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Sample records for air research sst

  1. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) research: SST-present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnson, V.; Clem, J.; Deangelis, G.

    The Super Sonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant passengers and crew by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in effects due to particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Standing Committee provided recommendations on SST radiobiological issues and operational requirements. The lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits (1990) with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies of effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in 2000 and more recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes brings renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  2. Overview of atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) Research: SST-present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; Clem, J. M.; De Angelis, G.; Friedberg, W.

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits 1990 with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum June 1997 and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  3. Overview of atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) research: SST-present.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J W; Goldhagen, P; Rafnsson, V; Clem, J M; De Angelis, G; Friedberg, W

    2003-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits (1990) with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented. PMID:14727657

  4. Overview of atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) research: SST-present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; Clem, J. M.; De Angelis, G.; Friedberg, W.

    2003-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits (1990) with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  5. Summary of Atmospheric Ionizing AIR Research: SST-Present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; deAngelis, G.; Friedberg, W.; Clem, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of the radiation exposure limits by the International Commission on Radiological Protection with the classification of aircrew as radiation workers renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  6. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Research: SST - Present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; Clem, J. M.; DeAngelis, G.; Friedberg, W.

    2002-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent (1990) lowering of recommended exposure limits by the International Commission on Radiological Protection with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  7. Impact of autumn SST in the Japan Sea on winter rainfall and air temperature in Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaomeng; Sun, Jilin; Wu, Dexing; Yi, Li; Wei, Dongni

    2015-08-01

    We studied the impact of sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) in the Japan Sea and the sea area east of Japan on the winter rainfall and air temperature in Northeast (NE) China using the singular value decomposition (SVD) and empirical orthogonal function (EOF). The monthly-mean rainfall data observed at 160 stations in China, monthly-mean sea surface temperature (SST) of the Hadley Center for Climate Prediction and Research and monthly-mean air temperature from the NCEP reanalysis during 1960-2011 were used. Correlation analysis indicates that the SSTAs in the Japan Sea in September may last for three or four months and are an important index for forecasting the winter rainfall and air temperature in NE China. Positive SSTAs in the central Japan Sea and in the sea area east of Tokyo correspond to positive rainfall anomaly and negative air temperature anomaly in NE China. With the rise of SST in the Japan Sea, a weak cyclone appears over the Japan Sea. The northeasterly wind transports water vapor from the Okhotsk to NE China, resulting in more rainfall and lower air temperature. Negative SSTA years are accompanied by warmer air temperature and less snow in NE China. The 1000 hPa geopotential height anomaly and wind anomaly fields are simulated by IAP-9L model, which supports the analysis results.

  8. Impact of Air Temperature and SST Variability on Cholera Incidence in Southeastern Africa, 1971-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz, Shlomit

    2010-05-01

    The most important climatic parameter related to cholera outbreaks is the temperature, especially of the water bodies and the aquatic environment. This factor governs the survival and growth of V. cholerae, since it has a direct influence on its abundance in the environment, or alternatively, through its indirect influence on other aquatic organisms to which the pathogen is found to attach. Thus, the potential for cholera outbreaks may rise, parallel to the increase in ocean surface temperature. Indeed, recent studies indicate that global warming might create a favorable environment for V. cholerae and increase its incidence in vulnerable areas. Africa is vulnerable to climate variability. According to the recent IPCC report on Africa, the air temperature has indicated a significant warming trend since the 1960s. In recent years, most of the research into disease vectors in Africa related to climate variability has focused on malaria. The IPCC indicated that the need exists to examine the vulnerabilities and impacts of climatic factors on cholera in Africa. In light of this, the study uses a Poisson Regression Model to analyze the possible association between the cholera rates in southeastern Africa and the annual variability of air temperature and sea surface temperature (SST) at regional and hemispheric scales, for the period 1971-2006. Data description is as follows: Number of cholera cases per year in Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and Mozambique. Source: WHO Global Health Atlas - cholera. Seasonal and annual temperature time series: Regional scale: a) Air temperature for southeastern Africa (30° E-36° E, 5° S-17° S), source: NOAA NCEP-NCAR; b) Sea surface temperature, for the western Indian Ocean (0-20° S, 40° E-45° E), source: NOAA, Kaplan SST dataset. Hemispheric scale (for the whole Southern Hemisphere): a) Air temperature anomaly; b) Sea surface temperature anomaly. Source: CRU, University of East Anglia. The following

  9. Mechanisms controlling the SST air-sea heat flux feedback and its dependence on spatial scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, Ute; Czaja, Arnaud; Marshall, John

    2016-05-01

    The turbulent air-sea heat flux feedback (α , in {W m}^{-2}{ K}^{-1} ) is a major contributor to setting the damping timescale of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. In this study we compare the spatial distribution and magnitude of α in the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean, as estimated from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. The comparison is rationalized in terms of an upper bound on the heat flux feedback, associated with "fast" atmospheric export of temperature and moisture anomalies away from the marine boundary layer, and a lower bound associated with "slow" export. It is found that regions of cold surface waters (≤ 10° C) are best described as approaching the slow export limit. This conclusion is not only valid at the synoptic scale resolved by the reanalysis data, but also on basin scales. In particular, it applies to the heat flux feedback acting as circumpolar SST anomaly scales are approached in the Southern Ocean, with feedbacks of ≤ 10 {W m}^{-2}{ K}^{-1} . In contrast, the magnitude of the heat flux feedback is close to that expected from the fast export limit over the Gulf Stream and its recirculation with values on the order of ≈40 {W m}^{-2}{ K}^{-1} . Further analysis suggests that this high value reflects a compensation between a moderate thermodynamic adjustment of the boundary layer, which tends to weaken the heat flux feedback, and an enhancement of the surface winds over warm SST anomalies, which tend to enhance the feedback.

  10. Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory on Taxiway at Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The sleek lines of the Tupolev Tu-144LL are evident as it sits on the taxiway at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were used in production-model aircraft. Fifty experiments were proposed

  11. Russian Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory Landing with Drag Chutes at Zhukovsky Air Development Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The modified Tupolev Tu-144 supersonic flying laboratory touches down and deploys a trio of drag chutes following a test flight at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia, in July 1997. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were used

  12. Russian Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory Landing at Zhukovsky Air Development Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Tupolev Tu-144LL supersonic flying laboratory lifts off from the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia, on a 1997 test flight. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were used in production-model aircraft. Fifty experiments were

  13. Russian Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory Takeoff at Zhukovsky Air Development Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    With its nose drooped and canards extended, the Tupolev Tu-144LL supersonic flying laboratory lifts off from the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia on a 1997 test flight. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were used in production

  14. Russian Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory Landing at Zhukovsky Air Development Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Tupolev Tu-144LL supersonic flying laboratory touches down at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia, following a 1997 test flight. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were used in production-model aircraft. Fifty experiments

  15. Intense air-sea exchange and heavy rainfall: impact of the northern Adriatic SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocchi, P.; Davolio, S.

    2016-02-01

    Over the northern Adriatic basin, intense air-sea interactions are often associated with heavy precipitation over the mountainous areas surrounding the basin. In this study, a high-resolution mesoscale model is employed to simulate three severe weather events and to evaluate the effect of the sea surface temperature on the intensity and location of heavy rainfall. The sensitivity tests show that the impact of SST varies among the events and it mainly involves the modification of the PBL characteristics and thus the flow dynamics and its interaction with the orography.

  16. Research Pilot C. Gordon Fullerton in Cockpit of TU-144LL SST Flying Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA Research pilot C. Gordon Fullerton sits in cockpit of TU-144LL SST Flying Laboratory. Fullerton was one of two NASA pilots who flew the aircraft as part of a joint high speed research program. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were used in

  17. Numerical Study on the Impact of SST Initialization on Regional Circulation and Air Pollution at Southern Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, W.; Lee, H.; Lee, S.

    2010-12-01

    Numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the impact of temporal resolution of sea surface temperature on regional circulation and air pollution over southern Korean Peninsula. Well urbanized target area with densely populated inventories called Gwangyang bay is situated at the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, and assessment period is from 15 to 19 August 2007 for investigating the SST impact under various synoptic conditions. A three-dimensional non-hydrostatic atmospheric model RAMS and New Generation Sea Surface Temperature (NGSST) data was applied in this study. Two different numerical experiments were carried out in accordance with the temporal resolution of SST, which are, NGSST without temporal update (case NO-UP), and temporally varied NGSST for whole period (case YES-UP). Based on the Buoy observation, SST at Geoje Island near Gwayang bay region increased 4.1°C for target period. This rapid variation of SST cannot be negligible to estimate the meteorological wind field and the distribution of photochemical ozone emitted at the well urbanized Gwangyang bay. Wind intensity including wind direction is also influenced by the temporal variation of SST distribution. In case YES-UP with high temporal resolution of SST, Sea breeze is stronger and more reasonable than that estimated in any other cases due to the precise information of SST distribution. In IOA analysis, most successfully estimated IOA values for surface air temperature and wind speed arose in case YES-UP and their values reached on the 0.958 and 0.829, respectively. These differences were due to the discrepancy of the temperature gradient caused by different SST initialization. Diurnal variation of temperature and wind speed for YES_UP has indicated great agreement with the observation data and the statistics such as root mean squared error, index of agreement were also better than NO_UP. In order to assess the influence of the difference of the meteorological input data to air

  18. SST, Winds, and Air-Sea Fluxes in the Gulf Stream Region in the First Winter of CLIMODE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, K. A.; Dickinson, S.; Jones, H. R.

    2006-12-01

    The NSF sponsored CLIvar MOde Water Dynamic Experiment (CLIMODE) focuses on the wintertime processes responsible for the formation and dispersal of Eighteen Degree Water (EDW), the subtropical mode water of the North Atlantic. This region has the largest wintertime loss of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere, made possible by the influx of heat from the Gulf Stream (GS). These fluxes fuel the formation and intensification of storms, as cool, dry continental air encounters the warm boundary current waters. The actual impact of the large transfers of heat on the ocean and on the atmosphere are likely underestimated in weather and climate models, owing to poor observational input and inaccurate boundary layer physics. Several new sources of data are available with which to examine the relationship between the Gulf Stream, air-sea heat fluxes, winds, and storms: wind vector and SST measurements from satellites, as well as in situ measurements, including data from CLIMODE. Improved satellite data includes the ocean vector winds from QuikSCAT, re-processed at a spatial resolution of 12.5km, and microwave SST from AMSR-E. Although the microwave resolution is coarser than for infrared SST, the ability of microwave sensors to see through clouds gives better effective resolution of SST, particularly during storms. Two CLIMODE cruises were conducted in the winter of 2005-2006. During the first cruise in November 2005, SST dropped by about 1.5-2C, leaving SST in the recirculation region at about 22C. By the start of the second cruise in January 2006, SST had fallen to 20C near the GS core, and 19C in the mode water region. By the end of the second cruise 2 weeks later, the region of 20C water had dropped to 19C, suggesting that EDW formation was imminent. SST in the mode water region reached 18C the following week. Maximum wind speeds were distinctly centered on the GS warm core for much of January 2006. Recent studies suggest that the Gulf Stream could affect the storm

  19. Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory Landing on Runway at Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Ru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Tupolev Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory rolls down the runway at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia, after a 1998 test flight. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were used in production-model aircraft. Fifty experiments

  20. Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory Lifts off Runway on a High-Speed Research Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Tupolev Tu-144LL lifts off from the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia, on a 1998 test flight. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were used in production-model aircraft. Fifty experiments were proposed for the program and

  1. High-resolution simulations of heavy precipitation events: role of the Adriatic SST and air-sea interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davolio, Silvio; Stocchi, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Strong Bora and Sirocco winds over the Adriatic Sea favour intense air-sea interactions and are often associated with heavy rainfall that affects the mountainous areas surrounding the basin. A convection-permitting model (MOLOCH) has been implemented at high resolution (2 km) in order to analyse several precipitation events over northern Italy, occurred during different seasons of the year and presenting different rainfall characteristics (stratiform, convective, orographic), and to possibly identify the relevant physical mechanisms involved. With the aim of assessing the impact of the sea surface temperature (SST) and surface fluxes on the intensity and location of the rainfall, sensitivity experiments have been performed taking into account the possible variability of SST analysis for model initialization. The model has been validated and specific diagnostic tools have been developed and applied to evaluate the vertically integrated moisture fluxes feeding the precipitating system or to compute a water balance in the atmosphere over the sea. The results show that the Adriatic Sea plays a role in determining the boundary layer characteristics through exchange of heat and moisture thus modifying the low-level flow dynamics and its interaction with the orography. This in turn impacts on the rainfall. Although the results vary among the analysed events, the precise definition of the SST and its evolution can be relevant for accurate precipitation forecasting.

  2. AIRS radiometric calibration validation for climate research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Pagano, Thomas S.; Elliott, Denis; Gaiser, Steve; Gregorich, Dave; Broberg, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Climate research using data from satellite based radiometers makes extreme demands on the traceability and stability of the radiometric calibration. The selection of a cooled grating array spectrometer for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, AIRS, is key, but does not ensured that AIRS data will be of climate quality. Additional design features, plus additional pre-launch testing, and extensive on-orbit calibration subsystem monitoring beyond what would suffice for application of the data to weather forecasting were required to ensure the radiometric data quality required for climate research. Validation that climate data quality are being generated makes use of the sea surface skin temperatures (SST and (obs-calc).

  3. Measured and Calculated Neutron Spectra and Dose Equivalent Rates at High Altitudes; Relevance to SST Operations and Space Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foelsche, T.; Mendell, R. B.; Wilson, J. W.; Adams, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    Results of the NASA Langley-New York University high-altitude radiation study are presented. Measurements of the absorbed dose rate and of secondary fast neutrons (1 to 10 MeV energy) during the years 1965 to 1971 are used to determine the maximum radiation exposure from galactic and solar cosmic rays of supersonic transport (SST) and subsonic jet occupants. The maximum dose equivalent rates that the SST crews might receive turn out to be 13 to 20 percent of the maximum permissible dose rate (MPD) for radiation workers (5 rem/yr). The exposure of passengers encountering an intense giant-energy solar particle event could exceed the MPD for the general population (0.5 rem/yr), but would be within these permissible limits if in such rare cases the transport descends to subsonic altitude; it is in general less than 12 percent of the MPD. By Monte Carlo calculations of the transport and buildup of nucleons in air for incident proton energies E of 0.02 to 10 GeV, the measured neutron spectra were extrapolated to lower and higher energies and for galactic cosmic rays were found to continue with a relatively high intensity to energies greater than 400 MeV, in a wide altitude range. This condition, together with the measured intensity profiles of fast neutrons, revealed that the biologically important fast and energetic neutrons penetrate deep into the atmosphere and contribute approximately 50 percent of the dose equivalant rates at SST and present subsonic jet altitudes.

  4. Combined MODIS/AMSR-E SST Composites for Regional Weather Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Vazquez, Jorge; Armstrong, Ed; Haines, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Recent applications of a high resolution MODlS composite SST product have clearly shown the importance of developing high-resolution SST data sets for coastal applications and modeling. In general, coupling between the oceans and atmospheres has been closely linked to SST gradients and fronts, indicating a need for high resolution SSTs, specifically in the areas of large gradients associated with coastal regions. Thus an accurate determination of SST gradients has become critical for determining the appropriate air-sea coupling and the influence on ocean modeling. Recent research is focused on improving the accuracy and spatial coverage of the current operational MODIS SST composite product provided by the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPORT) project and distributed to the community. GHRSST-PP MODlS data and microwave AMSR-E data are being combined to produce composite data sets for both the West Coast and East Coast of the United States, including the Gulf of Mexico. The use of 1 km MODIS data has explicit advantages over other SST products including its global coverage and high resolution. The AMSR-E data will reduce the latency of the composites. A strategy for utilizing the error characteristics contained in the GHRSST data has been developed. This strategy will include using the error characteristics directly to calculate weights in the SST composites, uncertainty maps based on the composite biases and RMS errors, and latency products calculated in the compositing process. Recent accomplishments include the development of an enhanced compositing approach based on the error-weighted combination of recent clear MODIS SST values, where the error contributions come from measurement error, potential cloud contamination, and data latency sources. Future plans call for the inclusion of AMSR-E SST values with appropriate weights based upon measurement accuracy, MODIS-AMSR-E SST bias, and latency.

  5. Collaborative Astrophysical Research in Aire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianfeng

    The AIRE (Astrophysical Integrated Research Environment) consists of three main parts: a Data Archive Center (DAC) which collects and manages public astrophysical data; a web-based Data Processing Center (DPC) which enables astrophysicists to process the data in a central server at any place and anytime; and a Collaborative Astrophysical Research Project System (CARPS) with which astrophysicists in different fields can pursue a collaborative reserch efficiently. Two research examples QPO study of RXTE data and wavelet analysis of large amount of galaxies are shown here.

  6. Air pollution: brown skies research.

    PubMed Central

    Tattersfield, A. E.

    1996-01-01

    Direct information on the health effects of air pollution in humans relies mainly on chamber studies and epidemiological studies. Although chamber studies have limitations they allow the acute effects of individual pollutants to be studied in well characterised subjects under controlled conditions. Most chamber studies have shown relatively small falls in lung function and relatively small increases in bronchial reactivity at the concentrations of ozone, SO2, and NO2 that occur even during high pollution episodes in the UK. The possible exception is SO2 where sensitive asthmatic patients may show a greater response at concentrations that are seen from time to time in certain areas and in proximity to power stations. There is no convincing evidence of potentiation between pollutants in chamber studies. Epidemiological studies are more difficult to carry out and require considerable epidemiological and statistical expertise to deal with the main problem-confounding by other factors. Although the health effects seen with current levels of pollution are small compared with those seen in the 1950s and close to the limits of detection, this should not be interpreted as being unimportant. A small effect may have large consequences when the population exposed is large (the whole population in this case). Recent data suggest that particles have more important health effects than the pollutant gases that have been studied. Much of this information comes from the USA though the findings are probably applicable in the UK. More information is needed on the size of the health effects that occur during the three types of air pollution episodes seen in this country and the relative contributions of particles, pollutant gases, pollen, and other factors such as temperature. Research into air pollution declined in the UK following the introduction of the Clean Air Acts; it is now increasing again following pressure from certain individuals and ginger groups, including the British

  7. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  8. Air Traffic Management Research at NASA Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The Aviation Systems Division at the NASA Ames Research Center conducts leading edge research in air traffic management concepts and technologies. This overview will present concepts and simulation results for research in traffic flow management, safe and efficient airport surface operations, super density terminal area operations, separation assurance and system wide modeling and simulation. A brief review of the ongoing air traffic management technology demonstration (ATD-1) will also be presented. A panel discussion, with Mr. Davis serving as a panelist, on air traffic research will follow the briefing.

  9. Experimental research on air propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, William F

    1918-01-01

    The purposes of the experimental investigation on the performance of air propellers described in this report are as follows: (1) the development of a series of design factors and coefficients drawn from model forms distributed with some regularity over the field of air-propeller design and intended to furnish a basis of check with similar work done in other aerodynamic laboratories, and as a point of departure for the further study of special or individual types and forms; (2) the establishment of a series of experimental values derived from models and intended for later use as a basis for comparison with similar results drawn from certain selected full-sized forms and tested in free flight.

  10. Tasks of air flow research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prandtl, L

    1926-01-01

    The researches at the Gottingen Institute are discussed especially in regards to the physical properties of fluids. The three main properties of fluids examined concern density, viscosity, and compressibility.

  11. Tidal cooling effect on SST and its influence on typhoon simulation over the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, H.; WU, H.

    2013-12-01

    Each summer, tropical cyclones (including typhoon) frequently travel across the East China Sea (ECS), beating the surrounding regions with massive damages. Therefore, it is very important to predict their intensities and tracks by using numerical models, so as to advise people to evacuate from the possible affected area. Unfortunately, forecasting the typhoon is still a big challenge since a couple of reasons. To numerically predict the typhoons, an atmosphere-ocean coupling model is often required. Researchers have done many efforts on the atmosphere part to improve the accuracy, while the ocean part was often treated simply. For example, many operational forecasting models simply set the SST as climatological values. As the ocean motion is energetic and the sea conditions vary significantly with time, this brief setting could result in some error. Some other models include an ocean model that considering the air-sea exchange of heat and momentum, as well as large-scale ocean motions like circulation. However, in the shallow coastal oceans like the ECS, tidal forcing also plays an important role that modulate the vertical exchange to adjust the SST. So far no atmosphere-ocean coupling model in this region consider the tide. In this study, we have found that 1) Accuracy of SST is essential to correctly predict the intensity and track of typhoons; 2) It is important to include the tide to correctly simulate the SST in the shallow oceans like the ECS. We setup an Advanced Research Hurricane WRF (WRF-AHW) model in the ECS and simulated typhoon Muifa (No. 201109). The 6-hourly data of the NCEP FNL Global Analyses was used as the initial and lateral boundary conditions in the model. Firstly, We run the model only with NCEP FNL Global Analyses data. The simulated track was very similar to China forecasted one, which was more than 200 kilometers far from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) provided typhoon location at 0:00 am, 6 August, 2011. Then, We run the model

  12. Seasonal prediction of Indian summer monsoon: Sensitivity to persistent SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sukanta Kumar; Deb, Sanjib Kumar; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, Pradip Kumar

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, the assessment of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) developed at National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) for seasonal forecasting of Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) with different persistent SST is reported. Towards achieving the objective, 30-year model climatology has been generated using observed SST. Upon successful simulation of climatological features of ISM, the model is tested for the simulation of ISM 2011 in forecast mode. Experiments have been conducted in three different time-phases, viz., April, May and June; using different sets of initial conditions (ICs) and the persistent SSTs of the previous months of the time-phases. The spatial as well as temporal distribution of model simulated rainfall suggest a below normal monsoon condition throughout the season in all the experiments. However, the rainfall anomaly shows some positive signature over north-east part of India in the month of June and August whereas the central Indian landmass had positive anomaly during August and September. The monthly accumulated All-India rainfall (AIR) over land for June to September 2011 are predicted to be 101% (17.6 cm), 86% (24.3 cm), 83% (21.0 cm) and 95% (15.5 cm) of normal AIR, respectively. This makes the seasonal accumulated AIR 78.4 cm which is 11% below the normal rainfall of 87.6 cm. The model prediction for the months of June and July is comparable with the observation; however, the simulation would not be able to capture the high rainfall during August and September. The intention behind this work is to assess the shortcomings in the CAM model prediction, which can later be improved for future monsoon forecast experiments.

  13. Impact of High Resolution SST Data on Regional Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Case, Jonathon; LaFontaine, Frank; Vazquez, Jorge; Mattocks, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Past studies have shown that the use of coarse resolution SST products such as from the real-time global (RTG) SST analysis[1] or other coarse resolution once-a-day products do not properly portray the diurnal variability of fluxes of heat and moisture from the ocean that drive the formation of low level clouds and precipitation over the ocean. For example, the use of high resolution MODIS SST composite [2] to initialize the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) (ARW) [3] has been shown to improve the prediction of sensible weather parameters in coastal regions [4][5}. In an extend study, [6] compared the MODIS SST composite product to the RTG SST analysis and evaluated forecast differences for a 6 month period from March through August 2007 over the Florida coastal regions. In a comparison to buoy data, they found that that the MODIS SST composites reduced the bias and standard deviation over that of the RTG data. These improvements led to significant changes in the initial and forecasted heat fluxes and the resulting surface temperature fields, wind patterns, and cloud distributions. They also showed that the MODIS composite SST product, produced for the Terra and Aqua satellite overpass times, captured a component of the diurnal cycle in SSTs not represented in the RTG or other one-a-day SST analyses. Failure to properly incorporate these effects in the WRF initialization cycle led to temperature biases in the resulting short term forecasts. The forecast impact was limited in some situations however, due to composite product inaccuracies brought about by data latency during periods of long-term cloud cover. This paper focuses on the forecast impact of an enhanced MODIS/AMSR-E composite SST product designed to reduce inaccuracies due data latency in the MODIS only composite product.

  14. Air Traffic Management Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Todd

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control systems aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Part of NASA's current mission in aeronautics research is to invent new technologies and procedures for ATC that will enable our national airspace system to accommodate the increasing demand for air transportation well into the next generation while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we'll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and we'll highlight some new NASA technologies coming down the pike.

  15. Air Force Research Laboratory Cryocooler Technology Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Thomas M.; Smith, D. Adam; Easton, Ryan M.

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the cryogenic refrigerator and cryogenic integration programs in development and characterization under the Cryogenic Cooling Technology Group, Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The vision statement for the group is to support the space community as the center of excellence for developing and transitioning space cryogenic thermal management technologies. This paper will describe the range of Stirling, pulse tube; reverse Brayton, and Joule-Thomson cycle cryocoolers currently under development to meet current and future Air Force and Department of Defense requirements. Cooling requirements at 10K, 35K, 60K, 95K, and multistage cooling requirements at 35/85K are addressed. In order to meet these various requirements, the Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate is pursuing various strategic cryocooler and cryogenic integration options. The Air Force Research Laboratory, working with industry partners, is also developing several advanced cryogenic integration technologies that will result in the reduction in current cryogenic system integration penalties and design time. These technologies include the continued development of gimbaled transport systems, 35K and 10K thermal storage units, heat pipes, cryogenic straps, and thermal switches.

  16. Air Traffic Management Research at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Katharine

    2005-01-01

    Since the late 1980's, NASA Ames researchers have been investigating ways to improve the air transportation system through the development of decision support automation. These software advances, such as the Center-TRACON Automation System (eTAS) have been developed with teams of engineers, software developers, human factors experts, and air traffic controllers; some ASA Ames decision support tools are currently operational in Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) facilities and some are in use by the airlines. These tools have provided air traffic controllers and traffic managers the capabilities to help reduce overall delays and holding, and provide significant cost savings to the airlines as well as more manageable workload levels for air traffic service providers. NASA is continuing to collaborate with the FAA, as well as other government agencies, to plan and develop the next generation of decision support tools that will support anticipated changes in the air transportation system, including a projected increase to three times today's air-traffic levels by 2025. The presentation will review some of NASA Ames' recent achievements in air traffic management research, and discuss future tool developments and concepts currently under consideration.

  17. Assimilating Satellite SST Observations into a Diurnal Cycle Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, S.; Haines, K.; Nichols, N. K.

    2006-12-01

    The wealth of satellite sea surface temperature (SST) data now available opens the possibility of large improvements in SST estimation. However the use of such data is not straight forward; a major difficulty in assimilating satellite observations is that they represent a near surface temperature, whereas in ocean models the top level represents the temperature at a greater depth. During the day, under favourable conditions of clear skies and calm winds, the near surface temperature is often seen to have a diurnal cycle that is picked up in satellite observations. Current ocean models do not have the vertical or temporal resolution to adequately represent this daytime warming. The usual approach is to discard daytime observations as they are considered diurnally `corrupted'. A new assimilation technique is developed here that assimilates observations into a diurnal cycle model. The diurnal cycle of SSTs are modelled using a 1-D mixed layer model with fine near surface resolution and 6 hourly forcing from NWP analyses. The accuracy of the SST estimates are hampered by uncertainties in the forcing data. The extent of diurnal SST warming at a particular location and time is predominately governed by a non-linear response to cloud cover and sea surface wind speeds which greatly affect the air-sea fluxes. The method proposed here combines infrared and microwave SST satellite observations in order to derive corrections to the cloud cover and wind speed values over the day. By adjusting the forcing, SST estimation and air-sea fluxes should be improved and are at least more consistent with each other. This new technique for assimilating SST data can be considered a tool for producing more accurate diurnal warming estimates.

  18. Impact of intra-daily SST variability on ENSO characteristics in a coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Sébastien; Terray, Pascal; Madec, Gurvan; Luo, Jing-Jia; Yamagata, Toshio; Takahashi, Keiko

    2012-08-01

    This paper explores the impact of intra-daily Sea Surface Temperature (SST) variability on the tropical large-scale climate variability and differentiates it from the response of the system to the forcing of the solar diurnal cycle. Our methodology is based on a set of numerical experiments based on a fully global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation in which we alter (1) the frequency at which the atmosphere sees the SST variations and (2) the amplitude of the SST diurnal cycle. Our results highlight the complexity of the scale interactions existing between the intra-daily and inter-annual variability of the tropical climate system. Neglecting the SST intra-daily variability results, in our CGCM, to a systematic decrease of 15% of El Niño—Southern Oscillation (ENSO) amplitude. Furthermore, ENSO frequency and skewness are also significantly modified and are in better agreement with observations when SST intra-daily variability is directly taken into account in the coupling interface of our CGCM. These significant modifications of the SST interannual variability are not associated with any remarkable changes in the mean state or the seasonal variability. They can therefore not be explained by a rectification of the mean state as usually advocated in recent studies focusing on the diurnal cycle and its impact. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SST high frequency coupling is systematically associated with a strengthening of the air-sea feedbacks involved in ENSO physics: SST/sea level pressure (or Bjerknes) feedback, zonal wind/heat content (or Wyrtki) feedback, but also negative surface heat flux feedbacks. In our model, nearly all these results (excepted for SST skewness) are independent of the amplitude of the SST diurnal cycle suggesting that the systematic deterioration of the air-sea coupling by a daily exchange of SST information is cascading toward the major mode of tropical variability, i.e. ENSO.

  19. VENTILATION RESEARCH: A REVIEW OF RECENT INDOOR AIR QUALITY LITERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature review, conducted to survey and summarize recent and ongoing engineering research into building ventilation, air exchange rate, pollutant distribution and dispersion, and other effects of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) s...

  20. The atmospheric frontal response to SST perturbations in the Gulf Stream region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfitt, Rhys; Czaja, Arnaud; Minobe, Shoshiro; Kuwano-Yoshida, Akira

    2016-03-01

    The link between sea surface temperature (SST) gradients and atmospheric fronts is explored in a general circulation model across the Gulf Stream (GS) region from December to February 1981-2000. Two model experiments are analyzed, one with a realistic control SST distribution and one with a spatially smoothed SST distribution. The analysis shows a noticeable change in regional atmospheric frontal frequency between the two experiments (up to 30%), with the distribution of change exhibiting a clear imprint of the GS SST front. Further analysis of the surface sensible heat flux gradient across cold fronts reveals the pattern of change to be mediated by a thermal interaction between the oceanic and atmospheric fronts ("thermal damping and strengthening"). These results not only emphasize the significance of the GS SST gradient for storm development in the North Atlantic but also highlight the importance of resolution in assessing the role of frontal air-sea interaction in midlatitude climate variability.

  1. The use of neural networks in identifying error sources in satellite-derived tropical SST estimates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yung-Hsiang; Ho, Chung-Ru; Su, Feng-Chun; Kuo, Nan-Jung; Cheng, Yu-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    An neural network model of data mining is used to identify error sources in satellite-derived tropical sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from thermal infrared sensors onboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). By using the Back Propagation Network (BPN) algorithm, it is found that air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed variation are the major factors causing the errors of GOES SST products in the tropical Pacific. The accuracy of SST estimates is also improved by the model. The root mean square error (RMSE) for the daily SST estimate is reduced from 0.58 K to 0.38 K and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) is 1.03%. For the hourly mean SST estimate, its RMSE is also reduced from 0.66 K to 0.44 K and the MAPE is 1.3%.

  2. SST — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The hormone somatostatin (SST) has active 14 aa and 28 aa forms that are produced by alternate cleavage of the single preproprotein encoded by this gene. Somatostatin is expressed throughout the body and inhibits the release of numerous secondary hormones by binding to high-affinity G-protein-coupled somatostatin receptors. This hormone is an important regulator of the endocrine system through its interactions with pituitary growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, and most hormones of the gastrointestinal tract. Somatostatin also affects rates of neurotransmission in the central nervous system and proliferation of both normal and tumorigenic cells. The promoter of somatostatin, a primary inhibitor of gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion, is hypermethylated in 80% of human colon cancers. A synthetic analog of SST, known as octreotide or SMS 201-995, is available under the name Sandostatin (Novartis). It is used for the treatment of a variety of disorders including acromegaly and the symptomatic treatment of carcinoid tumors and vasoactive intestinal peptide tumors.

  3. POLLUTION PREVENTION FOR CLEANER AIR: EPA'S AIR AND ENERGY ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribu...

  4. The first experiments in SST-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, S.; Khan, Z.; Tanna, V. L.; Sharma, A. N.; Doshi, K. J.; Prasad, U.; Masand, H.; Kumar, Aveg; Patel, K. B.; Bhandarkar, M. K.; Dhongde, J. R.; Shukla, B. K.; Mansuri, I. A.; Varadarajulu, A.; Khristi, Y. S.; Biswas, P.; Gupta, C. N.; Sharma, D. K.; Raval, D. C.; Srinivasan, R.; Pandya, S. P.; Atrey, P. K.; Sharma, P. K.; Patel, P. J.; Patel, H. S.; Santra, P.; Parekh, T. J.; Dhanani, K. R.; Paravastu, Y.; Pathan, F. S.; Chauhan, P. K.; Khan, M. S.; Tank, J. K.; Panchal, P. N.; Panchal, R. N.; Patel, R. J.; George, S.; Semwal, P.; Gupta, P.; Mahesuriya, G. I.; Sonara, D. P.; Jayswal, S. P.; Sharma, M.; Patel, J. C.; Varmora, P. P.; Patel, D. J.; Srikanth, G. L. N.; Christian, D. R.; Garg, A.; Bairagi, N.; Babu, G. R.; Panchal, A. G.; Vora, M. M.; Singh, A. K.; Sharma, R.; Raju, D.; Kulkarni, S. V.; Kumar, M.; Manchanda, R.; Joisa, S.; Tahiliani, K.; Pathak, S. K.; Patel, K. M.; Nimavat, H. D.; Shah, P. R.; Chudasma, H. H.; Raval, T. Y.; Sharma, A. L.; Ojha, A.; Parghi, B. R.; Banaudha, M.; Makwana, A. R.; Chowdhuri, M. B.; Ramaiya, N.; kumar, A.; Raval, J. V.; Gupta, S.; Purohit, S.; Kaur, R.; Adhiya, A. N.; Jha, R.; Kumar, S.; Nagora, U. C.; Siju, V.; Thomas, J.; Chaudhari, V. R.; Patel, K. G.; Ambulkar, K. K.; Dalakoti, S.; Virani, C. G.; Parmar, P. R.; Thakur, A. L.; Das, A.; Bora, D.; the SST-1 Team

    2015-10-01

    A steady state superconducting tokamak (SST-1) has been commissioned after the successful experimental and engineering validations of its critical sub-systems. During the ‘engineering validation phase’ of SST-1; the cryostat was demonstrated to be leak-tight in all operational scenarios, 80 K thermal shields were demonstrated to be uniformly cooled without regions of ‘thermal runaway and hot spots’, the superconducting toroidal field magnets were demonstrated to be cooled to their nominal operational conditions and charged up to 1.5 T of the field at the major radius. The engineering validations further demonstrated the assembled SST-1 machine shell to be a graded, stress-strain optimized and distributed thermo-mechanical device, apart from the integrated vacuum vessel being validated to be UHV compatible etc. Subsequently, ‘field error components’ in SST-1 were measured to be acceptable towards plasma discharges. A successful breakdown in SST-1 was obtained in SST-1 in June 2013 assisted with electron cyclotron pre-ionization in the second harmonic mode, thus marking the ‘first plasma’ in SST-1 and the arrival of SST-1 into the league of contemporary steady state devices. Subsequent to the first plasma, successful repeatable plasma start-ups with E ˜ 0.4 V m-1, and plasma current in excess of 70 kA for 400 ms assisted with electron cyclotron heating pre-ionization at a field of 1.5 T have so far been achieved in SST-1. Lengthening the plasma pulse duration with lower hybrid current drive, confinement and transport in SST-1 plasmas and magnetohydrodynamic activities typical to large aspect ratio SST-1 discharges are presently being investigated in SST-1. In parallel, SST-1 has uniquely demonstrated reliable cryo-stable high field operation of superconducting TF magnets in the two-phase cooling mode, operation of vapour-cooled current leads with cold gas instead of liquid helium and an order less dc joint resistance in superconducting magnet winding

  5. 33 CFR 334.700 - Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and Development Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla... gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and Development Command, Eglin Air Force Base,...

  6. Statistical Engineering in Air Traffic Management Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is working to develop an integrated set of advanced technologies to enable efficient arrival operations in high-density terminal airspace for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. This integrated arrival solution is being validated and verified in laboratories and transitioned to a field prototype for an operational demonstration at a major U.S. airport. Within NASA, this is a collaborative effort between Ames and Langley Research Centers involving a multi-year iterative experimentation process. Designing and analyzing a series of sequential batch computer simulations and human-in-the-loop experiments across multiple facilities and simulation environments involves a number of statistical challenges. Experiments conducted in separate laboratories typically have different limitations and constraints, and can take different approaches with respect to the fundamental principles of statistical design of experiments. This often makes it difficult to compare results from multiple experiments and incorporate findings into the next experiment in the series. A statistical engineering approach is being employed within this project to support risk-informed decision making and maximize the knowledge gained within the available resources. This presentation describes a statistical engineering case study from NASA, highlights statistical challenges, and discusses areas where existing statistical methodology is adapted and extended.

  7. Results of the air emission research study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air quality was monitored in beef mono-slope barns. The objectives of the study were 1) to gather baseline data for the levels of gas emissions and particulate matter from beef mono-slope facilities, 2) evaluate the effect of two different manure handling systems on air quality, and 3) provide infor...

  8. AIR TOXICS MODELING RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a Microsoft Powerpoint slide presentation which was given at the joint EPA Region 3 - Mid-Atlantic Regional Air Management Association (MARAMA) Air Toxic Summit in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania held from October 18, 2005 through October 20, 2005. The slide presentat...

  9. Research review: Indoor air quality control techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.

    1986-10-01

    Techniques for controlling the concentration of radon, formaldehyde, and combustion products in the indoor air are reviewed. The most effective techniques, which are generally based on limiting or reducing indoor pollutant source strengths, can decrease indoor pollutant concentrations by a factor of 3 to 10. Unless the initial ventilation rate is unusually low, it is difficult to reduce indoor pollutant concentrations more than approximately 50% by increasing the ventilation rate of an entire building. However, the efficiency of indoor pollutant control by ventilation can be enhanced through the use of local exhaust ventilation near concentrated sources of pollutants, by minimizing short circuiting of air from supply to exhaust when pollutant sources are dispersed and, in some situations, by promoting a displacement flow of air and pollutants toward the exhaust. Active air cleaning is also examined briefly. Filtration and electrostatic air cleaning for removal of particles from the indoor air are the most practical and effective currently available techniques of air cleaning. 49 refs., 7 figs.

  10. First Operational Results with the SST-1 Superconducting Magnet & its Cryogenics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, S.; Tanna, V.; Sharma, A.; Khan, Z.; Prasad, U.; Doshi, K.; Khristi, Y.; Parghi, B.; Banoudha, M.; Mahesuria, G.; Patel, R.; Panchal, P.; Panchal, R.; Tank, J.; Sonara, D.; Sharma, D.; Vora, M.; Varadarajulu, A.

    The Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) at the Institute for Plasma Research was commissioned in 2013 with the successful experimental validations of its magnets and cryogenic systems. Subsequently, the first plasma in SST-1 has been obtained on June 20, 2013. Since then, the cryo-magnetic systems of SST-1 have been operating reliably, in successive plasma campaigns. Unlike other contemporary cable-in-conduit-conductor (CICC) based superconducting Tokamak magnets, SST-1 CICC in Toroidal Field (TF) winding packs are cooled with two phase helium from a dedicated 1.3 kW helium refrigerator liquefier plant. The TF magnets in SST-1 together with other magnets have been supporting creditable plasma operational scenarios since then, with the TF magnets being charged up to a maximum of 2.0 T on the plasma major radius so far. The vapour cooled current leads of SST-1 are also uniquely operated with cooled helium vapour all along, instead of liquid helium being stored in the lower superconducting sections. The operational experiences with SST-1 TF magnets, PF magnets, and the supporting 5 K and 80 K cryogenic systems contributing towards successful operations of SST-1 plasma experiments are elaborated in this paper.

  11. How do the strength and type of ENSO affect SST predictability in coupled models

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Soo-Jin; Tam, Chi-Yung; Jeong, Hye-In

    2016-01-01

    The effects of amplitude and type of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on sea surface temperature (SST) predictability on a global scale were investigated, by examining historical climate forecasts for the period 1982–2006 from air-sea coupled seasonal prediction systems. Unlike in previous studies, SST predictability was evaluated in different phases of ENSO and for episodes with various strengths. Our results reveal that the seasonal mean Niño 3.4 index is well predicted in a multi-model ensemble (MME), even for four-month lead predictions. However, coupled models have particularly low skill in predicting the global SST pattern during weak ENSO events. During weak El Niño events, which are also El Niño Modoki in this period, a number of models fail to reproduce the associated tri-pole SST pattern over the tropical Pacific. During weak La Niña periods, SST signals in the MME tend to be less persistent than observations. Therefore, a good ENSO forecast does not guarantee a good SST prediction from a global perspective. The strength and type of ENSO need to be considered when inferring global SST and other climate impacts from model-predicted ENSO information. PMID:27650415

  12. How do the strength and type of ENSO affect SST predictability in coupled models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Soo-Jin; Tam, Chi-Yung; Jeong, Hye-In

    2016-09-01

    The effects of amplitude and type of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on sea surface temperature (SST) predictability on a global scale were investigated, by examining historical climate forecasts for the period 1982–2006 from air-sea coupled seasonal prediction systems. Unlike in previous studies, SST predictability was evaluated in different phases of ENSO and for episodes with various strengths. Our results reveal that the seasonal mean Niño 3.4 index is well predicted in a multi-model ensemble (MME), even for four-month lead predictions. However, coupled models have particularly low skill in predicting the global SST pattern during weak ENSO events. During weak El Niño events, which are also El Niño Modoki in this period, a number of models fail to reproduce the associated tri-pole SST pattern over the tropical Pacific. During weak La Niña periods, SST signals in the MME tend to be less persistent than observations. Therefore, a good ENSO forecast does not guarantee a good SST prediction from a global perspective. The strength and type of ENSO need to be considered when inferring global SST and other climate impacts from model-predicted ENSO information.

  13. How do the strength and type of ENSO affect SST predictability in coupled models.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Soo-Jin; Tam, Chi-Yung; Jeong, Hye-In

    2016-01-01

    The effects of amplitude and type of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on sea surface temperature (SST) predictability on a global scale were investigated, by examining historical climate forecasts for the period 1982-2006 from air-sea coupled seasonal prediction systems. Unlike in previous studies, SST predictability was evaluated in different phases of ENSO and for episodes with various strengths. Our results reveal that the seasonal mean Niño 3.4 index is well predicted in a multi-model ensemble (MME), even for four-month lead predictions. However, coupled models have particularly low skill in predicting the global SST pattern during weak ENSO events. During weak El Niño events, which are also El Niño Modoki in this period, a number of models fail to reproduce the associated tri-pole SST pattern over the tropical Pacific. During weak La Niña periods, SST signals in the MME tend to be less persistent than observations. Therefore, a good ENSO forecast does not guarantee a good SST prediction from a global perspective. The strength and type of ENSO need to be considered when inferring global SST and other climate impacts from model-predicted ENSO information. PMID:27650415

  14. Committee on air pollution effects research: 40 years of UK air pollution.

    PubMed

    Fowler, David; Dise, Nancy; Sheppard, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    The UK Committee on Air Pollution Effects Research (CAPER) was established 40 years ago. This special section was compiled to mark this anniversary. During this time there have been dramatic changes in the composition of the air over the UK. The four papers in this special section of Environmental Pollution represent the current air pollution effects research focus on ozone and nitrogen deposition, two related issues and are proving from a policy perspective to be quite intractable issues. The UK CAPER research community continues to advance the underpinning science and engages closely with the user community in government departments.

  15. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    Air transportation research being carried on at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton University, and Ohio University is discussed. Global Positioning System experiments, Loran-C monitoring, inertial navigation, the optimization of aircraft trajectories through severe microbursts, fault tolerant flight control systems, and expert systems for air traffic control are among the topics covered.

  16. Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Tupolev Tu-144LL supersonic flying laboratory shows off its sleek lines in a low-level pass over the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia, on a 1998 research flight. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were used in production

  17. Dynamics and impacts of eddy-driven air-sea interaction in a regional air-sea coupled model for the US West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, H.; Miller, A. J.; Norris, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The US West Coast coastal oceans feature energetic mesoscale eddies. The associated sea surface temperature (SST) and surface current modify the wind stress, leading to significant dynamic feedback on to the air-sea coupled system. Dynamics of the interaction and impacts on the regional coastal climate are however not well understood; this is an important research question for regional modeling studies for the coastal climate. A high-resolution (7km) SCOAR regional air-sea coupled climate model is used to investigate this question by implementing a novel model coupling technique that separates spatial scale of air-sea interaction. It allows the large-scale coupling effect to be preserved while suppressing the eddy-driven coupling via interactive spatial smoothing of SST and surface current. When the eddy-induced surface current is allowed to modify the wind stress, the eddy kinetic energy (EKE) is reduced by 42%, and this is primarily due to enhanced surface eddy drag. In contrast, the eddy-induced SST-wind coupling has little impact on the EKE. Eddies also modify the Ekman pumping; the resultant Ekman pumping velocity due to surface current attenuates the amplitude of eddies while the SST-induced Ekman pumping affects the propagation of eddies. Rectified change in time-mean SST is determined by the altered offshore temperature advection by the mean and eddy currents, but the magnitude of the mean SST change is greater with the eddy-induced current effect. The subsequent influence on the downstream winter rainfall variability on the US West Coast is stronger with the eddy-induced SST effect because of the proximity of SST anomalies to the coasts. The strong dynamical response in the coastal climate system to the eddy-driven air-sea interaction suggests that the fine-scale air-sea coupling should be better represented in the regional climate modeling studies for the coastal environments and the marine weather.

  18. Impact of continuously varied SST on land-sea breezes and ozone concentration over south-western coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soon-Hwan; Lee, Hwa-Woon; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Jeon, Won-Bae; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Dong-Hyuk

    2011-11-01

    Several comparison studies including numerical experiments were carried out at the well urbanized Gwangyang Bay region, Korea, to clarify the relationship between the continuously varied SST distribution and meteorology and how that impacts the ozone concentration. The numerical models used in this study were Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and Comprehensive Air quality Model with eXtensions (CAMx) for meteorological and photochemical ozone fields, respectively. Based on buoy observations, the sea surface temperature (SST) had a noticeable influence on the near surface wind field and distribution of photochemical ozone because the mean SST near Gwangyang Bay changed by 2.8 °C over the five day period. Sea breeze with temporally varied SST was better represented than that estimated without the SST variation. Temporally changed SST distribution and its impact are more crucial factors for estimating the ozone concentration under weak synoptic conditions. And the accuracy of the estimated ozone concentration associated with the time varied SST tends to depend on the distance from the coastline. The acquisition of ocean conditions, including temporal variation in the SST, is indispensible for assessing and predicting the air quality, especially in well urbanized area near the coast.

  19. Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The delta wing of the Tupolev Tu-144LL supersonic flying laboratory is evident in this view from underneath the aircraft during a 1998 test flight at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were

  20. Impacts of sea ice / SST changes for the observed climate change -GREENICE project-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Fumiaki; Gao, Yongqi; Keenlyside, Noel; Koenigk, Torben; Semenov, Vladimir; Suo, Lingling; Yang, Shuting; Wang, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Under the recent global warming, melting of arctic sea-ice in recent decades could have contributed to recent climate changes including its long-term trend and extreme weather events. While the climatic response to the sea-ice loss have been studied recently, it is still an open question to what extent the sea-ice change has influenced recent climate change. Other factors, such as for example, SST could also have had an influence. A main objective of GREENICE research project is to show what extent of the observed climate trend as well as observed weather extremes could be explained by the change and variability in sea ice and SST, respectively. In this project, we designed two atmospheric general circulation model experiments: In both experiments observed daily sea ice cover variations are prescribed, while for SST, one experiment uses observed daily variations and the other the observed climatology. The experiment is performed by several different state-of-the-art AGCMs. Our preliminary results show that the observed wintertime temperature trend near the surface is poorly reproduced in our hindcast experiments using observed SIC and SST. The impact of SIC variation seems to be confined near the surface, while SST variation seems a key for temperature trend above. It suggests a necessity to consider the atmospheric poleward energy transport associated with SST variation to understand the observed arctic amplification. Other aspects of SIC/SST impact on the observed circulation change such as NAO shall also be discussed.

  1. Review of Air Force Job Satisfaction Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, R. Bruce

    A comprehensive plan for job satisfaction research has been developed as an outgrowth of the USAF Occupational Survey Program. The long-range goal of the plan is retention of qualified military personnel. This document reviews the basic steps of the plan and discusses projects and findings to date. Discussion centers on the following: (1) an…

  2. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A summary of the research on air transportation is addressed including navigation; guidance, control and display concepts; and hardware, with special emphasis on applications to general aviation aircraft. Completed works and status reports are presented also included are annotated bibliographies of all published research sponsored on these grants since 1972.

  3. Relative roles of differential SST warming, uniform SST warming and land surface warming in determining the Walker circulation changes under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Most of CMIP5 models projected a weakened Walker circulation in tropical Pacific, but what causes such change is still an open question. By conducting idealized numerical simulations separating the effects of the spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST) warming, extra land surface warming and differential SST warming, we demonstrate that the weakening of the Walker circulation is attributed to the western North Pacific (WNP) monsoon and South America land effects. The effect of the uniform SST warming is through so-called "richest-get-richer" mechanism. In response to a uniform surface warming, the WNP monsoon is enhanced by competing moisture with other large-scale convective branches. The strengthened WNP monsoon further induces surface westerlies in the equatorial western-central Pacific, weakening the Walker circulation. The increase of the greenhouse gases leads to a larger land surface warming than ocean surface. As a result, a greater thermal contrast occurs between American Continent and equatorial Pacific. The so-induced zonal pressure gradient anomaly forces low-level westerly anomalies over the equatorial eastern Pacific and weakens the Walker circulation. The differential SST warming also plays a role in driving low-level westerly anomalies over tropical Pacific. But such an effect involves a positive air-sea feedback that amplifies the weakening of both east-west SST gradient and Pacific trade winds.

  4. Metal-air battery research and development. Summary report 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Behrin, E.; Cooper, J.F.

    1982-05-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Metal-air Battery Program during the calendar year 1981. Metal-air battery research has two objectives. The principal objective is to develop a refuelable battery as an automotive energy source for general-purpose electric vehicles and to conduct engineering demonstrations of its ability to provide vehicles with the range, acceleration, and rapid refueling capability of current internal-combustion-engine automobiles. The second objective is to develop an electrically-rechargeable battery for specific-mission electric vehicles, such as commuter vehicles, that can provide low-cost transportation. To fulfill the principal objective, an aluminum-air battery research and development project is underway. The development progression is to: (1) develop a mechanically rechargeable aluminum-air power cell using model electrodes, (2) develop cost-effective anode and cathode materials and structures as required to achieve reliability and efficiency goals, and to establish the economic competitiveness of this technology, and (3) develop an integrated propulsion system utilizing the power cell. To fulfill the second objective, an iron-air electrically-rechargeable battery is being developed. The development effort currently emphasizes air-electrode R and D. This work is directed at developing a low-cost, long-lived bifunctional air electrode, the critical component of the battery. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  5. SST-1 Refurbishment Progress: an Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subrata, Pradhan; SST-1 Mission Team

    2013-02-01

    Refurbishment of steady state tokamak (SST-1) primarily focused at addressing the issues and bottle-necks involving various subsystems of SST-1 as observed during earlier commissioning attempts, have progressed significantly. Under the refurbishment spectrum, all joints in the superconducting magnet system have been re-fabricated as low DC leak tight joint resistances, all toroidal field (TF) magnets have been equipped with 5 K radiation shields on the inner side and successfully tested for their rated parameters in cold under nominal currents, all vessel sectors and modules have been baked and tested under representative conditions, supporting helium and nitrogen cryogenic facilities have been made > 99% reliable in various envisaged operating scenarios of SST-1. The reassemblies of the critical subsystems of the SST-1 machine shell have progressed aggressively and are nearing completion. Auxiliaries such as the baking facility for the vacuum vessel and first wall components, current leads assembly distributions, synchronized timing system, reliable data acquisition and plasma control systems as well as essential diagnostics have also been readied towards the first plasma. A detailed engineering validation of the assembled SST-1 machine shell including field error measurements has been planned prior to first plasma attempts.

  6. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Research conducted during the academic year 1989-90 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation research is discussed. Completed works, status reports and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, human factors, and expert systems concepts applied to airport operations. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  7. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    The research conducted under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA and the FAA, one each with the Mass. Inst. of Tech., Ohio Univ., and Princeton Univ. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of activities is presented.

  8. New research initiative on air sea interaction in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Rouault, M.; Leethorp, A.; Lutjeharms, J.R.E.

    1994-12-31

    Recent statistical results have demonstrated that the oceanic environment of Southern Africa plays a important regulating role in the climate of the subcontinent. Statistical teleconnections between oceanic temperature anomalies and precipitation over South Africa`s summer rainfall region have been demonstrated, even to the extent of being partially implicated in catastrophic floods. A research program to investigate the interaction between ocean and atmosphere in those ocean areas that have been identified as crucial to Southern Africa climate and rainfall has just started. The first step of this program was to set up a state of the art air-sea interaction measurement system aboard the antarctic research vessel S.A. Agulhas. The second step of the program was to install low cost automatic air sea interaction measurement systems on three research vessels which will provide an extensive database for air-sea interaction studies.

  9. Is a staged SST the answer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that a staged supersonic transport concept offers several advantages over conventional SST configurations. A staged SST could be optimized for cruise flight and also would not be subject to the noise and runway-length constraints normally associated with a transport aircraft. The cumulative effect of the various weight saving factors is an appreciably lower launch/takeoff weight. Other advantages include the fact that a landing gear would not be required and the staged SST can be designed to low-speed criteria. These initial studies suggest that launch and recovery operations from another aircraft could be made feasible with the use of a 747 type aircraft as the support vehicle.

  10. Future directions in air quality research: economic issues.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard M; Horst, Robert L

    2003-06-01

    Our challenge was to address future directions in air quality research that involve economic issues. The paper outlines the role of economics in the evaluation of air pollution impacts on environmental systems and describes existing research. We identify studies that address economic effects in the agricultural sector, in the commercial forest sector, and in unmanaged natural systems. Effects related to ozone exposure are highlighted. The summary of available research is followed by a discussion of research recommendations. Several short-term recommendations are identified that can augment some of the new research being considered by scientists. A more ambitious, long-term research project is outlined for valuing air pollution impacts in unmanaged natural environments. Specifically, the paper describes possible advantages of an 'integrated assessment' framework that more formally brings together the complex relationships that exist in both ecological and economic systems. A final section contains thoughts on the importance of education (i.e., information transfer) in the research process, especially in relation to policy. It is further noted that education should be inclusive of all members of the research team, throughout all stages of the research process. PMID:12676216

  11. The effects of SST Gradients on Tropical Convective Systems and Implications for Tropical Cyclogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazer, R.; Bourassa, M. A.; Hart, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    It has long been known that generally the warmer the sea surface temperature (SST), the more possible tropical cyclone (TC) genesis is, assuming the atmosphere is supportive. The conventional wisdom has been that - apart from what the TC cools through upwelling -- one value of SST represents the state of the ocean surface in the region of the storm's inner circulation. With the advent of the satellite era and fine resolution SST datasets now becoming available, we know that in reality there are gradients of SST across which developing TCs move. The influence of those gradients on tropical convection and TC genesis is largely unknown at this time. Previous studies have shown that SST gradients can significantly impact the overlying ocean surface winds leading to areas of enhanced convergence/divergence and Vorticity (Chelton et al. 2004; O'Neill et al. 2005, 2010). The magnitude of this effect approximately increases as the surface wind increases. Work by Minobe et al. (2008) concluded that a sharp SST Gradient, over the Gulf Stream for instance, could produce enough surface wind convergence to maintain a band of precipitation along the ocean front. An analysis of satellite derived SST data over the Atlantic shows that it is not uncommon for SST gradients of 2 C/200km or more to exist in the immediate environment of a Tropical System. The authors seek to understand whether the conclusions made in previous works can be applied in the case of a developing Tropical System and whether SST Gradients exist in the Tropical Atlantic to a degree that would influence the cyclogenesis process. To address this, the effects of SST gradients on tropical cyclogenesis processes are investigated using model simulations of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). WRF is run at cloud permitting scales (2km) for real cases of co-location between a tropical system and an SST gradient exceeding 2 C/200km in the environment of the system. In subsequent runs to this control run

  12. Air Quality Research and Applications Using AURA OMi Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, P.K.; Gleason, J.F.; Torres, O.; Levelt, P.; Liu, X.; Ziemke, J.; Chandra, S.; Krotkov, N.

    2007-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on EOS Aura is a new generation of satellite remote sensing instrument designed to measure trace gas and aerosol absorption at the UV and blue wavelengths. These measurements are made globally at urban scale resolution with no inter-orbital gaps that make them potentially very useful for air quality research, such as the determination of the sources and processes that affect global and regional air quality, and to develop applications such as air quality forecast. However, the use of satellite data for such applications is not as straight forward as satellite data have been for stratospheric research. There is a need for close interaction between the satellite product developers, in-situ measurement programs, and the air quality research community to overcome some of the inherent difficulties in interpreting data from satellite-based remote sensing instruments. In this talk we will discuss the challenges and opportunities in using OMI products for air quality research and applications. A key conclusion of this work is that to realize the full potential of OMI measurements it will be necessary to combine OMI data with data from instruments such as MLS, MODIS, AIRS, and CALIPSO that are currently flying in the "A-train" satellite constellation. In addition similar data taken by satellites crossing the earth at different local times than the A-train (e.g., the recently MetOp satellite) would need to be processed in a consistent manner to study diurnal variability, and to capture the effects on air quality of rapidly changing events such as wild fires.

  13. Impact of SST resolution on cyclone activity over the Kuroshio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, S.; Kawamura, R.

    2012-12-01

    The impact of high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) data on the winter time cyclone activity around Japan is investigated using a WRF model with a horizontal resolution of 20 km. A fine scale SST and a smoothed one of that SST are used as the lower boundary condition in the experiments. Generally, a fine scale SST is warmer in the south of the Polar Front over the Japan Sea, the Kuroshio/Oyashio extension, and the coastal regions around Japan comparing with the smoothed SST because the former resolves the small scale features in the SST related to ocean currents. In comparison, the smoothed SST weakened the simulated cyclones passing over the Kuroshio near the Ryukyu Islands. This may be due to the weaker surface baroclinicity associated with the smoothed SST. The similar features are found around the Polar Front over the Japan Sea. The results imply a potential impact of SST gradients on cyclone activity.

