Science.gov

Sample records for air route surveillance

  1. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  2. Air-traffic surveillance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdoran, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    Passive ground-based radio-interferometry systems (RILS) monitor local air traffic by determining aircraft position in planes defined by surveillance area. Similar RILS arrangements are used to determine aircraft positions in three dimensions when combined with azimuth and range information obtained by radar. Information helps determine three-dimensional aircraft position without expensive encoding altimeters.

  3. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  4. Laying Out of a Practical Air Route

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, V S; Carroll, T

    1922-01-01

    Unfortunately the problem of laying out an air route has been approached by all who give it consideration as one of the hardest tasks in the world. Whereas, as a matter of fact, a very serviceable air route can be laid out with an absolute minimum of ground work.

  5. Reevaluation of air surveillance station siting

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, K.; Jannik, T.

    2016-07-06

    DOE Technical Standard HDBK-1216-2015 (DOE 2015) recommends evaluating air-monitoring station placement using the analytical method developed by Waite. The technique utilizes wind rose and population distribution data in order to determine a weighting factor for each directional sector surrounding a nuclear facility. Based on the available resources (number of stations) and a scaling factor, this weighting factor is used to determine the number of stations recommended to be placed in each sector considered. An assessment utilizing this method was performed in 2003 to evaluate the effectiveness of the existing SRS air-monitoring program. The resulting recommended distribution of air-monitoring stations was then compared to that of the existing site perimeter surveillance program. The assessment demonstrated that the distribution of air-monitoring stations at the time generally agreed with the results obtained using the Waite method; however, at the time new stations were established in Barnwell and in Williston in order to meet requirements of DOE guidance document EH-0173T.

  6. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  7. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  8. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  9. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  10. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2682 - Air quality surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality surveillance. 52.2682... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2682 Air quality... Pollution Control Standards and Regulations” (buffer zones—air quality sampling) are not in conformance...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2682 - Air quality surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality surveillance. 52.2682... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2682 Air quality... Pollution Control Standards and Regulations” (buffer zones—air quality sampling) are not in conformance...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2682 - Air quality surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality surveillance. 52.2682... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2682 Air quality... Pollution Control Standards and Regulations” (buffer zones—air quality sampling) are not in conformance...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2682 - Air quality surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the intent of the Clean Air Act and the definition of “ambient air” promulgated at § 50.1(e) of this chapter. Regulations 1.8 and 5.3 are disapproved because they could prohibit ambient air quality sampling... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality surveillance....

  15. 40 CFR 52.2682 - Air quality surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the intent of the Clean Air Act and the definition of “ambient air” promulgated at § 50.1(e) of this chapter. Regulations 1.8 and 5.3 are disapproved because they could prohibit ambient air quality sampling... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quality surveillance....

  16. PUBLIC HEALTH AIR SURVEILLANCE EVALUATION (PHASE) - A SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    NERL's Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division and other participants in the Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) project will be discussing their results with European Commission, Directorate General Environment, and

    French Agency for Environment an...

  17. Properties of Air Traffic Conflicts for Free and Structured Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilimoria, Karl D.; Lee, Hilda Q.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the properties of air traffic conflicts in a future free routing system against those in the current structured routing system. Simulation of en route air traffic operations (above 18,000 ft) over the contiguous United States for a 24-hour period, constructed with initial conditions from actual air traffic data, were conducted using the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET). Free routes were modeled as great circle (direct) routes from origin to destination, and structured routes were derived from actual flight plans along the current system of air routes. The conflict properties analyzed in this study include: (1) Total number of conflicts; (2) Distributions of key conflict parameters; and, (3) Categorization of conflicts into independent conflicts and two types of interacting conflicts. Preliminary results (for Denver Center traffic) indicate that conflict properties in a free routing system are different from those in the current structured routing system. In particular, a free routing system has significantly fewer conflicts, involving a correspondingly smaller number of aircraft, compared to the current structured routing system. Additionally, the conflict parameter distributions indicate that free routing conflicts are less intrusive than structured routing conflicts, and would therefore require small trajectory deviations for resolution.

  18. Air Cargo Transportation Route Choice Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obashi, Hiroshi; Kim, Tae-Seung; Oum, Tae Hoon

    2003-01-01

    Using a unique feature of air cargo transshipment data in the Northeast Asian region, this paper identifies the critical factors that determine the transshipment route choice. Taking advantage of the variations in the transport characteristics in each origin-destination airports pair, the paper uses a discrete choice model to describe the transshipping route choice decision made by an agent (i.e., freight forwarder, consolidator, and large shipper). The analysis incorporates two major factors, monetary cost (such as line-haul cost and landing fee) and time cost (i.e., aircraft turnaround time, including loading and unloading time, custom clearance time, and expected scheduled delay), along with other controls. The estimation method considers the presence of unobserved attributes, and corrects for resulting endogeneity by use of appropriate instrumental variables. Estimation results find that transshipment volumes are more sensitive to time cost, and that the reduction in aircraft turnaround time by 1 hour would be worth the increase in airport charges by more than $1000. Simulation exercises measures the impacts of alternative policy scenarios for a Korean airport, which has recently declared their intention to be a future regional hub in the Northeast Asian region. The results suggest that reducing aircraft turnaround time at the airport be an effective strategy, rather than subsidizing to reduce airport charges.

