Science.gov

Sample records for air research nilu

  1. Long-term comparisons of UV index values derived from a NILU-UV instrument, NWS, and OMI in the New York area.

    PubMed

    Fan, L; Li, W; Dahlback, A; Stamnes, J J; Stamnes, S; Stamnes, K

    2015-03-10

    A comparison is presented of UV index (UVI) values obtained under different cloud conditions from a Norwegian Institute for Air Research UV (NILU-UV) instrument, the ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) onboard the Aura satellite, and the National Weather Service (NWS) model for the time period of 2010-2014. The NILU-UV irradiance meter is a ground-based, multi-channel, moderate bandwidth filter instrument. UVI values derived from measurements by a NILU-UV instrument deployed in the New York area (40.74°N, -74.03°E) to monitor the erythemal UV radiation from 2010 to present is compared to UVI values derived from OMI measurements and predicted by the NWS model. OMI overestimated the UVI values by 13.06% for all cloud conditions compared with the UVI values derived from measurements by the NILU-UV instrument. The heavier the cloud cover, the higher the overestimation. The mean relative difference between the UVI derived from the NWS model and from NILU-UV measurements was 11.54%. The UVI prediction by NWS was also overestimated under cloudy conditions. Under overcast conditions the NWS predictions of UVI values differ significantly from those derived from NILU-UV measurements, yielding a correlation of only 0.8025 and a mean relative difference of 28.25%.

  2. Comparisons of three NILU-UV instruments deployed at the same site in the New York area.

    PubMed

    Fan, L; Li, W; Dahlback, A; Stamnes, J J; Englehardt, S; Stamnes, S; Stamnes, K

    2014-06-10

    The Norwegian Institute for Air Research ultraviolet (NILU-UV) irradiance meter is a ground-based, multichannel, moderate bandwidth filter instrument that measures irradiances at ultraviolet (UV) and visible wavelengths with five channels in the UV (302, 312, 320, 340, and 380 nm) and one channel in the visible (400-700 nm) part of the spectrum. Minute-by-minute irradiances recorded in these channels are used to infer the total ozone column (TOC) amount, and a radiation modification factor (RMF) designed to have a value close to 100 under cloud-free conditions. The performance of three NILU-UV instruments deployed side-by-side in the New York area (40.74°N, -74.03°E) is assessed, and derived TOC values are compared with those derived from the ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) deployed on NASA's AURA satellite. Based on about three years of data, it was found that the three instruments yielded similar TOC values that were in close agreement with those derived from the OMI. The relative difference in TOC values derived from the three NILU-UV instruments was generally less than 2.5%. Cloud cover affects the accuracy of the inferred TOC, but reliable values can be obtained in the presence of clouds, although the accuracy deteriorates under heavy overcast conditions with RMF values smaller than 65 (low cloud transmittance).

  3. Long-Term Comparisons of OMI Surface UV Irradiances to a NILU_UV Multi-Filter Radiometer in Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zempila, Melina Maria; Koukouli, Maria Elissavet; Bais, Alkiviadis; Arola, Antii; Fountoulakis, Ilias; Kouremeti, Natalia; Kazadzis, Stelios; Balis, Dimitrios

    2016-08-01

    The evaluation of the surface UV irradiances, derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the AURA satellite, with those extracted from a Norwegian Institute for Air Research UV multi-filter actinometer (NILU-UV) situated in the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics (LAP) in the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (40.69°N, 22.96°E) is presented in this study.The NILU-UV data have been compared with the OMI/Aura overpass and local noon irradiances at 305, 310, 324 and 380 nm for a 10 year period over Thessaloniki between 2005 and 2014.The OMI irradiances were found to overestimate the NILU-UV observations in Thessaloniki between 4.5% and 13.5% for the 305nm wavelength and between 1.5% and 10.0% for the 310nm case. For the 324nm and 380nm, the satellite-deduced local-noon time comparisons showed a satellite under-estimation of 3.75% and 4.15% respectively whereas the overpass-time comparisons range between -1.55% and -1.90% for the same wavelengths.

  4. Air Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  5. Air Force Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-08

    Air Force Research Laboratory 8 June 2009 Mr. Leo Marple Ai F R h L b t r orce esearc a ora ory Leo.Marple@wpafb.af.mil DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air Force Research Laboratory 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Laboratory ,Wright

  6. The travel-related carbon dioxide emissions of atmospheric researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.

    2008-04-01

    Most atmospheric scientists agree that greenhouse gas emissions have already caused significant changes to the global climate system and that these changes will accelerate in the near future. At the same time, atmospheric scientists who - like other scientists - rely on international collaboration and information exchange travel a lot and, thereby, cause substantial emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). In this paper, the CO2 emissions of the employees working at an atmospheric research institute (the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU) caused by all types of business travel (conference visits, workshops, field campaigns, instrument maintainance, etc.) were calculated for the years 2005-2007. It is estimated that more than 90% of the emissions were caused by air travel, 3% by ground travel and 5% by hotel usage. The travel-related annual emissions were between 1.9 and 2.4 t CO2 per employee or between 3.9 and 5.5 t CO2 per scientist. For comparison, the total annual per capita CO2 emissions are 4.5 t worldwide, 1.2 t for India, 3.8 t for China, 5.9 t for Sweden and 19.1 t for Norway. The travel-related CO2 emissions of a NILU scientist, occurring in 24 days of a year on average, exceed the global average annual per capita emission. Norway's per-capita CO2 emissions are among the highest in the world, mostly because of the emissions from the oil industry. If the emissions per NILU scientist derived in this paper are taken as representative for the average Norwegian researcher, travel by Norwegian scientists would nevertheless account for a substantial 0.2% of Norway's total CO2 emissions. Since most of the travel-related emissions are due to air travel, water vapor emissions, ozone production and contrail formation further increase the relative importance of NILU's travel in terms of radiative forcing.

  7. The travel-related carbon dioxide emissions of atmospheric researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.

    2008-11-01

    Most atmospheric scientists agree that greenhouse gas emissions have already caused significant changes to the global climate system and that these changes will accelerate in the near future. At the same time, atmospheric scientists who like other scientists rely on international collaboration and information exchange travel a lot and, thereby, cause substantial emissions of CO2. In this paper, the CO2 emissions of the employees working at an atmospheric research institute (the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU) caused by all types of business travel (conference visits, workshops, field campaigns, instrument maintainance, etc.) were calculated for the years 2005 2007. It is estimated that more than 90% of the emissions were caused by air travel, 3% by ground travel and 5% by hotel usage. The travel-related annual emissions were between 1.9 and 2.4 t CO2 per employee or between 3.9 and 5.5 t CO2 per scientist. For comparison, the total annual per capita CO2 emissions are 4.5 t worldwide, 1.2 t for India, 3.8 t for China, 5.9 t for Sweden and 19.1 t for Norway. The travel-related CO2 emissions of a NILU scientist, occurring in 24 days of a year on average, exceed the global average annual per capita emission. Norway's per-capita CO2 emissions are among the highest in the world, mostly because of the emissions from the oil industry. If the emissions per NILU scientist derived in this paper are taken as representative for the average Norwegian researcher, travel by Norwegian scientists would nevertheless account for a substantial 0.2% of Norway's total CO2 emissions. Since most of the travel-related emissions are due to air travel, water vapor emissions, ozone production and contrail formation further increase the relative importance of NILU's travel in terms of radiative forcing.

  8. Traveling reference NILU-UV at the Antarctic region: solar UV comparisons at Ushuaia and Marambio in 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinander, O.; Lakkala, K.; Redondas, A.; Torres, C.; Cuevas, E.; Deferrari, G.; Koskela, T.; Taalas, P.

    2003-04-01

    The Antarctic UV-monitoring network established by INM in collaboration with FMI, DNA-IAA (Dirección Nacional del Antártico - Instituto Antártico Argentino, Argentina), and CADIC consists of NILU-UV instruments at Belgrano, Marambio and Ushuaia. The NILU-UV multichannel radiometer measures UV radiation at 5 channels, with centre wavelengths at 302, 312, 320, 340 and 380 nm with a bandwidth of about 10 nm FWHM. The quality assurance of the NILU-UV radiometers at Marambio and Ushuaia is based on lamp tests and a traveling reference NILU-UV. Since 1999, the reference travels between the two sites during the sunny time period of the year (between October and May). After one-week measurements at one site, the reference travels to the next site, until two to three solar comparisons are performed at both sites. Lamp tests are made before and after each solar comparison to study the stability of the traveling reference. At the end of the seasonal measurement period, the reference returns to FMI for maintenance and calibrations. In this presentation, the comparison procedure together with latest results, including CIE doserates, will be described.

  9. Air Force Office of Scientific Research 1991 Research Highlights

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    research at Air Force Europe, allied victory in the Persian Gulf con- programs totaling nearly $300 million annual- laboratories . Air Force ...transitioning nological environment? laboratories and research centers into four research accomplishments for Air Force use. In this added role as... Air Force’s saries; maintaining a strong research Organizationally, AFOSR has also glo ehran gol per infrastructure among Air Force

  10. Air Force Research Laboratory Technology Milestones 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Air Force Research Laboratory ( AFRL ) is the only science and technology (S&T) organization for the Air Force . Accordingly, AFRL fulfills a mission to...Readership survey is sponsored by the Air Force Research Laboratory ( AFRL ), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Thank you in advance for your...Base Defense AFRL researchers participated in the Robotic Physical Security Experiment, conducted at

  11. NILU-UV multi-filter radiometer total ozone columns: Comparison with satellite observations over Thessaloniki, Greece.

    PubMed

    Zempila, Melina Maria; Taylor, Michael; Koukouli, Maria Elissavet; Lerot, Christophe; Fragkos, Konstantinos; Fountoulakis, Ilias; Bais, Alkiviadis; Balis, Dimitrios; van Roozendael, Michel

    2017-07-15

    This study aims to construct and validate a neural network (NN) model for the production of high frequency (~1min) ground-based estimates of total ozone column (TOC) at a mid-latitude UV and ozone monitoring station in the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (LAP/AUTh) for the years 2005-2014. In the first stage of model development, ~30,000 records of coincident solar UV spectral irradiance measurements from a Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning (NILU)-UV multi-filter radiometer and TOC measurements from a co-located Brewer spectroradiometer are used to train a NN to learn the nonlinear functional relation between the irradiances and TOC. The model is then subjected to sensitivity analysis and validation. Close agreement is obtained (R(2)=0.94, RMSE=8.21 DU and bias=-0.15 DU relative to the Brewer) for the training data in the correlation of NN estimates on Brewer derived TOC with 95% of the coincident data differing by less than 13 DU. In the second stage of development, a long time series (≥1 million records) of high frequency (~1min) NILU-UV ground-based measurements are presented as inputs to the NN model to generate high frequency TOC estimates. The advantage of the NN model is that it is not site dependent and is applicable to any NILU input data lying within the range of the training data. GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, OMI/Aura and GOME2/MetOp-A TOC records are then used to perform a precise cross-validation analysis and comparison with the NILU TOC estimates over Thessaloniki. All 4 satellite TOC dataset are retrieved using the GOME Direct Fitting algorithm, version 3 (GODFIT_v3), for reasons of consistency. The NILU TOC estimates within ±30min of the overpass times agree well with the satellite TOC retrievals with coefficient of determination in the range 0.88≤R(2)≤0.90 for all sky conditions and 0.95≤R(2)≤0.96 for clear sky conditions. The mean fractional differences are found to be -0.67%±2.15%, -1

  12. Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, CA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-27

    Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL /RZS 1 Ara Road Edwards AFB CA 93524-7013 AFRL -RZ-ED-VG-2011-269 9...SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL /RZS 11. SPONSOR...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Air Force Research Laboratory Ed d Ai F B CA Col Mike Platt war s r orce

  13. Air Monitoring, Measuring, and Emissions Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Measurement research is advancing the ability to determine the composition of sources of air pollution, conduct exposure assessments, improve monitoring capabilities and support public health research.

  14. OMI/Aura UV product validation using NILU-UV ground-based measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zempila, Melina-Maria; Koukouli, Maria-Elissavet; Bais, Alkiviadis; Fountoulakis, Ilias; Arola, Antti; Kouremeti, Natalia; Balis, Dimitris

    2016-09-01

    The main aim of this work is to evaluate the NASA EOS AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) UV irradiance estimates through ground-based measurements performed by a NILU-UV multichannel radiometer (NILU-UV) operating in Thessaloniki, Greece, for the time period between January 2005 and December 2014. NILU-UV multi-filter radiometers can provide measurements at 5 UV wavelength bands with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 10 nm approximately and a time analysis of 1 min. An additional channel measuring the Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) is also incorporated to the instrument and is used for the stringent characterization of the cloud free instances. The OMI instrument estimates solar UV irradiances at four wavelengths close to those of the NILU-UV in Thessaloniki. Clear and all-sky overpass-time, as well as solar local-noon time, UV estimates are provided by the NASA Aura Data Validation Center. Spectra measured from a collocated MKIII Brewer spectrophotometer with serial number 086 (Brewer #086) were utilized for the whole period (2005-2014) in order to estimate the NILU-UV irradiances at the OMI wavelength irradiances and therefore provide a direct comparison and validation to the NILU UV measurements provided by OMI. For the nominal comparisons, using un-flagged OMI data within a 50 km radius from Thessaloniki, the linear determination coefficient, R2, ranges between 0.91 and 0.97 for the 305 nm and between 0.75 and 0.92 for 380 nm depending on the choice of overpass or local-noon time data and the cloudiness flags. The best agreement is found for the clear-sky overpass-time comparisons as well as the both PAR- and satellite algorithm-deduced clear-sky overpass and local-noon comparisons for all wavelengths. The OMI irradiances were found to overestimate the NILU-UV observations in Thessaloniki between ∼4.5% and 13.5% for the 305 nm and between ∼1.5% and ∼10.0% for the 310 nm wavelength depending on the choice of time [overpass vs local noon

  15. Air pollution: brown skies research.

    PubMed Central

    Tattersfield, A. E.

    1996-01-01

    Direct information on the health effects of air pollution in humans relies mainly on chamber studies and epidemiological studies. Although chamber studies have limitations they allow the acute effects of individual pollutants to be studied in well characterised subjects under controlled conditions. Most chamber studies have shown relatively small falls in lung function and relatively small increases in bronchial reactivity at the concentrations of ozone, SO2, and NO2 that occur even during high pollution episodes in the UK. The possible exception is SO2 where sensitive asthmatic patients may show a greater response at concentrations that are seen from time to time in certain areas and in proximity to power stations. There is no convincing evidence of potentiation between pollutants in chamber studies. Epidemiological studies are more difficult to carry out and require considerable epidemiological and statistical expertise to deal with the main problem-confounding by other factors. Although the health effects seen with current levels of pollution are small compared with those seen in the 1950s and close to the limits of detection, this should not be interpreted as being unimportant. A small effect may have large consequences when the population exposed is large (the whole population in this case). Recent data suggest that particles have more important health effects than the pollutant gases that have been studied. Much of this information comes from the USA though the findings are probably applicable in the UK. More information is needed on the size of the health effects that occur during the three types of air pollution episodes seen in this country and the relative contributions of particles, pollutant gases, pollen, and other factors such as temperature. Research into air pollution declined in the UK following the introduction of the Clean Air Acts; it is now increasing again following pressure from certain individuals and ginger groups, including the British

  16. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  17. Air Traffic Management Research at NASA Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The Aviation Systems Division at the NASA Ames Research Center conducts leading edge research in air traffic management concepts and technologies. This overview will present concepts and simulation results for research in traffic flow management, safe and efficient airport surface operations, super density terminal area operations, separation assurance and system wide modeling and simulation. A brief review of the ongoing air traffic management technology demonstration (ATD-1) will also be presented. A panel discussion, with Mr. Davis serving as a panelist, on air traffic research will follow the briefing.

  18. Air Force Research Laboratory’s Focused Long Term Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Air Force Research Laboratory ( AFRL ) mission is to provide support to the Air Force (AF) and the warfighters with... Air Force Research Laboratory’s Focused Long Term Challenges Leo J Rose Munitions Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory , 101 W Eglin Blvd...This technology vision, which was born in our Air Force Research Laboratory , builds on the Air Force’s traditional kill

  19. Air Force Research Laboratory Preparation for Year 2000.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Air Force Research Laboratory , Phillips Research Site , Kirkland Air Force Base, New...Pentagon, Washington, D.C. 20301-1900. The identity of each writer and caller is fully protected. Acronym AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory INSPECTOR...completion of the implementation phase was May 31, 1999. Air Force Research Laboratory . The Air Force Research

  20. Experimental research on air propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, William F

    1918-01-01

    The purposes of the experimental investigation on the performance of air propellers described in this report are as follows: (1) the development of a series of design factors and coefficients drawn from model forms distributed with some regularity over the field of air-propeller design and intended to furnish a basis of check with similar work done in other aerodynamic laboratories, and as a point of departure for the further study of special or individual types and forms; (2) the establishment of a series of experimental values derived from models and intended for later use as a basis for comparison with similar results drawn from certain selected full-sized forms and tested in free flight.

  1. Air Force Research Laboratory Fire Research (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-05

    High Pressure – Water or Foam Spray at ≥ 1200 psi. • Current emphasis on increasing throw distance. – Retrofit P-19 trucks with UHP system. • USAF set...suppressing large scale liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. • UHP water and AFFF, compressed air foam, and combined agent AFFF-dry chemical systems. • Next...build a skid steered, all-terrain vehicle equipped with UHP and other advanced fire and rescue systems. • Closed Cell Foam Fire Protection – Develop

  2. AIRS radiometric calibration validation for climate research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Pagano, Thomas S.; Elliott, Denis; Gaiser, Steve; Gregorich, Dave; Broberg, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Climate research using data from satellite based radiometers makes extreme demands on the traceability and stability of the radiometric calibration. The selection of a cooled grating array spectrometer for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, AIRS, is key, but does not ensured that AIRS data will be of climate quality. Additional design features, plus additional pre-launch testing, and extensive on-orbit calibration subsystem monitoring beyond what would suffice for application of the data to weather forecasting were required to ensure the radiometric data quality required for climate research. Validation that climate data quality are being generated makes use of the sea surface skin temperatures (SST and (obs-calc).

  3. Air Traffic Management Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Todd

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control systems aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Part of NASA's current mission in aeronautics research is to invent new technologies and procedures for ATC that will enable our national airspace system to accommodate the increasing demand for air transportation well into the next generation while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we'll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and we'll highlight some new NASA technologies coming down the pike.

  4. Air Traffic Management Research at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Katharine

    2005-01-01

    Since the late 1980's, NASA Ames researchers have been investigating ways to improve the air transportation system through the development of decision support automation. These software advances, such as the Center-TRACON Automation System (eTAS) have been developed with teams of engineers, software developers, human factors experts, and air traffic controllers; some ASA Ames decision support tools are currently operational in Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) facilities and some are in use by the airlines. These tools have provided air traffic controllers and traffic managers the capabilities to help reduce overall delays and holding, and provide significant cost savings to the airlines as well as more manageable workload levels for air traffic service providers. NASA is continuing to collaborate with the FAA, as well as other government agencies, to plan and develop the next generation of decision support tools that will support anticipated changes in the air transportation system, including a projected increase to three times today's air-traffic levels by 2025. The presentation will review some of NASA Ames' recent achievements in air traffic management research, and discuss future tool developments and concepts currently under consideration.

  5. Nanoscience and Technology at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY ( AFRL ) Dr. Richard A. Vaia Dr. Daniel Miracle Dr. Thomas Cruse Air Force Research ...Technology At The Air Force Research Laboratory ( AFRL ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 AFRL NST Overview 2 AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY VISION We defend

  6. Nanoscience and Technology at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY ( AFRL ) Dr. Richard A. Vaia Dr. Daniel Miracle Dr. Thomas Cruse Air Force Research ...Technology At The Air Force Research Laboratory ( AFRL ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 AFRL NST Overview 2 AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY VISION We defend

  7. 33 CFR 334.700 - Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and Development Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla... gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and Development Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla... regulations in this section shall be enforced by the Commander, Air Proving Ground Center, Eglin AFB, and...

  8. 33 CFR 334.700 - Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and Development Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla... gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and Development Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla... regulations in this section shall be enforced by the Commander, Air Proving Ground Center, Eglin AFB, and...

  9. Air quality research: perspective from climate change modelling research.

    PubMed

    Semazzi, Fredrick

    2003-06-01

    A major component of climate change is a manifestation of changes in air quality. This paper explores the question of air quality from the climate change modelling perspective. It reviews recent research advances on the cause-effect relationships between atmospheric air composition and climate change, primarily based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment of climate change over the past decade. There is a growing degree of confidence that the warming world over the past century was caused by human-related changes in the composition of air. Reliability of projections of future climate change is highly dependent on future emission scenarios that have been identified that in turn depend on a multitude of complicated interacting social-economic factors. Anticipated improvements in the performance of climate models is a major source of optimism for better climate projections in the future, but the real benefits of its contribution will be closely coupled with other sources of uncertainty, and in particular emission projections.

  10. Research on Health and Environmental Effects of Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Research has linked regulated air pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, to lung, heart disease and other health problems. Further investigation is needed to understand the role poor air quality plays on health and disease

  11. Research on Near Roadway and Other Near Source Air Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Research has shown that living and working near sources of air pollution can lead to higher exposures to air contaminants many of which contribute to adverse health effects including reduced lung function, asthma, cardiovascular disease and premature death

  12. VENTILATION RESEARCH: A REVIEW OF RECENT INDOOR AIR QUALITY LITERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature review, conducted to survey and summarize recent and ongoing engineering research into building ventilation, air exchange rate, pollutant distribution and dispersion, and other effects of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) s...

  13. Experimental research on air propellers V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, W F; Lesley, E P

    1923-01-01

    In previous reports on experimental research on air propellers, by W. F. Durand and E. P. Lesley, as contained in the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics reports nos. 14, 30, and 64, the investigations were made progressively and each without reference to results given in preceding reports and covering only information relating to forms perhaps adjacent in geometrical form and proportion. This report is a review of the entire series of results of the preceding reports with a view of examining through graphical and other appropriate means the nature of the history of the characteristics of operation as related to the systematic variations in characteristics of forms, etc., through the series of such characteristics.

  14. POLLUTION PREVENTION FOR CLEANER AIR: EPA'S AIR AND ENERGY ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribu...

  15. Statistical Engineering in Air Traffic Management Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is working to develop an integrated set of advanced technologies to enable efficient arrival operations in high-density terminal airspace for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. This integrated arrival solution is being validated and verified in laboratories and transitioned to a field prototype for an operational demonstration at a major U.S. airport. Within NASA, this is a collaborative effort between Ames and Langley Research Centers involving a multi-year iterative experimentation process. Designing and analyzing a series of sequential batch computer simulations and human-in-the-loop experiments across multiple facilities and simulation environments involves a number of statistical challenges. Experiments conducted in separate laboratories typically have different limitations and constraints, and can take different approaches with respect to the fundamental principles of statistical design of experiments. This often makes it difficult to compare results from multiple experiments and incorporate findings into the next experiment in the series. A statistical engineering approach is being employed within this project to support risk-informed decision making and maximize the knowledge gained within the available resources. This presentation describes a statistical engineering case study from NASA, highlights statistical challenges, and discusses areas where existing statistical methodology is adapted and extended.

  16. Results of the air emission research study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air quality was monitored in beef mono-slope barns. The objectives of the study were 1) to gather baseline data for the levels of gas emissions and particulate matter from beef mono-slope facilities, 2) evaluate the effect of two different manure handling systems on air quality, and 3) provide infor...

  17. AIR TOXICS MODELING RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a Microsoft Powerpoint slide presentation which was given at the joint EPA Region 3 - Mid-Atlantic Regional Air Management Association (MARAMA) Air Toxic Summit in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania held from October 18, 2005 through October 20, 2005. The slide presentat...

  18. Helical Explosive Flux Compression Generator Research at the Air Force Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    Air Force Research Laboratory Kirtland AFB...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Directed Energy Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory Kirtland AFB, NM 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...in support of the Air Force Research Laboratory ( AFRL ) explosive pulsed power program. These include circuit codes such as Microcap and

  19. Research review: Indoor air quality control techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.

    1986-10-01

    Techniques for controlling the concentration of radon, formaldehyde, and combustion products in the indoor air are reviewed. The most effective techniques, which are generally based on limiting or reducing indoor pollutant source strengths, can decrease indoor pollutant concentrations by a factor of 3 to 10. Unless the initial ventilation rate is unusually low, it is difficult to reduce indoor pollutant concentrations more than approximately 50% by increasing the ventilation rate of an entire building. However, the efficiency of indoor pollutant control by ventilation can be enhanced through the use of local exhaust ventilation near concentrated sources of pollutants, by minimizing short circuiting of air from supply to exhaust when pollutant sources are dispersed and, in some situations, by promoting a displacement flow of air and pollutants toward the exhaust. Active air cleaning is also examined briefly. Filtration and electrostatic air cleaning for removal of particles from the indoor air are the most practical and effective currently available techniques of air cleaning. 49 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Air Force Deployment Reintegration Research: Implications for Leadership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Air Force Deployment Reintegration Research: Implications for Leadership Wendy Sullivan-Kwantes Angela R. Febbraro Ann-Renee Blais...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air Force Deployment Reintegration Research: Implications for Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 DRDC Toronto TR 2004-149 i Abstract Expanding on previous research on the reintegration

  1. Committee on air pollution effects research: 40 years of UK air pollution.

    PubMed

    Fowler, David; Dise, Nancy; Sheppard, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    The UK Committee on Air Pollution Effects Research (CAPER) was established 40 years ago. This special section was compiled to mark this anniversary. During this time there have been dramatic changes in the composition of the air over the UK. The four papers in this special section of Environmental Pollution represent the current air pollution effects research focus on ozone and nitrogen deposition, two related issues and are proving from a policy perspective to be quite intractable issues. The UK CAPER research community continues to advance the underpinning science and engages closely with the user community in government departments.

  2. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    Air transportation research being carried on at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton University, and Ohio University is discussed. Global Positioning System experiments, Loran-C monitoring, inertial navigation, the optimization of aircraft trajectories through severe microbursts, fault tolerant flight control systems, and expert systems for air traffic control are among the topics covered.

  3. ORD Clean Air Research Program Review and Response

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The objective of this review was to evaluate the relevance, quality, performance, scientific and managerial leadership, and outcomes of the Program and provide guidance and recommendations as to the progress and directions of the Clean Air Research Program

  4. Some current challenges in research on air pollution and health.

    PubMed

    Samet, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    This commentary addresses some of the diverse questions of current interest with regard to the health effects of air pollution, including exposure-response relationships, toxicity of inhaled particles and risks to health, multipollutant mixtures, traffic-related pollution, accountability research, and issues with susceptibility and vulnerability. It considers the challenges posed to researchers as they attempt to provide useful evidence for policy-makers relevant to these issues. This commentary accompanies papers giving the results from the ESCALA project, a multi-city study in Latin America that has an overall goal of providing policy-relevant results. While progress has been made in improving air quality, driven by epidemiological evidence that air pollution is adversely affecting public health, the research questions have become more subtle and challenging as levels of air pollution dropped. More research is still needed, but also novel methods and approaches to address these new questions.

  5. Air Defense: A Computer Game for Research in Human Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    AD-A102 725 NAVY PERSONNEL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER SAN DETC F/6 5/10 AIR DEFENSE: A COMPUTER GAME FOR RESEARCH IN HUMAN PERFORMANCE.(U) JUL... RESEARCH IN HUMAN PERFORMANCE R ichard T. Kelly Frank L. Greitzer Ramon L. Hershman *i Reviewcd by . ,’. Kochler Released by James 1:. Kelly, Jr. Ccr ni ng...Oflicer Navy Personnel Research and 0evelopment Center San Diego, California 92152 UNCLASSIFED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Whlen. Dole

  6. Air Force Research Laboratory Technology Milestones 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Earpiece System, or ACCES®, under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with Westone Laboratories, Inc. The innovative technology improves...trained in creating impressions for the custom-molded earpieces . Often this meant contacting researchers at AFRL. With hundreds of sets of this product...the flyers’ ears. By integrating specialized electronics into custom-molded earpieces , ACCES allows wearers to experience clear audio communications

  7. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A summary of the research on air transportation is addressed including navigation; guidance, control and display concepts; and hardware, with special emphasis on applications to general aviation aircraft. Completed works and status reports are presented also included are annotated bibliographies of all published research sponsored on these grants since 1972.

  8. Air Force Research Laboratory’s 2006 Technology Milestones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    suitable for the SOFC , permits the use of a reliable and easily operated fuel cell power system as an alternative to current mobile electric power (MEP...transfer, or technical achievement AFRL Technologies Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) Mission Statement: AFOSR orchestrates the Air Force...and Microsystems Boundary Layers and Hypersonics Unsteady and Rotating Flows Combustion and Diagnostics Space Power and Propulsion Metallic Materials

  9. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993. Volume 13. Phillips Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Research Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, NM August 1993 14-1 My Summer Apprenticeship At Kirtland Air Force Base, Phillips Laboratory Andrea Garcia...AFOSR Summer Research Program Phillips Laboratory Sponsored By: Air Force Office of Scientific Research Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, NM... Phillips Laboratory Sponsored by: Air

  10. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories balloon operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danaher, T. J.

    1974-01-01

    The establishment and functions of the AFCRL balloon operations facility are discussed. The types of research work conducted by the facility are defined. The facilities which support the balloon programs are described. The free balloon and tethered balloon capabilities are analyzed.

  11. Application of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Data to Climate Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gregorich, David; Gaiser, Steve; Chahine, Moustafa T.

    2004-01-01

    The application of hyper spectral radiometric data to climate research requires very high absolute radiometric accuracy and stability. We use cloud-free tropical ocean data from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIR) Calibration Data Subset (ADCS) to show that the radiometric precision and stability required climate applications has been achieved. The sea surface skin temperatures derived from the AIRS 2616cm-1 super window channel are stable relative to the RTG.SST at the better than 8 mK/year level, and the spectral calibration is stable at the 1 ppm/year level. The excellent stability and accuracy are the result of the implementation of AIRS as a grating array spectrometer, which is cooled and stabilized within 10 mK at 155 K. Analysis of daily measurements of the temperature gradient between the surface and 7 km altitude show that the AIRS Calibration Data Subset has applications which extend its original intent for calibration support to climate research. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS Aqua satellite was launched into polar orbit in May 2002. AIRS covers the spectral region from 640 to 2700 cm-1 with 2378 independent channels and represents the first of a new generation of hyper spectral resolution sounders in support of global sounding data for weather forecasting and climate research.

  12. Air Force Office of Scientific Research Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-06

    compounds • Biomimetics: Examining morphology and physiology associated with infrared detection in pit vipers and pythons • Potential room-temperature IR...Nanoscience Initiatives: Taiwan & Korea – Leveraging Asia’s $1 Billion Nano-science Investment – Research Areas Include: Quantum Dots, Polymer ...Sciences • All-Nitrogen Propellants • Theoretical Chemistry • Polymer Chemistry • Biomimetic Sensors • Chronobiology and Neural Adaptation • Information

  13. Impact of ship emissions on air pollution and AOD over North Atlantic and European Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Jacek W.; Struzewska, Joanna; Jefimow, Maciej; Durka, Pawel

    2016-04-01

    The iAREA project is combined of experimental and theoretical research in order to contribute to the new knowledge on the impact of absorbing aerosols on the climate system in the European Arctic (http://www.igf.fuw.edu.pl/iAREA). A tropospheric chemistry model GEM-AQ (Global Environmental Multiscale Air Quality) was used as a computational tool. The core of the model is based on a weather prediction model with environmental processes (chemistry and aerosols) implanted on-line and are interactive (i.e. providing feedback of chemistry on radiation and dynamics). The numerical grid covered the Euro-Atlantic region with the resolution of 50 km. Emissions developed by NILU in the ECLIPSE project was used (Klimont et al., 2013). The model was run for two 1-year scenarios. 2014 was chosen as a base year for simulations and analysis. Scenarios include a base run with most up-to-date emissions and a run without maritime emissions. The analysis will focus on the contribution of maritime emissions on levels of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants over the European Arctic, North Atlantic and coastal areas. The annual variability will be assessed based on monthly mean near-surface concentration fields. Analysis of shipping transport on near-surface air pollution over the Euro-Atlantic region will be assessed for ozone, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5. Also, a contribution of ship emissions to AOD will be analysed.

  14. Is the air pollution health research community prepared to support a multipollutant air quality management framework?

    PubMed

    Mauderly, Joe L; Burnett, Richard T; Castillejos, Margarita; Ozkaynak, Halûk; Samet, Jonathan M; Stieb, David M; Vedal, Sverre; Wyzga, Ronald E

    2010-06-01

    Ambient air pollution is always encountered as a complex mixture, but past regulatory and research strategies largely focused on single pollutants, pollutant classes, and sources one-at-a-time. There is a trend toward managing air quality in a progressively "multipollutant" manner, with the idealized goal of controlling as many air contaminants as possible in an integrated manner to achieve the greatest total reduction of adverse health and environmental impacts. This commentary considers the current ability of the environmental air pollution exposure and health research communities to provide evidence to inform the development of multipollutant air quality management strategies and assess their effectiveness. The commentary is not a literature review, but a summary of key issues and information gaps, strategies for filling the gaps, and realistic expectations for progress that could be made during the next decade. The greatest need is for researchers and sponsors to address air quality health impacts from a truly multipollutant perspective, and the most limiting current information gap is knowledge of personal exposures of different subpopulations, considering activities and microenvironments. Emphasis is needed on clarifying the roles of a broader range of pollutants and their combinations in a more forward-looking manner; that is not driven by current regulatory structures. Although advances in research tools and outcome data will enhance progress, the greater need is to direct existing capabilities toward strategies aimed at placing into proper context the contributions of multiple pollutants and their combinations to the health burdens, and the relative contributions of pollutants and other factors influencing the same outcomes. The authors conclude that the research community has very limited ability to advise multipollutant air quality management and assess its effectiveness at this time, but that considerable progress can be made in a decade, even at

  15. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Research conducted during the academic year 1989-90 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation research is discussed. Completed works, status reports and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, human factors, and expert systems concepts applied to airport operations. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  16. Air Force research in human sensory feedback for telepresence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Julian, Ronald G.

    1993-01-01

    Telepresence operations require high quality information transfer between the human master and the remotely located slave. Present Air Force research focuses on the human aspects of the information needed to complete the control/feedback loop. Work in three key areas of human sensory feedback for manipulation of objects are described. Specific projects in each key area are outlined, including research tools (hardware), planned research, and test results. Nonmanipulative feedback technologies are mentioned to complete the advanced teleoperation discussions.

  17. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    The research conducted under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA and the FAA, one each with the Mass. Inst. of Tech., Ohio Univ., and Princeton Univ. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of activities is presented.

  18. Future directions in air quality research: economic issues.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard M; Horst, Robert L

    2003-06-01

    Our challenge was to address future directions in air quality research that involve economic issues. The paper outlines the role of economics in the evaluation of air pollution impacts on environmental systems and describes existing research. We identify studies that address economic effects in the agricultural sector, in the commercial forest sector, and in unmanaged natural systems. Effects related to ozone exposure are highlighted. The summary of available research is followed by a discussion of research recommendations. Several short-term recommendations are identified that can augment some of the new research being considered by scientists. A more ambitious, long-term research project is outlined for valuing air pollution impacts in unmanaged natural environments. Specifically, the paper describes possible advantages of an 'integrated assessment' framework that more formally brings together the complex relationships that exist in both ecological and economic systems. A final section contains thoughts on the importance of education (i.e., information transfer) in the research process, especially in relation to policy. It is further noted that education should be inclusive of all members of the research team, throughout all stages of the research process.

  19. Air Quality Research and Applications Using AURA OMi Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, P.K.; Gleason, J.F.; Torres, O.; Levelt, P.; Liu, X.; Ziemke, J.; Chandra, S.; Krotkov, N.

    2007-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on EOS Aura is a new generation of satellite remote sensing instrument designed to measure trace gas and aerosol absorption at the UV and blue wavelengths. These measurements are made globally at urban scale resolution with no inter-orbital gaps that make them potentially very useful for air quality research, such as the determination of the sources and processes that affect global and regional air quality, and to develop applications such as air quality forecast. However, the use of satellite data for such applications is not as straight forward as satellite data have been for stratospheric research. There is a need for close interaction between the satellite product developers, in-situ measurement programs, and the air quality research community to overcome some of the inherent difficulties in interpreting data from satellite-based remote sensing instruments. In this talk we will discuss the challenges and opportunities in using OMI products for air quality research and applications. A key conclusion of this work is that to realize the full potential of OMI measurements it will be necessary to combine OMI data with data from instruments such as MLS, MODIS, AIRS, and CALIPSO that are currently flying in the "A-train" satellite constellation. In addition similar data taken by satellites crossing the earth at different local times than the A-train (e.g., the recently MetOp satellite) would need to be processed in a consistent manner to study diurnal variability, and to capture the effects on air quality of rapidly changing events such as wild fires.

  20. Status Report [Air Pollution Research Advisory Committee of the Coordinating Research Council].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coordinating Research Council, New York, NY. Air Pollution Research Advisory Committee.

    Research projects sponsored by the Coordinating Research Council, Air Pollution Research Advisory Committee, and dealing with vehicle emissions and their wide ranging effects on the environment are compiled in this status report. Spanning the range of problems associated with reducing emissions, they are divided into three main areas of research:…

  1. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1991-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during the academic year 1991-1992 under the FAA/NASA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research. The year end review was held at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, June 18-19, 1992. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration and NASA Langley Research Center, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (NGL-22-009-640), Ohio University (NGR-36-009-017), and Princeton University (NGL-31-001-252). Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, intelligent flight control, flight dynamics, human factors, and air traffic control processes. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  2. Air Force Research Initiation Program. 1986 Technical Report. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    at Orono Jackson State University Specialty: Mathematical Statistics Specialty: Educational Psychology WILFORD HALL MEDICAL CENTER (Lackland Air Force...had a considerable 71-5 practical experience in applied research , administration, teaching and pedagogy, athletics and coaching, psychology , and...of facts and the frontier method preferred for procedural skills that have prerequisite relations. Second , once a topic, or more particularly a

  3. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The research conducted during 1984 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, control and display concepts. An overview of the year's activities for each of the schools is also presented.

  4. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1988-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The research conducted during 1988 to 1989 under the NASA/FAA-sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  5. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The research conducted during 1983 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The material was presented at a conference held at the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center, Altantic City, New Jersey, December 16, 1983. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, control, and display concepts. An overview of the year's activities for each of the universities is also presented.

  6. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    The research conducted during 1987 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of 3 grants sponsored by NASA-Langley and the FAA, one each with the MIT, Ohio Univ., and Princeton Univ. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  7. DURIP: Fast Oscilloscope and Detectors for Air Laser Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.       DURIP: Fast Oscilloscope and Detectors for Air Laser Research Office of...1. Type of equipment The equipment purchased under this DURIP provides the capability to detect in real time events on very fast time scales, as...low as 10 picoseconds. Fast real-time oscilloscopes and fast detectors were needed for this purpose. 2. Manufacturer of equipment and model number

  8. Air Force Personnel Research Issues: A Manager’s Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Personality In the late 1950’s, a landmark study by researchers at the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory, Dr. Ernest Tupes and Dr. Raymond Christal ...The Tupes and Christal study used peer ratings to assess 35 personality traits that were considered to be representative of the personality...Independent-Minded. 110 In 1993, Dr. Christal developed a computerized Self Description Inventory (SDI) to measure the Five-Factor Model

  9. Laser simulation at the Air Force Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosek, Jacob; Naderi, Shadi; Oliker, Benjamin; Lane, Ryan; Dajani, Iyad; Madden, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    The physics of high brightness, high-power lasers present a variety of challenges with respect to simulation. The Air Force Research Laboratory is developing high-fidelity models for Yb-doped, Tm-doped, and Raman fiber amplifiers, hollow-core optical fiber gas lasers, and diode pumped alkali lasers. The approach to simulation and the physics specific to each laser technology are described, along with highlights of results, and relevant modeling considerations and limitations.

  10. Environmental Assessment for Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Integrated Experiments Division Office Space at Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY SPACE VEHICLES INTEGRATED EXPERMENTS DIVISION OFFICE SPACE AT KIRTLAND AIR FORCE ... Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB). The office building would house the Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Integrated Experiments Division...ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Laboratory ,Space Vehicles Directorate,3550 Aberdeen Ave. SE, Kirtland

  11. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993. Volume 8. Phillips Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Research Program Phillips Laboratory Kirtland Air Force Base Albuquerque. New Mexico Sponsored by...Best Available Copy UNITED STATES AIR FORCE SUMMER RESEARCH PROGRAM -- 1993 SUMMER RESEARCH PROGRAM FINAL REPORTS VOLUME 8 PHILLIPS LABORATORY ...Alabama Box 870344 Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0344 Final Report for: Graduate Student Research Program Phillips Laboratory , Hanscom AFB Sponsored by: Air

  12. Air Force Research Laboratory Sensors Directorate Leadership Legacy, 1960-2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    AFRL -RY-WP-TM-2011-1017 AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY SENSORS DIRECTORATE LEADERSHIP LEGACY, 1960-2011 Compiled by Raymond C. Rang...Structures Divi- sion, Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory , Kirtland AFB, N.M. 7. March 1998 - July 1999, Chief, Integration and... Research Laboratory ( AFRL ), and Deputy Director of the Sensors Direc- torate, Air Force Research

  13. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  14. microRNAs: implications for air pollution research.