  14. Review of current research and long-term research needs in air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    Current research and long-term research needs of air pollution are reviewed and assessed in the following areas: pollution definition and characterization; atmospheric chemistry; measurement and monitoring of ambient air and sources; effects of human health and welfare, vegetation, animals, aquatic life, materials and structures; air pollution meteorology and modeling; engineering control; and regulatory control. The work spans NSF program categories including atmospheric sciences, chemical and process engineering, chemistry, biotic systems, materials research, mechanical engineering, physics, physiology, research instrumentation, and economic sciences. An attempt is made to analyze these research areas to determine how the research could be made more useful and effective by merging and crossing disciplinary lines with interdisciplinary approaches. An appendix provides a detailed listing of air pollution research projects in progress during 1985.

  15. Review of current research and long-term research needs in air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    Current research and long-term research needs of air pollution are reviewed and assessed in the following areas: pollution definition and characterization; atmospheric chemistry; measurement and monitoring of ambient air and sources; effects of human health and welfare, vegetation, animals, aquatic life, materials and structures; air pollution meteorology and modeling; engineering control; and regulatory control. The work spans NSF program categories including atmospheric sciences, chemical and process engineering, chemistry, biotic systems, materials research, mechanical engineering, physics, physiology, research instrumentation, and economic sciences. An attempt is made to analyze these research areas to determine how the research could be made more useful and effective by merging and crossing disciplinary lines with inderdisciplinary approaches. An appendix provides a detailed listing of air pollution research projects in progress during 1985.

  16. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1991-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during the academic year 1991-1992 under the FAA/NASA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research. The year end review was held at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, June 18-19, 1992. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration and NASA Langley Research Center, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (NGL-22-009-640), Ohio University (NGR-36-009-017), and Princeton University (NGL-31-001-252). Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, intelligent flight control, flight dynamics, human factors, and air traffic control processes. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  17. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1988-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The research conducted during 1988 to 1989 under the NASA/FAA-sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  18. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The research conducted during 1984 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, control and display concepts. An overview of the year's activities for each of the schools is also presented.

  19. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The research conducted during 1983 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The material was presented at a conference held at the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center, Altantic City, New Jersey, December 16, 1983. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, control, and display concepts. An overview of the year's activities for each of the universities is also presented.

  20. NAS Report Reveals Dangers From SST

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Jo Ann V.

    1973-01-01

    Reported are some harmful effects of supersonic travel on humans and other living organisms. Slight decreases in ozone concentration as a result of emissions from the SST aircrafts reduce absorption of ultraviolet radiation. Effects of this may include skin cancer, distort balance of activity in cells and have a deleterious effect on insects and…

  1. Status Report [Air Pollution Research Advisory Committee of the Coordinating Research Council].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coordinating Research Council, New York, NY. Air Pollution Research Advisory Committee.

    Research projects sponsored by the Coordinating Research Council, Air Pollution Research Advisory Committee, and dealing with vehicle emissions and their wide ranging effects on the environment are compiled in this status report. Spanning the range of problems associated with reducing emissions, they are divided into three main areas of research:…

  2. The Spatial and Temporal Impact of an Idealized SST Gradient on Simulations of an Idealized Tropical Cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazer, R.

    2015-12-01

    It has long been known that generally the warmer the sea surface temperature (SST), the more possible tropical cyclone (TC) genesis is, assuming the atmosphere is supportive. The conventional wisdom has been that - apart from what the TC cools through upwelling -- one value of SST represents the state of the ocean surface in the region of the storm's inner circulation. With the advent of the satellite era and fine resolution SST datasets now becoming available, we know that in reality there are gradients of SST across which developing TCs move. The influence of those gradients on tropical convection and TCs is largely unknown at this time. Previous studies have shown that SST gradients can significantly impact the overlying ocean surface winds leading to areas of enhanced convergence/divergence and Vorticity (Chelton et al. 2004; O'Neill et al. 2005, 2010). The magnitude of this effect approximately increases as the surface wind increases. Work by Minobe et al. (2008) concluded that a sharp SST Gradient, over the Gulf Stream for instance, could produce enough surface wind convergence to maintain a band of precipitation along the ocean front. The authors seek to understand whether the conclusions made in previous works can be applied in the case of a TC. To address this, the effects of an idealized sea surface temperature (SST) gradient on a simulated TC are investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 2km grid spacing. An idealized analytic vortex with no accompanying background wind is used to simulate the TC in one run with a horizontal north-south SST gradient and in a second run with the SST gradient flipped south-north. A third model run with constant 28oC SST everywhere is also conducted. Model runs with the SST gradient show asymmetries in convection and structure develop quickly before and after the cyclone develops. In these runs the cyclone drifts one direction depending on the location of colder SST. This is consistent with a

  3. Remote sensing of SST in the coastal ocean and inland seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostianoy, Andrey

    Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is the main oceanographic parameter widely used in oceanogra-phy that can be easily obtained from satellite measurements. Oceanic infrared remote sensing, based on the measurement of the thermal radiance emitted by the ocean, allows retrieving the SST corresponding to the temperature of the uppermost thin layer of the ocean. Theoretically the infrared signal only comes from the upper few microns "skin layer", therefore the thermal signatures cannot represent the dynamics of the mixed layer. But wind mixing during the daytime and nighttime convection mix the upper layer, so that SST usually is representative of that of the mixed layer. This is why nighttime passes of satellites are preferred for SST analysis. Since 1978 the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), onboard the meteorolog-ical satellites of the NOAA series are widely used to derive SST maps. The temporal coverage is ensured by two-three NOAA satellites which provide 4-6 images/day over the globe with a swath of about 2800 km, the spatial resolution by a pixel of about 1.1 km, and thermal resolu-tion of about 0.1 deg. C. The typical data processing includes the retrieval of the SST from the combination of NN 3, 4, and 5 infrared channels of AVHRR, the geographical correction and localisation, with a generation of cloud and land masks. SST data can be then composed into daily to monthly (as well as season to yearly) maps/products. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Terra (since 2000) and -Aqua (since 2002), among the others, are the most known satellite instruments which increase the flow of the remote sensing SST data. In the regions with almost permanent cloudy conditions passive microwave radiometers are of vital importance for SST measurements, but they have significantly low spatial (25 km) and thermal (0.8 deg. C) resolution. Today, SST images/data are routinely acquired by satellite receiving stations worldwide including research vessels

  4. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    The research conducted during 1987 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of 3 grants sponsored by NASA-Langley and the FAA, one each with the MIT, Ohio Univ., and Princeton Univ. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  5. [RESEARCH AMONG PSYCHIATRISTS IN TRAINING IN CIUDAD DE BUENOS AIRES].

    PubMed

    Peskin, Viviana A; Berrío Cuartas, Diana M; Villafañe, Claudia I; Pereyra, Walter D; Martínez Didolich, Laura C; Cesoni, Oscar M; Uriarte, Martín A

    2015-01-01

    Research is a cornerstone in the training of medical doctors in any specialty, whereas it substantially contributes to good clinical practice. The aim of this study is to determine the importance of research among psychiatrists in training in Ciudad de Buenos Aires. A cross sectional descriptive study using a paper survey, which was voluntary and anonymous, was sent to psychiatrists in training in different training centers between October-November 2013. 76.6% considered research training deficient; 27.8% participated in a research project during their psychiatric training and only 21.5% presented their results at a scientific activity. 95.6% participants considered important to include research in their training. In summary, a small proportion of psychiatrists in training who participated in this study conducted research and we observed limited experience in the area, as opposed to the interest in being trained in this field.

  6. The modeled atmospheric and oceanic response to the South China Sea SST anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiande; Wu, Lixin; Zhou, Jun; Gao, Jianjun

    2016-10-01

    The sensitivity of the global atmospheric and oceanic response to sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) throughout the South China Sea (SCS) is investigated using the Fast Ocean-Atmosphere Model (FOAM). Forced by a warming SST, the experiment explicitly demonstrates that the responses of surface air temperature (SAT) and SST exhibit positive anomalous center over SCS and negative anomalous center over the Northern Pacific Ocean (NPO). The atmospheric response to the warm SST anomalies is characterized by a barotropical anomaly in middle-latitude, leading to a weak subtropical high in summer and a weak Aleutian low in winter. Accordingly, Indian monsoon and eastern Asian monsoon strengthen in summer but weaken in winter as a result of wind convergence owing to the warm SST. It is worth noting that the abnormal signals propagate poleward and eastward away in the form of Rossby Waves from the forcing region, which induces high pressure anomaly. Owing to action of the wind-driven circulation, an anomalous anti-cyclonic circulation is induced with a primary southward current in the upper ocean. An obvious cooling appears over the North Pacific, which can be explained by anomalous meridional cold advection and mixing as shown in the analysises of heat budget and other factors that affect SST.

  7. SST variability in the East Asian marginal sea: mechanisms for local and remote atmospheric impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Japan/East Sea (JES), a part of East Asian Marginal Seas, is a semi-enclosed sea located upstream of the North Pacific storm track. SST variability in the JES and the ensuing air-sea process are important for local winter atmospheric condition. It is believed that the marginal sea processes also influence the storm track evolution far downstream. Dynamical processes leading to local and remote atmospheric circulation response to leading JES SST anomaly patterns are investigated using a hemispheric WRF atmospheric model with two-way multi-nesting capabilities. The atmospheric circulation in direct contact with anomalous diabatic forcing exhibits a linear baroclinic response with respect to sign of SST anomalies; that is, the northwesterly surface wind is strengthened (weakened) and the local precipitin is enhanced (reduced) over the warm (cold) SSTs. The linearity of the local response confirms the importance of fine-scale SST patterns to the predictability of regional weather and climate conditions. The downstream response, in contrast, is nonlinear, with an enhanced intraseasonal equivalent barotropic ridge emerging in the Gulf of Alaska irrespective of the polarity of JES SST anomalies. This downstream blocking high response is maintained by the positive low-frequency height tendency due to transient eddy vorticity flux convergence associated with altered storm track. The significant remote response in the North Pacific storm track and the blocking suggests that the marginal sea process is an active part of the North Pacific climate variability.

  8. Boreal winter Arctic Oscillation as an indicator of summer SST anomalies over the western tropical Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Dao-Yi; Guo, Dong; Gao, Yongqi; Yang, Jing; Mao, Rui; Qu, Jingxuan; Gao, Miaoni; Li, Sang; Kim, Seong-Joong

    2016-06-01

    The inter-annual relationship between the boreal winter Arctic Oscillation (AO) and summer sea surface temperature (SST) over the western tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) for the period from 1979 to 2015 is investigated. The results show that the January-February-March AO is significantly correlated with the June-July-August SST and SST tendency. When both El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) variance are excluded, the winter AO is significantly correlated with the regional mean SST of the western TIO (40° -60° E and 10° S-10° N), r=0.71 . The multi-month SST tendency, i.e., the SST difference of June-July-August minus April-May, is correlated with the winter AO at r=0.75 . Composite analysis indicates similar warming over the western TIO. Two statistical models are established to predict the subsequent summer's SST and SST tendency. The models use the winter AO, the winter ENSO and the autumn-winter IOD indexes as predictors and explain 65 and 62 % of the variance of the subsequent summer's SST and SST tendency, respectively. Investigation of the regional air-sea fluxes and oceanic dynamics reveals that the net surface heat flux cannot account for the warming, whereas the oceanic Rossby wave plays a predominant role. During positive AO winters, the enhanced Arabian High causes stronger northern winds in the northern Indian Ocean and leads to anomalous cross-equatorial air-flow. The Ekman pumping in association with the anomalous wind stress curl in the central TIO generates a significantly deeper thermocline and above-normal sea surface height at 60° -75° E and 5° -10° S. The winter AO-forced Rossby wave propagates westward and arrives at the western coast in summer, resulting in the significant SST increase. Forced by the observed winter AO-related wind stress anomalies over the Indian Ocean, the ocean model reasonably reproduces the Rossby wave as well as the resulting surface ocean warming over the western TIO in the

  9. Architectural Design for European SST System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utzmann, Jens; Wagner, Axel; Blanchet, Guillaume; Assemat, Francois; Vial, Sophie; Dehecq, Bernard; Fernandez Sanchez, Jaime; Garcia Espinosa, Jose Ramon; Agueda Mate, Alberto; Bartsch, Guido; Schildknecht, Thomas; Lindman, Niklas; Fletcher, Emmet; Martin, Luis; Moulin, Serge

    2013-08-01

    The paper presents the results of a detailed design, evaluation and trade-off of a potential European Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) system architecture. The results have been produced in study phase 1 of the on-going "CO-II SSA Architectural Design" project performed by the Astrium consortium as part of ESA's Space Situational Awareness Programme and are the baseline for further detailing and consolidation in study phase 2. The sensor network is comprised of both ground- and space-based assets and aims at being fully compliant with the ESA SST System Requirements. The proposed ground sensors include a surveillance radar, an optical surveillance system and a tracking network (radar and optical). A space-based telescope system provides significant performance and robustness for the surveillance and tracking of beyond-LEO target objects.

  10. NASA GLENN RESEARCH CENTER'S AIR POWER 2003 TEAM POSE WITH ORVILLE AND WILBUR WRIGHT NEAR THEIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA GLENN RESEARCH CENTER'S AIR POWER 2003 TEAM POSE WITH ORVILLE AND WILBUR WRIGHT NEAR THEIR WONDERFUL FLYING MACHINES AT WRIGHT PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE OPEN HOUSE - AIR POWER 2003, MAY 10-11, 2003

  11. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  12. Looking back and looking forwards: Historical and future trends in sea surface temperature (SST) in the Indo-Pacific region from 1982 to 2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Idham; Atkinson, Peter M.; Challenor, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The ocean warming trend is a well-known global phenomenon. As early as 2001, and then reiterated in 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported that the global average sea surface temperature (SST) will increase by about 0.2 °C per decade. To date, however, only a limited number of studies have been published reporting the spatio-temporal trends in SST in the Indo-Pacific region, one the richest marine ecosystems on Earth. In this research, the monthly 1° spatial resolution NOAA Optimum Interpolation (OI) sea surface temperature (SST) V2 dataset (OISSTv2) derived from measurements made by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and in situ measurements, were used to examine the spatio-temporal trends in SST in the region. The multi-model mean SST from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP2.6) mitigation scenario of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) was also used to forecast future SST from 2020 to 2100, decadally. Three variables from the OISSTv2, namely maximum (MaxSST), mean (MeanSST) and minimum (MinSST) monthly mean SST, were regressed against time measured in months from 1982 to 2010 using linear regression. Results revealed warming trends detected for all three SST variables. In the Coral Triangle a warming trend with a rate of 0.013 °C year-1, 0.017 °C year-1, and 0.019 °C year-1 was detected over 29 years for MaxSST, MeanSST and MinSST, respectively. In the SCS, the warming rate was 0.011 °C year-1, (MaxSST), 0.012 °C year-1 (MeanSST) and 0.015 °C year-1 (MinSST) over 29 years. The CMIP5 RCP2.6 forecast suggested a future warming rate to 2100 of 0.004 °C year-1 for both areas, and for all three SST variables. The warming trends reported in this study provide useful insights for improved marine-related management.

  13. O the Genesis of Anomalous SST and Rainfall Patterns Over the Tropical Atlantic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobre, Paulo

    Empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs), correlation, and composite analyses are used to investigate the evolution of phenomena associated with sea surface temperature (SST) and rainfall variability over the tropical Atlantic. The most important findings in this research are as follows. 1. The well known droughts over northeastern Brazil (Nordeste) are a local manifestation of a much larger -scale anomalies pattern encompassing the whole equatorial Atlantic and Amazon region. 2. The large-scale dipole-like anomalous rainfall pattern over the equatorial Atlantic and Amazon in March, April, and May (MAM), which is the rainy season for Nordeste region, is a consequence of meridional displacements of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ). In particular, negative rainfall anomalies to the south of the equator during MAM are related to an early withdrawal of ITCZ towards the warm SST anomalies over the northern tropical Atlantic. Concurrent with the rainfall anomaly dipole, there are large-scale patterns of SST and wind stress over the tropical Atlantic Ocean which also show a prominent dipole-like structure. The dipole patterns of SST and surface wind stress are the most dominant mode of interannual variability. Weaker trade winds are associated with warmer SST; stronger trade winds with cooler SST. 3. The spatial structure of (dipole-like) anomalous SST, rainfall and surface wind stress during MAM are clearly a modulation of the annual cycle for that season. The similarity between the patterns of interannual variability and MAM seasonal anomalies (departure from the annual mean) is quite remarkable. 4. Previous work has suggested the direct influence of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the southern Atlantic. This study brings observational evidence that ENSO effect over the northern Atlantic may happen through teleconnection patterns into higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The teleconnection effects over the northern Atlantic are out of phase

  14. Practical application of air-quality research incorporated in CMHC's research house.

    PubMed Central

    Rafuse, J

    1995-01-01

    The Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation has been looking at ways to improve indoor air quality since 1984 and now hopes to interest house designers and manufacturers in the results of its research. Its flagship project has been the construction of a proto-type research house for environmentally hypersensitive people. PMID:7736379

  15. Practical application of air-quality research incorporated in CMHC's research house.

    PubMed

    Rafuse, J

    1995-04-15

    The Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation has been looking at ways to improve indoor air quality since 1984 and now hopes to interest house designers and manufacturers in the results of its research. Its flagship project has been the construction of a proto-type research house for environmentally hypersensitive people. PMID:7736379

  16. Summer SST anomalies in the Indian Ocean and the seasonal timing of ENSO decay phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Rongcai; Sun, Shuyue; Yang, Yang; Li, Qian

    2016-09-01

    ENSO affects the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) SST in winter-spring in ENSO decay years through an ENSO-induced `atmospheric-bridge' and subsequent air-sea coupling processes. The interdecadal delay of El Niño decay phase has been related to a warming change in the summer TIO since 1970s. A physical linkage between the summer SST anomalies over the TIO and the timing of ENSO decay phase is however still unclear. This study uses multi-source data to distinguish `later-decay' from `normal-decay' El Niño/La Niña events, and performs diagnostic analysis of the changes in various thermodynamic and dynamic processes due to later-decay ENSO for quantifying the partial contribution by each of these processes to the summer SST changes over the TIO. The results show that, at both the interannual and interdecadal timescales, the significant warmer and colder SST anomalies in the spring TIO in later-decay El Niño and La Niña years respectively can persist into summer. Most of the ENSO-induced atmospheric-bridge-related processes contribute positively to the TIO SST changes in summer due to later-decay of ENSO, as they do in spring during normal-delay ENSO year. The exceptions are the surface wind-evaporation-mechanism and sensible heat-flux anomalies in summer, which always contribute negatively to the summer SST anomalies over most parts of the TIO. The negative contributions from these two processes in summer exist no matter whether there is a weakening or strengthening surface wind due to later-decay of ENSO events. Generally, the presence of five later-decay El Niño events after the 1970s is mainly responsible for the observed interdecadal summer TIO warming in recent decades.

  17. A Perspective on NASA Ames Air Traffic Management Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Jeffery A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes past and present air-traffic-management research at NASA Ames Research Center. The descriptions emerge from the perspective of a technical manager who supervised the majority of this research for the last four years. Past research contributions built a foundation for calculating accurate flight trajectories to enable efficient airspace management in time. That foundation led to two predominant research activities that continue to this day - one in automatically separating aircraft and the other in optimizing traffic flows. Today s national airspace uses many of the applications resulting from research at Ames. These applications include the nationwide deployment of the Traffic Management Advisor, new procedures enabling continuous descent arrivals, cooperation with industry to permit more direct flights to downstream way-points, a surface management system in use by two cargo carriers, and software to evaluate how well flights conform to national traffic management initiatives. The paper concludes with suggestions for prioritized research in the upcoming years. These priorities include: enabling more first-look operational evaluations, improving conflict detection and resolution for climbing or descending aircraft, and focusing additional attention on the underpinning safety critical items such as a reliable datalink.

  18. Investigation and validation of MODIS SST in the northern Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanea, Mohsen; Moradi, Masoud; Kabiri, Keivan; Mehdinia, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Validation of satellite derived sea surface temperature (SST) is necessary since satellite minus buoy SST (= bias) relies on atmospheric and oceanographic conditions and time periods. This research validates MODIS (Terra and Aqua) satellite daytime SST with buoy SST at the northern Persian Gulf. Sixteen dates during June 2011 to June 2015 were selected for validation. The buoy-satellite matchups were gained within one image pixel (1 km at nadir) and ±6 h in time. For most matchups, time interval was ±3 h. Effects of total column water vapor, aerosol optical depth, wind speed, glint, and satellite zenith angle on bias are then investigated. These parameters are classified based on root mean square (RMS) difference between satellite and buoy SST. Final results represent a near-perfect R2 (>0.989) for both satellites. The bias was 0.07 ± 0.53 °C and -0.06 ± 0.44 °C for MODIS-Aqua and -Terra, respectively.

  19. Evaluation of VIIRS SST fields through the analysis of overlap regions between consecutive orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayula, Jean-François P.; May, Douglas A.; Arnone, Robert A.; Vandermeulen, Ryan A.

    2015-05-01

    Full-swath Sea Surface Temperature (SST) derived from data acquired by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on-board the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite produces significant overlap between consecutive orbits at all latitudes. In this study, we use those overlap regions to evaluate VIIRS SST, as inconsistencies between SST values from consecutive orbits are indications of likely degraded quality. The studies investigate two sources of inconsistencies: those resulting from the response of the SST equations when observing a scene from differing view angles and those caused by undetected data contamination. This study will present results for two VIIRS SST products: one from the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO), which is assimilated in the Navy Ocean Models, and the Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO) product from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR). Global statistics based on drifting buoys for both NAVOCEANO and NOAA products complete the analysis.

  20. Overview of NASA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation is an overview of the research for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Included is a review of the current air transportation system and the challenges of air transportation research. Also included is a review of the current research highlights and significant accomplishments.

  1. New research on bioregenerative air/water purification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Anne H.; Ellender, R. D.; Watkins, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    For the past several years, air and water purification systems have been developed and used. This technology is based on the combined activities of plants and microorganisms as they function in a natural environment. More recently, researchers have begun to address the problems associated with indoor air pollution. Various common houseplants are currently being evaluated for their abilities to reduce concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) such as formaldehyde and benzene. With development of the Space Exploration Initiative, missions will increase in duration, and problems with resupply necessitates implementation of regenerative technology. Aspects of bioregenerative technology have been included in a habitat known as the BioHome. The ultimate goal is to use this technology in conjunction with physicochemical systems for air and water purification within closed systems. This study continued the risk assessment of bioregenerative technology with emphasis on biological hazards. In an effort to evaluate the risk for human infection, analyses were directed at enumeration of fecal streptococci and enteric viruses with the BioHome waste water treatment system.

  2. Airborne mass spectrometers: four decades of atmospheric and space research at the Air Force research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, A A; Hunton, D E

    1999-11-01

    Mass spectrometry is a versatile research tool that has proved to be extremely useful for exploring the fundamental nature of the earth's atmosphere and ionosphere and in helping to solve operational problems facing the Air Force and the Department of Defense. In the past 40 years, our research group at the Air Force Research Laboratory has flown quadrupole mass spectrometers of many designs on nearly 100 sounding rockets, nine satellites, three Space Shuttles and many missions of high-altitude research aircraft and balloons. We have also used our instruments in ground-based investigations of rocket and jet engine exhaust, combustion chemistry and microwave breakdown chemistry. This paper is a review of the instrumentation and techniques needed for space research, a summary of the results from many of the experiments, and an introduction to the broad field of atmospheric and space mass spectrometry in general. PMID:10548806

  3. Airborne mass spectrometers: four decades of atmospheric and space research at the Air Force research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, A A; Hunton, D E

    1999-11-01

    Mass spectrometry is a versatile research tool that has proved to be extremely useful for exploring the fundamental nature of the earth's atmosphere and ionosphere and in helping to solve operational problems facing the Air Force and the Department of Defense. In the past 40 years, our research group at the Air Force Research Laboratory has flown quadrupole mass spectrometers of many designs on nearly 100 sounding rockets, nine satellites, three Space Shuttles and many missions of high-altitude research aircraft and balloons. We have also used our instruments in ground-based investigations of rocket and jet engine exhaust, combustion chemistry and microwave breakdown chemistry. This paper is a review of the instrumentation and techniques needed for space research, a summary of the results from many of the experiments, and an introduction to the broad field of atmospheric and space mass spectrometry in general.

  4. Imaging physics at the Air Force Office of Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrasmith, William W.

    1996-10-01

    The Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) is launching a research program in imaging physics planned to start in fiscal year 1997 (FY97). Both active (man made illumination sources) and passive (solar illuminated) imaging methods will be included in the program. The purpose of the program is to develop a national thrust for imaging science which will lay the foundation for future Air Force imaging systems. The new imaging physics program will be jointly administered from the Directorate of Physics and Electronics (AFOSR/NE) and the Directorate of Mathematics and Geosciences (AFOSR/NM) with collaborations with the Directorate of Life Sciences. The combined NE, NM, and NL imaging program will apply innovative mathematical formalisms (wavelets, non-linear partial differential equations, inverse methods, statistical techniques, optimization methods . . .) to the imaging problem (object representation, atmospheric turbulence compensation and noise modeling, innovative imaging techniques, multi- spectral imaging, data and sensor fusion, smart sensors, imaging neural nets, phase retrieval, . . .). The electronic emulation of biological vision processes for intelligent information identification and extraction in a timely manner are also of interest. A description of AFOSR and the current and planned imaging physics program are presented.

  5. Seasonal differences of model predictability and the impact of SST in the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, X. M.; Wang, H. J.

    2005-01-01

    Both seasonal potential predictability and the impact of SST in the Pacific on the forecast skill over China are investigated by using a 9-level global atmospheric general circulation model developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (IAP9L-ACCM). For each year during 1970 to 1999, the ensemble consists of seven integrations started from consecutive observational daily atmospheric fields and forced by observational monthly SST. For boreal winter, spring and summer, the variance ratios of the SST-forced variability to the total variability and the differences in the spatial correlation coefficients of seasonal mean fields in special years versus normal years are computed respectively. It follows that there are slightly inter-seasonal differences in the model potential predictability in the Tropics. At northern middle and high latitudes, prediction skill is generally low in spring and relatively high either in summer for surface air temperature and middle and upper tropospheric geopotential height or in winter for wind and precipitation. In general, prediction skill rises notably in western China, especially in northwestern China, when SST anomalies (SSTA) in the Ni (n) over tildeo-3 region are significant. Moreover, particular attention should be paid to the SSTA in the North Pacific (NP) if one aims to predict summer climate over the eastern part of China, i.e., northeastern China, North China and southeastern China.

  6. Environmental equity research: review with focus on outdoor air pollution research methods and analytic tools.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qun; Chen, Dongmei; Buzzelli, Michael; Aronson, Kristan J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review environmental equity research on outdoor air pollution and, specifically, methods and tools used in research, published in English, with the aim of recommending the best methods and analytic tools. English language publications from 2000 to 2012 were identified in Google Scholar, Ovid MEDLINE, and PubMed. Research methodologies and results were reviewed and potential deficiencies and knowledge gaps identified. The publications show that exposure to outdoor air pollution differs by social factors, but findings are inconsistent in Canada. In terms of study designs, most were small and ecological and therefore prone to the ecological fallacy. Newer tools such as geographic information systems, modeling, and biomarkers offer improved precision in exposure measurement. Higher-quality research using large, individual-based samples and more precise analytic tools are needed to provide better evidence for policy-making to reduce environmental inequities.

  7. Commentary: Is the Air Pollution Health Research Community Prepared to Support a Multipollutant Air Quality Management Framework?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air pollution is always encountered as a complex mixture, but past regulatory and research strategies largely focused on single pollutants, pollutant classes, and sources one-at-a-time. There is a trend toward managing air quality in a progressively “multipollutant” manne...

  8. Role of thermocline-SST coupling in the evolution of IOD events and their regional impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Aditi; Chowdary, J. S.; Gnanaseelan, C.

    2014-07-01

    The evolution of sea surface temperature (SST) and thermocline (represented by 20 °C isotherm depth, D20) in the east equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO) associated with the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) years is studied for the period of 50 years from 1958 to 2007. A new IOD index based on combined anomalies of surface winds, D20 and SST over the equatorial Indian Ocean is defined to identify strong and weak IOD events. It is found that the evolution of strong IOD events is driven by ocean dynamics in the form of thermocline-SST coupling and is strongly interactive with the atmosphere, whereas the weak IOD events are mere response to surface winds without such dynamical coupling. The easterly wind anomalies extend up to the western equatorial Indian Ocean (WIO) during strong IOD years and support enhanced EIO air-sea interactions. On the other hand, the evolution of zonal wind anomalies is weak during the weak IOD years. Thermocline-SST coupling is robust in both EIO and WIO during strong IOD years, which is primarily responsible for the enhanced SST gradient, strong enough to establish anomalous Walker circulation within the Indian Ocean. The strong convection over the WIO associated with the Indian Ocean Walker cell triggers a secondary cell with subsidence over the African landmass. This double cell structure over the equatorial Indian Ocean is not reported before. Such double cell structure is not evident in weak IOD years and instead the convection over WIO extends up to African landmass. These are well supported by the spatial pattern of anomalous precipitable water during strong and weak IOD years. Strengthening of monsoon flow and local Hadley cell associated with strong IOD events enhances precipitation over the Indian subcontinent, whereas weak IOD years have less impact on the Indian summer monsoon circulation and rainfall. Analysis reveals that the EIO thermocline index and combined index could be potential predictors for the central Indian rainfall during

  9. Single Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Sequence FY 2000 Update

    SciTech Connect

    GARFIELD, J.S.

    2000-09-27

    This document describes the baseline single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval sequence for the River Protection Project (RPP) updated for Fiscal Year 2000. The SST retrieval sequence identifies the proposed retrieval order (sequence), the tank selection and prioritization rationale, and planned retrieval dates for Hanford SSTs. In addition, the tank selection criteria and reference retrieval method for this sequence are discussed.

  10. 46 CFR 178.330 - Simplified stability proof test (SST).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Simplified stability proof test (SST). 178.330 Section... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Intact Stability Standards § 178.330 Simplified stability proof test (SST). (a) A vessel must be in the condition specified in this paragraph when...

  11. Nitrogen Gas Heating and Supply System for SST-1 Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziauddin, Khan; Firozkhan, Pathan; Yuvakiran, Paravastu; Siju, George; Gattu, Ramesh; Hima, Bindu; Dilip, C. Raval; Prashant, Thankey; Kalpesh, Dhanani; Subrata, Pradhan

    2013-02-01

    Steady State Tokamak (SST-1) vacuum vessel baking as well as baking of the first wall components of SST-1 are essential to plasma physics experiments. Under a refurbishment spectrum of SST-1, the nitrogen gas heating and supply system has been fully refurbished. The SST-1 vacuum vessel consists of ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible eight modules and eight sectors. Rectangular baking channels are embedded on each of them. Similarly, the SST-1 plasma facing components (PFC) are comprised of modular graphite diverters and movable graphite based limiters. The nitrogen gas heating and supply system would bake the plasma facing components at 350°C and the SST-1 vacuum vessel at 150°C over an extended duration so as to remove water vapour and other absorbed gases. An efficient PLC based baking facility has been developed and implemented for monitoring and control purposes. This paper presents functional and operational aspects of a SST-1 nitrogen gas heating and supply system. Some of the experimental results obtained during the baking of SST-1 vacuum modules and sectors are also presented here.

  12. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The Intelligent Control and Autonomy Branch (ICA) at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet the goals of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Programs. These efforts are primarily under the various projects under the Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP), Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP) and Transformative Aeronautics Concepts Program (TAC). The ICA Branch is focused on advancing the state-of-the-art of aero-engine control and diagnostics technologies to help improve aviation safety, increase efficiency, and enable operation with reduced emissions. This paper describes the various ICA research efforts under the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs with a summary of motivation, background, technical approach, and recent accomplishments for each of the research tasks.

  13. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.; Goldhagen, P.; Tai, H.; Shinn, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    The SuperSonic Transport (SST) development program within the US was based at the Langley Research Center as was the Apollo radiation testing facility (Space Radiation Effects Laboratory) with associated radiation research groups. It was natural for the issues of the SST to be first recognized by this unique combination of research programs. With a re-examination of the technologies for commercial supersonic flight and the possible development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), the remaining issues of the SST required resolution. It was the progress of SST radiation exposure research program founded by T. Foelsche at the Langley Research Center and the identified remaining issues after that project over twenty-five years ago which became the launch point of the current atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) research project. Added emphasis to the need for reassessment of atmospheric radiation resulted from the major lowering of the recommended occupational exposure limits, the inclusion of aircrew as radiation workers, and the recognition of civil aircrew as a major source of occupational exposures. Furthermore, the work of Ferenc Hajnal of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory brought greater focus to the uncertainties in the neutron flux at high altitudes. A re-examination of the issues involved was committed at the Langley Research Center and by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). As a result of the NCRP review, a new flight package was assembled and flown during solar minimum at which time the galactic cosmic radiation is at a maximum (June 1997). The present workshop is the initial analysis of the new data from that flight. The present paper is an overview of the status of knowledge of atmospheric ionizing radiations. We will re-examine the exposures of the world population and examine the context of aircrew exposures with implications for the results of the present research. A condensed version of this report was given at the 1998

  14. SST, cloud classification and surface irradiances derived from operational satellite data during SOFIA/ASTEX and SEMAPHORE

    SciTech Connect

    Brisson, A.; LeBorgne, P.; Marsouin, A.; Moreau, T.

    1994-12-31

    SOFIA is the French component of ASTEX which was organized in the Azores region in June 1992. The scientific objectives of SOFIA during ASTEX were the study of energy transfer between the sea surface and the atmospheric boundary layer at various scales. SEMAPHORE was organized in the same region in October and November 1993 and was centered on the study of mesoscale ocean circulation and air/sea interactions. During those experiments, the Centre de Meteorologie Spatiale produced in real time satellite estimates of Sea Surface Temperature (SST), cloud type, surface solar and longwave irradiance fields over the area (27N-40N, 15W-30W). This presentation will review briefly the methods which have been used to calculate these parameters. During both campaigns, in situ measurements were made by buoys (SST) and aboard the IFREMER ship Suroit (SST, surface solar and longwave irradiance). The results of the comparison of the calculations with the in situ measurements will also be presented.

  15. The effect of SST and soil moisture anomalies on GLA model simulations of the 1988 U.S. summer drought

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, R.; Wolfson, N.; Terry, J.

    1993-01-01

    A series of simulations of the late spring and early summer of 1988 were conducted in order to study the relative importance of different boundary forcings to the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) model's simulation of the heat wave and drought over the Great Plains of the United States during this time period. Separate 60-day simulations were generated from 10, 20, and 30 May 1988 with a variety of boundary condition datasets. For the control experiment, climatological boundary conditions were used. This was followed by experiments in which either the observed 1988 sea surface temperatures (SST) or derived 1988 soil moisture values, or both, were used in place of the climatological fields. Additional experiments were conducted in which only tropical or midlatitude SST anomalies were used. The impact of the different boundary forcings was evaluated relative to the control simulations of the precipitation and surface air temperature over the Great Plains. It was found that the tropical SST anomalies had a significant effect in reducing precipitation in this area, while the midlatitude anomalies did not. Due to the prescribed climatological soil moistures for the SST experiments, a significant increase in surface temperature did not occur in these simulations. In contrast, the simulations with the anomalous 1988 soil moistures produced both a larger reduction of precipitation and a significant increase in surface temperature over the Great Plains. The simulations with both anomalous SST and soil moisture showed only a slight augmentation of the heat wave and drought relative to the experiments with anomalous soil moisture alone.

  16. [Medical research in the US Armed Forces. (Report 5). The US Air Force and Coast Guard].

    PubMed

    Agapitov, A A; Aleĭnikov, S I; Bolekhan, V N; Ivchenko, E V; Krassiĭ, A B; Nagibovich, O A; Petrov, S V; Rezvantsev, M V; Soldatov, E A; Shalakhin, R A; Sheppli, E V

    2013-02-01

    The present article is the last part of the review dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Armed Forces. The first through fourth parts were published in the previous issues of the journal. Specifically this article is dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Air Force and Coast Guard. It is shown that in the US Air Force the medical research is conducted in the Air Force Research Laboratory and in the US Coast Guard--in its Research and Development Center. The particular research programs conducted in the above mentioned units are discussed.

  17. [Medical research in the US Armed Forces. (Report 5). The US Air Force and Coast Guard].

    PubMed

    Agapitov, A A; Aleĭnikov, S I; Bolekhan, V N; Ivchenko, E V; Krassiĭ, A B; Nagibovich, O A; Petrov, S V; Rezvantsev, M V; Soldatov, E A; Shalakhin, R A; Sheppli, E V

    2013-02-01

    The present article is the last part of the review dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Armed Forces. The first through fourth parts were published in the previous issues of the journal. Specifically this article is dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Air Force and Coast Guard. It is shown that in the US Air Force the medical research is conducted in the Air Force Research Laboratory and in the US Coast Guard--in its Research and Development Center. The particular research programs conducted in the above mentioned units are discussed. PMID:23808204

  18. Identification of Phosphorylation Sites Regulating sst3 Somatostatin Receptor Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Andreas; Kliewer, Andrea; Günther, Thomas; Nagel, Falko; Schulz, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    The human somatostatin receptor 3 (sst3) is expressed in about 50% of all neuroendocrine tumors and hence a promising target for multireceptor somatostatin analogs. The sst3 receptor is unique among ssts in that it exhibits a very long intracellular C-terminal tail containing a huge number of potential phosphate acceptor sites. Consequently, our knowledge about the functional role of the C-terminal tail in sst3 receptor regulation is very limited. Here, we have generated a series of phosphorylation-deficient mutants that enabled us to determine crucial sites for its agonist-induced β-arrestin mobilization, internalization, and down-regulation. Based on this information, we generated phosphosite-specific antibodies for C-terminal Ser(337)/Thr(341), Thr(348), and Ser(361) that enabled us to investigate the temporal patterns of sst3 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. We found that the endogenous ligand somatostatin induced a rapid and robust phosphorylation that was completely blocked by the sst3 antagonist NVP-ACQ090. The stable somatostatin analogs pasireotide and octreotide promoted clearly less phosphorylation compared with somatostatin. We also show that sst3 phosphorylation occurred within seconds to minutes, whereas dephosphorylation of the sst3 receptor occurred at a considerable slower rate. In addition, we also identified G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 and 3 and protein phosphatase 1α and 1β as key regulators of sst3 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively. Thus, we here define the C-terminal phosphorylation motif of the human sst3 receptor that regulates its agonist-promoted phosphorylation, β-arrestin recruitment, and internalization of this clinically relevant receptor.

  19. microRNAs: Implications for Air Pollution Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding on the role of microRNAs in mediating genetic responses to air pollutants and to contemplate on how these responses ultimately control susceptibility to ambient air pollution. Morbidity and mortality ...

  20. Ventilation research: A review of recent indoor air quality literature. Final report, October 1993-March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Van Osdell, D.W.

    1994-09-01

    Building ventilation and air conditioning systems have traditionally been designed and controlled to maintain occupant thermal comfort at acceptable capital and operating costs, an indoor air quality (IAQ) has not been a primary concern. A literature review was conducted to survey and summarize recent and on-going engineering research into building ventilation, air exchange rate, pollutant distribution and dispersion, and other effects of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems on IAQ. The ventilation-related engineering literature was divided into seven major categories: (1) pollutant transport to and into the building envelope; (2) air cleaning systems; (3) flow and pollutant dispersion, (4) room and building flow/dispersion research; (5) HVAC/building design, operation, and control strategies; (6) applied microbial research; and (7) building performance. The significance and status of ventilation-related IAQ research was summarized by research category, and research opportunities were identified within each category.

  1. CFD simulation research on residential indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Ye, Miao; He, Bao-Jie

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays people are excessively depending on air conditioning to create a comfortable indoor environment, but it could cause some health problems in a long run. In this paper, wind velocity field, temperature field and air age field in a bedroom with wall-hanging air conditioning running in summer are analyzed by CFD numerical simulation technology. The results show that wall-hanging air conditioning system can undertake indoor heat load and conduct good indoor thermal comfort. In terms of wind velocity, air speed in activity area where people sit and stand is moderate, most of which cannot feel wind flow and meet the summer indoor wind comfort requirement. However, for air quality, there are local areas without ventilation and toxic gases not discharged in time. Therefore it is necessary to take effective measures to improve air quality. Compared with the traditional measurement method, CFD software has many advantages in simulating indoor environment, so it is hopeful for humans to create a more comfortable, healthy living environment by CFD in the future. PMID:24365517

  2. CFD simulation research on residential indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Ye, Miao; He, Bao-Jie

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays people are excessively depending on air conditioning to create a comfortable indoor environment, but it could cause some health problems in a long run. In this paper, wind velocity field, temperature field and air age field in a bedroom with wall-hanging air conditioning running in summer are analyzed by CFD numerical simulation technology. The results show that wall-hanging air conditioning system can undertake indoor heat load and conduct good indoor thermal comfort. In terms of wind velocity, air speed in activity area where people sit and stand is moderate, most of which cannot feel wind flow and meet the summer indoor wind comfort requirement. However, for air quality, there are local areas without ventilation and toxic gases not discharged in time. Therefore it is necessary to take effective measures to improve air quality. Compared with the traditional measurement method, CFD software has many advantages in simulating indoor environment, so it is hopeful for humans to create a more comfortable, healthy living environment by CFD in the future.

  3. Indoor-air assessment: An inventory of indoor-air-quality research in the United States: 1989-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, T.; Greenwood, D.

    1990-12-01

    A survey of indoor air quality research projects in the United States was undertaken using a standard form and keyword list. In response to the request for participation, 110 completed forms were received from 69 principal investigators at 34 institutions. Universities had the largest number of IAQ research projects (23), followed by EPA (20), other Federal agencies (18), state (18), national laboratories (15), and private research organizations (12). The results of the inventory will provide EPA and NATO-CCMS with information on the current directions and funding levels of IAQ research in the United States. Although the information is preliminary, it can be useful to EPA in planning future research.

  4. INITIAL SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    JARAYSI, M.N.

    2007-01-08

    The ''Initial Single-Shell Tank System Performance Assessment for the Hanford Site [1] (SST PA) presents the analysis of the long-term impacts of residual wastes assumed to remain after retrieval of tank waste and closure of the SST farms at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The SST PA supports key elements of the closure process agreed upon in 2004 by DOE, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The SST PA element is defined in Appendix I of the ''Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989) [2], the document that establishes the overall closure process for the SST and double-shell tank (DST) systems. The approach incorporated in the SST PA integrates substantive features of both hazardous and radioactive waste management regulations into a single analysis. The defense-in-depth approach used in this analysis defined two major engineering barriers (a surface barrier and the grouted tank structure) and one natural barrier (the vadose zone) that will be relied on to control waste release into the accessible environment and attain expected performance metrics. The analysis evaluates specific barrier characteristics and other site features that influence contaminant migration by the various pathways. A ''reference'' case and a suite of sensitivity/uncertainty cases are considered. The ''reference case'' evaluates environmental impacts assuming central tendency estimates of site conditions. ''Reference'' case analysis results show residual tank waste impacts on nearby groundwater, air resources; or inadvertent intruders to be well below most important performance objectives. Conversely, past releases to the soil, from previous tank farm operations, are shown to have groundwater impacts that re significantly above most performance objectives. Sensitivity/uncertainty cases examine single and multiple parameter variability along with plausible alternatives

  5. Structural Simluation Toolkit (SST) V 2.0

    2009-12-04

    The SST provides a parallel framework to perform system simulation of computer architectures to determine their performance and power consumption. Additionally, the SST contains basic models of a computer processor, and interconnect and can connect to an external memory simulator (DRAMSim II). The SST framework provides a simple interface by which other computer simulation models can be combined under a common parallel discrete event-based simulation environment. This allows design exploration of future architectures, analysis ofmore » how current computer programs will function on future architectures. The SST provides a parallel discrete event simulation framework, including partitioning and object distribution over MPI. It also provides a mechanism by which components can report their power consumption for analysis.« less

  6. Improving the global SST record: estimates of biases from engine room intake SST using high quality satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carella, Giulia; Kent, Elizabeth C.; Berry, David I.; Morak-Bozzo, Simone; Merchant, Christopher J.

    2016-04-01

    Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is the marine component of the global surface temperature record, a primary metric of climate change. SST observations from ships form one of the longest instrumental records of surface marine climate. However, over the years several different methods of measuring SST have been used, each with different bias characteristics. The estimation of systematic biases in the SST record is critical for climatic decadal predictions, and uncertainties in long-term trends are expected to be dominated by uncertainties in biases introduced by changes of instrumentation and measurement practices. Although the largest systematic errors in SST observations relate to the period before about 1940, where SST measurements were mostly made using buckets, there are also issues with modern data, in particular when the SST reported is the temperature of the engine-room cooling water intake (ERI). Physical models for biases in ERI SSTs have not been developed as the details of the individual setup on each ship are extremely important, and almost always unknown. Existing studies estimate that the typical ERI biases are around 0.2°C and most estimates of the mean bias fall between 0.1°C and 0.3°C, but there is some evidence of much larger differences. However, these analyses provide only broad estimates, being based only on subsamples of the data and ignoring ship-by-ship differences. Here we take advantage of a new, high spatial resolution, gap-filled, daily SST for the period 1992-2010 from the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI) for SST dataset version 1.1. In this study, we use a Bayesian statistical model to characterise the uncertainty in reports of ERI SST for individual ships using the ESA CCI SST as a reference. A Bayesian spatial analysis is used to model the differences of the observed SST from the ESA CCI SST for each ship as a constant offset plus a function of the climatological SST. This was found to be an important term

  7. Impact of air-sea coupling on the simulation of tropical cyclones in the North Indian Ocean using a simple 3-D ocean model coupled to ARW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, C. V.; Mohan, Greeshma M.; Naidu, C. V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the impact of air-sea coupling on tropical cyclone (TC) predictions is studied using a three-dimensional Price-Weller-Pinkel (3DPWP) ocean model coupled to the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting in six tropical storms in the North Indian Ocean, representing different intensities, seasonality, and varied oceanic conditions. A set of numerical experiments are conducted for each cyclone using sea surface temperature (SST) boundary conditions derived from Global Forecast System (GFS) SST, NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Prediction SST, and ocean coupling (3DPWP). Significant differences and improvements are found in the predicted intensity and track in the simulations, in which the cyclones' impact on SST is included. It has been found that while the uncoupled model using GFS SST considerably overestimated the intensity as well as produced large track errors, the ocean coupling substantially improved the track and intensity predictions. The improvements with 3DPWP are because of simulating the ocean-atmosphere feedback in terms of deepening of ocean mixed layer, reduction in enthalpy fluxes, and storm-induced SST cooling as seen in observations. The coupled model could simulate the cold wake in SST, asymmetries in the surface winds, enthalpy fluxes, size, and structure of the storm in better agreement with observations than the uncoupled model. The coupled model reduced the track errors by roughly 0.3-39% and intensity errors by 29-47% at 24-96 h predictions by controlling the northward deviation of storms tracks by SST cooling and associated changes in the dynamics. The vorticity changes associated with horizontal advection and stretching terms affect the tracks of the storms in the three simulations.

  8. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: primary mirror characterization by deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironi, Giorgia; Canestrari, Rodolfo

    2015-09-01

    In 2014 the ASTRI Collaboration, led by the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics, has constructed an end-to-end prototype of a dual-mirror imaging air Cherenkov telescope, proposed for the small size class of telescopes for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, has been installed at the observing station located at Serra La Nave (Italy). In this project the Brera Astronomical Observatory was responsible for the production and the testing of the primary mirror. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope's primary mirror has an aperture of ~ 4 m, a polynomial design, and consists of 18 individual hexagonal facets. These characteristics require the production and testing of panels with a typical size of ~1 m vertex-to-vertex and with an aspheric component of up to several millimetres. The mirror segments were produced assembling a sandwich of thin glass foils bent at room temperature to reach the desired shape. For the characterization of the mirrors we developed an ad-hoc deflectometry facility that works as an inverse Ronchi test in combination with a ray-tracing code. In this contribution we report the results of the deflectometric measurements performed on the primary mirror segments of the ASTRI SST-2M dual mirror telescope. The expected point spread function and the contributions to the degradation of the image quality are studied.

  9. The camera of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, Osvaldo; Maccarone, Maria C.; Gargano, Carmelo; La Rosa, Giovanni; Segreto, Alberto; Sottile, Giuseppe; De Caprio, Vincenzo; Russo, Francesco; Capalbi, Milvia; Sangiorgi, Pierluca; Bonanno, Giovanni; Grillo, Alessandro; Garozzo, Salvatore; Marano, Davide; Billotta, Sergio; Romeo, Giuseppe; Stringhetti, Luca; Fiorini, Mauro; La Palombara, Nicola; Incorvaia, Salvatore; Toso, Giorgio; Impiombato, Domenico; Giarrusso, Salvatore

    2014-07-01

    In the context of the Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory project, the ASTRI SST-2M end-to-end prototype telescope, entirely supported by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, is designed to detect cosmic primary gamma ray energies from few TeV up to hundreds of TeV. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype camera is part of the challenging synergy of novel optical design, camera sensors, front-end electronics and telescope structure design. The camera is devoted to imaging and recording the Cherenkov images of air showers induced by primary particles into the Earth's atmosphere. In order to match the energy range mentioned above, the camera must be able to trigger events within a few tens of nanoseconds with high detection efficiency. This is obtained by combining silicon photo-multiplier sensors and suitable front-end electronics. Due to the characteristic imprint of the Cherenkov image that is a function of the shower core distance, the signal dynamic range of the pixels and consequently of the front-end electronics must span three orders of magnitude (1:1000 photo-electrons). These and many other features of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype camera will be reported in this contribution together with a complete overview of the mechanical and thermodynamic camera system.

  10. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) research highlights, September--October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    New AFOSR-sponsored research shows that exhausts from solid-fueled rocket motors have very limited impact on stratospheric ozone. The research provides the Air Force with hard data to support continued access to space using the existing fleet of rockets and rocket technology. This basic research data allows the Air Force to maintain a strongly proactive environmental stance, and to meet federal guidelines regarding environmental impacts. Long-standing conjecture within the international rocket community suggests that chlorine compounds and alumina particulates produced in solid rocket motor (SRM) exhausts could create localized, temporary ozone toss in rocket plumes following launches. The extent of a local depletion of ozone and its environmental impact depends on details of the composition and chemistry in these plumes. Yet direct measurements of plume composition and plume chemistry in the stratosphere had never been made. Uncertainty about these details left the Air Force and commercial space launch capability potentially vulnerable to questions about the environmental impact of rocket launches. In 1995, APOSR and the Space and Missiles Systems Center Launch Programs Office (SMC/CL) jointly began the Rocket Impacts on Stratospheric Ozone (RISO) program to make the first-ever detailed measurements of rocket exhaust plumes. These measurements were aimed at understanding how the exhaust from large rocket motors effect the Earth`s stratospheric ozone layer. The studies determined: the size distribution of alumina particles in these exhausts, the amount of reactive chlorine in SRM exhaust, and the size and duration of localized ozone toss in the rocket plumes.

  11. Recent researches on the air resistance of spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachsbart, O

    1928-01-01

    The following conclusions on air resistance of spheres are drawn: 1) disturbances in front of the sphere and even single fine wires affect the critical Reynolds Number; 2) disturbances around the sphere increased the drag of the sphere without martially affecting the value of the Reynolds Number(sub crith); 3) great disturbances of the boundary layer of the sphere likewise change R.N.(sub crith); 4) turbulence of the approaching air stream lowers critical R.N.

  12. Investigation of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies over Cyprus area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, Andreas; Akçit, Nuhcan

    2016-08-01

    The temperature of the sea surface has been identified as an important parameter of the natural environment, governing processes that occur in the upper ocean. This paper focuses on the analysis of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies at the greater area of Cyprus. For that, SST data derived from MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on board both Aqua and Terra sun synchronous satellites were used. A four year period was chosen as a first approach to address and describe this phenomenon. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) has been used as an integrated platform of analysis and presentation in addition of the support of MATLAB®. The methodology consists of five steps: (i) Collection of MODIS SST imagery, (ii) Development of the digital geo-database; (iii) Model and run the methodology in GIS as a script; (iv) Calculation of SST anomalies; and (v) Visualization of the results. The SST anomaly values have presented a symmetric distribution over the study area with an increase trend through the years of analysis. The calculated monthly and annual average SST anomalies (ASST) make more obvious this trend, with negative and positive SST changes to be distributed over the study area. In terms of seasons, the same increase trend presented during spring, summer, autumn and winter with 2013 to be the year with maximum ASST observed values. Innovative aspects comprise of straightforward integration and modeling of available tools, providing a versatile platform of analysis and semi-automation of the operation. In addition, the fine resolution maps that extracted from the analysis with a wide spatial coverage, allows the detail representation of SST and ASST respectively in the region.

  13. Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research.

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, Ralph J

    2002-01-01

    Outdoor ambient air pollutant exposures in communities are relevant to the acute exacerbation and possibly the onset of asthma. However, the complexity of pollutant mixtures and etiologic heterogeneity of asthma has made it difficult to identify causal components in those mixtures. Occupational exposures associated with asthma may yield clues to causal components in ambient air pollution because such exposures are often identifiable as single-chemical agents (e.g., metal compounds). However, translating occupational to community exposure-response relationships is limited. Of the air toxics found to cause occupational asthma, only formaldehyde has been frequently investigated in epidemiologic studies of allergic respiratory responses to indoor air, where general consistency can be shown despite lower ambient exposures. The specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified in association with occupational asthma are generally not the same as those in studies showing respiratory effects of VOC mixtures on nonoccupational adult and pediatric asthma. In addition, experimental evidence indicates that airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures linked to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have proinflammatory effects on airways, but there is insufficient supporting evidence from the occupational literature of effects of DEPs on asthma or lung function. In contrast, nonoccupational epidemiologic studies have frequently shown associations between allergic responses or asthma with exposures to ambient air pollutant mixtures with PAH components, including black smoke, high home or school traffic density (particularly truck traffic), and environmental tobacco smoke. Other particle-phase and gaseous co-pollutants are likely causal in these associations as well. Epidemiologic research on the relationship of both asthma onset and exacerbation to air pollution is needed to disentangle effects of air toxics from monitored criteria air pollutants such as particle mass

  14. Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research.

    PubMed

    Delfino, Ralph J

    2002-08-01

    Outdoor ambient air pollutant exposures in communities are relevant to the acute exacerbation and possibly the onset of asthma. However, the complexity of pollutant mixtures and etiologic heterogeneity of asthma has made it difficult to identify causal components in those mixtures. Occupational exposures associated with asthma may yield clues to causal components in ambient air pollution because such exposures are often identifiable as single-chemical agents (e.g., metal compounds). However, translating occupational to community exposure-response relationships is limited. Of the air toxics found to cause occupational asthma, only formaldehyde has been frequently investigated in epidemiologic studies of allergic respiratory responses to indoor air, where general consistency can be shown despite lower ambient exposures. The specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified in association with occupational asthma are generally not the same as those in studies showing respiratory effects of VOC mixtures on nonoccupational adult and pediatric asthma. In addition, experimental evidence indicates that airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures linked to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have proinflammatory effects on airways, but there is insufficient supporting evidence from the occupational literature of effects of DEPs on asthma or lung function. In contrast, nonoccupational epidemiologic studies have frequently shown associations between allergic responses or asthma with exposures to ambient air pollutant mixtures with PAH components, including black smoke, high home or school traffic density (particularly truck traffic), and environmental tobacco smoke. Other particle-phase and gaseous co-pollutants are likely causal in these associations as well. Epidemiologic research on the relationship of both asthma onset and exacerbation to air pollution is needed to disentangle effects of air toxics from monitored criteria air pollutants such as particle mass

  15. Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory Front View with Nose Dropped for Takeoff and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A front view of the Tupolev Tu-144LL supersonic flying laboratory at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia. The plane's nose droops down for take off and landing and is then raised for high-speed flight. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different

  16. Unmanned air vehicle (UAV) ultra-persitence research

    SciTech Connect

    Dron, S. B.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Northrop Grumman Corporation Integrated Systems, Unmanned Systems (NGIS UMS) collaborated to further ultra-persistence technologies for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). The greatest shortfalls in UAV capabilities have been repeatedly identified as (1) insufficient flight persistence or 'hang time,' (2) marginal electrical power for running higher power avionics and payload systems, and (3) inadequate communications bandwidth and reach. NGIS UMS requested support from Sandia to develop an ultra-persistent propulsion and power system (UP3S) for potential incorporation into next generation UAV systems. The team members tried to determine which energy storage and power generation concepts could most effectively push UAV propulsion and electrical power capabilities to increase UAV sortie duration from days to months while increasing available electrical power at least two-fold. Primary research and development areas that were pursued included these goals: perform general system engineering and integration analyses; develop initial thermal and electrical power estimates; provide mass, volume, dimensional, and balance estimates; conduct preliminary safety assessments; assess logistics support requirements; perform, preliminary assessments of any security and safeguards; evaluate options for removal, replacement, and disposition of materials; generally advance the potential of the UP3S concept. The effort contrasted and compared eight heat sources technologies, three power conversion, two dual cycle propulsion system configurations, and a single electrical power generation scheme. Overall performance, specific power parameters, technical complexities, security, safety, and other operational features were successfully investigated. Large and medium sized UAV systems were envisioned and operational flight profiles were developed for each concept. Heat source creation and support challenges for domestic and expeditionary operations were

  17. Relationship between Trends in Land Precipitation and Tropical SST Gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Chul Eddy; Ramanathan, V.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we examined global zonal/annual mean precipitation trends. Land precipitation trend from 1951 to 2002 shows widespread drying between 10 S to 20 N but the trend from 1977 to 2002 shows partial recovery. Based on general circulation model sensitivity studies, we suggested that these features are driven largely by the meridional SST gradient trend in the tropics. Our idealized CCM3 experiments substantiated that land precipitation is more sensitive to meridional SST gradient than to an overall tropical warming. Various simulations produced for the IPCC 4th assessment report demonstrate that increasing CO2 increases SST in the entire tropics non-uniformly and increases land precipitation only in certain latitude belts, again pointing to the importance of SST gradient change. Temporally varying aerosols in the IPCC simulations alter meridional SST gradient and land precipitation substantially. Anthropogenic aerosol direct solar forcing without its effects on SST is shown by the CCM3 to have weak but non-negligible influence on land precipitation.