  19. Air traffic control surveillance accuracy and update rate study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craigie, J. H.; Morrison, D. D.; Zipper, I.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an air traffic control surveillance accuracy and update rate study are presented. The objective of the study was to establish quantitative relationships between the surveillance accuracies, update rates, and the communication load associated with the tactical control of aircraft for conflict resolution. The relationships are established for typical types of aircraft, phases of flight, and types of airspace. Specific cases are analyzed to determine the surveillance accuracies and update rates required to prevent two aircraft from approaching each other too closely.

  20. Integrated Air Surveillance Concept of Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    information, intelligence, weather data, and other situational awareness-related information. 4.2.4 Shared Services Automated processing of sensor and...other surveillance information will occur through shared services , accessible through an enterprise network infrastructure, that provide for collecting...also be provided, such as information discovery and translation. The IS architecture effort will identify specific shared services . Shared

  1. 103. North Carolina Route 1130 grade separation structure at Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. North Carolina Route 1130 grade separation structure at Air Bellows Gap. Elevation view of concrete slab bridge built in 1937. Looking southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  2. 104. North Carolina Route 1130 grade separation structure at Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. North Carolina Route 1130 grade separation structure at Air Bellows Gap. Detail of the stepped wing wall. Looking southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  3. 105. North Carolina Route 1130 grade separation structure at Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    105. North Carolina Route 1130 grade separation structure at Air Bellows Gap. View showing the access road from the parkway. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  4. Infrared Photography as an Air Pollution Surveillance Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casalinuovo, Anthony F.; Sawan, Alan

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the practicality of infrared photographic analysis to air pollution agencies, by the detection of plant damage from pollutants before they are visually identifiable. Results showed that photomicrographic imaging using infrared radiation should be considered a viable surveillance tool in similiar…

  5. Toward real-time en route air traffic control optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardin, Matthew Robert

    The increase in air traffic along the existing jet route structure has led to inefficiencies and frequent congestion in en route airspace. Analysis of air-traffic data suggests that direct operating costs might be reduced by about 4.5%, or $500 million per year, if aircraft were permitted to fly optimal wind routes instead of the structured routes allowed today. To enable aircraft to fly along unstructured optimal routes safely, automation is required to aid air-traffic controllers. This requires the global solution for conflict-free optimal routes for many aircraft in real time. The constraint that all aircraft must maintain adequate separation from one another results in a greater-than-exponential increase in the complexity of the multi-aircraft optimization problem. The main challenges addressed in this dissertation are in the areas of optimal wind routing, computationally efficient aircraft conflict detection, and efficient conflict resolution. A core contribution is the derivation of an analytical neighboring optimal control solution for the efficient computation of optimal wind routes. The neighboring optimal control algorithm uses an order of magnitude less computational effort to achieve the same performance as existing algorithms, and is easily extended to compute near-optimal conflict free trajectories. A conflict detection algorithm as been developed which eliminates the need to compute inter-aircraft distances. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate an integrated horizontal route-optimization and conflict-resolution method for air-traffic control. Conflict-free solutions have been computed for roughly double the current-day traffic density for a single flight level (over 600 aircraft) in less than 1 minute on a 450-MHz UNIX work station. This corresponds to a computation rate of better than 25 optimal routes per second. Extrapolation of the two-dimensional results to the multi-flight-level domain suggests that the complete solution for optimal

  6. PUBLIC HEALTH AIR SURVEILLANCE EVALUATION (PHASE): BACKGROUND AND AIR QUALITY ASPECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    NERL's Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division and other participants in the Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) project will be discussing their results with the New York State Departments of Health and Environmental Conservation. The PHASE project is a ...

  7. 40 CFR 52.13 - Air quality surveillance; resources; intergovernmental cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality surveillance; resources... § 52.13 Air quality surveillance; resources; intergovernmental cooperation. Disapproved portions of the plan related to the air quality surveillance system, resources, and intergovernmental cooperation...

  8. Atlanta Air Route Traffic Control Center's involvement in aviation weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of weather information throughout the Air Traffic Control System is discussed along with the development of meteorological radar, and the modifications to the Air Route Traffic Control Center radars for locating and determining the severity of storms' cells. The planned improvements in the availability of weather data to the control centers are listed.

  9. SRS environmental air surveillance program 1954-2015: General trends

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, K.; Jannik, T.