    PubMed

    Jardim, Melanie J

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding on the role of microRNAs in mediating genetic responses to air pollutants and to contemplate on how these responses ultimately control susceptibility to ambient air pollution. Morbidity and mortality attributable to air pollution continues to be a growing public health concern worldwide. Despite several studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain elusive. In the last several years, special attention has been given to the role of epigenetics in mediating, not only genetic and physiological responses to certain environmental insults, but also in regulating underlying susceptibility to environmental stressors. Epigenetic mechanisms control the expression of gene products, both basally and as a response to a perturbation, without affecting the sequence of DNA itself. These mechanisms include structural regulation of the chromatin structure, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, and post-transcriptional gene regulation, such as microRNA mediated repression of gene expression. microRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that have been quickly established as key regulators of gene expression. As such, miRNAs have been found to control several cellular processes including apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. More recently, research has emerged suggesting that changes in the expression of some miRNAs may be critical for mediating biological, and ultimately physiological, responses to air pollutants. Although the study of microRNAs, and epigenetics as a whole, has come quite far in the field of cancer, the understanding of how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions to environmental exposures in everyday life is unclear. This article does not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the US EPA.

  15. A Perspective on NASA Ames Air Traffic Management Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Jeffery A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes past and present air-traffic-management research at NASA Ames Research Center. The descriptions emerge from the perspective of a technical manager who supervised the majority of this research for the last four years. Past research contributions built a foundation for calculating accurate flight trajectories to enable efficient airspace management in time. That foundation led to two predominant research activities that continue to this day - one in automatically separating aircraft and the other in optimizing traffic flows. Today s national airspace uses many of the applications resulting from research at Ames. These applications include the nationwide deployment of the Traffic Management Advisor, new procedures enabling continuous descent arrivals, cooperation with industry to permit more direct flights to downstream way-points, a surface management system in use by two cargo carriers, and software to evaluate how well flights conform to national traffic management initiatives. The paper concludes with suggestions for prioritized research in the upcoming years. These priorities include: enabling more first-look operational evaluations, improving conflict detection and resolution for climbing or descending aircraft, and focusing additional attention on the underpinning safety critical items such as a reliable datalink.

  16. United States Air Force Graduate Student Research Program. 1989 Program Management Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    research at Air Force laboratories /centers. Each assignment is in a subject area and at an Air Force facility mutually agreed upon by the...housing difficult to find, c) 10 weeks too short for research period. June 20, 1989 Astronautics Laboratory Edwards Air Force Base, California June 21...1989 HRL: Operations Training Division Williams Air Force Base, Arizona June 22, 1989 Weapons Laboratory Kirtland Air

  17. Research in Observations of Oceanic Air/Sea Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, David G.; Arnold, David V.

    1995-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research has been: (1) to develop an innovative research radar scatterometer system capable of directly measuring both the radar backscatter and the small-scale and large-scale ocean wave field simultaneously and (2) deploy this instrument to collect data to support studies of air/sea interaction. The instrument has been successfully completed and deployed. The system deployment lasted for six months during 1995. Results to date suggest that the data is remarkably useful in air/sea interaction studies. While the data analysis is continuing, two journal and fifteen conference papers have been published. Six papers are currently in review with two additional journal papers scheduled for publication. Three Master's theses on this research have been completed. A Ph.D. student is currently finalizing his dissertation which should be completed by the end of the calendar year. We have received additional 'mainstream' funding from the NASA oceans branch to continue data analysis and instrument operations. We are actively pursuing results from the data expect additional publications to follow. This final report briefly describes the instrument system we developed and results to-date from the deployment. Additional detail is contained in the attached papers selected from the bibliography.

  18. New research on bioregenerative air/water purification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Anne H.; Ellender, R. D.; Watkins, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    For the past several years, air and water purification systems have been developed and used. This technology is based on the combined activities of plants and microorganisms as they function in a natural environment. More recently, researchers have begun to address the problems associated with indoor air pollution. Various common houseplants are currently being evaluated for their abilities to reduce concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) such as formaldehyde and benzene. With development of the Space Exploration Initiative, missions will increase in duration, and problems with resupply necessitates implementation of regenerative technology. Aspects of bioregenerative technology have been included in a habitat known as the BioHome. The ultimate goal is to use this technology in conjunction with physicochemical systems for air and water purification within closed systems. This study continued the risk assessment of bioregenerative technology with emphasis on biological hazards. In an effort to evaluate the risk for human infection, analyses were directed at enumeration of fecal streptococci and enteric viruses with the BioHome waste water treatment system.

  19. Airborne mass spectrometers: four decades of atmospheric and space research at the Air Force research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, A A; Hunton, D E

    1999-11-01

    Mass spectrometry is a versatile research tool that has proved to be extremely useful for exploring the fundamental nature of the earth's atmosphere and ionosphere and in helping to solve operational problems facing the Air Force and the Department of Defense. In the past 40 years, our research group at the Air Force Research Laboratory has flown quadrupole mass spectrometers of many designs on nearly 100 sounding rockets, nine satellites, three Space Shuttles and many missions of high-altitude research aircraft and balloons. We have also used our instruments in ground-based investigations of rocket and jet engine exhaust, combustion chemistry and microwave breakdown chemistry. This paper is a review of the instrumentation and techniques needed for space research, a summary of the results from many of the experiments, and an introduction to the broad field of atmospheric and space mass spectrometry in general.

  20. 75 FR 51039 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... for Air Pollution Measurement Systems, Volume I,'' EPA/600/R-94/038a and ``Quality Assurance Handbook for Air Pollution Measurement Systems, Volume II, Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Program'' EPA-454/B... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent...

  1. 76 FR 62402 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... for Air Pollution Measurement Systems, Volume I,'' EPA/600/R-94/038a and ``Quality Assurance Handbook for Air Pollution Measurement Systems, Volume II, Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Program,'' EPA-454/B... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent...

  2. Environmental equity research: review with focus on outdoor air pollution research methods and analytic tools.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qun; Chen, Dongmei; Buzzelli, Michael; Aronson, Kristan J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review environmental equity research on outdoor air pollution and, specifically, methods and tools used in research, published in English, with the aim of recommending the best methods and analytic tools. English language publications from 2000 to 2012 were identified in Google Scholar, Ovid MEDLINE, and PubMed. Research methodologies and results were reviewed and potential deficiencies and knowledge gaps identified. The publications show that exposure to outdoor air pollution differs by social factors, but findings are inconsistent in Canada. In terms of study designs, most were small and ecological and therefore prone to the ecological fallacy. Newer tools such as geographic information systems, modeling, and biomarkers offer improved precision in exposure measurement. Higher-quality research using large, individual-based samples and more precise analytic tools are needed to provide better evidence for policy-making to reduce environmental inequities.

  3. Spectra Handling from AIRS and IRIS for Climate Change Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; Lau, M.; Aumann, H. H.; Yung, Y. L.

    2010-12-01

    Outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) measurements over a long period from satellites provide valuable information for the climate change research. Due to the different coverage, spectral resolution and instrument sensitivities, the data comparisons between different satellites could be problematic and possible artifacts could be easily introduced. In this paper, we have analyzed the data taken by IRIS in 1970 and by AIRS from 2002 to 2010. IRIS (Prabhakara, 1988) was a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and it flew on the NASA Nimbus 4 satellite which was launched in April 1970 into an 1100km altitude sun-synchronous polar orbit. It collected data from the nadir track between 400cm-1 and 1600 cm-1 from April 1970 until January 1971. AIRS (Aumann, 2003) is a grating spectrometer launched on the EOS-Aqua satellite in May 2002 and it measures spectra from 650cm-1 to 2700cm-1. AIRS scans to ±49.5o cross track as the satellite moves forwards taking 90 spectra each with an instantaneous field of view of 1.1o in a row perpendicular to the direction of motion of the satellite. This results in a ground footprint of 13km diameter at nadir. In this paper, we analyzed the spectra between 650 cm-1 and 1350 cm-1 for nadir view footprints in order to match the IRIS’s measurements. Most of the possible sources of error or biases have been carefully handled, these include the errors from the data editing, spatial coverage, missing data (spatial gap), and spectral resolution, spectra frequency shift due to the fields of view, sea surface temperature fluctuations, clear sky determination, and spectra response function symmetry. It is extremely important when comparing spectra in the high slope spectra regions where possible large artifacts could be introduced. We have used a radiative model to simulate the spectra as observed in both IRIS and AIRS by using US Standard Atmospheric Profiles. The tropospheric warming and stratospheric warming are introduced in the model as well. The

  4. Air, Climate, and Energy Strategic Research Action Plan, 2012 - 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) moves forward, it is necessary to more fully understand the interplay between air, climate change, and the changing energy landscape to develop innovative and sustainable solutions to improve air quality

  5. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The Intelligent Control and Autonomy Branch (ICA) at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet the goals of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Programs. These efforts are primarily under the various projects under the Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP), Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP) and Transformative Aeronautics Concepts Program (TAC). The ICA Branch is focused on advancing the state-of-the-art of aero-engine control and diagnostics technologies to help improve aviation safety, increase efficiency, and enable operation with reduced emissions. This paper describes the various ICA research efforts under the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs with a summary of motivation, background, technical approach, and recent accomplishments for each of the research tasks.

  6. [Medical research in the US Armed Forces. (Report 5). The US Air Force and Coast Guard].

    PubMed

    Agapitov, A A; Aleĭnikov, S I; Bolekhan, V N; Ivchenko, E V; Krassiĭ, A B; Nagibovich, O A; Petrov, S V; Rezvantsev, M V; Soldatov, E A; Shalakhin, R A; Sheppli, E V

    2013-02-01

    The present article is the last part of the review dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Armed Forces. The first through fourth parts were published in the previous issues of the journal. Specifically this article is dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Air Force and Coast Guard. It is shown that in the US Air Force the medical research is conducted in the Air Force Research Laboratory and in the US Coast Guard--in its Research and Development Center. The particular research programs conducted in the above mentioned units are discussed.

  7. United States Air Force Academy Annual Research Report: July 2003 to June 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    cadets need to be independent learners and critical thinkers. Research at the Air Force Academy has three primary purposes. First, research enhances...disbursements, and trends. Research at the Academy spans a broad range from basic sciences to humanities. Specific projects are spotlighted in the Research...is a major contributor in terms of both funding and technical direction. The ARC also receives funding from other Air Force Research Lab (AFRL

  8. Environmental Assessment, Balloon Launch and Landing Operations, Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    wetlands are in riparian zones and include oxbow lakes , marshes, cienegas, and bosques. Extreme aridity and seasonally varying precipitation are the...MAJOR RIVERS - LAKE RESERVOIR - TRIBAL LANDS D AFFECTED COUNTY IIBALDUR\\PROJIAFRL_396452\\MAPFILES\\EIS\\FIG2-2_EXCLUSION_ZONE MXD TMCBROOM 2117...ASSESSMENT, BALLOON LAUNCH AND LANDING OPERATIONS, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY KIRTLAND AIR FORCE BASE - LAKE RESERVOIR MAJOR RIVERS

  9. Perspective on One Decade of Laser Propulsion Research at Air Force Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, C. William

    2008-04-28

    The Air Force Laser Propulsion Program spanned nearly 10-years and included about 35-weeks of experimental research with the Pulsed Laser Vulnerability Test System of the High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, WSMR/HELSTF/PLVTS. PLVTS is a pulsed CO2 laser that produces up to 10 kW of power in {approx}10 cm{sup 2} spot at wavelength of 10.6 microns. The laser is capable of a pulse repetition rate up to 25 Hz, with pulse durations of about 20 microseconds. During the program basic research was conducted on the production of propulsion thrust from laser energy through heating of air and ablation of various candidate rocket propellant fuels. Flight tests with an ablation fuel (Delrin) and air were accomplished with a model Laser Lightcraft vehicle that was optimized for propulsion by the PLVTS at its maximum power output, 10 kW at 25 Hz, 400 J/pulse. Altitudes exceeding 200-feet were achieved with ablation fuels. The most recent contributions to the technology included development of a mini-thruster standard for testing of chemically enhanced fuels and theoretical calculations on the performance of formulations containing ammonium nitrate and Delrin. Results of these calculations will also be reported here.

  10. microRNAs: Implications for Air Pollution Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding on the role of microRNAs in mediating genetic responses to air pollutants and to contemplate on how these responses ultimately control susceptibility to ambient air pollution. Morbidity and mortality ...

  11. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1992 High School Apprenticeship Program (HSAP) Reports. Volume 13. Phillips Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Research Program Phillips Laboratory I4oJ A*6Iv4 Sponsored by: Air Force Office of Scientific Research Kirtland Air ...UNITED STATES AIR FORCE SUMMER RESEARCH PROGki"A -- 1992 HIGH SCHOOL APPRENTICESHIP PROGRAM (HSAP) REPORTS VOLUME 13 (t PHILLIPS LABORATORY . RESEARCH ...Arlington High School Final Report for: Summer Research Program Geophysics Directorate Phillips Laboratory

  12. 75 FR 22126 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    .... Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711. Designation of this new... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  13. CFD simulation research on residential indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Ye, Miao; He, Bao-Jie

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays people are excessively depending on air conditioning to create a comfortable indoor environment, but it could cause some health problems in a long run. In this paper, wind velocity field, temperature field and air age field in a bedroom with wall-hanging air conditioning running in summer are analyzed by CFD numerical simulation technology. The results show that wall-hanging air conditioning system can undertake indoor heat load and conduct good indoor thermal comfort. In terms of wind velocity, air speed in activity area where people sit and stand is moderate, most of which cannot feel wind flow and meet the summer indoor wind comfort requirement. However, for air quality, there are local areas without ventilation and toxic gases not discharged in time. Therefore it is necessary to take effective measures to improve air quality. Compared with the traditional measurement method, CFD software has many advantages in simulating indoor environment, so it is hopeful for humans to create a more comfortable, healthy living environment by CFD in the future.

  14. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) research highlights, September--October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    New AFOSR-sponsored research shows that exhausts from solid-fueled rocket motors have very limited impact on stratospheric ozone. The research provides the Air Force with hard data to support continued access to space using the existing fleet of rockets and rocket technology. This basic research data allows the Air Force to maintain a strongly proactive environmental stance, and to meet federal guidelines regarding environmental impacts. Long-standing conjecture within the international rocket community suggests that chlorine compounds and alumina particulates produced in solid rocket motor (SRM) exhausts could create localized, temporary ozone toss in rocket plumes following launches. The extent of a local depletion of ozone and its environmental impact depends on details of the composition and chemistry in these plumes. Yet direct measurements of plume composition and plume chemistry in the stratosphere had never been made. Uncertainty about these details left the Air Force and commercial space launch capability potentially vulnerable to questions about the environmental impact of rocket launches. In 1995, APOSR and the Space and Missiles Systems Center Launch Programs Office (SMC/CL) jointly began the Rocket Impacts on Stratospheric Ozone (RISO) program to make the first-ever detailed measurements of rocket exhaust plumes. These measurements were aimed at understanding how the exhaust from large rocket motors effect the Earth`s stratospheric ozone layer. The studies determined: the size distribution of alumina particles in these exhausts, the amount of reactive chlorine in SRM exhaust, and the size and duration of localized ozone toss in the rocket plumes.

  15. Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research.

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, Ralph J

    2002-01-01

    Outdoor ambient air pollutant exposures in communities are relevant to the acute exacerbation and possibly the onset of asthma. However, the complexity of pollutant mixtures and etiologic heterogeneity of asthma has made it difficult to identify causal components in those mixtures. Occupational exposures associated with asthma may yield clues to causal components in ambient air pollution because such exposures are often identifiable as single-chemical agents (e.g., metal compounds). However, translating occupational to community exposure-response relationships is limited. Of the air toxics found to cause occupational asthma, only formaldehyde has been frequently investigated in epidemiologic studies of allergic respiratory responses to indoor air, where general consistency can be shown despite lower ambient exposures. The specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified in association with occupational asthma are generally not the same as those in studies showing respiratory effects of VOC mixtures on nonoccupational adult and pediatric asthma. In addition, experimental evidence indicates that airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures linked to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have proinflammatory effects on airways, but there is insufficient supporting evidence from the occupational literature of effects of DEPs on asthma or lung function. In contrast, nonoccupational epidemiologic studies have frequently shown associations between allergic responses or asthma with exposures to ambient air pollutant mixtures with PAH components, including black smoke, high home or school traffic density (particularly truck traffic), and environmental tobacco smoke. Other particle-phase and gaseous co-pollutants are likely causal in these associations as well. Epidemiologic research on the relationship of both asthma onset and exacerbation to air pollution is needed to disentangle effects of air toxics from monitored criteria air pollutants such as particle mass

  16. Recent researches on the air resistance of spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachsbart, O

    1928-01-01

    The following conclusions on air resistance of spheres are drawn: 1) disturbances in front of the sphere and even single fine wires affect the critical Reynolds Number; 2) disturbances around the sphere increased the drag of the sphere without martially affecting the value of the Reynolds Number(sub crith); 3) great disturbances of the boundary layer of the sphere likewise change R.N.(sub crith); 4) turbulence of the approaching air stream lowers critical R.N.

  17. Operations Research in a New Spanish Air Force Planning System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    Until nowadays, when any Air Force felt that a weapon system was obsolete, they studied the potential market , or they built up a system that fulfilled...for a new weapons system which will cover all the requirements. If the weapon system already exists in the national or foreign market , then the system...medium transport. This can be an important factor to be considered but, sometimes, the Spanish Air Force has to look at the for- eign markets for the

  18. Air pollution control system research: An iterative approach to developing affordable systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watt, Lewis C.; Cannon, Fred S.; Heinsohn, Robert J.; Spaeder, Timothy A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) funded project led jointly by the Marine Corps Multi-Commodity Maintenance Centers, and the Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) of the USEPA. The research focuses on paint booth exhaust minimization using recirculation, and on volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation by the modules of a hybrid air pollution control system. The research team is applying bench, pilot and full scale systems to accomplish the goals of reduced cost and improved effectiveness of air treatment systems for paint booth exhaust.

  19. [Structure and functioning of research ethics committees in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and Greater Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Sabio, María Fernanda; Bortz, Jaime Elías

    2015-06-01

    Given the few existing studies on research ethics committees (RECs) in Argentina, this paper aims to describe the structure and functioning of institutional RECs in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and Greater Buenos Aires. A descriptive, qualitative and quantitative research study was carried out using a survey conducted between March and July 2012. The sample was made up of 46 RECs. Forty percent of committee members were doctors and the age and sex distribution met standards. Inadequate numbers of methodologists, community representatives, lawyers and members external to the institution were identified, as well as shortcomings regarding administrative staff, fixed locations for meetings, budgets adequate to expenditures and training in research ethics. Some of those surveyed reported problems in their relationship with the institution and with researchers, in addition to difficulties regarding the time available to perform tasks.

  20. Unmanned air vehicle (UAV) ultra-persitence research

    SciTech Connect

    Dron, S. B.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Northrop Grumman Corporation Integrated Systems, Unmanned Systems (NGIS UMS) collaborated to further ultra-persistence technologies for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). The greatest shortfalls in UAV capabilities have been repeatedly identified as (1) insufficient flight persistence or 'hang time,' (2) marginal electrical power for running higher power avionics and payload systems, and (3) inadequate communications bandwidth and reach. NGIS UMS requested support from Sandia to develop an ultra-persistent propulsion and power system (UP3S) for potential incorporation into next generation UAV systems. The team members tried to determine which energy storage and power generation concepts could most effectively push UAV propulsion and electrical power capabilities to increase UAV sortie duration from days to months while increasing available electrical power at least two-fold. Primary research and development areas that were pursued included these goals: perform general system engineering and integration analyses; develop initial thermal and electrical power estimates; provide mass, volume, dimensional, and balance estimates; conduct preliminary safety assessments; assess logistics support requirements; perform, preliminary assessments of any security and safeguards; evaluate options for removal, replacement, and disposition of materials; generally advance the potential of the UP3S concept. The effort contrasted and compared eight heat sources technologies, three power conversion, two dual cycle propulsion system configurations, and a single electrical power generation scheme. Overall performance, specific power parameters, technical complexities, security, safety, and other operational features were successfully investigated. Large and medium sized UAV systems were envisioned and operational flight profiles were developed for each concept. Heat source creation and support challenges for domestic and expeditionary operations were

  1. Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative; Volume 5, Strategic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    Members of the Task HI (Strategic Evaluation) team were responsible for the development of a methodology to evaluate policies designed to alleviate air pollution in Mexico City. This methodology utilizes information from various reports that examined ways to reduce pollutant emissions, results from models that calculate the improvement in air quality due to a reduction in pollutant emissions, and the opinions of experts as to the requirements and trade-offs that are involved in developing a program to address the air pollution problem in Mexico City. The methodology combines these data to produce comparisons between different approaches to improving Mexico City`s air quality. These comparisons take into account not only objective factors such as the air quality improvement or cost of the different approaches, but also subjective factors such as public acceptance or political attractiveness of the different approaches. The end result of the process is a ranking of the different approaches and, more importantly, the process provides insights into the implications of implementing a particular approach or policy.

  2. Research on the net amount of air traffic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jun; Wu, Zhenya

    2013-03-01

    As accurate prediction of traffic flow states could reduce the congestion possibility, the theoretical study of air traffic was how to determinate the next time the state with fluid mechanics based on random condition. Then, a novel depicting method of air traffic flow is proposed, which calculated the change of net amount in flow conservation equation with discrete time loss queuing, further, it could determine the relationship between flow and density. Compared to the existing general algorithm, the threshold of net amount was presented in the method, and it had good adaptability.

  3. Air Force Research in Aero Propulsion Technology (AFRAPT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-27

    impact on rotordynamic stability. Air (or other gas) flowing through the clearances of labyrinth seals can induce an asymmetric pressure distribution... Rotordynamic Instability, College Station, TX, May 1990. 17 B Ih=o.166 KgIS (baeJ A i6O.137 KgIS el r0.1S@ Kg/S

  4. Role of the bomber in integrated air power. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, P.R.

    1988-05-01

    The role of bombers and the concept of strategic nuclear deterrence have become dysfunctionally linked. The Air Force fostered this linkage in the post-World War II and Korea era with its reliance on nuclear weapons and strategy of mutually assured destruction. Bombers continue to be a vital component of our nation's strategic nuclear-deterrent forces. However, bombers are not limited to deterring nuclear war. In addition to employing the first nuclear weapons, U.S. war fighting experience shows that bombers have played a crucial role in every major conflict beginning with World War II. Since our experience shows that we have historically employed bombers in a conventional role, the author suggests that we should be prepared to employ them across the spectrum of conflict today. Our experience also clearly shows that bombers have been best employed as an element of integrated air power, rarely as an independent force. Therefore, we should prepare to employ bombers as a member of an integrated air power team. The author also suggests that the concepts of tactical and strategic are ill-defined and serve to divide air power into organizations and forces. The author draws lessons from World War II and Vietnam experiences that could help guide our preparation for future conflicts.

  5. Communication Theory and Research in Air Force Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, John A.

    The United States Air Force is unique among the armed services in placing all its professional military education (PME) and professional continuing education (PCE) under a single command. Furthermore, most of the schools and courses are in the same geographical location at the Maxwell/Gunter complex in Montgomery, Alabama. There are basic…

  6. Urban air pollution and atmospheric diffusion research in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Datong; Whitney, Joseph B.; Yap, David

    1987-11-01

    Air pollution has become a serious problem in China as a result of that country's efforts in the last 30 years to become a great industrial power. The burning of coal, which currently provides over 70% of all China's energy needs, is a major source of air pollution. Because Chinese coal is high in sulfur and ash content and because most combustion devices in China have low efficiencies, SO2 and particulate emissions are a serious problem and are comparable to or exceed those found in many countries that are much more industrialized. Although most coal is burned in North China, acid precipitation is most severe in South China because of the lack of buffering loess dust found in the former region. The Chinese government has already taken major steps to mitigate air pollution, such as relocating polluting industries, supplying coal with lower sulfur content, using gas instead of coal for residential heating, and levying fines on industries that exceed pollution standards. Atmospheric environmental impact assessment (AEIA) is also required for all major new projects. This article describes three types of mathematical diffusion models and field and wind-tunnel experiments that are used in such assessments. The Chinese authorities believe that a range of technological, managerial, locational, and behavioral changes must be effected before the air of Chinese cities can be significantly improved.

  7. 75 FR 45627 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of one new equivalent method for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby...

  8. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Charlene W.; Crow, Sidney A.; Fischer, John

    Research show that one in five U.S. schools has indoor air quality (IAQ) problems; 36 percent have inadequate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; and there appears to be a correlation between IAQs and the proportion of a school's students coming from low-income households. This report examines the IAQ issue in U.S. public…

  9. INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND FURNITURE PROCUREMENT IN EPA'S NEW RESEARCH TRIANGLE CAMPUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses various aspects of the EPA's new 1.2 million square foot building in Research Triangle Park that pertain to indoor air, with a particular focus on the process EPA used to select furniture to meet its indoor air guidelines. In keeping with its mission of protec...

  10. Research on Air Traffic Control Automatic System Software Reliability Based on Markov Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinglong; Liu, Weixiang

    Ensuring the space of air craft and high efficiency of air traffic are the main job tasks of the air traffic control automatic system. An Air Traffic Control Automatic System (ATCAS) and Markov model is put forward in this paper, which collected the 36 month failure data of ATCAS; A method to predict the s1,s2,s3 of ATCAS is based on Markov chain which predicts and validates the Reliability of ATCTS according to the deriving theory of Reliability. The experimental results show that the method can be used for the future research and proved to be practicable.

  11. Evaluating Membrane Processes for Air Conditioning; Highlights in Research and Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This NREL Highlight discusses a recent state-of-the-art review of membrane processes for air conditioning that identifies future research opportunities. This highlight is being developed for the June 2015 S&T Alliance Board meeting.

  12. Aluminum-air power cell research and development progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.

    1984-12-01

    The wedge-shaped cell design, of the aluminum-air battery being developed, is mechanically simple and capable of full anode utilization and rapid full or partial recharge. To maintain constant interelectrode separation and to collect anodic current, the cell uses tin-coated copper tracks mounted on removable cassettes. Under gravity feed, slabs of aluminum enter the cell at a continuous and constant rate and gradually assume the wedge shape as they dissolve. Voltage losses at this tin-aluminum junction are 7 mV at 2 kA/m/sup 2/. A second-generation wedge cell incorporates air and electrolyte manifolding into individually replaceable air-cathode cassettes. Prototype wedge cells of one design were operated simultaneously with a fluidized-bed crystallizer, which stabilized aluminate concentration and produced a granular aluminum-trihydroxide reaction product. Electrolyte was circulated between the cell and crystallizer, and a hydrocyclone was used to retain particles larger than 0.015 mm within the crystallizer. Air electrodes were tested over simulated vehicle drive systems that include a standby phase in cold, supersaturated electrolyte. Electrodes using advanced sintering and wet-proofing techniques and catalyzed with a nonnoble metal catalyst have been operated over 1500 cycles (a two-year drive life). The fuel costs of aluminum were estimated on the basis of model alloy production and distribution costs, leading to a projected operating cost of 8 to 10 cents per mile, depending on alloy and vehicle drive-train efficiencies. While unalloyed aluminum has a peak electrical energy consumption of 4.5 kWh/kg, the Hall and Alcoa processes consume 11.3 and 8.3 kWh/kg, respectively. The significance of these and other energy-use estimates for the 1990s and beyond is discussed.

  13. Aluminum-air power cell research and development. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.

    1984-02-22

    An aluminum-air battery is under development with the objective of providing an electric vehicle with the range, acceleration and rapid refueling capability of common automobiles. From tested refuelable cell designs, a wedge-shaped cell was chosen for mechanical simplicity and for its capability of full anode utilization and rapid partial- or full-recharge. The cell uses tin-plated copper tracks to maintain a constant interelectrode separation and to collect anodic current. Rectangular slabs of aluminum enter the cell under gravity feed and gradually assume the wedge shape during dissolution. The feed is constant and continuous and tin/aluminum junction losses are 7 mV at 2 kA/m/sup 2/. A second generation wedge cell has been developed which incorporates air- and electrolyte-manifolding into individually-replaceable air-cathode cassettes. A prototype wedge cell using replaceable cassettes was operated simultaneously with a crystallizer, which stabilized aluminate concentration and produced a granular aluminum-trihydroxide reaction product. Electrolyte was circulated between cell and fluidized-bed crystallizer, and particles of sizes greater than 0.015 mm were retained within the crystallizer using a hydrocyclone. Air electrodes have been tested over simulated vehicle drive cycles. Electrodes using advanced sintering and wet-proofing techniques and catalyzed with a non-noble metal catalyst (CoTMPP) have been operated for over 1400 drive-cycles. Fuel costs of $1.72/kg-Al (installed) were estimated on the basis of model alloy production and distribution costs, leading to a projected operating cost of 8-10 cents/mile, depending on alloy and vehicle drive-train efficiencies. Unalloyed aluminum yields a peak of 4.5 kWh/kg, while an advanced industrial Hall Process and the pilot-plant Alcoa Smelting Process have electrical energy consumptions of 11.3- and 8.3 kWh/kg, respectively.

  14. Environmental Assessment for the Air Force Research Laboratory Security Fence Project, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-26

    flanks of the hills are blanketed by Quaternary- aged alluvial fans consisting of water-laid sand and gravel deposits. The valley floor is composed...bedded clay and sand, interfingered with the encroaching alluvial fan deposits. Playa margins have shoreline sand deposits from the wetter middle and...AFRL and are detailed as follows (United States Air Force 2008a):  Alluvial fans in the AFRL and proposed fence project area primarily consist of

  15. Aeronautical Communications Research and Development Needs for Future Air Traffic Management Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Continuing growth in regional and global air travel has resulted in increasing traffic congestion in the air and on the ground. In spite of occasional temporary downturns due to economic recessions and catastrophic events, average growth rates of air travel have remained high since the 1960s. The resulting congestion, which constrains expansion of the air transportation industry, inflicts schedule delays and decreases overall system efficiency, creating a pressing need to develop more efficient methods of air traffic management (ATM). New ATM techniques, procedures, air space automation methods, and decision support tools are being researched and developed for deployment in time frames stretching from the next few years to the year 2020 and beyond. As these methods become more advanced and increase in complexity, the requirements for information generation, sharing and transfer among the relevant entities in the ATM system increase dramatically. However, current aeronautical communications systems will be inadequate to meet the future information transfer demands created by these advanced ATM systems. Therefore, the NASA Glenn Research Center is undertaking research programs to develop communication, methods and key technologies that can meet these future requirements. As part of this process, studies, workshops, testing and experimentation, and research and analysis have established a number of research and technology development needs. The purpose of this paper is to outline the critical research and technology needs that have been identified in these activities, and explain how these needs have been determined.

  16. Land Surface Process and Air Quality Research and Applications at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale; Khan, Maudood

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of land surface process and air quality research at MSFC including atmospheric modeling and ongoing research whose objective is to undertake a comprehensive spatiotemporal analysis of the effects of accurate land surface characterization on atmospheric modeling results, and public health applications. Land use maps as well as 10 meter air temperature, surface wind, PBL mean difference heights, NOx, ozone, and O3+NO2 plots as well as spatial growth model outputs are included. Emissions and general air quality modeling are also discussed.

  17. Survey of Training Research in AFOSR: Implications for Manpower and Training Research for the All-Volunteer Air Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Clyde E.

    The AFOSR research plan calls for fundamental studies in human learning and performance that would provide the foundations for general laws of learning applicable to Air Force problems. The report describes gaps in research that should be eliminated by investigations in specific fields. Studies of individual and group differences in aptitude and…

  18. Thirty years of research and development of air cushion vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertelsen, William R.

    This paper describes the conception of the air cushion vehicle (ACV) from experiments with the ground effect of a VTOL aircraft model. Then it describes the evolution of the ultimate ACV drive system through building and testing many models and 16 full-scale ACV to arrive at complete controllability. Adequate control of the frictionless craft, which are without inherent yaw stability, requires control force of the order of magnitude of propulsion. The derived gimbal fans provide such control force in the form of direct thrust, which is instantly available in any of 360 degrees, meterable, instantly cancelable, and reversible.

  19. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.

  20. Using full-mission simulation for human factors research in air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlady, Harry W.; Hennessy, Robert W.; Obermayer, Richard; Vreuls, Donald; Murphy, Miles R.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined state-of-the-art mission oriented simulation and its use in human factors research. Guidelines were developed for doing full-mission human factors research on crew member behavior during simulated air transport operations. The existing literature was reviewed. However, interviews with experienced investigators provided the most useful information. The fundamental scientific and practical issues of behavioral research in a simulation environment are discussed. Guidelines are presented for planning, scenario development, and the execution of behavioral research using full-mission simulation in the context of air transport flight operations . Research is recommended to enhance the validity and productivity of full-mission research by: (1) validating the need for high-fidelity simulation of all major elements in the operational environment, (2) improving methods for conducting full-mission research, and (3) examining part-task research on specific problems through the use of vehicles which contain higher levels of abstraction (and lower fidelity) of the operational environment.

  1. Recent Research in Compression Refrigeration Cycle Air Source Heat Pumps.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Akira; Senshu, Takao

    The most important theme for heat pump air conditioners is the improvement of energy saving and comfort. Recently, cycle components, especially compressores and heat exchangers have been improved greatly in their performance and efficiency. As for compressors, large progress in their efficiencies have been made by detailed analysises such as mechanical losses and by the development of a new type compression mechanism. As for heat exchangers, various high heat transfer surfaces have been developed together with the improvement of the production technologies for them. Further, the effect of the capacity-modulated cycle is evaluated quantitatively through the improvements of static and transient cycle simulation technologies. And in order to realize this cffect, the electrically driven expansion valves heve been marketed. This review introduces the trends of these energy-saving technologies as well as comfort improvement studies.

  2. [Application research of data assimilation in air pollution numerical prediction].

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiao-ping; Li, Hong; Fang, Dong; Costabile, Francesca; Liu, Feng-lei

    2008-02-01

    Based on an air pollution modeling system coupling with the non-hydrostatic fifth generation mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) and the regional modeling system for aerosols and deposition (REMSAD), the forecast results of NOx and SO2 in August and September 2002 in Nanjing were assimilated with the optimal interpolation method and the ensemble Kalman filter. The results show that the improvement rates of deviation mean value of NOx and SO2 after assimilated with the optimal interpolation method are 34.20% and 47.53%, and the improvement rates of root mean square errors are 31.95% and 42.04% respectively. It is also demonstrated that the improvement rates of deviation mean value of NOx and SO2 after assimilated with the ensemble Kalman filter with 30 ensemble members are 26.73% and 60.75%, and the improvement rates of root mean square errors are 25.20% and 55.16% respectively. So, the optimal interpolation method and the ensemble Kalman filter both can improve the quality of the initial state from the air pollution numerical prediction model. The comparative experiments on the assimilation performance with the optimal interpolation method and the ensemble Kalman filter with 61 ensemble members were performed, and the experiments demonstrate that the assimilation performance of the ensemble Kalman filter with 61 ensemble members were improved compared with 30 ensemble members, and with the increase of the ensemble members, the improvement to the initial state of NOx and SO2 with the ensemble Kalman filter will be better than the optimal interpolation method.

  3. ASBESTOS EXPOSURE RESEARCH - AIR, SOIL AND BULK MATERIAL SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presently, asbestos and other mineral fibers are monitored in the workplace and in the environment using several basic analytical techniques, based primarily upon observing the fiber by either optical or electron microscopy. EPA is conducting research to determine which sampling ...

  4. Collaboration with the United Kingdom on Air Quality Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To initiate research collaboration among the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Unitd Kingdom's (UK) Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), and the Environment Agency for England and Wales (EA) on exposure science

  5. Breakthrough Air Force Capabilities Spawned By Basic Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    AboutAFOSR/about_history.htm>. 15 Ibid. 16 Ibid. 4 1990s • Titanium Aluminides . AFOSR-sponsored research looked at titanium aluminides , which are...the 1970s, AFOSR sponsored research on ways to increase the strength and fatigue resistance of titanium , aluminum, and nickel alloys used for...Josephson received the Nobel Prize in physics in 1973 for developing the world’s most sensitive magnetometers and fastest, lowest power, switching

  6. Local-Scale Air Quality Modeling in Support of Human Health and Exposure Research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakov, V.

    2010-12-01

    Spatially- and temporally-sparse information on air quality is a key concern for air-pollution-related environmental health studies. Monitor networks are sparse in both space and time, are costly to maintain, and are often designed purposely to avoid detecting highly localized sources. Recent studies have shown that more narrowly defining the geographic domain of the study populations and improvements in the measured/estimated ambient concentrations can lead to stronger associations between air pollution and hospital admissions and mortality records. Traditionally, ambient air quality measurements have been used as a primary input to support human health and exposure research. However, there is increasing evidence that the current ambient monitoring network is not capturing sharp gradients in exposure due to the presence of high concentration levels near, for example, major roadways. Many air pollutants exhibit large concentration gradients near large emitters such as major roadways, factories, ports, etc. To overcome these limitations, researchers are now beginning to use air quality models to support air pollution exposure and health studies. There are many advantages to using air quality models over traditional approaches based on existing ambient measurements alone. First, models can provide spatially- and temporally-resolved concentrations as direct input to exposure and health studies and thus better defining the concentration levels for the population in the geographic domain. Air quality models have a long history of use in air pollution regulations, and supported by regulatory agencies and a large user community. Also, models can provide bidirectional linkages between sources of emissions and ambient concentrations, thus allowing exploration of various mitigation strategies to reduce risk to exposure. In order to provide best estimates of air concentrations to support human health and exposure studies, model estimates should consider local-scale features

  7. FAA/NASA Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research 1994-1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    The Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research (JUP) is a coordinated set of three grants co-sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Under JUP, three institutions: the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton, and Ohio Universities receive research grants and collaborate with FAA and NASA in defining and performing civil aeronautics research in a multitude of areas. Some of these disciplines are artificial intelligence, control theory, atmospheric hazards, navigation, avionics, human factors, flight dynamics, air traffic management, and electronic communications.

  8. Air Force Office of Scientific Research, May/Jun 98 Research Highlights.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    quality of airfield pavements, proteins that protect against toxicity, compact laser development , scientist and engineer exchange program and technology transitions that benefit Air Force operations.

  9. HUMAN EXPOSURE AIR MONITORING: EXAMPLES FROM THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US-EPA and North Carolina Central University (NCCU) have a cross-pollination agenda to help share research opportunities between the two institutions. This presentation provides NCCU with an understanding of current air monitoring research the US EPA is involved in and some o...

  10. EPA Awards $700,000+ Grant to Harvard for Research on Climate Impacts on Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A US EPA research grant of $719,780 will assist a Harvard researcher for a project to study how climate change will affect changes in dust and smoke on the Earth's surface over the next several decades, which can have significant impacts on air quality.

  11. Review and Implications of Job Satisfaction and Work Motivation Theories for Air Force Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Thomas C.; Hazel, Joe T.

    The purpose of this report is to: (a) review certain major theories of work motivation, particularly as related to job satisfaction, (b) distill from such theories and other research, implications for an Air Force job satisfaction research program, and (c) provide a comprehensive bibliography of satisfaction/retention studies. The theoretical…

  12. Conduction and Utilization of Research: The Relationship Between Air Force Nurses’ Attitudes, Levels of Education, and Rank

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-01

    Respondents 22 Table 5. Highest Level of Non- Nursing Education of the Air Force Nurse Respondents 23 Table 6. Overall Highest Level of Education...Force Rank (Good Attitude vs Bad Attitude 41 Table 13. Air Force Nurse Respondents’ Attitudes by Highest Level of Nursing Education 44 Table 14. Air...Figure 2. Research Experience of Air Force Nurse Respondents by Highest Level of Nursing Education (Excellent, Fair or Poor Experience 38 Figure 3. Air

  13. Short-haul CTOL aircraft research. [on reduced energy for commercial air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the reduced energy for commercial air transportation studies on air transportation energy efficiency improvement alternatives are reviewed along with subsequent design studies of advanced turboprop powered transport aircraft. The application of this research to short-haul transportation is discussed. The results of several recent turboprop aircraft design are included. The potential fuel savings and cost savings for advanced turboprop aircraft appear substantial, particularly at shorter ranges.

  14. Investigating Team Collaboration of an Air Force Research Event October 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Joint Force Commander MARLO Marine Liaison Officer MIO Maritime Interdiction Operations MURI Multidisciplinary University Research...maritime interdiction operations ( MIO ) chat logs from three MIO exercises and air warfare audio transcripts from four different teams. A MIO is an...State University: Team Training Paradigm for Better CID . Retrieved on May 19, 2009 from Hwww.cerici.org Sirak, M. (2006). Air Force to Pick Contractor

  15. Catastrophe Theory in Higher Education Research. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staman, E. Michael

    The applicability of catastrophe theory to research in higher education is considered, with several problems that typically appear in the literature presented in a theoretical framework. A catastrophe model is attempted for each. The nature of mathematical modeling and the relationship between modeling continuous systems and discontinuous systems…

  16. Strategies in Retention Research. AIR 1997 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Gerald W.; Brozovsky, Paul; McLaughlin, Josetta S.

    This paper discusses the role of institutional researchers in changing attitudes within institutions of higher education on the importance of efforts to improve student retention. It describes activities undertaken at Virginia Tech to determine why students voluntarily withdraw from the university in the context of changing attitudes within the…

  17. Impact of new technology weapons on SAC (Strategic Air Command) conventional air operations. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodenheimer, C.E.