  18. Identifying and Investigating the Late-1960s Interhemispheric SST Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, A. R.; Lee, S. Y.; Liu, Y.; Chiang, J. C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The global north-south interhemispheric sea surface temperature (SST) difference experienced a pronounced and rapid decrease in the late 1960s, which has been linked to drying in the Sahel, South Asia, and East Asia. However, some basic questions about the interhemispheric SST shift remain unresolved, including its scale and whether the constituent changes in different basins were coordinated. In this study, we systematically investigate the spatial and temporal behavior of the late-1960s interhemispheric SST shift using ocean surface and subsurface observations. We also evaluate potential mechanisms using control and specific-forcing CMIP5 simulations. Using a regime shift detection technique, we identify the late-1960s shift as the most prominent in the historical observational SST record. We additionally examine the corresponding changes in upper-ocean heat content and salinity associated with the shift. We find that there were coordinated upper-ocean cooling and freshening in the subpolar North Atlantic, the region of the largest-magnitude SST decrease during the interhemispheric shift. These upper-ocean changes correspond to a weakened North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). However, the THC decrease does not fully account for the rapid global interhemispheric SST shift, particularly the warming in the extratropical Southern Hemisphere.

  19. Air pollution control system research: An iterative approach to developing affordable systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watt, Lewis C.; Cannon, Fred S.; Heinsohn, Robert J.; Spaeder, Timothy A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) funded project led jointly by the Marine Corps Multi-Commodity Maintenance Centers, and the Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) of the USEPA. The research focuses on paint booth exhaust minimization using recirculation, and on volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation by the modules of a hybrid air pollution control system. The research team is applying bench, pilot and full scale systems to accomplish the goals of reduced cost and improved effectiveness of air treatment systems for paint booth exhaust.

  20. Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative; Volume 5, Strategic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    Members of the Task HI (Strategic Evaluation) team were responsible for the development of a methodology to evaluate policies designed to alleviate air pollution in Mexico City. This methodology utilizes information from various reports that examined ways to reduce pollutant emissions, results from models that calculate the improvement in air quality due to a reduction in pollutant emissions, and the opinions of experts as to the requirements and trade-offs that are involved in developing a program to address the air pollution problem in Mexico City. The methodology combines these data to produce comparisons between different approaches to improving Mexico City`s air quality. These comparisons take into account not only objective factors such as the air quality improvement or cost of the different approaches, but also subjective factors such as public acceptance or political attractiveness of the different approaches. The end result of the process is a ranking of the different approaches and, more importantly, the process provides insights into the implications of implementing a particular approach or policy.

  1. The telescope control of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov telescope Array: hardware and software design architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolini, Elisa; Cascone, Enrico; Schwarz, Joseph; Stringhetti, Luca; Tanci, Claudio; Tosti, Gino; Aisa, Damiano; Aisa, Simone; Bagaglia, Marco; Busatta, Andrea; Campeggi, Carlo; Cefala, Marco; Farnesini, Lucio; Giacomel, Stefano; Marchiori, Gianpiero; Marcuzzi, Enrico; Nucciarelli, Giuliano; Piluso, Antonfranco

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Research and led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF). One of its aims is to develop, within the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) framework, an end-to-end small-sized telescope prototype in a dual-mirror configuration (SST-2M) in order to investigate the energy range E ~ 1-100 TeV. A long-term goal of the ASTRI program is the production of an ASTRI/CTA mini-array composed of seven SST-2M telescopes. The prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, is seen as a standalone system that needs only network and power connections to work. The software system that is being developed to control the prototype is the base for the Mini-Array Software System (MASS), which has the task to make possible the operation of both the ASTRI SST-2M prototype and the ASTRI/CTA mini-array. The scope of this contribution is to give an overview of the hardware and software architecture adopted for the ASTRI SST- 2M prototype, showing how to apply state of the art industrial technologies to telescope control and monitoring systems.

  2. Urban air pollution and atmospheric diffusion research in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Datong; Whitney, Joseph B.; Yap, David

    1987-11-01

    Air pollution has become a serious problem in China as a result of that country's efforts in the last 30 years to become a great industrial power. The burning of coal, which currently provides over 70% of all China's energy needs, is a major source of air pollution. Because Chinese coal is high in sulfur and ash content and because most combustion devices in China have low efficiencies, SO2 and particulate emissions are a serious problem and are comparable to or exceed those found in many countries that are much more industrialized. Although most coal is burned in North China, acid precipitation is most severe in South China because of the lack of buffering loess dust found in the former region. The Chinese government has already taken major steps to mitigate air pollution, such as relocating polluting industries, supplying coal with lower sulfur content, using gas instead of coal for residential heating, and levying fines on industries that exceed pollution standards. Atmospheric environmental impact assessment (AEIA) is also required for all major new projects. This article describes three types of mathematical diffusion models and field and wind-tunnel experiments that are used in such assessments. The Chinese authorities believe that a range of technological, managerial, locational, and behavioral changes must be effected before the air of Chinese cities can be significantly improved.

  3. Aluminum-air power cell research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.

    1984-12-01

    The wedge-shaped design, of the aluminum-air battery being developed, is mechanically simple and capable of full anode utilization and rapid full or partial recharge. To maintain constant interelectrode separation and to collect anodic current, the cell uses tin-coated copper tracks mounted on removable cassettes. Under gravity feed, slabs of aluminum enter the cell at a continuous and constant rate and gradually assume the wedge shape as they dissolve. Voltage losses at this tin-aluminum junction are 7 mV at 2 kA/m(2). A second-generation wedge cell incorporates air and electrolyte manifolding into individually replaceable air-cathode cassettes. Prototype wedge cells of one design were operated simultaneously with a fluidized-bed crystallizer, which stabilized aluminate concentration and produced a granular aluminum-trihydroxide reaction product. Electrolyte was circulated between the cell and crystallizer, and a hydrocyclone was used to retain particles larger than 0.015 mm within the crystallizer. Air electrodes were tested over simulated vehicle drive systems that include a standby phase in cold, supersaturated electrolyte.

  4. Role of the bomber in integrated air power. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, P.R.

    1988-05-01

    The role of bombers and the concept of strategic nuclear deterrence have become dysfunctionally linked. The Air Force fostered this linkage in the post-World War II and Korea era with its reliance on nuclear weapons and strategy of mutually assured destruction. Bombers continue to be a vital component of our nation's strategic nuclear-deterrent forces. However, bombers are not limited to deterring nuclear war. In addition to employing the first nuclear weapons, U.S. war fighting experience shows that bombers have played a crucial role in every major conflict beginning with World War II. Since our experience shows that we have historically employed bombers in a conventional role, the author suggests that we should be prepared to employ them across the spectrum of conflict today. Our experience also clearly shows that bombers have been best employed as an element of integrated air power, rarely as an independent force. Therefore, we should prepare to employ bombers as a member of an integrated air power team. The author also suggests that the concepts of tactical and strategic are ill-defined and serve to divide air power into organizations and forces. The author draws lessons from World War II and Vietnam experiences that could help guide our preparation for future conflicts.

  5. Future directions of meteorology related to air-quality research.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Nelson L

    2003-06-01

    Meteorology is one of the major factors contributing to air-pollution episodes. More accurate representation of meteorological fields has been possible in recent years through the use of remote sensing systems, high-speed computers and fine-mesh meteorological models. Over the next 5-20 years, better meteorological inputs for air quality studies will depend on making better use of a wealth of new remotely sensed observations in more advanced data assimilation systems. However, for fine mesh models to be successful, parameterizations used to represent physical processes must be redesigned to be more precise and better adapted for the scales at which they will be applied. Candidates for significant overhaul include schemes to represent turbulence, deep convection, shallow clouds, and land-surface processes. Improvements in the meteorological observing systems, data assimilation and modeling, coupled with advancements in air-chemistry modeling, will soon lead to operational forecasting of air quality in the US. Predictive capabilities can be expected to grow rapidly over the next decade. This will open the way for a number of valuable new services and strategies, including better warnings of unhealthy atmospheric conditions, event-dependent emissions restrictions, and now casting support for homeland security in the event of toxic releases into the atmosphere.

  6. Cookstoves Research: Improving Air Quality and Slowing Climate Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Household air pollution, mainly from solid-fuel cookstoves in the developing world, is estimated to cause approximately 4 million premature deaths per year, and emissions of black carbon and other pollutants from cookstoves affect regional and global climate. The Global Alliance...

  7. Improvements of satellite SST retrievals at full swath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Walton; Arnone, Robert; Cayula, Jean-François

    2013-06-01

    The ultimate goal of the prediction of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) from satellite data is to attain an accuracy of 0.3°K or better when compared to floating or drifting buoys located around the globe. Current daytime SST algorithms are able to routinely achieve an accuracy of 0.5°K for satellite zenith angles up to 53°. The full scan swath of VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) results in satellite zenith angles up to 70°, so that successful retrieval of SST from VIIRS at these higher angles would greatly increase global coverage. However, the accuracy of present SST algorithms steadily degrades to nearly 0.7°K as the satellite zenith angle reaches 70°, due mostly to the effects of increased atmospheric path length. We investigated the use of Tfield, a gap-free first guess temperature field used in NLSST, as a separate predictor to the MCSST algorithm in order to clearly evaluate its effects. Results of this new algorithm, TfieldSST, showed how its rms error is heavily dependent on the aggressiveness of the pre-filtering of buoy matchup data with respect to Tfield. It also illustrated the importance of fully exploiting the a priori satellite-only information contained in Tfield, presently tamed in the NLSST algorithm due to the fact that it shows up as a multiplier to another predictor. Preliminary results show that SST retrievals using TfieldSST could be obtained using the full satellite swath with a 30% improvement in accuracy at large satellite zenith angles and that a fairly aggressive pre-filtering scheme could help attain the desired accuracy of 0.3°K or better using over 75% of the buoy matchup data.

  8. Russian Tu-144LL SST Joint NASA Flying Laboratory - Flight November 29, 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The modified Tupolev Tu-144LL supersonic flying laboratory during a test flight from the Zhukovsky Airfield near Moscow, Russia. The 'LL' stands for Letayuschaya Laboratoriya, which means Flying Laboratory. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were

  9. Prediction of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall: A comparison of SST indices in the Indo-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschat, Ghyslaine; Terray, Pascal; Masson, Sébastien

    2010-05-01

    The focus of this study is to document and discuss the variability and predictability of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall at interannual time scales. Various SST indices have already been proposed in literature in order to understand the variability of ISM rainfall (Ashok et al. 2004; Goswami et al. 2005, Terray et al. 2007; Yang et al. 2007). However, the forecast skills and dynamics of these different indices have never been compared in detail. The present analysis is based on monthly mean rainfall fields from the CPC Merged Analysis of precipitation (CMAP), SST fields from the Hadley Centre Global Sea Surface Temperature data set (HadISST), and atmospheric data from NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2, for the period 1979-2007. Four SST indices are computed in different regions of the Indian and Pacific oceans - Nino3.4 SST index in December-January, South East Indian Ocean SST (SEIO) in February-March, the Indian Ocean Basin Mode (IOB) in April-May, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) averaged from September to November - and compared through composite analyses of SST and atmospheric fields, and correlation with ISM rainfall, onset and withdrawal. The results show that SEIO SSTs during late boreal winter or IOB SSTs during boreal spring are significant precursors for both the late ISM (August-September) and withdrawal of the monsoon, while the early part of the monsoon (June-July) and the monsoon onset are mostly influenced by a late ENSO withdrawal and equatorial Pacific variability during spring. Furthermore, correlation and regression analyses show that the IOB index is associated with the decay of ENSO events in one hand, while the SEIO index is linked to developing El Nino/La Nina episodes on the other. Despite different spatio-temporal definitions and relationships with ENSO, IOB and SEIO SSTs can thus both impact ISM rainfall, mainly through air-sea interactions within the Indian Ocean. With comparable predicting skills, the choice of the better index then hinges on

  10. Japanese GHRSST activities and the AMSR2 SST Validations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachi, Misako; Shibata, Akira; Murakami, Hiroshi; Imaoka, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) developed the Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) as optical imagers to observe sea surface temperature (SST) onboard the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) operated from 1996 to 1997, the Global Imager (GLI) onboard the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II) operated from 2002 to 2003, and is developing the Second generation Global Imager (SGLI), which will be carried by the first generation of the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) - Climate (GCOM-C1) scheduled to be launched in Japanese Fiscal Year (JFY) of 2016. JAXA also developed a series of passive microwave imagers that has C-band (6.9-GHz/7.2GHz) channel; the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) on board the ADEOS-II satellite; AMSR for EOS (AMSR-E) on board the NASA's EOS Aqua satellite; and the AMSR2 on board the first generation of the GCOM - Water (GCOM-W1) satellite. C-band channels on these instruments are indispensable for retrieving global SST and soil moisture through the clouds. All-weather and frequent measurements enables analyses of rapid changes of SST. The GCOM-W1 satellite was launched on May 18, 2012 (JST) and all AMSR2 standard products including SST have been released to public since May 2013. The AMSR2 SST product is validated by comparing with various buoy SST observations reported through the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) operated by World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Each match-up data will include AMSR2 footprints around buoy stations within radius of 30 km and 2 hours. Root mean square error (RMSE) between the AMSR2 and Buoy SSTs from July 3, 2012 to March 31, 3013 is 0.56 °C and correlation coefficient is 0.998. JAXA is operating the GHRSST server in Japan (http://suzaku.eorc.jaxa.jp/GHRSST/) to distribute SST products in GHRSST Data Specification (GDS) version 2.0 produced in JAXA. Currently, L2P and L3C SST products retrieved from AMSR2, AMSR-E, Windsat on board the Colioris

  11. Aluminum-air power cell research and development. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.

    1984-02-22

    An aluminum-air battery is under development with the objective of providing an electric vehicle with the range, acceleration and rapid refueling capability of common automobiles. From tested refuelable cell designs, a wedge-shaped cell was chosen for mechanical simplicity and for its capability of full anode utilization and rapid partial- or full-recharge. The cell uses tin-plated copper tracks to maintain a constant interelectrode separation and to collect anodic current. Rectangular slabs of aluminum enter the cell under gravity feed and gradually assume the wedge shape during dissolution. The feed is constant and continuous and tin/aluminum junction losses are 7 mV at 2 kA/m/sup 2/. A second generation wedge cell has been developed which incorporates air- and electrolyte-manifolding into individually-replaceable air-cathode cassettes. A prototype wedge cell using replaceable cassettes was operated simultaneously with a crystallizer, which stabilized aluminate concentration and produced a granular aluminum-trihydroxide reaction product. Electrolyte was circulated between cell and fluidized-bed crystallizer, and particles of sizes greater than 0.015 mm were retained within the crystallizer using a hydrocyclone. Air electrodes have been tested over simulated vehicle drive cycles. Electrodes using advanced sintering and wet-proofing techniques and catalyzed with a non-noble metal catalyst (CoTMPP) have been operated for over 1400 drive-cycles. Fuel costs of $1.72/kg-Al (installed) were estimated on the basis of model alloy production and distribution costs, leading to a projected operating cost of 8-10 cents/mile, depending on alloy and vehicle drive-train efficiencies. Unalloyed aluminum yields a peak of 4.5 kWh/kg, while an advanced industrial Hall Process and the pilot-plant Alcoa Smelting Process have electrical energy consumptions of 11.3- and 8.3 kWh/kg, respectively.

  12. Aluminum-air power cell research and development progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.

    1984-12-01

    The wedge-shaped cell design, of the aluminum-air battery being developed, is mechanically simple and capable of full anode utilization and rapid full or partial recharge. To maintain constant interelectrode separation and to collect anodic current, the cell uses tin-coated copper tracks mounted on removable cassettes. Under gravity feed, slabs of aluminum enter the cell at a continuous and constant rate and gradually assume the wedge shape as they dissolve. Voltage losses at this tin-aluminum junction are 7 mV at 2 kA/m/sup 2/. A second-generation wedge cell incorporates air and electrolyte manifolding into individually replaceable air-cathode cassettes. Prototype wedge cells of one design were operated simultaneously with a fluidized-bed crystallizer, which stabilized aluminate concentration and produced a granular aluminum-trihydroxide reaction product. Electrolyte was circulated between the cell and crystallizer, and a hydrocyclone was used to retain particles larger than 0.015 mm within the crystallizer. Air electrodes were tested over simulated vehicle drive systems that include a standby phase in cold, supersaturated electrolyte. Electrodes using advanced sintering and wet-proofing techniques and catalyzed with a nonnoble metal catalyst have been operated over 1500 cycles (a two-year drive life). The fuel costs of aluminum were estimated on the basis of model alloy production and distribution costs, leading to a projected operating cost of 8 to 10 cents per mile, depending on alloy and vehicle drive-train efficiencies. While unalloyed aluminum has a peak electrical energy consumption of 4.5 kWh/kg, the Hall and Alcoa processes consume 11.3 and 8.3 kWh/kg, respectively. The significance of these and other energy-use estimates for the 1990s and beyond is discussed.

  13. Decadal-Interdecadal SST Variability and Regional Climate Teleconnections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.; Weng, H.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Dominant modes of decadal and interdecadal SST variability and their impacts on summertime rainfall variability over East Asia and the North America are studied. Two dominant modes of interdecadal SST variability, one associated with El Nino-like warming in the global oceans and one with an east-west seesaw variation in the equatorial Pacific have been identified. The first mode is associated in part with a long-term warming trend in the topical oceans and cooling over the northern Pacific. The second mode suggests an westward shift and strengthening of the Walker circulation from 1960s to the 1980s. Over East Asian, the first SST mode is correlated with reduced rainfall in northern China and excessive rainfall in central China. This SST mode is also associated with the tendency for increased rainfall over the midwest region, and reduced rainfall over the east Coast of the US. The results suggest a teleconnection pattern which links the occurrences of drought and floods over the Asian monsoon and the US summertime time climate. This teleconnection is likely to be associated with decadal variability of the East Asian jetstream, which are affected by strong land surface heating over the Siberian region, as well as El Nino-like SST forcings. The occurrences of major droughts and floods in the East Asian and US continent in recent decades are discussed in light of the above teleconnection patterns.

  14. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Charlene W.; Crow, Sidney A.; Fischer, John

    Research show that one in five U.S. schools has indoor air quality (IAQ) problems; 36 percent have inadequate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; and there appears to be a correlation between IAQs and the proportion of a school's students coming from low-income households. This report examines the IAQ issue in U.S. public…

  15. INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND FURNITURE PROCUREMENT IN EPA'S NEW RESEARCH TRIANGLE CAMPUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses various aspects of the EPA's new 1.2 million square foot building in Research Triangle Park that pertain to indoor air, with a particular focus on the process EPA used to select furniture to meet its indoor air guidelines. In keeping with its mission of protec...

  16. Aluminum-air power cell research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.

    1984-02-01

    An aluminum-air battery is under development with the objective of providing an electric vehicle with the range, acceleration and rapid refueling capability of common automobiles. From tested refuelable cell designs, a wedge-shaped cell was chosen for mechanical simplicity and for its capability of full anode utilization and rapid partial- or full-recharge. The cell uses tin-plated copper tracks to maintain a constant interelectrode separation and to collect anodic current. Rectangular slabs of aluminum enter the cell under gravity feed and gradually assume the wedge shape during dissolution. The feed is constant and continuous and tin/aluminum junction losses are 7 mV at 2 kA/m(2). A second generation wedge cell was developed which incorporates air- and electrolyte-manifolding into individually-replaceable air-cathode cassettes. A prototype wedge cell using replaceable cassettes was operated simultaneously with a crystallizer, which stabilized aluminate concentration and produced a granular aluminum-trihydroxide reaction product. Electrolyte was circulated between cell and fluidized-bed crystallizer, and particles of sizes greater than 0.015 mm were retained within the crystallizer using a hydrocyclone.

  17. Extratropical North Atlantic SST influence on Sahel rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Chiang, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    We present evidence suggesting that the late 1960's Sahel drought was linked to an abrupt cooling in the extratropical North Atlantic, whose influence was then propagated to the Sahel by atmospheric teleconnection. Such linkages have been observed in paleoclimate during abrupt climate changes of the last glacial period. They have also occurred in coupled model simulations of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) slowdown, the latter being the leading cause of said paleoclimate abrupt changes. The AMOC-slowdown simulations show a characteristic global pattern of climate changes, including a northern hemispheric-wide cooling and increased surface pressure, and weakening of the West African and Asian monsoons. We show that an observed northern-hemispheric pattern of changes, resembling the AMOC slowdown, occurred during the late 1960's, co-incident with the Sahel drought. A combined principal component analysis of 20th century surface temperature, sea level pressure and precipitation extracts a leading mode whose spatial pattern closely resemble the impacts of AMOC slowdown. A similar analysis of AMIP-type simulations forced by 20th century observed forcings shows a similar result, suggesting that the origins of the climate change reside in SST changes, in particular over extratropical North Atlantic. Taken together, the results suggests the influence of extratropical North Atlantic cooling on the 20th century Sahel drought, and a teleconnection pathway through surface/tropospheric cooling. Motivated by our observational result, we investigated atmospheric teleconnection mechanisms of extratropical North Atlantic cooling in an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) coupled with slab ocean. Our results indicate the central role of tropospheric cooling in communicating the influence on the Sahel. We explicitly show this using regional climate model simulation of the Sahel, with air temperature and associated humidity anomalies from the GCM simulation

  18. Validation and optimization of SST k-ω turbulence model for pollutant dispersion within a building array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hesheng; Thé, Jesse

    2016-11-01

    The prediction of the dispersion of air pollutants in urban areas is of great importance to public health, homeland security, and environmental protection. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) emerges as an effective tool for pollutant dispersion modelling. This paper reports and quantitatively validates the shear stress transport (SST) k-ω turbulence closure model and its transitional variant for pollutant dispersion under complex urban environment for the first time. Sensitivity analysis is performed to establish recommendation for the proper use of turbulence models in urban settings. The current SST k-ω simulation is validated rigorously by extensive experimental data using hit rate for velocity components, and the "factor of two" of observations (FAC2) and fractional bias (FB) for concentration field. The simulation results show that current SST k-ω model can predict flow field nicely with an overall hit rate of 0.870, and concentration dispersion with FAC2 = 0.721 and FB = 0.045. The flow simulation of the current SST k-ω model is slightly inferior to that of a detached eddy simulation (DES), but better than that of standard k-ε model. However, the current study is the best among these three model approaches, when validated against measurements of pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere. This work aims to provide recommendation for proper use of CFD to predict pollutant dispersion in urban environment.

  19. Evaluating Membrane Processes for Air Conditioning; Highlights in Research and Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This NREL Highlight discusses a recent state-of-the-art review of membrane processes for air conditioning that identifies future research opportunities. This highlight is being developed for the June 2015 S&T Alliance Board meeting.

  20. Automated Aerodynamic Optimization System for SST Wing-Body Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Daisuke; Yang, Guowei; Obayashi, Shigeru

    In this paper, wing-body configurations for a next generation Supersonic Transport are designed by means of Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms. SST wing-body configurations are designed to reduce the aerodynamic drag and the sonic boom for supersonic flight. To lower the sonic boom intensity, the present objective function is to satisfy the equivalent area distribution for low sonic boom proposed by Darden. Wing and fuselage is defined by 131 design variables and optimized at the same time. Structured multiblock grids around SST wing-body configuration are generated automatically and an Euler solver is used to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of SST wing-body configuration. Compromised solutions are found as Pareto solutions. Although they have a variety of fuselage configurations, all of them have a similar wing planform due to the imposed constraints. The present results imply that a lifting surface should be distributed innovatively to match Darden’s distribution for low boom.

  1. Coastal and Oceanic SST variability along the western Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, F.; Gómez Gesteira, M.; Decastro, M.; Álvarez, I.

    2010-09-01

    Trends in coastal and oceanic Sea Surface Temperature (SST) were analyzed along the western Iberian Peninsula for the period 1900-2008. SST data were obtained from the UK Meteorological Office, Hadley Centre (http://badc.nerc.ac.uk/data/hadisst). Nodes were distributed on a 1°x1° grid with monthly periodicity. Twelve points were considered from 37°N to 43°N, six at coastal locations (9°W) and six at oceanic locations (14°W). SST has undergone several periods of warming and cooling during the last century. In particularly, two warming periods (from 1900 to 1955 and from 1970 to 2008), and one cooling period (from 1955 to 1975). In addition, the increment of SSTSST) has been calculated as the SST difference between coastal and ocean locations at the same latitude. This parameter has been used by some authors to characterize the upwelling (Nykjaer & VanCamp, 1994). In the inter-annual evolution of the average of ΔSST: two of increase (from 1920 to 1950 and from 1980 to 2008) and one of decrease (from 1950 to 1980). The same study was carried out seasonally. Three seasons were selected according to the periods of high, moderate or low ΔSST: November-February (NDJF); March-June (MAMJ) and July-October (JASO). The greatest differences between coast and ocean were observed during JASO and lowest ones during MAMJ. Negative values were detected during the whole year being more negative from July to September coinciding with the upwelling season (Alvarez et al., 2005). The seasonal ΔSST shows the same increase and decrease cycles as the annual ΔSST evolution. SST patterns showed that warming and cooling trends were less intense near coast than in the ocean. The possible causes of this behavior were analyzed. If the mechanism described by Bakun (1990) and McGregor et al., (2007) is assumed, coastal upwelling is revealed as the main cause of this behavior. On the contrary, when upwelling index evolution is calculated from wind data, coastal upwelling is not

  2. Thirty years of research and development of air cushion vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertelsen, William R.

    This paper describes the conception of the air cushion vehicle (ACV) from experiments with the ground effect of a VTOL aircraft model. Then it describes the evolution of the ultimate ACV drive system through building and testing many models and 16 full-scale ACV to arrive at complete controllability. Adequate control of the frictionless craft, which are without inherent yaw stability, requires control force of the order of magnitude of propulsion. The derived gimbal fans provide such control force in the form of direct thrust, which is instantly available in any of 360 degrees, meterable, instantly cancelable, and reversible.

  3. Influence of SST biases on future climate change projections

    SciTech Connect

    Ashfaq, Moetasim; Skinner, Chris B; Cherkauer, Keith

    2010-01-01

    We use a quantile-based bias correction technique and a multi-member ensemble of the atmospheric component of NCAR CCSM3 (CAM3) simulations to investigate the influence of sea surface temperature (SST) biases on future climate change projections. The simulations, which cover 1977 1999 in the historical period and 2077 2099 in the future (A1B) period, use the CCSM3-generated SSTs as prescribed boundary conditions. Bias correction is applied to the monthly time-series of SSTs so that the simulated changes in SST mean and variability are preserved. Our comparison of CAM3 simulations with and without SST correction shows that the SST biases affect the precipitation distribution in CAM3 over many regions by introducing errors in atmospheric moisture content and upper-level (lower-level) divergence (convergence). Also, bias correction leads to significantly different precipitation and surface temperature changes over many oceanic and terrestrial regions (predominantly in the tropics) in response to the future anthropogenic increases in greenhouse forcing. The differences in the precipitation response from SST bias correction occur both in the mean and the percent change, and are independent of the ocean atmosphere coupling. Many of these differences are comparable to or larger than the spread of future precipitation changes across the CMIP3 ensemble. Such biases can affect the simulated terrestrial feedbacks and thermohaline circulations in coupled climate model integrations through changes in the hydrological cycle and ocean salinity. Moreover, biases in CCSM3-generated SSTs are generally similar to the biases in CMIP3 ensemble mean SSTs, suggesting that other GCMs may display a similar sensitivity of projected climate change to SST errors. These results help to quantify the influence of climate model biases on the simulated climate change, and therefore should inform the effort to further develop approaches for reliable climate change projection.

  4. Observations of SST diurnal variability in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Qianguang; Pan, Delu; Hao, Zengzhou; Chen, Jianyu

    2015-10-01

    In this study, a 3-hourly time resolution gap free sea surface temperature (SST) analysis is generated to resolve the diurnal cycle in the South China Sea (SCS, 0°-25°N, 100°-125°E).It takes advantage of hourly geostationary satellite MTSAT observations and combines three infrared and two microwave polar satellite observations at different local times. First, all the data are classified into eight SST datasets at 3 hour intervals and then remapped to 0.05°resolution grids. A series of critical quality control is done to remove the outliers.Then bias adjustment is applied to the polar satellite observations with reference to the MTSAT data. Finally, the six satellites SST data are blended by using the optimal interpolated algorithm. The 3-hourly blended SST is compared against buoy measurements. It shows a good agreement that the biases do not exceed 0.2 °C and root mean square errors range from 0.5 to 0.65 °C. A typical diurnal cycle similar to sine wave is observed. The minimum SST occurs at around 0600h and warming peak occurring between 1300h and 1500h local solar time and then decrease in the late afternoon, tapering off at night on March 13, 2008 for example. The frequency of diurnal warming events derived from four years of the blended SST provides solid statistics to investigate the seasonal and spatial distributions of the diurnal warming in the SCS. The sea surface diurnal warming tends to appear more easily in spring, especially in the coastal regions than other seasons and the central regions.

  5. Aeronautical Communications Research and Development Needs for Future Air Traffic Management Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Continuing growth in regional and global air travel has resulted in increasing traffic congestion in the air and on the ground. In spite of occasional temporary downturns due to economic recessions and catastrophic events, average growth rates of air travel have remained high since the 1960s. The resulting congestion, which constrains expansion of the air transportation industry, inflicts schedule delays and decreases overall system efficiency, creating a pressing need to develop more efficient methods of air traffic management (ATM). New ATM techniques, procedures, air space automation methods, and decision support tools are being researched and developed for deployment in time frames stretching from the next few years to the year 2020 and beyond. As these methods become more advanced and increase in complexity, the requirements for information generation, sharing and transfer among the relevant entities in the ATM system increase dramatically. However, current aeronautical communications systems will be inadequate to meet the future information transfer demands created by these advanced ATM systems. Therefore, the NASA Glenn Research Center is undertaking research programs to develop communication, methods and key technologies that can meet these future requirements. As part of this process, studies, workshops, testing and experimentation, and research and analysis have established a number of research and technology development needs. The purpose of this paper is to outline the critical research and technology needs that have been identified in these activities, and explain how these needs have been determined.

  6. Particulate Air Pollution in Mexico City: A Collaborative Research Project

    SciTech Connect

    Edgerton, Sylvia A.; Bian, Xindi; Doran, J C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Hubbe, John M.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Shaw, William J.; Whiteman, Charles D.; Zhong, Shiyuan; Arriaga, J. L.; Ortiz, E.; Ruiz, M.; Sosa, G.; Vega, E.; Limon, T.; Guzman, F.; Archuleta, J.; Bossert, J. E.; Elliott, S.; Lee, J. T.; McNair, L. A.; Chow, J. C.; Watson, J. G.; Coulter, R. L.; Doskey, P. V.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Neff, W.; Petty, R.

    1999-10-01

    PM10, PM2.5, precursor gas, and upper-air meteorological measurements were taken in Mexico City, Mexico, from February 23 to March 22, 1997, to understand concentrations and chemical compositions of the city's particulate matter (PM). Average 24-hr PM10 concentrations over the period of study at the core sites in the city were 75 micrograms/m3. The 24-hr standard of 150 micrograms/m3 was exceeded for seven samples taken during the study period; the maximum 24-hr concentration measured was 542 micrograms/m3. Nearly half of the PM10 was composed of fugitive dust from roadways, construction, and bare land. About 50% of the PM10 consisted of PM2.5, with higher percentages during the morning hours. Organic and black carbon constituted up to half of the PM2.5. PM concentrations were highest during the early morning and after sunset, when the mixed layers were shallow. Meteorological measurements taken during the field campaign show that on most days air was transported out of the Mexico City basin during the afternoon with little day-to-day carryover.

  7. FLAMMABLE GAS DIFFUSION THROUGH SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) DOMES

    SciTech Connect

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2003-11-10

    This report quantified potential hydrogen diffusion through Hanford Site Single-Shell tank (SST) domes if the SSTs were hypothetically sealed airtight. Results showed that diffusion would keep headspace flammable gas concentrations below the lower flammability limit in the 241-AX and 241-SX SST. The purpose of this document is to quantify the amount of hydrogen that could diffuse through the domes of the SSTs if they were hypothetically sealed airtight. Diffusion is assumed to be the only mechanism available to reduce flammable gas concentrations. The scope of this report is limited to the 149 SSTs.

  8. Land Surface Process and Air Quality Research and Applications at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale; Khan, Maudood

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of land surface process and air quality research at MSFC including atmospheric modeling and ongoing research whose objective is to undertake a comprehensive spatiotemporal analysis of the effects of accurate land surface characterization on atmospheric modeling results, and public health applications. Land use maps as well as 10 meter air temperature, surface wind, PBL mean difference heights, NOx, ozone, and O3+NO2 plots as well as spatial growth model outputs are included. Emissions and general air quality modeling are also discussed.

  9. Survey of Training Research in AFOSR: Implications for Manpower and Training Research for the All-Volunteer Air Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Clyde E.

    The AFOSR research plan calls for fundamental studies in human learning and performance that would provide the foundations for general laws of learning applicable to Air Force problems. The report describes gaps in research that should be eliminated by investigations in specific fields. Studies of individual and group differences in aptitude and…

  10. Open Air Laboratories (OPAL): a community-driven research programme.

    PubMed

    Davies, L; Bell, J N B; Bone, J; Head, M; Hill, L; Howard, C; Hobbs, S J; Jones, D T; Power, S A; Rose, N; Ryder, C; Seed, L; Stevens, G; Toumi, R; Voulvoulis, N; White, P C L

    2011-01-01

    OPAL is an English national programme that takes scientists into the community to investigate environmental issues. Biological monitoring plays a pivotal role covering topics of: i) soil and earthworms; ii) air, lichens and tar spot on sycamore; iii) water and aquatic invertebrates; iv) biodiversity and hedgerows; v) climate, clouds and thermal comfort. Each survey has been developed by an inter-disciplinary team and tested by voluntary, statutory and community sectors. Data are submitted via the web and instantly mapped. Preliminary results are presented, together with a discussion on data quality and uncertainty. Communities also investigate local pollution issues, ranging from nitrogen deposition on heathlands to traffic emissions on roadside vegetation. Over 200,000 people have participated so far, including over 1000 schools and 1000 voluntary groups. Benefits include a substantial, growing database on biodiversity and habitat condition, much from previously unsampled sites particularly in urban areas, and a more engaged public.

  11. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.

  12. Technology base research on zinc/air battery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierraalcazar, H. B.; Nguyen, P. D.; Pinoli, A. A.

    1987-09-01

    The capacity extension of additives was tested in a 200 cmbi-cell and a Zn powder moving-bed slurry. It was found that for the Type A additives in 12 M KOH, 25 g/l of silicate provided higher capacity than stannate, titanate and aluminate additives. The optimum concentration of sorbitol (a Type B additive that stabilizes polymeric chains involving ZnO) was found to be 15 g/l in 12 M KOH. A silicate and sorbitol combination added to Zn powder slurry in 12 M KOH provided a 20 percent increase in discharge capacity (195 Ah/l at 200 A/cm) compared to the maximum capacity obtained with silicate alone. A much lower capacity (74 Ah/l) was realized with silicate as Type C additive (precipitation of ZnO away from the Zn surface, for low KOH concentrations). The mechanisms of passivation and capacity extension were discussed and a model presented. The cell voltage and power densities were determined for the discharge process as a function of: (1) current densities, (2) cathode depolarizer (air or oxygen), and (3) type of slurry (Zn powder or Zn coated polymeric bead). Air depolarization was observed to decrease the maximum power densities of both slurry types. The power densities obtained with Zn powder slurries were higher at all current densities investigated than those obtained with Zn coated polymeric beads (Zn-powder peak power densities more than doubled peak power densities obtained with Zn coated polymeric beads). The recharge process was studied with a planar electrode and with a rotating cylinder electrode. The current efficiency and cathode potentials were determined for glassy carbon and Mg cathodes. The dendritic Zn deposits were mechanically removed from the rotating cylinder electrode with fixed blades. Mechanical removal proved to be unsatisfactory in the embodiment investigated due to preferential dendritic growth on the baldes. Further investigations of discharge cell designs are underway.

  13. ASBESTOS EXPOSURE RESEARCH - AIR, SOIL AND BULK MATERIAL SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presently, asbestos and other mineral fibers are monitored in the workplace and in the environment using several basic analytical techniques, based primarily upon observing the fiber by either optical or electron microscopy. EPA is conducting research to determine which sampling ...

  14. Using full-mission simulation for human factors research in air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlady, Harry W.; Hennessy, Robert W.; Obermayer, Richard; Vreuls, Donald; Murphy, Miles R.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined state-of-the-art mission oriented simulation and its use in human factors research. Guidelines were developed for doing full-mission human factors research on crew member behavior during simulated air transport operations. The existing literature was reviewed. However, interviews with experienced investigators provided the most useful information. The fundamental scientific and practical issues of behavioral research in a simulation environment are discussed. Guidelines are presented for planning, scenario development, and the execution of behavioral research using full-mission simulation in the context of air transport flight operations . Research is recommended to enhance the validity and productivity of full-mission research by: (1) validating the need for high-fidelity simulation of all major elements in the operational environment, (2) improving methods for conducting full-mission research, and (3) examining part-task research on specific problems through the use of vehicles which contain higher levels of abstraction (and lower fidelity) of the operational environment.

  15. Research on Using the Naturally Cold Air and the Snow for Data Center Air-conditioning, and Humidity Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Kunikazu; Tano, Shunichi; Ichino, Junko

    To lower power consumption has becomes a worldwide concern. It is also becoming a bigger area in Computer Systems, such as reflected by the growing use of software-as-a-service and cloud computing whose market has increased since 2000, at the same time, the number of data centers that accumulates and manages the computer has increased rapidly. Power consumption at data centers is accounts for a big share of the entire IT power usage, and is still rapidly increasing. This research focuses on the air-conditioning that occupies accounts for the biggest portion of electric power consumption by data centers, and proposes to develop a technique to lower the power consumption by applying the natural cool air and the snow for control temperature and humidity. We verify those effectiveness of this approach by the experiment. Furthermore, we also examine the extent to which energy reduction is possible when a data center is located in Hokkaido.

  16. SST-1 Gas feed and Gas Exhaust system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raval, Dilip C.; Khan, Ziauddin; Thankey, Prashant L.; Dhanani, Kalpesh R.; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Semwal, Pratibha; George, Siju; Yuvakiran, Paravastu; Manthena, Himabindu; Pradhan, Subrata

    2012-11-01

    SST-1 tokamak is a long pulse tokamak designed for the plasma operation up to 1000 sec duration. Gas feed system and gas exhaust management will play a very crucial role during plasma discharge. During the different type of operations of tokamak like wall conditioning, diverter operation and neutral beam injection, a large amount of gas will be fed into the vacuum chamber at different locations. Also during plasma operations, the gas will be fed both in continues and pulse mode. Gas feed will be carried out mainly using piezo-electric valves controlled by PXI based data acquisition and control system. Such operations will lead to a huge amount gas exhaust by the main system which requires good exhaust facility to searches, great care should be taken in constructing both. Also initial pumping of cryostat and vacuum vessel of SST-1 will release a large amount of gas. Exhausted gases from SST -1 will be Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Mixture gases or some toxic gases. Dedicated exhaust system controlling the different gases are installed. Special treatment of hazardous/explosive gases is done before releasing to the atmosphere. This paper describes design and implementations of the complete gas feed and exhaust system of SST-1.

  17. The effect of SST emissions on the earth's ozone layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, R. C.; Turco, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    The work presented here is directed toward assessment of environmental effects of the supersonic transport (SST). The model used for the purpose includes vertical eddy transport and the photochemistry of the O-H-N system. It is found that the flight altitude has a pronounced effect on ozone depletion. The largest ozone reduction occurs for NO deposition above an altitude of 20 km.

  18. Impact of new technology weapons on SAC (Strategic Air Command) conventional air operations. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodenheimer, C.E.

    1983-06-01

    Chapter I introduces the issue of conventional-response capability. The point stressed first is that the strategic bomber's primary mission is in support of the single integrated operations plan (SIOP) as a nuclear weapons delivery vehicle. However, as cited by Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, we must have a rapid deployment conventional capability to areas where there are small if any U.S. forces present. The SAC strategic projection force (SPF) is available but with gravity weapons of World War II vintage. New technology can provide answers to the problem by providing highly accurate long-range conventional standoff weapons. Chapter II gives a basic historical perspective on the use of the strategic bomber in past wars. It discusses the development of strategy, weapons, and targets in World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. Chapter III presents a very brief look at current US policy, strategy, and guidance. Chapter IV covers the aircraft attrition issue in today's highly lethal defensive environment. Chapter V describes the development of air-to-ground weapons. Chapter VI addresses the potential for the future in the shifting balance of Soviet and US technology. The final chapter makes the point that a decision must be made on weapons-acquisition programs and bomber force structure. New technology-standoff conventional weapons could make AAA and SAM defenses a modern Maginot Line.

  19. Catastrophe Theory in Higher Education Research. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staman, E. Michael

    The applicability of catastrophe theory to research in higher education is considered, with several problems that typically appear in the literature presented in a theoretical framework. A catastrophe model is attempted for each. The nature of mathematical modeling and the relationship between modeling continuous systems and discontinuous systems…

  20. Assessment of SMOS Salinity and SST in the Aegean Sea (Greece) and correlations with MODIS SST measurements. Exploring the SSS and SST correlation to 137Cs inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykioti, Olga; Florou, Heleni

    2014-05-01

    A program concept has been developed to utilize sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea surface temperature (SST) information for the inventory of artificial radionuclides, which are conservative and part of the sea salinity. As a pilot study, activity concentrations of 137Cs in the Aegean Sea (Greece) are combined to SMOS and other satellite data so as to develop an innovative tool for the remote radioactivity detection either for routine observations and emergency recordings. The presented first results are a part of an effort to attempt for the integration in space and time of field measurements to the respective satellite observations of salinity variations by model simulations, which might be also applicable for the prediction of the radiological impact of potential accidental events. The presented results involve the first assessment of SMOS SSS and SST measurements over the Aegean Sea. SMOS measurements are averaged over a surface of 40x40 sq km at an average distance of 100 km from the coastline. For this reason, totally thirty nine pixels from SMOS Level 2 data cover part of the Aegean Sea. Two time series are created that include all available measurements spanning December 2011 to current date, from descending and ascending passes, each one representing an acquisition frequency of about three days. The average SSS values in the Aegean Sea are 37-38psu following no distinct seasonal pattern. A general trend of increasing values is observed from north to south. Noise and uncertainty in the measurements are most probably due to land and RFI contamination. High island density is combined with radiofrequency interferences generated by illegal man-made emissions. The latter is a detected common issue in specific areas worldwide, such as the Mediterranean Sea. On the other hand, SST follows a clear typical seasonal variation pattern with maximum values observed in August and minimum ones around March and a general trend of increasing values from north to south

  1. Local-Scale Air Quality Modeling in Support of Human Health and Exposure Research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakov, V.

    2010-12-01

    Spatially- and temporally-sparse information on air quality is a key concern for air-pollution-related environmental health studies. Monitor networks are sparse in both space and time, are costly to maintain, and are often designed purposely to avoid detecting highly localized sources. Recent studies have shown that more narrowly defining the geographic domain of the study populations and improvements in the measured/estimated ambient concentrations can lead to stronger associations between air pollution and hospital admissions and mortality records. Traditionally, ambient air quality measurements have been used as a primary input to support human health and exposure research. However, there is increasing evidence that the current ambient monitoring network is not capturing sharp gradients in exposure due to the presence of high concentration levels near, for example, major roadways. Many air pollutants exhibit large concentration gradients near large emitters such as major roadways, factories, ports, etc. To overcome these limitations, researchers are now beginning to use air quality models to support air pollution exposure and health studies. There are many advantages to using air quality models over traditional approaches based on existing ambient measurements alone. First, models can provide spatially- and temporally-resolved concentrations as direct input to exposure and health studies and thus better defining the concentration levels for the population in the geographic domain. Air quality models have a long history of use in air pollution regulations, and supported by regulatory agencies and a large user community. Also, models can provide bidirectional linkages between sources of emissions and ambient concentrations, thus allowing exploration of various mitigation strategies to reduce risk to exposure. In order to provide best estimates of air concentrations to support human health and exposure studies, model estimates should consider local-scale features

  2. FAA/NASA Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research 1994-1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    The Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research (JUP) is a coordinated set of three grants co-sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Under JUP, three institutions: the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton, and Ohio Universities receive research grants and collaborate with FAA and NASA in defining and performing civil aeronautics research in a multitude of areas. Some of these disciplines are artificial intelligence, control theory, atmospheric hazards, navigation, avionics, human factors, flight dynamics, air traffic management, and electronic communications.

  3. Review and Implications of Job Satisfaction and Work Motivation Theories for Air Force Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Thomas C.; Hazel, Joe T.

    The purpose of this report is to: (a) review certain major theories of work motivation, particularly as related to job satisfaction, (b) distill from such theories and other research, implications for an Air Force job satisfaction research program, and (c) provide a comprehensive bibliography of satisfaction/retention studies. The theoretical…

  4. HUMAN EXPOSURE AIR MONITORING: EXAMPLES FROM THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US-EPA and North Carolina Central University (NCCU) have a cross-pollination agenda to help share research opportunities between the two institutions. This presentation provides NCCU with an understanding of current air monitoring research the US EPA is involved in and some o...

  5. Bibliography of the Occupational Research Division, Air Force Human Resources Laboratory (AFSC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Joann R., Ed.; Giorgia, M. Joyce, Ed.

    The report presents an unclassified, unlimited bibliography of technical reports and other publications on research conducted by the Occupational Research Division, Air Force Human Resources Laboratory (AFHRL). The cited references cover the period July 1957, to March 1974, and are compiled chronologically by year and within the year. The mission…

  6. The role of anomalous SST over the Southeastern North Atlantic in the explosive development of winter storm Xynthia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Patrick; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Reyers, Mark; Gray, Suzanne L.

    2014-05-01

    In late February 2010 the extraordinary winter storm Xynthia affected parts of western Europe and caused severe damage. The storm was embedded in an uncommon large-scale atmospheric and boundary conditions prior and during its development, namely the enhanced sea surface temperatures (SST) within the entrainment zone of air masses, the unusual southerly position of the polar jet stream, and a remarkable split jet struc-ture in the upper troposphere. To analyse the processes that lead to the rapid intensifi-cation of this exceptional far southern originating storm (30°N), sensitivity studies re-garding the role of the SSTs and latent heat release are carried out with the regional cli-mate model COSMO-CLM. A control simulation with realistic observed SST shows that moist and warm air masses originating from the subtropical North Atlantic are involved to the cyclogenesis process and lead to the formation of a vertical tower of high potential vorticity (PV). Sensitivity studies with reduced SST or suppressed latent heat release reveal a weaker and partly retarded development of the cyclone, and a weakening of the PV-tower. The results indicate that diabatic processes have played a crucial role during the phase of rapid deepening and to the resulting deep core pressure of Xynthia.

  7. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1990-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    The goals of this program are consistent with the interests of both NASA and the FAA in furthering the safety and efficiency of the National Airspace System. Research carried out at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Ohio University, and Princeton University are covered. Topics studied include passive infrared ice detection for helicopters, the cockpit display of hazardous windshear information, fault detection and isolation for multisensor navigation systems, neural networks for aircraft system identification, and intelligent failure tolerant control.

  8. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: prototype technologies goals and strategies for the future SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchiori, Gianpietro; Busatta, Andrea; Giacomel, Stefano; Folla, Ivan; Valsecchi, Marco; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Cascone, Enrico; Conconi, Paolo; Fiorini, Mauro; Giro, Enrico; La Palombara, Nicola; Pareschi, Giovanni; Perri, Luca; Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Sironi, Giorgia; Stringhetti, Luca; Toso, Giorgio; Tosti, Gino; Pellicciari, Carlo

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory will represent the next generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope. Using a combination of large-, medium-, and small-scale telescopes (LST, MST, SST, respectively), it will explore the Very High Energy domain from a few tens of GeVup to about few hundreds of TeV with unprecedented sensitivity, angular resolution and imaging quality. In this framework, the Italian ASTRI program, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) developed a 4-meter class telescope, which will adopt an aplanatic, wide-field, double-reflection optical layout in a Schwarzschild- Couder configuration. Within this program INAF assigned to the consortium between Galbiati Group and EIE Group the construction, assembly and tests activities of the prototype named ASTRI SST-2M. On the basis of the lesson learnt from the prototype, other telescopes will be produced, starting from a re-design phase, in order to optimize performances and the overall costs and production schedule for the CTA-SST telescope. This paper will firstly give an overview of the concept for the SST prototype mount structure. In this contest, the technologies adopted for the design, manufacturing and tests of the entire system will be presented. Moreover, a specific focus on the challenges of the prototype and the strategies associated with it will be provided, in order to outline the near future performance goals for this type of Cherenkov telescopes employed for Gamma ray science.

  9. Evaluation of ocean data assimilation in CAS-ESM-C: Constraining the SST field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiao; Lin, Renping; Zhu, Jiang; Lu, Zeting

    2016-07-01

    A weakly coupled assimilation system, in which SST observations are assimilated into a coupled climate model (CASESM-C) through an ensemble optimal interpolation scheme, was established. This system is a useful tool for historical climate simulation, showing substantial advantages, including maintaining the atmospheric feedback, and keeping the oceanic fields from drifting far away from the observation, among others. During the coupled model integration, the bias of both surface and subsurface oceanic fields in the analysis can be reduced compared to unassimilated fields. Based on 30 model years of output from the system, the climatology and interannual variability of the climate system were evaluated. The results showed that the system can reasonably reproduce the climatological global precipitation and SLP, but it still suffers from the double ITCZ problem. Besides, the ENSO footprint, which is revealed by ENSO-related surface air temperature, geopotential height and precipitation during El Niño evolution, is basically reproduced by the system. The system can also simulate the observed SST-rainfall relationships well on both interannual and intraseasonal timescales in the western North Pacific region, in which atmospheric feedback is crucial for climate simulation.

  10. Forests under climate change and air pollution: gaps in understanding and future directions for research.

    PubMed

    Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Calfapietra, C; de Vries, W; Dizengremel, P; Ernst, D; Jolivet, Y; Mikkelsen, T N; Mohren, G M J; Le Thiec, D; Tuovinen, J-P; Weatherall, A; Paoletti, E

    2012-01-01

    Forests in Europe face significant changes in climate, which in interaction with air quality changes, may significantly affect forest productivity, stand composition and carbon sequestration in both vegetation and soils. Identified knowledge gaps and research needs include: (i) interaction between changes in air quality (trace gas concentrations), climate and other site factors on forest ecosystem response, (ii) significance of biotic processes in system response, (iii) tools for mechanistic and diagnostic understanding and upscaling, and (iv) the need for unifying modelling and empirical research for synthesis. This position paper highlights the above focuses, including the global dimension of air pollution as part of climate change and the need for knowledge transfer to enable reliable risk assessment. A new type of research site in forest ecosystems ("supersites") will be conducive to addressing these gaps by enabling integration of experimentation and modelling within the soil-plant-atmosphere interface, as well as further model development.

  11. VIIRS-derived SST at the Naval Oceanographic Office: from evaluation to operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayula, Jean-François P.; May, Douglas A.; McKenzie, Bruce D.; Willis, Keith D.

    2013-06-01

    The Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) produces Sea Surface Temperature (SST) retrievals from satellite data. NAVOCEANO also obtains satellite-derived SST data sets from other groups. To provide consistency for assimilation into analyses and models, all the SST data sets are evaluated for their accuracy with the same methodology. In this paper, the focus is SST derived from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite. Of particular interest is the evaluation of NAVOCEANO produced SST with its NAVOCEANO Cloud mask, the VIIRS cloud mask, and VIIRS Environmental Data Record SST. The evaluation results show that these products are in some ways comparable, with similar strengths and weaknesses, although they target different customers. For comparison, the reliability results for the Meteorological Operational (METOP-A) satellite-derived SST, which is a NAVOCEANO operational product, are presented. As a by-product of the NAVOCEANO VIIRS SST evaluation, the non-linear SST (NLSST) equations used to derive the SST values were found to be less than optimal, depending on the unit of the field temperature term. NAVOCEANO VIIRS SST employs an expanded NLSST equation, which in effect refines the approximation of the gamma term by adding an offset. In view of the evaluation results, NAVOCEANO VIIRS SST became operational at the end of January 2013.

  12. Remotely-sensed sea surface temperatuares (SST) of Northeaster Pacific Coastal Zones

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is an important indicator of long-term trends and geographical temperature patterns; however there have been relatively few long-term records of SST in near-coastal habitats. In situ SST measurements are irregular in both space and time. Therefore, w...

  13. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities. The Conference proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) world conference, volume 5 is presented. The topics include: 1) The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks in Europe; 2) Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports-Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions; 3) Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector; 4) An Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System: Quantification of Indicators; 5) Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation; 6) Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap; 7) Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe; 8) Application of Core Theory to the U.S. Airline Industry; 9) Air Freight Transshipment Route Choice Analysis; 10) A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on Air Transport Market; and 11) Developing Passenger Demand Models for International Aviation from/to Egypt: A Case Study of Cairo Airport and Egyptair.

  14. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype: camera design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Caprio, V.; Belluso, M.; Bonanno, G.; Canestrari, R.; Cascone, E.; Catalano, O.; La Rosa, G.; Pareschi, G.; Rodeghiero, G.; Sottile, G.

    2013-09-01

    ASTRI is an Flagship Project led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF, strictly linked to the development of the ambitious Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA. Primary goal of the ASTRI project is the design, production, installation and calibration of an end-to-end Small Size Telescope prototype, devoted to the investigation of the highest gamma-ray energy band, from a fraction of TeV up to 100 TeV and beyond. The telescope, named ASTRI SST-2M, is mainly characterized by an optical system in dual-mirror configuration and by a modular camera at the curved focal surface composed of a matrix of Silicon Photo-Multipliers photo-sensors. In this paper we present an overview of the mechanical, thermal and electrical concept design of the camera and of the related technological solutions adopted for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype.

  15. Technique for atmospheric rate chemistry calculations. [of SST exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matloff, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility that predictions of atmospheric photochemistry/transport models are sensitive to uncertainties in reaction rates and other inputs stresses the need for rapid numerical integration schemes in rate photochemistry problems. Reducing the computational burden has a major merit in facilitating sensitivity studies to assess the effect of uncertainties on predicted ozone diminutions from NOx (NO + NO2) in the exhaust plume of SST engines. The paper discusses the validity of an algorithmic approach to integration of rate chemistry problems in combustion, developed by Rubel and Baronti for an approximate calculation of the production rate of the i-th chemical species involved. An analysis of two projected SST engines confirms the validity of the proposed algorithm. Because of the relative arithmetical simplicity, it may be easier to treat diffusion rate chemistry calculations using the Rubel and Baronti approximation than would be possible by other approaches.

  16. A Distributed Simulation Facility to Support Human Factors Research in Advanced Air Transportation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amonlirdviman, Keith; Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Ladik, John F.; Sherer, Dana Z.

    1998-01-01

    A distributed real-time simulation of the civil air traffic environment developed to support human factors research in advanced air transportation technology is presented. The distributed environment is based on a custom simulation architecture designed for simplicity and flexibility in human experiments. Standard Internet protocols are used to create the distributed environment, linking all advanced cockpit simulator, all Air Traffic Control simulator, and a pseudo-aircraft control and simulation management station. The pseudo-aircraft control station also functions as a scenario design tool for coordinating human factors experiments. This station incorporates a pseudo-pilot interface designed to reduce workload for human operators piloting multiple aircraft simultaneously in real time. The application of this distributed simulation facility to support a study of the effect of shared information (via air-ground datalink) on pilot/controller shared situation awareness and re-route negotiation is also presented.

  17. NASA Langley and NLR Research of Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Hoekstra, Jacco M.; Wing, David J.; Lohr, Gary W.

    2002-01-01

    Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) is a concept of future air traffic operations that proposes to distribute information, decision-making authority, and responsibility among flight crews, the air traffic service provider, and aeronautical operational control organizations. This paper provides an overview and status of DAG-TM research at NASA Langley Research Center and the National Aerospace Laboratory of The Netherlands. Specific objectives of the research are to evaluate the technical and operational feasibility of the autonomous airborne component of DAG-TM, which is founded on the operational paradigm of free flight. The paper includes an overview of research approaches, the airborne technologies under development, and a summary of experimental investigations and findings to date. Although research is not yet complete, these findings indicate that free flight is feasible and will significantly enhance system capacity and safety. While free flight cannot alone resolve the complex issues faced by those modernizing the global airspace, it should be considered an essential part of a comprehensive air traffic management modernization activity.

  18. Using SST, PDO and SOI for Streamflow Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukhary, S. S.; Kalra, A.; Ahmad, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recurring droughts in southwestern U.S. particularly California, have strained the existing water reserves of the region. Frequency, severity and duration of these recurring drought events may not be captured by the available instrumental records. Thus streamflow reconstruction becomes imperative to identify the historic hydroclimatic extremes of a region and assists in developing better water management strategies, vital for sustainability of water reserves. Tree ring chronologies (TRC) are conventionally used to reconstruct streamflows, since tree rings are representative of climatic information. Studies have shown that sea surface temperature (SST) and climate indices of southern oscillation index (SOI) and pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) influence U.S. streamflow volumes. The purpose of this study was to improve the traditional reconstruction methodology by incorporating the oceanic-atmospheric variables of PDO, SOI, and Pacific Ocean SST, alongwith TRC as predictors in a step-wise linear regression model. The methodology of singular value decomposition was used to identify teleconnected regions of streamflow and SST. The approach was tested on eleven gage stations in Sacramento River Basin (SRB) and San Joaquin River Basin (JRB). The reconstructions were successfully generated from 1800-1980, having an overlap period of 1932-1980. Improved results were exhibited when using the predictor variable of SST along with TRC (calibration r2=0.6-0.91) compared to when using TRC in combination with SOI and PDO (calibration r2=0.51-0.78) or when using TRC by itself (calibration r2=0.51-0.86). For future work, this approach can be replicated for other watersheds by using the oceanic-atmospheric climate variables influencing that region.