    2016-06-02

    The radiological monitoring program at SRS was established under the DuPont Company in June 1951 and was used as a measurement of the effectiveness of plant controls and as an authoritative record of environmental conditions surrounding the plant. It also served as a method of demonstrating compliance with applicable federal regulations and guidance. This document serves as a general summary of changes made specifically to the environmental air monitoring program since its inception, and a discussion of the general trends seen in the air monitoring program at SRS from 1954 to 2015. Initially, the environmental air surveillance program focused not only on releases from SRS but also on fallout from various weapons testing performed through the end of 1978. Flypaper was used to measure the amount of fallout in the atmosphere during this period, and was present at each of the 10 monitoring stations. By 1959, all site stacks were included in the air monitoring program to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity onsite, and the number of air surveillance samplers rose to 18. This trend of an increased number of sampling locations continued to a peak of 35 sampling locations before shifting to a downward trend in the mid-1990s. In 1962, 4 outer-range samplers were placed in Savannah and Macon, GA, and in Greenville and Columbia, SC. Until 1976, air samplers were simply placed around the perimeter of the various operation locations (after 1959, this included stacks to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity), with the intent of creating as representative a distribution as possible of the air surrounding operations.

  10. Multistatic GNSS Receiver Array for Passive Air Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachtl, Stefan; Koch, Volker; Westphal, Robert; Schmidt, Lorenz-Peter

    2016-03-01

    The performance of a passive air surveillance sensor based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) is mainly limited by the receiver noise efficiency, the achievable signal processing gain and the radar cross section (RCS) of an airplane. For surveillance applications large detection ranges as well as a high probability of detection are crucial parameters. Due to the very low GNSS signal powers received on the earth's surface, high radar cross sections are mandatory to achieve detection ranges for airplanes at some kilometers distance. This paper will discuss a multistatic transmitter and receiver arrangement, which is indispensable to get a reasonable detection rate with respect to a hemispheric field of view. The strong performance dependency of such a sensor on the number of transmitters and receivers will be shown by means of some exemplary simulation results.

  11. 40 CFR 52.13 - Air quality surveillance; resources; intergovernmental cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; intergovernmental cooperation. 52.13 Section 52.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.13 Air quality surveillance; resources; intergovernmental cooperation. Disapproved portions of the plan related to the air quality surveillance system, resources, and intergovernmental cooperation...

  12. 40 CFR 52.13 - Air quality surveillance; resources; intergovernmental cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; intergovernmental cooperation. 52.13 Section 52.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.13 Air quality surveillance; resources; intergovernmental cooperation. Disapproved portions of the plan related to the air quality surveillance system, resources, and intergovernmental cooperation...

  13. 40 CFR 52.13 - Air quality surveillance; resources; intergovernmental cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; intergovernmental cooperation. 52.13 Section 52.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.13 Air quality surveillance; resources; intergovernmental cooperation. Disapproved portions of the plan related to the air quality surveillance system, resources, and intergovernmental cooperation...

  14. 40 CFR 52.13 - Air quality surveillance; resources; intergovernmental cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; intergovernmental cooperation. 52.13 Section 52.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.13 Air quality surveillance; resources; intergovernmental cooperation. Disapproved portions of the plan related to the air quality surveillance system, resources, and intergovernmental cooperation...

  15. Air Pollution Determination Using a Surveillance Internet Protocol Camera Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow Jeng, C. J.; Hwee San, Hslim; Matjafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, Abdul, K.

    Air pollution has long been a problem in the industrial nations of the West It has now become an increasing source of environmental degradation in the developing nations of east Asia Malaysia government has built a network to monitor air pollution But the cost of these networks is high and limits the knowledge of pollutant concentration to specific points of the cities A methodology based on a surveillance internet protocol IP camera for the determination air pollution concentrations was presented in this study The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of using IP camera data for estimating real time particulate matter of size less than 10 micron PM10 in the campus of USM The proposed PM10 retrieval algorithm derived from the atmospheric optical properties was employed in the present study In situ data sets of PM10 measurements and sun radiation measurements at the ground surface were collected simultaneously with the IP camera images using a DustTrak meter and a handheld spectroradiometer respectively The digital images were separated into three bands namely red green and blue bands for multispectral algorithm calibration The digital number DN of the IP camera images were converted into radiance and reflectance values After that the reflectance recorded by the digital camera was subtracted by the reflectance of the known surface and we obtained the reflectance caused by the atmospheric components The atmospheric reflectance values were used for regression analysis Regression technique was employed to determine suitable

  16. 14 CFR 71.13 - Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.13 Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless...

  17. 14 CFR 71.13 - Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.13 Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless...

  18. 14 CFR 71.13 - Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.13 Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless...

  19. 14 CFR 71.13 - Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.13 Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless...

  20. Estimate of air carrier and air taxi crash frequencies from high altitude en route flight operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sanzo, D.; Kimura, C.Y.; Prassinos, P.G.

    1996-06-03

    In estimating the frequency of an aircraft crashing into a facility, it has been found convenient to break the problem down into two broad categories. One category estimates the aircraft crash frequency due to air traffic from nearby airports, the so-called near-airport environment. The other category estimates the aircraft crash frequency onto facilities due to air traffic from airways, jet routes, and other traffic flying outside the near-airport environment The total aircraft crash frequency is the summation of the crash frequencies from each airport near the facility under evaluation and from all airways, jet routes, and other traffic near the facility of interest. This paper will examine the problems associated with the determining the aircraft crash frequencies onto facilities outside the near-airport environment. This paper will further concentrate on the estimating the risk of aircraft crashes to ground facilities due to high altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic. High altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic will be defined as all air carrier and air taxi flights above 18,000 feet Mean Sea Level (MSL).