    1983-06-01

    Chapter I introduces the issue of conventional-response capability. The point stressed first is that the strategic bomber's primary mission is in support of the single integrated operations plan (SIOP) as a nuclear weapons delivery vehicle. However, as cited by Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, we must have a rapid deployment conventional capability to areas where there are small if any U.S. forces present. The SAC strategic projection force (SPF) is available but with gravity weapons of World War II vintage. New technology can provide answers to the problem by providing highly accurate long-range conventional standoff weapons. Chapter II gives a basic historical perspective on the use of the strategic bomber in past wars. It discusses the development of strategy, weapons, and targets in World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. Chapter III presents a very brief look at current US policy, strategy, and guidance. Chapter IV covers the aircraft attrition issue in today's highly lethal defensive environment. Chapter V describes the development of air-to-ground weapons. Chapter VI addresses the potential for the future in the shifting balance of Soviet and US technology. The final chapter makes the point that a decision must be made on weapons-acquisition programs and bomber force structure. New technology-standoff conventional weapons could make AAA and SAM defenses a modern Maginot Line.

  18. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1990-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    The goals of this program are consistent with the interests of both NASA and the FAA in furthering the safety and efficiency of the National Airspace System. Research carried out at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Ohio University, and Princeton University are covered. Topics studied include passive infrared ice detection for helicopters, the cockpit display of hazardous windshear information, fault detection and isolation for multisensor navigation systems, neural networks for aircraft system identification, and intelligent failure tolerant control.

  19. Air Force Research Laboratory Success Stories. A Review of 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    The Integrated Precision Synthetic Aperture Radar Targeting System 23 Space Vehicles Defense Meteorological Satellite Program CRADA 24 State-of-the...inertia! measurement unit (IMU) calibration and alignment ( MICA ) transfer alignment algorithm benefits any MEMS IMU exhibiting 50-200°/hr gyro drift...innovative transfer alignment algorithm called the MICA algorithm. Researchers designed the MICA algorithm to accurately align the MEMS IMU and

  20. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities. The Conference proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) world conference, volume 5 is presented. The topics include: 1) The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks in Europe; 2) Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports-Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions; 3) Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector; 4) An Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System: Quantification of Indicators; 5) Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation; 6) Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap; 7) Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe; 8) Application of Core Theory to the U.S. Airline Industry; 9) Air Freight Transshipment Route Choice Analysis; 10) A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on Air Transport Market; and 11) Developing Passenger Demand Models for International Aviation from/to Egypt: A Case Study of Cairo Airport and Egyptair.

  1. A Distributed Simulation Facility to Support Human Factors Research in Advanced Air Transportation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amonlirdviman, Keith; Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Ladik, John F.; Sherer, Dana Z.

    1998-01-01

    A distributed real-time simulation of the civil air traffic environment developed to support human factors research in advanced air transportation technology is presented. The distributed environment is based on a custom simulation architecture designed for simplicity and flexibility in human experiments. Standard Internet protocols are used to create the distributed environment, linking all advanced cockpit simulator, all Air Traffic Control simulator, and a pseudo-aircraft control and simulation management station. The pseudo-aircraft control station also functions as a scenario design tool for coordinating human factors experiments. This station incorporates a pseudo-pilot interface designed to reduce workload for human operators piloting multiple aircraft simultaneously in real time. The application of this distributed simulation facility to support a study of the effect of shared information (via air-ground datalink) on pilot/controller shared situation awareness and re-route negotiation is also presented.

  2. NASA Langley and NLR Research of Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Hoekstra, Jacco M.; Wing, David J.; Lohr, Gary W.

    2002-01-01

    Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) is a concept of future air traffic operations that proposes to distribute information, decision-making authority, and responsibility among flight crews, the air traffic service provider, and aeronautical operational control organizations. This paper provides an overview and status of DAG-TM research at NASA Langley Research Center and the National Aerospace Laboratory of The Netherlands. Specific objectives of the research are to evaluate the technical and operational feasibility of the autonomous airborne component of DAG-TM, which is founded on the operational paradigm of free flight. The paper includes an overview of research approaches, the airborne technologies under development, and a summary of experimental investigations and findings to date. Although research is not yet complete, these findings indicate that free flight is feasible and will significantly enhance system capacity and safety. While free flight cannot alone resolve the complex issues faced by those modernizing the global airspace, it should be considered an essential part of a comprehensive air traffic management modernization activity.

  3. Air pollutant interactions with vegetation: research needs in data acquisition and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, S. E.; McLauglin, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this discussion is to consider problems involved in the acquisition, interpretation, and application of data collected in studies of air pollutant interactions with the terrestrial environment. Emphasis will be placed on a critical evaluation of current deficiencies and future research needs by addressing the following questions: (1) which pollutants are either sufficiently toxic, pervasive, or persistent to warrant the expense of monitoring and effects research; (2) what are the interactions of multiple pollutants during deposition and how do these influence toxicity; (3) how de we collect, report, and interpret deposition and air quality data to ensure its maximum utility in assessment of potential regional environmental effects; (4) what processes do we study, and how are they measured to most efficiently describe the relationship between air quality dose and ultimate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems; and (5) how do we integrate site-specific studies into regional estimates of present and potential environmental degradation (or benefit).

  4. The complexities of air pollution regulation: the need for an integrated research and regulatory perspective.

    PubMed

    Nadadur, Srikanth S; Miller, C Andrew; Hopke, Philip K; Gordon, Terry; Vedal, Sverre; Vandenberg, John J; Costa, Daniel L

    2007-12-01

    The Clean Air Act mandates the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to periodically reassess existing and new science that underlie the regulation of major ambient pollutants -- particulate matter (PM) and tropospheric ozone being most notable. While toxic effects have been ascribed individually to these and other pollutants in the air, it is clear that mixtures of these contaminants have the potential to interact and thereby influence their overall toxic outcomes. It follows that a more comprehensive assessment of the potential health effects of the air pollution complex might better protect human health; however, traditional regulatory drivers and funding constraints have impeded progress to such a goal. Despite difficulties in empirically conducting studies of complex mixtures of air pollutants and acquiring relevant exposure data, there remains a need to develop integrated, interdisciplinary research and analytical strategies to provide more comprehensive (and relevant) assessments of associated health outcomes and risks. The research and assessment communities are endeavoring to dissect this complexity using varied approaches Here we present five interdisciplinary perspectives of this evolving line of thought among researchers and those who use such data in assessment: (1) analyses that coordinate air quality-health analyses utilizing representative polluted U.S. air sheds to apportion source and component-specific health risks; (2) novel approaches to characterize air quality in terms of emission sources and how emission reduction strategies might effectively impact pollutant levels; (3) insights from present-day studies of effects of single ambient pollutants in animal and controlled clinical toxicology studies and how these are evolving to address air pollution; (4) refinements in epidemiologic health assessments that take advantage of the complexities of existent air quality conditions; and (5) new approaches to integrative analyses to establish the

  5. FAA/NASA Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1992-1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The research conducted during the academic year 1992-1993 under the FAA/NASA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The year end review was held at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, 17-18 June 1993. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration and NASA Langley Research Center, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, human factors and air traffic management. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  6. The Eighth Annual Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Los Angeles, March 2-4, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archives of Environmental Health, 1967

    1967-01-01

    Papers read before the Eighth Annual American Medical Association Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Los Angeles, California, March 2-4, 1966, are presented in this document. Topics deal with basic approaches to the study of the effects of inhaled irritants on the lung; environmental parameters in relation to host responses; biological…

  7. 76 FR 15974 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... particulate matter (TSP) (High-Volume Method, 40 CFR Part 50, Appendix B), with a particular extraction and... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Four New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  8. STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION RESEARCH FOR DNAPL IN FRACTURED ROCK, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, LIMESTONE, MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report details a research project on Steam Enhanced Remediation (SER) for the recovery of volatile organic compounds from fractured limestone that was carried out at the Quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base in Limestone, Maine. This project was carried out by USEPA, Ma...

  9. Progress in aeronautical research and technology applicable to civil air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in the aeronautical research and technology program being conducted by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration is discussed. Emphasis is on computational capability, new testing facilities, drag reduction, turbofan and turboprop propulsion, noise, composite materials, active controls, integrated avionics, cockpit displays, flight management, and operating problems. It is shown that this technology is significantly impacting the efficiency of the new civil air transports. The excitement of emerging research promises even greater benefits to future aircraft developments.

  10. Auditory and Acoustic Research & Development at Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Communication Earpiece System (ACCES), high performance active noise reduction earplugs, helmets specifically designed to reduce bone conducted noise... Earpiece System), high performance active noise reduction earplugs, helmets specifically designed to reduce bone conducted noise, tactical hearing...distribution unlimited. ABBREVIATIONS AAM - Advanced Acoustic Model ACCES - Attenuating Custom Communication Earpiece System AFR - Air Force Regulation

  11. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  12. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program. 1984 Research Reports. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    STUDY OF TWO-STAGE LIGHT GAS GUN...8217,’ , ’,’’,,,- _-,. %,’_,’_’_,’ _,"-, ..--. ,’. ’ ,’.. .. w",r..- ... , -,., ... , ,-o. ,.-,.........,,., .....- .. ,... .. ,_.:..., . w ,.,_- PREFACE The work presented in this...Education and the United States Air Force. ’ .% . Professor R. W. Courter and his graduate student, Raymond M. Patin, worked with members of the

  13. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology. PMID:27547751

  14. Air Enquirer's multi-sensor boxes as a tool for High School Education and Atmospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morguí, Josep-Anton; Font, Anna; Cañas, Lidia; Vázquez-García, Eusebi; Gini, Andrea; Corominas, Ariadna; Àgueda, Alba; Lobo, Agustin; Ferraz, Carlos; Nofuentes, Manel; Ulldemolins, Delmir; Roca, Alex; Kamnang, Armand; Grossi, Claudia; Curcoll, Roger; Batet, Oscar; Borràs, Silvia; Occhipinti, Paola; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    An educational tool was designed with the aim of making more comprehensive the research done on Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the ClimaDat Spanish network of atmospheric observation stations (www.climadat.es). This tool is called Air Enquirer and it consist of a multi-sensor box. It is envisaged to build more than two hundred boxes to yield them to the Spanish High Schools through the Education department (www.educaixa.com) of the "Obra Social 'La Caixa'", who funds this research. The starting point for the development of the Air Enquirers was the experience at IC3 (www.ic3.cat) in the CarboSchools+ FP7 project (www.carboschools.cat, www.carboschools.eu). The Air Enquirer's multi-sensor box is based in Arduino's architecture and contains sensors for CO2, temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and both infrared and visible luminance. The Air Enquirer is designed for taking continuous measurements. Every Air Enquirer ensemble of measurements is used to convert values to standard units (water content in ppmv, and CO2 in ppmv_dry). These values are referred to a calibration made with Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry (Picarro®) under different temperature, pressure, humidity and CO2 concentrations. Multiple sets of Air Enquirers are intercalibrated for its use in parallel during the experiments. The different experiments proposed to the students will be outdoor (observational) or indoor (experimental, in the lab) focusing on understanding the biogeochemistry of GHGs in the ecosystems (mainly CO2), the exchange (flux) of gases, the organic matter production, respiration and decomposition processes, the influence of the anthropogenic activities on the gases (and particles) exchanges, and their interaction with the structure and composition of the atmosphere (temperature, water content, cooling and warming processes, radiative forcing, vertical gradients and horizontal patterns). In order to ensure Air Enquirers a high-profile research performance the experimental designs

  15. A review of research progress in air-to-water sound transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhao-Hui; Zhang, Ling-Shan

    2016-12-01

    International and domestic research progress in theory and experiment and applications of the air-to-water sound transmission are presented in this paper. Four classical numerical methods of calculating the underwater sound field generated by an airborne source, i.e., the ray theory, the wave solution, the normal-mode theory and the wavenumber integration approach, are introduced. Effects of two special conditions, i.e., the moving airborne source or medium and the rough air-water interface, on the air-to-water sound transmission are reviewed. In experimental studies, the depth and range distributions of the underwater sound field created by different kinds of airborne sources in near-field and far-field, the longitudinal horizontal correlation of underwater sound field and application methods for inverse problems are reviewed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11434012 and 11674349).

  16. The US Air Force Academy solar energy research project summary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelius, K. A.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes the solar energy research which was conducted by the U.S. Air Force Academy from April 1975 to January 1980. This research consisted of investigations on a retrofit space heating system which was installed on a typical Military Family Housing (MFH) unit. This summary uses a lessons learned and designer tips approach in its discussion of the solar system's operation. This discussion is organized around the many areas of solar technology which were investigated during the course of this project. Those major areas were energy conservation effects, solar collectors, thermal storage, control systems, Thermography studies, performance comparison to a design model, and homeowner and maintenance manual development. A thermal performance summary of the solar system is also presented. The report concludes with numerous recommendations regarding policy initiatives which the Air Force should take to foster conversion to solar technology.

  17. Future Directions of Supersonic Combustion Research: Air Force/NASA Workshop on Supersonic Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tishkoff, Julian M.; Drummond, J. Philip; Edwards, Tim; Nejad, Abdollah S.

    1997-01-01

    The Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Air Force Wright Laboratory Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate, and the NASA Langley Research Center held a joint supersonic combustion workshop on 14-16 May 1996. The intent of this meeting was to: (1) examine the current state-of-the-art in hydrocarbon and/or hydrogen fueled scramjet research; (2) define the future direction and needs of basic research in support of scramjet technology; and (3) when appropriate, help transition basic research findings to solve the needs of developmental engineering programs in the area of supersonic combustion and fuels. A series of topical sessions were planned. Opening presentations were designed to focus and encourage group discussion and scientific exchange. The last half-day of the workshop was set aside for group discussion of the issues that were raised during the meeting for defining future research opportunities and directions. The following text attempts to summarize the discussions that took place at the workshop.

  18. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program (1984). Program Management Report. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    Medical College V Research Location: School of Aerospace Medicine Clinical Sciences Division Neurosciences Branch Brooks Air Force Base, Texas USAF...to continue investigations begun in the summer of 1983. Project supervision was by Dr. John Taboada, Neurosciences Branch of the Clinical Sciences...agen- cies utilize DES to encrypt privacy data. Unfortunately DES has not been, nor does it appear that it will be, certified by NSA for classified data

  19. An Analysis of the Cost Estimating Process in Air Force Research and Development Laboratories.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE Of REPORT & PERIOO COvEREO AN ANALYSIS OF THE COST ESTIMATING PROCESS IN AIR FORCE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Master’s...final typed thesis. Her efficiency and professionalism was unexcelled. Finally, very special thanks go to my children, Chris and Brian, and especially my...42 3-6 Computer Costs - Estimating Methods. . 44 3-7 Type of Work Unit Versus Estimating Methods Used ... ............. .47 3-8 Cost Variance Between

  20. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The Intelligent Control and Autonomy Branch (ICA) at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet the goals of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Programs. These efforts are primarily under the various projects under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP) and the Aviation Safety Program (ASP). The ICA Branch is focused on advancing the state-of-the-art of aero-engine control and diagnostics technologies to help improve aviation safety, increase efficiency, and enable operation with reduced emissions. This paper describes the various ICA research efforts under the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs with a summary of motivation, background, technical approach, and recent accomplishments for each of the research tasks.

  1. Comparison of Profiling Microwave Radiometer, Aircraft, and Radiosonde Measurements From the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements from a profiling microwave radiometer are compared to measurements from a research aircraft and radiosondes. Data compared is temperature, water vapor, and liquid water profiles. Data was gathered at the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS) at Mirabel Airport outside Montreal, Canada during December 1999 and January 2000. All radiometer measurements were found to lose accuracy when the radome was wet. When the radome was not wetted, the radiometer was seen to indicate an inverted distribution of liquid water within a cloud. When the radiometer measurements were made at 15 deg. instead of the standard zenith, the measurements were less accurate.

  2. Research Reactor Preparations for the Air Shipment of Highly Enriched Uranium from Romania

    SciTech Connect

    K. J. Allen; I. Bolshinsky; L. L. Biro; M. E. Budu; N. V. Zamfir; M. Dragusin; C. Paunoiu; M. Ciocanescu

    2010-03-01

    In June 2009 two air shipments transported both unirradiated (fresh) and irradiated (spent) Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) nuclear fuel from two research reactors in Romania to the Russian Federation for conversion to low enriched uranium. The Institute for Nuclear Research at Pitesti (SCN Pitesti) shipped 30.1 kg of HEU fresh fuel pellets to Dimitrovgrad, Russia and the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) shipped 23.7 kilograms of HEU spent fuel assemblies from the VVR S research reactor at Magurele, Romania, to Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both HEU shipments were coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), were managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN), and were conducted in cooperation with the Russian Federation State Corporation Rosatom and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Both shipments were transported by truck to and from respective commercial airports in Romania and the Russian Federation and stored at secure nuclear facilities in Russia until the material is converted into low enriched uranium. These shipments resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd country under the RRRFR program and the 14th country under the GTRI program to remove all HEU. This paper describes the research reactor preparations and license approvals that were necessary to safely and securely complete these air shipments of nuclear fuel.

  3. Research into acetone removal from air by biofiltration using a biofilter with straight structure plates

    PubMed Central

    Baltrėnas, Pranas; Zagorskis, Alvydas; Misevičius, Antonas

    2015-01-01

    The biological air treatment method is based on the biological destruction of organic compounds using certain cultures of microorganisms. This method is simple and may be applied in many branches of industry. The main element of biological air treatment devices is a filter charge. Tests were carried out using a new-generation laboratory air purifier with a plate structure. This purifier is called biofilter. The biofilter has a special system for packing material humidification which does not require additional energy inputs. In order to extend the packing material's durability, it was composed of thermally treated birch fibre. Pollutant (acetone) biodegradation occurred on thermally treated wood fibre in this research. According to the performed tests and the received results, the process of biodestruction was highly efficient. When acetone was passed through biofilter's packing material at 0.08 m s−1 rate, the efficiency of the biofiltration process was from 70% up to 90%. The species of bacteria capable of removing acetone vapour from the air, i.e. Bacillus (B. cereus, B. subtilis), Pseudomonas (P. aeruginosa, P. putida), Stapylococcus (S. aureus) and Rhodococcus sp., was identified in this study during the process of biofiltration. Their amount in the biological packing material changed from 1.6 × 107 to 3.7 × 1011 CFU g−1. PMID:26019659

  4. FAA/NASA Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research: 1993-1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueschen, Richard M. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during the academic year 1993-1994 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research. The year end review was held at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, July 14-15, 1994. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (NGL-22-009-640), Ohio University (NGR-36-009-017), and Princeton University (NGL-31-001-252). Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, human factors, and expert systems concepts applied to aircraft and airport operations. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  5. Atmospheric and oceanographic research review, 1978. [global weather, ocean/air interactions, and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Research activities related to global weather, ocean/air interactions, and climate are reported. The global weather research is aimed at improving the assimilation of satellite-derived data in weather forecast models, developing analysis/forecast models that can more fully utilize satellite data, and developing new measures of forecast skill to properly assess the impact of satellite data on weather forecasting. The oceanographic research goal is to understand and model the processes that determine the general circulation of the oceans, focusing on those processes that affect sea surface temperature and oceanic heat storage, which are the oceanographic variables with the greatest influence on climate. The climate research objective is to support the development and effective utilization of space-acquired data systems in climate forecast models and to conduct sensitivity studies to determine the affect of lower boundary conditions on climate and predictability studies to determine which global climate features can be modeled either deterministically or statistically.

  6. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This report (Volume 1) is comprised of 5 sessions of the Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) Conference held in Antwerp, Belgium, July 1998. The sessions contain 3-4 papers (presentations) each. The session numbers and their respective headings are: (1) Airline alliances; (2) Airline Competition and Market Structure; (4) Liberalization, Open Skies, and Policy Issues; (5) Yield Management and Other Models; and (11) Air Traffic Control (ATC) and Air Navigational Systems (ANS).

  7. IMPACT OF AN OZONE GENERATOR AIR CLEANER ON STYRENE CONCENTRATIONS IN AN INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH CHAMBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the impact of an ozone generator air cleaner on vapor-phase styrene concentrations in a full-scale indoor air quality test chamber. The time history of the concentrations of styrene and ozone is well predicted by a simulation model u...

  8. Air Traffic Management Technology Demostration: 1 Research and Procedural Testing of Routes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Sara R.; Kibler, Jennifer L.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Smail, James W.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) will operationally demonstrate the feasibility of efficient arrival operations combining ground-based and airborne NASA technologies. The ATD-1 integrated system consists of the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering which generates precise time-based schedules to the runway and merge points; Controller Managed Spacing decision support tools which provide controllers with speed advisories and other information needed to meet the schedule; and Flight deck-based Interval Management avionics and procedures which allow flight crews to adjust their speed to achieve precise relative spacing. Initial studies identified air-ground challenges related to the integration of these three scheduling and spacing technologies, and NASA's airborne spacing algorithm was modified to address some of these challenges. The Research and Procedural Testing of Routes human-in-the-loop experiment was then conducted to assess the performance of the new spacing algorithm. The results of this experiment indicate that the algorithm performed as designed, and the pilot participants found the airborne spacing concept, air-ground procedures, and crew interface to be acceptable. However, the researchers concluded that the data revealed issues with the frequency of speed changes and speed reversals.

  9. Ambient air pollution and lung disease in China: health effects, study design approaches and future research.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Jeffrey H; Wendt, Christine; Lo, Charles; Zhou, Guangbiao; Hertz, Marshall; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2015-09-01

    Ambient air pollution in China has worsened following dramatic increases in industrialization, automobile use and energy consumption. Particularly bothersome is the increase in the PM2.5 fraction of pollutants. This fraction has been associated with increasing rates of cardio-respiratory disease in China and elsewhere. Ambient pollutant levels have been described in many of China's cities and are comparable to previous levels in southern California. Lung cancer mortality in China has increased since the 1970s and has been higher in men and in urban areas, the exact explanation for which has not been determined. The estimation of individual risk for Chinese citizens living in areas of air pollution will require further research. Occupational cohort and case-control designs each have unique attributes that could make them helpful to use in this setting. Other important future research considerations include detailed exposure assessment and the possible use of biomarkers as a means to better understand and manage the threat posed by air pollution in China.

  10. Emerging research on real-time air pollution sensing with the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Air pollution research ranges broadly at the US EPA and includes the characterization of pollutant emissions from a wide array of sources, studying post-emission transport and transformation in the atmosphere, and evaluating the linkages between air pollution and advers...

  11. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND REMOVAL FROM AIR STREAMS BY MEMBRANES SEPARATION MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This membrane separation technology developed by Membrane Technology and Research (MTR), Incorporated, is designed to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated air streams. In the process, organic vapor-laden air contacts one side of a membrane that is permeable ...

  12. Development of Unmanned Airborne System (UAS) instrumentation for air-sea-ice interaction research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reineman, B. D.; Lenain, L.; Melville, W. K.

    2011-12-01

    We have developed Unmanned Airborne System (UAS) instrumentation packages to directly measure air-sea momentum transfer, as well as latent, sensible, and radiative heat fluxes, topography, and surface wave kinematics. Two UAS (BAE Manta C1s) flying in vertical formation over the ocean will allow the direct measurement of air-sea fluxes within the marine atmospheric boundary layer, and, with onboard high-resolution video and laser altimetry, simultaneous observation of sea surface kinematics and sea-ice topography. The low altitude required for accurate air-sea or air-ice flux measurements is below the typical safety limit of manned research aircraft; however, with advancements in laser altimeters, small-aircraft flight control, and real-time Differential GPS, it now is within the capability of the UAS platform. Fast response turbulence, hygrometer, and temperature probes in the lower UAS permit surface layer flux measurements, and short and long wave radiometers in the upper UAS allow the determination of net radiation, surface temperature, and albedo. Engineering test flights of the two UAS over land were performed in January 2011 at Camp Roberts, CA. The tests demonstrated the capability of the systems to measure vertical profiles of georeferenced wind, temperature, and moisture content, as well as momentum flux and sensible, latent, and radiative heat fluxes. UAS-derived fluxes from low-altitude (20 -- 30 m) flights are in agreement with fluxes measured by a nearby tower-mounted sonic anemometer-based eddy covariance system. We present a description of the instrumentation, a summary of results from flight tests, and discuss potential applications of these instrumented platforms for air-sea-ice interaction studies.

  13. Forest models: their development and potential applications for air pollution effects research

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, H.H.; McLaughlin, S.B.; West, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    As research tools for evaluating the effects of chronic air pollution stress, forest simulation models offer one means of integrating forest growth and development data with generalized indices of pollution stress. This approach permits consideration of both the competitive interactions of trees in the forest stand and the influences of the stage of stand development on sensitivity of component species. A review of forest growth models, including tree, stand, and gap models, is provided as a means of evaluating relative strengths, weaknesses, and limits of applicability of representative examples of each type. Data from recent simulations with a gap model of eastern deciduous forest responses to air pollution stress are presented to emphasize the potential importance of competition in modifying individual species' responses in a forest stand. Recent developments in dendroecology are discussed as a potential mechanism for model validation and extended application.

  14. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  15. Indoor Air Pollution in Developing Countries: Research and Implementation Needs for Improvements in Global Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gall, Elliott T.; Carter, Ellison M.; Matt Earnest, C.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) from the burning of solid fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting accounts for a significant portion of the global burden of death and disease, and disproportionately affects women and children in developing regions. Clean cookstove campaigns recently received more attention and investment, but their successes might hinge on greater integration of the public health community with a variety of other disciplines. To help guide public health research in alleviating this important global environmental health burden, we synthesized previous research on IAP in developing countries, summarized successes and challenges of previous cookstove implementation programs, and provided key research and implementation needs from structured discussions at a recent symposium. PMID:23409891

  16. Notification: Preliminary Research on the Office of Air and Radiation’s Timekeeping Practices and Compliance With Regulations and Policies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY17-0090, December 29, 2016. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on the Office of Air and Radiation’s timekeeping practices and compliance with federal regulations and related EPA policies and procedures.

  17. Air-Quality Data from NARSTO (North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone)

    DOE Data Explorer

    NARSTO is a public/private partnership dedicated to improving management of air quality in North America. It was established on February 13, 1995 when representatives of Canada, the United States, and Mexico signed the NARSTO Charter in a ceremony at the White House. The Department of Energy is one of the charter members providing funding. The central programmatic goal of NARSTO is to provide data and information for use in the determination of workable, efficient, and effective strategies for local and regional ozone and fine particle management. Since its founding, NARSTO has completed three major scientific Assessments of critical air quality management issues. NARSTO maintains the Quality Systems Science Center and the NARSTO Data Archive for storing data from NARSTO Affiliated Research Activities and making these data available to the scientific community. NARSTO also facilitates activities, such as the Reactivity Research Working Group, which provide critical reviews of the state of the science in areas of interest to air quality policy makers. In January 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Sciences Division announced their sponsorship of the NARSTO Quality Systems Science Center (QSSC). The QSSC is located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory within the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). Quality Assurance and Data Management assistance and guidelines are provided by the QSCC, along with access to data files. The permanent data archive is maintained by the NASA EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Center at the Langley Research Center. The archived data can be reached by a link from the QSSC.(Specialized Interface) See also the NARSTO web site at http://www.narsto.org/

  18. Air pollution control system research: An iterative approach to developing affordable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, L.C.; Cannon, F.S.; Heinsohn, R.J.; Spaeder, T.A.; Darvin, C.H.

    1993-12-31

    The research will be accomplished on lab scale, pilot scale, and production air pollution control systems (APCS). The production system, to be installed at Marine Corps Logistics Base (MCLB) Barstow, CA, will treat the exhaust from three paint booths which will be modified to recirculate a large percentage of their exhaust. These recirculation systems are, themselves, a critical element in the overall R and D effort. The goal of the program is to conduct an R and D effort which will improve and demonstrate a combination of technologies intended to make VOC treatment both effective and affordable. The US Marine Corps, the other services and industry will each benefit.

  19. Some possibilities of using gas mixtures other than air in aerodynamic research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Dean R

    1956-01-01

    A study is made of the advantages that can be realized in compressible-flow research by employing a substitute heavy gas in place of air. The present report is based on the idea that by properly mixing a heavy monatomic gas with a suitable heavy polyatomic gas, it is possible to obtain a heavy gas mixture which has the correct ratio of specific heats and which is nontoxic, nonflammable, thermally stable, chemically inert, and comprised of commercially available components. Calculations were made of wind-tunnel characteristics for 63 gas pairs comprising 21 different polyatomic gases properly mixed with each of three monatomic gases (argon, krypton, and zenon).

  20. PLANNING OF HEALTH EFFECTS RESEARCH ON HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS AND APPLICATION TO RISK ASSESSMENT PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 designated a set of compounds as hazardous air pollutants or "air toxics" which may be released into the air from a variety of sources including stationary, mobile and indoor air sources. Determination of the risks to human health from exposur...

  1. Research on measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution based on an air-water channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuan-yuan; Zhou, Xue-jun; Xu, Hua-bin; Cheng, Kang

    2016-11-01

    A measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) method with an air-water channel is researched. In this method, the underwater vehicle and satellite are the legitimate parties, and the third party is at the airwater interface in order to simplify the unilateral quantum channel to water or air. Considering the condition that both unilateral transmission distance and transmission loss coefficient are unequal, a perfect model of the asymmetric channel is built. The influence of asymmetric channel on system loss tolerance and secure transmission distance is analyzed. The simulation results show that with the increase of the channel's asymmetric degree, the system loss tolerance will descend, one transmission distance will be reduced while the other will be increased. When the asymmetric coefficient of channel is between 0.068 and 0.171, MDI-QKD can satisfy the demand of QKD with an air-water channel, namely the underwater transmission distance and atmospheric transmission distance are not less than 60 m and 12 km, respectively.

  2. Land, sea, and air unmanned systems research and development at SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Laird, Robin; Kogut, Greg; Andrews, John; Fletcher, Barbara; Webber, Todd; Arrieta, Rich; Everett, H. R.

    2009-05-01

    The Space and Naval Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) has a long and extensive history in unmanned systems research and development, starting with undersea applications in the 1960s and expanding into ground and air systems in the 1980s. In the ground domain, we are addressing force-protection scenarios using large unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) and fixed sensors, and simultaneously pursuing tactical and explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) operations with small man-portable robots. Technology thrusts include improving robotic intelligence and functionality, autonomous navigation and world modeling in urban environments, extended operational range of small teleoperated UGVs, enhanced human-robot interaction, and incorporation of remotely operated weapon systems. On the sea surface, we are pushing the envelope on dynamic obstacle avoidance while conforming to established nautical rules-of-the-road. In the air, we are addressing cooperative behaviors between UGVs and small vertical-takeoff- and-landing unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). Underwater applications involve very shallow water mine countermeasures, ship hull inspection, oceanographic data collection, and deep ocean access. Specific technology thrusts include fiber-optic communications, adaptive mission controllers, advanced navigation techniques, and concepts of operations (CONOPs) development. This paper provides a review of recent accomplishments and current status of a number of projects in these areas.

  3. Mississippi State University Center for Air Sea Technology FY95 Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeske, Lanny; Corbin, James H.

    1995-01-01

    The Mississippi State University (MSU) Center for Air Sea Technology (CAST) evolved from the Institute for Naval Oceanography's (INO) Experimental Center for Mesoscale Ocean Prediction (ECMOP) which was started in 1989. MSU CAST subsequently began operation on 1 October 1992 under an Office of Naval Research (ONR) two-year grant which ended on 30 September 1994. In FY95 MSU CAST was successful in obtaining five additional research grants from ONR, as well as several other research contracts from the Naval Oceanographic Office via NASA, the Naval Research Laboratory, the Army Corps of Engineers, and private industry. In the past, MSU CAST technical research and development has produced tools, systems, techniques, and procedures that improve efficiency and overcome deficiency for both the operational and research communities residing with the Department of Defense, private industry, and university ocean modeling community. We continued this effort with the following thrust areas: to develop advanced methodologies and tools for model evaluation, validation and visualization, both oceanographic and atmospheric; to develop a system-level capability for conducting temporally and ; spatially scaled ocean simulations driven by or are responsive to ocean models, and take into consideration coupling to atmospheric models; to continue the existing oceanographic/atmospheric data management task with emphasis on distributed databases in a network environment, with database optimization and standardization, including use of Mosaic and World Wide Web (WWW) access; and to implement a high performance parallel computing technology for CAST ocean models

  4. Benchmarking, Research, Development, and Support for ORNL Automated Image and Signature Retrieval (AIR/ASR) Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.W.

    2004-06-01

    This report describes the results of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Applied Materials, Inc. (AMAT) of Santa Clara, California. This project encompassed the continued development and integration of the ORNL Automated Image Retrieval (AIR) technology, and an extension of the technology denoted Automated Signature Retrieval (ASR), and other related technologies with the Defect Source Identification (DSI) software system that was under development by AMAT at the time this work was performed. In the semiconductor manufacturing environment, defect imagery is used to diagnose problems in the manufacturing line, train yield management engineers, and examine historical data for trends. Image management in semiconductor data systems is a growing cause of concern in the industry as fabricators are now collecting up to 20,000 images each week. In response to this concern, researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a semiconductor-specific content-based image retrieval method and system, also known as AIR. The system uses an image-based query-by-example method to locate and retrieve similar imagery from a database of digital imagery using visual image characteristics. The query method is based on a unique architecture that takes advantage of the statistical, morphological, and structural characteristics of image data, generated by inspection equipment in industrial applications. The system improves the manufacturing process by allowing rapid access to historical records of similar events so that errant process equipment can be isolated and corrective actions can be quickly taken to improve yield. The combined ORNL and AMAT technology is referred to hereafter as DSI-AIR and DSI-ASR.

  5. Visual Steering and Verification of Mass Spectrometry Data Factorization in Air Quality Research.

    PubMed

    Engel, D; Greff, K; Garth, C; Bein, K; Wexler, A; Hamann, B; Hagen, H

    2012-12-01

    The study of aerosol composition for air quality research involves the analysis of high-dimensional single particle mass spectrometry data. We describe, apply, and evaluate a novel interactive visual framework for dimensionality reduction of such data. Our framework is based on non-negative matrix factorization with specifically defined regularization terms that aid in resolving mass spectrum ambiguity. Thereby, visualization assumes a key role in providing insight into and allowing to actively control a heretofore elusive data processing step, and thus enabling rapid analysis meaningful to domain scientists. In extending existing black box schemes, we explore design choices for visualizing, interacting with, and steering the factorization process to produce physically meaningful results. A domain-expert evaluation of our system performed by the air quality research experts involved in this effort has shown that our method and prototype admits the finding of unambiguous and physically correct lower-dimensional basis transformations of mass spectrometry data at significantly increased speed and a higher degree of ease.

  6. Air-bearing-based satellite attitude dynamics simulator for control software research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Brij N.; Rasmussen, Richard E.

    2001-08-01

    A Satellite Attitude Dynamics Simulator (SADS) has been developed to facilitate the research and development of spacecraft flight attitude control software at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, CA. The simulator provides a real-time 3 degree of freedom (3DOF) synthetic spacecraft hardware-in-the-loop environment, that includes realistic angular motions, sensor-effector delays, and control torque profiles. Control software, entered into a notebook PC mounted on the equipment platform, is input as high level object oriented code, allowing rapid code development and thorough post-test analysis. Three flight-like reaction wheels and eight cold-gas thrusters that are mounted to the SADS equipment platform provide motion simulation torque. The equipment platform is suspended in air by a spherical segment air bearing. This virtually frictionless suspension allows free rotation of the equipment platform about any rotation axis. Three separate sets of sensors, three single-axis rate gyros, a three-axis magnetometer, and a two-axis sun sensor monitor SADS platform motion. This paper discusses the SADS design, and the practical uses of this simulator for satellite attitude control system software research and development.

  7. The development of emissions estimates for the Arizona Hazardous Air Pollution Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, R.J.; Wolf, M.E.; Morrison, B.J.

    1996-12-31

    A series of emissions inventories have been developed to support the Arizona Hazardous Air Pollution (HAP) Research Program. This paper summarizes both the methodology and results of this inventory effort. To meet the objectives of the HAP Research Program, emissions inventories were prepared for four different geographic regions. Both Phoenix and Tucson were selected to represent urban-scale environments. The town of Payson was selected as a mountain community with residential wood combustion emissions, while Casa Grande was selected for its agricultural emissions, primarily pesticides. The emissions databases developed for these four regions consist of gridded and hourly emission files that were used in a three dimensional air quality grid model. The inventory databases contain HAP emissions for point, area, and mobile sources (both on-road motor vehicles and nonroad mobile sources). The overall area and mobile source inventory consists of over 150 individual source categories. Future year emission projections were prepared to simulate growth, as well as planned local, state, and federal control requirements that will influence HAP emissions in the four regions. Results of the inventory indicate that mobile sources are the dominant source category in all four regions, although semivolatile organic emissions from residential wood combustion and pesticides are important components of the Payson and Casa Grande inventories, respectively. Although significant growth and economic expansion is predicted for each region, overall emissions of the key HAP species are expected to decline.

  8. Tobacco Research in the Military: Reflections on 20 Years of Research in the United States Air Force.

    PubMed

    Talcott, G Wayne; Ebbert, Jon O; Klesges, Robert C; Linde, Brittany D; Seals, Robert W; Krukowski, Rebecca A; Grieser, Emily A; Oh, John Y; Martin-Zona, Denise M

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. military is one of the world's largest employers. Approximately 30% of active duty military personnel smoke cigarettes and more than 14% use smokeless tobacco. The military has historically supported tobacco use and more recently is attempting to combat its use. Through 20 years of collaborative research with the United States Air Force, we have learned that smoking bans are effective, recruits who have never previously smoked cigarettes initiate tobacco use, smokeless tobacco serves as a gateway for smoking initiation, smoking is associated with discharge, smoking adds significant proximal training costs, tobacco use increases during deployment, and tobacco quitline counseling with a provision of medication is effective. Our findings may provide groundwork for future tobacco control efforts in the U.S. military.

  9. The Air Force Health Study Data and Specimens as a Resource for Researchers.

    PubMed

    Styka, Anne N; Butler, David A

    2015-10-01

    The Air Force Health Study (AFHS) is perhaps the most thorough longitudinal examination of both the health of military personnel and the health effects of herbicide exposure ever conducted. Data were collected through comprehensive physical examinations, questionnaires, and other records at six time points over a 20-year period; 2,758 subjects participated in at least one examination cycle. Data collected during physical examinations included indices of health status overall and specific endpoints for each organ system. Questionnaire data included sociodemographic information, marital and fertility history, health habits, recreation activities, toxic substances exposure, and military experience. Biospecimens were collected at each examination cycle; serum was collected at all six examinations while other biospecimens, such as semen and whole blood, were collected at one time. More than 200 clinical laboratory tests and measures were performed, with more than 60 of these measured at all six cycles. The vast amount of electronic data and the more than 91,000 unaliquoted biospecimens contained in the repository offer unique opportunities for new research on understanding determinants of health. The Institute of Medicine is the custodian of the AFHS materials and conducted a pilot research program to facilitate new research using the materials. An expert committee issued requests for proposals, created a Web-based form for submissions, reviewed and evaluated potential research studies, and made data and biospecimens available to qualified researchers. This article summarizes the experience of this initiative.

  10. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society was formally launched as a special interest group at the 7th Triennial WCTR in Sydney, Australia in 1995. Since then, our membership base has expanded rapidly, and now includes over 400 active transportation researchers, policy-makers, industry executives, major corporations and research institutes from 28 countries. It became a tradition that the ATRG would hold an international conference at least once a year. In 1998, the ATRG organized a consecutive stream of 14 aviation sessions at the 8th Triennial WCTR Conference (July 12-17: Antwerp). Again, on 19-21 July, 1998, the ATRG Symposium was organized and executed very successfully by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan of the University College of Dublin. The Aviation Institute at the University of Nebraska at Omaha has published the Proceedings of the 1998 ATRG Dublin Symposium (being co-edited by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan and Professor Brent Bowen), and the Proceedings of the 1998 WCTR-ATRG Conference (being co-edited by Professors Tae H. Oum and Brent Bowen).

  11. AirSTAR Hardware and Software Design for Beyond Visual Range Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughter, Sean; Cox, David

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) is a facility developed to study the flight dynamics of vehicles in emergency conditions, in support of aviation safety research. The system was upgraded to have its operational range significantly expanded, going beyond the line of sight of a ground-based pilot. A redesign of the airborne flight hardware was undertaken, as well as significant changes to the software base, in order to provide appropriate autonomous behavior in response to a number of potential failures and hazards. Ground hardware and system monitors were also upgraded to include redundant communication links, including ADS-B based position displays and an independent flight termination system. The design included both custom and commercially available avionics, combined to allow flexibility in flight experiment design while still benefiting from tested configurations in reversionary flight modes. A similar hierarchy was employed in the software architecture, to allow research codes to be tested, with a fallback to more thoroughly validated flight controls. As a remotely piloted facility, ground systems were also developed to ensure the flight modes and system state were communicated to ground operations personnel in real-time. Presented in this paper is a general overview of the concept of operations for beyond visual range flight, and a detailed review of the airborne hardware and software design. This discussion is held in the context of the safety and procedural requirements that drove many of the design decisions for the AirSTAR UAS Beyond Visual Range capability.

