential impacts of cooperation on economic welfare at various scales.

  3. Sequence History Update Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanampompan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy; Fisher, Forest; DelGuercio, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Sequence History Update Tool performs Web-based sequence statistics archiving for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Using a single UNIX command, the software takes advantage of sequencing conventions to automatically extract the needed statistics from multiple files. This information is then used to populate a PHP database, which is then seamlessly formatted into a dynamic Web page. This tool replaces a previous tedious and error-prone process of manually editing HTML code to construct a Web-based table. Because the tool manages all of the statistics gathering and file delivery to and from multiple data sources spread across multiple servers, there is also a considerable time and effort savings. With the use of The Sequence History Update Tool what previously took minutes is now done in less than 30 seconds, and now provides a more accurate archival record of the sequence commanding for MRO.

  4. Sensors, Update 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2003-04-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  5. Sensors, Update 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    2001-02-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections: Sensor Technology reviews highlights in applied and basic research, while Sensor Applications covers new or improved applications of sensors, and Sensor Markets provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be invaluable to scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  6. Sensors, Update 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    1996-10-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Furthermore, the sensor market as well as peripheral aspects such as standards are covered. Each volume is divided into four sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  7. Sensors, Update 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2003-03-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field, presenting the current highlights of sensor and related microelectromechanical systems technology. Coverage includes most recent developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles based on micro- and nanotechnology. Each volume is divided into three sections: Sensor Technology reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications covers new or improved applications of sensors and Sensor Markets provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update is of must-have value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  8. Sensors, Update 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    1996-12-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Treatments include current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Furthermore, the sensor market as well as peripheral aspects such as standards are covered. Each volume is divided into four sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides an overview of suppliers and market trends for a particular section, and Sensor Standards, reviews recent legislation and requirements for sensors. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  9. Sensors, Update 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2002-04-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  10. Sensors, Update 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    2001-10-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  11. SIM-Lite Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Discussion focus on: SIM-Lite Instrument Update - 6m baseline, 50cm, approximately 900M cost; Technology Update - Systematic errors and floor; SIM-Lite terrestrial planet discovery capability; Double blind multiple planet study summary; and the changing landscape of exoplanet science and the role of SIM-Lite. Slides include technology to flight component engineering; instrumental systematic errors; ultra deep search for Earth clones; double blind test, astrometric detection of Earths in multiplanet systems; the current era of exoplanet science and where SIM-Lite fits in; the next frontier and where SIM-Lite fits in, why SIM is unique in discovering Earths; imaging planet status is uncertain without masses and ages; SIM role in establishing how planetary systems form and evolve; and SIM probes of broad planet mass range around young stars.

  12. DSS command software update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stinnett, W. G.

    1980-01-01

    The modifications, additions, and testing results for a version of the Deep Space Station command software, generated for support of the Voyager Saturn encounter, are discussed. The software update requirements included efforts to: (1) recode portions of the software to permit recovery of approximately 2000 words of memory; (2) correct five Voyager Ground data System liens; (3) provide capability to automatically turn off the command processor assembly local printer during periods of low activity; and (4) correct anomalies existing in the software.

  13. SLC classification: an update.

    PubMed

    Schlessinger, A; Yee, S W; Sali, A; Giacomini, K M

    2013-07-01

    The 386 human SLC superfamily members are diverse in sequence, structure, and function. Using sequence similarity, we previously classified the SLC superfamily members and identified relationships among families. With the recent determination of new SLC structures and identification of previously unknown human SLC families, an update of our previous classification is timely. Here, we comprehensively compare the SLC sequences and structures and discuss the applicability of structure-based ligand discovery to key SLC members.

  14. How Documentalists Update SIMBAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buga, M.; Bot, C.; Brouty, M.; Bruneau, C.; Brunet, C.; Cambresy, L.; Eisele, A.; Genova, F.; Lesteven, S.; Loup, C.; Neuville, M.; Oberto, A.; Ochsenbein, F.; Perret, E.; Siebert, A.; Son, E.; Vannier, P.; Vollmer, B.; Vonflie, P.; Wenger, M.; Woelfel, F.

    2015-04-01

    The Strasbourg astronomical Data Center (CDS) was created in 1972 and has had a major role in astronomy for more than forty years. CDS develops a service called SIMBAD that provides basic data, cross-identifications, bibliography, and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. It brings to the scientific community an added value to content which is updated daily by a team of documentalists working together in close collaboration with astronomers and IT specialists. We explain how the CDS staff updates SIMBAD with object citations in the main astronomical journals, as well as with astronomical data and measurements. We also explain how the identification is made between the objects found in the literature and those already existing in SIMBAD. We show the steps followed by the documentalist team to update the database using different tools developed at CDS, like the sky visualizer Aladin, and the large catalogues and survey database VizieR. As a direct result of this teamwork, SIMBAD integrates almost 10.000 bibliographic references per year. The service receives more than 400.000 queries per day.