  19. Operational and troubleshooting experiences in the SST-1 cryogenic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesuria, G.; Panchal, P.; Panchal, R.; Patel, R.; Sonara, D.; Gupta, N. C.; Srikanth, G. L. N.; Christian, D.; Garg, A.; Bairagi, N.; Patel, K.; Shah, P.; Nimavat, H.; Sharma, R.; Patel, J. C.; Tank, J.; Tanna, V. L.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the cooldown and current charging campaign have been carried out towards the demonstration of the first successful plasma discharge in the steady state superconducting Tokomak (SST-1). The SST-1 machine consists of cable-in-conduit wound superconducting toroidal as well as poloidal coils, cooled using 1.3 kW at 4.5 K helium refrigerator -cum- liquefier (HRL) system. The cryo system provides the two-phase helium at 0.13 MPa at 4.5 K as well as forced-flow pressurized helium at 0.4 MPa and in addition to 7 g-s-1 liquefaction capacity required for the current leads and other cold mass at 4.5 K. The entire integrated cold masses having different thermo hydraulic resistances cooled with the SST-1 HRL in optimised process parameters. In order to maintain different levels of temperatures and to facilitate smooth and reliable cooldown, warm-up, normal operations as well as to handle abnormal events such as, quench or utilities failures etc., exergy efficient process are adopted for the helium refrigerator-cum-liquefier (HRL) with an installed equivalent capacity of 1.3 kW at 4.5 K. Using the HRL, the cold mass of about 40 tons is being routinely cooled down from ambient temperature to 4.5 K with an average cooldown rate of 0.75 - 1 K-h-1. Long-term cryogenic stable conditions were obtained within 15 days in the superconducting coils and their connecting feeders. Afterwards, all of the cold mass is warmed-up in a controlled manner to ambient temperature. In this paper, we report the recent operational results of the cryogenic system during the first plasma discharge in SST-1 as well as the troubleshooting experiences of the cryogenic plant related hardware.

  20. Assessing The Impact of SST Anomalies on Polar Climate Using Global Teleconnection Operators from Multiple Models Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, C. Y.; Forest, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    The predictability of polar climate is limited by uncertainties in the given forcing, the response to this forcing, and the internal variability of the fully coupled climate system. Given these factors, we estimate how anomalous sea surface temperature (SST) patterns can influence polar climate and ultimately impact ice sheets and polar feedbacks. Using different versions of NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (i.e. CAM3.1, CAM3.5, CAM4.0, CAM5.0), we assess the capabilities of multiple atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) to respond to SST forced changes by perturbing SST fields that influence polar climate via atmospheric teleconnections. By decomposing uncertainties, we are able to address the impact of structural differences in climate models. From large-ensembles of model simulations, we estimate the Global Teleconnection Operator (GTO) for each AGCM. The GTO is a linear approximation or empirical Green's function and can be used to diagnose the sensitivities of polar climate to the boundary condition forcing from anomalous SSTs patterns. Primarily, the GTO identifies the ocean sectors where SST anomalies are effective at forcing polar climate response. To explore predictability issues, the multi-linear model is evaluated by comparing the linearly reconstructed response with both the results from the full non-linear coupled model and observations. We find that the multi-linear model can capture polar climate variability that the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) simulations produce at seasonal scales for several polar regions in the near future. Overall, this approach provides a tool for exploring polar climate response as a first-order assessment of the climate variability being driven by SST forcings and the internal variability and model uncertainties by using large ensembles to estimate GTO. Furthermore, the uncertainty decomposition can help identify key directions where further research is required to improve predictive skill.

  1. Ranking the strongest ENSO events while incorporating SST uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Boyin; L'Heureux, Michelle; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Zhang, Huai-Min

    2016-09-01

    The strength of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is often measured using a single, discrete value of the Niño index. However, this method does not consider the sea surface temperature (SST) uncertainty associated with the observations and data processing. On the basis of the Niño3.4 index and its uncertainty, we find that the strength of the three strongest ENSO events is not separable at 95% confidence level. The monthly peak SST anomalies in the most recent 2015-2016 El Niño is tied with 1997-1998 and 1982-1983 El Niño as the strongest. The three most negative monthly Niño values occur within the 1955-1956, 1973-1974, and 1975-1976 La Niña events, which cannot be discriminated by rank. The histograms of 1000-member ensemble analysis support the conclusion that the strength of the three strongest ENSO events is not separable. These results highlight that the ENSO ranking has to include the SST uncertainty.

  2. Baking of SST-1 vacuum vessel modules and sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Khan, Ziauddin; Yuvakiran, Paravastu; George, Siju; Ramesh, Gattu; Manthena, Himabindu; Shah, Virendrakumar; Raval, Dilip C.; Thankey, Prashant L.; Dhanani, Kalpesh R.; Pradhan, Subrata

    2012-11-01

    SST-1 Tokamak is a steady state super-conducting tokamak for plasma discharge of 1000 sec duration. The plasma discharge of such long time duration can be obtained by reducing the impurities level, which will be possible only when SST-1 vacuum chamber is pumped to ultra high vacuum. In order to achieve UHV inside the chamber, the baking of complete vacuum chamber has to be carried out during pumping. For this purpose the C-channels are welded inside the vacuum vessel. During baking of vacuum vessel, these welded channels should be helium leak tight. Further, these U-channels will be in accessible under operational condition of SST-1. So, it will not possible to repair if any leak is developed during experiment. To avoid such circumstances, a dedicated high vacuum chamber is used for baking of the individual vacuum modules and sectors before assembly so that any fault during welding of the channels will be obtained and repaired. This paper represents the baking of vacuum vessel modules and sectors and their temperature distribution along the entire surface before assembly.

  3. Using SST and TRACE Observations to Test Spicule Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, W. A.; Pasachoff, J. M.

    2008-05-01

    Spicules are jets of plasma that rise out of the solar photosphere at between 10 and 150 km/s to a maximum height of about 10,000 km. These jets, which typically live between five and fifteen minutes, make up the chromosphere and contribute to the heating of the lower solar atmosphere. Using Interactive Data Language (IDL) for image alignment and the processing program ImageJ, we were able to determine spicule statistics from observations taken at the solar limb with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) in July 2006. In addition, Dopplergram movies allowed for a more complete understanding of spicule formation, motions, and evolution. This understanding was further enhanced by comparing simultaneous SST and Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) images, which allowed us to link corresponding spicule-related events in different layers of the solar atmospheric. We consider our results in terms of recent spicule models. We thank Mats Lofdahl of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for his work on Multi-Object Multi-Frame Blind Deconvolution of the SST data. Obtaining the data was supported in part by NASA grant NNG04GK44G and the current reduction work is supported in part by NASA grant NNM07AA01G from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center.

  4. SELENE mission: mathematical model for SST Doppler measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, J.; Kono, Y.; Kawano, N.; Hanada, H.; Matsumoto, K.

    2001-09-01

    Japanese lunar exploration mission, SELENE, has been planned to be launched into space by using H II-a rocket in the Summer of 2004. This mission is composed of 3 subsatellites, a main lunar orbiter, a relay satellite and a free flying VLBI radio source. One of its main scientific objectives is the estimation of high order and degree spherical harmonic coefficients for the lunar gravity field. Different tracking methods will be employed in SELENE. The key tracking method is 4 way Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) technique. By this way, the tracking data can be obtained through the relay when the low altitude main orbiter is flying at the far-side of the Moon and can not be "seen" from the Earth. To success the historical tracking data, a complete coverage of Doppler tracking from an orbiter at sufficiently low altitude with high tracking accuracy can be obtained. The 4 way SST has various configurations. For SELENE, the SST tracking mode is introduced here, the mathematical relation between range rate and 4 way Doppler count number is established, and a data processing stream frame by using GEODYN II is suggested.

  5. Soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2), but not galactin-3, adds to prognostication in patients with systemic AL amyloidosis independent of NT-proBNP and troponin T.

    PubMed

    Dispenzieri, Angela; Gertz, Morie A; Saenger, Amy; Kumar, Shaji K; Lacy, Martha Q; Buadi, Francis K; Dingli, David; Leung, Nelson; Zeldenrust, Steven; Hayman, Suzanne R; Kapoor, Prashant; Grogan, Martha; Hwa, Lisa; Russell, Stephen J; Go, Ronald S; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Kyle, Robert A; Jaffe, Allan

    2015-06-01

    The use of soluble cardiac biomarkers such as N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and troponin has revolutionized prognostication for patients with AL amyloidosis. Soluble ST2 (sST2) and galectin-3 have also been reported to have prognostic value in other cardiac patient populations. We identified 502 patients with AL amyloidosis, who provided a research sample and consent to review their medical records between 1/1/2006-12/31/2010 within 90 days of their diagnosis. Samples were assayed for sST2 and galectin-3. Within this AL amyloidosis population, overall survival (OS) was 25.5 months (95% CI 18, 35.7 months). Receiver operating curve analyses were done to detect the best cut-points for sST2 and galectin-3 to predict both 1- and 5-year OS. The respective cut points for sST2 were 30 and 29.7 ng/mL, while the median sST2 for the entire population was 31 ng/mL (IQR 19.8, 53.6). The respective cut points for galectin-3 were 11 and 10.4 ng/mL while the median for the entire population was 16.6 ng/mL (IQR 11.5, 24.0). Although on univariate analysis, both sST2 and galectin-3 were prognostic, upon multivariate analysis, only sST2 was independent of troponin, NT-proBNP, serum immunoglobulin free light chain, and blood pressure. Not only did sST2 add to previously reported prognostication systems, but a novel prognostication 5-point system including sST2 was possible. The addition of sST2 - but not galectin-3 - to existing prognostication systems for patients with AL amyloidosis strengthens the ability to predict for death.

  6. Air pollutant interactions with vegetation: research needs in data acquisition and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, S. E.; McLauglin, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this discussion is to consider problems involved in the acquisition, interpretation, and application of data collected in studies of air pollutant interactions with the terrestrial environment. Emphasis will be placed on a critical evaluation of current deficiencies and future research needs by addressing the following questions: (1) which pollutants are either sufficiently toxic, pervasive, or persistent to warrant the expense of monitoring and effects research; (2) what are the interactions of multiple pollutants during deposition and how do these influence toxicity; (3) how de we collect, report, and interpret deposition and air quality data to ensure its maximum utility in assessment of potential regional environmental effects; (4) what processes do we study, and how are they measured to most efficiently describe the relationship between air quality dose and ultimate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems; and (5) how do we integrate site-specific studies into regional estimates of present and potential environmental degradation (or benefit).

  7. FAA/NASA Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1992-1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The research conducted during the academic year 1992-1993 under the FAA/NASA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The year end review was held at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, 17-18 June 1993. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration and NASA Langley Research Center, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, human factors and air traffic management. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  8. The Eighth Annual Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Los Angeles, March 2-4, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archives of Environmental Health, 1967

    1967-01-01

    Papers read before the Eighth Annual American Medical Association Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Los Angeles, California, March 2-4, 1966, are presented in this document. Topics deal with basic approaches to the study of the effects of inhaled irritants on the lung; environmental parameters in relation to host responses; biological…

  9. 75 FR 22126 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... November 12, 2008 (73 FR 67057-67059). The new equivalent method for O 3 is an automated method that... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  10. 76 FR 62402 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as amended on June 22, 2010 (75 FR 35597). The new O 3 equivalent method is an... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods; Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  11. 75 FR 9894 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    .... This designation is made under the provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as amended on November 12, 2008 (73 FR... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  12. STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION RESEARCH FOR DNAPL IN FRACTURED ROCK, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, LIMESTONE, MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report details a research project on Steam Enhanced Remediation (SER) for the recovery of volatile organic compounds from fractured limestone that was carried out at the Quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base in Limestone, Maine. This project was carried out by USEPA, Ma...

  13. North American Tropical Cyclone Landfall and SST: A Statistical Model Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Timothy; Yonekura, Emmi

    2013-01-01

    A statistical-stochastic model of the complete life cycle of North Atlantic (NA) tropical cyclones (TCs) is used to examine the relationship between climate and landfall rates along the North American Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. The model draws on archived data of TCs throughout the North Atlantic to estimate landfall rates at high geographic resolution as a function of the ENSO state and one of two different measures of sea surface temperature (SST): 1) SST averaged over the NA subtropics and the hurricane season and 2) this SST relative to the seasonal global subtropical mean SST (termed relSST). Here, the authors focus on SST by holding ENSO to a neutral state. Jackknife uncertainty tests are employed to test the significance of SST and relSST landfall relationships. There are more TC and major hurricane landfalls overall in warm years than cold, using either SST or relSST, primarily due to a basinwide increase in the number of storms. The signal along the coast, however, is complex. Some regions have large and significant sensitivity (e.g., an approximate doubling of annual major hurricane landfall probability on Texas from -2 to +2 standard deviations in relSST), while other regions have no significant sensitivity (e.g., the U.S. mid-Atlantic and Northeast coasts). This geographic structure is due to both shifts in the regions of primary TC genesis and shifts in TC propagation.

  14. Progress in aeronautical research and technology applicable to civil air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in the aeronautical research and technology program being conducted by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration is discussed. Emphasis is on computational capability, new testing facilities, drag reduction, turbofan and turboprop propulsion, noise, composite materials, active controls, integrated avionics, cockpit displays, flight management, and operating problems. It is shown that this technology is significantly impacting the efficiency of the new civil air transports. The excitement of emerging research promises even greater benefits to future aircraft developments.

  15. Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory Side View of Nose, with a TU-144D on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A Tupolev Tu-144D supersonic jetliner is framed by the drooped nose and forward fuselage of the Tu-144LL supersonic flying laboratory at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia, in 1998. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were used

  16. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  17. The Aqua-planet Experiment (APE): Response to Changed Meridional SST Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, David L.; Blackburn, Michael; Nakajima, Kensuke; Ohfuchi, Wataru; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki O.; Hayashi, Yoshi-Yuki; Nakamura, Hisashi; Ishiwatari, Masaki; Mcgregor, John L.; Borth, Hartmut; Wirth, Volkmar; Frank, Helmut; Bechtold, Peter; Wedi, Nils P.; Tomita, Hirofumi; Satoh, Masaki; Zhao, Ming; Held, Isaac M.; Suarez, Max J.; Lee, Myong-In; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Liu, Yimin; Wang, Zaizhi; Molod, Andrew; RajenDran, Kavirajan; Kitoh, Akio; Stratton, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the sensitivity of Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) simulations to changes in the meridional distribution of sea surface temperature (SST). The simulations are for an aqua-planet, a water covered Earth with no land, orography or sea- ice and with specified zonally symmetric SST. Simulations from 14 AGCMs developed for Numerical Weather Prediction and climate applications are compared. Four experiments are performed to study the sensitivity to the meridional SST profile. These profiles range from one in which the SST gradient continues to the equator to one which is flat approaching the equator, all with the same maximum SST at the equator. The zonal mean circulation of all models shows strong sensitivity to latitudinal distribution of SST. The Hadley circulation weakens and shifts poleward as the SST profile flattens in the tropics. One question of interest is the formation of a double versus a single ITCZ. There is a large variation between models of the strength of the ITCZ and where in the SST experiment sequence they transition from a single to double ITCZ. The SST profiles are defined such that as the equatorial SST gradient flattens, the maximum gradient increases and moves poleward. This leads to a weakening of the mid-latitude jet accompanied by a poleward shift of the jet core. Also considered are tropical wave activity and tropical precipitation frequency distributions. The details of each vary greatly between models, both with a given SST and in the response to the change in SST. One additional experiment is included to examine the sensitivity to an off-equatorial SST maximum. The upward branch of the Hadley circulation follows the SST maximum off the equator. The models that form a single precipitation maximum when the maximum SST is on the equator shift the precipitation maximum off equator and keep it centered over the SST maximum. Those that form a double with minimum on the equatorial maximum SST shift the double

  18. The assessment of contributions of SST anomalies to the interannual variability of winter extreme precipitation in Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Fraedrich, K.; Zhu, X.; Sielmann, F.; Zhi, X.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical SST anomalies are among the largest drivers of circulation regime changes on interannual time scales due to its characteristic heat capacity decay time scales. The with extreme precipitation associated circulation anomalies and the corresponding atmospheric response to SST anomalies are derived from ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis data by employing composite analysis and lagged maximum covariance analysis (MCA). The results show that the interannual variability of extreme winter precipitation in Southeast China is in close accordance with the interannual variability of total winter precipitation. Both are associated with similar abnormal circulation regimes, but for extreme precipitation events the circulation anomalies are significantly intensified. In addition, two main moisture transport channels are captured: one extends from the North Indian Ocean through India and the Bay of Bengal to South China, and the other from the West Pacific Ocean through Maritime Continent and South China Sea towards South China, which are related to the preceding autumn SST patterns, El Niño and the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD), respectively. El Niño (La Niña) SST anomalies induce anomalous anticyclonic (cyclonic) circulation over Philippine Sea, which is favorable (unfavorable) to warm and humid air transport to South China from the tropical West Pacific by southwesterly (northeasterly) anomalies. Under these circulations, northeasterlies of East Asian Winter Monsoon are weakened (strengthened) resulting in extreme precipitation to be more (less) frequent in Southeast China. During the positive (negative) IOD phase, abundant (reduced) moisture transport to South China from tropical regions through India and Bay of Bengal is observed due to the weakened (strengthened) Walker circulations and abnormal anticyclonic (cyclonic) circulation over India, leading to a higher (lower) likelihood for extreme precipitation events in Southeast China.

  19. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology.

  20. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology. PMID:27547751

  1. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology. PMID:27547751

  2. Air Enquirer's multi-sensor boxes as a tool for High School Education and Atmospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morguí, Josep-Anton; Font, Anna; Cañas, Lidia; Vázquez-García, Eusebi; Gini, Andrea; Corominas, Ariadna; Àgueda, Alba; Lobo, Agustin; Ferraz, Carlos; Nofuentes, Manel; Ulldemolins, Delmir; Roca, Alex; Kamnang, Armand; Grossi, Claudia; Curcoll, Roger; Batet, Oscar; Borràs, Silvia; Occhipinti, Paola; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    An educational tool was designed with the aim of making more comprehensive the research done on Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the ClimaDat Spanish network of atmospheric observation stations (www.climadat.es). This tool is called Air Enquirer and it consist of a multi-sensor box. It is envisaged to build more than two hundred boxes to yield them to the Spanish High Schools through the Education department (www.educaixa.com) of the "Obra Social 'La Caixa'", who funds this research. The starting point for the development of the Air Enquirers was the experience at IC3 (www.ic3.cat) in the CarboSchools+ FP7 project (www.carboschools.cat, www.carboschools.eu). The Air Enquirer's multi-sensor box is based in Arduino's architecture and contains sensors for CO2, temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and both infrared and visible luminance. The Air Enquirer is designed for taking continuous measurements. Every Air Enquirer ensemble of measurements is used to convert values to standard units (water content in ppmv, and CO2 in ppmv_dry). These values are referred to a calibration made with Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry (Picarro®) under different temperature, pressure, humidity and CO2 concentrations. Multiple sets of Air Enquirers are intercalibrated for its use in parallel during the experiments. The different experiments proposed to the students will be outdoor (observational) or indoor (experimental, in the lab) focusing on understanding the biogeochemistry of GHGs in the ecosystems (mainly CO2), the exchange (flux) of gases, the organic matter production, respiration and decomposition processes, the influence of the anthropogenic activities on the gases (and particles) exchanges, and their interaction with the structure and composition of the atmosphere (temperature, water content, cooling and warming processes, radiative forcing, vertical gradients and horizontal patterns). In order to ensure Air Enquirers a high-profile research performance the experimental designs

  3. Response of the Guinean coastal water cycle to changes in Atlantic Equatorial SST intraseasonal variability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynadier, Remi; de Coëtlogon, Gaelle; Bastin, Sophie; Eymard, Laurence; Janicot, Serge

    2013-04-01

    A strong ocean-atmosphere coupling exists in the equatorial region (northern front) of the Tropical Atlantic cold tongue where cold intraseasonal (respectively warm) sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies strengthen (weaken) southerlies between the Equator and the Guinean coast. Such interactions have a significant contribution in the functioning and partitioning of the water cycle in spring over the ocean as well as later in the season over West Africa. Using the regional Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF), this study aims to describe and quantify such interactions. First we perform an ensemble of simulations for the period April-Jul 2006 that involves testing atmospheric convection, cloud microphysics, boundary layer and radiation schemes. Results are compared to satellite-based products (TRMM, QUICKSCAT, TMI, SRB) and recent reanalysis including CFSR, MERRA, ERA-Interim and the ECMWF special reanalysis (ERA-AMMA) produced within the AMMA project. WRF simulations in which Atlantic SST intraseasonal variability is changed are then presented to quantify the impact on the water cycle of such fluctuations and to describe the dominant underlying mecanisms.

  4. Phosphorylation of threonine 333 regulates trafficking of the human sst5 somatostatin receptor.

    PubMed

    Petrich, Aline; Mann, Anika; Kliewer, Andrea; Nagel, Falko; Strigli, Anne; Märtens, Jan Carlo; Pöll, Florian; Schulz, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The frequent overexpression of the somatostatin receptors sst2 and sst5 in neuroendocrine tumors provides the molecular basis for therapeutic application of novel multireceptor somatostatin analogs. Although the phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal region of the sst2 receptor has been studied in detail, little is known about the agonist-induced regulation of the human sst5 receptor. Here, we have generated phosphosite-specific antibodies for the carboxyl-terminal threonines 333 (T333) and 347 (T347), which enabled us to selectively detect either the T333-phosphorylated or the T347-phosphorylated form of sst5. We show that agonist-mediated phosphorylation occurs at T333, whereas T347 is constitutively phosphorylated in the absence of agonist. We further demonstrate that the multireceptor somatostatin analog pasireotide and the sst5-selective ligand L-817,818 but not octreotide or KE108 were able to promote a detectable T333 phosphorylation. Interestingly, BIM-23268 was the only sst5 agonist that was able to stimulate T333 phosphorylation to the same extent as natural somatostatin. Agonist-induced T333 phosphorylation was dose-dependent and selectively mediated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. Similar to that observed for the sst2 receptor, phosphorylation of sst5 occurred within seconds. However, unlike that seen for the sst2 receptor, dephosphorylation and recycling of sst5 were rapidly completed within minutes. We also identify protein phosphatase 1γ as G protein-coupled receptor phosphatase for the sst5 receptor. Together, we provide direct evidence for agonist-selective phosphorylation of carboxyl-terminal T333. In addition, we identify G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2-mediated phosphorylation and protein phosphatase 1γ-mediated dephosphorylation of T333 as key regulators of rapid internalization and recycling of the human sst5 receptor.

  5. Air pollution and watershed research in the central Sierra Nevada of California: nitrogen and ozone.

    PubMed

    Hunsaker, Carolyn; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Auman, Jessica; Cisneros, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining healthy forests is the major objective for the Forest Service scientists and managers working for the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Air pollution, specifically ozone (O3) and nitrogenous (N) air pollutants, may severely affect the health of forest ecosystems in the western U.S. Thus, the monitoring of air pollution concentration and deposition levels, as well as studies focused on understanding effects mechanisms, are essential for evaluation of risks associated with their presence. Such information is essential for development of proper management strategies for maintaining clean air, clean water, and healthy ecosystems on land managed by the Forest Service. We report on two years of research in the central Sierra Nevada of California, a semi-arid forest at elevations of 1100-2700 m. Information on O3 and N air pollutants is obtained from a network of 18 passive samplers. We relate the atmospheric N concentration to N concentrations in streams, shallow soil water, and bulk deposition collectors within the Kings River Experimental Watershed. This watershed also contains an intensive site that is part of a recent Forest Service effort to calculate critical loads for N, sulfur, and acidity to forest ecosystems. The passive sampler design allows for extensive spatial measurements while the watershed experiment provides intensive spatial data for future analysis of ecosystem processes. PMID:17450299

  6. Air pollution and watershed research in the central Sierra Nevada of California: nitrogen and ozone.

    PubMed

    Hunsaker, Carolyn; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Auman, Jessica; Cisneros, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining healthy forests is the major objective for the Forest Service scientists and managers working for the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Air pollution, specifically ozone (O3) and nitrogenous (N) air pollutants, may severely affect the health of forest ecosystems in the western U.S. Thus, the monitoring of air pollution concentration and deposition levels, as well as studies focused on understanding effects mechanisms, are essential for evaluation of risks associated with their presence. Such information is essential for development of proper management strategies for maintaining clean air, clean water, and healthy ecosystems on land managed by the Forest Service. We report on two years of research in the central Sierra Nevada of California, a semi-arid forest at elevations of 1100-2700 m. Information on O3 and N air pollutants is obtained from a network of 18 passive samplers. We relate the atmospheric N concentration to N concentrations in streams, shallow soil water, and bulk deposition collectors within the Kings River Experimental Watershed. This watershed also contains an intensive site that is part of a recent Forest Service effort to calculate critical loads for N, sulfur, and acidity to forest ecosystems. The passive sampler design allows for extensive spatial measurements while the watershed experiment provides intensive spatial data for future analysis of ecosystem processes.

  7. Pharmacological characterisation of the goldfish somatostatin sst5 receptor.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Caroline; Feuerbach, Dominik; Lin, Xinwei; Peter, Richard; Hoyer, Daniel

    2002-02-01

    Somatostatin (somatotropin release inhibiting factor, SRIF), exerts its effects via specific G protein coupled receptors of which five subtypes have been cloned (sst1-5). Recently, SRIF receptors have also been cloned from fish tissues. In this study, goldfish sst5 receptors (gfsst5) were expressed and characterised in the Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line, that harbours the luciferase reporter gene driven by the serum responsive element (CCL39-SRE-Luci). The agonist radioligands [125I]-LTT-SRIF-28 ([Leu8, DTrp22, 125I-Tyr25]SRIF-28) and [125I][Tyr10]cortistatin-14 labelled similar receptor densities with high affinity and in a saturable manner (pKd: 9.99-9.71; Bmax: 300-350 fmol mg-1). 5'-Guanylyl-imidodiphosphate inhibited radioligand binding to some degree (38.5-57.9%). In competition binding studies, the pharmacological profile of SRIF binding sites defined with [125I]LTT-SRIF-28 and [125I][Tyr10]cortistatin-14 correlated significantly (r2=0.97, n=20). Pharmacological profiles of human and mouse sst5 receptors expressed in CCL39 cells correlated markedly less with those of the gfsst5 profile (r2=0.52-0.78, n > or = b16). Functional expression of the gfsst5 receptor was examined by measurement of agonist-induced luciferase expression and stimulation of [35S]GTPgammaS ([35S]guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) binding. Profiles were similar to those achieved in radioligand binding studies (r2=0.81-0.93, n=20), although relative potency (pEC50) was reduced compared to pKd values. Relative efficacy profiles of luciferase expression and [35S]GTPgammaS binding, were rather divergent (r2=0.48, n=20) with peptides showing full agonism at one pathway and absence of agonism at the other. BIM 23056 (D-Phe-Phe-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Val-Phe-D-Nal-NH2) acted as an antagonist on the effects of SRIF-14 (pKB=6.74 +/- 0.23) on stimulation of [35S]GTPgammaS binding. Pertussis toxin abolished the effect of SRIF-14 on luciferase expression and [35S]GTPgammaS binding suggesting

  8. Influence of upwelling on SST trends in La Guajira system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, F.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.; Varela, R.; Ruiz-Ochoa, M.; Días, J. M.

    2016-04-01

    La Guajira upwelling system has shown a moderate cooling (˜-0.05°C dec-1) over the period 1982-2014 for the months with strong upwelling (JFM). This contrasts with the general warming observed for most of the Caribbean region (˜0.25°C dec-1) over the same period. Cooling is in good agreement with the upwelling increase (˜0.04 m2s-1dec-1) observed in the region during winter months, although the position of the peaks in upwelling and SST trends does not coincide exactly due to the presence of the Caribbean Coastal Undercurrent.

  9. Extreme subseasonal tropical air-sea interactions and their relation to ocean thermal stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Ian D.

    2011-12-01

    representation of warm core eddies and the loop current in the Gulf of Mexico, and a new parameterization of the drag coefficient. The 2006--2009 period contains more intense hurricanes (category 4 and 5) and the non-monotonic nature of the SST-intensity response is more similar to observations than in 2005. This result was attributed to weaker ocean thermal stratification in the Gulf of Mexico allowing for greater storm intensification. A very simple Conceptual Hurricane Intensity Model consisting of two coupled equations was formulated to account for the non-monotonic SST-intensity response. Finally, dynamical oceanic changes in the tropical North Atlantic under climate change were examined across a range of climate models. Given the sensitivity of hurricane intensity to stratification, large-scale ocean changes must be understood in order to make robust intensity predictions. The models' mean state contained significant biases, and it is not clear whether these mean state biases are reduced in models with higher resolution. However, climate change projections indicate a robust subsurface warming response in the tropical North Atlantic that could impact hurricane intensity. The non-local air-sea processes that account for water mass biases were highlighted as an area for future research.

  10. Use of health information in air pollution health research: past successes and emerging needs.

    PubMed

    Thurston, George D; Bekkedal, Marni Y V; Roberts, Eric M; Ito, Kazuhiko; Pope, C Arden; Glenn, Barbara S; Ozkaynak, Halûk; Utell, Mark J

    2009-01-01

    In September 2006, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) co-organized a symposium on "Air Pollution Exposure and Health." The main objective of this symposium was to identify opportunities for improving the use of exposure and health information in future studies of air pollution health effects. This paper deals with the health information needs of such studies. We begin with a selected review of different types of health data and how they were used in previous epidemiologic studies of health effects of ambient particulate matter (PM). We then examine the current and emerging information needs of the environmental health community, dealing with PM and other air pollutants of health concern. We conclude that the past use of routinely collected health data proved to be essential for activities to protect public health, including the identification and evaluation of health hazards by air pollution research, setting standards for criteria pollutants, surveillance of health outcomes to identify incidence trends, and the more recent CDC environmental public health tracking program. Unfortunately, access to vital statistics records that have informed such pivotal research has recently been curtailed sharply, threatening the continuation of the type of research necessary to support future standard setting and research on emerging exposure and health problems (e.g. asthma, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, and others), as well as our ability to evaluate the efficacy of regulatory and other prevention activities. A comprehensive devoted effort, perhaps new legislation, will be needed to address the standardization, centralization, and sharing of data sets, as well as to harmonize the interpretation of confidentiality and privacy protections across jurisdictions. These actions, combined with assuring researchers and public health practitioners appropriate access to data for evaluation of environmental risks, will be essential for the

  11. A GIS Approach to Wind,SST(Sea Surface Temperature) and CHL(Chlorophyll) variations in the Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirkhalili, Seyedhamzeh

    2016-07-01

    Chlorophyll is an extremely important bio-molecule, critical in photosynthesis, which allows plants to absorb energy from light. At the base of the ocean food web are single-celled algae and other plant-like organisms known as Phytoplankton. Like plants on land, Phytoplankton use chlorophyll and other light-harvesting pigments to carry out photosynthesis. Where Phytoplankton grow depends on available sunlight, temperature, and nutrient levels. In this research a GIS Approach using ARCGIS software and QuikSCAT satellite data was applied to visualize WIND,SST(Sea Surface Temperature) and CHL(Chlorophyll) variations in the Caspian Sea.Results indicate that increase in chlorophyll concentration in coastal areas is primarily driven by terrestrial nutrients and does not imply that warmer SST will lead to an increase in chlorophyll concentration and consequently Phytoplankton abundance.

  12. ReefTemp: An interactive monitoring system for coral bleaching using high-resolution SST and improved stress predictors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Jeffrey A.; Turner, Peter J.; Anthony, Kenneth R. N.; Baird, Andrew H.; Berkelmans, Ray; Eakin, C. Mark; Johnson, Johanna; Marshall, Paul A.; Packer, Gareck R.; Rea, Anthony; Willis, Bette L.

    2008-03-01

    Anomalously high sea surface temperatures (SST) have led to repeated mass coral bleaching events on a global scale. Existing satellite-based systems used to monitor conditions conducive to bleaching are based on low-resolution (0.5°, ~50 km) SST data. While these systems have served the research and management community well, they have inherent weaknesses that limit their capacity to predict stress on coral reefs at local scales, over which bleaching severity is known to vary dramatically. Here we discuss the development and testing of ReefTemp, a new operational remote sensing application for the Great Barrier Reef that assesses bleaching risk daily using: high-resolution (2 km) SST, regionally validated thermal stress indices, and color-graded legends directly related to past observations of bleaching severity. Given projections of sea temperature rise, ReefTemp is timely as it can accurately predict bleaching severity at a local scale and therefore help to give focus to future research and monitoring efforts.

  13. Future Directions of Supersonic Combustion Research: Air Force/NASA Workshop on Supersonic Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tishkoff, Julian M.; Drummond, J. Philip; Edwards, Tim; Nejad, Abdollah S.

    1997-01-01

    The Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Air Force Wright Laboratory Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate, and the NASA Langley Research Center held a joint supersonic combustion workshop on 14-16 May 1996. The intent of this meeting was to: (1) examine the current state-of-the-art in hydrocarbon and/or hydrogen fueled scramjet research; (2) define the future direction and needs of basic research in support of scramjet technology; and (3) when appropriate, help transition basic research findings to solve the needs of developmental engineering programs in the area of supersonic combustion and fuels. A series of topical sessions were planned. Opening presentations were designed to focus and encourage group discussion and scientific exchange. The last half-day of the workshop was set aside for group discussion of the issues that were raised during the meeting for defining future research opportunities and directions. The following text attempts to summarize the discussions that took place at the workshop.

  14. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The Intelligent Control and Autonomy Branch (ICA) at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet the goals of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Programs. These efforts are primarily under the various projects under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP) and the Aviation Safety Program (ASP). The ICA Branch is focused on advancing the state-of-the-art of aero-engine control and diagnostics technologies to help improve aviation safety, increase efficiency, and enable operation with reduced emissions. This paper describes the various ICA research efforts under the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs with a summary of motivation, background, technical approach, and recent accomplishments for each of the research tasks.

  15. Modeling the surface heat flux response to long-lived SST anomalies in the North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect

    Power, S.B.; Kleeman, R.; Colman, R.A.

    1995-09-01

    An atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), a simplified atmospheric model (SAM) of surface heat flux, and various idealized analytic models have been used to investigate the atmospheric response over the North Atlantic to SST anomalies, including a general cooling associated with a weakened thermohaline circulation. Latent heating dominates the surface heat flux response, while sensible heating plays an important secondary role. The total heat flux response is weaker than presumed in recent studies using ocean models under highly idealized surface boundary conditions. This implies that stability of the thermohaline circulation to high-latitude freshening in more sophisticated coupled systems (that incorporate either AGCMs or models like SAM) will be increased. All three kinds of atmospheric models exhibit nonrestorative behavior away from the anomaly peak that is primarily associated with the advection of cooled air eastward. This simple picture is complicated in the AGCM by the fact that the winds weaken over the SST anomaly, which helps to moderate the response. Analytic models for atmospheric temperature forced using imposed surface temperature anomalies highlight conditions under which a nonrestorative response can arise. Previous work has shown that the length scale of spatially periodic anomalies partially determines the magnitude of the response in a diffusive atmosphere. Here the authors show that this scale dependence has much wider applicability by considering more localized anomalies and by the inclusion of advective transport processes. The modification of the response by sea ice changes and the absence of any statistically significant change in the basin-averaged hydrological cycle are also discussed. 62 refs., 19 figs.

  16. Global climate sensitivity derived from ~784,000 years of SST data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, T.; Timmermann, A.; Tigchelaar, M.; Elison Timm, O.; Ganopolski, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global mean temperatures will increase in response to future increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. The magnitude of this warming for a given radiative forcing is still subject of debate. Here we provide estimates for the equilibrium climate sensitivity using paleo-proxy and modeling data from the last eight glacial cycles (~784,000 years). First of all, two reconstructions of globally averaged surface air temperature (SAT) for the last eight glacial cycles are obtained from two independent sources: one mainly based on a transient model simulation, the other one derived from paleo- SST records and SST network/global SAT scaling factors. Both reconstructions exhibit very good agreement in both amplitude and timing of past SAT variations. In the second step, we calculate the radiative forcings associated with greenhouse gas concentrations, dust concentrations, and surface albedo changes for the last 784, 000 years. The equilibrium climate sensitivity is then derived from the ratio of the SAT anomalies and the radiative forcing changes. Our results reveal that this estimate of the Charney climate sensitivity is a function of the background climate with substantially higher values for warmer climates. Warm phases exhibit an equilibrium climate sensitivity of ~3.70 K per CO2-doubling - more than twice the value derived for cold phases (~1.40 K per 2xCO2). We will show that the current CMIP5 ensemble-mean projection of global warming during the 21st century is supported by our estimate of climate sensitivity derived from climate paleo data of the past 784,000 years.

  17. Initial results of NPP VIIRS SST processing at NAVOCEANO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Bruce; May, Doug; Cayula, Jean-Francois; Willis, Keith

    2012-06-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite was placed in orbit October 28, 2011, and began providing advanced imaging and radiometric data from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) in December 2011. The Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) is processing the VIIRS data as part of the generation of sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals for ingest by Navy meteorological and oceanographic analyses and models. This new sensor has an increased number of channels, higher resolution, and larger volume than previous operational polar-orbiting environmental satellites. In order to prepare for processing this new data, a proxy datastream was generated by the Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Testing, and Evaluation (GRAVITE) from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data and provided in near real-time. This allowed for NAVOCEANO to write software to ingest, process, and deliver SST products before the actual data began flowing. A discussion of these preparatory activities and the initial results of processing VIIRS SSTs will be presented, including global drifting buoy matchup statistics.

  18. Comparison of Profiling Microwave Radiometer, Aircraft, and Radiosonde Measurements From the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements from a profiling microwave radiometer are compared to measurements from a research aircraft and radiosondes. Data compared is temperature, water vapor, and liquid water profiles. Data was gathered at the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS) at Mirabel Airport outside Montreal, Canada during December 1999 and January 2000. All radiometer measurements were found to lose accuracy when the radome was wet. When the radome was not wetted, the radiometer was seen to indicate an inverted distribution of liquid water within a cloud. When the radiometer measurements were made at 15 deg. instead of the standard zenith, the measurements were less accurate.

  19. IMPACT OF AN OZONE GENERATOR AIR CLEANER ON STYRENE CONCENTRATIONS IN AN INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH CHAMBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the impact of an ozone generator air cleaner on vapor-phase styrene concentrations in a full-scale indoor air quality test chamber. The time history of the concentrations of styrene and ozone is well predicted by a simulation model u...

  20. Research Reactor Preparations for the Air Shipment of Highly Enriched Uranium from Romania

    SciTech Connect

    K. J. Allen; I. Bolshinsky; L. L. Biro; M. E. Budu; N. V. Zamfir; M. Dragusin; C. Paunoiu; M. Ciocanescu

    2010-03-01

    In June 2009 two air shipments transported both unirradiated (fresh) and irradiated (spent) Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) nuclear fuel from two research reactors in Romania to the Russian Federation for conversion to low enriched uranium. The Institute for Nuclear Research at Pitesti (SCN Pitesti) shipped 30.1 kg of HEU fresh fuel pellets to Dimitrovgrad, Russia and the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) shipped 23.7 kilograms of HEU spent fuel assemblies from the VVR S research reactor at Magurele, Romania, to Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both HEU shipments were coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), were managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN), and were conducted in cooperation with the Russian Federation State Corporation Rosatom and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Both shipments were transported by truck to and from respective commercial airports in Romania and the Russian Federation and stored at secure nuclear facilities in Russia until the material is converted into low enriched uranium. These shipments resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd country under the RRRFR program and the 14th country under the GTRI program to remove all HEU. This paper describes the research reactor preparations and license approvals that were necessary to safely and securely complete these air shipments of nuclear fuel.

  1. Aluminum-air research and development program. Summary report - FY 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.

    1983-04-01

    The aluminum-air program in 1982 focused on the following research areas: (1) experimental investigation of alternative cell configurations, (2) testing of specific configurations in multicell stacks, (3) long-term testing of air-electrodes under simulated vehicle duty cycles, (4) determination of kinetic of aluminum trihydroxide crystallization under candidate battery operating conditions, and (5) studies of anode behavior of alloys containing minor impurities such as iron, manganese, gallium, and phosphorus. The major achievements of this work period were: (1) The operation of six-celled and two-cell stacks without degradation of performance compared to laboratory baseline cells. (2) Redesign of solution-side current collection grid and successful application to wedge-shaped cells on the engineering scale (600 cm/sup 2/); demonstration of ability of such cells for continuous anode feed and rapid refueling. (3) Fabrication and testing of air electrodes catalyzed with certain macrocylic complexes; extension of cycle life to above 1000 standard drive cycles using non-noble metal catalysts. (4) Determination of role of minor electrolyte additions and precipitated Al(OH)/sub 3/ on air electrode life. (5) Development of a comprehensive mathematical model of aluminum trihydroxide precipitation under battery conditions.

  2. Research into acetone removal from air by biofiltration using a biofilter with straight structure plates

    PubMed Central

    Baltrėnas, Pranas; Zagorskis, Alvydas; Misevičius, Antonas

    2015-01-01

    The biological air treatment method is based on the biological destruction of organic compounds using certain cultures of microorganisms. This method is simple and may be applied in many branches of industry. The main element of biological air treatment devices is a filter charge. Tests were carried out using a new-generation laboratory air purifier with a plate structure. This purifier is called biofilter. The biofilter has a special system for packing material humidification which does not require additional energy inputs. In order to extend the packing material's durability, it was composed of thermally treated birch fibre. Pollutant (acetone) biodegradation occurred on thermally treated wood fibre in this research. According to the performed tests and the received results, the process of biodestruction was highly efficient. When acetone was passed through biofilter's packing material at 0.08 m s−1 rate, the efficiency of the biofiltration process was from 70% up to 90%. The species of bacteria capable of removing acetone vapour from the air, i.e. Bacillus (B. cereus, B. subtilis), Pseudomonas (P. aeruginosa, P. putida), Stapylococcus (S. aureus) and Rhodococcus sp., was identified in this study during the process of biofiltration. Their amount in the biological packing material changed from 1.6 × 107 to 3.7 × 1011 CFU g−1. PMID:26019659

  3. FAA/NASA Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research: 1993-1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueschen, Richard M. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during the academic year 1993-1994 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research. The year end review was held at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, July 14-15, 1994. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (NGL-22-009-640), Ohio University (NGR-36-009-017), and Princeton University (NGL-31-001-252). Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, human factors, and expert systems concepts applied to aircraft and airport operations. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  4. Atmospheric and oceanographic research review, 1978. [global weather, ocean/air interactions, and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Research activities related to global weather, ocean/air interactions, and climate are reported. The global weather research is aimed at improving the assimilation of satellite-derived data in weather forecast models, developing analysis/forecast models that can more fully utilize satellite data, and developing new measures of forecast skill to properly assess the impact of satellite data on weather forecasting. The oceanographic research goal is to understand and model the processes that determine the general circulation of the oceans, focusing on those processes that affect sea surface temperature and oceanic heat storage, which are the oceanographic variables with the greatest influence on climate. The climate research objective is to support the development and effective utilization of space-acquired data systems in climate forecast models and to conduct sensitivity studies to determine the affect of lower boundary conditions on climate and predictability studies to determine which global climate features can be modeled either deterministically or statistically.

  5. Nonlinear responses of southern African rainfall to forcing from Atlantic SST in a high-resolution regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C.; Kniveton, D.; Layberry, R.

    2009-04-01

    It is increasingly accepted that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. A change in the distribution and magnitude of extreme rainfall events (associated with changing variability), such as droughts or flooding, may have a far greater impact on human and natural systems than a changing mean. This issue is of particular importance for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable to and ill-equipped (in terms of adaptation) for extreme events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, famine, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify extreme events and accurately predict future variability. In this research, high resolution satellite derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infra-Red Algorithm (MIRA) are used as a basis for undertaking model experiments using a state-of-the-art regional climate model. The MIRA dataset covers the period from 1993-2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree longitude/latitude. Once the model's ability to reproduce extremes has been assessed, idealised regions of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are used to force the model, with the overall aim of investigating the ways in which SST anomalies influence rainfall extremes over southern Africa. In this paper, results from sensitivity testing of the regional climate model's domain size are briefly presented, before a comparison of simulated daily rainfall from the model with the satellite-derived dataset. Secondly, simulations of current climate and rainfall extremes from the model are compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. Finally, the results from the idealised SST experiments are presented, suggesting highly nonlinear associations between rainfall extremes

  6. Mesoscale SST-wind stress coupling in the Peru-Chile current system: Which mechanisms drive its seasonal variability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oerder, Vera; Colas, François; Echevin, Vincent; Masson, Sebastien; Hourdin, Christophe; Jullien, Swen; Madec, Gurvan; Lemarié, Florian

    2016-10-01

    Satellite observations and a high-resolution regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model are used to study the air/sea interactions at the oceanic mesoscale in the Peru-Chile upwelling current system. Coupling between mesoscale sea surface temperature (SST) and wind stress (WS) intensity is evidenced and characterized by correlations and regression coefficients. Both the model and the observations display similar spatial and seasonal variability of the coupling characteristics that are stronger off Peru than off Northern Chile, in relation with stronger wind mean speed and steadiness. The coupling is also more intense during winter than during summer in both regions. It is shown that WS intensity anomalies due to SST anomalies are mainly forced by mixing coefficient anomalies and partially compensated by wind shear anomalies. A momentum balance analysis shows that wind speed anomalies are created by stress shear anomalies. Near-surface pressure gradient anomalies have a negligible contribution because of the back-pressure effect related to the air temperature inversion. As mixing coefficients are mainly unchanged between summer and winter, the stronger coupling in winter is due to the enhanced large-scale wind shear that enables a more efficient action of the turbulent stress perturbations. This mechanism is robust as it does not depend on the choice of planetary boundary layer parameterization.

  7. Air Traffic Management Technology Demostration: 1 Research and Procedural Testing of Routes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Sara R.; Kibler, Jennifer L.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Smail, James W.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) will operationally demonstrate the feasibility of efficient arrival operations combining ground-based and airborne NASA technologies. The ATD-1 integrated system consists of the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering which generates precise time-based schedules to the runway and merge points; Controller Managed Spacing decision support tools which provide controllers with speed advisories and other information needed to meet the schedule; and Flight deck-based Interval Management avionics and procedures which allow flight crews to adjust their speed to achieve precise relative spacing. Initial studies identified air-ground challenges related to the integration of these three scheduling and spacing technologies, and NASA's airborne spacing algorithm was modified to address some of these challenges. The Research and Procedural Testing of Routes human-in-the-loop experiment was then conducted to assess the performance of the new spacing algorithm. The results of this experiment indicate that the algorithm performed as designed, and the pilot participants found the airborne spacing concept, air-ground procedures, and crew interface to be acceptable. However, the researchers concluded that the data revealed issues with the frequency of speed changes and speed reversals.

  8. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This report (Volume 1) is comprised of 5 sessions of the Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) Conference held in Antwerp, Belgium, July 1998. The sessions contain 3-4 papers (presentations) each. The session numbers and their respective headings are: (1) Airline alliances; (2) Airline Competition and Market Structure; (4) Liberalization, Open Skies, and Policy Issues; (5) Yield Management and Other Models; and (11) Air Traffic Control (ATC) and Air Navigational Systems (ANS).

  9. Absolute Thermal SST Measurements over the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, W. S.; Warden, R.; Kaptchen, P. F.; Finch, T.; Emery, W. J.

    2010-12-01

    Climate monitoring and natural disaster rapid assessment require baseline measurements that can be tracked over time to distinguish anthropogenic versus natural changes to the Earth system. Disasters like the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill require constant monitoring to assess the potential environmental and economic impacts. Absolute calibration and validation of Earth-observing sensors is needed to allow for comparison of temporally separated data sets and provide accurate information to policy makers. The Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST) radiometer was designed and built by Ball Aerospace to provide a well calibrated measure of sea surface temperature (SST) from an unmanned aerial system (UAS). Currently, emissive skin SST observed by satellite infrared radiometers is validated by shipborne instruments that are expensive to deploy and can only take a few data samples along the ship track to overlap within a single satellite pixel. Implementation on a UAS will allow BESST to map the full footprint of a satellite pixel and perform averaging to remove any local variability due to the difference in footprint size of the instruments. It also enables the capability to study this sub-pixel variability to determine if smaller scale effects need to be accounted for in models to improve forecasting of ocean events. In addition to satellite sensor validation, BESST can distinguish meter scale variations in SST which could be used to remotely monitor and assess thermal pollution in rivers and coastal areas as well as study diurnal and seasonal changes to bodies of water that impact the ocean ecosystem. BESST was recently deployed on a conventional Twin Otter airplane for measurements over the Gulf of Mexico to access the thermal properties of the ocean surface being affected by the oil spill. Results of these measurements will be presented along with ancillary sensor data used to eliminate false signals including UV and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR

  10. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  11. A USCLVAR Multi-Model Assessment of the Impact of SST Anomalies and Land-Atmosphere Feedbacks on Drought

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried

    2009-01-01

    noteworthy and to some extent unexpected results. These include a seasonal dependence of the precipitation response that is characterized by signal-to-noise ratios that peak in spring, and surface temperature signal-to-noise ratios that are both lower and show less agreement among the models than those found for the precipitation response. Another interesting result concerns what appears to be a substantially different character in the surface temperature response over the U.S. to the Pacific forcing by the only model examined here that was developed for use in numerical weather prediction. The response to the positive SST trend forcing pattern is an overall surface warming over the world's land areas with substantial regional variations that are in part reproduced in runs forced with a globally uniform SST trend forcing. The precipitation response to the trend forcing is weak in all the models. It is hoped that these early results will serve to stimulate further analysis of these simulations, as well as suggest new research on the physical mechanisms contributing to hydroclimatic variability and change throughout the world.

  12. Forest models: their development and potential applications for air pollution effects research

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, H.H.; McLaughlin, S.B.; West, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    As research tools for evaluating the effects of chronic air pollution stress, forest simulation models offer one means of integrating forest growth and development data with generalized indices of pollution stress. This approach permits consideration of both the competitive interactions of trees in the forest stand and the influences of the stage of stand development on sensitivity of component species. A review of forest growth models, including tree, stand, and gap models, is provided as a means of evaluating relative strengths, weaknesses, and limits of applicability of representative examples of each type. Data from recent simulations with a gap model of eastern deciduous forest responses to air pollution stress are presented to emphasize the potential importance of competition in modifying individual species' responses in a forest stand. Recent developments in dendroecology are discussed as a potential mechanism for model validation and extended application.

  13. The Influence of Midlatitude Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling on the Low-Frequency Variability of a GCM. Part I: No Tropical SST Forcing*.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bladé, Ileana

    1997-08-01

    This study examines the extent to which the thermodynamic interactions between the midlatitude atmosphere and the underlying oceanic mixed layer contribute to the low-frequency atmospheric variability. A general circulation model, run under perpetual northern winter conditions, is coupled to a motionless constant-depth mixed layer in midlatitudes, while elsewhere the sea surface temperature (SST) is kept fixed; interannual tropical SST forcing is not included. It is found that coupling does not modify the spatial organization of the variability. The influence of coupling is manifested as a slight reddening of the spectrum of 500-mb geopotential height and a significant enhancement of the lower-tropospheric thermal variance over the oceans at very low frequencies by virtue of the mixed-layer adjustment to surface air temperature variations that occurs on those timescales. This adjustment effectively reduces the thermal damping of the atmosphere associated with surface heat fluxes (or negative oceanic feedback), thus increasing the thermal variance and the persistence of circulation anomalies.In studying the covariability between ocean and atmosphere it is found that the dominant mode of natural atmospheric variability is coupled to the leading mode of SST in each ocean, with the atmosphere leading the ocean by about one month. The cross-correlation function between oceanic and atmospheric anomalies is strongly asymmetric about zero lag. The SST structures are consistent with direct forcing by the anomalous heat fluxes implied by the concurrent surface air temperature and wind fluctuations. Additionally, composites based on large amplitude SST anomaly events contain no evidence of direct driving of atmospheric perturbations by these SST anomalies. Thus, in terms of the spatial organization of the covariability and the evolution of the coupled system from one regime to another, large-scale air-sea interaction in the model is characterized by one-way atmospheric

  14. Satellite SST Trends and Climatologies - how many years is enough?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heron, S. F.; Skirving, W. J.; Christensen, T. R.; Eakin, C. M.; Gledhill, D. K.; Liu, G.; Morgan, J. A.; Parker, B. A.; Strong, A. E.

    2009-05-01

    Stress on coral reef ecosystems is generally due to abnormal events, rather than absolute levels, of environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, salinity, and light). For example, ocean temperatures of 30°C would be "comfortable" for corals in the Persian Gulf but stressful for the corals off the coast of Brazil because they are accustomed to different conditions. Identifying anomalous conditions requires good knowledge of the baseline ("usual", "normal") conditions. Here we discuss whether a remotely-sensed, 4km sea surface temperature (SST) record of length 23 years is sufficient to calculate a long-term average (climatology) that can sensibly be used as a baseline for monitoring the health of corals. We also discuss issues related to ocean warming in determining this baseline and the relevance of adaptation by corals.

  15. Indoor Air Pollution in Developing Countries: Research and Implementation Needs for Improvements in Global Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gall, Elliott T.; Carter, Ellison M.; Matt Earnest, C.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) from the burning of solid fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting accounts for a significant portion of the global burden of death and disease, and disproportionately affects women and children in developing regions. Clean cookstove campaigns recently received more attention and investment, but their successes might hinge on greater integration of the public health community with a variety of other disciplines. To help guide public health research in alleviating this important global environmental health burden, we synthesized previous research on IAP in developing countries, summarized successes and challenges of previous cookstove implementation programs, and provided key research and implementation needs from structured discussions at a recent symposium. PMID:23409891

  16. Emerging research on real-time air pollution sensing with the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Air pollution research ranges broadly at the US EPA and includes the characterization of pollutant emissions from a wide array of sources, studying post-emission transport and transformation in the atmosphere, and evaluating the linkages between air pollution and advers...

  17. Supersonic Cruise Research 1979, part 2. [airframe structures and materials, systems integration, economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Advances in airframe structure and materials technology for supersonic cruise aircraft are reported with emphasis on titanium and composite structures. The operation of the Concorde is examined as a baseline for projections into the future. A market survey of U.S. passenger attitudes and preferences, the impact of advanced air transport technology and the integration of systems for the advanced SST and for a smaller research/business jet vehicle are also discussed.

  18. Proceedings of the 1992 Gas Research Institute, glycol dehydrator air emissions conference

    SciTech Connect

    Rueter, C.O.; Heath, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Emissions of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and the xylene isomers (BTEX) and other volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the reboiler still vent of glycol dehydration units have become a major concern for the natural gas industry as a result of increasing regulatory pressure. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 have provided an impetus for regulating these emissions, and several states are regulating or considering regulation of these units. Because the estimated 20,000--30,000 glycol units in the United States treat virtually all of the domestically produced gas, this issue is of crucial importance to the natural gas industry. To encourage communication and a transfer of regulatory and technical information, the Gas Research Institute sponsored a two and a half day conference on glycol dehydrator air emissions issues. Twenty-two technical papers were presented on regulatory issues and activities, industry approaches to addressing emissions, research and development programs, process and emissions modeling, and control technologies. An open question and answer forum was also held. The conference was attended by 190 people from the production, processing, pipeline, and storage segments of the natural gas industry, as well as regulators, researchers, vendors, and other interested in the conference topic.

  19. Air-Quality Data from NARSTO (North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone)

    DOE Data Explorer

    NARSTO is a public/private partnership dedicated to improving management of air quality in North America. It was established on February 13, 1995 when representatives of Canada, the United States, and Mexico signed the NARSTO Charter in a ceremony at the White House. The Department of Energy is one of the charter members providing funding. The central programmatic goal of NARSTO is to provide data and information for use in the determination of workable, efficient, and effective strategies for local and regional ozone and fine particle management. Since its founding, NARSTO has completed three major scientific Assessments of critical air quality management issues. NARSTO maintains the Quality Systems Science Center and the NARSTO Data Archive for storing data from NARSTO Affiliated Research Activities and making these data available to the scientific community. NARSTO also facilitates activities, such as the Reactivity Research Working Group, which provide critical reviews of the state of the science in areas of interest to air quality policy makers. In January 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Sciences Division announced their sponsorship of the NARSTO Quality Systems Science Center (QSSC). The QSSC is located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory within the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). Quality Assurance and Data Management assistance and guidelines are provided by the QSCC, along with access to data files. The permanent data archive is maintained by the NASA EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Center at the Langley Research Center. The archived data can be reached by a link from the QSSC.(Specialized Interface) See also the NARSTO web site at http://www.narsto.org/

  20. Forcing mechanisms of intraseasonal SST variability off central Peru in 2000-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illig, Serena; Dewitte, Boris; Goubanova, Katerina; Cambon, Gildas; Boucharel, Julien; Romero, Carlos; Purca, Sara; Flores, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The Sea Surface Temperature (SST) intraseasonal variability (40-90 days) along the coast of Peru is commonly attributed to the efficient oceanic connection with the equatorial variability. Here we investigate the respective roles of local and remote equatorial forcing on the intraseasonal SST variability off central Peru (8°S-16°S) during the 2000-2008 period, based on the experimentation with a regional ocean model. We conduct model experiments with different open lateral boundary conditions and/or surface atmospheric forcing (i.e., climatological or not). Despite evidence of clear propagations of coastal trapped waves of equatorial origin and the comparable marked seasonal cycle in intraseasonal Kelvin wave activity and coastal SST variability (i.e., peak in Austral summer), this remote equatorial forcing only accounts for ˜20% of the intraseasonal SST regime, which instead is mainly forced by the local winds and heat fluxes. A heat budget analysis further reveals that during the Austral summer, despite the weak along-shore upwelling (downwelling) favorable wind stress anomalies, significant cool (warm) SST anomalies along the coast are to a large extent driven by Ekman-induced advection. This is shown to be due to the shallow mixed layer that increases the efficiency by which wind stress anomalies relates to SST through advection. Diabatic processes also contribute to the SST intraseasonal regime, which tends to shorten the lag between peak SST and wind stress anomalies compared to what is predicted from an advective mixed-layer model.

  1. Some possibilities of using gas mixtures other than air in aerodynamic research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Dean R

    1956-01-01

    A study is made of the advantages that can be realized in compressible-flow research by employing a substitute heavy gas in place of air. The present report is based on the idea that by properly mixing a heavy monatomic gas with a suitable heavy polyatomic gas, it is possible to obtain a heavy gas mixture which has the correct ratio of specific heats and which is nontoxic, nonflammable, thermally stable, chemically inert, and comprised of commercially available components. Calculations were made of wind-tunnel characteristics for 63 gas pairs comprising 21 different polyatomic gases properly mixed with each of three monatomic gases (argon, krypton, and zenon).

  2. Characterization of a New Continuous Air Monitoring System For the University of Massachusetts Lowell Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqahtani, Mohammad Saad

    A continuous air monitor (CAM) is a critical piece of equipment to support radiation safety in nuclear facilities where the generation of airborne radioactivity is a possibility for either normal operations or accident scenarios. The University of Massachusetts Lowell Research Reactor is planning to install a new CAM system manufactured by Canberra Industries for monitoring airborne radioactive particulates. In this study, the new CAM was evaluated to determine 1) baseline response, 2) response to high exposure rates, 3) appropriate background compensation, 4) detection limits, and 5) alarm settings. The results of this study will help to properly integrate the new CAM into the reactor radiation monitoring system.