  12. Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Research Data from the Nevada Desert FACE Facility (NDFF)

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE has conducted trace gas enrichment experiments since the mid 1990s. The FACE Data Management System is a central repository and archive for Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) data, as well as for the related open-top chamber (OTC) experiments. FACE Data Management System is located at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). While the data from the various FACE sites, each one a unique user facility, are centralized at CDIAC, each of the FACE sites presents its own view of its activities and information. For that reason, DOE Data Explorer users are advised to see both the central repository at http://public.ornl.gov/face/index.shtml and the individual home pages of each site. NDFF whole-ecosystem manipulation is a flagship experiment of the Terrestrial Carbon Process (TCP) research program of the US Dept. of Energy. It is also a core project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) and a contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. The NDFF was developed in conjunction with the National Science Foundation (NSF) and DOE-EPSCoR programs. FACE (Free-Air-Carbon dioxide-Enrichment) technology allows researchers to elevate the carbon dioxide level in large study plots while minimizing ecosystem disturbance. At the NDFF the concentration of CO2 was elevated by 50 percent above the present atmospheric levels in three plots in the Mojave Desert ecosystem, while six other plots remained at the current level. This experimental design provided a large area in which integrated teams of scientists could describe and quantify processes regulating carbon, nutrient, and water balances in desert ecosystems.

  13. The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) - Article in National Ambient Air Quality Status and Trends through 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research study that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted in Detroit, Michigan, named the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS), will help develop data that improves our understanding of human exposure to various air pollutants in our environment.

  14. Sikorsky UH-60 (USA 82-23748 NASA-748) Air-loads research aircraft - Blackhawk helicopter with

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Sikorsky UH-60 (USA 82-23748 NASA-748) Air-loads research aircraft - Blackhawk helicopter with MUX-Bucket in flight Note: Used in publication in Flight Research at Ames; 57 Years of Development and Validation of Aeronautical Technology NASA SP-1998-3300 fig. 135

  15. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Own, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Institute University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) Monograph series has published the Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the World Conference on Transportation Research Society (WCTR) volume 1, number 3. The topics included in this document are: 1) Industrial Reform and Air Transport Development in China; 2) The Economic Effects of Airline Deregulation and the Open-Sky Policy of Korea; 3) The Economic Effects of Airline Deregulation and the Open-Sky Policy of Korea; 4) "Open Skies" in India-Is the policy succeeding? 5) The Japanese Domestic Air Fares under the Regulatory Regime: What will be expected after the revision of current charging system? 6) The Competitive Position of Airline Networks; and 7) Air Transport and Regional Economic Development in the European Union.

  16. NASA Langley's Formal Methods Research in Support of the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2008-01-01

    This talk will provide a brief introduction to the formal methods developed at NASA Langley and the National Institute for Aerospace (NIA) for air traffic management applications. NASA Langley's formal methods research supports the Interagency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) effort to define and develop the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS). The JPDO was created by the passage of the Vision 100 Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act in Dec 2003. The NGATS vision calls for a major transformation of the nation s air transportation system that will enable growth to 3 times the traffic of the current system. The transformation will require an unprecedented level of safety-critical automation used in complex procedural operations based on 4-dimensional (4D) trajectories that enable dynamic reconfiguration of airspace scalable to geographic and temporal demand. The goal of our formal methods research is to provide verification methods that can be used to insure the safety of the NGATS system. Our work has focused on the safety assessment of concepts of operation and fundamental algorithms for conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) and self- spacing in the terminal area. Formal analysis of a concept of operations is a novel area of application of formal methods. Here one must establish that a system concept involving aircraft, pilots, and ground resources is safe. The formal analysis of algorithms is a more traditional endeavor. However, the formal analysis of ATM algorithms involves reasoning about the interaction of algorithmic logic and aircraft trajectories defined over an airspace. These trajectories are described using 2D and 3D vectors and are often constrained by trigonometric relations. Thus, in many cases it has been necessary to unload the full power of an advanced theorem prover. The verification challenge is to establish that the safety-critical algorithms produce valid solutions that are guaranteed to maintain separation

  17. Investigating Indoor Air Quality Using a Community-based Participatory Research Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, A. M.; Ware, G. E.; Iwasaki, P. G.; Main, D.; Billingsley, L. R.; Pandya, R.; Hannigan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Our project seeks to expand scientific knowledge of air pollutant screening methods while also gathering data a community group can use to improve local health outcomes. Working with Taking Neighborhood Health to Heart (TNH2H), a Denver-based neighborhood group with significant experience doing community-based participatory research (CBPR) related to improving individual and community health, we designed a project to help residents test their homes for two contaminants of interest: radon and perchloroethylene. Radon is naturally occurring and commonly found across Colorado. Perchloroethylene contamination has been discovered in other parts of Denver and residents of Northeast Denver would like to learn more about its possible presence in their neighborhood. Additionally while radon is simple to test for, the same cannot be said for perchloroethylene. This project provides an opportunity to pilot a low-cost sampling method for perchloroethylene, apply TNH2H's CBPR model to an environmental health issue, adapt it for the geosciences, and engage the community in education around air quality issues. Data collected during the project will be shared with participating homes and the larger community. Community members will also participate in understanding and interpreting the data, and together community members and scientists will plan possible next steps, which may involve conducting further research, taking community action, or recommending changes in policy and practice. Beyond the local impacts, we are testing an air quality sampling method that could make sampling more accessible to a broader range of communities. We are also learning more about how communities and scientists can best work together and what additional resources can help facilitate and ensure successful implementation of these types of projects. Our partner, the Thriving Earth Exchange, will use what we learn to facilitate scientist-community partnerships like this in other communities around the

  18. Repair of Corrosion in Air Supply Piping at the NASA Glenn Research Center's 1 by 1 Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Michael

    2000-01-01

    During a test at the NASA Glenn Research Center's 1 x 1 Supersonic Wing Tunnel, it was discovered that particles entrained in the air flow were damaging the pressure sensitive paint on a test article. An investigation found the source of the entrained particles to be rust on the internal surfaces of the air supply piping. To remedy the situation, the air supply line components made from carbon steel were either refurbished or replaced with new stainless steel components. The refurbishment process included various combinations of chemical cleaning, bead blasting, painting and plating.

  19. Australian Air Breathing Propulsion Research for Hypersonic, Beamed Energy-Propelled Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froning, David

    2010-05-01

    A three year laser-propelled vehicle analysis and design investigation has been begun in June, 2009 by Faculty and graduate students at the University of Adelaide under a Grant/Cooperative Agreement Award to the University of Adelaide by the Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development (AOARD). The major objectives of thsis investigation are: (a) development of hypersonic, air breathing "lightcraft" with innovative air inlets that enable acceptable airflow capture and combustion, and acceptable cowl-lip heating rates during hot, high-speed, high angle-of-attack hypersonic flight; (b) yest of the most promising lightcraft and inlet design in the high power laser beam that is part of the shock tunnel facility at CTO Instituto in Brazil; and (c) plan a series of laser guided and propelled flights that achieve supersonic or higher speed at the Woomera Test Facility (WTF) in South Australia—using the existing WTF launching and tracking facilities and sponsor-provided laser pointing and tracking and illumination systems.

  20. Pseudo Aircraft Systems - A multi-aircraft simulation system for air traffic control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weske, Reid A.; Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    Pseudo Aircraft Systems (PAS) is a computerized flight dynamics and piloting system designed to provide a high fidelity multi-aircraft real-time simulation environment to support Air Traffic Control research. PAS is composed of three major software components that run on a network of computer workstations. Functionality is distributed among these components to allow the system to execute fast enough to support real-time operation. PAS workstations are linked by an Ethernet Local Area Network, and standard UNIX socket protocol is used for data transfer. Each component of PAS is controlled and operated using a custom designed Graphical User Interface. Each of these is composed of multiple windows, and many of the windows and sub-windows are used in several of the components. Aircraft models and piloting logic are sophisticated and realistic and provide complex maneuvering and navigational capabilities. PAS will continually be enhanced with new features and improved capabilities to support ongoing and future Air Traffic Control system development.

  1. Expanding AirSTAR Capability for Flight Research in an Existing Avionics Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughter, Sean A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) project is an Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) test bed for experimental flight control laws and vehicle dynamics research. During its development, the test bed has gone through a number of system permutations, each meant to add functionality to the concept of operations of the system. This enabled the build-up of not only the system itself, but also the support infrastructure and processes necessary to support flight operations. These permutations were grouped into project phases and the move from Phase-III to Phase-IV was marked by a significant increase in research capability and necessary safety systems due to the integration of an Internal Pilot into the control system chain already established for the External Pilot. The major system changes in Phase-IV operations necessitated a new safety and failsafe system to properly integrate both the Internal and External Pilots and to meet acceptable project safety margins. This work involved retrofitting an existing data system into the evolved concept of operations. Moving from the first Phase-IV aircraft to the dynamically scaled aircraft further involved restructuring the system to better guard against electromagnetic interference (EMI), and the entire avionics wiring harness was redesigned in order to facilitate better maintenance and access to onboard electronics. This retrofit and harness re-design will be explored and how it integrates with the evolved Phase-IV operations.

  2. Return glider radiosonde for in situ upper-air research measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kräuchi, Andreas; Philipona, Rolf

    2016-06-01

    Upper-air balloon soundings for weather predictions have been made since the beginning of the 20th century. New radiosonde instruments for in situ humidity-, radiation- and gas-profile measurements in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere, were introduced in recent years for atmospheric research and climate monitoring, but such instruments are often expensive and it is desired they be reused on multiple flights. Recovering instruments that freely descend with parachutes is time consuming, sometimes difficult and even dangerous. Here, we introduce the return glider radiosonde (RGR), which enables flying and retrieving valuable in situ upper-air instruments. The RGR is lifted with weather balloons similar to traditional radiosondes to a preset altitude, at which time a release mechanism cuts the tether string, and a built-in autopilot flies the glider autonomously back to the launch site or a desired preprogrammed location. Once the RGR reaches the landing coordinates it circles down and releases a parachute 100 m above ground for landing. The motivation for this project was to measure radiation profiles throughout the atmosphere with the same instrument multiple times and with a rapid turn-around time. The paper describes technical aspects of the return glider radiosonde and the built-in radiation instruments and shows test flights up to 24 km altitude that are analyzed in terms of flight performance and maximal distances covered. Several successive flights measuring radiation profiles demonstrate the reliability and the operational readiness of the RGR, allowing new ways for atmospheric in situ research and monitoring with payloads up to several kg depending on the specific size of the glider.

  3. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution: focus on China.

    PubMed

    Loomis, Dana; Huang, Wei; Chen, Guosheng

    2014-04-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pollution and the particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, as based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong support by mechanistic studies. The data with important contributions to the evaluation are reviewed, highlighting the data with particular relevance to China, and implications of the evaluation with respect to China are discussed. The air pollution levels in Chinese cities are among the highest observed in the world today and frequently exceed health-based national and international guidelines. Data from high-quality epidemiologic studies in Asia, Europe, and North America consistently show positive associations between lung cancer and PM exposure and other indicators of air pollution, which persist after adjustment for important lung cancer risk factors, such as tobacco smoking. Epidemiologic data from China are limited but nevertheless indicate an increased risk of lung cancer associated with several air pollutants. Excess cancer risk is also observed in experimental animals exposed to polluted outdoor air or extracted PM. The exposure of several species to outdoor air pollution is associated with markers of genetic damage that have been linked to increased cancer risk in humans. Numerous studies from China, especially genetic biomarker studies in exposed populations, support that the polluted air in China is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. The evaluation by IARC indicates both the need for further research into the cancer risks associated with exposure to air pollution in China and the urgent need to act to reduce exposure to the population.

  4. Meteorological Processes Affecting Air Quality – Research and Model Development Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meteorology modeling is an important component of air quality modeling systems that defines the physical and dynamical environment for atmospheric chemistry. The meteorology models used for air quality applications are based on numerical weather prediction models that were devel...

  5. Summer Internships for Students through the Air Force Research Laboratory’s Scholars Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaby, David A.; Hwang, Eunsook; McCullough, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    Did you know that the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has sponsored a summer research program for students for the last 15 years? The AFRL Scholars Program hires high school, undergraduate, and graduate students as payed interns for 12-18 weeks each summer to work on space science and astronomy projects at one of four AFRL locations. By now, more than 1200 students from 34 states have participated. Like advisors in other summertime astrophysics research programs, the AFRL mentors benefit from extra staff for their research efforts at no cost (the Scholars are funded centrally within AFRL). Likewise, the students benefit from summer pay, job experience in a science lab, university housing, and comradery with students from other states. Pay is based on the intern’s academic level with the range being $395/week for high school up to $1115/week for recent Ph.Ds. Benefits not available from other programs include a secret clearance, socializing with a cohort exceeding 100 peers, and exposure to a pathway to a professional science career outside academia. Benefits to AFRL include persuading young people to choose science-technical-engineering-math (STEM) degrees, and roughly 89% of participants show increased interest in STEM courses following their internship.In this poster, we present the advantages to college students (and their mentors) to participating. We outline the topic areas, 60% of which are related to space science and astronomy. We quantify the range of participants’ scholastic level and majors, as well as the impact the program has on stimulating STEM careers and sight stories of students going onto rewarding careers in AFRL. To be eligible, an applicant must be a U.S. citizen, at least 16 years old, available to work a 40-hour business week, agree to a background check, and be enrolled at the time of application. To apply for the summer 2017 program, start at http://afrlscholars.usra.edu.

  6. U.S. Air Force Research Technology Area Plan, FY 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    a knowledge base that permits the production, storage and controlled use of antimatter as a future source of energy. o. Provide advanced propulsion ...Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL) Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories (AFWAL) Aero Propulsion Laboratory (AFWAL/PO) Avionics Laboratory...High Energy Density Propellants and other advanced propulsion concepts - Civil and environmental engineering to enhance air base operations - Vertical

  7. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Charlene W.; Crow, Sidney A.; Fischer, John

    Understanding the primary causes of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and how controllable factors--proper heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert problems may help all building owners, operators, and…

  8. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bayer, C.W.

    2001-02-22

    chemical sensitivity versus bioaerosols (aerosolized microbes), or the contribution of the microorganisms to the chemical sensitivities, is not yet understood. If the inhabitants of a building exhibit similar symptoms of a clearly defined disease with a nature and time of onset that can be related to building occupancy, the disease is generally referred to as ''building-related illness.'' Once the SBS has been allowed to elevate to this level, buildings are typically evacuated and the costs associated with disruption of the building occupants, identification of the source of the problem, and eventual remediation can be significant. Understanding the primary causes of IAQ problems and how controllable factors--proper HVAC system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert the problems may help all building owners, operators, and occupants to be more productive (Arens and Baughman 1996). This paper provides a comprehensive summary of IAQ research that has been conducted in various types of facilities. However, it focuses primarily on school facilities because, for numerous reasons that will become evident, they are far more susceptible to developing IAQ problems than most other types of facilities; and the occupants, children, are more significantly affected than adults (EPA 1998).

  9. Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretonnière, Pierre-Antoine; Benincasa, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality" More than ever in the history of Earth sciences, scientists are confronted with the problem of dealing with huge amounts of data that grow continuously at a rate that becomes a challenge to process and analyse them using conventional methods. Data come from many different and widely distributed sources, ranging from satellite platforms and in-situ sensors to model simulations, and with different degrees of openness. How can Earth scientists deal with this diversity and big volume and extract useful information to understand and predict the relevant processes? The Research Data Alliance (RDA, https://rd-alliance.org/), an organization that promotes and develops new data policies, data standards and focuses on the development of new technical solutions applicable in many distinct areas of sciences, recently entered in its third phase. In this framework, an Interest Group (IG) comprised of community experts that are committed to directly or indirectly enable and facilitate data sharing, exchange, or interoperability in the fields of weather, climate and air quality has been created recently. Its aim is to explore and discuss the challenges for the use and efficient analysis of large and diverse datasets of relevance for these fields taking advantage of the knowledge generated and exchanged in RDA. At the same time, this IG intends to be a meeting point between members of the aforementioned communities to share experiences and propose new solutions to overcome the forthcoming challenges. Based on the collaboration between several research meteorological and European climate institutes, but also taking into account the input from the private (from the renewable energies, satellites and agriculture sectors for example) and public sectors, this IG will suggest practical and applicable solutions for Big Data issues, both at technological and policy level, encountered by these communities. We

  10. Time-Resolved Optical Measurements of Fuel-Air Mixedness in Windowless High Speed Research Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    1998-01-01

    Fuel distribution measurements in gas turbine combustors are needed from both pollution and fuel-efficiency standpoints. In addition to providing valuable data for performance testing and engine development, measurements of fuel distributions uniquely complement predictive numerical simulations. Although equally important as spatial distribution, the temporal distribution of the fuel is an often overlooked aspect of combustor design and development. This is due partly to the difficulties in applying time-resolved diagnostic techniques to the high-pressure, high-temperature environments inside gas turbine engines. Time-resolved measurements of the fuel-to-air ratio (F/A) can give researchers critical insights into combustor dynamics and acoustics. Beginning in early 1998, a windowless technique that uses fiber-optic, line-of-sight, infrared laser light absorption to measure the time-resolved fluctuations of the F/A (refs. 1 and 2) will be used within the premixer section of a lean-premixed, prevaporized (LPP) combustor in NASA Lewis Research Center's CE-5 facility. The fiber-optic F/A sensor will permit optical access while eliminating the need for film-cooled windows, which perturb the flow. More importantly, the real-time data from the fiber-optic F/A sensor will provide unique information for the active feedback control of combustor dynamics. This will be a prototype for an airborne sensor control system.

  11. Weather Research and Forecasting Model Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Bauman, William H., III; Hoeth, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This abstract describes work that will be done by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in assessing the success of different model configurations in predicting "wind cycling" cases at Edwards Air Force Base, CA (EAFB), in which the wind speeds and directions oscillate among towers near the EAFB runway. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model allows users to choose among two dynamical cores - the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) and the Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM). There are also data assimilation analysis packages available for the initialization of the WRF model - the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) and the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS). Having a series of initialization options and WRF cores, as well as many options within each core, creates challenges for local forecasters, such as determining which configuration options are best to address specific forecast concerns. The goal of this project is to assess the different configurations available and determine which configuration will best predict surface wind speed and direction at EAFB.

  12. Weather Research and Forecasting Model Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Bauman, William H., III

    2008-01-01

    NASA prefers to land the space shuttle at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). When weather conditions violate Flight Rules at KSC, NASA will usually divert the shuttle landing to Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) in Southern California. But forecasting surface winds at EAFB is a challenge for the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) forecasters due to the complex terrain that surrounds EAFB, One particular phenomena identified by SMG is that makes it difficult to forecast the EAFB surface winds is called "wind cycling". This occurs when wind speeds and directions oscillate among towers near the EAFB runway leading to a challenging deorbit bum forecast for shuttle landings. The large-scale numerical weather prediction models cannot properly resolve the wind field due to their coarse horizontal resolutions, so a properly tuned high-resolution mesoscale model is needed. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model meets this requirement. The AMU assessed the different WRF model options to determine which configuration best predicted surface wind speed and direction at EAFB, To do so, the AMU compared the WRF model performance using two hot start initializations with the Advanced Research WRF and Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model dynamical cores and compared model performance while varying the physics options.

  13. Air Force Research Laboratory Spacecraft Cryocooler Endurance Evaluation Facility Closing Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, J.; Martin, K. W.; Fraser, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Spacecraft Component Thermal Research Group has been devoted to evaluating lifetime performance of space cryocooler technology for over twenty years. Long-life data is essential for confirming design lifetimes for space cryocoolers. Continuous operation in a simulated space environment is the only accepted method to test for degradation. AFRL has provided raw data and detailed evaluations to cryocooler developers for advancing the technology, correcting discovered deficiencies, and improving cryocooler designs. At AFRL, units of varying design and refrigeration cycles were instrumented in state-of-the-art experiment stands to provide spacelike conditions and were equipped with software data acquisition to track critical cryocooler operating parameters. This data allowed an assessment of the technology's ability to meet the desired lifetime and documented any long-term changes in performance. This paper will outline a final report of the various flight cryocoolers tested in our laboratory. The data summarized includes the seven cryocoolers tested during 2014-2015. These seven coolers have a combined total of 433,326 hours (49.5 years) of operation.

  14. "Air Toxics under the Big Sky": Examining the Effectiveness of Authentic Scientific Research on High School Students' Science Skills and Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Tony J.; Delaloye, Naomi; Adams, Earle Raymond; Ware, Desirae; Vanek, Diana; Knuth, Randy; Hester, Carolyn Laurie; Marra, Nancy Noel; Holian, Andrij

    2016-01-01

    "Air Toxics Under the Big Sky" is an environmental science outreach/education program that incorporates the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) 8 Practices with the goal of promoting knowledge and understanding of authentic scientific research in high school classrooms through air quality research. This research explored: (1)…

  15. Modelling air pollution for epidemiologic research--Part I: A novel approach combining land use regression and air dispersion.

    PubMed

    Mölter, A; Lindley, S; de Vocht, F; Simpson, A; Agius, R

    2010-11-01

    A common limitation of epidemiological studies on health effects of air pollution is the quality of exposure data available for study participants. Exposure data derived from urban monitoring networks is usually not adequately representative of the spatial variation of pollutants, while personal monitoring campaigns are often not feasible, due to time and cost restrictions. Therefore, many studies now rely on empirical modelling techniques, such as land use regression (LUR), to estimate pollution exposure. However, LUR still requires a quantity of specifically measured data to develop a model, which is usually derived from a dedicated monitoring campaign. A dedicated air dispersion modelling exercise is also possible but is similarly resource and data intensive. This study adopted a novel approach to LUR, which utilised existing data from an air dispersion model rather than monitored data. There are several advantages to such an approach such as a larger number of sites to develop the LUR model compared to monitored data. Furthermore, through this approach the LUR model can be adapted to predict temporal variation as well as spatial variation. The aim of this study was to develop two LUR models for an epidemiologic study based in Greater Manchester by using modelled NO(2) and PM(10) concentrations as dependent variables, and traffic intensity, emissions, land use and physical geography as potential predictor variables. The LUR models were validated through a set aside "validation" dataset and data from monitoring stations. The final models for PM(10) and NO(2) comprised nine and eight predictor variables respectively and had determination coefficients (R²) of 0.71 (PM(10): Adj. R²=0.70, F=54.89, p<0.001, NO(2): Adj. R²=0.70, F=62.04, p<0.001). Validation of the models using the validation data and measured data showed that the R² decreases compared to the final models, except for NO(2) validation in the measured data (validation data: PM(10): R²=0.33, NO(2

  16. Effects of agriculture upon the air quality and climate: research, policy, and regulations.

    PubMed

    Aneja, Viney P; Schlesinger, William H; Erisman, Jan Willem

    2009-06-15

    Scientific assessments of agricultural air quality, including estimates of emissions and potential sequestration of greenhouse gases, are an important emerging area of environmental science that offers significant challenges to policy and regulatory authorities. Improvements are needed in measurements, modeling, emission controls, and farm operation management. Controlling emissions of gases and particulate matter from agriculture is notoriously difficult as this sector affects the most basic need of humans, i.e., food. Current policies combine an inadequate science covering a very disparate range of activities in a complex industry with social and political overlays. Moreover, agricultural emissions derive from both area and point sources. In the United States, agricultural emissions play an important role in several atmospherically mediated processes of environmental and public health concerns. These atmospheric processes affect local and regional environmental quality, including odor, particulate matter (PM) exposure, eutrophication, acidification, exposure to toxics, climate, and pathogens. Agricultural emissions also contribute to the global problems caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural emissions are variable in space and time and in how they interact within the various processes and media affected. Most important in the U.S. are ammonia (where agriculture accounts for approximately 90% of total emissions), reduced sulfur (unquantified), PM25 (approximately 16%), PM110 (approximately 18%), methane (approximately 29%), nitrous oxide (approximately 72%), and odor and emissions of pathogens (both unquantified). Agriculture also consumes fossil fuels for fertilizer production and farm operations, thus emitting carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), sulfur oxides (SO(x)), and particulates. Current research priorities include the quantification of point and nonpoint sources, the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of ammonia, reduced sulfur

  17. Policy Implications of Air Quality Research and Co-benefit to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, A.

    2007-05-01

    In recent decades air pollution has become one of the most important problems of megacities and large urban centers. Photochemical smog induced from motorization, industrial activities, power generation, and solvents, has now become the main source of concern for air quality. Air pollution has serious impacts on public health and ecosystems, causes urban and regional haze, and has the potential to contribute significantly to climate change. While an integrated approach is required to address air pollution problems to achieve and sustain improvements, policy strategies must be based on a solid understanding of the pollutant emissions and atmospheric processes that lead to unacceptable levels of air quality. This talk will address the air pollution problems in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and other large urban centers in Mexico, and the strategies undertaken by the Mexican authorities to improve air quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. Simulation Based Low-Cost Composite Process Development at the US Air Force Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Brian P.; Lee, C. William; Curliss, David B.

    2003-01-01

    Low-cost composite research in the US Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Organic Matrix Composites Branch has focused on the theme of affordable performance. Practically, this means that we use a very broad view when considering the affordability of composites. Factors such as material costs, labor costs, recurring and nonrecurring manufacturing costs are balanced against performance to arrive at the relative affordability vs. performance measure of merit. The research efforts discussed here are two projects focused on affordable processing of composites. The first topic is the use of a neural network scheme to model cure reaction kinetics, then utilize the kinetics coupled with simple heat transport models to predict, in real-time, future exotherms and control them. The neural network scheme is demonstrated to be very robust and a much more efficient method that mechanistic cure modeling approach. This enables very practical low-cost processing of thick composite parts. The second project is liquid composite molding (LCM) process simulation. LCM processing of large 3D integrated composite parts has been demonstrated to be a very cost effective way to produce large integrated aerospace components specific examples of LCM processes are resin transfer molding (RTM), vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), and other similar approaches. LCM process simulation is a critical part of developing an LCM process approach. Flow simulation enables the development of the most robust approach to introducing resin into complex preforms. Furthermore, LCM simulation can be used in conjunction with flow front sensors to control the LCM process in real-time to account for preform or resin variability.

  19. Networking Multiple Autonomous Air and Ocean Vehicles for Oceanographic Research and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Rajan, K.

    2013-12-01

    Autonomous underwater and surface vessels (AUVs and ASVs) are coming into wider use as components of oceanographic research, including ocean observing systems. Unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) are now available at modest cost, allowing multiple UAVs to be deployed with multiple AUVs and ASVs. For optimal use good communication and coordination among vehicles is essential. We report on the use of multiple AUVs networked in communication with multiple UAVs. The UAVs are augmented by inferential reasoning software developed at MBARI that allows UAVs to recognize oceanographic fronts and change their navigation and control. This in turn allows UAVs to automatically to map frontal features, as well as to direct AUVs and ASVs to proceed to such features and conduct sampling via onboard sensors to provide validation for airborne mapping. ASVs can also act as data nodes for communication between UAVs and AUVs, as well as collecting data from onboard sensors, while AUVs can sample the water column vertically. This allows more accurate estimation of phytoplankton biomass and productivity, and can be used in conjunction with UAV sampling to determine air-sea flux of gases (e.g. CO2, CH4, DMS) affecting carbon budgets and atmospheric composition. In particular we describe tests in July 2013 conducted off Sesimbra, Portugal in conjunction with the Portuguese Navy by the University of Porto and MBARI with the goal of tracking large fish in the upper water column with coordinated air/surface/underwater measurements. A thermal gradient was observed in the infrared by a low flying UAV, which was used to dispatch an AUV to obtain ground truth to demonstrate the event-response capabilities using such autonomous platforms. Additional field studies in the future will facilitate integration of multiple unmanned systems into research vessel operations. The strength of hardware and software tools described in this study is to permit fundamental oceanographic measurements of both ocean

  20. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Möller, L; Schuetzle, D; Autrup, H

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents key conclusions and future research needs from a Workshop on the Risk Assessment of Urban Air, Emissions, Exposure, Risk Identification, and Quantification, which was held in Stockholm during June 1992 by 41 participants from 13 countries. Research is recommended in the areas of identification and quantification of toxics in source emissions and ambient air, atmospheric transport and chemistry, exposure level assessment, the development of improved in vitro bioassays, biomarker development, the development of more accurate epidemiological methodologies, and risk quantification techniques. Studies are described that will be necessary to assess and reduce the level of uncertainties associated with each step of the risk assessment process. International collaborative research efforts between industry and government organizations are recommended as the most effective way to carry out this research. PMID:7529703

  1. The Design of Research Laboratories. Part I: A General Assessment. Part II: Air Conditioning and Conditioned Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legget, R. F.; Hutcheon, N. B.

    Design factors in the planning of research laboratories are described which include--(1) location, (2) future expansion, (3) internal flexibility, (4) provision of services, (5) laboratory furnishing, (6) internal traffic, (7) space requirements, and (8) building costs. A second part discusses air-conditioning and conditioned rooms--(1)…

  2. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF MOBILE SOURCE AIR TOXICS IN THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from the first two years of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) were evaluated to determine spatial and temporal characteristics in concentrations of mobile source air toxics (MSATs). Outdoor concentrations of MSATs were significantly higher in samples co...

  3. Methodological and Ethical Dilemmas Encountered during Field Research of Family Violence Experienced by Adolescent Women in Buenos Aires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luxardo, Natalia; Colombo, Graciela; Iglesias, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine some obstacles and dilemmas related to methodological strategies and ethical considerations that arose during the fieldwork of research focused on family violence during the stages of pregnancy and childbirth in adolescent females in Buenos Aires during 2007. From this study, we are able to contribute some…

  4. Current research in NRMRL on the mitigation of near-road air pollution by vegetative and structural barriers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous research studies published in scientific literature have shown that people living, working, and going to school near large roads experience increased adverse health effects. In addition, studies show that air pollution is worse in close proximity to major roadways (e.g....

  5. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute has published the 1997 Proceedings of the Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society. Items published in this three volume, seven monograph series were presented at the triennial ATRG Conference held at the University of British Columbia, June 25-27, 1997. A wide variety of policy issues are discussed including the following: open- skies agreements, liberalization, globalization, airline competition, airport performance, pricing, hubs, and safety, among others.

  6. United States Air Force 1993 Summer Research Program. Volume 10: Wright Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The paper outlines two main tasks assigned during my employment as a graduate student research associate at the Wright Laboratory, Wright Paterson Air Force Base. Upon arrival at the Wright Laboratories, I was to investigate a method of signal processing, different from the common Fourier transform, in that inherent mathematical properties of the signal space were exploited in retrieving the spectrum of the signal. The two alternative signal processing methods investigated are the MUSIC and Minimum-Norm procedures for high resolution signal processing. The results of the investigation are included with a general comment section regarding the performance of the algorithms. The second main task assigned was the investigation of angle of arrival (AOA) calculation. Traditionally, methods such as beamforming have been used to estimate AOA using arrays of sensors and sophisticated signal processing algorithms. We are curious as to whether the AOA can be measured using only two sensors and FFT processing measuring of the phase difference of the signal at two adjacent sensors. Results of this study are presented with general comments as to the validity of the measuring paradigm.

  7. Spacecraft environmental interactions: A joint Air Force and NASA research and technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, C. P.; Purvis, C. K.; Hudson, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    A joint Air Force/NASA comprehensive research and technology program on spacecraft environmental interactions to develop technology to control interactions between large spacecraft systems and the charged-particle environment of space is described. This technology will support NASA/Department of Defense operations of the shuttle/IUS, shuttle/Centaur, and the force application and surveillance and detection missions, planning for transatmospheric vehicles and the NASA space station, and the AFSC military space system technology model. The program consists of combined contractual and in-house efforts aimed at understanding spacecraft environmental interaction phenomena and relating results of ground-based tests to space conditions. A concerted effort is being made to identify project-related environmental interactions of concern. The basic properties of materials are being investigated to develop or modify the materials as needed. A group simulation investigation is evaluating basic plasma interaction phenomena to provide inputs to the analytical modeling investigation. Systems performance is being evaluated by both groundbased tests and analysis.

  8. Progress of in-air microbeam system at the Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, K.; Nomachi, M.; Sugaya, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Komatsu, H.

    2011-10-01

    Modifications of an in-air microbeam system at the Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center designed to improve its performance are described. In the previous setup, a silicon nitride membrane (area: 1 × 1 mm2; thickness: 100 nm) was used for the beam exit window and the distance between the window and the sample was restricted to ⩾1.7 mm. Due to this restriction, the beam spot size obtained using the previous setup was 13 × 13 μm2. To reduce the beam spot size, the beam exit window was replaced by a silicon nitride membrane (area: 3 (horizontal) × 2 (vertical) mm2; thickness: 200 nm). In this setup, the sample can be moved as close as 0.7 mm to the window, enabling a beam spot size of 7 × 6 μm2 to be achieved. An additional Si-PIN X-ray detector was installed to estimate the relative number of beam particles. It detects X-rays from the beam exit window. The number of the X-rays from the beam exit window (which is proportional to the number of beam particles) is used for quantitative analysis and for online monitoring of the beam current. This system has the potential to be used for simultaneous particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) measurements and for studying dental medicine.

  9. Estimating Air Chemical Emissions from Research Activities Using Stack Measurement Data

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Duchsherer, Cheryl J.; Woodruff, Rodger K.; Larson, Timothy V.

    2013-02-15

    Current methods of estimating air emissions from research and development (R&D) activities use a wide range of release fractions or emission factors with bases ranging from empirical to semi-empirical. Although considered conservative, the uncertainties and confidence levels of the existing methods have not been reported. Chemical emissions were estimated from sampling data taken from four research facilities over ten years. The approach was to use a Monte Carlo technique to create distributions of annual emission estimates for target compounds detected in source test samples. Distributions were created for each year and building sampled for compounds with sufficient detection frequency to qualify for the analysis. The results using the Monte Carlo technique without applying a filter to remove negative emission values showed almost all distributions spanning zero, and forty percent of the distributions having a negative mean. This indicates that emissions are so low as to be indistinguishable from building background. Application of a filter to allow only positive values in the distribution provided a more realistic value for emissions and increased the distribution mean by an average of sixteen percent. Release fractions were calculated by dividing the emission estimates by a building chemical inventory quantity. Two variations were used for this quantity: chemical usage, and chemical usage plus one-half standing inventory. Filters were applied so that only release fraction values from zero to one were included in the resulting distributions. Release fractions had a wide range among chemicals and among data sets for different buildings and/or years for a given chemical. Regressions of release fractions to molecular weight and vapor pressure showed weak correlations. Similarly, regressions of mean emissions to chemical usage, chemical inventory, molecular weight and vapor pressure also gave weak correlations. These results highlight the difficulties in estimating

  10. Healthier Schools: A Review of State Policies for Improving Indoor Air Quality. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Tobie

    Existing indoor air quality (IAQ) policies for schools reflect the variety of institutional, political, social, and economic contexts that exist within individual states. The purpose of this report is to provide a better understanding of the types of policy strategies used by states in addressing general indoor air quality problems. The policies…

  11. Research report on the physiological effects of air ions and their significance as environmental factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varga, A.

    1978-01-01

    The series of experiments performed have shown that small air ions generated artificially using radioactive materials produced physiological effects in all test subjects, which are described. These results show that the air ions were important climatic factors in the production of comfortable and healthy room climates.

  12. Temperature and Humidity Independent Control Research on Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Wang, L. L.

    Taking green demonstration center building air conditioning system as an example, this paper presents the temperature and humidity independent control system combined with ground source heat pump system, emphasis on the design of dry terminal device system, fresh air system and ground source heat pump system.

  13. IMPACTS OF AIR POLLUTION AND CLIMATE CHANGE ON FOREST ECOSYSTEMS - EMERGING RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outcomes from the 22nd meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems "Forests under Anthropogenic Pressure - Effects of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Urban Development", September 10-16, 2006, Riverside, CA, USA are summarized. Tropospheric ozone is st...

  14. EPA RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS -- MODELS-3/CMAQ OFFERS COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH TO AIR QUALITY MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional and global coordinated efforts are needed to address air quality problems that are growing in complexity and scope. Models-3 CMAQ contains a community multi-scale air quality modeling system for simulating urban to regional scale pollution problems relating to troposphe...

  15. Air pollution control technology for municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion facilities: capabilities and research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, J F; Young, J C

    1980-09-01

    Three major categories of waste-to-energy conversion processes in full-scale operation or advanced demonstration stages in the US are co-combustion, mass incineration, and pyrolysis. These methods are described and some information on US conversion facilities is tabulated. Conclusions and recommendations dealing with the operation, performance, and research needs for these facilities are given. Section II identifies research needs concerning air pollution aspects of the waste-to-energy processes and reviews significant operating and research findings for the co-combustion, mass incinceration, and pyrolysis waste-to-energy systems.

  16. Optical laboratory facilities at the Finnish Meteorological Institute - Arctic Research Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakkala, Kaisa; Suokanerva, Hanne; Matti Karhu, Juha; Aarva, Antti; Poikonen, Antti; Karppinen, Tomi; Ahponen, Markku; Hannula, Henna-Reetta; Kontu, Anna; Kyrö, Esko

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the laboratory facilities at the Finnish Meteorological Institute - Arctic Research Centre (FMI-ARC, http://fmiarc.fmi.fi). They comprise an optical laboratory, a facility for biological studies, and an office. A dark room has been built, in which an optical table and a fixed lamp test system are set up, and the electronics allow high-precision adjustment of the current. The Brewer spectroradiometer, NILU-UV multifilter radiometer, and Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) spectroradiometer of the FMI-ARC are regularly calibrated or checked for stability in the laboratory. The facilities are ideal for responding to the needs of international multidisciplinary research, giving the possibility to calibrate and characterize the research instruments as well as handle and store samples.

  17. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  18. Exposure information in environmental health research: current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed

    McKone, Thomas E; Ryan, P Barry; Ozkaynak, Halûk

    2009-01-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health effect studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking, and accountability assessments are examples of health effect studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factor data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges, and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used case studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air-pollutant exposure to evaluate health effects for air pollution. One of the overarching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health effect studies requires both goal setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities for meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another overarching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure-assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media monitoring, and/or personal

  19. [Experimental research on combined water and air backwashing reactor technology for biological activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhi-Gang; Qiu, Xue-Min; Zhao, Yan-Ling

    2012-01-01

    To proper control the backwashing process of biological activated carbon (BAC) reactor and improve the overall operation performance, the evaluative indexes such as backwashing wastewater turbidity, organic pollutants removal rate of pre and post-backwashing, and the variation of biomass and biological activity in carbon column are used to compare and analyze the effect of three different combined water and air backwashing methods on the operation of BAC reactor. The result shows that intermittent combined water and air backwashing method is most suitable to BAC reactor. The biological activaty obviously increases by 62.5% after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process. While, the biological activaty using the backwashing method of air plus water and the backwashing method of water and air compounded plus water washing increases by 55.6%, 38.5%, respectively. After backwashing 308h, the reactor recovered to its normal function after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process with the removal rate of UV254 reaching to 60.0%. The fulvic-like fluorescence peak of backwashing water are very weak, and are characterized by low-excitation wavelength tryptophan like (peak S) and high excitation wavelength of tryptophan (peak T), which are caused by the microbial debris washed down. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectra also show that microbial fragments are easy to be washed clean with intermittent combined water and air backwashing.

  20. Air Force Research Laboratory Sensors Directorate Communications Branch History from 1960-2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    was formed as part of the Air Force Avionics Laboratory in 1960 up until the present date. It covers the highlights of the Branch’s activities, but is...GHz) airborne terminals which could operate with a variety of data rates up to 274 Mbps. The ABIT operational scenario consists of the Air-to-Air (A...Paramax developed the ADM hardware and delivered it to WPAFB in 1991 for installation into the flight test aircraft. The 4950th Test Wing installed

  1. Seamless Meteorology-Chemistry Modelling: Status and Relevance for Numerical Weather Prediction, Air Quality and Climate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; EuMetChem Team

    2015-04-01

    Online coupled meteorology atmospheric chemistry models have undergone a rapid evolution in recent years. Although mainly developed by the air quality modelling community, these models are also of interest for numerical weather prediction and climate modelling as they can consider not only the effects of meteorology on air quality, but also the potentially important effects of atmospheric composition on weather. Two ways of online coupling can be distinguished: online integrated and online access coupling. Online integrated models simulate meteorology and chemistry over the same grid in one model using one main timestep for integration. Online access models use independent meteorology and chemistry modules that might even have different grids, but exchange meteorology and chemistry data on a regular and frequent basis. This paper is an overall outcome of the European COST Action ES1004: European Framework for Online Integrated Air Quality and Meteorology Modelling (EuMetChem) and conclusions from the recently organized Symposium on Coupled Chemistry-Meteorology/Climate Modelling: Status and Relevance for Numerical Weather Prediction, Air Quality and Climate Research. It offers a review of the current research status of online coupled meteorology and atmospheric chemistry modelling, a survey of processes relevant to the interactions between atmospheric physics, dynamics and composition; and highlights selected scientific issues and emerging challenges that require proper consideration to improve the reliability and usability of these models for the three scientific communities: air quality, numerical meteorology modelling (including weather prediction) and climate modelling. It presents a synthesis of scientific progress and provides recommendations for future research directions and priorities in the development, application and evaluation of online coupled models.

  2. EPA Research Funding Aims to Improve Understanding of Climate Change Impacts on Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Harvard College is one of only nine institutions that will share nearly $8 million from the US Environmental Protection Agency to study how climate change affects indoor air quality and the resulting health effects.

  3. Rapid evolution of air pollution sensor technology for research and consumer product applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor air pollution measurement approaches have historically been conducted using stationary shelters that require significant space, power, and expertise to operate. The cost and logistical requirements to conduct monitoring have limited the number of locations with continuou...