  15. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 212 - Certificated or Foreign Air Carrier's Surety Bond Under Part 212 of the Regulations of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Surety Bond Under Part 212 of the Regulations of the Department of Transportation (14 CFR Part 212) A... Regulations of the Department of Transportation (14 CFR Part 212) Know all persons by these presents, that we... called Principal), and (name of Surety) a corporation created and existing under the laws of the State...

  16. REGULATION OF CYTOKINE PRODUCTION IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGES AND AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS IN RESPONSE TO AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES: FURTHER MECHANISTIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to better understand how ambient air particulate matter (PM) affect lung health, the two main airway cell types likely to interact with inhaled particles, alveolar macrophages (AM) and airway epithelial cells have been exposed to particles in vitro and followed for endp...

  17. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  18. 19 CFR 122.165 - Air cabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... provided for in 14 CFR 121.153, and those aircraft used exclusively in the service of any government. (b... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Air cabotage. 122.165 Section 122.165 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.165 Air cabotage. (a) The air cabotage law (49 U.S.C....

  19. 19 CFR 122.165 - Air cabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... provided for in 14 CFR 121.153, and those aircraft used exclusively in the service of any government. (b... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Air cabotage. 122.165 Section 122.165 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.165 Air cabotage. (a) The air cabotage law (49 U.S.C....

  20. 19 CFR 122.165 - Air cabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provided for in 14 CFR 121.153, and those aircraft used exclusively in the service of any government. (b... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Air cabotage. 122.165 Section 122.165 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.165 Air cabotage. (a) The air cabotage law (49 U.S.C....

  1. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  2. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  3. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  4. 19 CFR 122.165 - Air cabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provided for in 14 CFR 121.153, and those aircraft used exclusively in the service of any government. (b... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Air cabotage. 122.165 Section 122.165 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.165 Air cabotage. (a) The air cabotage law (49 U.S.C....

  5. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...

  6. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...

  7. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...

  8. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...

  9. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...

  10. 19 CFR 122.165 - Air cabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provided for in 14 CFR 121.153, and those aircraft used exclusively in the service of any government. (b... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air cabotage. 122.165 Section 122.165 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.165 Air cabotage. (a) The air cabotage law (49 U.S.C....

  11. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  12. INEEL AIR MODELING PROTOCOL ext

    SciTech Connect

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter

    2004-12-01

    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  13. Updated Life-Cycle Assessment of Aluminum Production and Semi-fabrication for the GREET Model

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Qiang; Kelly, Jarod C.; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-09-01

    This report serves as an update for the life-cycle analysis (LCA) of aluminum production based on the most recent data representing the state-of-the-art of the industry in North America. The 2013 Aluminum Association (AA) LCA report on the environmental footprint of semifinished aluminum products in North America provides the basis for the update (The Aluminum Association, 2013). The scope of this study covers primary aluminum production, secondary aluminum production, as well as aluminum semi-fabrication processes including hot rolling, cold rolling, extrusion and shape casting. This report focuses on energy consumptions, material inputs and criteria air pollutant emissions for each process from the cradle-to-gate of aluminum, which starts from bauxite extraction, and ends with manufacturing of semi-fabricated aluminum products. The life-cycle inventory (LCI) tables compiled are to be incorporated into the vehicle cycle model of Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model for the release of its 2015 version.

  14. Updated Conceptual Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    16-page report discusses development and use of NASA TR-1508, the Kennedy Space Center Aerospace Construction Price Book for preparing conceptual, budget, funding, cost-estimating, and preliminary cost-engineering reports. Updated annually from 1974 through 1985 with actual bid prices and government estimates. Includes labor and material quantities and prices with contractor and subcontractor markups for buildings, facilities, and systems at Kennedy Space Center. While data pertains to aerospace facilities, format and cost-estimating techniques guide estimation of costs in other construction applications.

  15. [Update Chagas disease].