  3. Air pollution control system research: An iterative approach to developing affordable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, L.C.; Cannon, F.S.; Heinsohn, R.J.; Spaeder, T.A.; Darvin, C.H.

    1993-12-31

    The research will be accomplished on lab scale, pilot scale, and production air pollution control systems (APCS). The production system, to be installed at Marine Corps Logistics Base (MCLB) Barstow, CA, will treat the exhaust from three paint booths which will be modified to recirculate a large percentage of their exhaust. These recirculation systems are, themselves, a critical element in the overall R and D effort. The goal of the program is to conduct an R and D effort which will improve and demonstrate a combination of technologies intended to make VOC treatment both effective and affordable. The US Marine Corps, the other services and industry will each benefit.

  4. PLANNING OF HEALTH EFFECTS RESEARCH ON HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS AND APPLICATION TO RISK ASSESSMENT PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 designated a set of compounds as hazardous air pollutants or "air toxics" which may be released into the air from a variety of sources including stationary, mobile and indoor air sources. Determination of the risks to human health from exposur...

  5. Effect of Radiative Cooling on Cloud-SST Relationship within the Tropical Pacific Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sui, Chung-Hsiung; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Chou, Ming-Dah; Lau, Ka-Ming; Li, Xiao-Fan; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A recent analysis found a negative correlation between the area-mean cloud amount and the corresponding mean Sea Surface Temperature (SST) within the cloudy areas. The SST-cloud relation becomes more evident when the SST contrast between warm pool and surrounding cold pool (DSST) in the tropical Pacific is stronger than normal. The above feature is related to the finding that the strength of subsidence over the cold pool is limited by radiative cooling because of its small variability. As a result, the area of radiatively-driven subsidence must expand in response to enhanced low-boundary forcing due to SST warming or enhanced basin-scale DSST. This leads to more cloud free regions and less cloudy regions. The increased ratio of cloud-free areas to cloudy areas leads to more high SST areas (>29.50C) due to enhanced solar radiation.

  6. Relationships of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor, Clouds and SST: MLS Observations, ECMWF Analyses and GCM Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Hui; Waliser, Duane E.; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Li, Jui-lin; Read, William G.; Waters, Joe W.; Tompkins, Adrian M.

    2006-01-01

    The relationships of upper tropospheric water vapor (UTWV), cloud ice and sea surface temperature (SST) are examined in the annual cycles of ECMWF analyses and simulations from 15 atmosphere-ocean coupled models which were contributed to the IPCC AR4. The results are compared with the observed relationships based on UTWV and cloud ice measurements from MLS on Aura. It is shown that the ECMWF analyses produce positive correlations between UTWV, cloud ice and SST, similar to the MLS data. The rate of the increase of cloud ice and UTWV with SST is about 30% larger than that for MLS. For the IPCC simulations, the relationships between UTWV, cloud ice and SST are qualitatively captured. However, the magnitudes of the simulated cloud ice show a considerable disagreement between models, by nearly a factor of 10. The amplitudes of the approximate linear relations between UTWV, cloud ice and SST vary by a factor up to 4.

  7. SST algorithms in ACSPO reanalysis of AVHRR GAC data from 2002-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, B.; Ignatov, A.; Kihai, Y.; Zhou, X.; Stroup, J.

    2014-05-01

    In response to a request from the NOAA Coral Reef Watch Program, NOAA SST Team initiated reprocessing of 4 km resolution GAC data from AVHRRs flown onboard NOAA and MetOp satellites. The objective is to create a longterm Level 2 Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO) SST product, consistent with NOAA operations. ACSPO-Reanalysis (RAN) is used as input in the NOAA geo-polar blended Level 4 SST and potentially other Level 4 SST products. In the first stage of reprocessing (reanalysis 1, or RAN1), data from NOAA-15, -16, -17, -18, -19, and Metop-A and -B, from 2002-present have been processed with ACSPO v2.20, and matched up with quality controlled in situ data from in situ Quality Monitor (iQuam) version 1. The ~12 years time series of matchups were used to develop and explore the SST retrieval algorithms, with emphasis on minimizing spatial biases in retrieved SSTs, close reproduction of the magnitudes of true SST variations, and maximizing temporal, spatial and inter-platform stability of retrieval metrics. Two types of SST algorithms were considered: conventional SST regressions, and recently developed incremental regressions. The conventional equations were adopted in the EUMETSAT OSI-SAF formulation, which, according to our previous analyses, provide relatively small regional biases and well-balanced combination of precision and sensitivity, in its class. Incremental regression equations were specifically elaborated to automatically correct for model minus observation biases, always present when RTM simulations are employed. Improved temporal stability was achieved by recalculation of SST coefficients from matchups on a daily basis, with a +/-45 day window around the current date. This presentation describes the candidate SST algorithms considered for the next round of ACSPO reanalysis, RAN2.

  8. EOF analysis of long-term reconstructed AVHRR Pathfinder SST in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Hong-Ngu T.; Alvera-Azcárate, Aida; Barth, Alexander; Beckers, Jean-Marie

    2014-05-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is one of the key variables often used to investigate ocean dynamics, ocean-atmosphere interaction, and climate change. For recent decades, the AVHRR Pathfinder SST, measured by infrared sensors, has been widely used because of its high resolution and long time-series. The disadvantage of the AVHRR Pathfinder SST is high percentage of missing data due to cloud coverage. This becomes more serious in the South China Sea (SCS) because it is located in the tropical region, frequently covered by clouds. In this study, we used the Data INterpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions (DINEOF) method to reconstruct daily night-time 4 km AVHRR Pathfinder SST spanning from 1989 to 2009 for the whole SCS. In order to better understand the spatial and temporal variability of the SCS SST, an EOF analysis of the reconstructed field is performed in association with surface wind. The first SST mode, accounting for 69% of the variance, presents the cooling (warming) of the basin due to the solar inclination through seasons, water exchange, topography, and monsoon-induced cyclonic circulation. The second SST mode, explaining 24.8% of the variance, shows the advection of cold and warm water from two opposite directions along the southwest-northeast diagonal of the basin. The second SST mode is affected by the atmospheric anticyclone (cyclone) located over the Philippine Sea. Comparing both SST modes with Nino3.0 index, it shows that the interannual variability of the SCS SST is influenced by the moderate and strong ENSO events with a lag of 5-6 months. Moreover, the analysis of the high-resolution reconstructed dataset reveals some oceanic features that could not be captured in the previous EOF analyses.

  9. FY-3C/VIRR SST algorithm and cal/val activities at NSMC/CMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sujuan; Cui, Peng; Zhang, Peng; Ran, Maonong; Lu, Feng; Wang, Weihe

    2014-11-01

    The National Satellite Meteorological Center (NSMC)/CMA global sea surface temperature (SST) data are derived from measurements made by the Visible and Infrared Radiometer (VIRR) on board the FY-3 series polar orbiting satellites. Quality controlled in situ data from iQUAM (STAR/NESDIS/NOAA) is used in FY-3B/C VIRR matching procedure. The monthly matchup database (MDB) is created from FY-3C VIRR measurements paired with coincident SST measurements from buoys since November 2013. The satellite sensor's brightness temperature and buoy SST pairs are included in the MDB if they are coincident within 3km in space and 1 hour in time. Least-Square Regression is used for estimating the first-guess coefficient and SST residuals. Outliers are removed using Median±2STD, and the final coefficients of robust regression are estimated. A set of SST regression formalisms are tested base on NOAA- 19/AVHRR 2010 MDB. The test shows that, for daytime split-window nonlinear SST (NLSST) is the best, for nighttime triple-window MCSST (TCSST) is the best, which is agree with STAR/NESDIS's. The same regression analysis method also used on FY-3C/VIRR MDB. Compare with the three daytime SST algorithms and five nighttime SST algorithms, the best algorithm to retrieve FY-3C/VIRR SST for daytime is NLSST and for nighttime is TCSST. Compare with the coefficients of nighttime algorithm TCSST, it shows that for FY-3B/C VIRR SST, the contribution of 3.7μm band is smaller than split-window bands. The performance of 3.7μm band of FY-3C/VIRR is better than FY-3B/VIRR, but worse than NOAA-19/AVHRR.

  10. Experience with helium leak and thermal shocks test of SST-1 cryo components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rajiv; Nimavat, Hiren; Srikanth, G. L. N.; Bairagi, Nitin; Shah, Pankil; Tanna, V. L.; Pradhan, S.

    2012-11-01

    A steady state superconducting Tokamak SST-1 is presently under its assembly stage at the Institute for Plasma Research. The SST-1 machine is a family of Superconducting SC coils for both Toroidal field and Poloidal Field. An ultra high vacuum compatible vacuum vessel, placed in the bore of the TF coils, houses the plasma facing components. A high vacuum cryostat encloses all the SC coils and the vacuum vessel. Liquid Nitrogen (LN2) cooled thermal shield between the vacuum vessel & SC coils as well as between cryostat and the SC coils. There are number of crucial cryogenic components as Electrical isolators, 80 K thermal shield, Cryogenic flexible hose etc., which have to be passed the performance validation tests as part of fulfillment of the stringent QA/QC before incorporated in the main assembly. The individual leak tests of components at RT as well as after thermal cycle from 300 K to 77 K ensure us to make final overall leak proof system. These components include, Large numbers of Electrical Isolators for Helium as well as LN2 services, Flexible Bellows and Hoses for Helium as well as LN2 services, Thermal shock tests of large numbers of 80 K Bubble shields In order to validate the helium leak tightness of these components, we have used the calibrated mass spectrometer leak detector (MSLD) at 300 K, 77 K and 4.2. Since it is very difficult to locate the leaks, which are appearing at rather lower temperatures e.g. less than 20 K, We have invented different approaches to resolve the issue of such leaks. This paper, in general describes the design of cryogenic flexible hose, assembly, couplings for leak testing, test method and techniques of thermal cycles test at 77 K inflow conditions and leak testing aspects of different cryogenic components. The test results, the problems encountered and its solutions techniques are discussed.

  11. Benchmarking, Research, Development, and Support for ORNL Automated Image and Signature Retrieval (AIR/ASR) Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.W.

    2004-06-01

    This report describes the results of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Applied Materials, Inc. (AMAT) of Santa Clara, California. This project encompassed the continued development and integration of the ORNL Automated Image Retrieval (AIR) technology, and an extension of the technology denoted Automated Signature Retrieval (ASR), and other related technologies with the Defect Source Identification (DSI) software system that was under development by AMAT at the time this work was performed. In the semiconductor manufacturing environment, defect imagery is used to diagnose problems in the manufacturing line, train yield management engineers, and examine historical data for trends. Image management in semiconductor data systems is a growing cause of concern in the industry as fabricators are now collecting up to 20,000 images each week. In response to this concern, researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a semiconductor-specific content-based image retrieval method and system, also known as AIR. The system uses an image-based query-by-example method to locate and retrieve similar imagery from a database of digital imagery using visual image characteristics. The query method is based on a unique architecture that takes advantage of the statistical, morphological, and structural characteristics of image data, generated by inspection equipment in industrial applications. The system improves the manufacturing process by allowing rapid access to historical records of similar events so that errant process equipment can be isolated and corrective actions can be quickly taken to improve yield. The combined ORNL and AMAT technology is referred to hereafter as DSI-AIR and DSI-ASR.

  12. Radiological air monitoring and sample analysis research and development progress report. Calendar year, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Sponsored by a Department Of Energy (DOE) research and development grant, the State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program (OP) personnel designed an independent air monitoring system that provides detection of the presence of priority airborne contaminants potentially migrating beyond INEL boundaries. Initial locations for off-site ambient air monitoring stations were chosen in consultation with: DOE and NOAA reports; Mesodif modeling; review of the relevant literature; and communication with private contractors and experts in pertinent fields. Idaho State University (ISU) has initiated an Environmental Monitoring Program (EMP). The EMP provides an independent monitoring function as well as a training ground for students. Students learn research techniques dedicated to environmental studies and learn analytical skills and rules of compliance related to monitoring. ISU-EMP assisted OP in specific aspects of identifying optimum permanent monitoring station locations, and in selecting appropriate sample collection equipment for each station. The authorization to establish, prepare and install sampling devices on selected sites was obtained by OP personnel in conjunction with ISU-EMP personnel. All samples described in this program are collected by OP or ISU-EMP personnel and returned to the ISU for analysis. This report represents the summary of results of those samples collected and analyzed for radioactivity during the year of 1992.

  13. Teleconnections between Ethiopian rains and Equatorial Pacific SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tefera Diro, G.; Grimes, D. I. F.; Black, E.

    2009-04-01

    Rainfall is the most important climate parameter in Ethiopia as in many part of Africa since the economy is based mainly on rain fed agriculture. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to anomalous rainfall is therefore a great significant for seasonal prediction. Although the statistical link between tropical Pacific (warm/cold) and Ethiopian rainfall (deficit/excess Kiremt (JJAS) and excess/deficit Belg (FMAM)) is well known, the physical mechanism for the observed relationship is not well understood. In this study, the mechanisms for the link between equatorial eastern and central Pacific and Ethiopian rains are studied using observational and modelling studies. In the observational study, two sets of composites were analysed. The first set was composite of large scale atmospheric features based on excess and deficit rains to understand the large scale rainfall controls. The second set was also composite of large scale atmospheric features but based on warm and cold SSTs over equatorial Pacific. The observational study suggests that warm/cold equatorial Pacific SSTAs are linked to excess/deficit summer rainfall via the strength of ITCZ, Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ), the East African Low Level Jet (EALLJ) and westerly anomalies from Atlantic and north-southward shift of African Easterly Jet (AEJ). In the modelling study, Atmosphere only General Circulation Model (HadAM3) forced with observed (HadISST) and idealised SSTA patterns was used to investigate whether there is a causal link between rainfall and SST and also to understand the mechanism of the link (if the link is causal). The HadISST forced HadAM3 run shows that the model captures the inter-annual variability of rainfall associated with ENSO. The idealised SST experiments confirms that warm equatorial Pacific indeed directly causes deficit rainfall in Kiremt and excess rainfall in Belg seasons. The physical mechanism for these teleconnections is suggested. For Kiremt season; warm SSTA in the tropical

  14. OVERVIEW OF HANFORD SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY - 12123

    SciTech Connect

    RAST RS; RINKER MW; WASHENFELDER DJ; JOHNSON JB

    2012-01-25

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration. Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The structural integrity of the tanks is a key element in completing the cleanup mission at the Hanford Site. There are eight primary recommendations related to the structural integrity of Hanford SSTs. Six recommendations are being implemented through current and planned activities. The structural integrity of the Hanford SSTs is being evaluated through analysis, monitoring, inspection, materials testing, and construction document review. Structural evaluation in the form of analysis is performed using modern finite element models generated in ANSYS{reg_sign} The analyses consider in-situ, thermal, operating loads and natural phenomena such as earthquakes. Structural analysis of 108 of 149 Hanford SSTs has concluded that the tanks are structurally sound and meet current industry standards. Analyses of the remaining Hanford SSTs are scheduled for FY2013. Hanford SSTs are monitored through a dome deflection program. The program looks for deflections of the tank dome greater than 1/4 inch. No such deflections have been recorded. The tanks are also subjected to visual inspection. Digital cameras record the interior surface of the concrete tank domes, looking for cracks and

  15. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society was formally launched as a special interest group at the 7th Triennial WCTR in Sydney, Australia in 1995. Since then, our membership base has expanded rapidly, and now includes over 400 active transportation researchers, policy-makers, industry executives, major corporations and research institutes from 28 countries. It became a tradition that the ATRG would hold an international conference at least once a year. In 1998, the ATRG organized a consecutive stream of 14 aviation sessions at the 8th Triennial WCTR Conference (July 12-17: Antwerp). Again, on 19-21 July, 1998, the ATRG Symposium was organized and executed very successfully by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan of the University College of Dublin. The Aviation Institute at the University of Nebraska at Omaha has published the Proceedings of the 1998 ATRG Dublin Symposium (being co-edited by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan and Professor Brent Bowen), and the Proceedings of the 1998 WCTR-ATRG Conference (being co-edited by Professors Tae H. Oum and Brent Bowen).

  16. Diagnosing southeast tropical Atlantic SST and ocean circulation biases in the CMIP5 ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhao; Chang, Ping; Richter, Ingo; Kim, Who; Tang, Guanglin

    2014-12-01

    Warm sea-surface temperature (SST) biases in the southeastern tropical Atlantic (SETA), which is defined by a region from 5°E to the west coast of southern Africa and from 10°S to 30°S, are a common problem in many current and previous generation climate models. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble provides a useful framework to tackle the complex issues concerning causes of the SST bias. In this study, we tested a number of previously proposed mechanisms responsible for the SETA SST bias and found the following results. First, the multi-model ensemble mean shows a positive shortwave radiation bias of ~20 W m-2, consistent with models' deficiency in simulating low-level clouds. This shortwave radiation error, however, is overwhelmed by larger errors in the simulated surface turbulent heat and longwave radiation fluxes, resulting in excessive heat loss from the ocean. The result holds for atmosphere-only model simulations from the same multi-model ensemble, where the effect of SST biases on surface heat fluxes is removed, and is not sensitive to whether the analysis region is chosen to coincide with the maximum warm SST bias along the coast or with the main SETA stratocumulus deck away from the coast. This combined with the fact that there is no statistically significant relationship between simulated SST biases and surface heat flux biases among CMIP5 models suggests that the shortwave radiation bias caused by poorly simulated low-level clouds is not the leading cause of the warm SST bias. Second, the majority of CMIP5 models underestimate upwelling strength along the Benguela coast, which is linked to the unrealistically weak alongshore wind stress simulated by the models. However, a correlation analysis between the model simulated vertical velocities and SST biases does not reveal a statistically significant relationship between the two, suggesting that the deficient coastal upwelling in the models is not simply related to the

  17. AirSTAR Hardware and Software Design for Beyond Visual Range Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughter, Sean; Cox, David

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) is a facility developed to study the flight dynamics of vehicles in emergency conditions, in support of aviation safety research. The system was upgraded to have its operational range significantly expanded, going beyond the line of sight of a ground-based pilot. A redesign of the airborne flight hardware was undertaken, as well as significant changes to the software base, in order to provide appropriate autonomous behavior in response to a number of potential failures and hazards. Ground hardware and system monitors were also upgraded to include redundant communication links, including ADS-B based position displays and an independent flight termination system. The design included both custom and commercially available avionics, combined to allow flexibility in flight experiment design while still benefiting from tested configurations in reversionary flight modes. A similar hierarchy was employed in the software architecture, to allow research codes to be tested, with a fallback to more thoroughly validated flight controls. As a remotely piloted facility, ground systems were also developed to ensure the flight modes and system state were communicated to ground operations personnel in real-time. Presented in this paper is a general overview of the concept of operations for beyond visual range flight, and a detailed review of the airborne hardware and software design. This discussion is held in the context of the safety and procedural requirements that drove many of the design decisions for the AirSTAR UAS Beyond Visual Range capability.

  18. Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Research Data from the Nevada Desert FACE Facility (NDFF)

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE has conducted trace gas enrichment experiments since the mid 1990s. The FACE Data Management System is a central repository and archive for Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) data, as well as for the related open-top chamber (OTC) experiments. FACE Data Management System is located at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). While the data from the various FACE sites, each one a unique user facility, are centralized at CDIAC, each of the FACE sites presents its own view of its activities and information. For that reason, DOE Data Explorer users are advised to see both the central repository at http://public.ornl.gov/face/index.shtml and the individual home pages of each site. NDFF whole-ecosystem manipulation is a flagship experiment of the Terrestrial Carbon Process (TCP) research program of the US Dept. of Energy. It is also a core project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) and a contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. The NDFF was developed in conjunction with the National Science Foundation (NSF) and DOE-EPSCoR programs. FACE (Free-Air-Carbon dioxide-Enrichment) technology allows researchers to elevate the carbon dioxide level in large study plots while minimizing ecosystem disturbance. At the NDFF the concentration of CO2 was elevated by 50 percent above the present atmospheric levels in three plots in the Mojave Desert ecosystem, while six other plots remained at the current level. This experimental design provided a large area in which integrated teams of scientists could describe and quantify processes regulating carbon, nutrient, and water balances in desert ecosystems.

  19. 42GHz ECRH assisted Plasma Breakdown in tokamak SST-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, B. K.; Pradhan, S.; Patel, Paresh; Babu, Rajan; Patel, Jatin; Patel, Harshida; Dhorajia, Pragnesh; Tanna, V.; Atrey, P. K.; Manchanda, R.; Gupta, Manoj; Joisa, Shankar; Gupta, C. N.; Danial, Raju; Singh, Prashant; Jha, R.; Bora, D.

    2015-03-01

    In SST-1, 42GHz ECRH system has been commissioned to carry out breakdown and heating experiments at 0.75T and 1.5T operating toroidal magnetic fields. The 42GHz ECRH system consists of high power microwave source Gyrotron capable to deliver 500kW microwave power for 500ms duration, approximately 20 meter long transmission line and a mirror based launcher. The ECRH power in fundamental O-mode & second harmonic X-mode is launched from low field side (radial port) of the tokamak. At 0.75T operation, approximately 300 kW ECH power is launched in second harmonic X-mode and successful ECRH assisted breakdown is achieved at low loop_voltage ~ 3V. The ECRH power is launched around 45ms prior to loop voltage. The hydrogen pressure in tokamak is maintained ~ 1×10-5mbar and the pre-ionized density is ~ 4×1012/cc. At 1.5T operating toroidal magnetic field, the ECH power is launched in fundamental O-mode. The ECH power at fundamental harmonic is varied from 100 kW to 250 kW and successful breakdown is achieved in all ECRH shots. In fundamental harmonic there is no delay in breakdown while at second harmonic ~ 40ms delay is observed, which is normal in case of second harmonic ECRH assisted breakdown.

  20. Design of multipulse Thomson scattering diagnostic for SST-1 tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajai; Chavda, Chhaya; Saxena, Y. C.; Singh, Ranjeet; Thakar, Aruna; Thomas, Jinto; Patel, Kiran; Pandya, Kaushal; Bedakihale, Vijay

    2007-04-01

    A multipulse Nd:YAG (Yttrium aluminum garnet) Thomson scattering (TS) system is designed and developed for measuring electron temperature (Te) and density (ne) profiles of SST-1 tokamak. The system operates at vertical, divertor, and horizontal (midplane) regions of plasma and measures the electron temperature of 20eVto1.5keV and density of 1018-1019m-3. Six Nd:YAG lasers synchronized with external control is used to get three different temporal resolutions (30Hz, 180Hz, and 1kHz). The entire system is laboratory tested for the stability of alignment and performance over a distance of 30m. Different imaging lens assemblies are designed to image the scattered photons from each of the scattering region to an array of optical fibers. A low cost and compact five-channel interference filter polychromator is designed, fabricated, and tested for its image quality and the filter transmission characteristics. Detection system with an avalanche photodiode and required signal conditioning electronics is developed for detecting the scattered photons. A data acquisition and control module operating on PXI bus is developed for the real time data acquisition and system control. A detailed description of design and testing of TS subsystems is presented in this article.

  1. Regime shift of the South China Sea SST in the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Bijoy; Tkalich, Pavel; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2016-05-01

    Decadal variability of the South China Sea (SCS) sea surface temperature (SST) during 1982-2014 is investigated using observations and ocean reanalysis datasets. The SCS SST shows an abrupt transition from a cold-to-warm regime in the late 1990s. Based on the long-term SST variability two epochs are defined, 1982-1996 and 2000-2014 as cold and warm regimes respectively, spanning on either side of the 1997-1999 SCS warming. Despite the occurrence of strong El Nino induced warming events, the SST anomalies tend to be negative in the cold regime. Conversely during the warm regime, the positive SST anomalies have dominated over the La Nina driven cooling events. The cold (warm) SST regime is marked by net heat gain (loss) by the SCS. The long-term variations of net surface heat flux are mainly driven by the latent heat flux anomalies while the short wave flux plays a secondary role. Low-frequency variability of the South China Sea throughflow (SCSTF) appears to be closely related to the SCS SST regime shift. The SCSTF shows reversing trends during the cold and warm epochs. The weakened SCSTF in the warm regime has promoted the SCS warming by limiting the outward flow of warm water from the SCS. Meanwhile, enhanced SCSTF during the cold regime acts as a cooling mechanism and lead to persistent negative SST anomalies. The change in trend of the SCSTF and SST regime shift coincides with the switching of pacific decadal oscillation from a warm to cold phase in the late 1990s.

  2. Near real time SST retrievals from Himawari-8 at NOAA using ACSPO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramar, M.; Ignatov, A.; Petrenko, B.; Kihai, Y.; Dash, P.

    2016-05-01

    Japanese Himawari-8 (H8) satellite was launched on October 7, 2014 and placed into a geostationary orbit at ~ 140.7°E. The Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) onboard H8 provides full-disk (FD) observations every 10 minutes, in 16 solar reflectance and thermal infrared (IR) bands, with spatial resolution at nadir of 0.5-1 km and 2 km, respectively. The NOAA Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Ocean (ACSPO) SST system, previously used with several polar-orbiting sensors, was adapted to process the AHI data. The AHI SST product is routinely validated against quality controlled in situ SSTs available from the NOAA in situ SST Quality monitor (iQuam). The product performance is monitored in the NOAA SST Quality Monitor (SQUAM) system. Typical validation statistics show a bias within +/-0.2 K and standard deviation of 0.4-0.6 K. The ACSPO H8 SST is also compared with the NOAA heritage SST produced at OSPO from the Multifunctional Transport Satellite (MTSAT-2; renamed Himawari-7, or H7 after launch) and with another H8 SST produced by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). This paper describes the ACSPO AHI SST processing and results of validation and comparisons. Work is underway to generate a reduced volume ACSPO AHI SST product L2C (collated in time; e.g., 1-hr instead of current 10-min) and/or L3C (additionally gridded in space). ACSPO AHI processing chain will be applied to the data of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), which will be flown onboard the next generation US geostationary satellite, GOES-R, scheduled for launch in October 2016.

  3. How much of the interannual variability of East Asian summer rainfall is forced by SST?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Wu, Bo; Li, Chunhui; Lin, Ailan; Gu, Dejun; Zheng, Bin; Zhou, Tianjun

    2016-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the interannual variability of East Asian summer rainfall is forced by sea surface temperature (SST), and SST anomalies are widely used as predictors of East Asian summer rainfall. But it is still not very clear what percentage of the interannual rainfall variability is contributed by SST anomalies. In this study, Atmospheric general circulation model simulations forced by observed interannual varying SST are compared with those forced by the fixed annual cycle of SST climatology, and their ratios of interannual variance (IAV) are analyzed. The output of 12 models from the 5th Phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) are adopted, and idealized experiments are done by Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4). Both the multi-model median of CMIP5 models and CAM4 experiments show that only about 18 % of the IAV of rainfall over East Asian land (EAL) is explained by SST, which is significantly lower than the tropical western Pacific, but comparable to the mid-latitude western Pacific. There is no significant difference between the southern part and the northern part of EAL in the percentages of SST contribution. The remote SST anomalies regulates rainfall over EAL probably by modulating the horizontal water vapor transport rather than the vertical motion, since the horizontal water vapor transport into EAL is strongly modulated by SST but the vertical motion over EAL is not. Previous studies argued about the relative importance of tropical Indian Ocean and tropical Pacific Ocean to East Asian summer rainfall anomalies. Our idealized experiments performed by CAM4 suggest that the contributions from these two ocean basins are comparable to each other, both of which account for approximately 6 % of the total IAV of rainfall over EAL.

  4. NASA Langley's Formal Methods Research in Support of the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2008-01-01

    This talk will provide a brief introduction to the formal methods developed at NASA Langley and the National Institute for Aerospace (NIA) for air traffic management applications. NASA Langley's formal methods research supports the Interagency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) effort to define and develop the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS). The JPDO was created by the passage of the Vision 100 Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act in Dec 2003. The NGATS vision calls for a major transformation of the nation s air transportation system that will enable growth to 3 times the traffic of the current system. The transformation will require an unprecedented level of safety-critical automation used in complex procedural operations based on 4-dimensional (4D) trajectories that enable dynamic reconfiguration of airspace scalable to geographic and temporal demand. The goal of our formal methods research is to provide verification methods that can be used to insure the safety of the NGATS system. Our work has focused on the safety assessment of concepts of operation and fundamental algorithms for conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) and self- spacing in the terminal area. Formal analysis of a concept of operations is a novel area of application of formal methods. Here one must establish that a system concept involving aircraft, pilots, and ground resources is safe. The formal analysis of algorithms is a more traditional endeavor. However, the formal analysis of ATM algorithms involves reasoning about the interaction of algorithmic logic and aircraft trajectories defined over an airspace. These trajectories are described using 2D and 3D vectors and are often constrained by trigonometric relations. Thus, in many cases it has been necessary to unload the full power of an advanced theorem prover. The verification challenge is to establish that the safety-critical algorithms produce valid solutions that are guaranteed to maintain separation

  5. Investigating Indoor Air Quality Using a Community-based Participatory Research Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, A. M.; Ware, G. E.; Iwasaki, P. G.; Main, D.; Billingsley, L. R.; Pandya, R.; Hannigan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Our project seeks to expand scientific knowledge of air pollutant screening methods while also gathering data a community group can use to improve local health outcomes. Working with Taking Neighborhood Health to Heart (TNH2H), a Denver-based neighborhood group with significant experience doing community-based participatory research (CBPR) related to improving individual and community health, we designed a project to help residents test their homes for two contaminants of interest: radon and perchloroethylene. Radon is naturally occurring and commonly found across Colorado. Perchloroethylene contamination has been discovered in other parts of Denver and residents of Northeast Denver would like to learn more about its possible presence in their neighborhood. Additionally while radon is simple to test for, the same cannot be said for perchloroethylene. This project provides an opportunity to pilot a low-cost sampling method for perchloroethylene, apply TNH2H's CBPR model to an environmental health issue, adapt it for the geosciences, and engage the community in education around air quality issues. Data collected during the project will be shared with participating homes and the larger community. Community members will also participate in understanding and interpreting the data, and together community members and scientists will plan possible next steps, which may involve conducting further research, taking community action, or recommending changes in policy and practice. Beyond the local impacts, we are testing an air quality sampling method that could make sampling more accessible to a broader range of communities. We are also learning more about how communities and scientists can best work together and what additional resources can help facilitate and ensure successful implementation of these types of projects. Our partner, the Thriving Earth Exchange, will use what we learn to facilitate scientist-community partnerships like this in other communities around the

  6. Research Opportunities for Cancer Associated with Indoor Air Pollution from Solid-Fuel Combustion

    PubMed Central

    Ghazarian, Armen A.; DeMarini, David M.; Sapkota, Amir; Jack, Darby; Lan, Qing; Winn, Deborah M.; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Indoor air pollution (IAP) derived largely from the use of solid fuels for cooking and heating affects about 3 billion people worldwide, resulting in substantial adverse health outcomes, including cancer. Women and children from developing countries are the most exposed populations. A workshop was held in Arlington, Virginia, 9–11 May 2011, to better understand women’s and children’s potential health effects from IAP in developing countries. Workshop participants included international scientists, manufacturers, policy and regulatory officials, community leaders, and advocates who held extensive discussions to help identify future research needs. Objectives: Our objective was to identify research opportunities regarding IAP and cancer, including research questions that could be incorporated into studies of interventions to reduce IAP exposure. In this commentary, we describe the state of the science in understanding IAP and its associations with cancer and suggest research opportunities for improving our understanding of the issues. Discussion: Opportunities for research on IAP and cancer include studies of the effect of IAP on cancers other than lung cancer; studies of genetic factors that modify susceptibility; studies to determine whether the effects of IAP are mediated via germline, somatic, and/or epigenetic changes; and studies of the effects of IAP exposure via dermal and/or oral routes. Conclusions: IAP from indoor coal use increases the risk of lung cancer. Installing chimneys can reduce risk, and some genotypes, including GSTM1-null, can increase risk. Additional research is needed regarding the effects of IAP on other cancers and the effects of different types of solid fuels, oral and dermal routes of IAP exposure, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, and genetic susceptibility. PMID:22846419

  7. AFHRL/FT [Air Force Human Resources Laboratory/Flight Training] Capabilities in Undergraduate Pilot Training Simulation Research: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheny, W. G.; And Others

    The document presents a summary description of the Air Force Human Resource Laboratory's Flying Training Division (AFHRL/FT) research capabilities for undergraduate pilot training. One of the research devices investigated is the Advanced Simulator for Undergraduate Pilot Training (ASUPT). The equipment includes the ASUPT, the instrumented T-37…

  8. The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) - Article in National Ambient Air Quality Status and Trends through 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research study that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted in Detroit, Michigan, named the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS), will help develop data that improves our understanding of human exposure to various air pollutants in our environment.

  9. Pseudo Aircraft Systems - A multi-aircraft simulation system for air traffic control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weske, Reid A.; Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    Pseudo Aircraft Systems (PAS) is a computerized flight dynamics and piloting system designed to provide a high fidelity multi-aircraft real-time simulation environment to support Air Traffic Control research. PAS is composed of three major software components that run on a network of computer workstations. Functionality is distributed among these components to allow the system to execute fast enough to support real-time operation. PAS workstations are linked by an Ethernet Local Area Network, and standard UNIX socket protocol is used for data transfer. Each component of PAS is controlled and operated using a custom designed Graphical User Interface. Each of these is composed of multiple windows, and many of the windows and sub-windows are used in several of the components. Aircraft models and piloting logic are sophisticated and realistic and provide complex maneuvering and navigational capabilities. PAS will continually be enhanced with new features and improved capabilities to support ongoing and future Air Traffic Control system development.

  10. Australian Air Breathing Propulsion Research for Hypersonic, Beamed Energy-Propelled Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froning, David

    2010-05-01

    A three year laser-propelled vehicle analysis and design investigation has been begun in June, 2009 by Faculty and graduate students at the University of Adelaide under a Grant/Cooperative Agreement Award to the University of Adelaide by the Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development (AOARD). The major objectives of thsis investigation are: (a) development of hypersonic, air breathing "lightcraft" with innovative air inlets that enable acceptable airflow capture and combustion, and acceptable cowl-lip heating rates during hot, high-speed, high angle-of-attack hypersonic flight; (b) yest of the most promising lightcraft and inlet design in the high power laser beam that is part of the shock tunnel facility at CTO Instituto in Brazil; and (c) plan a series of laser guided and propelled flights that achieve supersonic or higher speed at the Woomera Test Facility (WTF) in South Australia—using the existing WTF launching and tracking facilities and sponsor-provided laser pointing and tracking and illumination systems.

  11. SAMPLE AOR CALCULATION USING ANSYS FULL PARAMETRIC MODEL FOR TANK SST-SX

    SciTech Connect

    JULYK, L.J.; MACKEY, T.C.

    2003-06-19

    This document documents the ANSYS parametric 360-degree model for single-shell tank SX and provides sample calculation for analysis-of-record mechanical load conditions. The purpose of this calculation is to develop a parametric full model for the single shell tank (SST) SX to deal with asymmetry loading conditions and provide a sample analysis of the SST-SX tank based on analysis of record (AOR) loads. The SST-SX model is based on buyer-supplied as-built drawings and information for the AOR for SSTs, encompassing the existing tank load conditions, and evaluates stresses and deformations throughout the tank and surrounding soil mass.

  12. SAMPLE AOR CALCULATION USING ANSYS SLICE PARAMETRIC MODEL FOR TANK SST-SX

    SciTech Connect

    JULYK, L.J.; MACKEY, T.C.

    2003-06-19

    This document documents the ANSYS slice parametric model for single-shell tank SX and provides sample calculation for analysis-of-record mechanical load conditions. The purpose of this calculation is to develop a parametric model for the single shell tank (SST) SX, and provide a sample analysis of the SST-SX tank based on analysis of record (AOR) loads. The SST-SX model is based on buyer-supplied as-built drawings and information for the AOR for SSTs, encompassing the existing tank load conditions, and evaluates stresses and deformations throughout the tank and surrounding soil mass.

  13. SAMPLE AOR CALCULATION USING ANSYS AXISYMMETRIC PARAMETRIC MODEL FOR TANK SST-SX

    SciTech Connect

    JULYK, L.J.; MACKEY, T.C.

    2003-06-19

    This document documents the ANSYS axisymmetric parametric model for single-shell tank SX and provides sample calculation for analysis-of-record mechanical load conditions. The purpose of this calculation is to develop a parametric model for single shell tank (SST) SX, and provide a sample analysis of the SST-SX tank based on analysis of record (AOR) loads. The SST-SX model is based on buyer-supplied as-built drawings and information for the AOR for SSTs, encompassing the existing tank load conditions, and evaluates stresses and deformations throughout the tank and surrounding soil mass.

  14. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Own, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Institute University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) Monograph series has published the Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the World Conference on Transportation Research Society (WCTR) volume 1, number 3. The topics included in this document are: 1) Industrial Reform and Air Transport Development in China; 2) The Economic Effects of Airline Deregulation and the Open-Sky Policy of Korea; 3) The Economic Effects of Airline Deregulation and the Open-Sky Policy of Korea; 4) "Open Skies" in India-Is the policy succeeding? 5) The Japanese Domestic Air Fares under the Regulatory Regime: What will be expected after the revision of current charging system? 6) The Competitive Position of Airline Networks; and 7) Air Transport and Regional Economic Development in the European Union.

  15. Repair of Corrosion in Air Supply Piping at the NASA Glenn Research Center's 1 by 1 Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Michael

    2000-01-01

    During a test at the NASA Glenn Research Center's 1 x 1 Supersonic Wing Tunnel, it was discovered that particles entrained in the air flow were damaging the pressure sensitive paint on a test article. An investigation found the source of the entrained particles to be rust on the internal surfaces of the air supply piping. To remedy the situation, the air supply line components made from carbon steel were either refurbished or replaced with new stainless steel components. The refurbishment process included various combinations of chemical cleaning, bead blasting, painting and plating.

  16. Expanding AirSTAR Capability for Flight Research in an Existing Avionics Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughter, Sean A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) project is an Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) test bed for experimental flight control laws and vehicle dynamics research. During its development, the test bed has gone through a number of system permutations, each meant to add functionality to the concept of operations of the system. This enabled the build-up of not only the system itself, but also the support infrastructure and processes necessary to support flight operations. These permutations were grouped into project phases and the move from Phase-III to Phase-IV was marked by a significant increase in research capability and necessary safety systems due to the integration of an Internal Pilot into the control system chain already established for the External Pilot. The major system changes in Phase-IV operations necessitated a new safety and failsafe system to properly integrate both the Internal and External Pilots and to meet acceptable project safety margins. This work involved retrofitting an existing data system into the evolved concept of operations. Moving from the first Phase-IV aircraft to the dynamically scaled aircraft further involved restructuring the system to better guard against electromagnetic interference (EMI), and the entire avionics wiring harness was redesigned in order to facilitate better maintenance and access to onboard electronics. This retrofit and harness re-design will be explored and how it integrates with the evolved Phase-IV operations.

  17. Return glider radiosonde for in situ upper-air research measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kräuchi, Andreas; Philipona, Rolf

    2016-06-01

    Upper-air balloon soundings for weather predictions have been made since the beginning of the 20th century. New radiosonde instruments for in situ humidity-, radiation- and gas-profile measurements in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere, were introduced in recent years for atmospheric research and climate monitoring, but such instruments are often expensive and it is desired they be reused on multiple flights. Recovering instruments that freely descend with parachutes is time consuming, sometimes difficult and even dangerous. Here, we introduce the return glider radiosonde (RGR), which enables flying and retrieving valuable in situ upper-air instruments. The RGR is lifted with weather balloons similar to traditional radiosondes to a preset altitude, at which time a release mechanism cuts the tether string, and a built-in autopilot flies the glider autonomously back to the launch site or a desired preprogrammed location. Once the RGR reaches the landing coordinates it circles down and releases a parachute 100 m above ground for landing. The motivation for this project was to measure radiation profiles throughout the atmosphere with the same instrument multiple times and with a rapid turn-around time. The paper describes technical aspects of the return glider radiosonde and the built-in radiation instruments and shows test flights up to 24 km altitude that are analyzed in terms of flight performance and maximal distances covered. Several successive flights measuring radiation profiles demonstrate the reliability and the operational readiness of the RGR, allowing new ways for atmospheric in situ research and monitoring with payloads up to several kg depending on the specific size of the glider.

  18. [Scientific research in public health institutions of the City of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Fernando; Ossorio, María Fabiana; Eiguch, Kumiko

    2013-01-01

    Hospitals with academic activities offer better services to their patients. The Government of Buenos Aires City (GBAC) has an important network of health facilities, but there is little information regarding their academic activities. Our aim was to estimate the proportion of articles included in MEDLINE originated in GBAC hospitals, to evaluate their contribution regarding the whole country (Argentina), and to describe some characteristics of these papers. It is a cross-sectional study based on a MEDLINE search, using the name of each of the 33 GBAC hospitals in the "affiliation" field. Among 22 million references, 1781 belonged to GBAC hospitals (4.4% of all references from Argentina); 66.5% were in English, 83.7% were related to humans, 30.1% were from the last 5 years, 8.3% included high level scientific evidence research (meta-analysis or randomized controlled trials), and 31.1% included research in children. Regarding the rest of the references from Argentina, those from GBAC hospitals included less papers in English (66.5% vs. 90.0%; OR: 0.22; p < 0.0001), less recent papers (30.1% vs. 34.6%; OR: 0.81; p < 0.0001), more research in humans (83.7% vs. 37.3%; OR: 8.65; p < 0.0001), more randomized controlled trials (8.0% vs. 2.8%; OR: 2,9; p < 0.0001), and more research in children (31.1% vs. 9.2%; OR: 4.44; p < 0.0001). GBAC hospitals contributed with 4.4% of references attributed to Argentina in MEDLINE. References from GBAC hospitals were less recent, and included more randomized controlled trials and research in children.

  19. Diamine Derivatives as Novel Small-Molecule, Potent, and Subtype-Selective Somatostatin SST3 Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A novel class of small-molecule, highly potent, and subtype-selective somatostatin SST3 agonists was discovered through modification of a SST3 antagonist. As an example, (1R,2S)-9 demonstrated not only potent in vitro SST3 agonist activity but also in vivo SST3 agonist activity in a mouse oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). These agonists may be useful reagents for studying the physiological roles of the SST3 receptor and may potentially be useful as therapeutic agents. PMID:24944745

  20. Meteorological Processes Affecting Air Quality – Research and Model Development Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meteorology modeling is an important component of air quality modeling systems that defines the physical and dynamical environment for atmospheric chemistry. The meteorology models used for air quality applications are based on numerical weather prediction models that were devel...

  1. ONE ATMOSPHERE MODELING FOR AIR QUALITY: BUILDING PARTNERSHIPS THAT TRANSITION RESEARCH INTO APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Miultiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system is a "one atmosphere" chemical transport model that simulates the transport and fate of air pollutants from urban to continental scales and from daily to annual time intervals.

  2. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution: focus on China

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Dana; Huang, Wei; Chen, Guosheng

    2014-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pollution and the particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, as based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong support by mechanistic studies. The data with important contributions to the evaluation are reviewed, highlighting the data with particular relevance to China, and implications of the evaluation with respect to China are discussed. The air pollution levels in Chinese cities are among the highest observed in the world today and frequently exceed health-based national and international guidelines. Data from high-quality epidemiologic studies in Asia, Europe, and North America consistently show positive associations between lung cancer and PM exposure and other indicators of air pollution, which persist after adjustment for important lung cancer risk factors, such as tobacco smoking. Epidemiologic data from China are limited but nevertheless indicate an increased risk of lung cancer associated with several air pollutants. Excess cancer risk is also observed in experimental animals exposed to polluted outdoor air or extracted PM. The exposure of several species to outdoor air pollution is associated with markers of genetic damage that have been linked to increased cancer risk in humans. Numerous studies from China, especially genetic biomarker studies in exposed populations, support that the polluted air in China is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. The evaluation by IARC indicates both the need for further research into the cancer risks associated with exposure to air pollution in China and the urgent need to act to reduce exposure to the population. PMID:24694836

  3. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution: focus on China.

    PubMed

    Loomis, Dana; Huang, Wei; Chen, Guosheng

    2014-04-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pollution and the particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, as based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong support by mechanistic studies. The data with important contributions to the evaluation are reviewed, highlighting the data with particular relevance to China, and implications of the evaluation with respect to China are discussed. The air pollution levels in Chinese cities are among the highest observed in the world today and frequently exceed health-based national and international guidelines. Data from high-quality epidemiologic studies in Asia, Europe, and North America consistently show positive associations between lung cancer and PM exposure and other indicators of air pollution, which persist after adjustment for important lung cancer risk factors, such as tobacco smoking. Epidemiologic data from China are limited but nevertheless indicate an increased risk of lung cancer associated with several air pollutants. Excess cancer risk is also observed in experimental animals exposed to polluted outdoor air or extracted PM. The exposure of several species to outdoor air pollution is associated with markers of genetic damage that have been linked to increased cancer risk in humans. Numerous studies from China, especially genetic biomarker studies in exposed populations, support that the polluted air in China is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. The evaluation by IARC indicates both the need for further research into the cancer risks associated with exposure to air pollution in China and the urgent need to act to reduce exposure to the population.

  4. Single Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Sequence & Double Shell Tank (DST) Space Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    HOHL, T.M.

    2001-09-20

    This document describes the baseline single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval sequence for the River Protection Project updated for Fiscal Year 2002. The double-shell tank (DST) space evaluation presents projected DST needs for Hanford for additional DSTs.

  5. Single Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Sequence and Double Shell Tank (DST) Space Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    KIRCH, N.W.

    2003-09-23

    This document describes the baseline single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval sequence for the River Protection Project updated for Fiscal Year 2002. The double-shell tank (DST) space evaluation presents projected DST needs for Hanford for additional DSTs.

  6. Single Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Sequence & Double Shell Tank (DST) Space Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    STRODE, J.N.

    2002-09-23

    This document describes the baseline single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval sequence for the River Protection Project updated for Fiscal Year 2002. The double-shell tank (DST) space evaluation presents projected DST needs for Hanford for additional DSTs.

  7. Specification and prediction of global surface temperature and precipitation from global SST using CCA

    SciTech Connect

    Barnston, A.G.; Smith, T.M.

    1996-11-01

    A reconstructed sea surface temperature (SST) dataset is used to examine relationships between SST and seasonal mean surface temperature (T) and total precipitation (P) over most of the global continents for the 1950-92 period. Both specification (i.e., simultaneous) and predictive relations are studied. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is used to describe the relationships and to provide information aiding in physical interpretation. A sequence of four consecutive 3-month periods of global SST anomalies is related to T and P anomalies during the fourth period for the specification analyses, and to 3-month periods ranging from one to four seasons later for the predictive analyses. Dynamical specifications of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) atmospheric model, using observed SST anomalies as boundary conditions are also examined for confirmation of and comparison with the statistical specification relationships suggested by the CCA. 70 refs., 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Numerical simulation of changes in tropical cyclone intensity using a coupled air-sea model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yihong; Wu, Rongsheng; Yu, Runling; Liang, Xudong

    2013-10-01

    A coupled air-sea model for tropical cyclones (TCs) is constructed by coupling the Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research mesoscale model (MM5) with the Princeton Ocean Model. Four numerical simulations of tropical cyclone development have been conducted using different configurations of the coupled model on the f-plane. When coupled processes are excluded, a weak initial vortex spins up into a mature symmetric TC that strongly resembles those observed and simulated in prior research. The coupled model reproduces the reduction in sea temperature induced by the TC reasonably well, as well as changes in the minimum central pressure of the TC that result from negative atmosphere-ocean feedbacks. Asymmetric structures are successfully simulated under conditions of uniform environmental flow. The coupled ocean-atmosphere model is suitable for simulating air-sea interactions under TC conditions. The effects of the ocean on the track of the TC and changes in its intensity under uniform environmental flow are also investigated. TC intensity responds nonlinearly to sea surface temperature (SST). The TC intensification rate becomes smaller once the SST exceeds a certain threshold. Oceanic stratification also influences TC intensity, with stronger stratification responsible for a larger decrease in intensity. The value of oceanic enthalpy is small when the ocean is weakly stratified and large when the ocean is strongly stratified, demonstrating that the oceanic influence on TC intensity results not only from SST distributions but also from stratification. Air-sea interaction has only a slight influence on TC movement in this model.

  9. Truncated somatostatin receptor variant sst5TMD4 confers aggressive features (proliferation, invasion and reduced octreotide response) to somatotropinomas

    PubMed Central

    Luque, Raúl M.; Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Neto, Leonardo Vieira; Taboada, Giselle F.; Hormaechea-Agulla, Daniel; Kasuki, Leandro; Venegas-Moreno, Eva; Moreno-Carazo, Alberto; Gálvez, María Ángeles; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Kineman, Rhonda D.; Culler, Michael D.; Gahete, Manuel D.; Gadelha, Mônica R.; Castaño, Justo P.

    2015-01-01

    The GH/IGF1 response of somatotropinomas to somatostatin analogues (SSA) is associated with their pattern of somatostatin receptor (sst1–sst5) expression. Recently, we demonstrated that expression of a truncated sst5-variant (sst5TMD4) can influence the secretory response of somatotropinomas to SSA-therapy; however, its potential relationship with aggressive features (e.g. invasion/proliferation) is still unknown. Here, we show that sst5TMD4 is present in 50% of non-functioning pituitary-adenomas (NFPA) (n = 30) and 89% of somatotropinomas (n = 36), its expression levels being highest in somatotropinomas > > NFPAs > > > normal pituitaries (negligible expression; n = 8). In somatotropinomas, sst5TMD4 mRNA and protein levels correlated positively, and its expression was directly associated with tumor invasiveness (cavernous/sphenoid sinus), and inversely correlated with age and GH/IGF1 reduction after 3–6 months with octreotide-LAR therapy. GNAS+ somatotropinomas expressed lower sst5TMD4 levels. ROC analysis revealed sst5TMD4 expression as the only marker, within all sst-subtypes, capable to predict tumor invasiveness in somatotropinomas. sst5TMD4 overexpression increased cell viability in cultured somatotropinoma (n = 5). Hence, presence of sst5TMD4 associates with increased aggressive features and worse prognosis in somatotropinomas, thereby providing a potentially useful tool to refine somatotropinoma diagnosis, predict outcome of clinical response to SSA-therapy and develop new therapeutic targets. PMID:25637790

  10. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Charlene W.; Crow, Sidney A.; Fischer, John

    Understanding the primary causes of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and how controllable factors--proper heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert problems may help all building owners, operators, and…

  11. Pre- analysis assessment of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) products in the region of Malaysian coastal water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, M. A. H.; Omar, K. M.; Din, A. H. M.; Reba, M. N. M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the pre-analysis of validation between the acquisition satellite data and in situ data. To carry out this assessment, Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data are acquired to be regressed with SST In situ. With the launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite with a sensor on the Terra spacecraft, data sets of the global distribution of sea surface temperature are retrieved, and need to be validated and analyzed. Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS) also has an archived data of Optimal Interpolation SST (OISST) that can be retrieved based on satellite track of altimeter. The aim of this paper is to present intercomparison study between pixel based (MODIS SST) and point based (RADS SST). The value of root mean square error (rmse) is computed to see the performance of the data product. It is an assessment and evaluation to see the performance for both data. The objective of this paper is to evaluate Malaysian coastal area through validation with in situ data. To achieve the objective, we perform pre-analysis study of the MODIS products and RADS SST to see the performance of both data in terms of spatial value during seasonal changes. However, the scope of this analysis covers only on the spatial MODIS pixel value and the OISST point value during the southwest monsoon daytime. From the result, RADS SST/RADS show higher root mean square error (rmse) at 0.731/0.677 (before calibration) and 0.6951/0.476 (after calibration). From the rmse result, we could deduce that the RADS SST has random error arising from the fact that the interpolated points are based on the track.

  12. Multi-model ensemble analysis of Pacific and Atlantic SST variability in unperturbed climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchettin, D.; Bothe, O.; Rubino, A.; Jungclaus, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    We assess internally-generated climate variability expressed by a multi-model ensemble of unperturbed climate simulations. We focus on basin-scale annual-average sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from twenty multicentennial pre-industrial control simulations contributing to the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Ensemble spatial patterns of regional modes of variability and ensemble (cross-)wavelet-based phase-frequency diagrams of corresponding paired indices summarize the ensemble characteristics of inter-basin and regional-to-global SST interactions on a broad range of timescales. Results reveal that tropical and North Pacific SSTs are a source of simulated interannual global SST variability. The North Atlantic-average SST fluctuates in rough co-phase with the global-average SST on multidecadal timescales, which makes it difficult to discern the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) signal from the global signal. The two leading modes of tropical and North Pacific SST variability converge towards co-phase in the multi-model ensemble, indicating that the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) results from a combination of tropical and extra-tropical processes. No robust inter- or multi-decadal inter-basin SST interaction arises from our ensemble analysis between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, though specific phase-locked fluctuations occur between Pacific and Atlantic modes of SST variability in individual simulations and/or periods within individual simulations. The multidecadal modulation of PDO by the AMV identified in observations appears to be a recurrent but not typical feature of ensemble-simulated internal variability. Understanding the mechanism(s) and circumstances favoring such inter-basin SST phasing and related uncertainties in their simulated representation could help constraining uncertainty in decadal climate predictions.

  13. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bayer, C.W.

    2001-02-22

    chemical sensitivity versus bioaerosols (aerosolized microbes), or the contribution of the microorganisms to the chemical sensitivities, is not yet understood. If the inhabitants of a building exhibit similar symptoms of a clearly defined disease with a nature and time of onset that can be related to building occupancy, the disease is generally referred to as ''building-related illness.'' Once the SBS has been allowed to elevate to this level, buildings are typically evacuated and the costs associated with disruption of the building occupants, identification of the source of the problem, and eventual remediation can be significant. Understanding the primary causes of IAQ problems and how controllable factors--proper HVAC system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert the problems may help all building owners, operators, and occupants to be more productive (Arens and Baughman 1996). This paper provides a comprehensive summary of IAQ research that has been conducted in various types of facilities. However, it focuses primarily on school facilities because, for numerous reasons that will become evident, they are far more susceptible to developing IAQ problems than most other types of facilities; and the occupants, children, are more significantly affected than adults (EPA 1998).

  14. Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretonnière, Pierre-Antoine; Benincasa, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality" More than ever in the history of Earth sciences, scientists are confronted with the problem of dealing with huge amounts of data that grow continuously at a rate that becomes a challenge to process and analyse them using conventional methods. Data come from many different and widely distributed sources, ranging from satellite platforms and in-situ sensors to model simulations, and with different degrees of openness. How can Earth scientists deal with this diversity and big volume and extract useful information to understand and predict the relevant processes? The Research Data Alliance (RDA, https://rd-alliance.org/), an organization that promotes and develops new data policies, data standards and focuses on the development of new technical solutions applicable in many distinct areas of sciences, recently entered in its third phase. In this framework, an Interest Group (IG) comprised of community experts that are committed to directly or indirectly enable and facilitate data sharing, exchange, or interoperability in the fields of weather, climate and air quality has been created recently. Its aim is to explore and discuss the challenges for the use and efficient analysis of large and diverse datasets of relevance for these fields taking advantage of the knowledge generated and exchanged in RDA. At the same time, this IG intends to be a meeting point between members of the aforementioned communities to share experiences and propose new solutions to overcome the forthcoming challenges. Based on the collaboration between several research meteorological and European climate institutes, but also taking into account the input from the private (from the renewable energies, satellites and agriculture sectors for example) and public sectors, this IG will suggest practical and applicable solutions for Big Data issues, both at technological and policy level, encountered by these communities. We

  15. Time-Resolved Optical Measurements of Fuel-Air Mixedness in Windowless High Speed Research Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    1998-01-01

    Fuel distribution measurements in gas turbine combustors are needed from both pollution and fuel-efficiency standpoints. In addition to providing valuable data for performance testing and engine development, measurements of fuel distributions uniquely complement predictive numerical simulations. Although equally important as spatial distribution, the temporal distribution of the fuel is an often overlooked aspect of combustor design and development. This is due partly to the difficulties in applying time-resolved diagnostic techniques to the high-pressure, high-temperature environments inside gas turbine engines. Time-resolved measurements of the fuel-to-air ratio (F/A) can give researchers critical insights into combustor dynamics and acoustics. Beginning in early 1998, a windowless technique that uses fiber-optic, line-of-sight, infrared laser light absorption to measure the time-resolved fluctuations of the F/A (refs. 1 and 2) will be used within the premixer section of a lean-premixed, prevaporized (LPP) combustor in NASA Lewis Research Center's CE-5 facility. The fiber-optic F/A sensor will permit optical access while eliminating the need for film-cooled windows, which perturb the flow. More importantly, the real-time data from the fiber-optic F/A sensor will provide unique information for the active feedback control of combustor dynamics. This will be a prototype for an airborne sensor control system.

  16. Fiber laser beam combining and power scaling progress: Air Force Research Laboratory Laser Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, T. J.

    2012-02-01

    Numerous achievements have been made recently by researchers in the areas of fiber laser beam combining and power scaling. Industry has demonstrated multi-kW power from a single fiber amplifier, and a US national laboratory has coherently combined eight fiber amplifiers totaling 4 kW. This paper will survey the recent literature and then focus on fiber laser results from the Laser Division, Directed Energy Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Progress has been made in the power scaling of narrow-linewidth fiber amplifiers, and we are transitioning lessons learned from PCF power scaling into monolithic architectures. SBS suppression has been achieved using a variety of techniques to lower the Brillioun gain, including acoustically tailored fiber, laser gain competition resulting from multitone seeding and inducing a longitudinal thermal gradient. We recently demonstrated a 32-channel coherent beam combination result using AFRL's phaselocking technique and are focused on exploring the limitations of this technique including linewidth broadening, kW-induced phase nonlinearities and auto-tuning methods for large channel counts. Additionally, we have recently refurbished our High Energy Laser Joint Technology Office-sponsored 16-amplifier fiber testbed to meet strict PER, spatial drift, power stability and beam quality requirements.