  4. The Role of Unmanned Aerial Systems-Sensors in Air Quality Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) and miniaturized sensors for a variety of scientific and security purposes has rapidly increased. UASs include aerostats (tethered balloons) and remotely controlled, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including lighter-than-air vessels, fix...

  5. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  6. Biomarker as a Research Tool in Linking Exposure to Air Particles and Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Some of the environmental toxicants from air pollution include particulate matter (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and ultrafine particles (UFP). Both short- and long-term exposure could result in various degrees of respiratory health outcomes among exposed persons, which rely on the individuals' health status. Methods. In this paper, we highlight a review of the studies that have used biomarkers to understand the association between air particles exposure and the development of respiratory problems resulting from the damage in the respiratory system. Data from previous epidemiological studies relevant to the application of biomarkers in respiratory system damage reported from exposure to air particles are also summarized. Results. Based on these analyses, the findings agree with the hypothesis that biomarkers are relevant in linking harmful air particles concentrations to increased respiratory health effects. Biomarkers are used in epidemiological studies to provide an understanding of the mechanisms that follow airborne particles exposure in the airway. However, application of biomarkers in epidemiological studies of health effects caused by air particles in both environmental and occupational health is inchoate. Conclusion. Biomarkers unravel the complexity of the connection between exposure to air particles and respiratory health. PMID:25984536

  7. United States Air Force Summer Research Program 1991. Graduate Student Research Program (GSRP) Reports. Volume 6. Armstrong Laboratory, Wilford Hall Medical Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-09

    ANALYSIS Differences between groups and pre/ post detraining to baroreceptor stimulation and LBNP tolerance ,vill be determined using ANOVA and ANCOVA...objectives are to permit graduate students to participate in research under the direction of a faculty member at an Air Force la~cratory; stimulate ...10 system. They imp’ mented a spinal injury function and baseline response criteria using a three dimensional head-spine model for head mounted

  8. United States Air Force Research on Airfield Pavement Repairs Using Precast Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Slabs (BRIEFING SLIDES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-28

    AFRL-RX-TY-TP-2008-4582 POSTPRINT UNITED STATES AIR FORCE RESEARCH ON AIRFIELD PAVEMENT REPAIRS USING PRECAST PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE ...pavement Portland cement concrete (PCC) slab repairs using precast PCC slab panels. AFRL is leading the technology development by critically reviewing the...technology transfer activities including, but not limited to, training, reports and preparation of ETLs. 2 The use of precast concrete slabs for repair of

  9. Summer Research Program - 1997 Summer Faculty Research Program Volume 6 Arnold Engineering Development Center United States Air Force Academy Air Logistics Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    Looking Radar Signal Procesing a Literature Review DR Milton L Cone WL/AACF 5- 13 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University , Prescott , AZ Scheduling in the...Dayton , OH Develop an Explosive Simulated Testing Apparatus for Impact Physics Research at Wright Laboratory DR James S Marsh WL/MNSI 5- 46...compute the flow in the defined portion of the arc heater. Heat addition was used to simulate the joule heating process inside the arc heater. The Solver A

  10. Mexico City air quality research initiative, volume 3, modeling and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mauzy, A.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the modeling and simulation task was to develop, test, and apply an appropriate set of models that could translate emission changes into air quality changes. Specifically, we wanted to develop models that could describe how existing measurements of ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) would be expected to change if their emissions were changed. The modeling must be able to address the effects of difference in weather conditions and changes in land use as well as the effects of changes in emission levels. It must also be able to address the effects of changes in the nature and distribution of the emissions as well as changes in the total emissions. A second objective was to provide an understanding of the conditions that lead to poor air quality in Mexico City. We know in a general sense that Mexico City`s poor air quality is the result of large quantities of emissions in a confined area that is subject to light winds, but we did not know much about many aspects of the problem. For example, is the air quality on a given day primarily the result of emissions on that day...or is there an important carryover from previous nights and days? With a good understanding of the important meteorological circumstances that lead to poor air quality, we learn what it take duce an accurate forecast of impending quality so that we can determine the advisability of emergency measures.

  11. AIR SHIPMENT OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM THE BUDAPEST RESEARCH REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dewes, J.

    2014-02-24

    The shipment of spent nuclear fuel is usually done by a combination of rail, road or sea, as the high activity of the SNF needs heavy shielding. Air shipment has advantages, e.g. it is much faster than any other shipment and therefore minimizes the transit time as well as attention of the public. Up to now only very few and very special SNF shipments were done by air, as the available container (TUK6) had a very limited capacity. Recently Sosny developed a Type C overpack, the TUK-145/C, compliant with IAEA Standard TS-R-1 for the VPVR/M type Skoda container. The TUK-145/C was first used in Vietnam in July 2013 for a single cask. In October and November 2013 a total of six casks were successfully shipped from Hungary in three air shipments using the TUK-145/C. The present paper describes the details of these shipments and formulates the lessons learned.

  12. Introduction of correlative light and airSEMTM microscopy imaging for tissue research under ambient conditions

    PubMed Central

    Solomonov, Inna; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Milstein, Yonat; Addadi, Sefi; Aloshin, Anna; Sagi, Irit

    2014-01-01

    A complete fingerprint of a tissue sample requires a detailed description of its cellular and extracellular components while minimizing artifacts. We introduce the application of a novel scanning electron microscope (airSEMTM) in conjunction with light microscopy for functional analysis of tissue preparations at nanometric resolution (<10 nm) and under ambient conditions. Our metal-staining protocols enable easy and detailed visualization of tissues and their extracellular scaffolds. A multimodality imaging setup, featuring airSEMTM and a light microscope on the same platform, provides a convenient and easy-to-use system for obtaining structural and functional correlative data. The airSEMTM imaging station complements other existing imaging solutions and shows great potential for studies of complex biological systems. PMID:25100357

  13. Aeorodynamic characteristics of an air-exchanger system for the 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel at Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, V. J.; Schmidt, G. I.; Meyn, L. A.; Ortner, K. R.; Holmes, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    A 1/50-scale model of the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center was used to study various air-exchange configurations. System components were tested throughout a range of parameters, and approximate analytical relationships were derived to explain the observed characteristics. It is found that the efficiency of the air exchanger could be increased (1) by adding a shaped wall to smoothly turn the incoming air downstream, (2) by changing to a contoured door at the inlet to control the flow rate, and (3) by increasing the size of the exhaust opening. The static pressures inside the circuit then remain within the design limits at the higher tunnel speeds if the air-exchange rate is about 5% or more. Since the model is much smaller than the full-scale facility, it is not possible to completely duplicate the tunnel, and it will be necessary to measure such characteristics as flow rate and tunnel pressures during implementation of the remodeled facility. The aerodynamic loads estimated for the inlet door and for nearby walls are also presented.

  14. AirLab: a cloud-based platform to manage and share antibody-based single-cell research.

    PubMed

    Catena, Raúl; Özcan, Alaz; Jacobs, Andrea; Chevrier, Stephane; Bodenmiller, Bernd

    2016-06-29

    Single-cell analysis technologies are essential tools in research and clinical diagnostics. These methods include flow cytometry, mass cytometry, and other microfluidics-based technologies. Most laboratories that employ these methods maintain large repositories of antibodies. These ever-growing collections of antibodies, their multiple conjugates, and the large amounts of data generated in assays using specific antibodies and conditions makes a dedicated software solution necessary. We have developed AirLab, a cloud-based tool with web and mobile interfaces, for the organization of these data. AirLab streamlines the processes of antibody purchase, organization, and storage, antibody panel creation, results logging, and antibody validation data sharing and distribution. Furthermore, AirLab enables inventory of other laboratory stocks, such as primers or clinical samples, through user-controlled customization. Thus, AirLab is a mobile-powered and flexible tool that harnesses the capabilities of mobile tools and cloud-based technology to facilitate inventory and sharing of antibody and sample collections and associated validation data.

  15. The role of micronutrients in the response to ambient air pollutants: Potential mechanisms and suggestions for research design.

    PubMed

    Miller, Colette N; Rayalam, Srujana

    2017-01-01

    People living in regions of low socioeconomic status are thought to be prone to higher exposures to environmental pollutants, poor nutrition, and numerous preventable diseases and infections. Poverty correlates with pollution and malnutrition; however, limited studies examined their interrelationship. The well-studied, deleterious health effects attributed to environmental pollutants and poor nutrition may act in combination with produce more severe adverse health outcomes than any one factor alone. Deficiencies in specific nutrients render the body more susceptible to injury which may influence the pathways that serve as the mechanistic responses to ambient air pollutants. This review (1) explores specific micronutrients that are of global concern, (2) explains how these nutrients may impact the body's response to ambient air pollution, and (3) provides guidance on designing animal models of nutritional deficiency. It is likely that those individuals who reside in regions of high ambient air pollution are similarly malnourished. Therefore, it is important that research identifies specific nutrients of concern and their impact in identified regions of high ambient air pollution.

  16. Legal and security requirements for the air transportation of cyanotoxins and toxigenic cyanobacterial cells for legitimate research and analytical purposes.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, J S; Meriluoto, J A O; Codd, G A

    2006-05-25

    Cyanotoxins are now recognised by international and national health and environment agencies as significant health hazards. These toxins, and the cells which produce them, are also vulnerable to exploitation for illegitimate purposes. Cyanotoxins are increasingly being subjected to national and international guidelines and regulations governing their production, storage, packaging and transportation. In all of these respects, cyanotoxins are coming under the types of controls imposed on a wide range of chemicals and other biotoxins of microbial, plant and animal origin. These controls apply whether cyanotoxins are supplied on a commercial basis, or stored and transported in non-commercial research collaborations and programmes. Included are requirements concerning the transportation of these toxins as documented by the United Nations, the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and national government regulations. The transportation regulations for "dangerous goods", which by definition include cyanotoxins, cover air mail, air freight, and goods checked in and carried on flights. Substances include those of determined toxicity and others of suspected or undetermined toxicity, covering purified cyanotoxins, cyanotoxin-producing laboratory strains and environmental samples of cyanobacteria. Implications of the regulations for the packaging and air-transport of dangerous goods, as they apply to cyanotoxins and toxigenic cyanobacteria, are discussed.

  17. Design and construction of cage environments for air ion and electric field research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yost, M. G.; Kellogg, E. W.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes the design and construction of cage environments suitable for chronic exposures of large groups of mice to air ions and electric fields. These environments provide defined and reproducible ion densities, ion flux, DC electric fields, sound levels, air temperature and air quality. When used during a 2 year study, these cage environments served as a durable and reliable continuous exposure system. Three environmental chambers (cubicles) housed a total of 12 cages and provided control of air temperature, air purity and lighting. Exposure cages had grounded metal exterior walls, a plexiglass door and interior walls lined with formica. An internal isolated field plate supplemented with guard wires, energized with ca 1000 VDC, created about a 2 kV/m electric field at the grounded cage floor. Air ions resulted from the beta emission of sealed tritium foils mounted on the field plate. Cages provided high ion (1.3×105 ions/cc), low ion (1.6×103 ions/cc) and field only (ion depleted < 50 ions/cc) conditions for both polarities with similar electric fields in ionized and field only cages. Detailed mapping of the floor level ion flux using 100 cm2 flat probes gave average fluxes of 880 fA cm-2 in high ion cages and 10 fA cm-2 in low ion cages. Whole body currents measured using live anesthethized mice in high ion cages averaged 104±63 pA. Both ion flux and whole body currents remained constant over time, indicating no charge accumulation on body fur or cage wall surfaces in this exposure system.

  18. A review of Air Force high efficiency cascaded multiple bandgap solar cell research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahilly, W. P.

    1979-01-01

    At the time of their conception, the cell stack systems to be discussed represent the best semiconductor materials combinations to achieve Air Force program goals. These systems are investigated thoroughly and the most promising systems, from the standpoint of high efficiency, are taken for further development with large area emphasized (at least 4 sq cm). The emphasis in the Air Force cascaded cell program is placed on eventual nonconcentrator application. This use of the final cell design considerably relieves the low resistance requirements for the tunnel junction. In a high concentration application the voltage drop across the tunnel junction can be a very serious problem.

  19. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Contents include the following: airline deregulation in Australia: a medium term assessment; why can't Japan deregulate the airline industry and open the sky immediately?; toward a market-oriented air transport system?: present developments in Russian civil aviation performance and policy; the asian economic crisis and its implications for aviation policy in asia pacific: industry outlook approaching the next millennium; a tale of two airlines: the post privatization performance of two caribbean airlines: the role of capital productivity in British Airways' financial recovery; airline privatization: does it matter?; airfright demand: responding to new developments in logistics; and air cargo business relationships.

  20. Research and demonstration to improve air quality for the U.S. animal feeding operations in the 21st century - a critical review.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ji-Qin

    2015-05-01

    There was an increasing interest in reducing production and emission of air pollutants to improve air quality for animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the U.S. in the 21st century. Research was focused on identification, quantification, characterization, and modeling of air pollutions; effects of emissions; and methodologies and technologies for scientific research and pollution control. Mitigation effects were on pre-excretion, pre-release, pre-emission, and post-emission. More emphasis was given on reducing pollutant emissions than improving indoor air quality. Research and demonstrations were generally continuation and improvement of previous efforts. Most demonstrated technologies were still in a limited scale of application. Future efforts are needed in many fundamental and applied research areas. Advancement in instrumentation, computer technology, and biological sciences and genetic engineering is critical to bring major changes in this area. Development in research and demonstration will depend on the actual political, economic, and environmental situations.

  1. Integrating research on wildland fires and air quality: needs and recommendations

    EPA Science Inventory

    A summary is presented that integrates general information on the causes and effects of wildland fires and emissions with various ecological impacts of forest fires and air pollution in forests and other ecosystems. We also synthesize information on the regional effects of wildl...

  2. Contributions to Climate Research Using the AIRS Science Team Version-5 Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares recent spatial anomaly time series of OLR (Outgoing Longwave Radiation) and OLRCLR (Clear Sky OLR) as determined using CERES and AIRS observations over the time period September 2002 through June 2010. We find excellent agreement in OLR anomaly time series of both data sets in almost every detail, down to the 1 x 1 spatial grid point level. This extremely close agreement of OLR anomaly time series derived from observations by two different instruments implies that both sets of results must be highly stable. This agreement also validates to some extent the anomaly time series of the AIRS derived products used in the computation of the AIRS OLR product. The paper then examines anomaly time series of AIRS derived products over the extended time period September 2002 through April 2011. We show that OLR anomalies during this period are closely in phase with those of an El Nino index, and that recent global and tropical mean decreases in OLR and OLR(sub CLR) are a result of a transition from an El Nino condition at the beginning of the data record to La Nina conditions toward the end of the data period. This relationship can be explained by temporal changes of the distribution of mid-tropospheric water vapor and cloud cover in two spatial regions that are in direct response to El Nino/La Nina activity which occurs outside these spatial regions

  3. The Advanced Guided Weapon Testbed (AGWT) at the Air Force Research Laboratory Munitions Directorate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Performance Fighter Twin Turbine Helicopter Supersonic Cruise Missile Boosting Theater Target Deploying Post-Boost Vehicle Strategic Reentry Vehicle...High Performance Fighter Twin Turbine Helicopter Supersonic Cruise Missile Figure 17. Air breathing and ballistic missile RTC outputs in various...radiation and convection heat loads. It also models external source effects, including solar reflection, earth shine, and plume impingement. Over the

  4. Evaluation of cloudy data as stable references for climate research using AIRS and IRIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Jiang, Yibo; Elliott, Denis A.

    2011-10-01

    We explore the use cloudy data, including Deep Convective Clouds (DCC) in the tropical oceans for the evaluation of the absolute calibration accuracy and stability of infrared radiometers. For the evaluation of cloudy data we use random nadir samples. We illustrate the method with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data and data from the Infrared Interferometric Spectrometer (IRIS) in the tropical oceans. AIRS is on the EOS Aqua satellite, which was launched in May 2002 and is expected to continue to produce high quality data until 2015. Two copies of IRIS flew on Nimbus satellites between April 1970 and January 1971. Based on inconsistencies between AIRS and IRIS data, the absolute accuracy of the IRIS data is about 1K, including a significant day/night bias. Part of the observed radiometric bias may have been introduced by quality control, which senses a temperature and spatial uniformity dependent degradation of instrument performance. The observed biases are larger than the 0.5K accuracy claimed in the literature. This absolute calibration uncertainty has to be taken into account in the analysis of changes in the more than 30 year time span between IRIS and AIRS, before they can be attributed to changes in the clouds or the climate. The method described in this paper can be applied retrospectively to any infrared radiometer like HIRS, AVHRR and GOES. It has the capability to exposes instrument artifacts, which are not apparent from the routine quality control of the data.

  5. Research Opportunities for Cancer Associated with Indoor Air Pollution from Solid-Fuel Combustion

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Indoor air pollution (IAP) derived largely from the use of solid fuels for cooking and heating affects about 3 billion people worldwide, resulting in substantial adverse health outcomes, including cancer. Women and children from developing countries are the most expos...

  6. STATUS OF RESEARCH ON AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER. (R827649)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Quality Conference reviewed the state of science and policy on the pollutants mercury, trace elements, and particulate matter (PM) in the environment. Critical issues dealing with impacts on health and ecosystems, emission prevention and control, measurement methods, a...

  7. The Role of Unmanned Aerial Systems/Sensors in Air Quality Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for a variety of scientific and security purposes has rapidly increased. UASs include aerostats (tethered balloons) and remotely controlled, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including lighter-than-air vessels, fixed wing airplanes, and he...

  8. An inventory of aeronautical ground research facilities. Volume 2: Air breathing engine test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirrello, C. J.; Hardin, R. D.; Heckart, M. V.; Brown, K. R.

    1971-01-01

    The inventory covers free jet and direct connect altitude cells, sea level static thrust stands, sea level test cells with ram air, and propulsion wind tunnels. Free jet altitude cells and propulsion wind tunnels are used for evaluation of complete inlet-engine-exhaust nozzle propulsion systems under simulated flight conditions. These facilities are similar in principal of operation and differ primarily in test section concept. The propulsion wind tunnel provides a closed test section and restrains the flow around the test specimen while the free jet is allowed to expand freely. A chamber of large diameter about the free jet is provided in which desired operating pressure levels may be maintained. Sea level test cells with ram air provide controlled, conditioned air directly to the engine face for performance evaluation at low altitude flight conditions. Direct connect altitude cells provide a means of performance evaluation at simulated conditions of Mach number and altitude with air supplied to the flight altitude conditions. Sea level static thrust stands simply provide an instrumented engine mounting for measuring thrust at zero airspeed. While all of these facilities are used for integrated engine testing, a few provide engine component test capability.

  9. CHOOSING A CHEMICAL MECHANISM FOR REGULATORY AND RESEARCH AIR QUALITY MODELING APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous, different chemical mechanisms currently available for use in air quality models, and new mechanisms and versions of mechanisms are continually being developed. The development of Morphecule-type mechanisms will add a near-infinite number of additional mecha...

  10. 75 FR 9894 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... in Ambient Air TSP by Hot Plate Acid Extraction and ICP-MS Analysis.'' In this method, total...), extracted on a hot plate with 3M HNO 3 according to 40 CFR Appendix G to part 50, EPA Reference Method for... Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) based on EPA SW-846 Method 6020A. The application for...

  11. Science and Technology: The Making of the Air Force Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Jr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Blaise Durante . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Ms. Wendy...of the Air Force, gave her perspective on the single lab. Also, Mr. Blaise Du ran te , who briefed Secretary Widnall on the final single-lab proposal...which reported di- rectly to General Viccellio. Russo also routinely interacted with Blaise Durante , deputy ass is tant secretary for manage

  12. Institutional Research: What Should We Expect? Defining and Exceeding Campus Expectations. AIR 1995 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.; Kerr, Helen S.

    Expectations and roles of institutional researchers in higher education institutions are considered, as well as the question of what a research office should expect from its institution. A performance monitoring system for the assessment and continuous improvement of institutional research is also proposed. Ways that institutional research can be…

  13. Air Sensor Toolbox

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  14. Next-generation air monitoring – an overview of EPA research to develop real-time instrumentation packages for stationary and mobile monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards small-scale, real-time, wireless detectors, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development is evaluating and developi...

  15. AIR 1981-82. Forum 1981 Proceedings: Toward 2001: The IR Perspective (Minneapolis, Minnesota, May 17-20). The Association for Institutional Research Directory, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Institutional Research.

    Proceedings of the 1981 Association for Institutional Research (AIR) Forum and the 1981-82 AIR Directory are presented in a single volume. General session addresses and authors from the forum are as follows: "Some Possible Revolutions by 2001" (Michael Marien); "Information, the Non-Depletive Resource" (John W. Lacey);…

  16. Three Northwest Institutions Receive Funding from EPA for Research to Better Understand the Effects of Climate Change on Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - July 28, 2015) On July 21, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced its continued commitment to improving America's indoor air quality by providing almost $8 million to fund nine institutions, including three in the Northwest, research

  17. Research on inert gas narcosis and air velocity effects on metabolic performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The effects of air velocity on metabolic performance are studied by using high forced airflow in a closed environment as a mechanism to control the concentration of volatile animal wastes. Air velocities between 100 and 200 ft/min are without significant effects on the metabolism of rats. At velocities of 200 ft/min and above, oxygen consumption and CO2 production as well as food consumption increase. In most instances, the changes are on the order of 5-10%. At the same time, the RQ for the animals increases slightly and generally correlates well with oxygen consumption and CO2 production. Experiments on the nature of inert gas narcosis show that halothane and methoxyflurane are rather potent inhibitors of the NADH:O2 oxidoreductase system in rats. These experiments suggest that the mechanism of inert gas narcosis is not mandatorily related to a membrane surface phenomenon.

  18. Progress report on Bertelsen research and development of an air cushion crawler all-terrain vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertelsen, W. R.

    1987-06-01

    The ACV is an exceptional amphibian but it is not, nor is any other existing craft, an all-terrain vehicle (ATV). Using the best elements of the ACV in an air-cushion crawler tractor, a true ATV can be attained. A conventional crawler drive train will propel two tracks as pressurized, propulsive pontoons. The key to a successful ATV is in perfecting efficient, durable, sliding seals to allow the belt to move in its orbit around the track unit and maintain its internal pressure. After deriving the adequate seal, a 12 inch wide x 86 inch long endless rubber belt was fitted bilateral seals and slide plates with internal guide wheels fore and aft with a 21 inch wheel base. From this approximately one-quarter scale model, full-scale air track crawlers, true ATVs, of any size and capacity can be produced.

  19. United States Air Force Graduate Student Research Program. 1989 Program Technical Report. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    97601 (503) 882-6321 Kerry Christopher Degree: BS West Florida, Univ. of Specialty: Physical Science 11000 University Parkway Assigned: Flight Dynamics...DYNAMICS LABORATORY (FDL) (Wright-Patterson Air Force Base) 1. John Baker 4. Bryan Foos 2. Kerry Christopher 5. Genevieve Huston 3. Nancy Faulkner 6...Schemes for Accelerated Kerry Christopher Crazing Tests and X3D - A Finite Element Analysis Code 60 Neural Networks and their Role in Nancy Faulkner

  20. Final Environmental Assessment, Assured Aerospace Fuels Research Facility, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    RAPCA Regional Air Pollution Control Agency RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act RI Remedial Investigation RO reverse osmosis ROD Record of...compressor needed to provide high pressure compressed natural gas (CNG) feed. In addition, there would not be adequate space for ancillary support...include reverse osmosis (RO) water, CNG, N2 gas, H2 and CO gas, a catalyst, and cooling water. The Reformer requires 28 gallons per hour of RO water to

  1. Unique, clean-air, continuous-flow, high-stagnation-temperature facility for supersonic combustion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauss, R. H.; Mcdaniel, J. C., Jr.; Scott, J. E., Jr.; Whitehurst, R. B., III; Segal, C.

    1988-01-01

    Accurate, spatially-resolved measurements can be conducted of a model supersonic combustor in a clean air/continuous flow supersonic combustion facility whose long run times will allow not only the point-by-point mapping of flow field variables with laser diagnostics but facilitate the simulation of steady-state combustor conditions. The facility will provide a Mach 2 freestream with static pressures in the 1 to 1/6 atm range, and stagnation temperatures of up to 2000 K.

  2. The GaAs solar cell research and development programs of the Air Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masloski, K. T.

    1980-01-01

    The compound GaAs is of interest for space application photovoltaics due to its inherent advantages over silicon. Higher efficiencies, superior radiation hardness, and a greater temperature resistance are the major advantages of GaAs over Si. Air Force programs look for ways of maximizing these advantages while minimizing disadvantages such as higher costs and weights. Four programs in GaAs photovoltaics are described and each program is discussed in terms of its objective, approach and status.

  3. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program for 1988. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    D. R., and Golovin , M. N., "Enhanced Energy Coupling Phenomena: A State-of-the-Art Survey and Assessment," Air Force Armament Laboratory, Eglin AFB...PPM) (PPM) (PPM) 1-6 9380 8755 625 625 100% 2-1 3000 200 2800 5700 49% 2-6 3090 270 2820 7350 38% 2-11 1940 370 1570 6940 23% 1-10 2830 1250 1580 6020

  4. Forty Years of Research and Development at Griffiss Air Force Base, June 1951-June 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    Broadband Tee Sections Sperry Gyroscope Co. developed and constructed tees for all standard waveguide sizes for the frequency range 2600 to 40,000...Co. for rework, since it did not conform to Air Force specifications. Broadband Transmission Line Adapters RADC accepted delivery of two waveguide-to...type "N" adapters from Microwave Development Laboratory. The broadband transmission line adapter series developed under this program would cover the

  5. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program (1987). Program Technical Report. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Specialty: Psychology Dept. of Behavioral Sciences Assigned: HRL/MO Drury College Springfield, MO 65802 (417) 865-8731 ’, Dr. Alastair McAulay Degree...PROGRAM Technical Report Number Title Professor Volume I 1 Vaporization Behavior of Multicomponent Dr. Suresh K. Aggerwal Fuel Droplets in a Hot Air...Diwan Titanium Aluminides: A Study of Dynamic Material Modeling Behavior 39 Ada and Artificial Intelligence Dr. Verlynda S. Dobbs Applications for

  6. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program for 1987. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    Measurement of Electron Excitation Cross Sections of Atoms and Molecules in the Near Infrared 760-7MG-074 Rome Air Development Center 38 Superconductor...image metrics; continue to sur- vey the literature. 3. Investigate in depth surface complexity measures of differential geometry and algebraic topology...proposals was made by the contractor. Evaluation criteria consisted of: 1. Technical Excellence of the proposal 2. Continuation of the SFRP effort 3. -Cost

  7. Michigan/Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Collaborative Center in Control Science (MACCCS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    efficient aerodynamic heating and thermal protection system model are added to MASIV, a reduced-order model of a generic scramjet-powered hypersonic vehicle...is often the largest source of heating in hypersonic air-breathing vehicles. The thermal protection system consists of passive insulation and active...Transportation (Energy Efficient Transportation Systems 2012), Paris, France, 2012, Accepted. Perpetual Flight on Flow Fields (Girard, Bencatel

  8. In Service to the Nation: Air Force Research Institute Strategic Concept for 2018-2023

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Cacadia Subduction Zone off the Oregon/Washington coast places McChord AFB at risk. To the East, Hill AFB lies in the Wasatch Fault Zone . Further east...by a century’s long preoccupation with protecting itself via a regional zone of influence. However, the demographic concerns of a low birth rate will... zones . Access to theater airspace and airfields throughout the world presents a major limiting factor to air-mobility operations. Through- out the

  9. United States Air Force Graduate Student Research Program. Program Technical rept. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    VA 24061 (703) 961-6326 Darwin L. Boyd Degree: B.S. Physics, 1982 Dept. of Physics Specialty: Condensed Matter Physics Kent State University Assigned...Pidcoe 5. Peter Gaddis 10. Douglas Sego MATERIALS LABORATORY (ML) (Wright-Patterson Air Force Base) 1. James Angelo 6. Jeff Simmons 2. Darwin Boyd 7...Arsinide and Aluminum Gallium Arsinide Materials 60 Analytical and Numerical Solutions of Darwin Boyd the Nonlinear Diffusion Equation 61 QPA Control of

  10. United States Air Force Graduate Student Research Program for 1990. Program Technical Report. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-05

    Biology Dept. of Biology Assigned: School of Aerospace Medicine 202 Boyden Hall Newark, NJ 07102 (201)648-1076 Blaise Fitzpatrick Degree: BS Rhode Island...Alan Coleman 2. Tamnmie Confer ENGINEERING AND SERVICES CENTER (ESC) (Tyndall Air Force Base) 1. Joseph Bemardo 4. Mary Reid 2. Blaise Fitzpatrick 5...Bemardo Species From Growth on Isomers of Nitrotoluene 27 A Specimen Preparation Technique for Miscrostructural Blaise Fitzpatrick Analysis of Unsaturated

  11. A novel method for pulmonary research: assessment of bioenergetic function at the air-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weiling; Janocha, Allison J; Leahy, Rachel A; Klatte, Ryan; Dudzinski, Dave; Mavrakis, Lori A; Comhair, Suzy A A; Lauer, Mark E; Cotton, Calvin U; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2014-01-01

    Air-liquid interface cell culture is an organotypic model for study of differentiated functional airway epithelium in vitro. Dysregulation of cellular energy metabolism and mitochondrial function have been suggested to contribute to airway diseases. However, there is currently no established method to determine oxygen consumption and glycolysis in airway epithelium in air-liquid interface. In order to study metabolism in differentiated airway epithelial cells, we engineered an insert for the Seahorse XF24 Analyzer that enabled the measure of respiration by oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and glycolysis by extracellular acidification rate (ECAR). Oxidative metabolism and glycolysis in airway epithelial cells cultured on the inserts were successfully measured. The inserts did not affect the measures of OCR or ECAR. Cells under media with apical and basolateral feeding had less oxidative metabolism as compared to cells on the inserts at air-interface with basolateral feeding. The design of inserts that can be used in the measure of bioenergetics in small numbers of cells in an organotypic state may be useful for evaluation of new drugs and metabolic mechanisms that underlie airway diseases.

  12. Science and Institutional Research: The Links. AIR 1991 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, E. Bernadette; Hindera, John J.

    This paper compares the process and structure of institutional research with three ways of conceptualizing science. The first section examines the scientific method as a process of disciplined inquiry, then compares institutional research to that process. The second section compares the logical structure of institutional research with the logical…

  13. Achieving Quality within Funding Constraints: The Potential Contribution of Institutional Research. AIR 1995 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Bruce

    How institutional research can improve the quality of institutional performance of colleges and universities in the face of funding constraints is discussed. An example of the use of instructional research to assist in documenting institutional quality in Australia is noted. Institutional research uses data collection, analysis, and interpretation…

  14. Power and Thermal Technologies for Air and Space-Scientific Research Program. Delivery Order 0012: High-Temperature Superconductor Performance Enhancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TR-2010-2167 POWER AND THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR AIR AND SPACE‒SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PROGRAM Delivery Order 0012: High -Temperature...AND SUBTITLE POWER AND THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR AIR AND SPACE‒SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PROGRAM Delivery Order 0012: High -Temperature Superconductor...electrically connect them to the substrate. 4) Develop improved measurement techniques and standards of measurement for properties of high temperature

  15. Modelling air pollution for epidemiologic research--part II: predicting temporal variation through land use regression.

    PubMed

    Mölter, A; Lindley, S; de Vocht, F; Simpson, A; Agius, R

    2010-12-01

    Over recent years land use regression (LUR) has become a frequently used method in air pollution exposure studies, as it can model intra-urban variation in pollutant concentrations at a fine spatial scale. However, very few studies have used the LUR methodology to also model the temporal variation in air pollution exposure. The aim of this study is to estimate annual mean NO(2) and PM(10) concentrations from 1996 to 2008 for Greater Manchester using land use regression models. The results from these models will be used in the Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study (MAAS) birth cohort to determine health effects of air pollution exposure. The Greater Manchester LUR model for 2005 was recalibrated using interpolated and adjusted NO(2) and PM(10) concentrations as dependent variables for 1996-2008. In addition, temporally resolved variables were available for traffic intensity and PM(10) emissions. To validate the resulting LUR models, they were applied to the locations of automatic monitoring stations and the estimated concentrations were compared against measured concentrations. The 2005 LUR models were successfully recalibrated, providing individual models for each year from 1996 to 2008. When applied to the monitoring stations the mean prediction error (MPE) for NO(2) concentrations for all stations and years was -0.8μg/m³ and the root mean squared error (RMSE) was 6.7μg/m³. For PM(10) concentrations the MPE was 0.8μg/m³ and the RMSE was 3.4μg/m³. These results indicate that it is possible to model temporal variation in air pollution through LUR with relatively small prediction errors. It is likely that most previous LUR studies did not include temporal variation, because they were based on short term monitoring campaigns and did not have historic pollution data. The advantage of this study is that it uses data from an air dispersion model, which provided concentrations for 2005 and 2010, and therefore allowed extrapolation over a longer time period.

  16. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Zogg, Robert; Young, Jim; Schmidt, Justin

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  17. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report covers an assessment of 182 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, description of technical maturity, description of non-energy benefits, description of current barriers for market adoption, and description of the technology’s applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  18. [Responses of rice growth and development to free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE): A research review].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lianxin; Wang, Yulong; Huang, Jianye; Yang, Hongjian; Liu, Hongjiang

    2006-07-01

    The ongoing increasing of atmospheric CO2 has become a hot topic in the last two decades due to its profound impact on crop growth and development. Oryza sativa L. (rice) is one of the most important crops in the world and the first food in China. This paper reviewed the results based on chamber-based experiments, mainly focused on the effects of free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) on the photosynthesis, water relationship, growth stage, leaf and root growth, dry matter production and distribution, chemical composition, and grain yield and quality of rice crop. The further research directions in this field were discussed.

  19. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Volume 3. Air Force Abstracts of Phase 1 Awards 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    achieving high-energy products and coerciviy. Thin-films of RCOS and PR2FEt7NX ( X = 2 - 3) using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is described, herein...of a solid oxidizer propellant. 3 AIR FORCE SBIR PHASE I AWARDS ADVANCED FUEL RESEARCH, INC. Topic#: 92-143 HD #: 92WL.&069 87 CHURCH STREET Office: WL...surfaces. Potential Phase II experiments which would explore A1203 exhaust particle catalysis of C IOX and no X reservoir compounds are also discussed

  20. The Cosmic Ray Observatory Project in Nebraska -- a education and research project to study extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, G. R.

    2005-12-01

    The Cosmic Ray Observatory Project (CROP) is a statewide education and research experiment involving Nebraska high school students, teachers, and college undergraduates in the study of extensive cosmic-ray air showers. A network of high school teams construct, install, and operate school-based detectors in coordination with University of Nebraska physics professors and graduate students. The detector system at each school is an array of scintillation counters recycled from the Chicago Air Shower Array in weather-proof enclosures on the school roof, with a GPS receiver providing a time stamp for cosmic-ray events. The detectors are connected to triggering electronics and a data-acquisition PC inside the building. Students share data via the Internet to search for time coincidences with other sites. CROP has enlisted 26 schools in its first 5 years of operation with the aim of expanding to the 314 high schools in the state over the next several years. Recent successes and prelinimary data on air shower searches will be presented. The outlook for statewise expansion will be discussed.

  1. Air Toxics Under the Big Sky: examining the effectiveness of authentic scientific research on high school students' science skills and interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Tony J.; Delaloye, Naomi; Adams, Earle Raymond; Ware, Desirae; Vanek, Diana; Knuth, Randy; Hester, Carolyn Laurie; Marra, Nancy Noel; Holian, Andrij

    2016-04-01

    Air Toxics Under the Big Sky is an environmental science outreach/education program that incorporates the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) 8 Practices with the goal of promoting knowledge and understanding of authentic scientific research in high school classrooms through air quality research. This research explored: (1) how the program affects student understanding of scientific inquiry and research and (2) how the open-inquiry learning opportunities provided by the program increase student interest in science as a career path. Treatment students received instruction related to air pollution (airborne particulate matter), associated health concerns, and training on how to operate air quality testing equipment. They then participated in a yearlong scientific research project in which they developed and tested hypotheses through research of their own design regarding the sources and concentrations of air pollution in their homes and communities. Results from an external evaluation revealed that treatment students developed a deeper understanding of scientific research than did comparison students, as measured by their ability to generate good hypotheses and research designs, and equally expressed an increased interest in pursuing a career in science. These results emphasize the value of and need for authentic science learning opportunities in the modern science classroom.

  2. CLOUDS, AEROSOLS, RADIATION AND THE AIR-SEA INTERFACE OF THE SOUTHERN OCEAN: ESTABLISHING DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Robert; Bretherton, Chris; McFarquhar, Greg; Protat, Alain; Quinn, Patricia; Siems, Steven; Jakob, Christian; Alexander, Simon; Weller, Bob

    2014-09-29

    A workshop sponsored by the Department of Energy was convened at the University of Washington to discuss the state of knowledge of clouds, aerosols and air-sea interaction over the Southern Ocean and to identify strategies for reducing uncertainties in their representation in global and regional models. The Southern Ocean plays a critical role in the global climate system and is a unique pristine environment, yet other than from satellite, there have been sparse observations of clouds, aerosols, radiation and the air-sea interface in this region. Consequently, much is unknown about atmospheric and oceanographic processes and their linkage in this region. Approximately 60 scientists, including graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and senior researchers working in atmospheric and oceanic sciences at U.S. and foreign universities and government laboratories, attended the Southern Ocean Workshop. It began with a day of scientific talks, partly in plenary and partly in two parallel sessions, discussing the current state of the science for clouds, aerosols and air-sea interaction in the Southern Ocean. After the talks, attendees broke into two working groups; one focused on clouds and meteorology, and one focused on aerosols and their interactions with clouds. This was followed by more plenary discussion to synthesize the two working group discussions and to consider possible plans for organized activities to study clouds, aerosols and the air-sea interface in the Southern Ocean. The agenda and talk slides, including short summaries of the highlights of the parallel session talks developed by the session chars, are available at http://www.atmos.washington.edu/socrates/presentations/SouthernOceanPresentations/.

  3. Research and application of air mercury measurement based on transverse Zeeman background correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Si, Fuqi; Zeng, Yi; Li, Chuangxin; Liu, Wenqing

    2016-10-01

    Mercury is known as a highly toxic metal, which will have a significant health hazard to the human body. To monitor the trace mercury pollution in air, the development of monitoring instruments has been conducted. In this paper the mercury analyzer is developed based on the cold atomic absorption spectrometry theory by exploiting the transverse Zeeman-Effect background correction technology. The experiments have been done to test the performance of the system. At the same time, the same experiments with RA-915 mercury analyzer have been done to compare with the results. First, zero gas was measured for an hour and high concentration mercury sample gas was measured for four days. The results of zero gas shows that the detection limit of the system is 2.19ng/m3 and the standard deviation is 0.73. The concentration fluctuation is within a tight range of +/-1.5ng/m3. The results of high concentration sample gas are in good agreement with the results of RA-915, and the correlation coefficient is 0.95. Second, laboratory air was measured for 12 hours. The results compared with RA-915 are in good agreement and have the same variation trend. Additionally, the atmospheric mercury concentration near the non-ferrous metal smelter in Tongling city has been measured by the system and the RA-915. The measurement results from two analyzers have a good linear correlation with correlation coefficient of 0.98 and slope of 1.027. It indicates that the system has accurate background correction ability, low detection limit and is applicable to long-term air mercury on-line monitoring.

  4. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume IV. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Mauzy, A.

    1994-04-01

    This volume describes the methods and the data gathered in an attempt to measure and characterize the meteorological factors and the concentration of different pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The main objective of this document was to provide input for the simulation models and to obtain information that could be used to test and improve the models` performance. Four field campaigns were conducted, as well as routine monitoring, in order to obtain a database of atmospheric dynamics and air pollution characteristics. Sections include Airborne measurements, Remote sensing measurements, and Traditional (in situ) measurements.

  5. CFD simulation analysis and research based on engine air intake system of automotive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xia; Yan, Hua Jin; Tian, Ning; Zhao, GuoQi

    2017-01-01

    Traditional method for the design of automotive engine intake system has many issues, such as period, high costs, energy consumption and so on. The paper utilized one kind of CFD numerical simulation analysis based on the basic theory of CFD. It use the three-dimensional geometry modal grid, computational modeling and model analysis to identify the turbulence due to unreasonable design of air filter inlet position, and then through the test to verify the correctness of the results of CFD calculations. It provide a theoretical basis for the intake system structural optimization.

  6. Research Update: Direct conversion of amorphous carbon into diamond at ambient pressures and temperatures in air

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, Jagdish Bhaumik, Anagh

    2015-10-01

    We report on fundamental discovery of conversion of amorphous carbon into diamond by irradiating amorphous carbon films with nanosecond lasers at room-temperature in air at atmospheric pressure. We can create diamond in the form of nanodiamond (size range <100 nm) and microdiamond (>100 nm). Nanosecond laser pulses are used to melt amorphous diamondlike carbon and create a highly undercooled state, from which various forms of diamond can be formed upon cooling. The quenching from the super undercooled state results in nucleation of nanodiamond. It is found that microdiamonds grow out of highly undercooled state of carbon, with nanodiamond acting as seed crystals.