  1. 78 FR 10560 - Proposed Modification and Revocation of Air Traffic Service Routes; Jackson, MS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... Modification and Revocation of Air Traffic Service Routes; Jackson, MS AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... jet routes and seven VOR Federal airways; and remove two VOR Federal airways in the vicinity of... amendment to Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 to modify two jet routes and seven...

  2. Computerized Vehicle Routing Programs and Their Effect on Vehicle Utilization in the Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    Programs 13 Current Commercial Programs .... .......... .. 20 Air Force Involvement in Computerized Routing Programs...41 3. Summary Report for Option 3 ... ........ 42 vi AFIT/GLM/LAL/93S-2 Abstract The purpose of this study is to determine if a commercial ...procedures of Air Force base transportation organizations. Second, researchers identify a commercial computerized vehicle routing program that

  3. 76 FR 72836 - Amendment and Establishment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Northeast United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment and Establishment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final... Register on September 19, 2011, that amends and establishes nine Air Traffic Service Routes (ATS) in...

  4. Imaging sensor systems for air to ground surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Bruce A.; Penn, Joseph A.

    2006-05-01

    Automated aerial surveillance and detection of hostile ground events, and the tracking of the perpetrators have become of critical importance in the prevention and control of insurgent uprisings and the global war on terror. Yet a basic understanding of the limitations of sensor system coverage as a function of aerial platform position and attitude is often unavailable to program managers and system administrators. In an effort to better understand this problem we present some of the design tradeoffs for two applications: 1) a 360° viewing focal-plane array sensor system modeled for low altitude aerostat applications, and 2) a fixed diameter area of constant surveillance modeled for high altitude fixed wing aircraft applications. Ground coverage requirement tradeoffs include the number of sensors, sensor footprint geometry, footprint coverage variability as a function of platform position and attitude, and ground surface modeling. Event location specification includes latitude, longitude, altitude for the pixel centroid and corners, and line-of-sight centroid range.

  5. 77 FR 30437 - Proposed Amendment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Southwestern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Routes; Southwestern United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Federal Register proposing to amend various Air Traffic Service Routes in the Southwestern United States...; Southwestern United States as published in the Federal Register of April 23, 2010 (77 FR 24156) FR Doc....

  6. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report Supporting Radiological Air Surveillance Monitoring for the INL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, Thomas Jay

    2015-05-01

    This report documents the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) developed for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site ambient air surveillance program. The development of the DQOs was based on the seven-step process recommended “for systematic planning to generate performance and acceptance criteria for collecting environmental data” (EPA 2006). The process helped to determine the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to meet current regulatory requirements and to follow U.S. Department of Energy guidance for environmental surveillance air monitoring design. It also considered the current air monitoring program that has existed at INL Site since the 1950s. The development of the DQOs involved the application of the atmospheric dispersion model CALPUFF to identify likely contamination dispersion patterns at and around the INL Site using site-specific meteorological data. Model simulations were used to quantitatively assess the probable frequency of detection of airborne radionuclides released by INL Site facilities using existing and proposed air monitors.

  7. Airport Activity Statistics of Certificated Route Air Carriers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-31

    INDIA ........................................ INTERNATIONAL S 392 388 38 120190 5134.50 1048 1.78 INDONESIA...TZ -A iCAI TRANS AIR ...................... DOMESTIC ... S 219 NS 946 AS 1165 UA . UNITED AIR LINES ............................ D ........... S

  8. Low-cost inflatable lighter-than-air surveillance system for civilian applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiddy, Jason S.; Chen, Peter C.; Niemczuk, John B.

    2002-08-01

    Today's society places an extremely high price on the value of human life and injury. Whenever possible, police and paramilitary actions are always directed towards saving as many lives as possible, whether it is the officer, perpetrator, or innocent civilians. Recently, the advent of robotic systems has enable law enforcement agencies to perform many of the most dangerous aspects of their jobs from relative safety. This is especially true to bomb disposal units but it is also gaining acceptance in other areas. An area where small, remotely operated machines may prove effective is in local aerial surveillance. Currently, the only aerial surveillance assets generally available to law enforcement agencies are costly helicopters. Unfortunately, most of the recently developed unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are directed towards military applications and have limited civilian use. Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc. (SPA) has conceived and performed a preliminary analysis of a low-cost, inflatable, lighter- than-air surveillance system that may be used in a number of military and law enforcement surveillance situations. The preliminary analysis includes the concept definition, a detailed trade study to determine the optimal configuration of the surveillance system, high-pressure inflation tests, and a control analysis. This paper will provide the details in these areas of the design and provide an insight into the feasibility of such a system.

  9. Joint space-time geostatistical model for air quality surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, A.; Soares, A.; Pereira, M. J.