    PubMed

    Molina, Israel; Salvador, Fernando; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián

    2016-02-01

    The constant migration flows have favored the presence of people with Chagas disease in regions traditionally regarded as non-endemic, such as North America, Europe, Asia and Oceania. This has forced both health authorities and professionals to be updated in order to respond to such a demand for assistance. Recent years have led to significant progress in the field of diagnosis and treatment of Chagas disease, one of the most neglected tropical diseases. Recent clinical trials are providing new evidence that makes the management of these patients, a constant challenge for the professionals involved. Innovative diagnostic tools and therapeutic regimens, allow us to face the future of Chagas disease with optimism.

  16. Updates in pediatric endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Kamboj, Manmohan K

    2013-04-01

    There are rapid advances being made in the field of medicine! New research continues to investigate etiopathogenic mechanisms underlying many endocrine disorders, new tests to facilitate diagnosis, and newer treatment options. The discussion in this article focuses on a few of the important concerns in adolescent endocrinology and highlights some recent concepts that are important for the physicians taking care of these adolescents. This article also includes a brief update on diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2, obesity, and polycystic ovarian syndrome; new thoughts and controversies about vitamin D and current management of the common thyroid disorders; adrenal insufficiency; and concerns with disorders of puberty in adolescents.

  17. Fuel Cell Handbook update

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, W.R.; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Engleman, R.R. Jr.; Stauffer, D.B.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of this work was to update the 1988 version of DOE`s Fuel Cell Handbook. Significant developments in the various fuel cell technologies required revisions to reflect state-of-the-art configurations and performance. The theoretical presentation was refined in order to make the handbook more useful to both the casual reader and fuel cell or systems analyst. In order to further emphasize the practical application of fuel cell technologies, the system integration information was expanded. In addition, practical elements, such as suggestions and guidelines to approximate fuel cell performance, were provided.

  18. SCROD: An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, J.; Musienko, Y.; McCauley, T.; Paul, T.; Reucroft, S.; Swain, J.

    We give an update on the most recent design of the "School Cosmic Ray Outreach Detector'' (SCROD) using pixellated Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes and scintillating tiles with wavelength shifting fibers as detectors. This technology offers very high levels of robustness at low cost. Voltages and currents are also so low as to reduce shock hazard to zero, and there are no fragile glass or vacuum-containing components. Plans are underway to make a very large-scale deployment of such detectors as part of a major outreach project.

  19. Using soil records with atmospheric dispersion modeling to investigate the effects of clean air regulations on 60 years of manganese deposition in Marietta, Ohio (USA).

    PubMed

    Carter, Megan R; Gaudet, Brian J; Stauffer, David R; White, Timothy S; Brantley, Susan L

    2015-05-15

    Atmospheric emissions of metals from anthropogenic activities have led to deposition and contamination of soils worldwide. We quantified addition of manganese (Mn) to soils around the largest emitter of Mn in the United States (U.S.) using chemical analyses and atmospheric dispersion modeling (Second-Order Closure Integrated Puff (SCIPUFF)). Concentrations of soil-surface Mn were enriched by 9-fold relative to that of the parent material within 1 km of the facility. Elevated concentrations of Mn and chromium (Cr), another potentially toxic element that was emitted, document contamination only within 1 m of the soil surface. Total mass of Mn added per unit land area integrated over 1 m, mMn, equals ~80 mg Mn cm(-2) near the facility. Values of mMn remained above background up to tens of kilometers from the source. Air concentrations of Mn particles of 7.5-micron diameter simulated with SCIPUFF using available data for the emission rate and local meteorological conditions for 2006 were consistent with measured air concentrations. However, the Mn deposition calculated for 2006 with SCIPUFF yielded a cumulative value over the lifetime of the refinery (60 years) that is a factor of 15 lower than the Mn observed to have been added to the soils. This discrepancy can be easily explained if Mn deposition rates before 1988 were more than an order of magnitude greater than today. Such higher emissions are probable, given the changes in metal production with time and the installation of emission controls after the Clean Air Act (1970). This work shows that atmospheric dispersion models can be used with soil profiles to understand the changes in metal emissions over decadal timescales. In addition, the calculations are consistent with the Clean Air Act accounting for a 15-fold decrease in the Mn deposition to soils around the refinery per metric ton of Mn alloy produced.