  7. United States Air Force Graduate Student Research Program. Program Technical rept. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    synthesized by the dihydroboration of 2,5-Dimethyl-1,5-hexadiene using the procedure of Brown. D. 2,5-Dimethyl- l -hexanol was...REPRODUCE LEGIBLY. BEST AVAILABLE COPY 4 1! I I- V 4~~~~~1 ’’ i’ A l ’ ’S i ’""~~’utrRoll V ’’j~ i ’:$P~ji 4 .;~~5 A, i’ *, UNITED STATES AIR FORCE GRADUATE...University Assigned: Human Resources Laboratory: One Brookings Drive Operations Training Div. Campus Box 1125 St. Louis, MO 63130 (314) 889-6536 Joel L .

  8. Effects of transportation on energy and air quality. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    Partial Contents: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Programs: Applicability of Government Incentives; Transitional Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Model; Forecasting Cost Path of Electric Vehicle Drive System: Monte Carlo Experience Curve Simulation; Another Way to Go. Some Implications of Light-duty Diesel Strategy; Use of Episodic Controls to Reduce Frequency and Severity of Air Pollution Events; Conformity: Long-Term Prognoses for Selected Ozone Nonattainment Areas in California; Development of Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model: Operating Under Hot-Stabilized Conditions; and Implications of Transient Mode Duration for Spatially Disaggregated High-Resolution Emission Inventory Studies.

  9. United States Air Force Academy, Department of Chemistry Research: AY 1983-1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    CODES 18- SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necesarv and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB. GR Chemical Research, Energetic Materials ...Department of Chemistry research during AY 1983-84 has progressed well in the areas of energetic materials , theoretical chemistry, and catalysis...Abstract Department of Che .try research durinq AY 1983-84 has pro- gressed well in the areas of energetic materials , theoretical chem

  10. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program. Management Report. Volume 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    off between the two tasks. This finding has major implications for a multiple resources theory of attention. However, several problems with the optimum...performance, and physiological measures of workload. My past research interests have been in the area of multiple resources theory of attention and its...suggested that the different strategies placed different demands on the subject. This research, as well as my research in the area of multiple resources

  11. New international long-term ecological research on air pollution effects on the Carpathian Mountain forests, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Badea, Ovidiu; Barbu, Ion; Fleischer, Peter; Fraczek, Witold; Gancz, Vladimir; Godzik, Barbara; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Grodzki, Wojciech; Karnosky, David; Koren, Milan; Krywult, Marek; Krzan, Zbigniew; Longauer, Roman; Mankovska, Blanka; Manning, William J; McManus, Michael; Musselman, Robert C; Novotny, Julius; Popescu, Flaviu; Postelnicu, Daniela; Prus-Głowacki, Wiesław; Skawiński, Paweł; Skiba, Stefan; Szaro, Robert; Tamas, Stefan; Vasile, Cristian

    2003-06-01

    An international cooperative project on distribution of ozone in the Carpathian Mountains, Central Europe was conducted from 1997 to 1999. Results of that project indicated that in large parts of the Carpathian Mountains, concentrations of ozone were elevated and potentially phytotoxic to forest vegetation. That study led to the establishment of new long-term studies on ecological changes in forests and other ecosystems caused by air pollution in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania and in the Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians on the Polish-Slovak border. Both of these important mountain ranges have the status of national parks and are Man & the Biosphere Reserves. In the Retezat Mountains, the primary research objective was to evaluate how air pollution may affect forest health and biodiversity. The main research objective in the Tatra Mountains was to evaluate responses of natural and managed Norway spruce forests to air pollution and other stresses. Ambient concentrations of ozone (O(3)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) as well as forest health and biodiversity changes were monitored on densely distributed research sites. Initial monitoring of pollutants indicated low levels of O(3), SO(2), and NO(x) in the Retezat Mountains, while elevated levels of O(3) and high deposition of atmospheric sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) have characterized the Tatra Mountains. In the Retezat Mountains, air pollution seems to have little effect on forest health; however, there was concern that over a long time, even low levels of pollution may affect biodiversity of this important ecosystem. In contrast, severe decline of Norway spruce has been observed in the Tatra Mountains. Although bark beetle seems to be the immediate cause of that decline, long-term elevated levels of atmospheric N and S depositions and elevated O(3) could predispose trees to insect attacks and other stresses. European and US scientists studied pollution deposition, soil and

  12. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajan R; Chetlapally, Satish Kumar; Bagvandas, M

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution.

  13. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Icing Sensor Performance During the 2003 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, John J.; Schaffner, Philip R.; Minnis, Patrick; Nguyen, Louis; Delnore, Victor E.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Grainger, C. A.; Delene, D.; Wolff, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) sensor was deployed onboard the University of North Dakota Citation II aircraft in the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II) from Nov 19 through December 14, 2003. TAMDAR is designed to measure and report winds, temperature, humidity, turbulence and icing from regional commercial aircraft (Daniels et. al., 2004). TAMDAR icing sensor performance is compared to a) in situ validation data from the Citation II sensor suite, b) Current Icing Potential products developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and available operationally on the NOAA Aviation Weather Center s Aviation Digital Data Server (ADDS) and c) NASA Advanced Satellite Aviation-weather Products (ASAP) cloud microphysical products.

  14. Comparable Worth and the Office of Institutional Research. AIR 1986 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budig, Jeanne E.

    Comparable worth and pay equity issues are considered, along with implications for college institutional researchers. Comparable worth is generally defined as a policy of paying equal pay for work of comparable value. After discussing the issues and tracing relevant legislation, attention is directed to ways that the institutional research office…

  15. Quality from Statehouse to Statistics: Linking "Education Governors" with Institutional Research. AIR 1988 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krotseng, Marsha V.

    Gubernatorial mandates involving value-added assessment and teacher competency testing have intensified external expectations of the institutional research community. With governors thus promoting quality in higher education, institutional researchers must exert leadership in identifying potential implications of state policies. The image of 20…

  16. Organizing for Institutional Research. The AIR Professional File. No. 1, Fall 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge, John William

    Suggested are concepts and ideas for organizing for institutional research so that it might become a legitimate and separate entity within higher education administration. The following three-way categorization of institutional research is advocated: institutional studies; management analyses; and periodic management reporting. The role of the…

  17. Linking Learning Style Theory with Retention Research: The TRAILS Project. AIR Professional File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.

    The Trucking Retention and Academic Integration by Learning Style (TRAILS) research project at St. Louis University, which is designed to incorporate information on learning style in ongoing enrollment research and improve campus retention, is described. Learning style and the Tinto Model of student attrition are discussed, along with the…

  18. A Case Study of Qualitative Research: Methods and Administrative Impact. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Jane; Warner, Sean

    A case study in program evaluation that demonstrates the effectiveness of qualitative research methods is presented. Over a 5-year period, the Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities in Ohio offered a baccalaureate program (University Without Walls) to local employees of a national manufacturing firm. The institutional research office…

  19. Air Toxics Under the Big Sky: Examining the Effectiveness of Authentic Scientific Research on High School Students' Science Skills and Interest.

    PubMed

    Ward, Tony J; Delaloye, Naomi; Adams, Earle Raymond; Ware, Desirae; Vanek, Diana; Knuth, Randy; Hester, Carolyn Laurie; Marra, Nancy Noel; Holian, Andrij

    2016-01-01

    Air Toxics Under the Big Sky is an environmental science outreach/education program that incorporates the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) 8 Practices with the goal of promoting knowledge and understanding of authentic scientific research in high school classrooms through air quality research. A quasi-experimental design was used in order to understand: 1) how the program affects student understanding of scientific inquiry and research and 2) how the open inquiry learning opportunities provided by the program increase student interest in science as a career path. Treatment students received instruction related to air pollution (airborne particulate matter), associated health concerns, and training on how to operate air quality testing equipment. They then participated in a yearlong scientific research project in which they developed and tested hypotheses through research of their own design regarding the sources and concentrations of air pollution in their homes and communities. Results from an external evaluation revealed that treatment students developed a deeper understanding of scientific research than did comparison students, as measured by their ability to generate good hypotheses and research designs, and equally expressed an increased interest in pursuing a career in science. These results emphasize the value of and need for authentic science learning opportunities in the modern science classroom.

  20. Identification and Characterization of Key Human Performance Issues and Research in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Paul U.; Sheridan, Tom; Poage, james L.; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Jobe, Kimberly K.

    2010-01-01

    This report identifies key human-performance-related issues associated with Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) research in the NASA NextGen-Airspace Project. Four Research Focus Areas (RFAs) in the NextGen-Airspace Project - namely Separation Assurance (SA), Airspace Super Density Operations (ASDO), Traffic Flow Management (TFM), and Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) - were examined closely. In the course of the research, it was determined that the identified human performance issues needed to be analyzed in the context of NextGen operations rather than through basic human factors research. The main gaps in human factors research in NextGen were found in the need for accurate identification of key human-systems related issues within the context of specific NextGen concepts and better design of the operational requirements for those concepts. By focusing on human-system related issues for individual concepts, key human performance issues for the four RFAs were identified and described in this report. In addition, mixed equipage airspace with components of two RFAs were characterized to illustrate potential human performance issues that arise from the integration of multiple concepts.

  1. United States Air Force Summer Research Program 1991. Summer Faculty Research Program (SFRP) Reports. Volume 5A. Wright Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-09

    effects become significant. The reduction in film thickness at high speeds has been observed experimentally by researchers at Battelle Memorial ...time of 10-4 this instrument is very short. Signals from individual drops can be processed and the data transferred to compuler memory in 20 lisec. For...plane array architectures and for different video formats. What’s important is that at some time during the readout process the pulse train will

  2. Research Interests and Broad Agency Announcement 94-1 of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    Environmental Sciences 33 Chemical Reactivity and Synthesis, Neuroscience, Dr. Haddad 35 Dr. Hedberg 21 Chronobiology , Dr. Haddad 35 Polymer Chemistry, Dr...exploited by the U.S. FAX: (202) 767-4986 LIFE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Neuroscience, Dr. Haddad 35 Chronobiology , Dr. Haddad 35 Perception and Recognition...FAX: (202) 404-7475 This program supports research focused on the ac- curate integration of the visual, visual-vestibular, visual Chronobiology otolith

  3. Langley mobile ozone lidar: ozone and aerosol atmospheric profiling for air quality research.

    PubMed

    De Young, Russell; Carrion, William; Ganoe, Rene; Pliutau, Denis; Gronoff, Guillaume; Berkoff, Timothy; Kuang, Shi

    2017-01-20

    The Langley mobile ozone lidar (LMOL) is a mobile ground-based ozone lidar system that consists of a pulsed UV laser producing two UV wavelengths of 286 and 291 nm with energy of approximately 0.2  mJ/pulse and repetition rate of 1 kHz. The 527 nm pump laser is also transmitted for aerosol measurements. The receiver consists of a 40 cm parabolic telescope, which is used for both backscattered analog and photon counting. The lidar is very compact and highly mobile. This demonstrates the utility of very small lidar systems eventually leading to space-based ozone lidars. The lidar has been validated by numerous ozonesonde launches and has provided ozone curtain profiles from ground to approximately 4 km in support of air quality field missions.

  4. Air Force electrochemical power research and technology program for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Douglas

    1987-01-01

    An overview is presented of the existing Air Force electrochemical power, battery, and fuel cell programs for space application. Present thrusts are described along with anticipated technology availability dates. Critical problems to be solved before system applications occur are highlighted. Areas of needed performance improvement of batteries and fuel cells presently used are outlined including target dates for key demonstrations of advanced technology. Anticipated performance and current schedules for present technology programs are reviewed. Programs that support conventional military satellite power systems and special high power applications are reviewed. Battery types include bipolar lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, silver-zinc, nickel-hydrogen, sodium-sulfur, and some candidate advanced couples. Fuel cells for pulsed and transportation power applications are discussed as are some candidate advanced regenerative concepts.

  5. Technology base research on zinc/air battery systems: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sierra Alcazar, H.B.; Nguyen, P.D.; Pinoli, A.A.

    1987-09-01

    The capacity extension of additives was tested in a 200 cm/sup 2/bi-cell and a Zn powder moving-bed slurry. It was found that for the Type A additives in 12 M KOH, 25 g/l of silicate provided higher capacity than stannate, titanate and aluminate additives. The optimum concentration of sorbitol (a Type B additive that stabilizes polymeric chains involving ZnO) was found to be 15 g/l in 12 M KOH. A silicate and sorbitol combination added to Zn powder slurry in 12 M KOH provided a 20% increase in discharge capacity (195 Ah/l at 200 A/cm/sup 2/) compared to the maximum capacity obtained with silicate alone. A much lower capacity (74 Ah/l) was realized with silicate as Type C additive (precipitation of ZnO away from the Zn surface, for low KOH concentrations). The mechanisms of passivation and capacity extension were discussed and a model presented. The cell voltage and power densities were determined for the discharge process as a function of (a) current densities, (b) cathode depolarizer (air or oxygen), and (c) type of slurry (Zn powder or Zn coated polymeric bead). Air depolarization was observed to decrease the maximum power densities of both slurry types. The power densities obtained with Zn powder slurries were higher at all current densities investigated than those obtained with Zn coated polymeric beads (Zn-powder peak power densities more than doubled peak power densities obtained with Zn coated polymeric beads). The recharge process was studied with a planar electrode and with a rotating cylinder electrode. The current efficiency and cathode potentials were determined for glassy carbon and Mg cathodes. The dendritic Zn deposits were mechanically removed from the rotating cylinder electrode with fixed blades. Mechanical removal proved to be unsatisfactory in the embodiment investigated due to preferential dendritic growth on the baldes. Further investigations of discharge cell designs are underway. 19 refs., 40 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Research Data from the Aspen FACE Experiment (FACTS II)

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE has conducted trace gas enrichment experiments since the mid 1990s. The FACE Data Management System is a central repository and archive for Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) data, as well as for the related open-top chamber (OTC) experiments. FACE Data Management System is located at DOE’s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). While the data from the various FACE sites, each one a unique user facility, are centralized at CDIAC, each of the FACE sites presents its own view of its activities and information. For that reason, DOE Data Explorer users are advised to see both the central repository at http://public.ornl.gov/face/index.shtml and the individual home pages of each site. FACTS II, the Aspen FACE Experiment is a multidisciplinary study to assess the effects of increasing tropospheric ozone and carbon dioxide levels on the structure and function of northern forest ecosystems. The Aspen FACE facility is located at the Harshaw Experimental Forest near Rhinelander, Wisconsin. It consists of twelve 30m rings in which the concentrations of carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone can be controlled. The design provides the ability to assess the effects of these gasses alone, and in combination, on many ecosystem attributes, including growth, leaf development, root characteristics, and soil carbon. Each ring consists of a series of vertical ventpipes which disperse carbon dioxide, ozone or normal air into the center of the ring. This computer controlled system uses signal feedback technology to adjust gas release each second in order to maintain a stable, elevated concentration of carbon dioxide and/or ozone throughout the experimental plot. Because there is no confinement, there is no significant change in the natural, ambient environment other than elevating these trace gas concentrations. [copied from http://aspenface.mtu.edu/index.html] Ring maps, lists of publications, data from the experiments, newsletters, protocol and performance

  7. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program (1987). Program Management Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    departments included biology, genetics, ecology, entomology , chemistry, computer science, graphics, mathematics, physics, aeronautical engineering...essential to the oroper - oerformance of the investigators duties. Current techniques in Forensic Antnrooology, and specific areas of research needs of

  8. Air, Climate, and Energy Strategic Research Action Plan, 2016 – 2019

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ACE research projects are organized into 5 topics: Climate Impacts, Vulnerability, and Adaptation; Emissions and Measurements; Atmospheric and Integrated Modeling Systems; Protecting Environmental Public Health; and Sustainable Energy and Mitigation

  9. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993 Summer Research Program Final Reports. Volume 12. Armstrong Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    0000 Decker, Michael Laboratory: RL/ZR 2601 Oneida--St. Vol-Page No: 14- 8 Sauquoit Valley Central School Sauquoit, TY 13456-0000 Deibler, Nancy...No: 15-18 A. Crawford Mosley Lynn Raven, FL 32444-5609 Panara, Michael Laboratory: RL/C3 500 Turin St. Vol-Page No: 14- 5 Rome Free AoadWY Rome, NY...School 6500 Ingram Rd. San Antonio, TX 78238 Dr. John Taboada Mentor Final Report for: AFOSR Summer Research Program Armstrong Laboratory Sponsored by

  10. Research on Leadership, Motivation and Quality of Life in the Air Force Missile and Tanker Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    furor was generated at this time against social research in the defense department. Mansfield was successful in appending an ammendment to a...placed by the Mansfield ammendment and also satisfy the needs for basic research in the behavioral areas. It was within this era and this social...implications. It suggests that the individual first adopts a personal value position in dealing with other persons in his environment. Thus, he would

  11. AFOSR (Air Force Office of Scientific Research) Chemical & Atmospheric Sciences Program Review (29th).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    August 1952 as a Research Administrator. He brought with him a varied teaching and industrial experience, interrupted by 3 years as an Officer in the...34 and was selected Outstanding Senior by Sigma Delta Phi. After graduation he spent the next five years teaching science and coaching in Ohio high schools...63,900, FY 83 SENIOR RESEARCH PERSONNEL: Dr. K. I. Lazaar PUBLICATIONS: "Intramolecular Unsymmetrical OHO Bonds. Thermochemistry ," K. I. Lazaar and S

  12. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program. 1980 Program Management Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Surprisingly good, slow start up but developed considerate depth, very well prepared, excellent, had done a great deal of background research after pre...reactions have large cross sections (e.g., up to 400 x 10 - 1’ cm 2 ) at low energies, decreasing as (energy) - 1/2 up to I eV, and then decreasing...AAA Fire Control; Evasive Maneuvering Against a Multiple Missile Threat. A portion of this report summarizes research results obtained todate ; the

  13. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program, 1988. Program Technical Report. Volume 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    off between the two tasks. This finding has major implications for a multiple resources theory of attention. However, several problems with the optimum...performance, and physiological measures of workload. My past research interests have been in the area of multiple resources theory of attention and its...suggested that the different strategies placed different demands on the subject. This resear’, as well as my research in the area of multiple resources

  14. [Papers Presented at the American Medical Association's Air Pollution Medical Research Conference (New Orleans, Louisiana, October 5-7, 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Medical Association, Chicago, IL.

    This is a collection of twenty speeches presented at the American Medical Association's Air Pollution Medical Conference, October 5-7, 1970. Speeches included: Air Pollution Control: The Physician's Role; Air Pollution Problems in Nuclear Power Development; Airway Resistance and Collateral Ventilation; Asbestos Air Pollution in Urban Areas;…

  15. Frigid air and frozen oceans: Educational outreach opportunities in Arctic ocean-ice-atmosphere research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perovich, D. K.; Codispoti, L. A.; Hawkey, J.

    2003-12-01

    Arctic research provides a marvelous venue for educational outreach activities. The polar regions, with snow and ice, months-long winter nights and summer days, and marine mammals such as seals, whales, and polar bears, has an intrinsic sense of adventure and interest. This interest provides an entry point for educational outreach activities, but does not guarantee success. Arctic researchers studying ocean-ice-atmosphere interactions have used a myriad of techniques for education outreach activities: web sites, classroom visits, lectures, news articles, and e-mail correspondence from the field. One such web site, http://arcss-oaii.hpl.umces.edu/outreach.htm, has been developed as a clearinghouse for researchers to share ideas, strategies, and techniques. For K-12 outreach, developing an ongoing effort with several classroom visits over the school year, is particularly effective. Classroom visits with brief lectures, replete with pictures, followed by an experiment or activity make it relatively straightforward to convey the enthusiasm and excitement of polar research. A more difficult task, however, is to integrate outreach activities into the curriculum. Collaborating with teachers is essential to achieve this integration. In public lectures, it is productive to first capture the audience's attention by describing what it is like to work in the polar regions, then discuss the science. It is important to distill the science to one or two key concepts and present them clearly and concisely. A recurring theme was that not only were outreach activities fun and satisfying, but they also enhanced the researchers understanding of the material.

  16. Advanced Air Traffic Management Research (Human Factors and Automation): NASA Research Initiatives in Human-Centered Automation Design in Airspace Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin M.; Condon, Gregory W. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    NASA has initiated a significant thrust of research and development focused on providing the flight crew and air traffic managers automation aids to increase capacity in en route and terminal area operations through the use of flexible, more fuel-efficient routing, while improving the level of safety in commercial carrier operations. In that system development, definition of cognitive requirements for integrated multi-operator dynamic aiding systems is fundamental. The core processes of control and the distribution of decision making in that control are undergoing extensive analysis. From our perspective, the human operators and the procedures by which they interact are the fundamental determinants of the safe, efficient, and flexible operation of the system. In that perspective, we have begun to explore what our experience has taught will be the most challenging aspects of designing and integrating human-centered automation in the advanced system. We have performed a full mission simulation looking at the role shift to self-separation on board the aircraft with the rules of the air guiding behavior and the provision of a cockpit display of traffic information and an on-board traffic alert system that seamlessly integrates into the TCAS operations. We have performed and initial investigation of the operational impact of "Dynamic Density" metrics on controller relinquishing and reestablishing full separation authority. (We follow the assumption that responsibility at all times resides with the controller.) This presentation will describe those efforts as well as describe the process by which we will guide the development of error tolerant systems that are sensitive to shifts in operator work load levels and dynamic shifts in the operating point of air traffic management.

  17. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993. Volume 3. Phillips Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Assistant Professor, PhD Laboratory: WL/NN Dept. of Else & Coamp . Eng Louisiana State University Vol-Page No: 5-52 Baton Rouge, LA 70803-0000 -im-cann...time of publication. 5-1 LARGE-SCALE CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS: NOISE STORMS , SOFT X-RAYS AND INVERSION OF RADIO POLARIZATION Robert F. Willson Research...LARGE-SCALE CORONAL M.’ FIELDS: NOISE STORMS , SOFT X-RA’K D INVERSION OF RADIO POLARI2_ )N Robert F. Willson Research Associate Professor of Astro

  18. Additional research on instabilities in atmospheric flow systems associated with clear air turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical and experimental fluid mechanics studies were conducted to investigate instabilities in atmospheric flow systems associated with clear air turbulence. The experimental portion of the program was conducted using an open water channel which allows investigation of flows having wide ranges of shear and density stratification. The program was primarily directed toward studies of the stability of straight, stratified shear flows with particular emphasis on the effects of velocity profile on stability; on studies of three-dimensional effects on the breakdown region in shear layers; on the the interaction of shear flows with long-wave length internal waves; and on the stability of shear flows consisting of adjacent stable layers. The results of these studies were used to evaluate methods used in analyses of CAT encounters in the atmosphere involving wave-induced shear layer instabilities of the Kelvin-Helmholta type. A computer program was developed for predicting shear-layer instability and CAT induced by mountain waves. This technique predicts specific altitudes and locations where CAT would be expected.

  19. Constraints on sea to air emissions from methane clathrates in the vicinity of Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisso, Ignacio; Vadakkepuliyambatta, Sunil; Platt, Stephen Matthew; Eckhardt, Sabine; Allen, Grant; Pitt, Joseph; Silyakova, Anna; Hermansen, Ove; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Mienert, Jurgen; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Stohl, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Methane stored in the seabed in the form of clathrates has the potential to be released into the atmosphere due to ongoing ocean warming. The Methane Emissions from Arctic Ocean to Atmosphere (MOCA, http://moca.nilu.no/) proje sct conducted measurement campaigns in the vicinity of Svalbard during the summers of 2014 and 2015 in collaboration with the Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate (CAGE, https://cage.uit.no/) and the MAMM (https://arcticmethane.wordpress.com) project . The extensive set of measurements includes air (BAe 146) and ship (RV Helmer Hansen) borne methane concentrations, complemented with the nearby monitoring site at Zeppelin mountain. In order to assess the atmospheric impact of emissions from seabed methane hydrates, we characterised the local and long range atmospheric transport during the aircraft campaign and different scenarios for the emission sources. We present a range of upper bounds for the CH4 emissions during the campaign period as well as the methodologies used to obtain them. The methodologies include a box model, Lagrangian transport and elementary inverse modelling. We emphasise the analysis of the aircraft data. We discuss in detail the different methodologies used for determining the upper flux bounds as well as its uncertainties and limitations. The additional information provided by the ship and station observations will be briefly mentioned.

  20. Application Generators: Their Impact within Institutional Research and Beyond. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Michael; Walleri, R. Dan

    The characteristics of application generators and the reasons they are and will be used increasingly in collegiate institutional research are addressed. The incorporation of application generators within a total institutional data and information processing network is also outlined. The analysis considers the often noted "gap" between…

  1. Strategic Planning and Organizational Change: Implications for Institutional Researchers. AIR 1992 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corak, Kathleen A.; Wharton, Donald P.

    This paper illustrates how planning, with the aid (or complicity) of institutional research, can be a revolutionary activity that facilitates change within an organization and brings the organization to a more accurate understanding of itself. It describes the use of strategic planning at Minot State University (North Dakota) to change a culture…

  2. Sex Equity Research: Keeping the Campus Out of the Courtroom. AIR 1984 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Marilyn K.; And Others

    Sex equity research efforts undertaken by the Office of Institutional Studies at the University of Maryland at College Park are discussed. A plan was developed for examining salary differences at three distinct times: time of appointment, upon promotion and/or award of tenure, and at annual salary reviews. Salaries of male and female faculty…

  3. Three Analytical Approaches for Predicting Enrollment at a Growing Metropolitan Research University. AIR 2002 Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armacost, Robert L.; Wilson, Alicia L.

    In a large metropolitan research university, multiple enrollment models are required to fulfill the needs of the many constituents and planning horizons. In addition, the method of predicting enrollment in a growth environment differs from that of universities in a stable environment. Three models for predicting enrollment are discussed, with a…

  4. Map of the Field--Higher Education Research at the State Level. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Patricia H.; Adams, Charles S.

    A map of the field of higher education at the state level is presented that defines theoretical and conceptual frameworks, approaches to analysis, research designs, and methodologies that have been used in the study of the relationships between state governments and institutions of higher education or of state policy structures and processes.…

  5. Beyond the Institution: Institutional Research for Inter-institutional Action. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorana, S. V.; Kuhns, Eileen

    The role of institutional research in postsecondary education in view of the trend toward consortia, regionalism, and other manifestations of "communiversity" or interinstitutional action is evaluated. Attention is also directed to new modes for policy planning and decision-making. Four activities were conducted in order to better…

  6. When Somebody's Watching: Researching the Workplace Impact of Academic Audit. AIR 2002 Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palermo, Josephine

    The proposed quality assurance framework for higher education in Australia will, for the first time since the early 1990s, introduce a process of external quality monitoring through the auspices of the Australian Universities Quality Agency. There is little research that evaluates the impact of external monitoring on the experiences of staff,…

  7. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program - Management Report - 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    research, publishable in standard journals. Involved academic type topics: Chemical Kinetics ; Isotope Effects; Activation Parameters; Reaction...Assistant Professor 1978 Louisiana State University Specialty: Ion-Molecule Chemistry, Department of Chemistry Kinetics Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803...Synthetic Organic Chemistry, Fredonia, New York 14063 Chemical Kinetics , Reaction (716) 673-3285 Mechanisms, Explosives, q Aviation Fuels Assigned: AD

  8. The Role of Institutional Research in Data Administration and Management. AIR 1986 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Richard L.; And Others

    New roles for college institutional researchers in the area of data administration and management that have resulted from developments in computer technology are reviewed. These developments include easily accessed databases, user-friendly software, and powerful and inexpensive hardware. The growing demand for data, combined with a general lack of…

  9. Strategic Marketing Evaluation: A Focus Area for Institutional Research. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Edward M.; Gackenbach, Rusty

    The level of awareness, knowledge, and current practices regarding strategic marketing within institutional research (IR) offices were studied for colleges in the Rocky Mountain region. Of the 18 responding offices, 9 indicated that their institutions utilized a marketing approach to planning. Of these 9 offices, 56 percent reported formal…

  10. The Economics of Direct versus Indirect Cost Recovery in Sponsored Research. AIR Annual 1984 Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutina, Kenneth L.; And Others

    The effect of reduced reimbursements by the federal government for indirect research costs was analyzed for the typical academic medical center. The effects of simply cutting indirect cost reimbursement were contrasted with the impact of securing compensating levels of increased direct project support. To determine if the consequences differed as…

  11. Mission Critical STEM Partnership with the Air Force Office of Scientific Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-06

    retention and graduation. Guest speakers were pioneers in the advancement of science , research and higher education such as Dr. Gregory Parham, Assistant...graduate science , technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students; and (3) identify and prepare a qualified STEM workforce. Summer Internships...of underrepresented groups; (2) improve TMCF member-schools’ ability to attract, retain, and graduate science , technology, engineering, and

  12. Zinc/air battery R and D research and development of bifunctional oxygen electrode: Tasks I and II, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.; Viswanathan, S.

    1986-12-01

    Studies were conducted of the bifunctional oxygen electrode. The development of a rechargeable metal-oxygen (air) cell has been hampered to a great extent by the lack of a stable and cost effective oxygen electrode capable of use during both charge and discharge. The first type of bifunctional electrode consists of two distinct catalytifc layers. The oxygen reduction catalyst layer containing a supported gold catalyst is in contact with a hydrophilic nickel layer in which evolution of oxygen takes place. Loadings of gold from 0.5 to 1.0 mg/cm/sup 2/ were investigated; carbon, graphite, metal, and spinel oxides were evaluated as substrates. The second part of the research effort was centered on developing a reversible oxygen electrode containing only one catalytic layer for both reduction and evolution of oxygen. The work was directed specifically to the study of perovskite type of oxides with the composition AA/sup 1/BO/sub 3/ where A is an element of the lanthanide series, A/sup 1/ is an alkaline earth metal and B, a first row transition element. Initial polarization data obtained in unscrubbed air gave a value of approximately 200 millivolts vs Hg/HgO reference electrode at a current density of 50 ma/cm/sup 2/. Electrodes were made both by roll-bonding and by pelletizing techniques and tested for polarization and cycle life. This study also indicates the optimum process conditions for the manufacture of oxides and fabrication of electrodes.

  13. Biogenic hydrocarbon contribution to the ambient air of selected areas - Tulsa; Great Smoky Mountains; Rio Blanco County, Colorado. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Arnts, R.R.; Meeks, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    Estimates of volatile hydrocarbon emissions to the atmosphere indicate that biogenic sources are much greater on a global basis than anthropogenic sources. Many assumptions inherent in these estimates, however, introduce a large degree of uncertainty about both inventories. A critical review of the literature reveals nonmethane hydrocarbons in rural and remote areas consist mainly of anthropogenic species, and are composed of less than 10% biogenically-related compounds (i.e., monoterpenes and isoprene). Despite these results, some investigators continue to invoke 'natural hydrocarbon emissions' to explain naturally occurring haze, incorrectly identified gas chromatographic peaks, and high concentrations of total nonmethane hydrocarbons that are measured by indiscriminate (total hydrocarbon-methane) analyzers. In response to the suggestion that biogenic emissions are responsible for the high hydrocarbon concentrations described in several reports, the Environmental Sciences Research Laboratory of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated short-term sampling as a means of validation. A limited number of whole-air samples were collected in Tedlar bags and analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The areas of study included: Tulsa, Oklahoma; Rio Blanco County, Colorado; and the Great Smoky Mountains in Tennessee. Although the tests were of short duration, the results suggest monoterpenes and isoprene constitute minor components of rural air relative to anthropogenic hydrocarbons.

  14. Measured performance of the heat exchanger in the NASA icing research tunnel under severe icing and dry-air conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, W.; Vanfossen, J.; Nussle, R.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements were made of the pressure drop and thermal perfomance of the unique refrigeration heat exchanger in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) under severe icing and frosting conditions and also with dry air. This data will be useful to those planning to use or extend the capability of the IRT and other icing facilities (e.g., the Altitude Wind Tunnel-AWT). The IRT heat exchanger and refrigeration system is able to cool air passing through the test section down to at least a total temperature of -30 C (well below icing requirements), and usually up to -2 C. The system maintains a uniform temperature across the test section at all airspeeds, which is more difficult and time consuming at low airspeeds, at high temperatures, and on hot, humid days when the cooling towers are less efficient. The very small surfaces of the heat exchanger prevent any icing cloud droplets from passing through it and going through the tests section again. The IRT heat exchanger was originally designed not to be adversely affected by severe icing. During a worst-case icing test the heat exchanger iced up enough so that the temperature uniformaity was no worse than about +/- 1 deg C. The conclusion is that the heat exchanger design performs well.

  15. Contamination in Fractured-Rock Aquifers - Research at the former Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Daniel J.; Tiedeman, Claire R.; Lacombe, Pierre J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Shapiro, Allen M.; Chapelle, Francis H.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and cooperators are studying chlorinated solvents in a fractured sedimentary rock aquifer underlying the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, New Jersey. Fractured-rock aquifers are common in many parts of the United States and are highly susceptible to contamination, particularly at industrial sites. Compared to 'unconsolidated' aquifers, there can be much more uncertainty about the direction and rate of contaminant migration and about the processes and factors that control chemical and microbial transformations of contaminants. Research at the NAWC is improving understanding of the transport and fate of chlorinated solvents in fractured-rock aquifers and will compare the effectiveness of different strategies for contaminant remediation.

  16. Review of research results for the photocatalytic oxidation of hazardous wastes in air

    SciTech Connect

    Nimlos, M R; Wolfrum, E J; Gratson, D A; Watt, A S; Jacoby, W A; Turchi, C

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory experiments of gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) at NREL have focused on measurements that can help commercialize this technology for treating gaseous air streams. This effort proceeds earlier NREL work and studies conducted elsewhere which demonstrated the general applicability of PCO. The more recent work has concentrated on: (1) the kinetics of the PCO process; (2) the formation and destruction of intermediates; and (3) possible enhancements to improve the destruction rates. The results from these studies will be used to help design large scale PCO equipment and they will be used to evaluate the economics of the PCO process. For trichloroethylene and ethanol, extensive studies of the rates of destruction have yielded kinetic parameters for the destruction of intermediates as well as the substrate. The kinetics of intermediates is essential for sizing a large scale reactor, as complete conversion to carbon dioxide is often desired. The kinetic data from these laboratory studies has been used for analyzing IT`s pilot PCO reactor and has been used to suggest modifications to this unit. For compounds that are more difficult to destroy (such as the components of BTEX), rate enhancement experiments have been conducted. These compounds represent a very large market for this technology and improvement of the rate of the process should make it competitive. Towards this goal, the enhancement of the destruction of BTEX components have been studied. Experiments have demonstrated that there is a significant increase in the rates of destruction of BTEX with the addition of ozone. Preliminary economic assessments have shown that PCO with ozone may be cost competitive. Future laboratory experiments of PCO will focus on refinements of what has been learned. Rate measurements will also be expanded to include other compounds representing significant markets for the PCO technology.

  17. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Air Transport Research Group of the WCTR Society was formally launched as a special interest group at the 7h Triennial WCTR in Sydney, Australia in 1995. Since then, our membership base has expanded rapidly, and now includes over 400 active transportation researchers, policy-makers, industry executives, major corporations and research institutes from 28 countries. It became a tradition that the ATRG would hold an international conference at least once a year. In 1998, the ATRG organized a consecutive stream of 14 aviation sessions at the 8th Triennial WCTR Conference (July 12-17: Antwerp). Again, on 19-21 July, 1998, the ATRG Symposium was organized and executed every successfully by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan of the University College of Dublin. The Aviation Institute at the University of Nebraska at Omaha has published the Proceedings of the 1998 ATRG Dublin Symposium (being co-edited by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan and Professor Brent Bowen), and the Proceedings of the 1998 WCTR- ATRG Conference (being co-edited by Professors Tae H. Oum and Brent Bowen).

  18. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program: Program Management Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    REPRODUCE LEGIBLY. BEST AVAILABLE COPY I 1F 7 N I’l NkhI A IiI 40) j Wj m𔃾 | L A a SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE . REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE SPORT...266 Wilford Hall Medical Center ... ............. ... 284 LIST OF TABLES 1 Growth of GSRP ...... ..................... . l ... 1 2 Growth of...proposals to: RESEARCH INITIATION PROGRAM Universal Energy Systems, Inc. 4401 Dayton-Xenia Road Dayton, Ohio 45432 25 .... . .. . .. . .4 m N H l m

  19. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993. Volume 1. Program Management Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Field: Assistant Profef! ior, PhD Laboratory: WL/MH Dept. of Elec Coamp . Eng Louisiana State University Vol-Page No: 5-52 Baton Rouge, LA 70803-0000...publication. F-177 LARGE-SCALE CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS: NOISE STORMS , SOFT X-RAYS AND INVERSION OF RADIO POLARIZATION Robert F. Willbon Research Associate...regions in opposite hemispheres of the Sun. The presence of such features are inferred from Very Large Array (VLA) observations of noise storms located

  20. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program (1983). Program Management Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    common carrier at coach rates or less, by driving your private auto, or by a combination of both. (Please note that funding for rental cars requires...following the invoicing instructions referenced above. In the view of the convenience of having a car at the research location, SCEEE strongly recommends...attached in order for these charges to be allowed. iv) Please remember that SCREE must give rirw.iten approval for rental car use and without this

  1. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program (1983). Technical Report. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Monkey Analogs for Evaluation of CD Agents : Dr. L. W. Buckalew .’. Pitch and Alcohol xxi -. . Report Number Title Research Associate * 14 Combined Blast...FINAL REPORT AIRCREW-RELEVANT MAN-MONKEY ANALOGS FOR EVALUATION OF CD AGENTS : PITCH AND ALCOHOL Prepared by: L. W. Buckalew Academic Rank: Associate...EVALUATION OF CD AGENTS : PITCH AND ALCOHOL by L. W. Buckalew ABSTRACT With the growing possibility of military personnel encountering chemical

  2. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program. Program Technical Report. 1990. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-05

    Biomechanics Melbourne Univ. Australia Assigned: Aerospace Medical Research Lab. Parkville 3052 Victoria Australia, (03) 344-5158 Shannon Lieb Degree: PhD...Materials 112 Structural Analysis of Polymer Precursors Dr. David Grossie with Potential Nonlinear Optical Properties xlix Volume i 113 Eddy Current Testing...flow of Newtonian fluid with constant properties , the governing equations for the unsteady flow and heat transfer in cartesian tensor form are

  3. Characteristics and popular topics of latest researches into the effects of air particulate matter on cardiovascular system by bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaofeng; Guo, Xinbiao; Li, Haicun; An, Xinying; Zhao, Yingguang

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, many epidemiological and toxicological studies have investigated the adverse effects of air particulate matter (PM) on the cardiovascular system. However, it is difficult for the researchers to have a timely and effective overall command of the latest characteristics and popular topics in such a wide field. Different from the previous reviews, in which the research characteristics and trends are empirically concluded by experts, we try to have a comprehensive evaluation of the above topics for the first time by bibliometric analysis, a quantitative tool in information exploration. This study aims to introduce the bibliometric method into the field of PM and cardiovascular system. The articles were selected by searching PubMed/MEDLINE (from 2007 to 2012) using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms "particulate matter" and "cardiovascular system". A total of 935 eligible articles and 1895 MeSH terms were retrieved and processed by the software Thomson Data Analyzer (TDA). The bibliographic information and the MeSH terms of these articles were classified and analyzed to summarize the research characteristics. The top 200 high-frequency MeSH terms (the cumulative frequency percentage was 74.2%) were clustered for popular-topic conclusion. We summarized the characteristics of published articles, of researcher collaborations and of the contents. Ten clusters of MeSH terms are presented. Six popular topics are concluded and elaborated for reference. Our study presents an overview of the characteristics and popular topics in the field of PM and cardiovascular system in the past five years by bibliometric tools, which may provide a new perspective for future researchers.

  4. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data and Reporting (TAMDAR) Icing Sensor Performance during the 2003/2004 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, John J.; Nguyen, Louis A.; Daniels, Taumi; Minnis, Patrick; Schaffner, Phillip R.; Cagle, Melinda F.; Nordeen, Michele L.; Wolff, Cory A.; Anderson, Mark V.; Mulally, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center and its research partners from the University of North Dakota (UND) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) participated in the AIRS II campaign from November 17 to December 17, 2003. AIRS II provided the opportunity to compare TAMDAR in situ in-flight icing condition assessments with in situ data from the UND Citation II aircraft's Rosemont system. TAMDAR is designed to provide a general warning of ice accretion and to report it directly into the Meteorological Data Communications and Reporting System (MDCRS). In addition to evaluating TAMDAR with microphysical data obtained by the Citation II, this study also compares these data to the NWS operational in-flight icing Current Icing Potential (CIP) graphic product and with the NASA Advanced Satellite Aviation-weather Products (ASAP) Icing Severity product. The CIP and ASAP graphics are also examined in this study to provide a context for the Citation II's sorties in AIRS II.