    2009-04-01

    Air pollution and peoples' generalized concern about air quality are, nowadays, considered to be a global problem. Although the introduction of rigid air pollution regulations has reduced pollution from industry and power stations, the growing number of cars on the road poses a new pollution problem. Considering the characteristics of the atmospheric circulation and also the residence times of certain pollutants in the atmosphere, a generalized and growing interest on air quality issues led to research intensification and publication of several articles with quite different levels of scientific depth. As most natural phenomena, air quality can be seen as a space-time process, where space-time relationships have usually quite different characteristics and levels of uncertainty. As a result, the simultaneous integration of space and time is not an easy task to perform. This problem is overcome by a variety of methodologies. The use of stochastic models and neural networks to characterize space-time dispersion of air quality is becoming a common practice. The main objective of this work is to produce an air quality model which allows forecasting critical concentration episodes of a certain pollutant by means of a hybrid approach, based on the combined use of neural network models and stochastic simulations. A stochastic simulation of the spatial component with a space-time trend model is proposed to characterize critical situations, taking into account data from the past and a space-time trend from the recent past. To identify near future critical episodes, predicted values from neural networks are used at each monitoring station. In this paper, we describe the design of a hybrid forecasting tool for ambient NO2 concentrations in Lisbon, Portugal.

  10. Airport Activity Statistics of Certificated Route Air Carriers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-31

    between those centers and principal centers. schedules, including extra sections. medium air trafic hub. A community enplaning from 0.25 to small air...O1618C-800U1820 149684 lima $3 41.35 4017.10 1144.2S 51186 4949.01 AIR ooft6o.- 6 A 39 437.811 74.35 253.41 2314.41 3Mo.ŝ 5 AL $ Lima & 3698 48s .114324

  11. MW 08-multi-beam air and surface surveillance radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-09-01

    Signal of the Netherlands has developed and is marketing the MW 08, a 3-D radar to be used for short to medium range surveillance, target acquisition, and tracking. MW 08 is a fully automated detecting and tracking radar. It is designed to counter threats from aircraft and low flying antiship missiles. It can also deal with the high level missile threat. MW 08 operates in the 5 cm band using one antenna for both transmitting and receiving. The antenna is an array, consisting of 8 stripline antennas. The received radar energy is processed by 8 receiver channels. These channels come together in the beam forming network, in which 8 virtual beams are formed. From this beam pattern, 6 beams are used for the elevation coverage of 0-70 degrees. MW 08's output signals of the beam former are further handled by FFT and plot processors for target speed information, clutter rejection, and jamming suppression. A general purpose computer handles target track initiation, and tracking. Tracking data are transferred to the command and control systems with 3-D target information for fastest possible lockon.

  12. Evolving Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance (ISR) for Air Force Cyber Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-14

    articulated by Brigadier General Kevin Wooton , the Director of Communications and Information at Air Force Space Command, when he noted that...General Wooton , a career intelligence officer and former commander of the 67th Network Warfare Wing, is uniquely qualified to comment on the role...perspective for NASIC was also echoed during the interview with Brigadier General Wooton .43 The author envisions this would require between one

  13. Bio-inspired UAV routing, source localization, and acoustic signature classification for persistent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burman, Jerry; Hespanha, Joao; Madhow, Upamanyu; Pham, Tien

    2011-06-01

    A team consisting of Teledyne Scientific Company, the University of California at Santa Barbara and the Army Research Laboratory* is developing technologies in support of automated data exfiltration from heterogeneous battlefield sensor networks to enhance situational awareness for dismounts and command echelons. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an effective means to autonomously collect data from a sparse network of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) that cannot communicate with each other. UAVs are used to reduce the system reaction time by generating autonomous collection routes that are data-driven. Bio-inspired techniques for search provide a novel strategy to detect, capture and fuse data. A fast and accurate method has been developed to localize an event by fusing data from a sparse number of UGSs. This technique uses a bio-inspired algorithm based on chemotaxis or the motion of bacteria seeking nutrients in their environment. A unique acoustic event classification algorithm was also developed based on using swarm optimization. Additional studies addressed the problem of routing multiple UAVs, optimally placing sensors in the field and locating the source of gunfire at helicopters. A field test was conducted in November of 2009 at Camp Roberts, CA. The field test results showed that a system controlled by bio-inspired software algorithms can autonomously detect and locate the source of an acoustic event with very high accuracy and visually verify the event. In nine independent test runs of a UAV, the system autonomously located the position of an explosion nine times with an average accuracy of 3 meters. The time required to perform source localization using the UAV was on the order of a few minutes based on UAV flight times. In June 2011, additional field tests of the system will be performed and will include multiple acoustic events, optimal sensor placement based on acoustic phenomenology and the use of the International Technology Alliance (ITA

  14. Air route selection for improved air-to-ground situation assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oispuu, Marc; Sciotti, Massimo; Charlish, Alexander