  20. What strategy is needed for attaining the EU air quality regulations under future climate change scenarios? A sensitivity analysis over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Guerrero, P.; Baró, R.; Gómez-Navarro, J. J.; Lorente-Plazas, R.; García-Valero, J. A.; Hernández, Z.; Montávez, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    A wide number of studies show that several areas over Europe exceed some of the air quality thresholds established in the legislation. These exceedances will become more frequent under future climate change scenarios, since the policies aimed at improving air quality in the EU directives have not accounted for the variations in the climate. Climate change alone will influence the future concentrations of atmospheric pollutants through modifications of gas-phase chemistry, transport, removal, and natural emissions. In this sense, chemistry transport models (CTMs) play a key role in assessing and understanding the emissions abatement plans through the use of sensitivity analysis strategies. These sensitivity analyses characterize the change in model output due to variations in model input parameters. Since the management strategies of air pollutant emission is one of the predominant factors for controlling urban air quality, this work assesses the impact of various emission reduction scenarios in air pollution levels over Europe under two climate change scenarios. The methodology includes the use of a climate version of the meteorological model MM5 coupled with the CHIMERE chemistry transport model. Experiments span the periods 1971-2000, as a reference, and 2071-2100, as two future enhanced greenhouse gas and aerosol scenarios (SRES A2 and B2). The atmospheric simulations have an horizontal resolution of 25 km and 23 vertical layers up to 100 hPa, and are driven by the global climate model ECHO-G . In order to represent the sensitivity of the chemistry and transport of aerosols, tropospheric ozone and other photochemical species, several hypothetical scenarios of emission control have been implemented to quantify the influence of diverse emission sources in the area, such as on-road traffic, port and industrial emissions, among others. The modeling strategy lies on a sensitivity analysis to determine the emission reduction and strategy needed in the target area in

  1. Rapid hologram updates for real-time volumetric information displays.

    PubMed

    Munjuluri, Bala; Huebschman, Michael L; Garner, Harold R

    2005-08-20

    We have demonstrated that holograms incorporating changes in three-dimensional (3D) scenes can be recalculated in real time to present dynamic updates on information displays. This approach displays 3D information in a compatible format for fast and reliable interpretation of changes in the 3D scenes. The rapid-update algorithm has been demonstrated by real-time computation and transcription of the holograms to our digital micromirror device hologram projection system for visual validation of the reconstruction. The reported algorithm enables full parallax 1024 x 768 pixel holograms of 3D scenes to be updated at a rate of 0.8 s with a 1.8 GHz personal computer. Volumetric information displays that can enhance reliable data assimilation and decrease reaction times for applications such as air-traffic control, cockpit heads-up displays, mission crew stations, and undersea navigation can benefit from this research.

  2. Fuel-air control device

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, J.

    1981-12-15

    The invention concerns a device for controlling the vehicles fuel-air mixture by regulating the air in the ventilation passage leading to the engine air intake from the crankcase. In a vehicle provided with a PCV valve, the device is located in the ventilation passage leading from the crankcase to the engine air intake and the device is downstream of the PCV valve. The device admits outside air to the ventilation passage to lean the gas mixture when the engine creates a vacuum less than 8 psi in the ventilation passage.

  3. Working Memory Updating Latency Reflects the Cost of Switching between Maintenance and Updating Modes of Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Yoav; Oberauer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Updating and maintenance of information are 2 conflicting demands on working memory (WM). We examined the time required to update WM (updating latency) as a function of the sequence of updated and not-updated items within a list. Participants held a list of items in WM and updated a variable subset of them in each trial. Four experiments that vary…

  4. 78 FR 4766 - Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 232, 239, 249, 269, 274 Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual AGENCY: Securities and.... Along with the adoption of the Filer Manual, we are amending Rule 301 of Regulation S-T to provide...

  5. Updating Small Generator Interconnection Procedures for New Market Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Coddington, M.; Fox, K.; Stanfield, S.; Varnado, L.; Culley, T.; Sheehan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Federal and state regulators are faced with the challenge of keeping interconnection procedures updated against a backdrop of evolving technology, new codes and standards, and considerably transformed market conditions. This report is intended to educate policymakers and stakeholders on beneficial reforms that will keep interconnection processes efficient and cost-effective while maintaining a safe and reliable power system.

  6. 18 CFR 12.24 - Review and updating of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Review and updating of plans. 12.24 Section 12.24 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS...

  7. 18 CFR 12.24 - Review and updating of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Review and updating of plans. 12.24 Section 12.24 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS...

  8. 18 CFR 12.24 - Review and updating of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Review and updating of plans. 12.24 Section 12.24 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS...

  9. 18 CFR 12.24 - Review and updating of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Review and updating of plans. 12.24 Section 12.24 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS...

  10. 18 CFR 12.24 - Review and updating of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Review and updating of plans. 12.24 Section 12.24 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS...

  11. 76 FR 27271 - TSCA Inventory Update Reporting Modifications; Submission Period Suspension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Suspension AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is amending the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) section 8(a) Inventory Update Reporting (IUR) regulations...