  17. Air Force Research Laboratory Spacecraft Cryocooler Endurance Evaluation Facility Closing Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, J.; Martin, K. W.; Fraser, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Spacecraft Component Thermal Research Group has been devoted to evaluating lifetime performance of space cryocooler technology for over twenty years. Long-life data is essential for confirming design lifetimes for space cryocoolers. Continuous operation in a simulated space environment is the only accepted method to test for degradation. AFRL has provided raw data and detailed evaluations to cryocooler developers for advancing the technology, correcting discovered deficiencies, and improving cryocooler designs. At AFRL, units of varying design and refrigeration cycles were instrumented in state-of-the-art experiment stands to provide spacelike conditions and were equipped with software data acquisition to track critical cryocooler operating parameters. This data allowed an assessment of the technology's ability to meet the desired lifetime and documented any long-term changes in performance. This paper will outline a final report of the various flight cryocoolers tested in our laboratory. The data summarized includes the seven cryocoolers tested during 2014-2015. These seven coolers have a combined total of 433,326 hours (49.5 years) of operation.

  18. Research on pseudolite and its application in air-based information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingjuan; Xie, Shuxiang; Gao, Wen

    2006-11-01

    Some research results of pseudolite (PL)'s application in air-based information system are presented in this paper. The study include followings: 1) A regional positioning system (RPS) using PL alone. 2) A PL/INS or PL/INS/Optical detector integrated approaching and landing system for aircrafts and MAVs. 3) A PL/INS/Odometer integrated navigation system for ground-moving vehicles. The positioning scheme and models of integration are presented, and some simulation results are introduced and analyzed. Some special problems of the PL signal, such as near-far problem, multipath problem and time synchronization, are also discussed in the paper. The research work is important for navigation/positioning when GPS signal is jammed or is not available. Also, the PL/INS and the PL/INS/Odometer integrated navigation system can be extended to civil airplane approaching and landing system, taking off and landing evaluation system and high precision positioning and fast azimuth determining system.

  19. Weather Research and Forecasting Model Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Bauman, William H., III

    2008-01-01

    NASA prefers to land the space shuttle at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). When weather conditions violate Flight Rules at KSC, NASA will usually divert the shuttle landing to Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) in Southern California. But forecasting surface winds at EAFB is a challenge for the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) forecasters due to the complex terrain that surrounds EAFB, One particular phenomena identified by SMG is that makes it difficult to forecast the EAFB surface winds is called "wind cycling". This occurs when wind speeds and directions oscillate among towers near the EAFB runway leading to a challenging deorbit bum forecast for shuttle landings. The large-scale numerical weather prediction models cannot properly resolve the wind field due to their coarse horizontal resolutions, so a properly tuned high-resolution mesoscale model is needed. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model meets this requirement. The AMU assessed the different WRF model options to determine which configuration best predicted surface wind speed and direction at EAFB, To do so, the AMU compared the WRF model performance using two hot start initializations with the Advanced Research WRF and Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model dynamical cores and compared model performance while varying the physics options.

  20. Weather Research and Forecasting Model Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Bauman, William H., III; Hoeth, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This abstract describes work that will be done by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in assessing the success of different model configurations in predicting "wind cycling" cases at Edwards Air Force Base, CA (EAFB), in which the wind speeds and directions oscillate among towers near the EAFB runway. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model allows users to choose among two dynamical cores - the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) and the Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM). There are also data assimilation analysis packages available for the initialization of the WRF model - the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) and the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS). Having a series of initialization options and WRF cores, as well as many options within each core, creates challenges for local forecasters, such as determining which configuration options are best to address specific forecast concerns. The goal of this project is to assess the different configurations available and determine which configuration will best predict surface wind speed and direction at EAFB.

  1. Research on precise modeling of buildings based on multi-source data fusion of air to ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongqiang; Niu, Lubiao; Yang, Shasha; Li, Lixue; Zhang, Xitong

    2016-03-01

    Aims at the accuracy problem of precise modeling of buildings, a test research was conducted based on multi-source data for buildings of the same test area , including top data of air-borne LiDAR, aerial orthophotos, and façade data of vehicle-borne LiDAR. After accurately extracted the top and bottom outlines of building clusters, a series of qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out for the 2D interval between outlines. Research results provide a reliable accuracy support for precise modeling of buildings of air ground multi-source data fusion, on the same time, discussed some solution for key technical problems.

  2. Atmospheric Response to Zonal Variations in Midlatitude SST: Transient and Stationary Eddies and Their Feedback(.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inatsu, Masaru; Mukougawa, Hitoshi; Xie, Shang-Ping

    2003-10-01

    Midwinter storm track response to zonal variations in midlatitude sea surface temperatures (SSTs) has been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model under aquaplanet and perpetual-January conditions. Zonal wavenumber-1 SST variations with a meridionally confined structure are placed at various latitudes. Having these SST variations centered at 30°N leads to a zonally localized storm track, while the storm track becomes nearly zonally uniform when the same SST forcing is moved farther north at 40° and 50°N. Large (small) baroclinic energy conversion north of the warm (cold) SST anomaly near the axis of the storm track (near 40°N) is responsible for the large (small) storm growth. The equatorward transfer of eddy kinetic energy by the ageostrophic motion and the mechanical damping are important to diminish the storm track activity in the zonal direction.Significant stationary eddies form in the upper troposphere, with a ridge (trough) northeast of the warm (cold) SST anomaly at 30°N. Heat and vorticity budget analyses indicate that zonally localized condensational heating in the storm track is the major cause for these stationary eddies, which in turn exert a positive feedback to maintain the localized storm track by strengthening the vertical shear near the surface. These results indicate an active role of synoptic eddies in inducing deep, tropospheric-scale response to midlatitude SST variations. Finally, the application of the model results to the real atmosphere is discussed.

  3. The Met Office's new operational analysis system for diurnally varying skin-SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    While, James; Mao, Chongyuan; Martin, Matthew; Good, Simon; Sykes, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Diurnal variations in skin Sea Surface Temperature (skin SST), which can be as large as several degrees, play an important role in determining the heat flux between the ocean and atmosphere. As such, since February 2015 the Met Office, as part of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS), has been producing an operational analysis of the diurnal cycle of skin SST. This product consists of three components: an underlying 'foundation' SST (based on the OSTIA analysis), a warm layer where solar heating is important, and a cool skin where cooling due to long wave radiation dominates. A major development in this system is the use of a 4D-Var data assimilation technique with multiple outer-loops to improve estimates of the warm layer. Observations assimilated come from the SEVIRI, GOES-W, MTSAT2, and NOAA-AVHRR infra-red satellite instruments. Through their assimilation, the observations act to update the applied heat and wind flux such that the diurnal cycle in the warm layer is improved. In this presentation we describe the analysis system and how it produces a skin SST product. Particular attention is paid to the data assimilation aspects and on the observation processing. We also present results from a three month validation period showing that the system is well able to reproduce a drifter based climatology of the diurnal cycle in SST. A direct validation of our diurnal SST output against near surface Argo data is also given.

  4. The control, monitor, and alarm system for the ICT equipment of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tanci, Claudio; Conforti, Vito; Tacchini, Alessandro; Leto, Giuseppe; Gallozzi, Stefano; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Trifoglio, Massimo; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Zoli, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI is an Italian flagship project whose first goal is the realization of an end-to-end telescope prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The prototype will be installed in Italy during Fall 2014. A second goal will be the realization of the ASTRI/CTA mini-array which will be composed of seven SST-2M telescopes placed at the CTA Southern Site. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment necessary to drive the infrastructure for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype is being designed as a complete and stand-alone computer center. The design goal is to obtain basic ICT equipment that might be scaled, with a low level of redundancy, for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array, taking into account the necessary control, monitor and alarm system requirements. The ICT equipment envisaged at the Serra La Nave observing station in Italy, where the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype will operate, includes computers, servers and workstations, network devices, an uninterruptable power supply system, and air conditioning systems. Suitable hardware and software tools will allow the parameters related to the behavior and health of each item of equipment to be controlled and monitored. This paper presents the proposed architecture and technical solutions that integrate the ICT equipment in the framework of the Observatory Control System package of the ASTRI/CTA Mini- Array Software System, MASS, to allow their local and remote control and monitoring. An end-toend test case using an Internet Protocol thermometer is reported in detail.

  5. Simulation Based Low-Cost Composite Process Development at the US Air Force Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Brian P.; Lee, C. William; Curliss, David B.

    2003-01-01

    Low-cost composite research in the US Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Organic Matrix Composites Branch has focused on the theme of affordable performance. Practically, this means that we use a very broad view when considering the affordability of composites. Factors such as material costs, labor costs, recurring and nonrecurring manufacturing costs are balanced against performance to arrive at the relative affordability vs. performance measure of merit. The research efforts discussed here are two projects focused on affordable processing of composites. The first topic is the use of a neural network scheme to model cure reaction kinetics, then utilize the kinetics coupled with simple heat transport models to predict, in real-time, future exotherms and control them. The neural network scheme is demonstrated to be very robust and a much more efficient method that mechanistic cure modeling approach. This enables very practical low-cost processing of thick composite parts. The second project is liquid composite molding (LCM) process simulation. LCM processing of large 3D integrated composite parts has been demonstrated to be a very cost effective way to produce large integrated aerospace components specific examples of LCM processes are resin transfer molding (RTM), vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), and other similar approaches. LCM process simulation is a critical part of developing an LCM process approach. Flow simulation enables the development of the most robust approach to introducing resin into complex preforms. Furthermore, LCM simulation can be used in conjunction with flow front sensors to control the LCM process in real-time to account for preform or resin variability.

  6. AIRS Sea Surface Temperature and Pacific Decadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L. L.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) has been providing necessary measurements for long term atmospheric and surface processes aboard NASA' s Aqua polar orbiter since May 2002. Here, we use time series of AIRS sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies to show the time evolution of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in the Gulf of Alaska (lon:-144.5, lat:54.5) from 2003 to 2014. PDO is connected to the first mode of North Pacific SST variability and is tele-connected to ENSO in the tropics. Further analysis of AIRS data can provide clarification of Pacific climate variability.

  7. Overview of Hanford Single Shell Tank (SST) Structural Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Rast, Richard S.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.

    2013-11-14

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project (SSTIP) in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration, Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The structural integrity of the tanks is a key element in completing the cleanup mission at the Hanford Site. There are eight primary recommendations related to the structural integrity of Hanford Single-Shell Tanks. Six recommendations are being implemented through current and planned activities. The structural integrity of the Hanford is being evaluated through analysis, monitoring, inspection, materials testing, and construction document review. Structural evaluation in the form of analysis is performed using modern finite element models generated in ANSYS. The analyses consider in-situ, thermal, operating loads and natural phenomena such as earthquakes. Structural analysis of 108 of 149 Hanford Single-Shell Tanks has concluded that the tanks are structurally sound and meet current industry standards. Analysis of the remaining Hanford Single-Shell Tanks is scheduled for FY2014. Hanford Single-Shell Tanks are monitored through a dome deflection program. The program looks for deflections of the tank dome greater than 1/4 inch. No such deflections have been recorded. The tanks are also subjected to visual inspection. Digital cameras record the interior surface of

  8. "Air Toxics under the Big Sky": Examining the Effectiveness of Authentic Scientific Research on High School Students' Science Skills and Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Tony J.; Delaloye, Naomi; Adams, Earle Raymond; Ware, Desirae; Vanek, Diana; Knuth, Randy; Hester, Carolyn Laurie; Marra, Nancy Noel; Holian, Andrij

    2016-01-01

    "Air Toxics Under the Big Sky" is an environmental science outreach/education program that incorporates the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) 8 Practices with the goal of promoting knowledge and understanding of authentic scientific research in high school classrooms through air quality research. This research explored: (1)…

  9. Networking Multiple Autonomous Air and Ocean Vehicles for Oceanographic Research and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Rajan, K.

    2013-12-01

    Autonomous underwater and surface vessels (AUVs and ASVs) are coming into wider use as components of oceanographic research, including ocean observing systems. Unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) are now available at modest cost, allowing multiple UAVs to be deployed with multiple AUVs and ASVs. For optimal use good communication and coordination among vehicles is essential. We report on the use of multiple AUVs networked in communication with multiple UAVs. The UAVs are augmented by inferential reasoning software developed at MBARI that allows UAVs to recognize oceanographic fronts and change their navigation and control. This in turn allows UAVs to automatically to map frontal features, as well as to direct AUVs and ASVs to proceed to such features and conduct sampling via onboard sensors to provide validation for airborne mapping. ASVs can also act as data nodes for communication between UAVs and AUVs, as well as collecting data from onboard sensors, while AUVs can sample the water column vertically. This allows more accurate estimation of phytoplankton biomass and productivity, and can be used in conjunction with UAV sampling to determine air-sea flux of gases (e.g. CO2, CH4, DMS) affecting carbon budgets and atmospheric composition. In particular we describe tests in July 2013 conducted off Sesimbra, Portugal in conjunction with the Portuguese Navy by the University of Porto and MBARI with the goal of tracking large fish in the upper water column with coordinated air/surface/underwater measurements. A thermal gradient was observed in the infrared by a low flying UAV, which was used to dispatch an AUV to obtain ground truth to demonstrate the event-response capabilities using such autonomous platforms. Additional field studies in the future will facilitate integration of multiple unmanned systems into research vessel operations. The strength of hardware and software tools described in this study is to permit fundamental oceanographic measurements of both ocean

  10. Reflective and antireflective coatings for the optical chain of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnoli, Giacomo; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Catalano, Osvaldo; Pareschi, Giovanni; Perri, Luca; Stringhetti, Luca

    2013-09-01

    ASTRI is a Flagship Project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF. One of the main aims of the ASTRI Project is the design, construction and on-field verification of a dual mirror (2M) end-to-end prototype for the Small Size Telescope (SST) envisaged to become part of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype is designed according to the Schwarzschild-Couder optical scheme, and adopts a camera based on Silicon Photo Multipliers (SiPM); it will be assembled at the INAF astronomical site of Serra La Nave on mount Etna (Catania, Italy) in the second half of 2014, and will start scientific validation phase soon after. With its 4m wide primary dish, the telescope will be sensitive to multi-TeV Very High Energy (VHE) gamma rays up to 100 TeV and above, with a point spread function of ~2 arcminutes and a wide (semiaperture 4.8°) corrected field of view. The peculiarities of the optical design and of the SiPM bandpass pushed towards specifically optimized choices in terms of reflective coatings for both the primary and the secondary mirror. Fully dielectric multi-layer coatings have been developed and tested as an option for the primary mirror, aiming to filter out the large Night Sky Background contamination at wavelengths λ>~700 nm. On the other hand, for the large monolithic secondary mirror a simpler design with quartz-overcoated aluminium has been optimized for incidences far from normality. The conformation of the ASTRI camera in turn pushed towards the design of a reimaging system based on thin pyramidal light guides, that could be optionally integrated in the focal surface, aiming to increase the fill factor. An anti-reflective coating optimized for a wide range of incident angles faraway from normality was specifically developed to enhance the UV-optical transparency of these elements. The issues, strategy, simulations and experimental results are thoroughly

  11. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Möller, L; Schuetzle, D; Autrup, H

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents key conclusions and future research needs from a Workshop on the Risk Assessment of Urban Air, Emissions, Exposure, Risk Identification, and Quantification, which was held in Stockholm during June 1992 by 41 participants from 13 countries. Research is recommended in the areas of identification and quantification of toxics in source emissions and ambient air, atmospheric transport and chemistry, exposure level assessment, the development of improved in vitro bioassays, biomarker development, the development of more accurate epidemiological methodologies, and risk quantification techniques. Studies are described that will be necessary to assess and reduce the level of uncertainties associated with each step of the risk assessment process. International collaborative research efforts between industry and government organizations are recommended as the most effective way to carry out this research. PMID:7529703

  12. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF MOBILE SOURCE AIR TOXICS IN THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from the first two years of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) were evaluated to determine spatial and temporal characteristics in concentrations of mobile source air toxics (MSATs). Outdoor concentrations of MSATs were significantly higher in samples co...

  13. The Design of Research Laboratories. Part I: A General Assessment. Part II: Air Conditioning and Conditioned Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legget, R. F.; Hutcheon, N. B.

    Design factors in the planning of research laboratories are described which include--(1) location, (2) future expansion, (3) internal flexibility, (4) provision of services, (5) laboratory furnishing, (6) internal traffic, (7) space requirements, and (8) building costs. A second part discusses air-conditioning and conditioned rooms--(1)…

  14. Methodological and Ethical Dilemmas Encountered during Field Research of Family Violence Experienced by Adolescent Women in Buenos Aires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luxardo, Natalia; Colombo, Graciela; Iglesias, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine some obstacles and dilemmas related to methodological strategies and ethical considerations that arose during the fieldwork of research focused on family violence during the stages of pregnancy and childbirth in adolescent females in Buenos Aires during 2007. From this study, we are able to contribute some…

  15. Current research in NRMRL on the mitigation of near-road air pollution by vegetative and structural barriers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous research studies published in scientific literature have shown that people living, working, and going to school near large roads experience increased adverse health effects. In addition, studies show that air pollution is worse in close proximity to major roadways (e.g....

  16. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute has published the 1997 Proceedings of the Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society. Items published in this three volume, seven monograph series were presented at the triennial ATRG Conference held at the University of British Columbia, June 25-27, 1997. A wide variety of policy issues are discussed including the following: open- skies agreements, liberalization, globalization, airline competition, airport performance, pricing, hubs, and safety, among others.

  17. Spacecraft environmental interactions: A joint Air Force and NASA research and technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, C. P.; Purvis, C. K.; Hudson, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    A joint Air Force/NASA comprehensive research and technology program on spacecraft environmental interactions to develop technology to control interactions between large spacecraft systems and the charged-particle environment of space is described. This technology will support NASA/Department of Defense operations of the shuttle/IUS, shuttle/Centaur, and the force application and surveillance and detection missions, planning for transatmospheric vehicles and the NASA space station, and the AFSC military space system technology model. The program consists of combined contractual and in-house efforts aimed at understanding spacecraft environmental interaction phenomena and relating results of ground-based tests to space conditions. A concerted effort is being made to identify project-related environmental interactions of concern. The basic properties of materials are being investigated to develop or modify the materials as needed. A group simulation investigation is evaluating basic plasma interaction phenomena to provide inputs to the analytical modeling investigation. Systems performance is being evaluated by both groundbased tests and analysis.

  18. Pasireotide and octreotide antiproliferative effects and sst2 trafficking in human pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cultures.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amira; Blanchard, Marie-Pierre; Albertelli, Manuela; Barbieri, Federica; Brue, Thierry; Niccoli, Patricia; Delpero, Jean-Robert; Monges, Genevieve; Garcia, Stephane; Ferone, Diego; Florio, Tullio; Enjalbert, Alain; Moutardier, Vincent; Schonbrunn, Agnes; Gerard, Corinne; Barlier, Anne; Saveanu, Alexandru

    2014-10-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) raise difficult therapeutic problems despite the emergence of targeted therapies. Somatostatin analogs (SSA) remain pivotal therapeutic drugs. However, the tachyphylaxis and the limited antitumoral effects observed with the classical somatostatin 2 (sst2) agonists (octreotide and lanreotide) led to the development of new SSA, such as the pan sst receptor agonist pasireotide. Our aim was to compare the effects of pasireotide and octreotide on cell survival, chromogranin A (CgA) secretion, and sst2 phosphorylation/trafficking in pancreatic NET (pNET) primary cells from 15 tumors. We established and characterized the primary cultures of human pancreatic tumors (pNETs) as powerful preclinical models for understanding the biological effects of SSA. At clinically relevant concentrations (1-10 nM), pasireotide was at least as efficient as octreotide in inhibiting CgA secretion and cell viability through caspase-dependent apoptosis during short treatments, irrespective of the expression levels of the different sst receptors or the WHO grade of the parental tumor. Interestingly, unlike octreotide, which induces a rapid and persistent partial internalization of sst2 associated with its phosphorylation on Ser341/343, pasireotide did not phosphorylate sst2 and induced a rapid and transient internalization of the receptor followed by a persistent recycling at the cell surface. These results provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of striking differences in the dynamics of sst2 trafficking in pNET cells treated with the two SSAs, but with similar efficiency in the control of CgA secretion and cell viability.

  19. Impact of biennial SST oscillation on the Southeast Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Kim, K. Y.

    2014-12-01

    How the biennial oscillation of global SST, one of the main components of ENSO, affects the Southeast Asia summer monsoon is analyzed. The biennial mode is extracted from the 142-year (1871-2012) Extended Reconstruction SST version 3 data using cyclostationary EOF (CSEOF) analysis. Based on regression analysis in CSEOF space, evolutions of key atmospheric variables are obtained to be consistent with the long-term variation of the biennial mode. Atmospheric variables are derived from the twentieth century (20C) reanalysis version 2 data. The biennial oscillation, primarily in the tropical Pacific, influences the monsoons in the Indo-Pacific region. Summer monsoonal change can be explained in terms of the change in monsoon precipitation accompanied with low-level moisture convergence and large-scale atmospheric circulation. In the equatorial region, SST anomaly directly triggers the vertical motion and horizontal wind such that zonal circulation across the Pacific and Indian Oceans is set up. In the subtropical Asian region, both cyclonic or anticyclonic circulation over the northwestern Pacific and the meridional circulation over the Indo-Pacific region induced by the equatorial SST change affects the Southeast Asian monsoon, and henceforth the monsoon precipitation. When positive SST anomaly develops in the eastern tropical Pacific, precipitation decreases over the tropical Indian Ocean and the Maritime Continent (10°S-5°N, 40°-150°E) and increases over Southeast Asia (5°N-20°N, 90°-150°E). With negative SST anomaly in the eastern tropical Pacific, the situation reverses. Based on the spatio-temporal evolution patterns for key physical variables and corresponding long-term variability, physical link through atmosphere-ocean interactions is explored between the biennial mode of SST and the Southeast Asian summer monsoon.

  20. Evaluation of the optical cross talk level in the SiPMs adopted in ASTRI SST-2M Cherenkov Camera using EASIROC front-end electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impiombato, D.; Giarrusso, S.; Mineo, T.; Agnetta, G.; Biondo, B.; Catalano, O.; Gargano, C.; La Rosa, G.; Russo, F.; Sottile, G.; Belluso, M.; Billotta, S.; Bonanno, G.; Garozzo, S.; Marano, D.; Romeo, G.

    2014-02-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana), is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research whose main goal is the design and construction of an end-to-end prototype of the Small Size of Telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, will adopt a wide field dual mirror optical system in a Schwarzschild-Couder configuration to explore the VHE range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The camera at the focal plane is based on Silicon Photo-Multipliers detectors which is an innovative solution for the detection astronomical Cherenkov light. This contribution reports some preliminary results on the evaluation of the optical cross talk level among the SiPM pixels foreseen for the ASTRI SST-2M camera.

  1. Effects of agriculture upon the air quality and climate: research, policy, and regulations.

    PubMed

    Aneja, Viney P; Schlesinger, William H; Erisman, Jan Willem

    2009-06-15

    Scientific assessments of agricultural air quality, including estimates of emissions and potential sequestration of greenhouse gases, are an important emerging area of environmental science that offers significant challenges to policy and regulatory authorities. Improvements are needed in measurements, modeling, emission controls, and farm operation management. Controlling emissions of gases and particulate matter from agriculture is notoriously difficult as this sector affects the most basic need of humans, i.e., food. Current policies combine an inadequate science covering a very disparate range of activities in a complex industry with social and political overlays. Moreover, agricultural emissions derive from both area and point sources. In the United States, agricultural emissions play an important role in several atmospherically mediated processes of environmental and public health concerns. These atmospheric processes affect local and regional environmental quality, including odor, particulate matter (PM) exposure, eutrophication, acidification, exposure to toxics, climate, and pathogens. Agricultural emissions also contribute to the global problems caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural emissions are variable in space and time and in how they interact within the various processes and media affected. Most important in the U.S. are ammonia (where agriculture accounts for approximately 90% of total emissions), reduced sulfur (unquantified), PM25 (approximately 16%), PM110 (approximately 18%), methane (approximately 29%), nitrous oxide (approximately 72%), and odor and emissions of pathogens (both unquantified). Agriculture also consumes fossil fuels for fertilizer production and farm operations, thus emitting carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), sulfur oxides (SO(x)), and particulates. Current research priorities include the quantification of point and nonpoint sources, the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of ammonia, reduced sulfur

  2. Healthier Schools: A Review of State Policies for Improving Indoor Air Quality. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Tobie

    Existing indoor air quality (IAQ) policies for schools reflect the variety of institutional, political, social, and economic contexts that exist within individual states. The purpose of this report is to provide a better understanding of the types of policy strategies used by states in addressing general indoor air quality problems. The policies…

  3. Temperature and Humidity Independent Control Research on Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Wang, L. L.

    Taking green demonstration center building air conditioning system as an example, this paper presents the temperature and humidity independent control system combined with ground source heat pump system, emphasis on the design of dry terminal device system, fresh air system and ground source heat pump system.

  4. Climate change and air pollution in megacities: A challenge for interdisciplinary research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suppan, Peter; Gurjar, B. R.

    2010-05-01

    The impact of climate change on Megacities as well as feedback mechanisms from urban conglomerations to climate change are issues which will have major consequences to the urban life quality. One of such issues is the impact of climate change on air quality in Megacities and its future development as well as the contribution of green house gases (GHG) from urban emissions to climate change. Based on a survey of more than 500 stakeholders from 25 cites it was expressed, that air pollution is the most significant environmental challenge followed by traffic congestion issues. This statement enforces the scientific work on air quality in which vehicular emissions play a major role for the air pollution in urban conglomerations and further - interdisciplinary - investigations on air pollution have to be done. In view of the ongoing climate change - which will amplify environmental problems - it is important that the scientific community of climate change, air pollution, health and social science experts convene with regional and local stakeholders in order to introduce suitable measures and to reduce and minimize air pollution levels and health impacts. Results of the assessment of the air quality, the impact of global climate change and its consequences on human health in large urban agglomerations will be discussed and presented.

  5. Research report on the physiological effects of air ions and their significance as environmental factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varga, A.

    1978-01-01

    The series of experiments performed have shown that small air ions generated artificially using radioactive materials produced physiological effects in all test subjects, which are described. These results show that the air ions were important climatic factors in the production of comfortable and healthy room climates.

  6. IMPACTS OF AIR POLLUTION AND CLIMATE CHANGE ON FOREST ECOSYSTEMS - EMERGING RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outcomes from the 22nd meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems "Forests under Anthropogenic Pressure - Effects of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Urban Development", September 10-16, 2006, Riverside, CA, USA are summarized. Tropospheric ozone is st...

  7. The Mg - SST relationship in mollusc shells: is there a rule? Examples from three tropical species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazareth, C. E.; Guzmán, N.; Lecornec, F.; Cabioch, G.; Ortlieb, L.

    2009-04-01

    The geochemistry of mollusc shells is currently viewed as a powerful tool for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Indeed, molluscs are ubiquitous animals, with a worldly geographical and environmental distribution, providing various environmental records. Moreover, mollusc shells are abundantly found in fossil and archaeological settings. In the paleoclimatic reconstructions, the sea-surface temperatures (SST) are a key parameter. If shell stable oxygen isotope signatures can provide accurate SST records, this proxy is also influenced by the water isotopic composition. To find another tracer which would depend on the SST solely, the relationship between Mg content changes in mollusc shell and SST has been investigated for a few years. Nevertheless, if the reliability of shell Mg as SST tracer has been proven in some species, this is clearly not a "universal" and definitive rule. To reconstruct the past tropical SSTs, Mg calibration studies were undertaken on Concholepas concholepas (gastropod, South America), Protothaca thaca (bivalve, South America) and Tridacna squamosa (bivalve, New Caledonia). The very high-resolution (infra-daily) analyses of the C. concholepas gastropod revealed a significant metabolism control, at the nyctemeral scale, on the Mg incorporation into the calcite shell layer. Over a two months period, the Mg fluctuations in C. concholepas shell do not match with the SST instrumental measurements. Mg content changes along the aragonitic shell growth axis of several living P. thaca from a same Peruvian site are significantly different indicating no relationship between Mg and SST. The Mg variations measured in a Chilean P. thaca shell are, surprisingly, similar to variations of the instrumental SST. Unless this quite reliable relationship between P. thaca shell and SST is confirmed, and that the inter-site difference in Mg response to environmental forcing is understood, P. thaca shell Mg cannot be used as SST proxy. Lastly, a preliminary work

  8. Homologous upregulation of sst2 somatostatin receptor expression in the rat arcuate nucleus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, G S; Turner, J; Guo, F; Videau, C; Epelbaum, J; Beaudet, A

    2001-07-01

    In vitro studies using various cell systems have provided conflicting results regarding homologous regulation of somatostatin (SRIH) receptors, and information on whether SRIH regulates the expression of its own receptors in vivo is lacking. In the present study we examined, by in situ hybridization, the effects of pretreatment with the sst2-preferring SRIH analog, octreotide, in vivo, on mRNA levels of two SRIH receptor subtypes, sst1 and sst2, in rat brain and pituitary. (125)I-[DTrp(8)]-SRIH binding was also measured in these regions. Three hours after the iv injection of 50 microg octreotide to conscious adult male rats, there was a 46% increase (p < 0.01) in the labeling density of sst2 mRNA-expressing cells in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus compared to normal saline-pretreated controls, but not in any of the other brain regions examined. Computer-assisted image analysis revealed that 3 h exposure to octreotide significantly (p < 0.01) augmented both the number and labeling density of sst2 mRNA-expressing cells in the arcuate nucleus, compared to those in saline-treated controls. By contrast, within the anterior pituitary gland, in vivo exposure to octreotide did not affect the expression of sst2 mRNA. No changes in sst1 mRNA-expressing cells were observed after octreotide treatment in any of the regions measured, indicating that the observed effects were homologous, i.e. specific of the receptor subtype stimulated. Octreotide pretreatment was also without effect on the density of (125)I-[DTrp(8)]-SRIH binding in either the arcuate nucleus or pituitary. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that SRIH preexposure in vivo upregulates the expression of a subtype of its own receptors, sst2, within the central nervous system. They further suggest that pretreatment with SRIH in vivo does not cause sst2 receptor desensitization in arcuate nucleus and pituitary. Such homologous regulatory mechanisms may play an important role in the neuroendocrine control

  9. Homologous upregulation of sst2 somatostatin receptor expression in the rat arcuate nucleus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, G S; Turner, J; Guo, F; Videau, C; Epelbaum, J; Beaudet, A

    2001-07-01

    In vitro studies using various cell systems have provided conflicting results regarding homologous regulation of somatostatin (SRIH) receptors, and information on whether SRIH regulates the expression of its own receptors in vivo is lacking. In the present study we examined, by in situ hybridization, the effects of pretreatment with the sst2-preferring SRIH analog, octreotide, in vivo, on mRNA levels of two SRIH receptor subtypes, sst1 and sst2, in rat brain and pituitary. (125)I-[DTrp(8)]-SRIH binding was also measured in these regions. Three hours after the iv injection of 50 microg octreotide to conscious adult male rats, there was a 46% increase (p < 0.01) in the labeling density of sst2 mRNA-expressing cells in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus compared to normal saline-pretreated controls, but not in any of the other brain regions examined. Computer-assisted image analysis revealed that 3 h exposure to octreotide significantly (p < 0.01) augmented both the number and labeling density of sst2 mRNA-expressing cells in the arcuate nucleus, compared to those in saline-treated controls. By contrast, within the anterior pituitary gland, in vivo exposure to octreotide did not affect the expression of sst2 mRNA. No changes in sst1 mRNA-expressing cells were observed after octreotide treatment in any of the regions measured, indicating that the observed effects were homologous, i.e. specific of the receptor subtype stimulated. Octreotide pretreatment was also without effect on the density of (125)I-[DTrp(8)]-SRIH binding in either the arcuate nucleus or pituitary. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that SRIH preexposure in vivo upregulates the expression of a subtype of its own receptors, sst2, within the central nervous system. They further suggest that pretreatment with SRIH in vivo does not cause sst2 receptor desensitization in arcuate nucleus and pituitary. Such homologous regulatory mechanisms may play an important role in the neuroendocrine control

  10. Empirical prediction of Indian summer monsoon rainfall with different lead periods based on global SST anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, D. S.; Rajeevan, M.

    2006-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop empirical models with different seasonal lead time periods for the long range prediction of seasonal (June to September) Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR). For this purpose, 13 predictors having significant and stable relationships with ISMR were derived by the correlation analysis of global grid point seasonal Sea-Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies and the tendency in the SST anomalies. The time lags of the seasonal SST anomalies were varied from 1 season to 4 years behind the reference monsoon season. The basic SST data set used was the monthly NOAA Extended Reconstructed Global SST (ERSST) data at 2° × 2° spatial grid for the period 1951 2003. The time lags of the 13 predictors derived from various areas of all three tropical ocean basins (Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans) varied from 1 season to 3 years. Based on these inter-correlated predictors, 3 predictor sub sets A, B and C were formed with prediction lead time periods of 0, 1 and 2 seasons, respectively, from the beginning of the monsoon season. The selected principal components (PCs) of these predictor sets were used as the input parameters for the models A, B and C, respectively. The model development period was 1955 1984. The correct model size was derived using all-possible regressions procedure and Mallow’s “Cp” statistics.

  11. Operational use of high-resolution sst in a coupled sea ice-ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albretsen, A.

    2003-04-01

    A high-latitude, near real time, sea surface temperature (SST) product with 10 km resolution is developed at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (met.no) through the EUMETSAT project OSI-SAF (Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility). The product covers the Atlantic Ocean from 50N to 90N and is produced twice daily. A digitized SST and sea ice map is produced manually once a week at the Ice Mapping Service at met.no using all available information from the previous week. This map is the basis for a daily SST analysis, in which the most recent OSI-SAF SST products are successively overlaid. The resulting SST analysis field is then used in a simple data assimilation scheme in a coupled ice-ocean model to perform daily 10 days forecasts of ocean and sea ice variables. Also, the associated OSI-SAF sea ice concentration product, built from different polar orbiting satellites, is assimilated into the sea ice model. Preliminary estimates of impact on forecast skill and error statistics will be presented.

  12. Methylation of serum SST gene is an independent prognostic marker in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanqun; Chew, Min Hoe; Tham, Chee Kian; Tang, Choong Leong; Ong, Simon YK; Zhao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for accurate prognostication for colorectal cancer (CRC). This study sought to assess prognostic potentials of methylation targets in the serum of CRC patients. A total of 165 CRC patients were enrolled in this prospective study. Promoter methylation levels of seven genes in pre-operative sera and matched tumor tissues were evaluated by quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Kaplan-Meier test, and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for survival analyses. After a median follow-up of 56 months, 43 patients (28.7%) experienced tumor recurrence. In univariate survival analyses, serum methylation levels of SST and MAL were significantly predictive of cancer-specific death (P<0.005 for both). The former was also a significant predictor for tumor recurrence (P=0.007). Independent prognostic effects of serum methylation levels of SST were revealed by multivariate Cox regression model (P=0.031 and P=0.003 for cancer death and recurrence, respectively). When focusing on stage II and III patients, prognostication with serum methylated SST remained significant. Methylated SST detected in all serum samples can be traced back to the matched primary tumor tissues. We believe that methylated SST detected in the pre-operative sera of CRC patients appear to be a novel promising prognostic marker and probably can be auxiliary to tumor staging system and serum carcinoembryonic antigen towards better risk stratification. PMID:27725914

  13. Design analysis of an aluminum-air battery for vehicle operations. Transportation systems research

    SciTech Connect

    Behrin, E.; Wood, R.L.; Salisbury, J.D.; Whisler, D.J.; Hudson, C.L.

    1983-03-18

    The objective of the study reported was to perform a detailed configuration analysis of an aluminum-air battery, evaluate various automobile propulsion systems utilizing the Al-air battery, and estimate the performance and cost of vehicles incorporating these propulsion systems. A preliminary engineering design is performed. A physical model and a cell-performance model of a conceptual mass-produced Al-air battery were constructed and work together to characterize the battery system. The physical battery model is based on a specific battery design concept and defines the mass and volume of a complete Al-air battery system. The cell-performance model simulates the electrical and electrochemical characteristics of the battery. The physical model and two versions of the cell-performance model - near-term and optimistic - were used in a vehicle-conversion analysis to evaluate three automotive propulsion systems - Al-air battery only, Al-air battery/secondary battery, and Al-air battery/flywheel. (LEW)

  14. [Experimental research on combined water and air backwashing reactor technology for biological activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhi-Gang; Qiu, Xue-Min; Zhao, Yan-Ling

    2012-01-01

    To proper control the backwashing process of biological activated carbon (BAC) reactor and improve the overall operation performance, the evaluative indexes such as backwashing wastewater turbidity, organic pollutants removal rate of pre and post-backwashing, and the variation of biomass and biological activity in carbon column are used to compare and analyze the effect of three different combined water and air backwashing methods on the operation of BAC reactor. The result shows that intermittent combined water and air backwashing method is most suitable to BAC reactor. The biological activaty obviously increases by 62.5% after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process. While, the biological activaty using the backwashing method of air plus water and the backwashing method of water and air compounded plus water washing increases by 55.6%, 38.5%, respectively. After backwashing 308h, the reactor recovered to its normal function after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process with the removal rate of UV254 reaching to 60.0%. The fulvic-like fluorescence peak of backwashing water are very weak, and are characterized by low-excitation wavelength tryptophan like (peak S) and high excitation wavelength of tryptophan (peak T), which are caused by the microbial debris washed down. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectra also show that microbial fragments are easy to be washed clean with intermittent combined water and air backwashing. PMID:22452199

  15. [Experimental research on combined water and air backwashing reactor technology for biological activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhi-Gang; Qiu, Xue-Min; Zhao, Yan-Ling

    2012-01-01

    To proper control the backwashing process of biological activated carbon (BAC) reactor and improve the overall operation performance, the evaluative indexes such as backwashing wastewater turbidity, organic pollutants removal rate of pre and post-backwashing, and the variation of biomass and biological activity in carbon column are used to compare and analyze the effect of three different combined water and air backwashing methods on the operation of BAC reactor. The result shows that intermittent combined water and air backwashing method is most suitable to BAC reactor. The biological activaty obviously increases by 62.5% after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process. While, the biological activaty using the backwashing method of air plus water and the backwashing method of water and air compounded plus water washing increases by 55.6%, 38.5%, respectively. After backwashing 308h, the reactor recovered to its normal function after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process with the removal rate of UV254 reaching to 60.0%. The fulvic-like fluorescence peak of backwashing water are very weak, and are characterized by low-excitation wavelength tryptophan like (peak S) and high excitation wavelength of tryptophan (peak T), which are caused by the microbial debris washed down. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectra also show that microbial fragments are easy to be washed clean with intermittent combined water and air backwashing.

  16. Air pollution control technology for municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion facilities: capabilities and research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, J F; Young, J C

    1980-09-01

    Three major categories of waste-to-energy conversion processes in full-scale operation or advanced demonstration stages in the US are co-combustion, mass incineration, and pyrolysis. These methods are described and some information on US conversion facilities is tabulated. Conclusions and recommendations dealing with the operation, performance, and research needs for these facilities are given. Section II identifies research needs concerning air pollution aspects of the waste-to-energy processes and reviews significant operating and research findings for the co-combustion, mass incinceration, and pyrolysis waste-to-energy systems.

  17. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  18. Coupling between SST and wind speed over mesoscale eddies in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuangwen; Fang, Yue; Liu, Baochao; ᅟ, Tana

    2016-11-01

    The coupling between sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface wind speed over mesoscale eddies in the South China Sea (SCS) was studied using satellite measurements. Positive correlations between SST anomalies (SSTA) and wind speed anomalies were found over both cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies. In contrast to the open oceans, the spatial patterns of the coupling over mesoscale eddies in the SCS depend largely on the seasonal variations of the background SST gradient, wind speed, and wind directional steadiness. In summer, the maximum SSTA location coincides with the center of eddy-induced sea surface height anomalies. In winter, the eddy-induced SSTA show a clear dipole pattern. The spatial patterns of wind speed anomalies over eddies are similar to those of the SSTA in both seasons. Wind speed anomalies are linearly correlated with SSTA over anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies. The coupling coefficients between SSTA and wind speed anomalies in the SCS are comparable to those in the open oceans.

  19. Coupling between SST and wind speed over mesoscale eddies in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuangwen; Fang, Yue; Liu, Baochao; ᅟ, Tana

    2016-09-01

    The coupling between sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface wind speed over mesoscale eddies in the South China Sea (SCS) was studied using satellite measurements. Positive correlations between SST anomalies (SSTA) and wind speed anomalies were found over both cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies. In contrast to the open oceans, the spatial patterns of the coupling over mesoscale eddies in the SCS depend largely on the seasonal variations of the background SST gradient, wind speed, and wind directional steadiness. In summer, the maximum SSTA location coincides with the center of eddy-induced sea surface height anomalies. In winter, the eddy-induced SSTA show a clear dipole pattern. The spatial patterns of wind speed anomalies over eddies are similar to those of the SSTA in both seasons. Wind speed anomalies are linearly correlated with SSTA over anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies. The coupling coefficients between SSTA and wind speed anomalies in the SCS are comparable to those in the open oceans.

  20. Edge detection applied to SST fields. [front detection algorithm for Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cayula, Jean-Francois; Cornillon, Peter

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm designed to detect fronts automatically in satellite-derived sea-surface temperature (SST) fields is presented. The algorithm is operated at different levels to detect and differentiate between false and true edges. For purposes of comparison, the algorithm is applied to a test set of 98 SST images to detect the northern edge of the Gulf Stream. The algorithm successfully detected valid temperature fronts and ignored false edges, and also produced statistics about the temperature fronts that are useful in the subsequent analysis of these fronts. It is assumed that the algorithm performs equally well on other SST fronts such as those associated with rings, the subtropical convergence, or the shelf/slope fronts.

  1. Two Distinct Roles of Atlantic SSTs in ENSO Variability: North Tropical Atlantic SST and Atlantic Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jong-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct roles of the Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), namely, the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) SST and the Atlantic Nino, on the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability are investigated using the observational data from 1980 to 2010 and coupled model experiments. It appears that the NTA SST and the Atlantic Nino can be used as two independent predictors for predicting the development of ENSO events in the following season. Furthermore, they are likely to be linked to different types of El Nino events. Specifically, the NTA SST cooling during February, March, and April contributes to the central Pacific warming at the subsequent winter season, while the negative Atlantic Nino event during June, July, and August contributes to enhancing the eastern Pacific warming. The coupled model experiments support these results. With the aid of a lagged inverse relationship, the statistical forecast using two Atlantic indices can successfully predict various ENSO indices.

  2. A simulation for gravity fine structure recovery from high-low GRAVSAT SST data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. H.; Lancaster, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    Covariance error analysis techniques were applied to investigate estimation strategies for the high-low SST mission for accurate local recovery of gravitational fine structure, considering the aliasing effects of unsolved for parameters. Surface density blocks of 5 deg x 5 deg and 2 1/2 deg x 2 1/2 deg resolution were utilized to represent the high order geopotential with the drag-free GRAVSAT configured in a nearly circular polar orbit at 250 km. altitude. GEOPAUSE and geosynchronous satellites were considered as high relay spacecraft. It is demonstrated that knowledge of gravitational fine structure can be significantly improved at 5 deg x 5 deg resolution using SST data from a high-low configuration with reasonably accurate orbits for the low GRAVSAT. The gravity fine structure recoverability of the high-low SST mission is compared with the low-low configuration and shown to be superior.

  3. Technology base research on the slurry-zinc/air battery system: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sierra Alcazar, H.B.; Nguyen, P.D.; Pinoli, A.A.

    1988-08-01

    The slurry-Zn/air battery system has received renewed R and D interest because it does not have the shape-change problems of batteries with Zn-plate electrodes and can sustain higher current densities and specific peak power than other metal-air battery systems. Additional advantages of the slurry-Zn/air battery include safety, low environmental impact, potential low cost, and separation of energy density from power density functions for design purposes. In this work we present results obtained at the individual cell level as a basis to estimate the performance of a secondary slurry-Zn/air battery system. The expected specific energy of such systems has been increased as a result of the use of capacity-extension additives, which has been one of the major thrusts of this work. 8 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. The Role of Unmanned Aerial Systems-Sensors in Air Quality Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) and miniaturized sensors for a variety of scientific and security purposes has rapidly increased. UASs include aerostats (tethered balloons) and remotely controlled, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including lighter-than-air vessels, fix...

  5. Rapid evolution of air pollution sensor technology for research and consumer product applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor air pollution measurement approaches have historically been conducted using stationary shelters that require significant space, power, and expertise to operate. The cost and logistical requirements to conduct monitoring have limited the number of locations with continuou...

  6. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  7. Seamless Meteorology-Chemistry Modelling: Status and Relevance for Numerical Weather Prediction, Air Quality and Climate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; EuMetChem Team

    2015-04-01

    Online coupled meteorology atmospheric chemistry models have undergone a rapid evolution in recent years. Although mainly developed by the air quality modelling community, these models are also of interest for numerical weather prediction and climate modelling as they can consider not only the effects of meteorology on air quality, but also the potentially important effects of atmospheric composition on weather. Two ways of online coupling can be distinguished: online integrated and online access coupling. Online integrated models simulate meteorology and chemistry over the same grid in one model using one main timestep for integration. Online access models use independent meteorology and chemistry modules that might even have different grids, but exchange meteorology and chemistry data on a regular and frequent basis. This paper is an overall outcome of the European COST Action ES1004: European Framework for Online Integrated Air Quality and Meteorology Modelling (EuMetChem) and conclusions from the recently organized Symposium on Coupled Chemistry-Meteorology/Climate Modelling: Status and Relevance for Numerical Weather Prediction, Air Quality and Climate Research. It offers a review of the current research status of online coupled meteorology and atmospheric chemistry modelling, a survey of processes relevant to the interactions between atmospheric physics, dynamics and composition; and highlights selected scientific issues and emerging challenges that require proper consideration to improve the reliability and usability of these models for the three scientific communities: air quality, numerical meteorology modelling (including weather prediction) and climate modelling. It presents a synthesis of scientific progress and provides recommendations for future research directions and priorities in the development, application and evaluation of online coupled models.

  8. H. R. 4197: Clean Air Act Research Amendments of 1990. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, March 6, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    A bill, H.R.4197, has been introduced in the House of Representatives of the United States to amend the Clean Air Act with respect to research and development activities. This Act provides for conducting a program of research, testing, and development of methods for sampling, measurement, monitoring, analysis, and modeling of air pollutants, including precursors of acid deposition. A research program shall be conducted on the short- and long-term effects of air pollutants on human health, including the effects of acid rain. A research program shall be conducted to improve understanding of the causes, effects, and trends of ecosystems damage from air pollutants, including acid rain. In addition, a research program will be established to develop strategies and technologies for air pollution prevention, including the prevention of acid rain.

  9. ENSO related SST anomalies and relation with surface heat fluxes over south Pacific and Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Nuncio, M.; Satheesan, K.

    2016-09-01

    The role of surface heat fluxes in Southern Pacific and Atlantic Ocean SST anomalies associated with El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is studied using observation and ocean reanalysis products. A prominent dipole structure in SST anomaly is found with a positive (negative) anomaly center over south Pacific (65S-45S, 120W-70W) and negative (positive) one over south Atlantic (50S-30S, 30W-0E) during austral summer (DJF) of El Nino (LaNina). During late austral spring-early summer (OND) of El Nino (LaNina), anomalous northerly (southerly) meridional moisture transport and a positive (negative) sea level pressure anomaly induces a suppressed (enhanced) latent heat flux from the ocean surface over south Pacific. This in turn results in a shallower than normal mixed layer depth which further helps in development of the SST anomaly. Mixed layer thins further due to anomalous shortwave radiation during summer and a well developed SST anomaly evolves. The south Atlantic pole exhibits exactly opposite characteristics at the same time. The contribution from the surface heat fluxes to mixed layer temperature change is found to be dominant over the advective processes over both the basins. Net surface heat fluxes anomaly is also found to be maximum during late austral spring-early summer period, with latent heat flux having a major contribution to it. The anomalous latent heat fluxes between atmosphere and ocean surface play important role in the growth of observed summertime SST anomaly. Sea-surface height also shows similar out-of-phase signatures over the two basins and are well correlated with the ENSO related SST anomalies. It is also observed that the magnitude of ENSO related anomalies over the southern ocean are weaker in LaNina years than in El Nino years, suggesting an intensified tropics-high latitude tele-connection during warm phases of ENSO.

  10. Validation and Calibration of An Sst Proxy For Paleotempestology: A New Speleothem Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frappier, A.; Sahagian, D.

    It has been suggested that there is a link between tropical sea surface temperatures (SST) and the frequency of extreme weather events such as hurricanes. However, there is no quantitative relation, so the use of paleo-SSTs for the reconstruction of paleotem- pestology is problematical. Toward the end of validating and calibrating an SST proxy for hurricane frequency, we have developed a technique for extracting information regarding hurricane frequency from the geological archive preserved in speleothems. Speleothems are carbonate mineral deposits formed in caves by precipitation from rainwater that has percolated through soils and limestone bedrock. They are partic- ularly useful for paleoclimate studies because they are easily collected and preserve detailed evidence of a variety of environmental changes. New microsampling tech- niques (20-40 micron samples) now make it possible to analyze the stable isotopic composition of tropical stalagmites (~1mm/yr growth rates) at monthly to weekly tem- poral resolution. Because hurricane precipitation is isotopically light, the high-resolution record pre- served in speleothems makes it possible to identify individual hurricanes in the past. The oxygen isotopic record can thus be used to measure hurricane frequency for vari- ous time intervals in the past, and compared to SSTs for those intervals. When this is done for various centuries spanning a range of SST, it will calibrate the relationship between SST and hurricane frequency so that existing SST indicators (forams, etc.) can be used as proxies for hurricane frequency in various ocean basins. As such, it also allows for the prediction of future hurricane frequency on the basis of presently observed SST trends.

  11. Filamin-A is required to mediate SST2 effects in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Eleonora; Cambiaghi, Valeria; Zerbi, Alessandro; Carnaghi, Carlo; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Peverelli, Erika; Spada, Anna; Mantovani, Giovanna; Lania, Andrea G

    2016-03-01

    Somatostatin receptor type 2 (SST2) is the main pharmacological target of somatostatin (SS) analogues widely used in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (P-NETs), this treatment being ineffective in a subset of patients. Since it has been demonstrated that Filamin A (FLNA) is involved in mediating GPCR expression, membrane anchoring and signalling, we investigated the role of this cytoskeleton protein in SST2 expression and signalling, angiogenesis, cell adhesion and cell migration in human P-NETs and in QGP1 cell line. We demonstrated that FLNA silencing was not able to affect SST2 expression in P-NET cells in basal conditions. Conversely, a significant reduction in SST2 expression (-43 ± 21%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells) was observed in FLNA silenced QGP1 cells after long term SST2 activation with BIM23120. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of BIM23120 on cyclin D1 expression (-46 ± 18%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells), P-ERK1/2 levels (-42 ± 14%; P < 0.05 vs untreated cells), cAMP accumulation (-24 ± 3%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells), VEGF expression (-31 ± 5%, P < 0.01 vs untreated cells) and in vitro release (-40 ± 24%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells) was completely lost after FLNA silencing. Interestingly, BIM23120 promoted cell adhesion (+86 ± 45%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells) and inhibited cell migration (-24 ± 2%, P < 0.00001 vs untreated cells) in P-NETs cells and these effects were abolished in FLNA silenced cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that FLNA plays a crucial role in SST2 expression and signalling, angiogenesis, cell adhesion and cell migration in P-NETs and in QGP1 cell line, suggesting a possible role of FLNA in determining the different responsiveness to SS analogues observed in P-NET patients. PMID:26733502

  12. Contribution of Indian Ocean SST to Regional Rainfall Variability: Mechanisms and Implications for Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, M. H.; Ummenhofer, C. C.; Sen Gupta, A.

    2008-12-01

    The potential impact of Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in modulating low- to mid- latitude precipitation around the Indian Ocean-rim countries is examined in a series of atmospheric general circulation model simulations. Two sets of integrations of opposite sign forced with a seasonally evolving pattern in Indian Ocean SST with characteristics of both the tropical and subtropical Indian Ocean dipoles are shown to induce precipitation changes around the adjacent land masses. In additional experiments, the relative importance of the various tropical and subtropical Indian Ocean SST poles, both individually and in combination, to regional precipitation changes is quantified. A mechanism explaining the modification in the rainfall is proposed, by which the SST anomalies induce a reorganization of the large-scale atmospheric circulation across the Indian Ocean basin. The pattern of large-scale circulation changes over the tropical Indian Ocean and adjacent land masses is consistent with an anomalous strengthening of the Walker cell. A reduction (increase) in sea level pressure over the western (eastern) half of the Indian Ocean and converging (diverging) wind anomalies over East Africa (the Indonesian Archipelago) lead to moisture convergence (divergence) and increased (reduced) convective activity over the region. In the simulations, enhancement of the East African rainy season is predominantly driven by the local warm SST anomalies in the western equatorial Indian Ocean, while the eastern cold pole of the tropical Indian Ocean dipole is of lesser importance. Over the mid-latitudes, the SST anomalies give rise to changes in the thermal properties of the atmosphere, meridional thickness gradient, subtropical jet, thermal wind, and baroclinicity. This leads to shifts in the precipitation over western and southern regions of Australia.

  13. Mechanisms of Internally Generated Multidecadal Variability of SST in the Atlantic Ocean in a Coupled GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua; Schneider, Edwin; Wu, Zhiwei

    2015-04-01

    Mechanisms of the internally generated multidecadal variability of SST in the Atlantic Ocean are investigated in a long control simulation of the Community Climate System Model version 3 with constant external forcing. The interactive ensemble (IE) coupling strategy, with an ensemble of atmospheric GCMs (AGCM) coupled to an ocean model, a sea-ice model and a land model, is used to diagnose the roles of various processes in the coupled GCM (CGCM). The noise components of heat flux, wind stress and fresh water flux of the control simulation, determined from the CGCM surface fluxes by subtracting the SST-forced surface fluxes, estimated as the ensemble mean of AGCM simulations, are applied at the ocean surface of the IE in different regions and in different combinations. The IE simulations demonstrate that the climate variability in the control simulation is predominantly forced by noise. The local noise forcing is found to be responsible for the SST variability in the Atlantic Ocean, with noise heat flux and noise wind stress playing a critical role. The control run Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV) index is decomposed into interannual, decadal, multidecadal and centennial modes based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition, and the multidecadal mode of 50-year period is examined in detail. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) pattern in the atmosphere, dominated by the noise component, forces the AMV 50-year mode through noise heat flux and noise wind stress. The noise wind stress forcing on AMV is associated with ocean dynamics, including gyre adjustment and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The atmospheric response to SST, including the SST-forced heat flux and SST-forced wind stress, acts as a damping on AMV.

  14. Biomarker as a Research Tool in Linking Exposure to Air Particles and Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Some of the environmental toxicants from air pollution include particulate matter (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and ultrafine particles (UFP). Both short- and long-term exposure could result in various degrees of respiratory health outcomes among exposed persons, which rely on the individuals' health status. Methods. In this paper, we highlight a review of the studies that have used biomarkers to understand the association between air particles exposure and the development of respiratory problems resulting from the damage in the respiratory system. Data from previous epidemiological studies relevant to the application of biomarkers in respiratory system damage reported from exposure to air particles are also summarized. Results. Based on these analyses, the findings agree with the hypothesis that biomarkers are relevant in linking harmful air particles concentrations to increased respiratory health effects. Biomarkers are used in epidemiological studies to provide an understanding of the mechanisms that follow airborne particles exposure in the airway. However, application of biomarkers in epidemiological studies of health effects caused by air particles in both environmental and occupational health is inchoate. Conclusion. Biomarkers unravel the complexity of the connection between exposure to air particles and respiratory health. PMID:25984536

  15. Observed Local Soil Moisture-Atmosphere Feedbacks within the Context of Remote SST Anomalies: Lessons From Recent Droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, A. B.; Dirmeyer, P.; Lawrence, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The existence and possible transition from positive to negative soil moisture-atmosphere feedbacks is explored in this presentation using collocated flux tower measurements (Ameriflux) and atmospheric profiles from reanalysis. The focus is on the series of physical processes that lead to these local feedbacks connecting remote sea surface temperature changes (SST anomalies) to local soil moisture and boundary layer responses. Seasonal and Agricultural droughts are particularly useful test beds for examining these feedback processes because they are typically characterized by prolonged stretches of rain-free days followed by some termination condition. To quantify the full process-chain across these distinct spatial scales, complimentary information from several well-established land-atmosphere coupling metrics are used including, but not limited to, Mixing Diagram approaches, Soil Moisture Memory, and the Heated Condensation Framework. Preliminary analysis shows that there may be transitions from negative and positive soil moisture-atmosphere feedbacks as droughts develop. This is largely instigated by persistent atmospheric forcing that initially promotes increased surface latent heat flux, which limits boundary layer depth and dry air entrainment. However, if stagnant synoptic conditions continue eventually soil moisture is depleted to the point of shutting off surface latent heat flux producing deep boundary layers and increased dry air entrainment thus deepening drought stress. A package of standardized Fortran 90 modules called the Coupling Metrics Toolkit (CoMeT; https://github.com/abtawfik/coupling-metrics) used to calculate these land-atmosphere coupling metrics is also briefly presented.

  16. West African Monsoon dynamics in idealized simulations: the competitive roles of SST warming and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaetani, Marco; Flamant, Cyrille; Hourdin, Frederic; Bastin, Sophie; Braconnot, Pascale; Bony, Sandrine

    2015-04-01

    The West African Monsoon (WAM) is affected by large climate variability at different timescales, from interannual to multidecadal, with strong environmental and socio-economic impacts associated to climate-related rainfall variability, especially in the Sahelian belt. State-of-the-art coupled climate models still show poor ability in correctly simulating the WAM past variability and also a large spread is observed in future climate projections. In this work, the July-to-September (JAS) WAM variability in the period 1979-2008 is studied in AMIP-like simulations (SST-forced) from CMIP5. The individual roles of global SST warming and CO2 concentration increasing are investigated through idealized experiments simulating a 4K warmer SST and a 4x CO2 concentration, respectively. Results show a dry response in Sahel to SST warming, with dryer conditions over western Sahel. On the contrary, wet conditions are observed when CO2 is increased, with the strongest response over central-eastern Sahel. The precipitation changes are associated to modifications in the regional atmospheric circulation: dry (wet) conditions are associated with reduced (increased) convergence in the lower troposphere, a southward (northward) shift of the African Easterly Jet, and a weaker (stronger) Tropical Easterly Jet. The co-variability between global SST and WAM precipitation is also investigated, highlighting a reorganization of the main co-variability modes. Namely, in the 4xCO2 simulation the influence of Tropical Pacific is dominant, while it is reduced in the 4K simulation, which also shows an increased coupling with the eastern Pacific and the Indian Ocean. The above results suggest a competitive action of SST warming and CO2 increasing on the WAM climate variability, with opposite effects on precipitation. The combination of the observed positive and negative response in precipitation, with wet conditions in central-eastern Sahel and dry conditions in western Sahel, is consistent with the

  17. Static Roll Characteristics of an SST at High Angle of Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirotake, Masashi; Kwak, Dong-Youn; Rinoie, Kenichi; Sunada, Yasuto

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to investigate static roll characteristics of an SST model at high angles of attack. The Reynolds number based on the mean aerodynamic chord was 6.2×104. Normal force and rolling moment measurements have been done at different roll angles for the cranked arrow wing SST model. Smoke visualizations and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements were also performed. Force measurement results were compared both with flow visualization pictures and with PIV measurement results. It was shown that the vortex breakdown has strong influences on the static roll characteristics of the cranked arrow wing.