    2013-05-01

    Air-to-Ground Situation Assessment (SA) requires gathering information on the entities evolving on the ground (e.g., people, vehicles), and inferring the relations among them and their final intent. Several airborne sensor data might concur in the compilation of such high-level picture, which is aimed at identifying threats and promptly raising alarms. However, this process is intrinsically prone to errors: as the evidence - provided to the SA algorithm - originates from noisy sensor observations, the final outcome is also affected by uncertainty. High-level inferred variables, such as "Situation" and "Threat Level", can be seen as error-affected, incomplete estimates of the ground truth, hence they are subject to improvement by properly steering the data acquisition process. In this paper we address the problem of optimizing the air route of the sensing platform, in order to reduce the number of false declarations or the delay in threat declaration in the SA stage. Specifically, we consider the problem of detecting a hostile behavior between pairs of ground targets by exploiting track data generated from airborne bearings-only measurements. We model the optimization problem with a sequential Markov Decision Process (MDP): the platform sequentially selects the best maneuver (i.e., its acceleration vector) in order to maximize the total reward over an infinite horizon. We define the potential contribution of an action as a function of the expected environmental conditions (e.g., obscurations of the line-of-sight) and the improvement of the localization accuracy achievable for the tracked objects. We demonstrate that following the optimized trajectory the delay in the declaration of a hostile behavior between two targets is reduced at the same erroneous declaration rate.

  15. UAS Collision Avoidance Algorithm that Minimizes the Impact on Route Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    0, i1=find(alphadot>0); [mad, imad ]=min(alphadot(i1)); i11=i1( imad ); vdotc1 = vdot(i11); alphadotc...if ssadv>0, i1=find(gammadot>0); [mad, imad ]=min(gammadot(i1)); i11=i1( imad ); if ~isempty(i11) vdotc2...SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, Dr . Alok Das, 2241 Avionics Circle, WPAFB

  16. Analysis of the Chinese air route network as a complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Kai-Quan; Zhang, Jun; Du, Wen-Bo; Cao, Xian-Bin

    2012-02-01

    The air route network, which supports all the flight activities of the civil aviation, is the most fundamental infrastructure of air traffic management system. In this paper, we study the Chinese air route network (CARN) within the framework of complex networks. We find that CARN is a geographical network possessing exponential degree distribution, low clustering coefficient, large shortest path length and exponential spatial distance distribution that is obviously different from that of the Chinese airport network (CAN). Besides, via investigating the flight data from 2002 to 2010, we demonstrate that the topology structure of CARN is homogeneous, howbeit the distribution of flight flow on CARN is rather heterogeneous. In addition, the traffic on CARN keeps growing in an exponential form and the increasing speed of west China is remarkably larger than that of east China. Our work will be helpful to better understand Chinese air traffic systems.

  17. A Mathematical Model and Algorithm for Routing Air Traffic Under Weather Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadovsky, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    A central challenge in managing today's commercial en route air traffic is the task of routing the aircraft in the presence of adverse weather. Such weather can make regions of the airspace unusable, so all affected flights must be re-routed. Today this task is carried out by conference and negotiation between human air traffic controllers (ATC) responsible for the involved sectors of the airspace. One can argue that, in so doing, ATC try to solve an optimization problem without giving it a precise quantitative formulation. Such a formulation gives the mathematical machinery for constructing and verifying algorithms that are aimed at solving the problem. This paper contributes one such formulation and a corresponding algorithm. The algorithm addresses weather uncertainty and has closed form, which allows transparent analysis of correctness, realism, and computational costs.

  18. Northwest passage: Trade route for large air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle and powerplant (10,000-ton) nuclear-powered air-cushion vehicle (ACV) that could open the Northwest Passage and other Arctic passages to commercial traffic is identified. The report contains a description of the conceptual vehicle, including the powerplant and operations, an assessment of technical feasibility, estimates of capital and operating costs, and identification of eligible cargo and markets. A comparison of the nuclear ACV freighter with nuclear container ships shows that for containerized or roll-on/roll-off cargo the ACV would provide greatly reduced transit time between North Atlantic and North Pacific ports at a competitive cost.

  19. Cognitive Task Analysis of En Route Air Traffic Control: Model Extension and Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, Richard E.; And Others

    Phase II of a project extended data collection and analytic procedures to develop a model of expertise and skill development for en route air traffic control (ATC). New data were collected by recording the Dynamic Simulator (DYSIM) performance of five experts with a work overload problem. Expert controllers were interviewed in depth for mental…

  20. Microorganism levels in air near spray irrigation of municipal waste water: The Lubbock Infection Surveillance Study

    SciTech Connect

    Camann, D.E.; Moore, B.E.; Harding, H.J.; Sorber, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Lubbock Infection Surveillance Study (LISS) investigated possible adverse effects on human health from slow-rate land application of municipal wastewater. Extensive air sampling was conducted to characterize the irrigation site as a source of infectious microbial aerosols. Spray irrigation of poor-quality waste water received directly from the treatment plant significantly elevated air densities of fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, mycobacteria, and coliphage above ambient background levels for at least 200 m downwind. Enteroviruses were repeatedly recovered at 44 to 60 m downwind at a higher level (geometric mean = 0.05 pfu/m3) than observed at other waste water aerosol sites in the U.S. and in Israel. Waste water storage in reservoirs reduced downwind air densities of indicator organisms by two orders of magnitude.

  1. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  2. PUBLIC HEALTH AIR SURVEILLANCE EVALUATION ( PHASE ): WHAT IS IT? WHERE HAS IT BEEN? WHERE IS IT GOING?

    EPA Science Inventory

    NERL's Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division and other participants in the Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) project will be discussing their results at the EPA Air Quality Conference in San Antonio, Texas on February 6, 2006. The PHASE project is a co...