  12. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  13. Memory Updating and Mental Arithmetic

    PubMed Central

    Han, Cheng-Ching; Yang, Tsung-Han; Lin, Chia-Yuan; Yen, Nai-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Is domain-general memory updating ability predictive of calculation skills or are such skills better predicted by the capacity for updating specifically numerical information? Here, we used multidigit mental multiplication (MMM) as a measure for calculating skill as this operation requires the accurate maintenance and updating of information in addition to skills needed for arithmetic more generally. In Experiment 1, we found that only individual differences with regard to a task updating numerical information following addition (MUcalc) could predict the performance of MMM, perhaps owing to common elements between the task and MMM. In Experiment 2, new updating tasks were designed to clarify this: a spatial updating task with no numbers, a numerical task with no calculation, and a word task. The results showed that both MUcalc and the spatial task were able to predict the performance of MMM but only with the more difficult problems, while other updating tasks did not predict performance. It is concluded that relevant processes involved in updating the contents of working memory support mental arithmetic in adults. PMID:26869971

  14. Updates Technologies of Media Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Whether as status notifications in news feeds or interactive prompts in online video services, updates punctuate the background routines of media by bringing a variety of changes to the attention of users. In this dissertation I argue that updates rationalize media change by making previously obscure actions of users and movements of technologies…

  15. Memory Updating and Mental Arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Han, Cheng-Ching; Yang, Tsung-Han; Lin, Chia-Yuan; Yen, Nai-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Is domain-general memory updating ability predictive of calculation skills or are such skills better predicted by the capacity for updating specifically numerical information? Here, we used multidigit mental multiplication (MMM) as a measure for calculating skill as this operation requires the accurate maintenance and updating of information in addition to skills needed for arithmetic more generally. In Experiment 1, we found that only individual differences with regard to a task updating numerical information following addition (MUcalc) could predict the performance of MMM, perhaps owing to common elements between the task and MMM. In Experiment 2, new updating tasks were designed to clarify this: a spatial updating task with no numbers, a numerical task with no calculation, and a word task. The results showed that both MUcalc and the spatial task were able to predict the performance of MMM but only with the more difficult problems, while other updating tasks did not predict performance. It is concluded that relevant processes involved in updating the contents of working memory support mental arithmetic in adults. PMID:26869971

  16. Air modeling: Air dispersion models; regulatory applications and technological advances

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.; Liles, R.

    1995-09-01

    Air dispersion models are a useful and practical tool for both industry and regulatory agencies. They serve as tools for engineering, permitting, and regulations development. Their cost effectiveness and ease of implementation compared to ambient monitoring is perhaps their most-appealing trait. Based on the current momentum within the U.S. EPA to develop better models and contain regulatory burdens on industry, it is likely that air dispersion modeling will be a major player in future air regulatory initiatives.

  17. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  18. HATCH CONNECTING TEMPERED AIR CHAMBER AND HOT AIR CHAMBER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HATCH CONNECTING TEMPERED AIR CHAMBER AND HOT AIR CHAMBER OF PLENUM WITH ATTACHED DRAFT REGULATOR. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  19. An Updated Equilibrium Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Emeric

    2008-01-01

    A device that can demonstrate equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic concepts is described. The device consists of a leaf blower attached to a plastic container divided into two chambers by a barrier of variable size and form. Styrofoam balls can be exchanged across the barrier when the leaf blower is turned on and various air pressures are…

  20. Perinatal neuroprotection update

    PubMed Central

    Jelin, Angie C.; Salmeen, Kirsten; Gano, Dawn; Burd, Irina; Thiet, Mari-Paule

    2016-01-01

    Antepartum, intrapartum, and neonatal events can result in a spectrum of long-term neurological sequelae, including cerebral palsy, cognitive delay, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders [1]. Advances in obstetrical and neonatal care have led to survival at earlier gestational ages and consequently increasing numbers of periviable infants who are at significant risk for long-term neurological deficits. Therefore, efforts to decrease and prevent cerebral insults attempt not only to decrease preterm delivery but also to improve neurological outcomes in infants delivered preterm. We recently published a comprehensive review addressing the impacts of magnesium sulfate, therapeutic hypothermia, delayed cord clamping, infections, and prevention of preterm delivery on the modification of neurological risk [2]. In this review, we will briefly provide updates to the aforementioned topics as well as an expansion on avoidance of toxin and infections, specifically the Zika virus. PMID:27606053

  1. ILRS Website Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey E.; Torrence, Mark H.; Pollack, Nathan H.; Tyahla, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    The ILRS website, http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov, is the central source of information for all aspects of the service. The website provides information on the organization and operation of the ILRS and descriptions of ILRS components data, and products. Furthermore, the website provides an entry point to the archive of these data products available through the data centers. Links are provided to extensive information on the ILRS network stations including performance assesments and data quality evaluations. Descriptions of suported satellite missions (current, future, and past) are provided to aid in station acquisition and data analysis. The website was reently redesigned. Content was reviewed during the update process, ensuring information is current and useful. This poster will provide specific examples of key sections, applicaitons, and webpages.