  18. Synchronous tropical South China Sea SST change and Greenland warming during deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Kienast, M; Steinke, S; Stattegger, K; Calvert, S E

    2001-03-16

    The tropical ocean plays a major role in global climate. It is therefore crucial to establish the precise phase between tropical and high-latitude climate variability during past abrupt climate events in order to gain insight into the mechanisms of global climate change. Here we present alkenone sea surface temperature (SST) records from the tropical South China Sea that show an abrupt temperature increase of at least 1 degrees C at the end of the last glacial period. Within the recognized dating uncertainties, this SST increase is synchronous with the Bølling warming observed at 14.6 thousand years ago in the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice core.

  19. The truncated isoform of somatostatin receptor5 (sst5TMD4) is associated with poorly differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Puig-Domingo, Manel; Luque, Raúl M; Reverter, Jordi L; López-Sánchez, Laura M; Gahete, Manuel D; Culler, Michael D; Díaz-Soto, Gonzalo; Lomeña, Francisco; Squarcia, Mattia; Mate, José Luis; Mora, Mireia; Fernández-Cruz, Laureano; Vidal, Oscar; Alastrué, Antonio; Balibrea, Jose; Halperin, Irene; Mauricio, Dídac; Castaño, Justo P

    2014-01-01

    Somatostatin receptors (ssts) are expressed in thyroid cancer cells, but their biological significance is not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess ssts in well differentiated (WDTC) and poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (PDTC) by means of imaging and molecular tools and its relationship with the efficacy of somatostatin analog treatment. Thirty-nine cases of thyroid carcinoma were evaluated (20 PDTC and 19 WDTC). Depreotide scintigraphy and mRNA levels of sst-subtypes, including the truncated variant sst5TMD4, were carried out. Depreotide scans were positive in the recurrent tumor in the neck in 6 of 11 (54%) PDTC, and in those with lung metastases in 5/11 cases (45.4%); sst5TMD4 was present in 18/20 (90%) of PDTC, being the most densely expressed sst-subtype, with a 20-fold increase in relation to sst2. In WDTC, sst2 was the most represented, while sst5TMD4 was not found; sst2 was significantly increased in PDTC in comparison to WDTC. Five depreotide positive PDTC received octreotide for 3-6 months in a pilot study with no changes in the size of the lesions in 3 of them, and a significant increase in the pulmonary and cervical lesions in the other 2. All PDTC patients treated with octreotide showed high expression of sst5TMD4. ROC curve analysis demonstrated that only sst5TMD4 discriminates between PDTC and WDTC. We conclude that sst5TMD4 is overexpressed in PDTC and may be involved in the lack of response to somatostatin analogue treatment.

  20. Truncated somatostatin receptor variant sst5TMD4 confers aggressive features (proliferation, invasion and reduced octreotide response) to somatotropinomas.

    PubMed

    Luque, Raúl M; Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Neto, Leonardo Vieira; Taboada, Giselle F; Hormaechea-Agulla, Daniel; Kasuki, Leandro; Venegas-Moreno, Eva; Moreno-Carazo, Alberto; Gálvez, María Ángeles; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Kineman, Rhonda D; Culler, Michael D; Gahete, Manuel D; Gadelha, Mônica R; Castaño, Justo P

    2015-04-10

    The GH/IGF1 response of somatotropinomas to somatostatin analogues (SSA) is associated with their pattern of somatostatin receptor (sst1-sst5) expression. Recently, we demonstrated that expression of a truncated sst5-variant (sst5TMD4) can influence the secretory response of somatotropinomas to SSA-therapy; however, its potential relationship with aggressive features (e.g. invasion/proliferation) is still unknown. Here, we show that sst5TMD4 is present in 50% of non-functioning pituitary-adenomas (NFPA) (n = 30) and 89% of somatotropinomas (n = 36), its expression levels being highest in somatotropinomas > > NFPAs > > > normal pituitaries (negligible expression; n = 8). In somatotropinomas, sst5TMD4 mRNA and protein levels correlated positively, and its expression was directly associated with tumor invasiveness (cavernous/sphenoid sinus), and inversely correlated with age and GH/IGF1 reduction after 3-6 months with octreotide-LAR therapy. GNAS+ somatotropinomas expressed lower sst5TMD4 levels. ROC analysis revealed sst5TMD4 expression as the only marker, within all sst-subtypes, capable to predict tumor invasiveness in somatotropinomas. sst5TMD4 overexpression increased cell viability in cultured somatotropinoma (n = 5). Hence, presence of sst5TMD4 associates with increased aggressive features and worse prognosis in somatotropinomas, thereby providing a potentially useful tool to refine somatotropinoma diagnosis, predict outcome of clinical response to SSA-therapy and develop new therapeutic targets. PMID:25637790

  1. Air Force space power technology development at the Phillips research site

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, K.; Radzykewycz, D.; James, W.R.; Donet, C.; Mayberry, C.

    1998-07-01

    the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) have the potential to increase EPS specific power to 10 W/kg by FY2000 and 13 W/kg by FY2005. Examples of these technologies include multijunction solar cells with up to 1/3 higher efficiency of state-of-the-art (SOA) GaAs and GaInP2/GaAs/Ge cells, energy storage batteries and flywheels with three times the energy density of SOA batteries, high efficiency power electronics that reduce thermal control loads, and a solar thermal system with integrated (non-photovoltaic) energy generation and (non-electrochemical) energy storage.

  2. Mexico City air quality research initiative, volume 3, modeling and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mauzy, A.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the modeling and simulation task was to develop, test, and apply an appropriate set of models that could translate emission changes into air quality changes. Specifically, we wanted to develop models that could describe how existing measurements of ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) would be expected to change if their emissions were changed. The modeling must be able to address the effects of difference in weather conditions and changes in land use as well as the effects of changes in emission levels. It must also be able to address the effects of changes in the nature and distribution of the emissions as well as changes in the total emissions. A second objective was to provide an understanding of the conditions that lead to poor air quality in Mexico City. We know in a general sense that Mexico City`s poor air quality is the result of large quantities of emissions in a confined area that is subject to light winds, but we did not know much about many aspects of the problem. For example, is the air quality on a given day primarily the result of emissions on that day...or is there an important carryover from previous nights and days? With a good understanding of the important meteorological circumstances that lead to poor air quality, we learn what it take duce an accurate forecast of impending quality so that we can determine the advisability of emergency measures.

  3. GREEN REACTION CHEMISTRIES PERFORMED IN THE SST REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory


    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Kreido Laboratories have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) collaboration, to develop and commercialize green and sustainable chemistries in the area of industrial chemical synthesis. Uti...

  4. AIR SHIPMENT OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM THE BUDAPEST RESEARCH REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dewes, J.

    2014-02-24

    The shipment of spent nuclear fuel is usually done by a combination of rail, road or sea, as the high activity of the SNF needs heavy shielding. Air shipment has advantages, e.g. it is much faster than any other shipment and therefore minimizes the transit time as well as attention of the public. Up to now only very few and very special SNF shipments were done by air, as the available container (TUK6) had a very limited capacity. Recently Sosny developed a Type C overpack, the TUK-145/C, compliant with IAEA Standard TS-R-1 for the VPVR/M type Skoda container. The TUK-145/C was first used in Vietnam in July 2013 for a single cask. In October and November 2013 a total of six casks were successfully shipped from Hungary in three air shipments using the TUK-145/C. The present paper describes the details of these shipments and formulates the lessons learned.

  5. A research on analysis method of land environment big data storage based on air-earth-life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yanling; Li, Jingwen

    2015-12-01

    Many problems of land environment in urban development, with the support of 3S technology, the research of land environment evolved into the stage of spatial-temporal scales. This paper combining space, time and attribute features in land environmental change, with elements of "air-earth-life" framework for the study of pattern, researching the analysis method of land environment big data storage due to the limitations of traditional processing method in land environment spatial-temporal data, to reflect the organic couping relationship among the multi-dimensional elements in land environment and provide the theory basis of data storage for implementing big data analysis application platform in land environment.

  6. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: camera DAQ software architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conforti, Vito; Trifoglio, Massimo; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tacchini, Alessandro; Zoli, Andrea; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Capalbi, Milvia; Catalano, Osvaldo

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is a Flagship Project financed by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, and led by INAF, the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics. Within this framework, INAF is currently developing an end-to-end prototype of a Small Size dual-mirror Telescope. In a second phase the ASTRI project foresees the installation of the first elements of the array at CTA southern site, a mini-array of 7 telescopes. The ASTRI Camera DAQ Software is aimed at the Camera data acquisition, storage and display during Camera development as well as during commissioning and operations on the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype that will operate at the INAF observing station located at Serra La Nave on the Mount Etna (Sicily). The Camera DAQ configuration and operations will be sequenced either through local operator commands or through remote commands received from the Instrument Controller System that commands and controls the Camera. The Camera DAQ software will acquire data packets through a direct one-way socket connection with the Camera Back End Electronics. In near real time, the data will be stored in both raw and FITS format. The DAQ Quick Look component will allow the operator to display in near real time the Camera data packets. We are developing the DAQ software adopting the iterative and incremental model in order to maximize the software reuse and to implement a system which is easily adaptable to changes. This contribution presents the Camera DAQ Software architecture with particular emphasis on its potential reuse for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array.

  7. Kinetic analysis and molecular modeling of the inhibition mechanism of roneparstat (SST0001) on human heparanase

    PubMed Central

    Pala, Daniele; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Milazzo, Ferdinando Maria; Roscilli, Giuseppe; Pavoni, Emiliano; Giannini, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is a β-d-glucuronidase which cleaves heparan sulfate chains in the extracellular matrix and on cellular membranes. A dysregulated heparanase activity is intimately associated with cell invasion, tumor metastasis and angiogenesis, making heparanase an attractive target for the development of anticancer therapies. SST0001 (roneparstat; Sigma-Tau Research Switzerland S.A.) is a non-anticoagulant 100% N-acetylated and glycol-split heparin acting as a potent heparanase inhibitor, currently in phase I in advanced multiple myeloma. Herein, the kinetics of heparanase inhibition by roneparstat is reported. The analysis of dose-inhibition curves confirmed the high potency of roneparstat (IC50 ≈ 3 nM) and showed, at higher concentrations, a Hill coefficient consistent with the engagement of two molecules of inhibitor. A homology model of human heparanase GS3 construct was built and used for docking experiments with inhibitor fragments. The model has high structural similarity with the recently reported crystal structure of human heparanase. Different interaction schemes are proposed, which support the hypothesis of a complex binding mechanism involving the recruitment of one or multiple roneparstat chains, depending on its concentration. In particular, docking solutions were obtained in which (i) a single roneparstat molecule interacts with both heparin-binding domains (HBDs) of heparanase or (ii) two fragments of roneparstat interact with either HBD-1 or HBD-2, consistent with the possibility of different inhibitor:enzyme binding stoichiometries. This study provides unique insights into the mode of action of roneparstat as well as clues of its interaction with heparanase at a molecular level, which could be exploited to design novel potential inhibitor molecules. PMID:26762172

  8. Overview of USEPA/NERL Cooperative Agreement Research Program on Air Pollution Exposure and Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) recently initiated a two-year Cooperative Agreement Research Program between EPA and three academic institutions: Emory University, Rutgers University and University of Washington. Under this EPA/NERL sponsored research, nov...

  9. A review of Air Force high efficiency cascaded multiple bandgap solar cell research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahilly, W. P.

    1979-01-01

    At the time of their conception, the cell stack systems to be discussed represent the best semiconductor materials combinations to achieve Air Force program goals. These systems are investigated thoroughly and the most promising systems, from the standpoint of high efficiency, are taken for further development with large area emphasized (at least 4 sq cm). The emphasis in the Air Force cascaded cell program is placed on eventual nonconcentrator application. This use of the final cell design considerably relieves the low resistance requirements for the tunnel junction. In a high concentration application the voltage drop across the tunnel junction can be a very serious problem.

  10. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Contents include the following: airline deregulation in Australia: a medium term assessment; why can't Japan deregulate the airline industry and open the sky immediately?; toward a market-oriented air transport system?: present developments in Russian civil aviation performance and policy; the asian economic crisis and its implications for aviation policy in asia pacific: industry outlook approaching the next millennium; a tale of two airlines: the post privatization performance of two caribbean airlines: the role of capital productivity in British Airways' financial recovery; airline privatization: does it matter?; airfright demand: responding to new developments in logistics; and air cargo business relationships.

  11. A comparison of Argo nominal surface and near-surface temperature for validation of AMSR-E SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zenghong; Chen, Xingrong; Sun, Chaohui; Wu, Xiaofen; Lu, Shaolei

    2016-06-01

    Satellite SST (sea surface temperature) from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) is compared with in situ temperature observations from Argo profiling floats over the global oceans to evaluate the advantages of Argo NST (near-surface temperature: water temperature less than 1 m from the surface). By comparing Argo nominal surface temperature (~5 m) with its NST, a diurnal cycle caused by daytime warming and nighttime cooling was found, along with a maximum warming of 0.08±0.36°C during 14:00-15:00 local time. Further comparisons between Argo 5-m temperature/Argo NST and AMSR-E SST retrievals related to wind speed, columnar water vapor, and columnar cloud water indicate warming biases at low wind speed (<5 m/s) and columnar water vapor >28 mm during daytime. The warming tendency is more remarkable for AMSR-E SST/Argo 5-m temperature compared with AMSR-E SST/Argo NST, owing to the effect of diurnal warming. This effect of diurnal warming events should be excluded before validation for microwave SST retrievals. Both AMSR-E nighttime SST/Argo 5-m temperature and nighttime SST/Argo NST show generally good agreement, independent of wind speed and columnar water vapor. From our analysis, Argo NST data demonstrated their advantages for validation of satellite-retrieved SST.

  12. AirLab: a cloud-based platform to manage and share antibody-based single-cell research.

    PubMed

    Catena, Raúl; Özcan, Alaz; Jacobs, Andrea; Chevrier, Stephane; Bodenmiller, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Single-cell analysis technologies are essential tools in research and clinical diagnostics. These methods include flow cytometry, mass cytometry, and other microfluidics-based technologies. Most laboratories that employ these methods maintain large repositories of antibodies. These ever-growing collections of antibodies, their multiple conjugates, and the large amounts of data generated in assays using specific antibodies and conditions makes a dedicated software solution necessary. We have developed AirLab, a cloud-based tool with web and mobile interfaces, for the organization of these data. AirLab streamlines the processes of antibody purchase, organization, and storage, antibody panel creation, results logging, and antibody validation data sharing and distribution. Furthermore, AirLab enables inventory of other laboratory stocks, such as primers or clinical samples, through user-controlled customization. Thus, AirLab is a mobile-powered and flexible tool that harnesses the capabilities of mobile tools and cloud-based technology to facilitate inventory and sharing of antibody and sample collections and associated validation data. PMID:27356760

  13. Legal and security requirements for the air transportation of cyanotoxins and toxigenic cyanobacterial cells for legitimate research and analytical purposes.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, J S; Meriluoto, J A O; Codd, G A

    2006-05-25

    Cyanotoxins are now recognised by international and national health and environment agencies as significant health hazards. These toxins, and the cells which produce them, are also vulnerable to exploitation for illegitimate purposes. Cyanotoxins are increasingly being subjected to national and international guidelines and regulations governing their production, storage, packaging and transportation. In all of these respects, cyanotoxins are coming under the types of controls imposed on a wide range of chemicals and other biotoxins of microbial, plant and animal origin. These controls apply whether cyanotoxins are supplied on a commercial basis, or stored and transported in non-commercial research collaborations and programmes. Included are requirements concerning the transportation of these toxins as documented by the United Nations, the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and national government regulations. The transportation regulations for "dangerous goods", which by definition include cyanotoxins, cover air mail, air freight, and goods checked in and carried on flights. Substances include those of determined toxicity and others of suspected or undetermined toxicity, covering purified cyanotoxins, cyanotoxin-producing laboratory strains and environmental samples of cyanobacteria. Implications of the regulations for the packaging and air-transport of dangerous goods, as they apply to cyanotoxins and toxigenic cyanobacteria, are discussed.

  14. Reductions in midlatitude upwelling-favorable winds implied by weaker large-scale Pliocene SST gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Nathan P.; Tziperman, Eli

    2016-01-01

    The early-to-mid Pliocene (3-5.3 Ma) is the most recent geologic period of significant global warmth. Proxy records of Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) indicate significant and still unexplained warm anomalies of 3°C-9°C in midlatitude eastern boundary currents, where present-day cool temperatures are maintained by wind-driven upwelling. Here we quantify the effect of large-scale Pliocene-like SST patterns on the surface wind stress around the California, Humboldt, Canary, and Benguela midlatitude coastal upwelling sites. A high-resolution atmosphere model forced with Pliocene SST simulates changes in surface winds that imply reductions of 10% to 50% in both coastal upwelling, driven by alongshore wind stress, and offshore upwelling driven by wind stress curl. These changes result primarily from a reduced meridional temperature gradient which weakens the subtropical highs, and a reduction in zonal land-sea temperature contrast which weakens geostrophic alongshore winds. These results suggest that Pliocene coastal warm anomalies may result in part from atmospheric circulation changes which reduce upwelling intensity. The coastal wind stress and offshore wind stress curl are shown to respond differently to incremental changes in SST, topography, and land surface anomalies. Significant decreases in simulated cloud fraction within the subtropical highs suggest that a weaker land-sea temperature contrast could be maintained by cloud radiative feedbacks.

  15. Orbitally-resolved SST Changes during the EOT: Results from IODP 342 Expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; He, Y.; Wilson, P. A.; Pagani, M.

    2014-12-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) changes during the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition were characterized by substantial cooling at high latitudes and less cooling in low latitudes, with little information from mid-latitudes so far. Taking advantage of the newly retrieved drift sediments from the IODP 342 Expedition, we aim to reconstruct SST changes at the mid-latitude Newfoundland region, at an unprecedented orbital resolution from Site U1411. During the period investigated, 32-36 Ma, the alkenone UK'37 values range from 0.65 to 0.95, with values all greater than 0.80 before the transition and lower values (<0.80) occurring approximately at the eccentricity minimum nodes after the transition. No immediate cooling associated with Oi-1 glaciation was observed. During the Oligocene, SSTs during warm epochs (corresponding to eccentricity maxima) were not significantly cooler than before. Overall, SST fluctuations appear to be modulated by orbital changes throughout the record, although more apparent due to larger amplitude of SST variability after the transition. We thus hypothesize that the mid-latitude Newfoundland region was largely bathed by low-latitude warm waters during the transition and that polar waters (fronts) reached to the region occasionally at periods of eccentricity minimum nodes during the Oligocene.

  16. Independent SST and SSS reconstructions from coral skeleton, by using Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juillet-Leclerc, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Pacific Warm Pool is strongly affected by interannual climatic variability. However, few instrumental measurements document environmental changes prior to 1955, in particular in the southern hemisphere. Studies have thus to be based on few instrumental data complemented by interpolations and /or indirect tracers, such as coral skeleton. This is regarded as the best archive of tropical oceans and may provide continuous records of seasurface temperature and salinity (SST and SSS) during the past at, high resolution. However, the different approaches up to now developed do not allow independent reconstructions of SST and SSS. In addition, chemical biases caused by biological activity prevent relevant conversion of measured values into environmental factors. Our understanding of the coral skeletogenesis is sufficient to suppose that the mechanism of mineral deposition is complex, strongly impacted by biology, governed by other physical processes than that earlier considered, but not enough to establish quantified relationships taking into account all the factors involved. In this case, the use of Neural Network, well suited to non-linear processes may not be totally assimilated with a black box. This statistical treatment has been applied on a coral core collected in Yasawa (Fiji Archipelago), by considering SST and SSS measured from 1960 and 1997 as learning phase. Reconstructions performed from 1910 to 1960 indicate that only four strong ENSO occurred prior to 1960. Both SST and SSS have been impacted confirming that SPCZ migration is associated with oceanic advection.

  17. Current understanding ofI sperm-storage tubule (SST) function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike most mammals, birds do not need to synchronize copulation with ovulation. Hens are endowed with tubular structures, the sperm-storage tubules (SST), in their oviducts which the sperm enter and survive for weeks after mating or artificial insemination. Sperm are slowly but continually releas...

  18. SST-forced interdecadal deepening of the winter India-Burma trough since the 1950s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bo; Ren, Hong-Li

    2016-03-01

    The winter India-Burma Trough (IBT) has undergone a pronounced interdecadal deepening since the 1950s, which led to the significant rainfall increasing over the eastern Indochina Peninsula and south China. To better understand such an observed IBT change, this study examines the responses of the IBT to the upstream subtropical jet, historical anthropogenic forcing, and tropical sea surface temperature (SST). Results show that the SST warming that occurs in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean (ETIO) is the primary cause of the observed interdecadal IBT deepening. The remarkable SST warming leads to a reduction of sea level pressure (SLP) over ETIO by diabatic heating. In association with the change of zonal SLP gradient, the westerly wind anomalies are observed. The northern flank of the westerlies further induces a cyclonic Rossby wave response over the Bay of Bengal. As a result, the winter IBT is intensified. This attribution can be supported by the simulations of atmosphere general circulation models forced by historical SST, in which the observed IBT changes are well simulated on both interdecadal and interannual time scales.

  19. Acid rain and related air-pollution research. A directory of USDA and state projects in CRIS. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The directory is a listing of the ongoing and recently completed research projects from the Current Research Information System (CRIS) database of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which deal with acid rain and the related effects of air pollutants on crops and livestock. The projects were identified in March 1986, and include research active as of October 1982. The CRIS database contains projects conducted or sponsored by the USDA, State agricultural experiment stations and land-grant institutions, State forestry schools and other cooperating State institutions. CRIS is operated by the Cooperative State Research Service, USDA. Project abstracts appear in the main entry section, which is organized into chapters based upon plant, animal and natural resource categories used for classifying projects in the CRIS database. Projects assigned more than one category are repeated in each of the applicable chapters. Additional points of access are provided by a keyword/title index, investigator index, and performing institution index.

  20. Research Opportunities for Cancer Associated with Indoor Air Pollution from Solid-Fuel Combustion

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Indoor air pollution (IAP) derived largely from the use of solid fuels for cooking and heating affects about 3 billion people worldwide, resulting in substantial adverse health outcomes, including cancer. Women and children from developing countries are the most expos...

  1. The Role of Unmanned Aerial Systems/Sensors in Air Quality Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for a variety of scientific and security purposes has rapidly increased. UASs include aerostats (tethered balloons) and remotely controlled, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including lighter-than-air vessels, fixed wing airplanes, and he...

  2. An inventory of aeronautical ground research facilities. Volume 2: Air breathing engine test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirrello, C. J.; Hardin, R. D.; Heckart, M. V.; Brown, K. R.

    1971-01-01

    The inventory covers free jet and direct connect altitude cells, sea level static thrust stands, sea level test cells with ram air, and propulsion wind tunnels. Free jet altitude cells and propulsion wind tunnels are used for evaluation of complete inlet-engine-exhaust nozzle propulsion systems under simulated flight conditions. These facilities are similar in principal of operation and differ primarily in test section concept. The propulsion wind tunnel provides a closed test section and restrains the flow around the test specimen while the free jet is allowed to expand freely. A chamber of large diameter about the free jet is provided in which desired operating pressure levels may be maintained. Sea level test cells with ram air provide controlled, conditioned air directly to the engine face for performance evaluation at low altitude flight conditions. Direct connect altitude cells provide a means of performance evaluation at simulated conditions of Mach number and altitude with air supplied to the flight altitude conditions. Sea level static thrust stands simply provide an instrumented engine mounting for measuring thrust at zero airspeed. While all of these facilities are used for integrated engine testing, a few provide engine component test capability.

  3. Evaluating the performance of low cost chemical sensors for air pollution research.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Alastair C; Lee, James D; Edwards, Peter M; Shaw, Marvin D; Evans, Mat J; Moller, Sarah J; Smith, Katie R; Buckley, Jack W; Ellis, Matthew; Gillot, Stefan R; White, Andrew

    2016-07-18

    Low cost pollution sensors have been widely publicized, in principle offering increased information on the distribution of air pollution and a democratization of air quality measurements to amateur users. We report a laboratory study of commonly-used electrochemical sensors and quantify a number of cross-interferences with other atmospheric chemicals, some of which become significant at typical suburban air pollution concentrations. We highlight that artefact signals from co-sampled pollutants such as CO2 can be greater than the electrochemical sensor signal generated by the measurand. We subsequently tested in ambient air, over a period of three weeks, twenty identical commercial sensor packages alongside standard measurements and report on the degree of agreement between references and sensors. We then explore potential experimental approaches to improve sensor performance, enhancing outputs from qualitative to quantitative, focusing on low cost VOC photoionization sensors. Careful signal handling, for example, was seen to improve limits of detection by one order of magnitude. The quantity, magnitude and complexity of analytical interferences that must be characterised to convert a signal into a quantitative observation, with known uncertainties, make standard individual parameter regression inappropriate. We show that one potential solution to this problem is the application of supervised machine learning approaches such as boosted regression trees and Gaussian processes emulation. PMID:27104223

  4. CHOOSING A CHEMICAL MECHANISM FOR REGULATORY AND RESEARCH AIR QUALITY MODELING APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous, different chemical mechanisms currently available for use in air quality models, and new mechanisms and versions of mechanisms are continually being developed. The development of Morphecule-type mechanisms will add a near-infinite number of additional mecha...

  5. Integrating research on wildland fires and air quality: needs and recommendations

    EPA Science Inventory

    A summary is presented that integrates general information on the causes and effects of wildland fires and emissions with various ecological impacts of forest fires and air pollution in forests and other ecosystems. We also synthesize information on the regional effects of wildl...

  6. Contributions to Climate Research Using the AIRS Science Team Version-5 Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares recent spatial anomaly time series of OLR (Outgoing Longwave Radiation) and OLRCLR (Clear Sky OLR) as determined using CERES and AIRS observations over the time period September 2002 through June 2010. We find excellent agreement in OLR anomaly time series of both data sets in almost every detail, down to the 1 x 1 spatial grid point level. This extremely close agreement of OLR anomaly time series derived from observations by two different instruments implies that both sets of results must be highly stable. This agreement also validates to some extent the anomaly time series of the AIRS derived products used in the computation of the AIRS OLR product. The paper then examines anomaly time series of AIRS derived products over the extended time period September 2002 through April 2011. We show that OLR anomalies during this period are closely in phase with those of an El Nino index, and that recent global and tropical mean decreases in OLR and OLR(sub CLR) are a result of a transition from an El Nino condition at the beginning of the data record to La Nina conditions toward the end of the data period. This relationship can be explained by temporal changes of the distribution of mid-tropospheric water vapor and cloud cover in two spatial regions that are in direct response to El Nino/La Nina activity which occurs outside these spatial regions

  7. The new truncated somatostatin receptor variant sst5TMD4 is associated to poor prognosis in breast cancer and increases malignancy in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Durán-Prado, M; Gahete, M D; Hergueta-Redondo, M; Martínez-Fuentes, A J; Córdoba-Chacón, J; Palacios, J; Gracia-Navarro, F; Moreno-Bueno, G; Malagón, M M; Luque, R M; Castaño, J P

    2012-04-19

    Somatostatin receptors (sst1-5) are present in different types of tumors, where they inhibit key cellular processes such as proliferation and invasion. Although ssts are densely expressed in breast cancer, especially sst2, their role and therapeutic potential remain uncertain. Recently, we identified a new truncated sst5 variant, sst5TMD4, which is related to the abnormal response of certain pituitary tumors to treatment with somatostatin analogs. Here, we investigated the possible role of sst5TMD4 in breast cancer. This study revealed that sst5TMD4 is absent in normal mammary gland, but is abundant in a subset of poorly differentiated human breast tumors, where its expression correlated to that of sst2. Moreover, in the MCF-7 breast cancer model cell, sst5TMD4 expression increased malignancy features such as invasion and proliferation abilities (both in cell cultures and nude mice). This was likely mediated by sst5TMD4-induced increase in phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and p-Akt levels, and cyclin D3 and Arp2/3 complex expression, which also led to mesenchymal-like phenotype. Interestingly, sst5TMD4 interacts physically with sst2 and thereby alters its signaling, enabling disruption of sst2 inhibitory feedback and providing a plausible basis for our findings. These results suggest that sst5TMD4 could be involved in the pathophysiology of certain types of breast tumors.

  8. Coupled intraseasonal variations in the East Asian winter monsoon and the South China Sea-western North Pacific SST in boreal winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renguang

    2016-10-01

    The sea surface temperature (SST) in the South China Sea (SCS) displays prominent intraseasonal variations during boreal winter with a spectrum peak in the 10-30-day time period. These intraseasonal SST variations are closely associated with intraseasonal variations of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). A weak EAWM is preceded by cooler SST and followed by warmer SST in the SCS and subtropical western North Pacific. A coherent southward propagation is seen in the SCS in SST, surface wind, and latent heat flux anomalies. This southward propagation is attributed to the wind-evaporation-SST effect under climatological northerly winds in winter, which differs from summer when climatological winds are westerly. The SST-induced wind speed anomalies are larger to the north side of SST anomalies. This induces larger surface evaporation anomalies to the north side, leading to a southward displacement of large SST anomalies. In turn, wind and evaporation anomalies move southward. There appears to be a positive feedback between circulation and precipitation that leads to amplification of meridional wind anomalies when the SST anomalies are weak. Surface latent heat flux is a dominant factor for the SST change in the SCS and the Yellow Sea. Shortwave radiation has a complementary contribution to the SST change in the SCS, but has a negative effect in the Yellow Sea. The wind-induced Ekman advection appears important for the SST warming in the Yellow Sea.

  9. On the use of a coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave model during an extreme cold air outbreak over the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricchi, Antonio; Miglietta, Mario Marcello; Falco, Pier Paolo; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bonaldo, Davide; Bergamasco, Andrea; Sclavo, Mauro; Carniel, Sandro

    2016-05-01

    An intense cold air outbreak affected the northern Adriatic Sea during winter 2012, determining an exceptional persistence of northeasterly Bora wind over the basin, which lasted for about 3 weeks. The cold air coming from the Balkans produced icing in the Venice lagoon and very intense snowfall in the Apennines Mountains and even near the coasts. In order to understand the importance and role of air-sea interactions for the evolution of the atmospheric fields, simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model encompassing the whole period have been performed using sea surface temperature (SST) fields with an increasing level of complexity. Starting from a large-scale static sea temperature, the SST in the initial and boundary conditions has been progressively made more realistic. First, a more refined field, retrieved from a satellite radiometer was used; then, the same field was updated every 6 h. Next, the effect of including a simplified 1D ocean model reproducing the Oceanic Mixed Layer (OML) evolution has been tested. Finally, the potential improvements coming from a coupled description of atmosphere-ocean and atmosphere-ocean-waves interactions have been explored within the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system. Results highlight that the energy exchange between air and sea does not significantly impact the atmospheric fields, in particular 10 m wind and 2 m temperature, also because of the geography of the basin and the predominance of synoptic-scale flow in intense events of Bora, in the northern Adriatic. However, when sensible and latent heat fluxes, which are dependent on atmospheric and oceanic variables, are analyzed, the more realistic representation of SST drastically improves the model performances.

  10. Assessment of Global Forecast Ocean Assimilation Model (FOAM) using new satellite SST data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascione Kenov, Isabella; Sykes, Peter; Fiedler, Emma; McConnell, Niall; Ryan, Andrew; Maksymczuk, Jan

    2016-04-01

    There is an increased demand for accurate ocean weather information for applications in the field of marine safety and navigation, water quality, offshore commercial operations, monitoring of oil spills and pollutants, among others. The Met Office, UK, provides ocean forecasts to customers from governmental, commercial and ecological sectors using the Global Forecast Ocean Assimilation Model (FOAM), an operational modelling system which covers the global ocean and runs daily, using the NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) ocean model with horizontal resolution of 1/4° and 75 vertical levels. The system assimilates salinity and temperature profiles, sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), and sea ice concentration observations on a daily basis. In this study, the FOAM system is updated to assimilate Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) SST data. Model results from one month trials are assessed against observations using verification tools which provide a quantitative description of model performance and error, based on statistical metrics, including mean error, root mean square error (RMSE), correlation coefficient, and Taylor diagrams. A series of hindcast experiments is used to run the FOAM system with AMSR2 and SEVIRI SST data, using a control run for comparison. Results show that all trials perform well on the global ocean and that largest SST mean errors were found in the Southern hemisphere. The geographic distribution of the model error for SST and temperature profiles are discussed using statistical metrics evaluated over sub-regions of the global ocean.

  11. Interactions Between the Thermohaline Circulation and Tropical Atlantic SST in a Coupled General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Ron; Jiang, Xing-Jian; Travis, Larry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Tropical Atlantic SST shows a (statistically well-defined) decadal time scale in a 104-year simulation of unforced variability by a coupled general circulation model (CGCM). The SST anomalies superficially resemble observed Tropical Atlantic variability (TAV), and are associated with changes in the atmospheric circulation. Brazilian rainfall is modulated with a decadal time scale, along with the strength of the Atlantic trade winds, which are associated with variations in evaporation and the net surface heat flux. However, in contrast to observed tropical Atlantic variability, the trade winds damp the associated anomalies in ocean temperature, indicating a negative feedback. Tropical SST anomalies in the CGCM, though opposed by the surface heat flux, are advected in from the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. These variations modulate the strength of the thermohaline circulation (THC): warm, salty anomalies at the equator sink drawing cold, fresh mid-latitude water. Upon reaching the equator, the latter inhibit vertical overturning and advection from higher latitudes, which allows warm, salty anomalies to reform, returning the cycle to its original state. Thus, the cycle results from advection of density anomalies and the effect of these anomalies upon the rate of vertical overturning and surface advection. This decadal modulation of Tropical Atlantic SST and the thermohaline circulation is correlated with ocean heat transport to the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and Norwegian Sea SST. Because of the central role of equatorial convection, we question whether this mechanism is present in the current climate, although we speculate that it may have operated in palaeo times, depending upon the stability of the tropical water column.

  12. The mini-array of ASTRI SST-2M telescopes, precursors for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareschi, Giovanni; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Vercellone, Stefano; ASTRI Collaboration; CTA Consortium

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Observatory, the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) has recently inaugurated in Sicily (Italy), at the Serra La Nave astronomical site on the slopes of Mount Etna, a large field of view (FoV, ~ 9.6°) dual-mirror prototype (ASTRI SST-2M) of the CTA small size class of telescopes (SST). The CTA plans to install about 70 SST in the southern site to allow the study of the gamma rays from a few TeV up to hundreds of TeV. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype has been developed following an end-to-end approach, since it includes the entire system of structure, mirrors optics (primary and secondary mirrors), camera, and control/acquisition software. A remarkable performance improvement could come from the operation of the ASTRI mini-array, led by INAF in synergy with the Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil) and the North-West University (South Africa). The ASTRI mini-array will be composed of nine ASTRI SST-2M units and it is proposed as a precursor and initial seed of the CTA to be installed at the final CTA southern site. Apart from the assessment of a number of technological aspects related to the CTA, the ASTRI mini-array will, if compared for instance to H.E.S.S., extend the point source sensitivity up to ~ 100 TeV, also improving it above 5-10 TeV. Moreover, the unprecedented width of the FoV, with its homogeneous acceptance and angular resolution, will significantly contribute to the achievement of original results during the early CTA science phase.

  13. Novel sst(4)-selective somatostatin (SRIF) agonists. 4. Three-dimensional consensus structure by NMR.

    PubMed

    Grace, Christy Rani R; Koerber, Steven C; Erchegyi, Judit; Reubi, Jean Claude; Rivier, Jean; Riek, Roland

    2003-12-18

    The three-dimensional NMR structures of eight cyclic octapeptide analogues of somatostatin (SRIF) are described. These analogues, with the basic sequence H-c[Cys(3)-Phe(6)-Xxx(7)-Yyy(8)-Lys(9)-Thr(10)-Zzz(11)-Cys(14)]-OH (the numbering refers to the position in native SRIF), with Xxx(7) being Phe/Ala/Tyr, Yyy(8) being Trp/DTrp/D-threo-beta-Me2Nal/L-threo-beta-Me2Nal, and Zzz(11) being Phe/Ala, exhibit potent and highly selective binding to human SRIF type 4 (sst(4)) receptors. The conformations reveal that the backbones of these analogues do not have the usual type-II' beta-turn reported in the literature for sst(2)-subtype-selective analogues. Instead, the structures contain a unique arrangement of side chains of Yyy(8), Lys(9), and Phe(6) or Phe(11). The conformational preferences and results from biological analyses of these analogues (parts 1-3 of this series, Rivier et al., Erchegyi et al., and Erchegyi et al., J. Med. Chem. 2003, preceding papers in this issue) allow a detailed study of the structure-activity relationship of SRIF. The proposed consensus structural motif at the binding pocket for the sst(4)-selective analogues requires a unique set of distances between an indole/2-naphthyl ring, a lysine side chain, and another aromatic ring. This motif is necessary and sufficient to explain the binding affinities of all of the analogues studied and is distinct from the existing model suggested for sst(2)/sst(5) selectivity. PMID:14667215

  14. SST0001, a chemically modified heparin, inhibits myeloma growth and angiogenesis via disruption of the heparanase/syndecan-1 axis

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Joseph P.; Ramani, Vishnu C.; Ren, Yongsheng; Naggi, Annamaria; Torri, Giangiacomo; Casu, Benito; Penco, Sergio; Pisano, Claudio; Carminati, Paolo; Tortoreto, Monica; Zunino, Franco; Vlodavsky, Israel; Sanderson, Ralph D.; Yang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Heparanase promotes myeloma growth, dissemination and angiogenesis through modulation of the tumor microenvironment, thus highlighting the potential of therapeutically targeting this enzyme. SST0001, a non-anticoagulant heparin with anti-heparanase activity was examined for its inhibition of myeloma tumor growth in vivo and for its mechanism of action. Experimental Design The ability of SST0001 to inhibit growth of myeloma tumors was assessed using multiple animal models and a diverse panel of human and murine myeloma cell lines. To investigate the mechanism of action of SST0001, pharmacodynamic markers of angiogenesis, heparanase activity, and pathways downstream of heparanase were monitored. The potential use of SST0001 as part of a combination therapy was also evaluated in vivo. Results SST0001 effectively inhibited myeloma growth in vivo, even when confronted with an aggressively growing tumor within human bone. In addition, SST0001 treatment causes changes within tumors consistent with the compound’s ability to inhibit heparanase; including down regulation of HGF, VEGF and MMP-9 expression and suppressed angiogenesis. SST0001 also diminishes heparanase-induced shedding of syndecan-1, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan known to be a potent promoter of myeloma growth. SST0001 inhibited the heparanase-mediated degradation of syndecan-1 heparan sulfate chains thus confirming the anti-heparanase activity of this compound. In combination with dexamethasone, SST0001 blocked tumor growth in vivo presumably through dual targeting of the tumor and its microenvironment. Conclusions These results provide mechanistic insight into the anti-tumor action of SST0001 and validate its use as a novel therapeutic tool for treating multiple myeloma. PMID:21257720

  15. SST phases in the open-ocean and margins of the tropical Pacific; implication on tropical climate dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, L.-J.; Clemens, S. C.; Chen, M.-T.; Yamamoto, M.; Yokoyama, Y.

    2014-04-01

    The tropical Pacific exerts a major effect on the global climate system and might have driven large extra-tropical climate change. We present a 320 kyr high resolution UK'37-sea surface temperature (SST) record from core MD052928 (11°17.26' S, 148°51.60' E, water depth 2250 m) located off southeastern Papua New Guinea (PNG), in the western tropical Pacific. The age model of the core is based on AMS 14C dating of planktic foraminifers and correlation of benthic to the LR04 stack. The UK'37-SST ranges from 26.5 to 29 °C, showing glacial-interglacial and millennial variations. We assess the phase of the MD052928 UK'37-SST as part of a synthesis of five other SST records from the tropical Pacific at the precession, obliquity, and eccentricity bands. The SST records can be separated into two groups when considering SST phase relative to changes in orbital forcing, ice volume and greenhouse gases (GHGs). SST maxima at open-ocean sites within primary equatorial current systems occur between obliquity maxima and methane (CH4) maxima but early relative to ice volume minima and CO2 maxima at the obliquity band. In contrast, SST maxima at continental margin sites change are in phase with ice minima and CO2 maxima, likely influenced by the slow response of continental ice sheets and GHGs. At the precession band, the early group located on the Warm Pool area indicates a direct influenced by the local insolation, and with the similar phase progress as the obliquity band. These results indicate that the decreased high-low latitudes insolation gradient and increasing low latitude local insolation resulting in tropical Pacific SST rise. Higher SST would supply more moisture resulting in increased CH4 in the tropical wetlands. This promotes increasing CO2 and deglaciation leading to increase continental and continental margin surface temperatures.

  16. The 2010 California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryerson, T. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Angevine, W. M.; Bates, T. S.; Brock, C. A.; Cairns, B.; Cohen, R. C.; Cooper, O. R.; Gouw, J. A.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Ferrare, R. A.; Fischer, M. L.; Flagan, R. C.; Goldstein, A. H.; Hair, J. W.; Hardesty, R. M.; Hostetler, C. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Langford, A. O.; McCauley, E.; McKeen, S. A.; Molina, L. T.; Nenes, A.; Oltmans, S. J.; Parrish, D. D.; Pederson, J. R.; Pierce, R. B.; Prather, K.; Quinn, P. K.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Senff, C. J.; Sorooshian, A.; Stutz, J.; Surratt, J. D.; Trainer, M.; Volkamer, R.; Williams, E. J.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2013-06-01

    The California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field study was conducted throughout California in May, June, and July of 2010. The study was organized to address issues simultaneously relevant to atmospheric pollution and climate change, including (1) emission inventory assessment, (2) atmospheric transport and dispersion, (3) atmospheric chemical processing, and (4) cloud-aerosol interactions and aerosol radiative effects. Measurements from networks of ground sites, a research ship, tall towers, balloon-borne ozonesondes, multiple aircraft, and satellites provided in situ and remotely sensed data on trace pollutant and greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol chemical composition and microphysical properties, cloud microphysics, and meteorological parameters. This overview report provides operational information for the variety of sites, platforms, and measurements, their joint deployment strategy, and summarizes findings that have resulted from the collaborative analyses of the CalNex field study. Climate-relevant findings from CalNex include that leakage from natural gas infrastructure may account for the excess of observed methane over emission estimates in Los Angeles. Air-quality relevant findings include the following: mobile fleet VOC significantly declines, and NOx emissions continue to have an impact on ozone in the Los Angeles basin; the relative contributions of diesel and gasoline emission to secondary organic aerosol are not fully understood; and nighttime NO3 chemistry contributes significantly to secondary organic aerosol mass in the San Joaquin Valley. Findings simultaneously relevant to climate and air quality include the following: marine vessel emissions changes due to fuel sulfur and speed controls result in a net warming effect but have substantial positive impacts on local air quality.

  17. Research on inert gas narcosis and air velocity effects on metabolic performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The effects of air velocity on metabolic performance are studied by using high forced airflow in a closed environment as a mechanism to control the concentration of volatile animal wastes. Air velocities between 100 and 200 ft/min are without significant effects on the metabolism of rats. At velocities of 200 ft/min and above, oxygen consumption and CO2 production as well as food consumption increase. In most instances, the changes are on the order of 5-10%. At the same time, the RQ for the animals increases slightly and generally correlates well with oxygen consumption and CO2 production. Experiments on the nature of inert gas narcosis show that halothane and methoxyflurane are rather potent inhibitors of the NADH:O2 oxidoreductase system in rats. These experiments suggest that the mechanism of inert gas narcosis is not mandatorily related to a membrane surface phenomenon.

  18. Progress report on Bertelsen research and development of an air cushion crawler all-terrain vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertelsen, W. R.

    1987-06-01

    The ACV is an exceptional amphibian but it is not, nor is any other existing craft, an all-terrain vehicle (ATV). Using the best elements of the ACV in an air-cushion crawler tractor, a true ATV can be attained. A conventional crawler drive train will propel two tracks as pressurized, propulsive pontoons. The key to a successful ATV is in perfecting efficient, durable, sliding seals to allow the belt to move in its orbit around the track unit and maintain its internal pressure. After deriving the adequate seal, a 12 inch wide x 86 inch long endless rubber belt was fitted bilateral seals and slide plates with internal guide wheels fore and aft with a 21 inch wheel base. From this approximately one-quarter scale model, full-scale air track crawlers, true ATVs, of any size and capacity can be produced.

  19. The GaAs solar cell research and development programs of the Air Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masloski, K. T.

    1980-01-01

    The compound GaAs is of interest for space application photovoltaics due to its inherent advantages over silicon. Higher efficiencies, superior radiation hardness, and a greater temperature resistance are the major advantages of GaAs over Si. Air Force programs look for ways of maximizing these advantages while minimizing disadvantages such as higher costs and weights. Four programs in GaAs photovoltaics are described and each program is discussed in terms of its objective, approach and status.

  20. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in environmental research: mobile remote sensing of air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haus, Rainer; Schaefer, Klaus; Mosebach, Herbert W.; Heland, Joerg

    1994-01-01

    Measurements with a mobile laboratory for FTIS remote sensing of pollution in ambient air and directed effluent streams (smokestacks and aircraft engines) are reported. The Double Pendulum Interferometer K300 and a multi-component radiative transfer analysis software were used to quantify the molecules CO, CO2, NO, NO2, N2O, SO2, HCl, H2O, CH4, NH3, HCHO and HC every 5 - 10 minutes in good agreement with in-situ sensors.

  1. AIR 1981-82. Forum 1981 Proceedings: Toward 2001: The IR Perspective (Minneapolis, Minnesota, May 17-20). The Association for Institutional Research Directory, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Institutional Research.

    Proceedings of the 1981 Association for Institutional Research (AIR) Forum and the 1981-82 AIR Directory are presented in a single volume. General session addresses and authors from the forum are as follows: "Some Possible Revolutions by 2001" (Michael Marien); "Information, the Non-Depletive Resource" (John W. Lacey); "What's Higher about Higher…

  2. Next-generation air monitoring – an overview of EPA research to develop real-time instrumentation packages for stationary and mobile monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards small-scale, real-time, wireless detectors, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development is evaluating and developi...

  3. Current state and prospects of researches on the control of turbulent boundary layer by air blowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, V. I.

    2015-07-01

    The paper presents the analytical review of the current state of the investigations and development trends on the problem of turbulent friction and aerodynamic drag reduction in simple model configurations, which is among key ones in modern aeromechanics. Under consideration is the modern fast progressing method of the turbulent flow control by air- and other gases (micro)blowing through a permeable surface, which is utilized in incompressible and compressible turbulent boundary layers. Several computational results to understand the essential flow physics are also included. The problem of simulation of the flow over a perforated wall where some ambiguities, in particular, at the permeable/impermeable boundary being still remained is discussed. Special attention is paid to the analysis of most important experimental and numerical results obtained with the air blowing through a finely-perforated surface, analysis of the physical peculiarities and regularities of the flow with the blowing, probability to describe the properties of such a flow within simple approach frameworks, evaluation of the efficiency of this control method, as well as the trends and opportunities of this method progress in view of state-of-the-art achievements. Although this technology has a penalty for developing the effective turbulent-flow control method, some modifications of the air blowing are an attractive alternative for real applications.

  4. Experimental Research on Induction Systems of an Air-breathing Valveless Pulse Detonation Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-wu; Chen, Xinggu; Zheng, Long-xi; Peng, Changxin; Yan, Chuan-jun

    2012-06-01

    An air-breathing valveless PDE model was designed and manufactured, which was made up of subsonic inlet, mixing chamber, ignition chamber, detonation chamber. The total pressure recovery coefficient, flux coefficient and intake resistance with six different induction systems were measured by a semi free subsonic flow field. The proof-of-principle experiments of PDE model with different induction systems were all successfully carried out, by using liquid gasoline-air mixture with low-energy system (total stored energy less than 50 mJ). The measured detonation wave pressure ratio was very close to that of C-J detonation. The air-breathing PDE model was easy to initiate and worked in good condition. The deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) and operation frequency effect on pressure traces were also investigated by experiments. The results indicated the oscillation of pressure peak at P6 enhanced with the operation frequency increased. DDT accomplished before P6 and the DDT distance was about 0.9 m (from the ignitor).

  5. Setting the Agenda in Fund Raising Research: Lessons from Contrasting Strategies. AIR 1986 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Harvey K.; And Others

    Three strategies for conducting research on private gift fund raising in higher education are discussed to promote interaction between institutional researchers and fund-raising officials. Attention is directed to: progress on standardized reporting for cost-effectiveness research; applications of a model for measuring effort, performance, and…

  6. Small-Scale Fronts in Ultra-High Resolution Level-4 Satellite SST: Validation and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; McKinley, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    Submesoscale oceanic fronts have been implicated in the turbulent energy cascade, and in nutrient supply into and carbon export out of the euphotic zone. However, their large-scale extent is unknown due to their characteristic small spatial (1-10km) and short time (~1 day) scales that complicate observations. Current large-scale understanding of fronts from satellite SST and ocean color is limited to a climatological view of occurrence frequency in cloud-free events. We show that useful estimates of frontal spatial coverage and structure can be derived from the recently available, merged satellite Level-4 SST product (G1SST at 1km resolution) using a gradient-based detection method in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre (28o-38oN, -75o- -45oW ). G1SST fronts are validated with in-situ fronts in continuous ship measurements from the Oleander Project. At a matching distance of Δx=5km, 79% of the G1SST fronts are in-situ fronts, and 64% of the in-situ fronts are detected by G1SST; these matches up increase with larger Δx. Comparing with in-situ velocities, ~56% of the fronts are coincident with across-track velocity jets with low-pass filter at scales > 5km,and 70% at scales > 50km, indicating that fronts are in large-scale geostrophic balance. Near-surface vertical shear predicted from thermal-wind relationship is in-phase but much smaller than (<50%) observed shear, indicating large ageostrophic shear is inclined to be co-located with surface baroclinic zones, likely due to interaction between fronts and gravity waves. For the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, we find that submesoscale fronts comprise 57±4.6% of the total surface area. Fronts are found not only in the energetic Gulf Steam region, but also are surprisingly numerous in the quiescent subtropical gyre. This finding is consistent with previous modeling studies that indicate that submesoscale fronts could help to resolve the 'nutrient--primary production' balance in oligotrophic regions.

  7. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report covers an assessment of 182 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, description of technical maturity, description of non-energy benefits, description of current barriers for market adoption, and description of the technology’s applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  8. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Zogg, Robert; Young, Jim; Schmidt, Justin

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  9. Framework for evaluating transportation control measures: Energy, air quality, and mobility tradeoffs. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Euritt, M.A.; Qin, J.; Meesomboon, J.; Walton, C.M.

    1994-07-01

    Transportation planners, engineers, and air quality analysts are increasingly understanding the need for coordinated efforts in providing efficient and effective transportation systems while addressing serious energy and environmental concerns. At present, however, transportation planning and air quality analysis models are rather incompatible. Emissions models require detailed inputs which are not generally provided by transportation planning and analysis tools. Traditionally, transportation planning is comprised of four stages: trip generation, trip distribution, mode choice, and network assignment. In general, a forecast population, auto ownership, employment, and land use are inputs into the stages sequentially. This planning process does not adequately account for the manner in which individuals make travel decisions. The only travel-related decision that can be predicted using this traditional planning method is the mode of travel, while transportation control measures (TCMs), affect trip generation and trip distribution as well as route and mode choice. Variables required for emissions estimation have not routinely been components of transportation planning models. What is needed is a methodology for combining transportation planning and analysis models with emissions factor models for predicting the effectiveness of various TCMs. The application of the macro-framework is demonstrated through analyses of two sample networks. The results show that the effectiveness of a TCM depends on the characteristics of the urban environment in which it is implemented. Failure to analyze the implication of a TCM prior to its implementation may yield results inconsistent with environmental and energy policy objectives. In addition, the results show that the choice of an emissions model is very critical in air quality analysis.

  10. United States Air Force Academy's micro-gravity research using G-0307

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, G. D.

    1986-01-01

    The current materials research being done in microgravity solidification and the future experimentation planned onboard a space shuttle mission is reported. The Department of Engineering Mechanics at the USAF Academy is developing a microgravity furnace to be used on board the space shuttle. The microgravity furnace will be used to conduct materials research dealing with such topics as immiscible alloy solidification. The purpose behind this research project is three-fold: to develop a simple, inexpensive, and easy to use furnace to conduct space materials research, to conduct a solidification experiment on a lead-zinc alloy in space that macrosegregates due to gravity, and to provide a research mechanism for students to get involved with space materials research.

  11. Indoor air quality in the Karns research houses: baseline measurements and impact of indoor environmental parameters on formaldehyde concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, T. G.; Fung, K. W.; Tromberg, B. J.; Hawthorne, A. R.

    1985-12-01

    Baseline indoor air quality measurements, a nine-month radon study, and an environmental parameters study examining the impact of indoor temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) levels on formaldehyde (CH2O) concentrations have been performed in three unoccupied research homes located in Karns, Tennessee. Inter-house comparison measurements of (1) CH2O concentration, (2) CH20 emission rates from primary CH20 emission sources, (3) radon and radon daughter concentrations, and (4) air exchange rates indicate that the three homes are similar. The results of the nine-month radon study indicate indoor concentrations consistently below the EPA recommended level of 4 pCi/L. Evidence was found that crawl-space concentrations may be reduced using heat pump systems whose outdoor units circulate fresh air through the crawl-spaoe. The modeled results of the environmental parameters study indicate approximate fourfold increases in CH20 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.27 ppm for seasonal T and RH conditions of 20°C, 30% RH and 29°C, 80% RH, respectively. Evaluation of these environmental parameters study data with steady-state CH2O concentration models developed from laboratory studies of the environmental dependence of CH2O emissions from particleboard underlayment indicate good correlations between the laboratory and field studies.

  12. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal -- Task 2.4, Air toxic fine particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, G.E.; Heidt, M.K.; Miller, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Emission from coal-fired boilers is an issue because of the current concern over atmospheric air toxics, which contain high concentrations of trace elements. The best method of minimizing the emission of these air toxic trace elements to the atmosphere is to install high-efficiency fine-particle control devices. After collection, the dust must be removed from the filter bags or electrostatic precipitator (ESP) plates and transferred to the hopper without significant redispersion. Since it is more difficult to collect fine particles, the extent to which the dust is redispersed into its original particle-size distribution will have a major impact on the overall fine-particle collection efficiency of the filter or ESP and, subsequently, the collection efficiency of air toxic metals. The goal of Task 2.4 was to evaluate redispersion of dust in particulate control devices so that the appropriate methods to minimize redispersion can be implemented. The primary objective was to determine the extent that fly ash is redispersed as individual particles upon cleaning of the filters or ESP plates. The current research was to determine if the level of redispersion of fly ash correlates with measurable cohesive dust properties. This will contribute to the long-term project goal of developing models to the point where they can be used to help design particulate control devices for the lowest level of fine-particle emissions at a reasonable cost.

  13. Suppressing the noise in SST retrieved from satellite infrared measurements by smoothing the differential terms in regression equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, B.; Ignatov, A.; Kihai, Y.

    2015-05-01

    Multichannel regression algorithms are widely used in retrievals of sea surface temperature (SST) from infrared brightness temperatures (BTs) observed from satellites. The SST equations typically include terms dependent on the difference between BTs observed in spectral bands with different atmospheric absorption. Such terms do account for variations in the variable atmospheric attenuation, but may introduce additional noise in the retrieved SST due to amplification of the radiometric noise. Some processing systems (e.g., the EUMETSAT OSI-SAF) incorporate noise suppression algorithms, based on spatial smoothing of the differential terms in the SST equations. A similar algorithm is being tested for the potential use in the NOAA Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO). The ACSPO smoothing algorithm aims to preserve natural variations in SST field, while minimizing distortions in the original SST imagery, at a minimal processing time. This presentation describes the ACSPO smoothing algorithm and results of its evaluation with the SST imagery, and with the in situ matchups for NOAA and Metop AVHRRs, Terra and Aqua MODISs, and SNPP/JPSS VIIRS.

  14. Spatio-temporal variability of SST and Chlorophyll-a from MODIS data in the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Masoud; Kabiri, Keivan

    2015-09-15

    Spatio-temporal variability of SST and Chl-a evaluated using MODIS products from 2002 to 2013 in the Persian Gulf. Wavelet Transform was utilized to analyze the spatio-temporal stability and abnormality of MODIS SST and Chl-a. The stationary level of SST decreases from west to the east during summer to early autumn, and increases from late autumn to spring. The stationary level of Chl-a is higher in the coastal areas, while its average ranged from 0.1 to 0.5mgm(-3). No meaningful major oscillating period observed in the abnormal variability of SST and Chl-a. The winter and summer peaks of SST and Chl-a were observed in the central parts and north-west regions. The timing of maximum SST was observed in August, which is not correlated with Chl-a maxima. The variability of SST and Chl-a in the whole Persian Gulf is seasonal, and related to river outflows, water circulation and climate regimes.

  15. A decomposition of ENSO's impacts on the northern winter stratosphere: competing effect of SST forcing in the tropical Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Jian; Ren, Rongcai

    2016-06-01

    This study applies WACCM, a stratosphere-resolving model to dissect the stratospheric responses in the northern winter extratropics to the imposed ENSO-related SST anomalies in the tropics. It is found that the anomalously warmer and weaker stratospheric polar vortex during warm ENSO is basically a balance of the opposite effects between the SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific (TPO) and that over the tropical Indian Ocean basin (TIO). Specifically, the ENSO-related SST anomalies over the TIO are to induce an anomalously colder and stronger stratospheric polar vortex during warm ENSO, which acts to partially cancel out the much stronger warmer and weaker polar vortex response to the SST anomalies over the TPO. Further analysis indicates that, while the SST forcing from the TPO contributes to the anomalously positive Pacific North America (PNA) pattern in the troposphere and the enhancement of the stationary wavenumber (WN)-1 in the stratosphere during warm ENSO, the TIO SST forcing is to induce an anomalously negative PNA and a reduction of both WN-1 and WN-2 in the stratosphere. Diagnosis of E-P flux confirms that, the anomalously upward propagation of stationary waves in the extratropics mainly lies over the western coast of North America during warm ENSO, which is mainly associated with the TPO-induced positive PNA response and is partially suppressed by the effect of the accompanying TIO SST forcing.