  3. Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) for Surveillance and Remote Sensor Delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ifju, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) will be developed for tracking individuals, locating terrorist threats, and delivering remote sensors, for surveillance and chemical/biological agent detection. The tasks are: (1) Develop robust MAV platform capable of carrying sensor payload. (2) Develop fully autonomous capabilities for delivery of sensors to remote and distant locations. The current capabilities and accomplishments are: (1) Operational electric (inaudible) 6-inch MAVs with novel flexible wing, providing superior aerodynamic efficiency and control. (2) Vision-based flight stability and control (from on-board cameras).

  4. Improving the Air Mobility Command’s Air Refueler Route Building Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    the fuel required for the mission. Bartholomew - Biggs et al. [4, 5] focus on a methodology to avoid obstacles while building the route with turning...Transportation Science 32(3), 208–220. [4] Bartholomew -Biggs, M. C., S. C. Parkhurst, and S. P. Wilson (2002). Using direct to solve an aircraft routing...problem. Computational Optimization and Applications 21(3), 311–323. [5] Bartholomew -Biggs, M. C., S. C. Parkhurst, and S. P. Wilson (2003). Global

  5. Assessment of different route choice on commuters' exposure to air pollution in Taipei, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsien-Chih; Chiueh, Pei-Te; Liu, Shi-Ping; Huang, Yu-Yang

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to develop a healthy commute map indicating cleanest route in Taipei metropolitan area for any given journey and to evaluate the pollutant doses exposed in different commuting modes. In Taiwan, there are more than 13.6 million motorcycles and 7.7 million vehicles among the 23 million people. Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants can thus cause adverse health effects. Moreover, increasing the level of physical activity during commuting and longer distances will result in inhalation of more polluted air. In this study, we utilized air pollution monitoring data (CO, SO2, NO2, PM10, and PM2.5) from Taiwan EPA's air quality monitoring stations in Taipei metropolitan area to estimate each pollutant exposure while commuting by different modes (motorcycling, bicycling, and walking). Spatial interpolation methods such as inverse distance weighting (IDW) were used to estimate each pollutant's distribution in Taipei metropolitan area. Three routes were selected to represent the variety of different daily commuting pathways. The cleanest route choice was based upon Dijkstra's algorithm to find the lowest cumulative pollutant exposure. The IDW interpolated values of CO, SO2, NO2, PM10, and PM2.5 ranged from 0.42-2.2 (ppm), 2.6-4.8 (ppb), 17.8-42.9 (ppb), 32.4-65.6 (μg/m(3)), and 14.2-38.9 (μg/m(3)), respectively. To compare with the IDW results, concentration of particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) along the motorcycle route was measured in real time. In conclusion, the results showed that the shortest commuting route for motorcyclists resulted in a much higher cumulative dose (PM2.5 3340.8 μg/m(3)) than the cleanest route (PM2.5 912.5 μg/m(3)). The mobile personal monitoring indicated that the motorcyclists inhaled significant high pollutants during commuting as a result of high-concentration exposure and short-duration peaks. The study could effectively present less polluted commuting routes for citizen health benefits.

  6. Integrated Surveillance for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Final Report of the Integrated Surveillance Study Team

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-31

    Rules ( IFR ) and Visual Flight Rules (VFR) flight following that depends on cooperative avionics to support surveillance source data collection systems...identify aircraft that are receiving ANSP IFR or VFR flight following service. Aircraft identity is used as a radio call sign in the NAS to address...driven by requirements to provide and sustain IFR traffic capacity, that is, to have surveillance available even during subsystem outages. Coverage

  7. Radar Scan Strategies for the Patrick Air Force Base Weather Surveillance Radar, Model-74C, Replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, David

    2008-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) is replacing the Weather Surveillance Radar, Model 74C (WSR-74C) at Patrick Air Force Base (PAFB), with a Doppler, dual polarization radar, the Radtec 43/250. A new scan strategy is needed for the Radtec 43/250, to provide high vertical resolution data over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) launch pads, while taking advantage of the new radar's advanced capabilities for detecting severe weather phenomena associated with convection within the 45 WS area of responsibility. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed several scan strategies customized for the operational needs of the 45 WS. The AMU also developed a plan for evaluating the scan strategies in the period prior to operational acceptance, currently scheduled for November 2008.

  8. Meeting Air Transportation Demand in 2025 by Using Larger Aircraft and Alternative Routing to Complement NextGen Operational Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed that investigates the use of larger aircraft and alternative routing to complement the capacity benefits expected from the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in 2025. National Airspace System (NAS) delays for the 2025 demand projected by the Transportation Systems Analysis Models (TSAM) were assessed using NASA s Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). The shift in demand from commercial airline to automobile and from one airline route to another was investigated by adding the route delays determined from the ACES simulation to the travel times used in the TSAM and re-generating new flight scenarios. The ACES simulation results from this study determined that NextGen Operational Improvements alone do not provide sufficient airport capacity to meet the projected demand for passenger air travel in 2025 without significant system delays. Using larger aircraft with more seats on high-demand routes and introducing new direct routes, where demand warrants, significantly reduces delays, complementing NextGen improvements. Another significant finding of this study is that the adaptive behavior of passengers to avoid congested airline-routes is an important factor when projecting demand for transportation systems. Passengers will choose an alternative mode of transportation or alternative airline routes to avoid congested routes, thereby reducing delays to acceptable levels for the 2025 scenario; the penalty being that alternative routes and the option to drive increases overall trip time by 0.4% and may be less convenient than the first-choice route.