  5. Evaluation of a seven-year air quality simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongliang; Chen, Gang; Hu, Jianlin; Chen, Shu-Hua; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Kleeman, Michael; Ying, Qi

    2014-03-01

    The performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)/Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) system in the eastern United States is analyzed based on results from a seven-year modeling study with a 4-km spatial resolution. For 2-m temperature, the monthly averaged mean bias (MB) and gross error (GE) values are generally within the recommended performance criteria, although temperature is over-predicted with MB values up to 2K. Water vapor at 2-m is well-predicted but significant biases (>2 g kg(-1)) were observed in wintertime. Predictions for wind speed are satisfactory but biased towards over-prediction with 0

  6. Classification and regression trees for epidemiologic research: an air pollution example

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying and characterizing how mixtures of exposures are associated with health endpoints is challenging. We demonstrate how classification and regression trees can be used to generate hypotheses regarding joint effects from exposure mixtures. Methods We illustrate the approach by investigating the joint effects of CO, NO2, O3, and PM2.5 on emergency department visits for pediatric asthma in Atlanta, Georgia. Pollutant concentrations were categorized as quartiles. Days when all pollutants were in the lowest quartile were held out as the referent group (n = 131) and the remaining 3,879 days were used to estimate the regression tree. Pollutants were parameterized as dichotomous variables representing each ordinal split of the quartiles (e.g. comparing CO quartile 1 vs. CO quartiles 2–4) and considered one at a time in a Poisson case-crossover model with control for confounding. The pollutant-split resulting in the smallest P-value was selected as the first split and the dataset was partitioned accordingly. This process repeated for each subset of the data until the P-values for the remaining splits were not below a given alpha, resulting in the formation of a “terminal node”. We used the case-crossover model to estimate the adjusted risk ratio for each terminal node compared to the referent group, as well as the likelihood ratio test for the inclusion of the terminal nodes in the final model. Results The largest risk ratio corresponded to days when PM2.5 was in the highest quartile and NO2 was in the lowest two quartiles (RR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.16). A simultaneous Wald test for the inclusion of all terminal nodes in the model was significant, with a chi-square statistic of 34.3 (p = 0.001, with 13 degrees of freedom). Conclusions Regression trees can be used to hypothesize about joint effects of exposure mixtures and may be particularly useful in the field of air pollution epidemiology for gaining a better understanding of complex

  7. FACE: Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment for plant research in the field

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrey, G.R.

    1992-08-01

    Research programs concerning the effects of Carbon Dioxide(CO){sub 2} on cotton plants are described. Biological responses studied include foliage response to CO{sub 2} fluctuations; yield of cotton exposed to CO{sub 2} enrichment; responses of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to elevated CO{sub 2} in field-grown cotton; cotton leaf and boll temperatures; root response to CO{sub 2} enrichment; and evaluations of cotton response to CO{sub 2} enrichment with canopy reflectance observations.

  8. FACE: Free-Air CO[sub 2] Enrichment for plant research in the field

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrey, G.R.

    1992-08-01

    Research programs concerning the effects of Carbon Dioxide(CO)[sub 2] on cotton plants are described. Biological responses studied include foliage response to CO[sub 2] fluctuations; yield of cotton exposed to CO[sub 2] enrichment; responses of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to elevated CO[sub 2] in field-grown cotton; cotton leaf and boll temperatures; root response to CO[sub 2] enrichment; and evaluations of cotton response to CO[sub 2] enrichment with canopy reflectance observations.

  9. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program. 1985 Technical Report. Volume 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    8217 . Nero, A.V., "Indoor Radiation Exposures from 222-Rn and its Daughter5: A View of the Issue," Health PFhyaj_ , Volume 45, 1983, no.277-288 4. Gesell , T.F...OOlZ/SE�l-o0360, Subcontract No. S-76()-OMG-O0). Appreciation is expressed to Dr. Arnold A. Barnes, Jr. for his encouragement and discussions...8217 uquLct - ; - the (ir F orce Geophysics Laboratory. I reported on " .5. I 1 i mirary results of my research to Dr. Arnold Earnes, "ho (I , ,’d ,is

  10. United States Air Force Summer Research Program 1991. Volume 1. Program Management Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-09

    0 6 0 Wisconsin 3 0 1 G 4 0 Wyoming 3 1 1 4 2 2 Canada 1 1 0 0 1 1 Total 505 170 1251 142 1 7561 312 A- 13 Table A-8. High School Participants (HSAP...Professor SPECIALTY: Mathematics Dept of Math & Comuter SO LAB ASSIGNMENT: TSD LWWyne-Owen Cotlto Meqhis, TN 38126 George Harley Hartung DEGREE: PhD...SUBMAXIMAL EXERCISE TESTING IN AEROBICALLY FIT AND NONFIT SUBJECTS G. Harley Hartung, Ph.D. Faculty Research Associate (Professor of Physiology) ABSTRACT

  11. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities.

  12. United States Air Force Graduate Student Research Program. 1989 Program Technical Report. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    DENTAL MATERIALS -Prepared by: - r-ance .orden, S.S. Academic rank: 32ohomore Dental Student Department and c’ooi of Dentistry University: -Isa~y...forces. am a sophomore dental inder! at Mehzrry Mecica 1044 College, School of Dentistry . Currently, 1 rank in the upper I ’i0 o4-c4 the-- 14ss," oF...the fiela of dentistry . I also received valuable clinical and laboratcr.’ expe-ience. The General- Dentistry and Dental Research Department at the

  13. U.S. Air Force Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) Fuel Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    conduct of combustion experiments AFRL/RQTF emission team lead Edwin Corporan, for conduct of emissions testing University of Dayton Research...the Syntroleum Corporation, Tulsa Oklahoma , Honeywell’s UOP LLC, Des Plaines, Illinois, and the Dynamic Fuels LLC, Geismar, Louisiana. The POSF...5 7 ɝ Iron ɝ ɝ ɝ ɝ ɝ ɝ ɝ Lead ɝ ɝ ɝ ɝ ɝ ɝ ɝ Magnesium 9 11 6 5 8 ɝ 7 Manganese ɝ ɝ ɝ ɝ ɝ ɝ ɝ Mercury ɚ ɚ ɚ ɚ ɚ ɚ

  14. Indoor-air-quality research. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications and the Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agriculture Research and Environment, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, first session, August 2, 3, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Spokesmen for the environmental health sciences, consumer product safety, medical profession, and conservation discussed current research on whether indoor air quality suffers as a result of weatherization to reduce air leakage at a two-day hearing. Critical areas for research were the identification, measurement, characterization, control and health effects of indoor pollutants. Of particular concern to the committee was the administration's phasing out of some research programs despite DOE authorization and Congressional appropriations to continue. The witnesses discussed contaminants from building materials, household products, and other sources as well as the effects of reduced ventilation. Additional material submitted for the record follows their testimony.

  15. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  16. The Air Force Academy’s Falcon Telescope Network: An Educational and Research Network for K-12 and Higher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Francis; Tippets, Roger; Della-Rose, Devin J.; Polsgrove, Daniel; Gresham, Kimberlee; Barnaby, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The Falcon Telescope Network (FTN) is a global network of small aperture telescopes developed by the Center for Space Situational Awareness Research in the Department of Physics at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA). Consisting of commercially available equipment, the FTN is a collaborative effort between USAFA and other educational institutions ranging from two- and four-year colleges to major research universities. USAFA provides the equipment (e.g. telescope, mount, camera, filter wheel, dome, weather station, computers and storage devices) while the educational partners provide the building and infrastructure to support an observatory. The user base includes USAFA along with K-12 and higher education faculty and students. The diversity of the users implies a wide variety of observing interests, and thus the FTN collects images on diverse objects, including satellites, galactic and extragalactic objects, and objects popular for education and public outreach. The raw imagery, all in the public domain, will be accessible to FTN partners and will be archived at USAFA. USAFA cadets use the FTN to continue a tradition of satellite characterization and astronomical research; this tradition is the model used for designing the network to serve undergraduate research needs. Additionally, cadets have led the development of the FTN by investigating observation priority schemes and conducting a 'day-in-the-life' study of the FTN in regards to satellite observations. With respect to K-12 outreach, cadets have provided feedback to K-12 students and teachers through evaluation of first-light proposals. In this paper, we present the current status of the network and results from student participation in the project.

  17. Compendium of selected references on air emissions; health, risk, and valuation research; and environmental externalities

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-07-01

    In preparing to develop a cost-benefit methodology that could be applied to potential projects abroad involving new coal-fired power plants that make use of US clean coal technologies, the author reviewed a wide variety of reference sources. These are listed in this publication. Before this review, the author had conducted a number of literature searches that identified source material in the newly rediscovered field of environmental externalities and related topics that might also be of value to other energy and environmental researchers. Those sources that appeared to be appropriate but that the author was unable to review are also listed in this document. Thus, this document serves as a comprehensive compendium of source material on these subjects, arranged alphabetically within categories.

  18. Air pollution from household solid fuel combustion in India: an overview of exposure and health related information to inform health research priorities.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Sambandam, Sankar; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Ghosh, Santu; Johnson, Priscilla; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Venugopal, Vidhya; Thanasekaraan, Vijayalakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Environmental and occupational risk factors contribute to nearly 40% of the national burden of disease in India, with air pollution in the indoor and outdoor environment ranking amongst leading risk factors. It is now recognized that the health burden from air pollution exposures that primarily occur in the rural indoors, from pollutants released during the incomplete combustion of solid fuels in households, may rival or even exceed the burden attributable to urban outdoor exposures. Few environmental epidemiological efforts have been devoted to this setting, however. We provide an overview of important available information on exposures and health effects related to household solid fuel use in India, with a view to inform health research priorities for household air pollution and facilitate being able to address air pollution within an integrated rural-urban framework in the future.

  19. Effects of Air Pollutants on Lichens of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory National Environmental Research Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, R. C.; Forman, A.; Crawford, R.; Tyler, T.

    2001-12-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is a (2300 square km) National Environmental Research Park that has been used for research and operational support of nuclear power. The Park includes scattered industrial operations and provides an ideal setting to study effects of industry on semi-arid environments. One of the facilities on the Research Park is the Idaho Nuclear Technology Center (INTEC). This facility reprocessed spent nuclear fuel from the US Navy, and its operations included heating acidic solutions to convert wastes to a solid form. The conversion released nitrogen oxides, low levels of other gases (including HF), and small amounts of solid particles through a facility stack. A fossil-fuel power plant also contributed airborne contaminants including sulfur dioxide. A 1985 study identified the effects of INTEC operations on the health of lichens Xanthoria polycarpa (quantified using electrolyte leakage), on levels of trace metals in the lichens X. polycarpa and Rhizoplaca melanophthalma, and on the levels of trace metals in higher plants and soils. The study concluded that operations impacted the physiological health of X. polycarpa southwest of the plant, and that lead was significantly higher downwind of the plant relative to other locations. Effects of the plant were re-examined in 1999 as part of an Environmental Impact Statement to evaluate the environmental effects of measures available to deal with radioactive waste at INTEC. Sulfur dioxide emissions from the facility decreased from approximately 375 tonsyear to approximately 10 tonsyear between the two studies. The re-examination of lichens showed that the measure of physiological health used in the previous study (conductivity of rinsates collected from lichen thalli) correlated well to the levels of potassium measured in rinsates collected from thalli. There, however, was no correlation between the levels of potassium/conductivity of such rinsates and the levels of total

  20. Trace element and isotope deposition across the air-sea interface: progress and research needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. R.; Landing, W. M.; Bucciarelli, E.; Cheize, M.; Fietz, S.; Hayes, C. T.; Kadko, D.; Morton, P. L.; Rogan, N.; Sarthou, G.; Shelley, R. U.; Shi, Z.; Shiller, A.; van Hulten, M. M. P.

    2016-11-01

    The importance of the atmospheric deposition of biologically essential trace elements, especially iron, is widely recognized, as are the difficulties of accurately quantifying the rates of trace element wet and dry deposition and their fractional solubility. This paper summarizes some of the recent progress in this field, particularly that driven by the GEOTRACES, and other, international research programmes. The utility and limitations of models used to estimate atmospheric deposition flux, for example, from the surface ocean distribution of tracers such as dissolved aluminium, are discussed and a relatively new technique for quantifying atmospheric deposition using the short-lived radionuclide beryllium-7 is highlighted. It is proposed that this field will advance more rapidly by using a multi-tracer approach, and that aerosol deposition models should be ground-truthed against observed aerosol concentration data. It is also important to improve our understanding of the mechanisms and rates that control the fractional solubility of these tracers. Aerosol provenance and chemistry (humidity, acidity and organic ligand characteristics) play important roles in governing tracer solubility. Many of these factors are likely to be influenced by changes in atmospheric composition in the future. Intercalibration exercises for aerosol chemistry and fractional solubility are an essential component of the GEOTRACES programme. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  1. Mycorrhizal mediation of plant response to atmospheric change: Air quality concepts and research considerations.

    PubMed

    Shafer, S R; Schoeneberger, M M

    1991-01-01

    The term 'global climate change' encompasses many physical and chemical changes in the atmosphere that have been induced by anthropogenic pollutants. Increases in concentrations of CO2 and CH4 enhance the 'greenhouse effect' of the atmosphere and may contribute to changes in temperature and precipitation patterns at the earth's surface. Nitrogen oxides and SO2 are phytotoxic and also react with other pollutants to produce other phytotoxins in the troposphere such as O3 and acidic substances. However, release of chlorofluorocarbons into the atmosphere may cause depletion of stratospheric O3, increasing the transmittance of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation to the earth's surface. Increased intensities of UV-B could affect plants and enhance photochemical reactions that generate some phytotoxic pollutants. The role of mycorrhizae in plant responses to such stresses has received little attention. Although plans for several research programs have acknowledged the importance of drought tolerance and soil fertility in plant responses to atmospheric stresses, mycorrhizae are rarely targeted to receive specific investigation. Most vascular land plants form mycorrhizae, so the role of mycorrhizae in mediating plant responses to atmospheric change may be an important consideration in predicting effects of atmospheric changes on plants in managed and natural ecosystems.

  2. The distribution of chlorpyrifos following a crack and crevice type application in the US EPA Indoor Air Quality Research House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, D. M.; Mason, M. A.

    A study was conducted in the US EPA Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Research House to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of chlorpyrifos following a professional crack and crevice application in the kitchen. Following the application, measurements were made in the kitchen, den and master bedroom over 21 days. Airborne concentrations were collected using both polyurethane foam (PUF) and the OSHA versatile sampler composed of XAD and PUF media located in tandem. Measured airborne concentrations were similar for the two samplers and were higher in the three rooms following the application. The highest measured concentrations were reached during the initial 24-h following application; concentrations subsequently declined over the 21-day study period to levels slightly above background. Spatial and temporal distributions onto surfaces were measured using 10-cm 2 rayon deposition coupons located on the floor. Sections were cut from existing carpet to determine the total extractable residues. Chlorpyrifos was measured from all matrixes in the kitchen, den and bedroom and the data shows the transport of airborne residues from the point of application to remote locations in the house. The findings are compared and discussed relative to another study conducted in which total release aerosols containing chlorpyrifos were activated in the IAQ research house and the resulting distributions evaluated. For both studies dose estimates were constructed for the exposure pathways using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Estimation Model for pesticides. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has been mandated to examine children's exposure to environmental pollutants such as pesticides. This research specifically reduces uncertainties associated with estimating children's potential exposures to residentially applied pesticides and provides inputs to further evaluate and validate residential exposure models which might be used to reduce exposures and perform risk

  3. Modification of NASA Langley 8 Foot High Temperature Tunnel to provide a unique national research facility for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, H. N.; Wieting, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A planned modification of the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel to make it a unique national research facility for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems is described, and some of the ongoing supporting research for that modification is discussed. The modification involves: (1) the addition of an oxygen-enrichment system which will allow the methane-air combustion-heated test stream to simulate air for propulsion testing; and (2) supplemental nozzles to expand the test simulation capability from the current nominal Mach number to 7.0 include Mach numbers 3.0, 4.5, and 5.0. Detailed design of the modifications is currently underway and the modified facility is scheduled to be available for tests of large scale propulsion systems by mid 1988.

  4. Modification of NASA Langley 8 foot high temperature tunnel to provide a unique national research facility for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, H. N.; Wieting, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A planned modification of the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel to make it a unique national research facility for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems is described, and some of the ongoing supporting research for that modification is discussed. The modification involves: (1) the addition of an oxygen-enrichment system which will allow the methane-air combustion-heated test stream to simulate air for propulsion testing; and (2) supplemental nozzles to expand the test simulation capability from the current nominal Mach number to 7.0 include Mach numbers 3.0, 4.5, and 5.0. Detailed design of the modifications is currently underway and the modified facility is scheduled to be available for tests of large scale propulsion systems by mid 1988.

  5. Guidelines for the air-sea interaction special study: An element of the NASA climate research program, JPL/SIO workshop report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A program in the area of air sea interactions is introduced. A space capability is discussed for global observations of climate parameters which will contribute to the understanding of the processes which influence climate and its predictability. The following recommendations are some of the suggestions made for air sea interaction studies: (1) a major effort needs to be devoted to the preparation of space based climatic data sets; (2) NASA should create a group or center for climatic data analysis due to the substantial long term effort that is needed in research and development; (3) funding for the analyses of existing data sets should be augmented and continued beyond the termination of present programs; (4) NASA should fund studies in universities, research institutions and governments' centers; and (5) the planning for an air sea interaction mission should be an early task.

  6. U.S. EPA Awards $700,000 to UC Irvine for Research on Protecting Air Quality in a Changing Climate

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency awarded $701,304 to the University of California, Irvine to help answer the question of how to protect the air we breathe from the impacts of climate change. University researchers will

  7. U.S. EPA Awards $790,000 to UC Davis for Research on Protecting Air Quality in a Changing Climate

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency awarded $790,000 to the University of California, Davis to help answer the question of how to protect the air we breathe from the impacts of climate change. University researchers will u

  8. Archives of Environmental Health, Volume 18 Number 4. Ninth AMA Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Denver, July 22-24, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Frank

    Papers read before the Ninth American Medical Association (AMA) Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Denver, Colorado, July 22-24, 1968, are presented in this document. Topics deal with the relationship and effects of atmospheric pollution to respiratory diseases, epidemiology, human physiological reactions, urban morbidity, health of school…

  9. Acid deposition in Maryland. Summary of research and monitoring results compiled through 1991 and a discussion of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Report for 1991-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.; Mountain, D.

    1992-10-01

    This is the sixth annual report submitted under Maryland legislative requirements. The report focuses on more than a decade of acid deposition research conducted in Maryland. In addition, the report discusses Title IV - Acid Deposition Control of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and its potential impacts on Maryland.

  10. THE DISTRIBUTION OF CHLORPYRIFOS FOLLOWING A CRACK AND CREVICE TYPE APPLICATION IN THE U.S. EPA INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH HOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of chlorpyrifos following a professional crack-and-crevice application in the kitchen of the U.S. EPA's indoor air quality research house in North Carolina. Following the application, measuremen...

  11. THE DISTRIBUTION OF CHLORPYRIFOS FOLLOWING A CRACK AND CREVICE TYPE APPLICATION IN THE U.S. EPA INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH HOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted in the U.S. EPA Indoor Air Quality Research House to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of chlorpyrifos following a professional crack and crevice application in the kitchen. Following the application, measurements were made in the kitchen, de...

  12. Progress towards the development of transient ram accelerator simulation as part of the U.S. Air Force Armament Directorate Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, N.; York, B. J.; Dash, S. M.; Drabczuk, R.; Rolader, G. E.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the development of an advanced CFD simulation capability in support of the U.S. Air Force Armament Directorate's ram accelerator research initiative. The state-of-the-art CRAFT computer code has been specialized for high fidelity, transient ram accelerator simulations via inclusion of generalized dynamic gridding, solution adaptive grid clustering, high pressure thermochemistry, etc. Selected ram accelerator simulations are presented which serve to exhibit the CRAFT code's capabilities and identify some of the principal research/design issues.

  13. Air Pollution Exposure and Physical Activity in China: Current Knowledge, Public Health Implications, and Future Research Needs

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Jiaojiao; Liang, Leichao; Feng, Yi; Li, Rena; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Deteriorating air quality in China has created global public health concerns in regard to health and health-related behaviors. Although emerging environmental regulations address ambient air pollution in China, the level of enforcement and long-term impact of these measures remain unknown. Exposure to air pollution has been shown to lead to multiple adverse health outcomes, including increased rates of heart disease and mortality. However, a lesser-known but increasingly significant concern is the relationship between air pollution and its effects on outdoor exercise. This is especially important in China, which has a culturally rooted lifestyle that encourages participation in outdoor physical activity. This article evaluates the intersection of air pollution and outdoor exercise and provides a discussion of issues related to its public health impact in China, where efforts to promote a healthy lifestyle may be adversely affected by the ambient air pollution that has accompanied rapid economic development and urbanization. PMID:26610539

  14. Air Pollution Exposure and Physical Activity in China: Current Knowledge, Public Health Implications, and Future Research Needs.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jiaojiao; Liang, Leichao; Feng, Yi; Li, Rena; Liu, Yu

    2015-11-20

    Deteriorating air quality in China has created global public health concerns in regard to health and health-related behaviors. Although emerging environmental regulations address ambient air pollution in China, the level of enforcement and long-term impact of these measures remain unknown. Exposure to air pollution has been shown to lead to multiple adverse health outcomes, including increased rates of heart disease and mortality. However, a lesser-known but increasingly significant concern is the relationship between air pollution and its effects on outdoor exercise. This is especially important in China, which has a culturally rooted lifestyle that encourages participation in outdoor physical activity. This article evaluates the intersection of air pollution and outdoor exercise and provides a discussion of issues related to its public health impact in China, where efforts to promote a healthy lifestyle may be adversely affected by the ambient air pollution that has accompanied rapid economic development and urbanization.

  15. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics reported on in the proceedings include: Industrial reform and air transport development in China; the economic effects of airline deregulation and the Open-Sky policy of Korea; Open Skies in India; Japanese domestic air fares under the regulatory regime; the competitive position of airline networks; air transport and regional economic development in the European Union; and corporate dilemmas and strategies of European Airlines.

  16. Research on laser melting-alloying combined strengthening of the camshaft of air-cooled diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenjin; Zhong, Minlin; Zhao, Haiyun; Zhang, Hongjun; Zhang, Weimin; Huang, Guoqing

    1996-04-01

    This paper reported the research results on 3 kw cw CO2 laser melting-alloying combined strengthening of the camshaft of air-cooled diesel engine used in the desert oil field. The 45 steel camshaft was pretreated with the conventional quenching and high temperature tempering. A focused laser beam with power density 1.5 - 1.7 X 104 w/cm2 was used to alloy the cam lobe area, while the other area of the cam was treated by laser melting using a focused 12 X 1.5 mm rectangular beam (power density 1.1 X 104 w/cm2) produced by a newly developed binary optics. The microstructure of the laser alloyed region is fine Fe-Cr-Si-B multi-element hypereutectic structure with hardness HRC 63 - 64. The melted layer consists of fine needle-shaped martensite and residual austenite structure with hardness HRC 58 - 61. The strengthened layer is 1.0 - 1.3 mm in thickness with pore-free and crack-free and good surface quality. Under the same condition, the Ring-block (SiN ceramic) wear test proves that the wear of the laser alloyed 45 steel ring is only 29 percent of that of induction quenching 45 steel ring. And a 500 hours test engine experiment demonstrates that the average wear of the laser alloyed cam is only 20 percent of that of induction quenched one.

  17. Effects of genetic strain on stress-induced weight and body fat loss in rats: Application to air pollution research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to some air pollutants is suspected of contributing to obesity. Hazelton chambers are commonly used in air pollution studies but we found unexpected reductions in body weight and body fat of rats housed in Hazelton chambers under control conditions. We suspect that stres...

  18. Air Force/Industry F-35/F-22 Technology Interchange Workshop for Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR): Plenary Session

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-28

    for aircraft structures • Modeling and Simulation for the Development of Robust Ceramic Matrix Composite Manufacturing Processes –Develop modeling...spin-offs Command and Control (C2) of Airlift Assets ConnectedWireless Corporation Heat Pipe Wick Structure Infrared (IR) Focal Plane ArrayOxygen...consumption – Increases weapons envelopes – Reduces surface-to-air missile (SAM) engagement envelope 478th AESWtDelivering 21st Century Air Dominance

  19. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics included in the proceedings are: The effect of liberalized air transport bilaterals; cost competitiveness of major airlines; economic effects of duopoly competition in Korea; transforming Canada's aviation regulations; liberalization in Europe; airline labor cost in a liberalized Europe; noncooperative collusion; European air transport deregulation; public ownership and deregulation in the Scandanavian airline industry; airline competition between London and Amsterdam; and a banker's view of the European airline industry.

  20. 1981 AFOSR Contractors Meeting on Air Breathing Combustion Dynamics and Explosion Research, 16-20 November 1981, Clearwater Beach, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    Atomi:Mation, Ignition and Combustion of Liquid and Multiphase Fuels in High -Speed Air StreamsIi J. Schetz VPI and State University 9:00 Turbulent Mixing and...Aeronautical Laboratories (AFWAL) 8:35 Injection, Atomt:ation, Ignition and Combustion of Liquid and Multiphase Fuels in High -Speed Air Streams J...State University Transverse injection of liquid and/or liquid -slurry jets into high speed airstreams finds application in several propulsion-related

  1. Air Vehicle Integration and Technology Research (AVIATR). Task Order 0003: Condition-Based Maintenance Plus Structural Integrity (CBM+SI) Demonstration (September 2011 to March 2012)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    to speed up the import of RBDMS results through the use of Visual Basic for Applications ( VBA ) macros . These macros are inessential to the...AFRL-RQ-WP-TR- 2013 -0219 AIR VEHICLE INTEGRATION AND TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH (AVIATR) Task Order 0003: Condition-Based Maintenance Plus...nationals. Copies may be obtained from the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) (http://www.dtic.mil). AFRL-RQ-WP-TR- 2013 -0219 HAS BEEN

  2. Long-term health effects of particulate and other ambient air pollution: research can progress faster if we want it to.

    PubMed Central

    Künzli, N; Tager, I B

    2000-01-01

    There is need for the assessment of long-term effects of outdoor air pollution. In fact, a considerable part of the large amount of U.S. research money that has been dedicated to investigate effects of ambient particulate pollution should be invested to address long-term effects. Studies that follow the health status of large numbers of subjects across long periods of time (i.e., cohort studies) should be considered the key research approach to address these questions. However, these studies are time consuming and expensive. We propose efficient strategies to address these questions in less time. Apart from long-term continuation of the few ongoing air pollution cohort studies in the United States, data from large cohorts that were established decades ago may be efficiently used to assess cardiorespiratory effects and to target research on detection of the most susceptible subgroups in the population, which may be related to genetic, molecular, behavioral, societal, and/or environmental factors. This approach will be efficient only if the available air pollution monitoring data will be used to spatially model long-term outdoor pollution concentrations across a given country for each year with available pollution data. Such concentration maps will allow researchers to impute outdoor air pollution levels at any residential location, independent of the location of monitors. Exposure imputation may be based on residential location(s) of participants in long-standing cardiorespiratory cohort studies, which can be matched to pollutant levels using geographic information systems. As shown in European impact assessment studies, such maps may be derived relatively quickly. PMID:11049809

  3. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1983, Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress February 1982. Descriptive Summaries. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    development or strength/Jtamlua criteria for Air Force job performance; computer analysis of disease prediction in aircrew personnel; quantification of laser...quarantine to rid animals of disease and stabilize animals before initiation of controlled research. "*« (U) FY 1984 Planned Program: New thrusts...A-10 «a. declared the winner In June 1974. The first DT4E aircrsft was delivered £ Fahr .,!™ 7 DT4E testing was initiated In Pebrusry 1,75 snd was

  4. Bibliography of the Radio Frequency Radiation Branch, Directed Energy Bioeffects Division, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory: 1997-2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    frequency electromagnetic fields: Cancer, mutagenesis, and genotoxicity . Bioelectromagnetics Suppl. 6, S74-S100, 2003. D’Andrea, J. A., Chou, C. K...1997-2003. Air Force Research Laboratory, abstracts, bibliography, electromagnetic fields, electromagnetics , microwaves, non-ionizing radiation...J. M. Ziriax, L. R. Johnson, and P. A. Mason. Inter-species extrapolation of skin heating resulting from millimeter wave irradiation: Modeling and

  5. Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing in the Southern Appalachian Mountains: Initial Results from the Appalachian Atmospheric Interdisciplinary Research (AppalAIR) Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubman, B.; Sherman, J.; Sheridan, P. J.; Perry, L. B.; Neufeld, H.; Emanuel, R. E.; Tashakkori, R.; Bowman, D.; Long, C.

    2009-12-01

    AppalAIR (Appalachian Atmospheric Interdisciplinary Research, http://appalair.appstate.edu/) is a new interdisciplinary, atmospheric research facility located on the campus of Appalachian State University (1076 m; 36.2° N, 81.7° W) in the southern Appalachian Mountains. The facility was designed to investigate air pollution formation and transport, the relationships among biogenic and anthropogenic inputs to a changing climate, and the effects of these factors on regional ecosystems. AppalAIR is a collaborating member of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division (NOAA/ESRL GMD) Collaborative Global Aerosol Network (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aero/net/app/index.html). Measurements are made from a 34 m tower and include aerosol light scattering (3-λ nephelometer) and absorption (3-λ PSAP, 7-λ aethalometer, 6-λ UV aethalometer), particle number concentration (CPC), and aerosol chemistry, size, and morphology using SPME/GC-MS and SEM analyses on 24 h filter samples. Initial results indicate alternating periods of small, highly absorptive (ssa < 0.90) fractal agglomerates and large, highly scattering (ssa > 0.95) spherical particles that are strongly dependent upon the highly variably meteorological patterns that have occurred over the summertime (JJA) in the southeastern U.S. By quantifying the aerosol direct radiative forcing during discrete meteorological patterns as defined by statistical cluster analysis as well as from specific aerosol chemical sources, we are able to extrapolate the results beyond the immediate region.

  6. Research and application of a hybrid model based on dynamic fuzzy synthetic evaluation for establishing air quality forecasting and early warning system: A case study in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunzhen; Du, Pei; Wang, Jianzhou

    2017-04-01

    As the atmospheric environment pollution has been becoming more and more serious in China, it is highly desirable to develop a scientific and effective early warning system that plays a great significant role in analyzing and monitoring air quality. However, establishing a robust early warning system for warning the public in advance and ameliorating air quality is not only an extremely challenging task but also a public concerned problem for human health. Most previous studies are focused on improving the prediction accuracy, which usually ignore the significance of uncertainty information and comprehensive evaluation concerning air pollutants. Therefore, in this paper a novel robust early warning system was successfully developed, which consists of three modules: evaluation module, forecasting module and characteristics estimating module. In this system, a new dynamic fuzzy synthetic evaluation is proposed and applied to determine air quality levels and primary pollutants, which can be regarded as the research objectives; Moreover, to further mine and analyze the characteristics of air pollutants, four different distribution functions and interval forecasting method are also employed that can not only provide predictive range, confidence level and the other uncertain information of the pollutants future values, but also assist decision-makers in reducing and controlling the emissions of atmospheric pollutants. Case studies utilizing hourly PM2.5, PM10 and SO2 data collected from Tianjin and Shanghai in China are applied as illustrative examples to estimate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed system. Experimental results obviously indicated that the developed novel early warning system is much suitable for analyzing and monitoring air pollution, which can also add a novel viable option for decision-makers.

  7. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATRS held its 5th Annual conference at the City University of Hong Kong Campus in July 2001. The conference was a success with nearly 140 participants including 70 presenters. Titles that comprise Volume 2 include: Intelligent Airport Gate Assignment System; A Study on the Effects of the Personality Compatibility to the Job Performance; ITS/CVO Application for Air cargo Transportation in Korea; An Airport as a Logistics and Economic Hub: The Case of Incheon International Airport; The Impact Of Aviation Safety over the Consumer's Behavior; The Integration of China and Taiwan Air Networks for Direct Air Cargo Services; Quality perception and carrier choice in Civil Aviation; Future Trends in Business Travel Decision Making; Cooperation Among German Airports in Europe; Inbound and Outbound Air Passenger Traffic Forecasting between the United States and Selected Asian countries; An Evaluation of Alternative Facilities for Airport Redevelopment using Fuzzy Linguistic Approach; Economic Analysis of Airline Alliances; The Aviation Cooperation between the two Koreas Preparing for the Reunification of the Peninsula; and A Study on the Air Transport Cooperation in Northeast Asia between China, Japan and Korea.

  8. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATRS held its Annual conference at Jeju Island, Korea in July 2001. The conference was a success with nearly 140 participants including 70 presenters. This report contains presentations from Volume 1 on the following: Airline and Travel Agent Relationships in Asia;Benchmarking Aviation Safety in the Commercial Airline Industry;Impact of Frequent Flyer Program on the Demand for Air Travel; Application of Genetic Algorithm on Airline Schedule;The Effects of Dual Carrier Designation and Partial Liberalization: The Case of Canada;Defense of Air Carriers and Air Agencies in FAA Enforcement proceedin gs - Damage Control Before the Case Arises; Cost Incentives for Airline Mergers? - An examination on the cost impact of U.S. airline mergers and acquisitions;Airport Regulation, Airline Competition and Canada's Airport System; Airline Competition: The Case of Israel's Domestic Doupoly; Non-Financial Indicators of Airline Distress: A Conceptual Approach;and Airport Privatization: An Empirical Analysis of Financial and Operational Efficiency.

  9. Research and Application of an Air Quality Early Warning System Based on a Modified Least Squares Support Vector Machine and a Cloud Model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianzhou; Niu, Tong; Wang, Rui

    2017-03-02

    The worsening atmospheric pollution increases the necessity of air quality early warning systems (EWSs). Despite the fact that a massive amount of investigation about EWS in theory and practicality has been conducted by numerous researchers, studies concerning the quantification of uncertain information and comprehensive evaluation are still lacking, which impedes further development in the area. In this paper, firstly a comprehensive warning system is proposed, which consists of two vital indispensable modules, namely effective forecasting and scientific evaluation, respectively. For the forecasting module, a novel hybrid model combining the theory of data preprocessing and numerical optimization is first developed to implement effective forecasting for air pollutant concentration. Especially, in order to further enhance the accuracy and robustness of the warning system, interval forecasting is implemented to quantify the uncertainties generated by forecasts, which can provide significant risk signals by using point forecasting for decision-makers. For the evaluation module, a cloud model, based on probability and fuzzy set theory, is developed to perform comprehensive evaluations of air quality, which can realize the transformation between qualitative concept and quantitative data. To verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the warning system, extensive simulations based on air pollutants data from Dalian in China were effectively implemented, which illustrate that the warning system is not only remarkably high-performance, but also widely applicable.

  10. Research and Application of an Air Quality Early Warning System Based on a Modified Least Squares Support Vector Machine and a Cloud Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianzhou; Niu, Tong; Wang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    The worsening atmospheric pollution increases the necessity of air quality early warning systems (EWSs). Despite the fact that a massive amount of investigation about EWS in theory and practicality has been conducted by numerous researchers, studies concerning the quantification of uncertain information and comprehensive evaluation are still lacking, which impedes further development in the area. In this paper, firstly a comprehensive warning system is proposed, which consists of two vital indispensable modules, namely effective forecasting and scientific evaluation, respectively. For the forecasting module, a novel hybrid model combining the theory of data preprocessing and numerical optimization is first developed to implement effective forecasting for air pollutant concentration. Especially, in order to further enhance the accuracy and robustness of the warning system, interval forecasting is implemented to quantify the uncertainties generated by forecasts, which can provide significant risk signals by using point forecasting for decision-makers. For the evaluation module, a cloud model, based on probability and fuzzy set theory, is developed to perform comprehensive evaluations of air quality, which can realize the transformation between qualitative concept and quantitative data. To verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the warning system, extensive simulations based on air pollutants data from Dalian in China were effectively implemented, which illustrate that the warning system is not only remarkably high-performance, but also widely applicable. PMID:28257122

  11. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The papers presented at this conference include: 1) The Global Airline Company: Agent of Market Power or Competition? 2) Airport Pavement Management; 3) Reservation System Providers and the Impact of Codeshare Arrangements on Screen Display; 4) Strategic Classification of Current Airline Alliances and Examination of Critical Factors Involving the Formations - an Explorative Perspective; 5) Airport Privatization Policy and Performance Measurement in Korea; 6) Pilot and Air Traffic Controller Relationships: The Role of Interdependence and Relative Influence; 7) Liberalization of Air Cargo Services: Background and an Economic Analysis; 8) The Implication of Hub and Spoke Network on the Airline Alliance Strategy.

  12. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  13. PAST AND PRESENT: 50 YEARS OF AIR QUALITY MODELING RESEARCH AND ITS APPLICATIONS BY THE NOAA ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES MODELING DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NOAA Atmospheric Sciences Modeling Division (ASMD) celebrated its Golden Jubilee in September 2005. The partnership between NOAA and EPA began when the Air Pollution Unit of the Public Health Service, which later became part of the EPA, requested the Weather Bureau provide ...

  14. Monitoring firefighter exposure to air toxins at prescribed burns of forest and range biomass. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, T.E.

    1991-10-01

    A variety of potent air toxins are in the smoke produced by burning forest and range biomass. Preliminary data on firefighter exposures to carbon monoxide and formaldehyde at four prescribed burns of Western United States natural fuels are presented. Formaldehyde may be correlated to carbon monoxide emissions. The firefighters' exposures to these compounds relative to workplace standards are discussed.

  15. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, T. H.; Bowen, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers topics such as: Safety and Air Fares; International Airline Safety; Multi-fare Seat Allocation Problem; Dynamic Allocation of Airline Seat Inventory; Seat Allocation on Flights with Two Fares; Effects of Intercontinental Alliances; Domestic Airline Mergers; Simulating the Effects of Airline Deregulation on Frequency Choice; and Firm Size Inequality and Market Power.

  16. Exposure Information in Environmental Health Research: Current Opportunities and Future Directions for Particulate Matter, Ozone, and Toxic Air Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in ord...

  17. Responding to Qualitative and Political Issues: Proceedings of the Annual Forum of the Association of Institutional Research (Denver, Colorado, May 16-19, 1982). AIR Directory, 1982-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Institutional Research.

    Proceedings of the 1982 forum of the Association for Institutional Research (AIR) and the 1982-1983 AIR Directory are presented. Titles and authors of general session addresses contained in section 1 are as follows: "On Quality: The Federal Connection" (David Pierpont Gardner); "New Initiatives of State Policy in Higher…

  18. Summary of air permeability data from single-hole injection tests in unsaturated fractured tuffs at the Apache Leap Research Site: Results of steady-state test interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman, A.G.; Geddis, A.M.; Henrich, M.J.; Lohrstorfer, C.F.; Neuman, S.P.

    1996-03-01

    This document summarizes air permeability estimates obtained from single hole pneumatic injection tests in unsaturated fractured tuffs at the Covered Borehole Site (CBS) within the larger apache Leap Research Site (ALRS). Only permeability estimates obtained from a steady state interpretation of relatively stable pressure and flow rate data are included. Tests were conducted in five boreholes inclined at 45{degree} to the horizontal, and one vertical borehole. Over 180 borehole segments were tested by setting the packers 1 m apart. Additional tests were conducted in segments of lengths 0.5, 2.0, and 3.0 m in one borehole, and 2.0 m in another borehole, bringing the total number of tests to over 270. Tests were conducted by maintaining a constant injection rate until air pressure became relatively stable and remained so for some time. The injection rate was then incremented by a constant value and the procedure repeated. The air injection rate, pressure, temperature, and relative humidity were recorded. For each relatively stable period of injection rate and pressure, air permeability was estimated by treating the rock around each test interval as a uniform, isotropic porous medium within which air flows as a single phase under steady state, in a pressure field exhibiting prolate spheroidal symmetry. For each permeability estimate the authors list the corresponding injection rate, pressure, temperature and relative humidity. They also present selected graphs which show how the latter quantities vary with time; logarithmic plots of pressure versus time which demonstrate the importance of borehole storage effects during the early transient portion of each incremental test period; and semilogarithmic plots of pressure versus recovery time at the end of each test sequence.

  19. Research on oxidation by air and tempering of Raney nickel electrocatalysts for the H2 anodes of alkali combustion materials cells. Thesis - Braunschweig Technische Univ., 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selbach, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    The controlled oxidation in air of Raney nickel electrocatalysts was studied, with special attention paid to the quantitative analysis of nickel hydroxide. The content of the latter was determined through X-ray studies, thermogravimetric measurements, and spectral photometric examinations. The dependence of the content on the drying of activated catalyst is determined. The influence of nickel hydroxide on the electrochemical parameters of the catalyst, such as diffusion polarization, is studied, including a measurement of the exchange current density using the potential drop method. Conservation by oxidation in air with ancillary stabilization of the oxide in an H2 flow at 300 C is explored, including reduction by H2, the influence of tempering time, and structural studies on conserved and stabilized catalyst, long term research on the catalyst, including the influence of aging on the reduced catalyst, and the results of impedance measurements are presented.

  20. Air Vehicle Integration and Technology Research (AVIATR). Delivery Order 0013: Nonlinear, Low-Order/Reduced-Order Modeling Applications and Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    distribution for Ti panel in exhaust flow of T-58 jet engine ................ 72 Figure 93 – Temperature distribution for Ti panel in exhaust flow of T-58 jet...image max temperature 350°F, no air flow ........................................................ 95 Figure 129 – IR image at max temperature 500°F, Test...correlation degrading with distance (separated flow , exhaust impinged flow ). Figure 5 – Acoustic noise sources Another important aspect of the acoustic

  1. Modeling of Air-Sea Interaction and Ocean Processes for the Northern Arabian Sea Circulation Autonomous Research Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    and space-time variability in the Northwestern Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea on time scales from days up to several seasonal cycles . OBJECTIVES...determine the mechanisms causing vertical mixing in the Arabian Sea: wind mixing, role of air- sea interaction and surface heat and fresh water ...equatorial region and the East African Coastal current, a source of low-salinity water for the Arabian Sea. APPROACH The fast-flowing Somali

  2. FRESH AIR: an implementation research project funded through Horizon 2020 exploring the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of chronic respiratory diseases in low-resource settings

    PubMed Central

    Cragg, Liza; Williams, Siân; Chavannes, Niels H

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes FRESH AIR, an implementation science project exploring how to improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of chronic lung diseases in contexts with limited healthcare resources. It consists of inter-related studies that take place in four countries that are part of the International Primary Care Respiratory Group’s (IPCRG) global network: Uganda, the Kyrgyz Republic, Vietnam and Greece. The project has been funded by the European Commission Horizon 2020 research programme and runs from October 2015 until September 2018. PMID:27356621

  3. EPA Activities for Cleaner Air

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Activities in San Joaquin Valley to reduce air pollution, meet federal health standards for ozone and particulates, fund clean tech and health research, and enforce compliance with facility-specific operating permits for industrial air pollution sources.