  16. Research Update: Direct conversion of amorphous carbon into diamond at ambient pressures and temperatures in air

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, Jagdish Bhaumik, Anagh

    2015-10-01

    We report on fundamental discovery of conversion of amorphous carbon into diamond by irradiating amorphous carbon films with nanosecond lasers at room-temperature in air at atmospheric pressure. We can create diamond in the form of nanodiamond (size range <100 nm) and microdiamond (>100 nm). Nanosecond laser pulses are used to melt amorphous diamondlike carbon and create a highly undercooled state, from which various forms of diamond can be formed upon cooling. The quenching from the super undercooled state results in nucleation of nanodiamond. It is found that microdiamonds grow out of highly undercooled state of carbon, with nanodiamond acting as seed crystals.

  17. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume IV. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Mauzy, A.

    1994-04-01

    This volume describes the methods and the data gathered in an attempt to measure and characterize the meteorological factors and the concentration of different pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The main objective of this document was to provide input for the simulation models and to obtain information that could be used to test and improve the models` performance. Four field campaigns were conducted, as well as routine monitoring, in order to obtain a database of atmospheric dynamics and air pollution characteristics. Sections include Airborne measurements, Remote sensing measurements, and Traditional (in situ) measurements.

  18. Effects of transportation on energy and air quality. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    Partial Contents: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Programs: Applicability of Government Incentives; Transitional Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Model; Forecasting Cost Path of Electric Vehicle Drive System: Monte Carlo Experience Curve Simulation; Another Way to Go. Some Implications of Light-duty Diesel Strategy; Use of Episodic Controls to Reduce Frequency and Severity of Air Pollution Events; Conformity: Long-Term Prognoses for Selected Ozone Nonattainment Areas in California; Development of Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model: Operating Under Hot-Stabilized Conditions; and Implications of Transient Mode Duration for Spatially Disaggregated High-Resolution Emission Inventory Studies.

  19. Intensified impact of northern tropical Atlantic SST on tropical cyclogenesis frequency over the western North Pacific after the late 1980s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xi; Chen, Shangfeng; Chen, Guanghua; Wu, Renguang

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that spring SST anomalies over the northern tropical Atlantic (NTA) affect the tropical cyclone (TC) activity over the western North Pacific (WNP) in the following summer and fall. The present study reveals that the connection between spring NTA SST and following summer-fall WNP TC genesis frequency is not stationary. The influence of spring NTA SST on following summer-fall WNP TC genesis frequency is weak and insignificant before, but strong and significant after, the late 1980s. Before the late 1980s, the NTA SST anomaly-induced SST anomalies in the tropical central Pacific are weak, and the response of atmospheric circulation over the WNP is not strong. As a result, the connection between spring NTA SST and following summer-fall WNP TC genesis frequency is insignificant in the former period. In contrast, after the late 1980s, NTA SST anomalies induce pronounced tropical central Pacific SST anomalies through an Atlantic-Pacific teleconnection. Tropical central Pacific SST anomalies further induce favorable conditions for WNP TC genesis, including vertical motion, mid-level relative humidity, and vertical zonal wind shear. Hence, the connection between NTA SST and WNP TC genesis frequency is significant in the recent period. Further analysis shows that the interdecadal change in the connection between spring NTA SST and following summer-fall WNP TC genesis frequency may be related to the climatological SST change over the NTA region.

  20. Ten Years of OMI Observations: A Unique Contribution to Air Quality, Ozone Layer and Climate Research from Space.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levelt, P.; Veefkind, J. P.; Bhartia, P. K.; Joiner, J.; Tamminen, J.

    2014-12-01

    On July 15, 2004 the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) was successfully launched on board of NASA's EOS-Aura spacecraft. OMI is the first of a new generation of UV/VIS nadir solar backscatter imaging spectrometers, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with an unprecedented spatial resolution of 13 x 24 km2. OMI measures solar irradiance and Earth radiances in the wavelength range of 270 to 500 nm with a spectral resolution of about 0.5 nm. OMI is designed and built by the Netherlands and Finland, and is also a third party mission of ESA. The major step that was made in the OMI instrument compared to its predecessors is the use of 2-dimensional detector arrays (CCDs) in a highly innovative small optical design. These innovations enable the combination of a high spatial resolution and a good spectral resolution with daily global coverage. OMI measures a range of trace gases (O3, NO2, SO2, HCHO, BrO, OClO, H2O), clouds and aerosols. Albeit OMI is already 5 years over its design lifetime, the instrument is still fully operational. The successor of OMI is TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) on the Copernicus Sentinel-5 precursor mission, planned for launch in 2016. OMI's unique capabilities rely in measuring tropospheric trace gases with a small footprint and daily global coverage. The unprecedented spatial resolution of the instrument revealed for the first time tropospheric pollution maps on a daily basis with urban scale resolution leading to improved air quality forecasts. The OMI measurements also improve our understanding of air quality and the interaction between air quality and climate change by combining measurements of air pollutants and aerosols. In recent years the data are also used for obtaining high-resolution global emission maps using inverse modelling or related techniques, challenging the bottom-up inventories based emission maps. In addition to scientific research, OMI also contributes to several operational services, including

  1. Impacts of SST Warming in tropical Indian Ocean on CMIP5 model-projected summer rainfall changes over Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Huqiang

    2016-05-01

    Based on the historical and RCP8.5 experiments from 25 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models, the impacts of sea surface temperature (SST) warming in the tropical Indian Ocean (IO) on the projected change in summer rainfall over Central Asia (CA) are investigated. The analysis is designed to answer three questions: (1) Can CMIP5 models reproduce the observed influence of the IO sea surface temperatures (SSTs) on the CA rainfall variations and the associated dynamical processes? (2) How well do the models agree on their projected rainfall changes over CA under warmed climate? (3) How much of the uncertainty in such rainfall projections is due to different impacts of IO SSTs in these models? The historical experiments show that in most models summer rainfall over CA are positively correlated to the SSTs in the IO. Furthermore, for models with higher rainfall-SSTs correlations, the dynamical processes accountable for such impacts are much closer to what have been revealed in observational data: warmer SSTs tend to favor the development of anti-cyclonic circulation patterns at low troposphere over north and northwest of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. These anomalous circulation patterns correspond to significantly enhanced southerly flow which carries warm and moisture air mass from the IO region up to the northeast. At the same time, there is a cyclonic flow over the central and eastern part of the CA which further brings the tropical moisture into the CA and provides essential moist conditions for its rainfall generation. In the second half of twenty-first century, although all the 25 models simulate warmed SSTs, significant uncertainty exists in their projected rainfall changes over CA: half of them suggest summer rainfall increases, but the other half project rainfall decreases. However, when we select seven models out of the 25 based on their skills in capturing the dynamical processes as observed, then the model projected changes

  2. Relation between Ocean SST Dipoles and Downwind Continental Croplands Assessed for Early Management Using Satellite-based Photosynthesis Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Daijiro

    2015-04-01

    Crop-monitoring systems with the unit of carbon-dioxide sequestration for environmental issues related to climate adaptation to global warming have been improved using satellite-based photosynthesis and meteorological conditions. Early management of crop status is desirable for grain production, stockbreeding, and bio-energy providing that the seasonal climate forecasting is sufficiently accurate. Incorrect seasonal forecasting of crop production can damage global social activities if the recognized conditions are unsatisfied. One cause of poor forecasting related to the atmospheric dynamics at the Earth surface, which reflect the energy budget through land surface, especially the oceans and atmosphere. Recognition of the relation between SST anomalies (e.g. ENSO, Atlantic Niño, Indian dipoles, and Ningaloo Niño) and crop production, as expressed precisely by photosynthesis or the sequestrated-carbon rate, is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms related to poor production. Solar radiation, surface air temperature, and water stress all directly affect grain vegetation photosynthesis. All affect stomata opening, which is related to the water balance or definition by the ratio of the Penman potential evaporation and actual transpiration. Regarding stomata, present data and reanalysis data give overestimated values of stomata opening because they are extended from wet models in forests rather than semi-arid regions commonly associated with wheat, maize, and soybean. This study applies a complementary model based on energy conservation for semi-arid zones instead of the conventional Penman-Monteith method. Partitioning of the integrated Net PSN enables precise estimation of crop yields by modifying the semi-closed stomata opening. Partitioning predicts production more accurately using the cropland distribution already classified using satellite data. Seasonal crop forecasting should include near-real-time monitoring using satellite-based process crop models to avoid

  3. CLOUDS, AEROSOLS, RADIATION AND THE AIR-SEA INTERFACE OF THE SOUTHERN OCEAN: ESTABLISHING DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Robert; Bretherton, Chris; McFarquhar, Greg; Protat, Alain; Quinn, Patricia; Siems, Steven; Jakob, Christian; Alexander, Simon; Weller, Bob

    2014-09-29

    A workshop sponsored by the Department of Energy was convened at the University of Washington to discuss the state of knowledge of clouds, aerosols and air-sea interaction over the Southern Ocean and to identify strategies for reducing uncertainties in their representation in global and regional models. The Southern Ocean plays a critical role in the global climate system and is a unique pristine environment, yet other than from satellite, there have been sparse observations of clouds, aerosols, radiation and the air-sea interface in this region. Consequently, much is unknown about atmospheric and oceanographic processes and their linkage in this region. Approximately 60 scientists, including graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and senior researchers working in atmospheric and oceanic sciences at U.S. and foreign universities and government laboratories, attended the Southern Ocean Workshop. It began with a day of scientific talks, partly in plenary and partly in two parallel sessions, discussing the current state of the science for clouds, aerosols and air-sea interaction in the Southern Ocean. After the talks, attendees broke into two working groups; one focused on clouds and meteorology, and one focused on aerosols and their interactions with clouds. This was followed by more plenary discussion to synthesize the two working group discussions and to consider possible plans for organized activities to study clouds, aerosols and the air-sea interface in the Southern Ocean. The agenda and talk slides, including short summaries of the highlights of the parallel session talks developed by the session chars, are available at http://www.atmos.washington.edu/socrates/presentations/SouthernOceanPresentations/.

  4. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rajan R.; Chetlapally, Satish Kumar; Bagvandas, M.

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution. PMID:26023265

  5. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajan R; Chetlapally, Satish Kumar; Bagvandas, M

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution.

  6. Organic air pollutants: setting priorities for long term research needs. A workshop sponsored by the United States Department of Energy, April 19-23, 1982, Gettysburg, PA

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J.S.

    1982-04-01

    The workshop attempted to outline and prioritize current and future research dealing with the environmental and biomedical concern of organic air pollutants. The meeting addressed the following four main areas of research: chemical and physical characterization of source emissions and ambient levels of organic pollutants; atmospheric chemical and physical transformations (homogeneous and heterogeneous) of organic pollutants; biochemical testing procedures to determine potential biological and human health impacts; and air quality - dispersion simulation and source/receptor modeling as tools in assessing potential biomedical and geophysical impacts of organic air pollutants. Details of each discussion group's deliberations and recommendations are summarized.

  7. Marketing, Investment, and Institutional Renewal in the Academic Research Sector. AIR 1986 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutina, Kenneth L.; And Others

    The problem of selective renewal of basic research capability within a professional (medical) school of a major research university is addressed. Attention is directed to a strategy and process for conducting such a revitalization that includes marketing the program in a partnership modality to a local foundation. Reasons that the foundation…

  8. Flight simulator research at the Royal Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, J M

    1973-06-01

    After tracing the development of flight simulators, the author refers to the simulators used for research at the RAF Institute of Aviation Medicine, describing seven examples of the Institute's research carried out with their aid. These cover a comparison of attitude indicators, pilot response, motion cues and landing performance, student pilots assessments, familiarisation behaviour, evaluating an airborne navigation display, and attitude and opinion surveys.

  9. A Case Study of Qualitative Research: Methods and Administrative Impact. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Jane; Warner, Sean

    A case study in program evaluation that demonstrates the effectiveness of qualitative research methods is presented. Over a 5-year period, the Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities in Ohio offered a baccalaureate program (University Without Walls) to local employees of a national manufacturing firm. The institutional research office…

  10. University Management of Research: A Data-Based Policy and Planning. AIR 1989 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strubbe, J.

    The development of an appropriate research policy for a university as well as for the national and international levels can be accomplished only if quantitative data and qualitative evaluations (scientific contribution, results, goal-achievement) are made available to illustrate research activities. A database is described that would enable…

  11. Linking Learning Style Theory with Retention Research: The TRAILS Project. AIR Professional File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.

    The Trucking Retention and Academic Integration by Learning Style (TRAILS) research project at St. Louis University, which is designed to incorporate information on learning style in ongoing enrollment research and improve campus retention, is described. Learning style and the Tinto Model of student attrition are discussed, along with the…

  12. Telecommunications Development: The Role of Institutional Research. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovacek, Simeon P.

    Developments in telecommunications that are being used or could be used in education are reviewed, and the roles institutional researchers can play are explored. Possible roles cited include: identifying existing resources on campus, conducting market research on the needs of potential users, facilitating telecommunications planning efforts,…

  13. Air Toxics Under the Big Sky: examining the effectiveness of authentic scientific research on high school students' science skills and interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Tony J.; Delaloye, Naomi; Adams, Earle Raymond; Ware, Desirae; Vanek, Diana; Knuth, Randy; Hester, Carolyn Laurie; Marra, Nancy Noel; Holian, Andrij

    2016-04-01

    Air Toxics Under the Big Sky is an environmental science outreach/education program that incorporates the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) 8 Practices with the goal of promoting knowledge and understanding of authentic scientific research in high school classrooms through air quality research. This research explored: (1) how the program affects student understanding of scientific inquiry and research and (2) how the open-inquiry learning opportunities provided by the program increase student interest in science as a career path. Treatment students received instruction related to air pollution (airborne particulate matter), associated health concerns, and training on how to operate air quality testing equipment. They then participated in a yearlong scientific research project in which they developed and tested hypotheses through research of their own design regarding the sources and concentrations of air pollution in their homes and communities. Results from an external evaluation revealed that treatment students developed a deeper understanding of scientific research than did comparison students, as measured by their ability to generate good hypotheses and research designs, and equally expressed an increased interest in pursuing a career in science. These results emphasize the value of and need for authentic science learning opportunities in the modern science classroom.

  14. The equilibrium atmospheric response to North Atlantic SST anomalies in GCMs with idealized and realistic boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kushnir, Y.; Held, I.M.

    1994-12-31

    The authors examine the equilibrium response of a general circulation model (GCM) to North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies during winter. The study is motivated by recent findings suggesting that a time dependence exists in the relationship between SST anomalies and anomalies in the atmospheric circulation. On interdecadal time scales the relationship between ocean and atmosphere anomalies appears to be consistent with quasi-geostrophic theory. It is proposed that long integrations of a GCM with fixed SST anomalies (equilibrium runs) are relevant to the study of North Atlantic interdecadal variability.

  15. New international long-term ecological research on air pollution effects on the Carpathian Mountain forests, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Badea, Ovidiu; Barbu, Ion; Fleischer, Peter; Fraczek, Witold; Gancz, Vladimir; Godzik, Barbara; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Grodzki, Wojciech; Karnosky, David; Koren, Milan; Krywult, Marek; Krzan, Zbigniew; Longauer, Roman; Mankovska, Blanka; Manning, William J; McManus, Michael; Musselman, Robert C; Novotny, Julius; Popescu, Flaviu; Postelnicu, Daniela; Prus-Głowacki, Wiesław; Skawiński, Paweł; Skiba, Stefan; Szaro, Robert; Tamas, Stefan; Vasile, Cristian

    2003-06-01

    An international cooperative project on distribution of ozone in the Carpathian Mountains, Central Europe was conducted from 1997 to 1999. Results of that project indicated that in large parts of the Carpathian Mountains, concentrations of ozone were elevated and potentially phytotoxic to forest vegetation. That study led to the establishment of new long-term studies on ecological changes in forests and other ecosystems caused by air pollution in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania and in the Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians on the Polish-Slovak border. Both of these important mountain ranges have the status of national parks and are Man & the Biosphere Reserves. In the Retezat Mountains, the primary research objective was to evaluate how air pollution may affect forest health and biodiversity. The main research objective in the Tatra Mountains was to evaluate responses of natural and managed Norway spruce forests to air pollution and other stresses. Ambient concentrations of ozone (O(3)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) as well as forest health and biodiversity changes were monitored on densely distributed research sites. Initial monitoring of pollutants indicated low levels of O(3), SO(2), and NO(x) in the Retezat Mountains, while elevated levels of O(3) and high deposition of atmospheric sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) have characterized the Tatra Mountains. In the Retezat Mountains, air pollution seems to have little effect on forest health; however, there was concern that over a long time, even low levels of pollution may affect biodiversity of this important ecosystem. In contrast, severe decline of Norway spruce has been observed in the Tatra Mountains. Although bark beetle seems to be the immediate cause of that decline, long-term elevated levels of atmospheric N and S depositions and elevated O(3) could predispose trees to insect attacks and other stresses. European and US scientists studied pollution deposition, soil and

  16. New international long-term ecological research on air pollution effects on the Carpathian Mountain forests, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Badea, Ovidiu; Barbu, Ion; Fleischer, Peter; Fraczek, Witold; Gancz, Vladimir; Godzik, Barbara; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Grodzki, Wojciech; Karnosky, David; Koren, Milan; Krywult, Marek; Krzan, Zbigniew; Longauer, Roman; Mankovska, Blanka; Manning, William J; McManus, Michael; Musselman, Robert C; Novotny, Julius; Popescu, Flaviu; Postelnicu, Daniela; Prus-Głowacki, Wiesław; Skawiński, Paweł; Skiba, Stefan; Szaro, Robert; Tamas, Stefan; Vasile, Cristian

    2003-06-01

    An international cooperative project on distribution of ozone in the Carpathian Mountains, Central Europe was conducted from 1997 to 1999. Results of that project indicated that in large parts of the Carpathian Mountains, concentrations of ozone were elevated and potentially phytotoxic to forest vegetation. That study led to the establishment of new long-term studies on ecological changes in forests and other ecosystems caused by air pollution in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania and in the Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians on the Polish-Slovak border. Both of these important mountain ranges have the status of national parks and are Man & the Biosphere Reserves. In the Retezat Mountains, the primary research objective was to evaluate how air pollution may affect forest health and biodiversity. The main research objective in the Tatra Mountains was to evaluate responses of natural and managed Norway spruce forests to air pollution and other stresses. Ambient concentrations of ozone (O(3)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) as well as forest health and biodiversity changes were monitored on densely distributed research sites. Initial monitoring of pollutants indicated low levels of O(3), SO(2), and NO(x) in the Retezat Mountains, while elevated levels of O(3) and high deposition of atmospheric sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) have characterized the Tatra Mountains. In the Retezat Mountains, air pollution seems to have little effect on forest health; however, there was concern that over a long time, even low levels of pollution may affect biodiversity of this important ecosystem. In contrast, severe decline of Norway spruce has been observed in the Tatra Mountains. Although bark beetle seems to be the immediate cause of that decline, long-term elevated levels of atmospheric N and S depositions and elevated O(3) could predispose trees to insect attacks and other stresses. European and US scientists studied pollution deposition, soil and

  17. Development of warm SST errors in the southern tropical Atlantic in CMIP5 decadal hindcasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toniazzo, Thomas; Woolnough, Steve

    2014-12-01

    SST errors in the tropical Atlantic are large and systematic in current coupled general-circulation models. We analyse the growth of these errors in the region of the south-eastern tropical Atlantic in initialised decadal hindcasts integrations for three of the models participating in the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5. A variety of causes for the initial bias development are identified, but a crucial involvement is found, in all cases considered, of ocean-atmosphere coupling for their maintenance. These involve an oceanic "bridge" between the Equator and the Benguela-Angola coastal seas which communicates sub-surface ocean anomalies and constitutes a coupling between SSTs in the south-eastern tropical Atlantic and the winds over the Equator. The resulting coupling between SSTs, winds and precipitation represents a positive feedback for warm SST errors in the south-eastern tropical Atlantic.

  18. Comparison of the Vector Magnetograms taken with the SFT/MTK and the SST/KSW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagino, M.; Nakatani, Y.; Ishii, T. T.; Hanaoka, Y.; Sakurai, T.; Hiei, E.; Suzuki, D.

    2009-06-01

    We carried out a detailed comparison between the vector magnetograms obtained with the Solar Flare Telescope (SFT/MTK) of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and those obtained with the Sextuple Solar Telescope (SST/KSW) of the Kawaguchi Science Museum (the former name is the Kawaguchi Science World). We investigated various characteristics of the errors in the Stokes parameters for each instrument. The level of noise due to seeing effects in the SST/KSW magnetograms is higher than in the SFT/MTK magnetograms. On the other hand, we found that about 60% of the data pixels have the same sign of current helicity α in these magnetograms. We will discuss the possibility and limitations of the magnetic field studies using these magnetograms.

  19. Mutational analysis of the active center of plant fructosyltransferases: Festuca 1-SST and barley 6-SFT.

    PubMed

    Altenbach, Denise; Nüesch, Eveline; Ritsema, Tita; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres

    2005-08-29

    The active center of the glycoside hydrolase family 32 contains the three characteristic motifs (N/S)DPNG, RDP, and EC. We replaced the N-terminal region including the (N/S)DPNG motif of barley 6-SFT (sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase) by the corresponding region of Festuca 1-SST (sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase). The chimeric enzyme, expressed in Pichia, retained the specificity of 6-SFT. Attempts to replace a larger piece at the N-terminus including also the RDP motif failed. A point mutation introduced in the RDP motif of 1-SST abolished enzymatic activity. Interestingly, point mutations of the EC-motif resulted in an enzyme which had lost the capability to form 1-kestose and glucose from sucrose but still accepted 1-kestose, producing fructose and sucrose as well as nystose.

  20. DigiCam: fully digital compact camera for SST-1M telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Bilnik, W.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Christov, A.; della Volpe, D.; Dyrda, M.; Frankowski, A.; Grudzinska, M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Heller, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Janiak, M.; Jamrozy, M.; Karczewski, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lyard, E.; Marszałek, A.; Michałowski, J.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Neronov, A.; Nicolau-Kukliński, J.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśko, P.; Płatos, Ł.; Prandini, E.; Pruchniewicz, R.; Rafalski, J.; Rajda, P. J.; Rameez, M.; Rataj, M.; Rupiński, M.; Rutkowski, K.; Seweryn, K.; Sidz, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Tokarz, M.; Toscano, S.; Troyano Pujadas, I.; Walter, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Wiśniewski, L.; Zietara, K.; Ziółkowski, P.; Żychowski, P.

    2014-08-01

    The single mirror Small Size Telescopes (SST-1M), being built by a sub-consortium of Polish and Swiss Institutions of the CTA Consortium, will be equipped with a fully digital camera with a compact photodetector plane based on silicon photomultipliers. The internal trigger signal transmission overhead will be kept at low level by introducing a high level of integration. It will be achieved by massively deploying state-of-the-art multi-gigabit transceivers, beginning from the ADC flash converters, through the internal data and trigger signals transmission over backplanes and cables, to the camera's server 10Gb/s Ethernet links. Such approach will allow fitting the size and weight of the camera exactly to the SST-1M needs, still retaining the flexibility of a fully digital design. Such solution has low power consumption, high reliability and long lifetime. The concept of the camera will be described, along with some construction details and performance results.

  1. Cellular Noise Suppression by the Regulator of G Protein Signaling Sst2

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Gauri; Kelley, Joshua B.; Houser, John R.; Elston, Timothy C.; Dohlman, Henrik G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary G proteins and their associated receptors process information from a variety of environmental stimuli to induce appropriate cellular responses. Generally speaking, each cell in a population responds within defined limits despite large variation in the expression of protein signaling components. Therefore we postulated that noise suppression is encoded within the signaling system. Using the yeast mating pathway as a model we evaluated the ability of a regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) protein to suppress noise. We found that the RGS protein Sst2 limits variability in transcription and morphogenesis in response to pheromone stimulation. While signal suppression is a result of both the GAP (GTPase accelerating) and receptor binding functions of Sst2, noise suppression requires only the GAP activity. Taken together our findings reveal a hitherto overlooked role of RGS proteins as noise suppressors, and demonstrate an ability to uncouple signal and noise in a prototypical stimulus-response pathway. PMID:24954905

  2. Creation of the BMA ensemble for SST using a parallel processing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwangjin; Lee, Yang Won

    2013-10-01

    Despite the same purpose, each satellite product has different value because of its inescapable uncertainty. Also the satellite products have been calculated for a long time, and the kinds of the products are various and enormous. So the efforts for reducing the uncertainty and dealing with enormous data will be necessary. In this paper, we create an ensemble Sea Surface Temperature (SST) using MODIS Aqua, MODIS Terra and COMS (Communication Ocean and Meteorological Satellite). We used Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) as ensemble method. The principle of the BMA is synthesizing the conditional probability density function (PDF) using posterior probability as weight. The posterior probability is estimated using EM algorithm. The BMA PDF is obtained by weighted average. As the result, the ensemble SST showed the lowest RMSE and MAE, which proves the applicability of BMA for satellite data ensemble. As future work, parallel processing techniques using Hadoop framework will be adopted for more efficient computation of very big satellite data.

  3. Probing the earth's gravity field using Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbun, F. O.

    1976-01-01

    Satellite-to-Satellite (SST) tests, namely: (a) the ATS-6/GEOS-3 and (b) the ATS-6/Apollo-Soyuz experiment and some of the results obtained are described. The main purpose of these two experiments was first to track via ATS-6 the GEOS-3 as well as the Apollo-Soyuz and to use these tracking data to determine (a) both orbits, that is, ATS-6, GEOS-3 and/or the Apollo-Soyuz orbits at the same time; (b) each of these orbits alone; and (c) test the ATS-6/GEOS-3 and/or Apollo-Soyuz SST link to study local gravity anomalies; and, second, to test communications, command, and data transmission from the ground via ATS-6 to these spacecraft and back again to the ground. The Apollo-Soyuz Geodynamics Experiment is discussed in some detail.

  4. Development of High vacuum facility for baking and cool down experiments for SST-1 Tokamak components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Ziauddin; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Yuvakiran, Paravastu; George, Siju; Manthena, Himabindu; Raval, Dilip C.; Thankey, Prashant L.; Dhanani, Kalpesh R.; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Pradhan, Subrata

    2012-11-01

    SST-1 Tokamak, a steady state super-conducting device, is under refurbishment to demonstrate the plasma discharge for the duration of 1000 second. The major fabricated components of SST-1 like vacuum vessel, thermal shields, superconducting magnets etc have to be tested for their functional parameters. During machine operation, vacuum vessel will be baked at 150 °C, thermal shields will be operated at 85 K and magnet system will be operated at 4.5 K. All these components must have helium leak tightness under these conditions so far as the machine operation is concerned. In order to validate the helium leak tightness of these components, in-house high vacuum chamber is fabricated. This paper describes the analysis, design and fabrication of high vacuum chamber to demonstrate these functionalities. Also some results will be presented.

  5. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Icing Sensor Performance During the 2003 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, John J.; Schaffner, Philip R.; Minnis, Patrick; Nguyen, Louis; Delnore, Victor E.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Grainger, C. A.; Delene, D.; Wolff, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) sensor was deployed onboard the University of North Dakota Citation II aircraft in the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II) from Nov 19 through December 14, 2003. TAMDAR is designed to measure and report winds, temperature, humidity, turbulence and icing from regional commercial aircraft (Daniels et. al., 2004). TAMDAR icing sensor performance is compared to a) in situ validation data from the Citation II sensor suite, b) Current Icing Potential products developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and available operationally on the NOAA Aviation Weather Center s Aviation Digital Data Server (ADDS) and c) NASA Advanced Satellite Aviation-weather Products (ASAP) cloud microphysical products.

  6. The Uncertainty of Long-term Linear Trend in Global SST Due to Internal Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Tao

    2016-04-01

    In most parts of the global ocean, the magnitude of the long-term linear trend in sea surface temperature (SST) is much smaller than the amplitude of local multi-scale internal variation. One can thus use the record of a specified period to arbitrarily determine the value and the sign of the long-term linear trend in regional SST, and further leading to controversial conclusions on how global SST responds to global warming in the recent history. Analyzing the linear trend coefficient estimated by the ordinary least-square method indicates that the linear trend consists of two parts: One related to the long-term change, and the other related to the multi-scale internal variation. The sign of the long-term change can be correctly reproduced only when the magnitude of the linear trend coefficient is greater than a theoretical threshold which scales the influence from the multi-scale internal variation. Otherwise, the sign of the linear trend coefficient will depend on the phase of the internal variation, or in the other words, the period being used. An improved least-square method is then proposed to reduce the theoretical threshold. When apply the new method to a global SST reconstruction from 1881 to 2013, we find that in a large part of Pacific, the southern Indian Ocean and North Atlantic, the influence from the multi-scale internal variation on the sign of the linear trend coefficient can-not be excluded. Therefore, the resulting warming or/and cooling linear trends in these regions can-not be fully assigned to global warming.

  7. Update to the Fissile Materials Disposition program SST/SGT transportation estimation

    SciTech Connect

    John Didlake

    1999-11-15

    This report is an update to ``Fissile Materials Disposition Program SST/SGT Transportation Estimation,'' SAND98-8244, June 1998. The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition requested this update as a basis for providing the public with an updated estimation of the number of transportation loads, load miles, and costs associated with the preferred alternative in the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

  8. A study of predictability of SST at different time scales based on satellite time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Youzhuan; Fu, Dongyang; Wei, Zhihui; He, Xianqiang; Huang, Haiqing; Pan, Delu

    2008-12-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is both an important variable for weather and ocean forecasting, but also a key indicator of climate change. Predicting future SST at different time scales constitutes an important scientific problem. The traditional approach to prediction is achieved through numerical simulation, but it is difficult to obtain a detailed knowledge of ocean initial conditions and forcing. This paper proposes a improved prediction system based on SOFT proposed by Alvarez et al and studies the predictability of SST at different time scales, i.e., 5 day, 10 day, 15 day, 20 day and month ahead. This method is used to forecast the SST in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent areas. The period of time ranging from Jan 1st 2000 to Dec 31st 2005 is employed to build the prediction system and the period of time ranging from Jan 1st 2006 to Dec 31st 2007 is employed to validate the performance of this prediction system. Results indicate: The prediction errors of 5 day,10 day,15 day, 20 day and monthly ahead are 0.78°C,0.86°C,0.90°C,1.00°C and 1.45°C respectively. The longer of time scales prediction, the worse of prediction capability. Compared with the SOFT system proposed by Alvarez et al, the improved prediction system is more robust. Merging more satellite data and trying to better reflect the real state of ocean variables, we can greatly improve the predictive precision of long time scale.

  9. GCM Hindcasts for SST Forced Climate Variability over Agriculturally Intensive Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Shah, Kathryn P.; Chandler, Mark A.; Rind, David

    1998-01-01

    The ability to forecast seasonal climate is of great practical interest. One of the most obvious benefits would be agriculture, for which various preparations (planting, machinery, irrigation, manpower) would be enabled. The expectation of being able to make such forecasts far enough in advance (on the order of 9 months) hinges on components of the system with the longest persistence or predictability. The mixed results of El Nino forecasts has raised the hope that tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SST) fall into this category. For agriculturally-relevant forecasts to be made, and utilized, requires several conditions. The SST in the regions that affect agricultural areas must be forecast successfully, many months in advance. The climate response to such sea surface temperatures must then be ascertained, either through the use of historical empirical studies or models (e.g., GCMS). For practical applications, the agricultural production must be strongly influenced by climate, and farmers on either the local level or through commercial concerns must be able to adjust to using such forecasts. In a continuing series of papers, we will explore each of these components. This article concerns the question of utilizing SST to forecast the climate in several regions of agricultural production. We optimize the possibility of doing so successfully by using observed SST in a hindcast mode (i.e., a perfect forecast), and we also use the globally observed values (rather than just those from the tropical Pacific, for which predictability has been shown). This then is the ideal situation; in subsequent papers we will explore degrading the results by using only tropical Pacific SSTs, and then using only

  10. Identification and Characterization of Key Human Performance Issues and Research in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Paul U.; Sheridan, Tom; Poage, james L.; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Jobe, Kimberly K.

    2010-01-01

    This report identifies key human-performance-related issues associated with Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) research in the NASA NextGen-Airspace Project. Four Research Focus Areas (RFAs) in the NextGen-Airspace Project - namely Separation Assurance (SA), Airspace Super Density Operations (ASDO), Traffic Flow Management (TFM), and Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) - were examined closely. In the course of the research, it was determined that the identified human performance issues needed to be analyzed in the context of NextGen operations rather than through basic human factors research. The main gaps in human factors research in NextGen were found in the need for accurate identification of key human-systems related issues within the context of specific NextGen concepts and better design of the operational requirements for those concepts. By focusing on human-system related issues for individual concepts, key human performance issues for the four RFAs were identified and described in this report. In addition, mixed equipage airspace with components of two RFAs were characterized to illustrate potential human performance issues that arise from the integration of multiple concepts.

  11. Air Force electrochemical power research and technology program for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Douglas

    1987-01-01

    An overview is presented of the existing Air Force electrochemical power, battery, and fuel cell programs for space application. Present thrusts are described along with anticipated technology availability dates. Critical problems to be solved before system applications occur are highlighted. Areas of needed performance improvement of batteries and fuel cells presently used are outlined including target dates for key demonstrations of advanced technology. Anticipated performance and current schedules for present technology programs are reviewed. Programs that support conventional military satellite power systems and special high power applications are reviewed. Battery types include bipolar lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, silver-zinc, nickel-hydrogen, sodium-sulfur, and some candidate advanced couples. Fuel cells for pulsed and transportation power applications are discussed as are some candidate advanced regenerative concepts.

  12. Technology base research on zinc/air battery systems: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sierra Alcazar, H.B.; Nguyen, P.D.; Pinoli, A.A.

    1987-09-01

    The capacity extension of additives was tested in a 200 cm/sup 2/bi-cell and a Zn powder moving-bed slurry. It was found that for the Type A additives in 12 M KOH, 25 g/l of silicate provided higher capacity than stannate, titanate and aluminate additives. The optimum concentration of sorbitol (a Type B additive that stabilizes polymeric chains involving ZnO) was found to be 15 g/l in 12 M KOH. A silicate and sorbitol combination added to Zn powder slurry in 12 M KOH provided a 20% increase in discharge capacity (195 Ah/l at 200 A/cm/sup 2/) compared to the maximum capacity obtained with silicate alone. A much lower capacity (74 Ah/l) was realized with silicate as Type C additive (precipitation of ZnO away from the Zn surface, for low KOH concentrations). The mechanisms of passivation and capacity extension were discussed and a model presented. The cell voltage and power densities were determined for the discharge process as a function of (a) current densities, (b) cathode depolarizer (air or oxygen), and (c) type of slurry (Zn powder or Zn coated polymeric bead). Air depolarization was observed to decrease the maximum power densities of both slurry types. The power densities obtained with Zn powder slurries were higher at all current densities investigated than those obtained with Zn coated polymeric beads (Zn-powder peak power densities more than doubled peak power densities obtained with Zn coated polymeric beads). The recharge process was studied with a planar electrode and with a rotating cylinder electrode. The current efficiency and cathode potentials were determined for glassy carbon and Mg cathodes. The dendritic Zn deposits were mechanically removed from the rotating cylinder electrode with fixed blades. Mechanical removal proved to be unsatisfactory in the embodiment investigated due to preferential dendritic growth on the baldes. Further investigations of discharge cell designs are underway. 19 refs., 40 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Research Data from the Aspen FACE Experiment (FACTS II)

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE has conducted trace gas enrichment experiments since the mid 1990s. The FACE Data Management System is a central repository and archive for Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) data, as well as for the related open-top chamber (OTC) experiments. FACE Data Management System is located at DOE’s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). While the data from the various FACE sites, each one a unique user facility, are centralized at CDIAC, each of the FACE sites presents its own view of its activities and information. For that reason, DOE Data Explorer users are advised to see both the central repository at http://public.ornl.gov/face/index.shtml and the individual home pages of each site. FACTS II, the Aspen FACE Experiment is a multidisciplinary study to assess the effects of increasing tropospheric ozone and carbon dioxide levels on the structure and function of northern forest ecosystems. The Aspen FACE facility is located at the Harshaw Experimental Forest near Rhinelander, Wisconsin. It consists of twelve 30m rings in which the concentrations of carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone can be controlled. The design provides the ability to assess the effects of these gasses alone, and in combination, on many ecosystem attributes, including growth, leaf development, root characteristics, and soil carbon. Each ring consists of a series of vertical ventpipes which disperse carbon dioxide, ozone or normal air into the center of the ring. This computer controlled system uses signal feedback technology to adjust gas release each second in order to maintain a stable, elevated concentration of carbon dioxide and/or ozone throughout the experimental plot. Because there is no confinement, there is no significant change in the natural, ambient environment other than elevating these trace gas concentrations. [copied from http://aspenface.mtu.edu/index.html] Ring maps, lists of publications, data from the experiments, newsletters, protocol and performance

  14. Detection of bone disease by hybrid SST-watershed x-ray image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanei, Saeid; Azron, Mohammad; Heng, Ong Sim

    2001-07-01

    Detection of diagnostic features from X-ray images is favorable due to the low cost of these images. Accurate detection of the bone metastasis region greatly assists physicians to monitor the treatment and to remove the cancerous tissue by surgery. A hybrid SST-watershed algorithm, here, efficiently detects the boundary of the diseased regions. Shortest Spanning Tree (SST), based on graph theory, is one of the most powerful tools in grey level image segmentation. The method converts the images into arbitrary-shape closed segments of distinct grey levels. To do that, the image is initially mapped to a tree. Then using RSST algorithm the image is segmented to a certain number of arbitrary-shaped regions. However, in fine segmentation, over-segmentation causes loss of objects of interest. In coarse segmentation, on the other hand, SST-based method suffers from merging the regions belonged to different objects. By applying watershed algorithm, the large segments are divided into the smaller regions based on the number of catchment's basins for each segment. The process exploits bi-level watershed concept to separate each multi-lobe region into a number of areas each corresponding to an object (in our case a cancerous region of the bone,) disregarding their homogeneity in grey level.

  15. Sst and Ghg Impacts On The West African Monsoon Climate: A Superensemble Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paeth, H.; Hense, A.

    West African rainfall has been subject to large interdecadal variations during the 20th century. The most prominent feature is a negative trend in annual precipitation after 1960, causing severe drought in the Sahel region and the southern part of West Africa, with some recoverage in recent years. We examine and quantify the influence of ob- served SST changes on low-frequency variability over the subcontinent and compare it with the additional impact of increasing GHG concentrations, as revealed by a su- perensemble of SST-driven experiments. SST is largely responsible for decadal and longer-term variability over the southern part of West Africa, accounting for almost 80 % of monsoonal rainfall variance. The additional impact of the enhanced green- house effect is weak but statistically significant by the year 1980, obviously associ- ated with a positive trend in annual precipitation. This positive trend is also found in GHG-induced coupled climate model projection into the future. The CO2 signal is again weak but statistically significant and consistent with different climate models, as revealed by a superensemble of coupled experiments.

  16. Seasonal Rainfall Forecasting Using SST Dipoles with Application to the Southeast US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Georgakakos, A. P.

    2012-12-01

    Advances in seasonal climate predictions have demonstrated considerable benefits to several societal activities, including agriculture, health care, and water resources management. Such climate predictions can rely on empirical approaches based upon the projections of major teleconnection indices (e.g., ENSO) or linear combinations of selected predictor fields [e.g., sea surface temperatures (SST)]. This experience demonstrates that improved prediction skill would lead to higher operational utility and more effective water resources applications. To this end, this study introduces a new forecasting method for seasonal rainfall. The forecasting process first identifies relevant SST dipole predictors for seasonal rainfall through an optimization algorithm based on the Gerrity Skill Score. The resulting forecasts are cross-validated, and a composite of the most significant SST dipole predictors are identified to generate rainfall forecasts in each season. Finally, for a target year, ensemble year-round prediction traces as well as uncertainty intervals can be produced by superimposing hindcasting errors on seasonal rainfall predictions. These forecasts are then used within hydrologic models to drive water resources planning and management models and processes. Applications to the southeast US show significant improvements over existing forecasting methods.

  17. SST-GATE telescope: an innovative dual-mirror prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumas, Delphine; Huet, Jean-Michel; Dournaux, Jean-Laurent; Laporte, Philippe; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Fasola, Gilles; Zech, Andreas; Rulten, Cameron; Sol, Hélène; Blake, Simon; Schmoll, Jurgen

    2014-07-01

    The Observatoire de Paris is involved in the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project by designing and constructing on the site of Meudon a Small Size Telescope prototype, named SST-GATE, in collaboration with the CHEC team (Compact High Energy Camera) which is providing the camera. The telescope structure is based on the Schwarzschild- Couder optical design which has never been adopted before in the design of a ground-based telescope. This concept allows a larger field of view and cheaper and smaller telescope and camera design with improved performance compared to the Davies-Cotton design traditionally used in very high energy gamma-ray telescopes. The SST-GATE telescope has been designed with the prime objectives of being light, versatile and simple to assemble with a minimal maintenance cost. This papers aims at reviewing the SST-GATE telescope structure from mechanics to optics along with the control command architecture; several innovative developments implemented within the design are discussed. Updates of the project status and perspectives are made.

  18. Role of Tropical Atlantic SST Variability as a Modulator of El Nino Teleconnections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Sung, Mi-Kyung; An, Soon-II; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2014-01-01

    The present study suggests that the off-equatorial North Atlantic (NATL) SST warming plays a significant role in modulating El Niño teleconnection and its impact on the North Atlantic and European regions. The El Niño events accompanied by NATL SST warming exhibit south-north dipole pattern over the Western Europe to Atlantic, while the ENSO teleconnection pattern without NATL warming exhibits a Rossby wave-like pattern confined over the North Pacific and western Atlantic. Especially, the El Niño events with NATL warming show positive (negative) geopotential-height anomalies over the North Atlantic (Western Europe) which resemble the negative phase of the NAO. Consistently, it is shown using a simple statistical model that NATL SSTA in addition to the tropical Pacific SSTA leads to better prediction on regional climate variation over the North Atlantic and European regions. This role of NATL SST on ENSO teleconnection is also validated and discussed in a long term simulation of coupled global circulation model (CGCM).

  19. Presence of sst5TMD4, a truncated splice variant of the somatostatin receptor subtype 5, is associated to features of increased aggressiveness in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gahete, Manuel D.; Serrano-Somavilla, Ana; Villa-Osaba, Alicia; Adrados, Magdalena; Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Martín-Pérez, Elena; Culler, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are rare and heterogeneous tumors, and their biological behavior is not well known. We studied the presence and potential functional roles of somatostatin receptors (sst1-5), focusing particularly on the truncated variants (sst5TMD4, sst5TMD5) and on their relationships with the angiogenic system (Ang/Tie-2 and VEGF) in human GEP-NETs. Experimental Design We evaluated 42 tumor tissue samples (26 primary/16 metastatic) from 26 patients with GEP-NETs, and 30 non-tumoral tissues (26 from adjacent non-tumor regions and 4 from normal controls) from a single center. Expression of sst1-5, sst5TMD4, sst5TMD5, Ang1-2, Tie-2 and VEGF was analyzed using real-time qPCR, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. Expression levels were associated with tumor characteristics and clinical outcomes. Functional role of sst5TMD4 was analyzed in GEP-NET cell lines. Results sst1 exhibited the highest expression in GEP-NET, whilst sst2 was the most frequently observed sst-subtype (90.2%). Expression levels of sst1, sst2, sst3, sst5TMD4, and sst5TMD5 were significantly higher in tumor tissues compared to their adjacent non-tumoral tissue. Lymph-node metastases expressed higher levels of sst5TMD4 than in its corresponding primary tumor tissue. sst5TMD4 was also significantly higher in intestinal tumor tissues from patients with residual disease of intestinal origin compared to those with non-residual disease. Functional assays demonstrated that the presence of sst5TMD4 was associated to enhanced malignant features in GEP-NET cells. Angiogenic markers correlated positively with sst5TMD4, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical/fluorescence studies. Conclusions sst5TMD4 is overexpressed in GEP-NETs and is associated to enhanced aggressiveness, suggesting its potential value as biomarker and target in GEP-NETs. PMID:26673010

  20. Frigid air and frozen oceans: Educational outreach opportunities in Arctic ocean-ice-atmosphere research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perovich, D. K.; Codispoti, L. A.; Hawkey, J.

    2003-12-01

    Arctic research provides a marvelous venue for educational outreach activities. The polar regions, with snow and ice, months-long winter nights and summer days, and marine mammals such as seals, whales, and polar bears, has an intrinsic sense of adventure and interest. This interest provides an entry point for educational outreach activities, but does not guarantee success. Arctic researchers studying ocean-ice-atmosphere interactions have used a myriad of techniques for education outreach activities: web sites, classroom visits, lectures, news articles, and e-mail correspondence from the field. One such web site, http://arcss-oaii.hpl.umces.edu/outreach.htm, has been developed as a clearinghouse for researchers to share ideas, strategies, and techniques. For K-12 outreach, developing an ongoing effort with several classroom visits over the school year, is particularly effective. Classroom visits with brief lectures, replete with pictures, followed by an experiment or activity make it relatively straightforward to convey the enthusiasm and excitement of polar research. A more difficult task, however, is to integrate outreach activities into the curriculum. Collaborating with teachers is essential to achieve this integration. In public lectures, it is productive to first capture the audience's attention by describing what it is like to work in the polar regions, then discuss the science. It is important to distill the science to one or two key concepts and present them clearly and concisely. A recurring theme was that not only were outreach activities fun and satisfying, but they also enhanced the researchers understanding of the material.

  1. Reexamination of the relation between depth of the Antarctic ozone hole, and equatorial QBO and SST, 1962-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Angell, J.K. )

    1993-08-06

    This paper reports on an examination of previous data to see if a correlation can be found between the average depth of the Antarctic ozone hole, and the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and/or sea surface temperature (SST). Data from the period 1962 to 1992 is examined. The only ozone data which spans this period is the Dobson total ozone data from the South Pole. The data considered is the average from mid October through November. The 50 mb zonal wind at Singapore is taken as a measure of the QBO. The average SST in the region 12S - 2N, 180W - 90W, the El Nino region, is taken for the SST value. The objective of this correlation is for predictive purposes. There is a weak correlation to the QBO, and a much weaker correlation to the SST from this data set.

  2. Integration of LHCD system with SST1 machine and its high power rf performance in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, P. K.; Ambulkar, K. K.; Dalakoti, S.; Parmar, P. R.; Virani, C. G.; Thakur, A. L.

    2014-02-01

    A 2.0 MW CW lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) system based on 3.7 GHz klystron sources, is in advanced stage of commissioning, which would drive and sustain plasma current, non-inductively, in superconducting steadystate tokamak (SST1) for long pulse operation. Four klystrons, each rated for 0.5 MW CW rf power, delivers 2.0 MW of rf power to four layer of the LHCD system, which finally feeds the rf power to grill antenna. The antenna system along with vacuum window and vacuum transmission line is successfully integrated on the machine. Its vacuum and pressurization compatibility has been successfully established. To validate the high power performance of LHCD system for SST1 machine, stage-wise commissioning of LHCD system in staggered manner is planned. It has been envisaged that LHCD power may be gradually increased initially, since full power may not be required during the initial phases of SST1 plasma operation. Also if the system is integrated in steps or in phases, then integration issues, as well as high power operational issues, if any, can be addressed, attended and handled in a simpler way before integrating all the layers to the grill antenna. To begin with, one klystron is connected to one layer, out of four layers, which energizes a quarter of the grill antenna. Gradually, the rf power and its pulse length is increased to validate high power performance of the system. Arcing and reflections are observed as rf power is gradually increased. The problems are analysed and after taking appropriate remedial action the system performance is improved for operation up to 160kW. Several trains of short pulses are launched in SST1 vacuum vessel for rf conditioning of the LHCD system. Normally, reflections are high when power is launched in vacuum; therefore the pulse length is restricted up to 100 milliseconds. The high power performance of this layer, connected with grill antenna is validated by launching high power microwaves in vacuum vessel of SST1 machine

  3. Simulating SST Teleconnections to Africa: What is the State of the Art?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowell, Dave

    2013-04-01

    It is well-known that variations in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are partly responsible for large interannual anomalies of seasonal mean rainfall over many areas of Africa. Knowledge of these teleconnections is increasingly used to provide probabilistic predictions of such rainfall anomalies, with the objective of helping vulnerable African communities and assisting national resource management. This study provides an overview of the state-of-the-art of modelling SST teleconnections to Africa, and begins to investigate the sources of error. Data is obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, CMIP3 and CMIP5, using the '20C3M' and 'historical' coupled model experiments. A systematic approach is adopted, with the scope narrowed to 6 large-scale regions of Sub-Saharan Africa within which seasonal rainfall anomalies are reasonably coherent, along with 6 SST modes known to affect theses regions. No significant non-stationarity of the strength of these 6x6 teleconnections is found in observations. The capability of models to represent each teleconnection is then assessed (whereby half the teleconnections have observed SST-rainfall correlations that differ significantly from zero). A few of these teleconnections are found to be relatively easy to model, including that from the Mediterranean to the Sahel in July-September. A few more pose substantial challenges to models, such as the link between the Equatorial East Atlantic and July-September rainfall in the Guinea Coast region, and the link between the Central Indian Ocean and the Sahel (also July-September). Many other teleconnections exhibit a wide variety of model skill. Furthermore, some models perform consistently better than others, with the best able to at least adequately simulate 80-85% of the 36 teleconnections. No improvement is found between CMIP3 and CMIP5. Analysis of atmosphere-only simulations suggests that the coupled model teleconnection errors may arise primarily from errors in their

  4. [Papers Presented at the American Medical Association's Air Pollution Medical Research Conference (New Orleans, Louisiana, October 5-7, 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Medical Association, Chicago, IL.

    This is a collection of twenty speeches presented at the American Medical Association's Air Pollution Medical Conference, October 5-7, 1970. Speeches included: Air Pollution Control: The Physician's Role; Air Pollution Problems in Nuclear Power Development; Airway Resistance and Collateral Ventilation; Asbestos Air Pollution in Urban Areas;…

  5. The Impact of High-/Low SST Resolution in the WRF Model on the Atmospheric Response and Variability in East Asia during the Boreal Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, D. W.; Yeh, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    The ocean has a large heat capacity compared to atmosphere and it has a potential to influent on atmospheric variability by releasing a latent and sensible heat flux into the atmosphere. To understand the atmosphere variability in response to SST forcing, it is necessary to prescribe a high accuracy and resolution to force an atmosphere model. In this study, we investigate the impact of SST between high/low resolution on atmospheric response in East Asia. We run the two experiments with prescribing different SSTs which have high or low resolution in East Asian region using a WRF model. The result with low-resolution SST run simulates lower SST in most regions near the land than the high-resolution SST run because the SST with high resolution has a characteristic with more transportation of heat energy from the Kuroshio current. The SST difference makes the difference of temperature gradient between land and sea, and then it influence to the other atmospheric components, such as surface pressure, wind pattern, and ascending motion. It is found that the relatively stronger northerly wind in Yellow sea in the high-resolution SST run. And its surface pressure simulates larger value in land than seas around Korea peninsula. It is also found that the different resolution of SST in the WRF model results in different amount of land precipitation. For a reliable interpretation on atmospheric variability in response to SST forcing, it is necessary to prescribe the higher resolution SST in the atmosphere model.

  6. Additional research on instabilities in atmospheric flow systems associated with clear air turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical and experimental fluid mechanics studies were conducted to investigate instabilities in atmospheric flow systems associated with clear air turbulence. The experimental portion of the program was conducted using an open water channel which allows investigation of flows having wide ranges of shear and density stratification. The program was primarily directed toward studies of the stability of straight, stratified shear flows with particular emphasis on the effects of velocity profile on stability; on studies of three-dimensional effects on the breakdown region in shear layers; on the the interaction of shear flows with long-wave length internal waves; and on the stability of shear flows consisting of adjacent stable layers. The results of these studies were used to evaluate methods used in analyses of CAT encounters in the atmosphere involving wave-induced shear layer instabilities of the Kelvin-Helmholta type. A computer program was developed for predicting shear-layer instability and CAT induced by mountain waves. This technique predicts specific altitudes and locations where CAT would be expected.

  7. Mean SST bias and variability at inter-annual and decadal time-scales in CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polo, Irene; Villamayor, Julian; Rodriguez-Fonseca, Belen; Mohino, Elsa; Losada, Teresa

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of model systematic errors in Sea Surface Temperature (SST) has generally focused on local processes and particular basins. Mean warm bias over the south subtropical upwelling systems in coupled models are largely studied and local cloud cover, alongshore winds and ocean stratification are pointed out as the responsible processes. Mean errors have impacts on the variability but this is less understood. In this study we try to understand the relation between mean global SST biases and how models perform the variability at different time-scales. To this end, we calculate the SST variability modes for 18 models in the preindustrial control CMIP5 experiment. We first analyse the seasonality of those modes and the inter-model differences. Associated parameters are confronted with the mean SST bias variability among models, thus we conclude how realistic models simulate the variability depending on the mean SST bias. Preliminary results suggest that models with cooler (warmer) that average SST mean bias over the southern hemisphere reproduce better (worse) the Inter-Decadal Pacific variability. Similar mean bias pattern has an effect on the skill for reproducing Pacific El Nino and Atlantic Nino modes. Finally an inter-model SST bias variability mode is found relating errors over the southern upwelling systems with cloud cover around 60S and equatorial precipitation shift. This mode is able to summarize some features in relation with inter-decadal to inter-annual variability in CMIP5 models and thus represents a potential tool to understand the wider picture in relation to SST biases and future projections.

  8. Research on University-Industry Linkages: The State of the Art. AIR 1984 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melchiori, Gerlinda S.

    Issues concerning research partnerships between universities and industry are reviewed. Attention is directed to: the genesis of partnerships, a typology of linkages, salient incentives for academe and commerce, currently perceived barriers, qualitative assessment of linkages, and recommendations for the improvement of partnerships. Linkages fall…

  9. Map of the Field--Higher Education Research at the State Level. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Patricia H.; Adams, Charles S.

    A map of the field of higher education at the state level is presented that defines theoretical and conceptual frameworks, approaches to analysis, research designs, and methodologies that have been used in the study of the relationships between state governments and institutions of higher education or of state policy structures and processes.…

  10. Strategic Marketing Evaluation: A Focus Area for Institutional Research. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Edward M.; Gackenbach, Rusty

    The level of awareness, knowledge, and current practices regarding strategic marketing within institutional research (IR) offices were studied for colleges in the Rocky Mountain region. Of the 18 responding offices, 9 indicated that their institutions utilized a marketing approach to planning. Of these 9 offices, 56 percent reported formal…

  11. The Role of Institutional Research in Data Administration and Management. AIR 1986 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Richard L.; And Others

    New roles for college institutional researchers in the area of data administration and management that have resulted from developments in computer technology are reviewed. These developments include easily accessed databases, user-friendly software, and powerful and inexpensive hardware. The growing demand for data, combined with a general lack of…

  12. Information Systems Management: A Function for Institutional Research. AIR Forum 1980 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strenglein, Denise

    The importance of information systems management to institutional research efforts of colleges and universities is discussed. The goal of information system management is to make an institution's information system more consistent, efficient, and informative. Each of the different functions of the university, such as admissions and registration,…

  13. Application Generators: Their Impact within Institutional Research and Beyond. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Michael; Walleri, R. Dan

    The characteristics of application generators and the reasons they are and will be used increasingly in collegiate institutional research are addressed. The incorporation of application generators within a total institutional data and information processing network is also outlined. The analysis considers the often noted "gap" between expectations…

  14. Using Total Quality To Better Manage an Institutional Research Office. AIR 1991 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heverly, Mary Ann

    Responding to the call for higher education to adopt a new paradigm in managing its administrative processes, an Institutional Research Office at Delaware County Community College (DCCC) in Pennsylvania made a two-year effort to use a Total Quality approach in its management. Total Quality Management is a Japanese movement based on the teachings…

  15. Decision Support Systems: An Institutional Research Perspective. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Bernard S.

    Ideas that have been developed in the decision support systems (DSS) literature that seem particularly relevant to institutional research, planning, and analysis (IRPA) are reviewed. In addition, a survey of practitioners in Canadian universities that provides new information on the rapidly changing current state of information technology,…

  16. When Somebody's Watching: Researching the Workplace Impact of Academic Audit. AIR 2002 Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palermo, Josephine

    The proposed quality assurance framework for higher education in Australia will, for the first time since the early 1990s, introduce a process of external quality monitoring through the auspices of the Australian Universities Quality Agency. There is little research that evaluates the impact of external monitoring on the experiences of staff,…

  17. The Role of Institutional Research in Program Discontinuance. AIR Forum 1979 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Edward A.

    Problems relating to program discontinuance and the role of institutional research are discussed, drawing on a study supported by the Exxon Foundation of 10 predominantly large public universities that have either reviewed and closed programs or have gone through recent financial difficulties. Careful analysis is necessary to know that savings are…

  18. Measurements of Quality in Higher Education: The Role of Institutional Research. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gapen, Kaye; Morse, Suzanne

    Three areas of quality assessment in higher education are examined: students, faculty, and library resources. Types of student data that institutional researchers should address include: entrance tests scores, retention rate, student outcomes, location and recruitment of graduates, results of licensing examinations, scholarship recipients, and…

  19. Decentralized and Integrated Institutional Research: A Contradiction in Terms That Works. AIR 1991 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Susan H.

    A newly organized small college model for a decentralized institutional research office was described and evaluated. Using Hearn and Corcoran's six external or organizational forces (external environment, personalities or individual interests, management styles, power arrangements, microcomputing and telecommunications, and structural and…

  20. The Economics of Direct versus Indirect Cost Recovery in Sponsored Research. AIR Annual 1984 Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutina, Kenneth L.; And Others

    The effect of reduced reimbursements by the federal government for indirect research costs was analyzed for the typical academic medical center. The effects of simply cutting indirect cost reimbursement were contrasted with the impact of securing compensating levels of increased direct project support. To determine if the consequences differed as…