  2. Updating the Read Codes

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, David; Comp, Dip; Schulz, Erich; Brown, Philip; Price, Colin

    1997-01-01

    Abstract The Read Codes are a hierarchically-arranged controlled clinical vocabulary introduced in the early 1980s and now consisting of three maintained versions of differing complexity. The code sets are dynamic, and are updated quarterly in response to requests from users including clinicians in both primary and secondary care, software suppliers, and advice from a network of specialist healthcare professionals. The codes' continual evolution of content, both across and within versions, highlights tensions between different users and uses of coded clinical data. Internal processes, external interactions and new structural features implemented by the NHS Centre for Coding and Classification (NHSCCC) for user interactive maintenance of the Read Codes are described, and over 2000 items of user feedback episodes received over a 15-month period are analysed. PMID:9391934

  3. Macrofouling control technology update

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.L.; Armor, A.F.

    1996-12-31

    Macrofouling of condenser systems with debris, fish, clams, barnacles, mussels, algae, and other marine organisms can significantly affect power plant availability and performance. Typical difficulties include increased condenser back pressure due to reduced cooling-water flow, malfunctioning of on-line tube-cleaning equipment, and accelerated corrosion and erosion of tubing. In some severe cases, condenser back pressure increased to a point that the turbine had to be tripped. In 1981 EPRI initiated a research project to develop utility industry guidelines for reducing macrofouling problems. In 1987 EPRI published the Guidelines on Macrofouling Control Technology. Since then significant progress has been made by EPRI, utility members, equipment manufacturers, and others. The purpose of this paper is to update the macrofouling control technology. Control technology covered will include thermal treatment, mechanical removal devices, antifouling coatings, and chemical treatment.

  4. Perinatal neuroprotection update

    PubMed Central

    Jelin, Angie C.; Salmeen, Kirsten; Gano, Dawn; Burd, Irina; Thiet, Mari-Paule

    2016-01-01

    Antepartum, intrapartum, and neonatal events can result in a spectrum of long-term neurological sequelae, including cerebral palsy, cognitive delay, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders [1]. Advances in obstetrical and neonatal care have led to survival at earlier gestational ages and consequently increasing numbers of periviable infants who are at significant risk for long-term neurological deficits. Therefore, efforts to decrease and prevent cerebral insults attempt not only to decrease preterm delivery but also to improve neurological outcomes in infants delivered preterm. We recently published a comprehensive review addressing the impacts of magnesium sulfate, therapeutic hypothermia, delayed cord clamping, infections, and prevention of preterm delivery on the modification of neurological risk [2]. In this review, we will briefly provide updates to the aforementioned topics as well as an expansion on avoidance of toxin and infections, specifically the Zika virus.

  5. Perinatal neuroprotection update.

    PubMed

    Jelin, Angie C; Salmeen, Kirsten; Gano, Dawn; Burd, Irina; Thiet, Mari-Paule

    2016-01-01

    Antepartum, intrapartum, and neonatal events can result in a spectrum of long-term neurological sequelae, including cerebral palsy, cognitive delay, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders [1]. Advances in obstetrical and neonatal care have led to survival at earlier gestational ages and consequently increasing numbers of periviable infants who are at significant risk for long-term neurological deficits. Therefore, efforts to decrease and prevent cerebral insults attempt not only to decrease preterm delivery but also to improve neurological outcomes in infants delivered preterm. We recently published a comprehensive review addressing the impacts of magnesium sulfate, therapeutic hypothermia, delayed cord clamping, infections, and prevention of preterm delivery on the modification of neurological risk [2]. In this review, we will briefly provide updates to the aforementioned topics as well as an expansion on avoidance of toxin and infections, specifically the Zika virus. PMID:27606053