  4. The Air Advisor: The Face of US Air Force Engagement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Senior Leader Perspective July–August 2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 4 The Air Advisor The Face of US Air Force Engagement Maj Gen Timothy M...The Air Advisor: The Face of US Air Force Engagement 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Institute,Air & Space Power Journal

  5. Health effects from the inhalation of oxidant air pollutants as related to the immune system. Final report. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Osebold, J.W.; Zee, Y.C.

    1985-07-01

    The investigations dealt with links between ozone inhalation and lung diseases. Mice exposed to ozone both continuously and intermittently in four-day cycles showed allergic sensitization to the test antigen (ovalbumin) when compaired to mice maintained in ambeint air. An adjuvant (inactivated Bordetella pertussis cells) administered to mice augmented the immunological response to the test antigen with periodic exposure to ozone. Guinea pigs were tested for allergic sensitization from ozone exposure similar to human asthma, but this trial was not definitive. Ozone inhalation reduced the severity of pneumonia in mice from influenza virus infection, even when ozone and virus exposures were timed to produce maximal edema in the lung.

  6. [Research on accurate measurement of oxygen content in coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in air environment].

    PubMed

    Yin, Wang-bao; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Le; Dong, Lei; Ma, Wei-guang; Jia, Suo-tang

    2012-01-01

    A technique about accurate measurement of oxygen content in coal in air environment using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is introduced in the present paper. Coal samples were excited by the laser, and plasma spectra were obtained. Combining internal standard method, temperature correction method and multi-line methods, the oxygen content of coal samples was precisely measured. The measurement precision is not less than 1.37% for oxygen content in coal analysis, so is satisfied for the requirement of coal-fired power plants in coal analysis. This method can be used in surveying, environmental protection, medicine, materials, archaeological and food safety, biochemical and metallurgy application.

  7. The Conference Proceedings of the 1999 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Anming (Editor); Bowen Brent D. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a model with which allows us to measure not only the changes in equilibrium outcomes and welfare consequences of liberalizing a bilateral air transport agreement, but also the distribution of the gains and losses to carriers and consumers of each bilateral country and those of the third foreign countries. Our model also allows to measure the effects of changes in a bilateral agreement on the amount of traffic diversion between the direct bilateral routes and the indirect routes via a third country. We also provide an extension of our model to a case of oligopoly market outcome (Coumot Nash equilibrium). In our model, quality aspects are treated in the framework of hedonic price theory by specifying the quality-adjusted price (quantity) as a multiplication of the observed price (quantity) by the reciprocal quality index function (the quality index function). Numerical simulations were conducted to measure the effects of changing the following major policy levers in a bilateral air transport agreement: 1) Removing price regulation while retaining frequency and entry restrictions; 2) Removing price and entry regulation while retaining frequency restrictions; 3) Removing frequency regulations while retaining price and entry regulations; 4) Removing frequency and entry regulations while retaining price regulation; 5) Removing price and frequency regulations while retaining entry restriction; and 6) Removing all price, frequency and entry regulations (de facto, open skies).

  8. Sensitivity of the Weather Research and Forecast/Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system to MODIS LAI, FPAR, and albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Limei; Gilliam, Robert; Binkowski, Francis S.; Xiu, Aijun; Pleim, Jonathan; Band, Larry

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to improve land surface processes in a retrospective meteorology and air quality modeling system through the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation and albedo products for more realistic vegetation and surface representation. MODIS leaf area index (LAI), fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR), and albedo are incorporated into the Pleim-Xiu land surface model (PX LSM) used in a combined meteorology and air quality modeling system. The current PX LSM intentionally exaggerates vegetation coverage and LAI in western dry lands so that its soil moisture nudging scheme is more effective in simulating surface temperature and mixing ratio. Reduced vegetation coverage from the PX LSM with MODIS input results in hotter and dryer daytime conditions with reduced ozone dry deposition velocities in much of western North America. Evaluations of the new system indicate greater error and bias in temperature, but reduced error and bias in moisture with the MODIS vegetation input. Hotter daytime temperatures and reduced dry deposition result in greater ozone concentrations in the western arid regions even with deeper boundary layer depths. MODIS albedo has much less impact on the meteorology simulations than MODIS LAI and FPAR. The MODIS vegetation and albedo input does not have much influence in the east where differences in vegetation and albedo parameters are less extreme. Evaluation results showing increased temperature errors with more accurate representation of vegetation suggests that improvements are needed in the model surface physics, particularly the soil processes in the PX LSM.

  9. Research on air sprays and unique foam application methods. Phase II report. Laboratory investigation of foam systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of air sprays and foam systems for dust control on longwall double-drum shearer faces. Laboratory testing has been conducted using foam systems and promising results have been obtained. Upon Bureau approval, underground testing will be scheduled to assess the effectiveness of foam systems under actual operating conditions. Laboratory testing of air sprays is being conducted at present. This report presents the results of the laboratory testing of foam systems. Specifically, the results obtained on the evaluation of selected foaming agents are presented, the feasibility investigation of flushing foam through the shearer-drum are demonstrated, and conceptual layout of the foam system on the shearer is discussed. The laboratory investigation of the selected foaming agents reveal that the Onyx Microfoam, Onyx Maprosyl and DeTer Microfoam foaming agents have higher expansion ratios compared to the others tested. Flushing foam through the shearer drum is entirely feasible and could be a viable technique for dust suppression on longwall faces.

  10. Tritium in unsaturated zone gases and air at the Amargosa Desert Research Site, and in spring and river water, near Beatty, Nevada, May 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striegl, R.G.; Healy, R.W.; Michel, R.L.; Prudic, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Elevated tritium concentrations in the unsaturated zone at the Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS), immediately south and west of the low-level radioactive-waste burial site south of Beatty, Nevada, have stimulated research of processes that control the transport of tritium in arid unsaturated zones. In May 1997, 58 samples were collected from 1.5 m (meters) depth within a 250 m by 250 m grid at the ADRS. Measured concentrations ranged from 16 ? 9 to 36,900 ? 300 tritium units (TU), decreasing from northeast to southwest, possibly along an ancestral Amargosa River channel. The 10 air ports at test hole UZB-2 also were sampled, including ports at 57.6, 106.4, and 108.8 m depths that had not been sampled since 1994. Of the remaining seven ports, five were sampled in 1994, 1995, and 1996, and two were sampled in 1994 and 1996. Tritium concentrations at the four ports deeper than 50 m ranged from 791 ? 15 to 1765 ? 29 TU, having increased since they were last sampled. Tritium concentrations at the six ports shallower than 50 m ranged from 367 ? 11 to 1283 ? 20 TU, and appear to have stabilized since 1996. Tritium concentration in water vapor collected from air within the creosote bush canopy was 75 ? 9 TU near test hole UZB-2 and 9 ? 6 TU near the uncontaminated Fischer test hole, 3.2 km to the south. Elevated tritium concentration in air near test hole UZB-2 was attributed to plant transpiration removing water from the unsaturated zone. Nearby surface water tritium concentrations were 6.3 ? 0.4 TU at Specie Spring, 0.0 ? 0.3 TU at Lower Indian Springs and at Upper Indian Springs, and 0.8 ? 0.6 TU in Amargosa River water.

  11. The Emergence of Institutional Research and the Use of Microcomputers: New Roles for Institutional Researchers in Western Europe Higher Education Institutions. AIR 1986 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frackmann, Edgar

    The use of computers by institutional researchers is considered, with a focus on West Germany and Europe. Two developmental stages concerning higher education's political and economic contexts and information technology are addressed, along with the emerging tasks of instititutional research in higher education, and the functioning of…

  12. The Organizational Ecology of Institutional Research: An Exploration of the Factors behind the Fragmentation of the Institutional Research Enterprise. AIR 1986 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, James C.; Corcoran, Mary E.

    Theories concerning the organizational dynamics underlying the dispersion of institutional research activities within colleges are proposed. Two theoretical arguments concern whether or not a centralized, monopolistic institutional research office will be found on a given campus: the informational legitimacy argument and the limited attention…

  13. US-China Clean Energy Research Center on Building Energy Efficiency: Materials that Improve the Cost-Effectiveness of Air Barrier Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hun, Diana E.

    2016-12-01

    The US–China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC) was launched in 2009 by US Energy Secretary Steven Chu, Chinese Minister of Science and Technology Wan Gang, and Chinese National Energy Agency Administrator Zhang Guobao. This 5-year collaboration emerged from the fact that the United States and China are the world’s largest energy producers, energy consumers, and greenhouse gas emitters, and that their joint effort could have significant positive repercussions worldwide. CERC’s main goal is to develop and deploy clean energy technologies that will help both countries meet energy and climate challenges. Three consortia were established to address the most pressing energy-related research areas: Advanced Coal Technology, Clean Vehicles, and Building Energy Efficiency (BEE). The project discussed in this report was part of the CERC-BEE consortia; its objective was to lower energy use in buildings by developing and evaluating technologies that improve the cost-effectiveness of air barrier systems for building envelopes.

  14. AFOSR(Air Force Office of Scientific Research) Chemical and Atmospheric Sciences Program Review (33rd) FY88

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    and Dimethylnitrosamine", Donald F. McMillen, S. Esther Nigenda, Alicia C. Gonzales, and David M. Golden, Spectrochimica Acta Parta A, Molecular...Computer, and Systems Engineering Boston University Boston, MA 02215 Investigations of the Dynamics and Gonzalo Hernandez Thermodvnamics of the...Polar Regions. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gonzalo Hernandez Research Scientist Space Physics Research Laboratory University of Michigan 2455 Hayward Ann

  15. Bad Air For Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    1976-01-01

    Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)

  16. Next Generation Air Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development is evaluating and developing a rang...

  17. The Air We Breathe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Dina

    2010-01-01

    Topics discussed include NASA mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research; the role of Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric gases, layers of the Earth's atmosphere, ozone layer, air pollution, effects of air pollution on people, the Greenhouse Effect, and breathing on the International Space Station.

  18. Research Update: Direct conversion of h-BN into pure c-BN at ambient temperatures and pressures in air

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, Jagdish Bhaumik, Anagh

    2016-02-01

    We report a direct conversion of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) into pure cubic boron nitride (c-BN) by nanosecond laser melting at ambient temperatures and atmospheric pressure in air. According to the phase diagram, the transformation from h-BN into c-BN can occur only at high temperatures and pressures, as the hBN-cBN-Liquid triple point is at 3500 K/9.5 GPa. Using nanosecond laser melting, we have created super undercooled state and shifted this triple point to as low as 2800 K and atmospheric pressure. The rapid quenching from super undercooled state leads to formation of super undercooled BN (Q-BN). The c-BN phase is nucleated from Q-BN depending upon the time allowed for nucleation and growth.

  19. Engineering analyses and design calculations of NASA, Langley Research Center hydrogen-air-vitiated heater with oxygen replenishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The technical basis is presented for the design of the hydrogen-air-vitiated heater. The heater liner is subjected to a maximum thermal environment at a specified condition, where the combustion gas temperature, pressure and flow rate are 5000 F, 750 psia, and 11.0 lb/sec, respectively, and results in a heat flux of the order of 275 BTU/sec-sq ft. Cooling and stress analyses indicate that water is the logical choice for cooling of the combustor liner. A mixing analysis was undertaken to establish a good combination of combustor length and injector configuration. The analysis, using a conservative analytical approach, indicates a combustor length of the order of 5 ft combined with discrete fuel and oxidizer injection at an approximate 2-1/2 inch radial combustor position, and results in uniform combustion products at the heater exit for all specified envelope conditions.

  20. The Conference Proceedings of the 1999 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Anming (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    Issues around direct flights across Taiwan Strait are always one of the hottest topics in eastern Asia transport market. Although the direct links have not been connected yet, they are still highly concerned by different disciplines of politics, laws, and management. Airlines and related business also watch closely to these issues for policy changes will easily affect their interests in Chinese market which the future of the air transportation in eastern Asia is heavily depending on. In the past decades, Hong Kong was the most important hub in this market; it will still be an important one in the future. It is proved, however, traffic on the link between Hong Kong and Taiwan can be shifted to the link between Macau and Taiwan, so can it be shifted to the links across Taiwan Strait. Moreover, outgoing passengers from China transferred in Hong Kong can also find transit services in Taiwan. These movements will possibly cause a big change in eastern Asian air transport system for there are millions of passengers travelling in this area. The uncertainties of direct links across Taiwan Strait are still leaving, some problems unsolved. Whether the direct links will be defined as international routes or domestic' routes are not clear; the selection of hubs and airlines to provide direct services are not yet made; even the type of freedoms and bilateral agreements can also change the market and network quite a lot. A much bigger volume of passengers can also be found if further travelling deregulation for Chinese to travel across Taiwan Strait can be made. All these variables are making issues around direct flights worthy of continuous observant.

  1. EVALUATION OF A PORTABLE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED GAS ANALYZER FOR MEASUREMENTS OF AIR TOXICS IN POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A portable Fourier transform infrared gas analyzer with a photoacoustic detector performed reliably during pollution prevention research at two industrial facilities. It exhibited good agreement (within approximately 6%) with other analytical instruments (dispersive infrared and ...

  2. HIGH-RISK INFANTS ON HOME CARDIORESPIRATORY MONITORS: A NOVEL POPULATION FOR AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH. (R829213)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. Real-Time Geospatial Data Viewer (RETIGO): Web-Based Tool for Researchers and Citizen Scientists to Explore their Air Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection of air measurements in real-time on moving platforms, such as wearable, bicycle-mounted, or vehicle-mounted air sensors, is becoming an increasingly common method to investigate local air quality. However, visualizing and analyzing geospatial air monitoring data re...

  4. Air transportation energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  5. Military Air Cargo Containerization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    MILITARY AIR CARGO CONTAINERIZATION GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Joseph W. Mancy, Major, USAF AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 : ."•" ’* ■- ’ DEPARTMENT OF...Approved to public release; Distribution UnHmlted ? DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 1 AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 MILITARY AIR CARGO CONTAINERIZATION GRADUATE RESEARCH...PAPER Joseph W. Mancy, Major, USAF AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 19960617 134 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The views expressed in this

  6. The Conference Proceedings of the 1999 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Anming (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The UNO (University of Nebraska at Omaha) Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR (Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research) Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities.

  7. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Contents include the following: Airport choice in a multiple airport region: an empirical analysis for the San Francisco bay area. Liberalization of the westeuropian aviation: choice of a new hub airport for an airline. Austin Bergstrom airport traffic control tower establishment of a major activity level tower. A study to optimize the environmental capacity of Amsterdam airport schiphol.Airport performance in stakeholder involvement and communication strategies: a comparison of major Australian and North American air carrier and general aviation airports. Airport planning and location.Location of international airport and regional development. A simulation technique for analysis of Brasilian airport passanger terminal building.Multimodal airport access in Japan. Planning surface access provision at major airports Airline economics and the inclusion of environmental costs on airport hub pricing: a theoretical analysis. Airport financing and user charge systems in the USA. Optimal demand for operating lease of aircraft. Aircraft leasing industry and social welfare.The development of performance indicators for airports: a management perspective. Study about operational effect of the "security check-in" implantation in Brasilian international airports.Austin Bergstrom west loop cable system.and Optimal resource allocation model for airport passanger terminals.

  8. Evaluation of electric belt grill, forced-air convection oven, and electric broiler cookery methods for beef tenderness research.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, T E; King, D A; Obuz, E; Yancey, E J; Dikeman, M E

    2001-07-01

    Five muscles from USDA Select beef carcasses were cooked on an electric belt grill at three temperatures (93, 117, and 163°C), in a forced-air convection oven, and on an electric broiler to determine effects of cooking treatment and muscle on Warner-Bratzler shear force values, cooking traits (cooking loss, cooking time, and endpoint temperature), and repeatability of duplicate measurements. All cooking treatments allowed shear force differences to be detected (P<0.05) among the five muscles, although the differences were inconsistent. Neither longissimus lumborum nor semitendinosus shear values differed among the five cooking treatments; however, shear values for biceps femoris, deep pectoralis, and gluteus medius differed (P<0.05) among cooking treatments. Belt grill cooking resulted in the highest shear force repeatability (R=0.70 to 0.89) for the longissimus lumborum. All cooking methods provided acceptable repeatability (R⩾0.60) of shear values for the biceps femoris and semitendinosus. The electric broiler was the only cooking treatment that resulted in acceptable repeatability of shear force measurements for all five muscles. It is not recommended to use the gluteus medius to test treatment effects on shear force values. Belt grill or electric broiler cooking are recommended for shear force evaluations.

  9. The research of air pollution based on spectral features in leaf surface of Ficus microcarpa in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Xu, Ruisong; Ma, Yueliang; Miao, Li; Cai, Rui; Chen, Yu

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays development of industry and traffic are the main contributor to city air pollution in the city of GuangZhou, China. Conventional methods for investigating atmosphere potentially harmful element pollution based on sampling and chemical analysis are time and labor consuming and relatively expensive. Reflectance spectroscopy within the visible-near-infrared region of vegetation in city has been widely used to predict atmosphere constituents due to its rapidity, convenience and accuracy. The objective of this study was to examine the possibility of using leaves reflectance spectra of vegetation as a rapid method to simultaneously assess pollutant (S, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, XCl, XF) in the atmosphere of the Guangzhou area. This article has studied the spectral features of polluted leaf surface of Ficus microcarpa in 1985 and 1998. According to the analysis, comprehensive assessment for the change of atmospheric condition and degrees of pollution were given. This conclusion was confirmed by the monitored data got from chemical analysis. Future study with real remote sensing data and field measurements were strongly recommended.

  10. [Modeling research on impact of pH on metals leaching behavior of air pollution control residues from MSW incinerator].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; He, Pin-Jing; Li, Xin-Jie; Shao, Li-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Metals leaching behavior of air pollution control residues (APC residues) from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) is greatly dependent on the leachate pH. pH-varying leaching tests and Visual MINTEQ modeling were conducted to investigate the mechanism of pH effect on the metals leaching characteristics from MSWI APC residues. Results show that, under acidic environment (for Cd, Zn, and Ni, pH < 8; for Pb, Cu, and Cr, pH < 6; for Al, pH < 4), leaching concentrations of metals increase greatly with the decrease of pH. Release of amphoteric metals, Pb and Zn, can be induced in strong alkaline leachate, reaching to 42 and 2.4 mg x L(-1) at pH 12.5 respectively. The equilibrium modeling results are well in agreement with the analyzed leaching concentrations. Variation of leachate pH changes the metals speciation in the leaching system, thus influencing their leaching concentrations. Speciation and leaching behavior of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ca, and Al mainly depend on their dissolution/precipitation reactions under different leachate pH. Leachability of Cd, Cr, and Ni can be lowered under acidic and neutral leachate pH due to HFO adsorption, while under alkaline conditions, the effect of adsorption is not significant and dissolution/precipitation becomes the major reactions controlling the leaching toxicity of these heavy metals.

  11. A New Focus for Institutional Researchers: Developing and Using a Student Decision Support System. AIR 1998 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Jacqueline; Dalrymple, Margaret; Wang, Mindy

    Institutional researchers play a key role in an environment where data warehouses are used to store and retrieve vast amounts of data. Along with the benefits of increased access for more users, improved reporting capabilities, and less reliance on centralized information, come questions of appropriate data usage, data access and security,…

  12. Good Practice Recommendations in the Field of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning for Health Related Research Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laboratory Design Notes, 1966

    1966-01-01

    A collection of laboratory design notes to set forth minimum criteria required in the design of basic medical research laboratory buildings. Recommendations contained are primarily concerned with features of design which affect quality of performance and future flexibility of facility systems. Subjects of economy and safety are discussed where…

  13. The Virtual Office: An Organizational Paradigm for Institutional Research in the 90's. AIR 1993 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matross, Ronald P.

    In response to conflicting centralization and decentralization pressures, the University of Minnesota institutional research office responded with a "virtual enterprising"--a group of organizationally distinct units acting as if they were a single unit. The four elements in this organizational approach were: (1) "soft control"…

  14. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Thirteen papers (presentations) from the 8th World Conference on Transportation Research are presented. Topics include European Airline competition, cost analyses, performance evaluations, deregulation; aviation policy in Southeast Asia; corporate involvement in European business transportation; and cycles in the airline industry.

  15. 75 FR 33587 - Local Redevelopment Authority and Available Surplus Buildings and Land at Air Force Research Labs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... Force Research Labs (AFRL) Mesa, Located in Maricopa County, AZ SUMMARY: This notice provides information regarding the surplus property at AFRL Mesa in Maricopa County, Arizona and information about ] the local redevelopment authority that has been established to plan the reuse of the AFRL...

  16. Hard Science, Thin Air and Unexpected Guests: A Pluralistic Model of Rationality, Knowledge and Conjecture in Child Psychotherapy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Psychoanalysis and child psychotherapy have traditionally sought to describe their relationship to science in a variety of ways. As a consequence, different strands of the research programme are underpinned by divergent methodological and epistemic assumptions. The perceived incommensurability of these positions sometimes hinders the development…

  17. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1991. High School Apprenticeship Program (HSAP) Reports, Volume 13: Wright Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    catcher is placed at the end of the range, but a mobile catcher can be moved closer to ensure that less stable missiles are caught before they damage the...Research Division is currently exploring is the construction of ever smaller devices by using electron beam techonolgy . The manufacture of semiconductor

  18. Army Research Office and Air Force Office of Scientific Research Contractors’ Meeting in Chemical Propulsion Held in Boulder, Colorado on June 11-13, 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    research has been directed in two areas: the formulation of augmented reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for the combustion of current and future ...ultra-compact, high performance combustion system for future military and commercial aircraft. This work comprises experimental testing as well as...conventional gas turbine combustion systems. A concept design for a high-g combustion system that can serve as a main combustor or as an ITB has been

  19. Concentrations of the carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in sidestream cigarette smoke increase after release into indoor air: results from unpublished tobacco industry research.

    PubMed

    Schick, Suzaynn F; Glantz, Stanton

    2007-08-01

    Research has shown that the toxicity of sidestream cigarette smoke, the primary constituent of secondhand smoke, increases over time. To find potential mechanisms that would explain the increase in sidestream smoke toxicity over time, we analyzed unpublished research reports from Philip Morris Co. using the internal tobacco industry documents now available at the University of California San Francisco Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and other Web sites. Unpublished research from Philip Morris Tobacco Company shows that 4-(methylnitrosamino)-I-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a highly carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamine, can form in sidestream cigarette smoke after it has been released into ambient air. In experiments done between 1983 and 1997, Philip Morris scientists measured the concentration of NNK in sidestream smoke in a sealed stainless steel test chamber at initial particle concentrations of 24 mg/m(3) over the course of 6 to 18 h. They repeatedly showed that airborne NNK concentrations in sidestream cigarette smoke can increase by 50% to 200% per hour during the first 6 h after cigarettes are extinguished. Two experiments done in a real office showed that NNK concentrations increase for the first 2 h after cigarettes are extinguished. If NNK formation also occurs in the lower smoke concentrations observed in real smoking environments, these results suggest that nitrosation of nicotine and/or nicotine breakdown products in aging secondhand smoke is a significant contributor to nitrosamine exposure in humans.

  20. Metal-air battery assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, R.K.; Van Voorhees, S.L.; Ferrel, T.

    1988-05-01

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the present technical status of the zinc-air, aluminum/air and iron/air batteries and assess their potential for use in an electric vehicle. In addition, this report will outline proposed research and development priorities for the successful development of metal-air batteries for electric vehicle application. 39 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Applications Using AIRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  2. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  3. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Climate Change on Children's Health: Session Two: Air Quality Impacts MODERATOR: Susan Anenberg, EPA Meredith McCormack, Johns ... University • Effects of Climate Change on Children’s Health: Air Quality Impacts Frederica Perera, Columbia University • Air quality Impacts ...

  4. Performance of advanced air bags based on data William Lehman Injury Research Center and new NASS PSUs.

    PubMed

    Augenstein, Jeffrey; Digges, Kennerly

    2003-01-01

    The Ryder Trauma Center is a Level I trauma center that treats only the most severely injured occupants of vehicle crashes as well as other severe cases of trauma. The center investigates these crashes through funding provided by the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers and the U.S. Department of Transportation-sponsored Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) program. MAIS 3+ nonfatal and fatal injuries comprise approximately 2 percent of the total NASS/CDS cases. Among the Ryder trauma center cases, 50 percent are MAIS 3+ and 25 percent are fatal. If the MAIS 3+ fatal and nonfatal injuries were considered as "failures" and the remaining 98 percent with MAIS 2 or less as successes, this could be equated to the 75 percent failure rate (MAIS 3+ and fatal) in the trauma center cases for analysis purposes. The total database of frontal cases with no rollover consists of 147 drivers with first-generation airbags and 58 cases with second-generation airbags.

  5. Closing the research loop: a risk-based approach for communicating results of air pollution exposure studies.

    PubMed Central

    Payne-Sturges, Devon C; Schwab, Margo; Buckley, Timothy J

    2004-01-01

    Communities have long been concerned about the environmental health and environmental quality of their neighborhoods. Community-based exposure assessments have the potential to be an effective way to address these concerns. The success of such studies depends critically on the effective translation and communication of study results back to the study participants and the community. In this article we describe the communication approach applied as part of the South Baltimore Community Exposure Study. Specifically, in conjunction with collecting measurements, we asked the community to define questions they wanted answered and the way in which they wanted to receive study results. To meet their needs, we applied the risk assessment framework. The approach we developed helped residents interpret exposure assessment measurements and gave them the raw materials to effect change in their community. The risk-based approach to presenting participant and community results provides the means to move beyond traditional reporting of concentration values in three important ways. First, risk takes into consideration toxicity, thereby enabling a dialogue about community health concerns. Second, risk provides a common denominator so that exposure and risk can be compared and priorities identified. Third, exposure and risk can be summed, thereby meeting the community's need for information regarding cumulative exposure. This approach may be a useful model for other researchers conducting exposure assessments in response to community concerns. PMID:14698927

  6. Ames Air Revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Roger Z.

    2015-01-01

    This is an informal presentation presented to the University of Colorado, Boulder Bioastronautics group seminar. It highlights the key focal areas of the Air Revitalization Group research over the past year, including progress on the CO2 Removal and Compression System, testing of CDRA drying bed configurations, and adsorption research.

  7. Children, Pediatricians, and Polluted Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    Explored are children's vulnerability and the pediatrician's role in relation to the problems posed by air pollution. Research is noted to have included a search of biomedical literature over the past 10 years; attendance at medical meetings; conferences with air pollution researchers, environmental protection administrators, and specialists in…

  8. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  9. Air/Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  10. Developing air quality forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pius; Saylor, Rick; Meagher, James

    2012-05-01

    Third International Workshop on Air Quality Forecasting Research; Potomac, Maryland, 29 November to 1 December 2011 Elevated concentrations of both near-surface ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter have been implicated in increased mortality and other human health impacts. In light of these known influences on human health, many governments around the world have instituted air quality forecasting systems to provide their citizens with advance warning of impending poor air quality so that they can take actions to limit exposure. In an effort to improve the performance of air quality forecasting systems and provide a forum for the exchange of the latest research in air quality modeling, the International Workshop on Air Quality Forecasting Research (IWAQFR) was established in 2009 and is cosponsored by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Environment Canada (EC), and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The steering committee for IWAQFR's establishment was composed of Véronique Bouchet, Mike Howe, and Craig Stoud (EC); Greg Carmichael (University of Iowa); Paula Davidson and Jim Meagher (NOAA); and Liisa Jalkanen (WMO). The most recent workshop took place in Maryland.

  11. Naval Air Systems Command-Naval Research Laboratory Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Synthetic Hydrocarbon Jet Aircraft Fuels Held at Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC on June 15 and 16, 1978

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    another test, samples are sealed inside glass bottles and stored for 16 hours at 200 F. The ullage gases above the liquid are sampled at the end of... glass jars. A one liter quantity of fuel was used. The containers were capped with aluminum foil to permit breathing during the storage period. Water... Matell Wright Patterson Air Force Base 183 Cheap, high quality petroleum is rapidly becoming a thing of the past. The Department of Defense and other

  12. Research in Alumni Relations: Surveying Alumni To Improve Your Programs. Report on the Association for Institutional Research (AIR)/CASE Alumni Research Conference (District of Columbia, April 2-3, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Donna, Ed.

    This book presents summaries of 16 papers presented at a conference on increasing the amount and usefulness of research on alumni relations. Following an introductory paper, "On the Art and Science of Surveying Alumni" (Donna Shoemaker), the papers are: (1) "Targeted Research Gets Results. Comprehensive Research on Alumni Relationships: Four Years…

  13. Method for collecting air-water interface microbes suitable for subsequent microscopy and molecular analysis in both research and teaching laboratories.

    PubMed

    Henk, Margaret C

    2004-04-01

    A method has been developed for collecting air-water interface (AWI) microbes and biofilms that enables analysis of the same sample with various combinations of bright-field and fluorescence light microscopy optics, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy. The identical sample is then subjected to molecular analysis. The sampling tool consists of a microscope slide supporting appropriate substrates, TEM grids, for example, that are removable for the desired protocols. The slide with its substrates is then coated with a collodion polymer membrane to which in situ AWI organisms adhere upon contact. This sampling device effectively separates the captured AWI bacterial community from the bulk water community immediately subtending. Preliminary data indicate that the AWI community differs significantly from the water column community from the same sample site when both are evaluated with microscopy and with 16S ribosomal DNA sequence-based culture-independent comparisons. This microbe collection method can be used at many levels in research and teaching.

  14. Air Policing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Iraq. To provide a background for understanding why Britain commenced the policy of air policing, this paper begins with a review of contemporary...7 Omissi, Air Power, XV. 8 policing actions or the pushing home of advantages gained by the air.” Within the context of this paper , the...control operations, and therefore within the context of this paper , the term coercive airpower refers to the threat of harming a population or the threat

  15. Air Force Research Laboratory Integrated Omics Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    alteration created by toxin exposure (or other stressor) is expressed as a " fingerprint " of biochemical perturbations4•5 that is unique to the type of agent...initial toxicogenomics program was established to identify "toxicogenomic fingerprints " (i.e., the signatures of trans- criptomic responses resulting

  16. Military Air Power: The CADRE Digest of Air Power Opinions and Thoughts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS Air warfare; Air power; Military art and science 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...bibliographical references. 1. Air warfare. 2. Air power. 3. Military art and science . 1. Air University (US). Center for Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and...development. The attitude and actions of government will fully determine the size of our military air establishment, and greatly affect the efficiency of our

  17. Evaluation of the CALIOPE air quality forecasting system for epidemiological research: The example of NO2 in the province of Girona (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Inmaculada; Basagaña, Xavier; Pay, María Teresa; Agis, David; Bouso, Laura; Foraster, Maria; Rivera, Marcela; Baldasano, José María; Künzli, Nino

    2013-06-01

    Air quality models are being increasingly used to estimate long-term individual exposures to air pollution in epidemiological studies. Most of them have been evaluated against measurements from a limited number of monitoring stations, which may not properly reflect the exposure characteristics of the study population.

  18. Assessing Spatial and Temporal Variability of VOCs and PM-Components in Outdoor Air during the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure models for air pollutants often adjust for effects of the physical environment (e.g., season, urban vs. rural populations) in order to improve exposure and risk predictions. Yet attempts are seldom made to attribute variability in observed outdoor air measurements to spe...

  19. USAF Summer Research Program - 1994 Summer Faculty Research Program Final Reports, Volume 5B, Wright Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    Research Laboratory Technical Directorates and Air Force Air Logistics Centers. Each participant provided a report of their research , and these...reports are consolidated into this annual report. 14. SUBJECT TERMS AIR FORCE RESEARCH , AIR FORCE , ENGINEERING, LABORATORIES , REPORTS, SUMMER...216-6940 UNITED STATES AIR FORCE SUMMER RESEARCH PROGRAM - 1994 SUMMER FACULTY RESEARCH PROGRAM FINAL REPORTS

  20. USAF Summer Research Program - 1993 Graduate Student Research Program Final Reports, Volume 8, Phillips Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    Research Program Phillips Laboratory Kirtland Air Force Base Albuquerque, New Mexico Sponsored by: Air ...Summer Research Program Phillips Laboratory Sponsored by. Air Force Office of Scientific Research Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico...UNITED STATES AIR FORCE SUMMER RESEARCH PROGRAM -- 1993 SUMMER RESEARCH PROGRAM FINAL REPORTS VOLUME 8

  1. Free Air C02 Enrichment (FACE) Research Data from the Oak Ridge FACE Site and Experiment on CO2 Enrichment of Sweetgum

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE has conducted trace gas enrichment experiments since the mid 1990s. The FACE Data Management System is a central repository and archive for Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) data, as well as for the related open-top chamber (OTC) experiments. FACE Data Management System is located at DOE’s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). While the data from the various FACE sites, each one a unique user facility, are centralized at CDIAC, each of the FACE sites presents its own view of its activities and information. For that reason, DOE Data Explorer users are advised to see both the central repository at http://public.ornl.gov/face/index.shtml and the individual home pages of each site. The goal of the Oak Ridge FACE Experiment on C02 Enrichment of Sweetgum is to understand how the eastern deciduous forest will be affected by C02 enrichment of the atmosphere, and what are the feedbacks from the forest to the atmosphere. This goal is being approached by measuring the integrated response of an intact forest ecosystem, with a focus on stand-level mechanisms. The facility, comprising five 25-m plots was constructed in a deciduous forest on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park. The study site is a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) monoculture planted in 1988. This closed-canopy, 18-m tall stand offers the opportunity for rigorous tests of hypotheses that address the essential features of a forest stand and how they could influence the responses to CO2. The facility was established with support from the ORNL Director's R&D Fund and the Biological and Environmental Research program of the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Science. Additional support was provided by the Terrestrial Ecology and Global Change (TECO) program through the National Science Foundation. This project was part of the CO2 research network fostered by the Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems core project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme

  2. Advances in Understanding Air Pollution and CVD.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joel D; Spalt, Elizabeth W; Curl, Cynthia L; Hajat, Anjum; Jones, Miranda R; Kim, Sun-Young; Vedal, Sverre; Szpiro, Adam A; Gassett, Amanda; Sheppard, Lianne; Daviglus, Martha L; Adar, Sara D

    2016-09-01

    The MESA Air (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution) leveraged the platform of the MESA cohort into a prospective longitudinal study of relationships between air pollution and cardiovascular health. MESA Air researchers developed fine-scale, state-of-the-art air pollution exposure models for the MESA Air communities, creating individual exposure estimates for each participant. These models combine cohort-specific exposure monitoring, existing monitoring systems, and an extensive database of geographic and meteorological information. Together with extensive phenotyping in MESA-and adding participants and health measurements to the cohort-MESA Air investigated environmental exposures on a wide range of outcomes. Advances by the MESA Air team included not only a new approach to exposure modeling, but also biostatistical advances in addressing exposure measurement error and temporal confounding. The MESA Air study advanced our understanding of the impact of air pollutants on cardiovascular disease and provided a research platform for advances in environmental epidemiology.

  3. Natural Air Purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA environmental research has led to a plant-based air filtering system. Dr. B.C. Wolverton, a former NASA engineer who developed a biological filtering system for space life support, served as a consultant to Terra Firma Environmental. The company is marketing the BioFilter, a natural air purifier that combines activated carbon and other filter media with living plants and microorganisms. The filter material traps and holds indoor pollutants; plant roots and microorganisms then convert the pollutants into food for the plant. Most non-flowering house plants will work. After pollutants have been removed, the cleansed air is returned to the room through slits in the planter. Terra Firma is currently developing a filter that will also disinfect the air.

  4. Process air quality data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C. M.; Hogge, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Air quality sampling was conducted. Data for air quality parameters, recorded on written forms, punched cards or magnetic tape, are available for 1972 through 1975. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate several daily statistical measures of location, (2) plot time histories of data or the calculated daily statistics, (3) calculate simple correlation coefficients, and (4) plot scatter diagrams. Computer software was developed for processing air quality data to include time series analysis and goodness of fit tests. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate a larger number of daily statistical measures of location, and a number of daily monthly and yearly measures of location, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, (2) decompose the extended time series model and (3) perform some goodness of fit tests. The computer program is described, documented and illustrated by examples. Recommendations are made for continuation of the development of research on processing air quality data.

  5. Air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, F Handley

    1924-01-01

    I purpose (sic) in this paper to deal with the development in air transport which has taken place since civil aviation between England and the Continent first started at the end of August 1919. A great deal of attention has been paid in the press to air services of the future, to the detriment of the consideration of results obtained up to the present.

  6. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  7. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  8. Air ions and aerosol science

    SciTech Connect

    Tammet, H.

    1996-03-01

    Collaboration between Gas Discharge and Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Electricity, and Aerosol Science is a factor of success in the research of air ions. The concept of air ion as of any carrier of electrical current through the air is inherent to Atmospheric Electricity under which a considerable statistical information about the air ion mobility spectrum is collected. A new model of air ion size-mobility correlation has been developed proceeding from Aerosol Science and joining the methods of neighboring research fields. The predicted temperature variation of the mobility disagrees with the commonly used Langevin rule for the reduction of air ion mobilities to the standard conditions. Concurrent errors are too big to be neglected in applications. The critical diameter distinguishing cluster ions and charged aerosol particles has been estimated to be 1.4{endash}1.8 nm. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Cyberspace Integration within the Air Operations Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    Rueter, Major, USAF AFIT-ENG- GRP -13-J-02 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air...AFIT-ENG- GRP -13-J-02 CYBERSPACE INTEGRATION WITHIN THE AIR OPERATIONS CENTER GRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT Presented to the Faculty...Rueter Major, USAF May 2013 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENG- GRP -13-J-02 CYBERSPACE

  10. SPATIAL PREDICTION OF AIR QUALITY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site-specific air quality monitoring data have been used extensively in both scientific and regulatory programs. As such, these data provide essential information to the public, environmental managers, and the atmospheric research community. Currently, air quality management prac...

  11. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. )

    1988-01-01

    Scientists and engineers in the Indoor Air Brand of EPS'a Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory are conducting research to increase the state of knowledge concerning indoor air pollution factors. A three phase program is being implemented. The purpose of this paper is to show how their approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Pollutants from two sources are examined: para-dichlorobenzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters.

  12. VERIFICATION TESTING OF TECHNOLOGIES TO CLEAN OR FILTER VENTILATION AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the importance of indoor air quality, Research Triangle Institute's Air Pollution Control Technology is adding indoor air products as a new technology category available for testing. This paper discusses RTI's participation in previous Environmental Technology Verifica...

  13. Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  14. Research on the water hammer protection of the long distance water supply project with the combined action of the air vessel and over-pressure relief valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D. D.; Jiang, J.; Zhao, Z.; Yi, W. S.; Lan, G.

    2013-12-01

    We take a concrete pumping station as an example in this paper. Through the calculation of water hammer protection with a specific pumping station water supply project, and the analysis of the principle, mathematical models and boundary conditions of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve we show that the air vessel can protect the water conveyance system and reduce the transient pressure damage due to various causes. Over-pressure relief valve can effectively reduce the water hammer because the water column re-bridge suddenly stops the pump and prevents pipeline burst. The paper indicates that the combination set of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve can greatly reduce the quantity of the air valve and can eliminate the water hammer phenomenon in the pipeline system due to the vaporization and water column separation and re-bridge. The conclusion could provide a reference for the water hammer protection of long-distance water supply system.

  15. Phase I Recommendations by the Air Quality Management Work Group to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Recommendations to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee by Air Quality Management Work Group addressing the recommendations made by the National Research Council to improve the U.S. air quality management system.

  16. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  17. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  18. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Sunday, April 9, 2017 About | Contact InfoBites Quick ... general dentist, who has been trained in restorative dentistry techniques, will perform any procedures that use air- ...

  19. AIR VEHICLE INTEGRATION AND TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH (AVIATR) Task Order 0015: Predictive Capability for Hypersonic Structural Response and Life Prediction: Phase 1-Identification of Knowledge Gaps, Volume 1: Nonproprietary Version

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    AFRL-RB-WP-TR-2010-3068,V1 AIR VEHICLE INTEGRATION AND TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH (AVIATR) Task Order 0015: Predictive Capability for Hypersonic ...Order 0015: Predictive Capability for Hypersonic Structural Response and Life Prediction: Phase 1-Identification of Knowledge Gaps, Volume 1...AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION The Boeing Company M/C 110-SK56 2600 Westminster Avenue Seal Beach , CA 90740 REPORT NUMBER 9

  20. Technology Solutions Case Study: Sealed Air-Return Plenum Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-08-01

    In this project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers greatly improved indoor air quality and HVAC performance by replacing an old, leaky air handler with a new air handler with an air-sealed return plenum with filter; they also sealed the ducts, and added a fresh air intake.