  6. Neurocritical care update.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    This update comprises six important topics under neurocritical care that require reevaluation. For post-cardiac arrest brain injury, the evaluation of the injury and its corresponding therapy, including temperature modulation, is required. Analgosedation for target temperature management is an essential strategy to prevent shivering and minimizes endogenous stress induced by catecholamine surges. For severe traumatic brain injury, the diverse effects of therapeutic hypothermia depend on the complicated pathophysiology of the condition. Continuous electroencephalogram monitoring is an essential tool for detecting nonconvulsive status epilepticus in the intensive care unit (ICU). Neurocritical care, including advanced hemodynamic monitoring, is a fundamental approach for delayed cerebral ischemia following subarachnoid hemorrhage. We must be mindful of the high percentage of ICU patients who may develop sepsis-associated brain dysfunction. PMID:27239312

  7. Dengue: an update.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, María G; Kourí, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    This review is an update of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) based on international and Cuban experience. We describe the virus characteristics and risk factors for dengue and DHF, and compare incidence and the case fatality rates in endemic regions (southeast Asia, western Pacific, and the Americas). The clinical picture and the pathogenesis of the severe disease are explained. We also discuss the viral, individual, and environmental factors that determine severe disease. Much more research is necessary to clarify these mechanisms. Also reviewed are methods for viral isolation and the serological, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods applied in the diagnosis of the disease. We describe the status of vaccine development and emphasise that the only alternative that we have today to control the disease is through control of its vector Aedes aegypti.

  8. [Coronary intervention. 2012 update].

    PubMed

    Rittger, H; Arnold, M; Schmid, M; Zimmermann, S; Daniel, W G

    2012-03-01

    In-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis are still the main topics of any update on coronary intervention. One of the challenging issues in the past year lay in answering the question of whether the data on first-generation drug-eluting stents are still relevant in the light of newer stent designs and drugs. Other issues include new strategies in antiplatelet therapy, treatment of in-stent restenosis, particularly drug-eluting stent restenosis, treatment of multivessel and left-main disease, as well as the latest developments in bioresorbable polymers and "scaffolds". In the light of demographic changes, the main challenge for the interventional community is to build an evidence base for the adequate treatment of elderly patients in order to resolve uncertainties in the treatment of this challenging patient group. PMID:22382138

  9. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  10. Federal guidelines update.

    PubMed

    Honsinger, Richard W

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews laws and regulations that were introduced recently and that will see special application for the allergist/immunologist in 2005. The current work plan of the Office of Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services is analyzed New implications of the Medicare Modernization Act of 2003, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) security standards, the Administrative Simplification Compliance Act provider identifier number, and Stark II regulations deserve attention.

  11. 75 FR 18061 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final... amend 30 TAC Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles. These revisions consist of the... to develop air pollution regulations and control strategies to ensure that air quality meets...

  12. An Updated Equilibrium Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Emeric

    2008-08-01

    A device that can demonstrate equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic concepts is described. The device consists of a leaf blower attached to a plastic container divided into two chambers by a barrier of variable size and form. Styrofoam balls can be exchanged across the barrier when the leaf blower is turned on and various air pressures are applied. Equilibrium can be approached from different distributions of balls in the container under different conditions. The Le Châtelier principle can be demonstrated. Kinetic concepts can be demonstrated by changing the nature of the barrier, either changing the height or by having various sized holes in the barrier. Thermodynamic concepts can be demonstrated by taping over some or all of the openings and restricting air flow into container on either side of the barrier.

  13. ISS Update: SpaceX Dragon Launch Update

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Office commentator Pat Ryan talks with Mike Horkachuck, NASA Project Executive for SpaceX, for an update on the SpaceX Dragon's next launch attempt scheduled for Tuesday at 3:44...

  14. Updating applied diffusion models

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, J.C.

    1985-11-01

    Most diffusion models currently used in air quality applications are substantially out of date with understanding of turbulence and diffusion in the planetary boundary layer. Under a Cooperative Agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency, the American Meteorological Society organized a workshop to help improve the basis of such models, their physics and hopefuly their performance. Reviews and recommendations were made on models in three areas: diffusion in the convective boundary layer (CBL), diffusion in the stabe boundary layer (SBL), and model uncertainty.

  15. Air Pollution Manual, Part 1--Evaluation. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giever, Paul M., Ed.

    Due to the great increase in technical knowledge and improvement in procedures, this second edition has been prepared to update existing information. Air pollution legislation is reviewed. Sources of air pollution are examined extensively. They are treated in terms of natural sources, man-made sources, metropolitan regional emissions, emission…

  16. microRNAs: Implications for Air Pollution Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding on the role of microRNAs in mediating genetic responses to air pollutants and to contemplate on how these responses ultimately control susceptibility to ambient air pollution. Morbidity and mortality ...

  17. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  18. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (Final Report, Oct 2004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has completed the process of updating and revising, where appropriate, its Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (PM) as issued in 1996 (usually referred to as the Criteria Document). Sections 108 and 109 of the Clean Air Act require that EPA carry out a periodic revi...

  19. Citizen suit Clean Air Act enforcement: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, W.G. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    Almost every federal environmental statute has a provision that allows citizens to sue violators in lieu of governmental enforcement authorities under certain circumstances. Generally, if the relevant governmental enforcement authority was not deemed to be diligently prosecuting enforcement action against an alleged violator and certain procedural requirements were met a citizens suit could be filed in federal court. If a violation was proved penalties could be assessed against the violator and the plaintiff citizen could receive reimbursement of both his or her attorney's fees and other expenses. Historically, however, the only federal statute that has been the subject of significant citizens suit activity has been the federal Clean Water Act (CWA). This paper will explore a variety of events that are expected to significantly increase the number of citizen suits CAA permitted facilities will face over the next ten years. The paper will briefly address the role the Title V operating permit will play. It will also include a discussion of how this permit will now encompass specific emission limitations along with a mandate to report exceedances. Further, and equally important, will be the role of the 1997 federal Environmental Protection Agency any credible evidence rule which potentially broadens the type, amount, and accessibility available to a CAA citizen suit plaintiff. This rule along with the additional monitoring data that will be generated by the Title V periodic and compliance assurance monitoring requirements will be an issue. Two important CAA citizen suits will be discussed which illustrate the potential role of credible evidence. Also, recent citizen suit decisions involving other federal environmental statutes with implications for the CAA will be examined. Further, the paper will provide some thoughts on how facilities can protect themselves to the extent possible against citizen suits.

  20. Air Force Ni-Cd cell qualification program update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Steve; Brown, Harry; Collins, G.; Hwang, W.; Bui, Q.

    1993-01-01

    The generic qualification of aerospace nickel-cadmium cells is discussed. The test program includes the following: all available manufacturers, all available designs, cells from the previous program, and high and low orbit life cycling. It is the purpose of this program to characterize the beginning of life performance.

  1. [Regulation of geochemical activity of microorganisms in a petroleum reservoir by injection of H2O2 or water-air mixture].

    PubMed

    Nazina, T N; Pavlova, N K; Ni, F; Shestakova, N M; Ivoĭlov, V S; Feng, Q; Dongyun, Z; Prusakova, T S; Beliaev, S S; Ivanov, M V

    2008-01-01

    In the course of pilot trials of biotechnologies for the enhancement of oil recovery in the Gangxi bed of the Dagang oil field (China), microbiological processes were investigated. The biotechnologies were based on injection into the petroleum reservoir of different oxygen sources (H2O2 solution or a water-air mixture) with nitrogen and phosphorus salts. The injection of water-air mixture with nitrogen and phosphorus salts resulted in an increase in the number of aerobic and anaerobic organotrophic bacteria, rates of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in formation water and also the content of CO2 (from 4.8-12 to 15-23.2%) and methane (from 86-88 to 91.8%) in the gas. The preferential consumption of isotopically light bicarbonate by methanogens resulted in a higher content of the light 12C in methane; the delta13C/CH4 value changed from -45.1...-48.3 to -50.7...-59.3 per thousand). At the same time, mineral carbonates of the formation water became isotopically heavier; the delta13C/Sigmacarbonates value increased from 3.4...4.0 to 5.4...9.6 per thousand. Growth of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria was accompanied by production of biosurfactants and decreased interfacial tension of formation water. Injection of H2O2 solution resulted in the activation of aerobic processes and in suppression of both sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Methane content in the gas decreased from 86-88 to 75.4-79.8%, probably due to its consumption by methanotrophs. Due to consumption of isotopically light methane, the residual methane carbon became heavier, with the delta13C/CH4 values from -39.0 to -44.3 per thousand. At the same time, mineral carbonates of the formation water became isotopically considerably lighter; the delta13C/Sigmacarbonates value decreased from 5.4... 9.6 to -1.4...2.7 per thousand). The additional amount of oil recovered during the trial of both variants of biotechnological treatment was 3819 t.

  2. The need for rules and regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmus, Michael N.

    2007-06-01

    Nanotechnology could have an enormous impact on medicine but, says Michael Helmus, the regulations that govern new drugs and medical devices need to be updated before nanomedicine can be commercialized.

  3. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  6. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  15. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  20. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...