  9. Risk-Hedged Approach for Re-Routing Air Traffic Under Weather Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadovsky, Alexander V.; Bilimoria, Karl D.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation corresponds to: our paper explores a new risk-hedged approach for re-routing air traffic around forecast convective weather. In this work, flying through a more likely weather instantiation is considered to pose a higher level of risk. Current operational practice strategically plans re-routes to avoid only the most likely (highest risk) weather instantiation, and then tactically makes any necessary adjustments as the weather evolves. The risk-hedged approach strategically plans re-routes by minimizing the risk-adjusted path length, incorporating multiple possible weather instantiations with associated likelihoods (risks). The resulting model is transparent and is readily analyzed for realism and treated with well-understood shortest-path algorithms. Risk-hedged re-routes are computed for some example weather instantiations. The main result is that in some scenarios, relative to an operational-practice proxy solution, the risk-hedged solution provides the benefits of lower risk as well as shorter path length. In other scenarios, the benefits of the risk-hedged solution are ambiguous, because the solution is characterized by a tradeoff between risk and path length. The risk-hedged solution can be executed in those scenarios where it provides a clear benefit over current operational practice.

  10. Impact of bicycle route type on exposure to traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    MacNaughton, Piers; Melly, Steven; Vallarino, Jose; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D

    2014-08-15

    Cyclists are exposed to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) during their commutes due to their proximity to vehicular traffic. Two of the main components of TRAP are black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which have both been causally associated with increased mortality. To assess the impact of cyclists' exposure to TRAP, a battery-powered mobile monitoring station was designed to sample air pollutants along five bike routes in Boston, Massachusetts. The bike routes were categorized into three types: bike paths, which are separated from vehicle traffic; bike lanes, which are adjacent to traffic; and designated bike lanes, which are shared traffic lanes for buses and cyclists. Bike lanes were found to have significantly higher concentrations of BC and NO2 than bike paths in both adjusted and unadjusted generalized linear models. Higher concentrations were observed in designated bike lanes than bike paths; however, this association was only significant for NO2. After adjusting for traffic density, background concentration, and proximity to intersections, bike lanes were found to have concentrations of BC and NO2 that were approximately 33% higher than bike paths. Distance from the road, vegetation barriers, and reduced intersection density appear to influence these variations. These findings suggest that cyclists can reduce their exposure to TRAP during their commute by using bike paths preferentially over bike lanes regardless of the potential increase of traffic near these routes.

  11. Methods proposed to achieve air quality standards for mobile sources and technology surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1975-01-01

    The methods proposed to meet the 1975 Standards of the Clean Air Act for mobile sources are alternative antiknocks, exhaust emission control devices, and alternative engine designs. Technology surveillance analysis applied to this situation is an attempt to anticipate potential public and environmental health problems from these methods, before they happen. Components of this analysis are exhaust emission characterization, environmental transport and transformation, levels of public and environmental exposure, and the influence of economics on the selection of alternative methods. The purpose of this presentation is to show trends as a result of the interaction of these different components. In no manner can these trends be interpreted explicitly as to what will really happen. Such an analysis is necessary so that public and environmental health officials have the opportunity to act on potential problems before they become manifest. PMID:50944

  12. Radiological background levels found on glass fiber filters used for low-level environmental surveillance air sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Althouse, P. E.

    1998-09-16

    Environmental surveillance of low-level radioactive particles in air requires a thorough understanding of low-level techniques and air sample collection media. High-volume air sampling for radioactive particles around Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) employs glass-fiber filters that are analyzed for gross alpha and gross beta activity and for specific isotopes. This study was conducted to determine the activities of radionuclides contained in blank glass-fiber filters. Data from this study provided a partial explanation of differences between current reported concentrations of radionuclides in air and those reported historically when cellulose filters were used in the LLNL monitoring effort.

  13. Assessment of air quality in and around a steel industry with direct reduction iron route.

    PubMed

    Jena, Pradip K; Behera, Dillip K; Mishra, C S K; Mohanty, Saswat K

    2011-10-01

    The coal based Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) route for secondary steel production is now a preferred choice in India. Steel making is invariably associated with emission of air pollutants into the environment. Air quality monitoring was carried out in Winter, Summer and Rainy seasons of 2008 in eight monitoring stations in the work zone and five stations in the residential zone of an Integrated Steel Industry located in Orissa state, India. Four air quality parameters i.e. SPM, RSPM, SO2 and NO2 were monitored. Mean SPM and RSPM values were found to be significantly high (p < 0.01) at stations nearer to source in both work zone and residential zone .The highest average SPM and RSPM values in the work zone recorded were 4869 microg/m3 and 1420 microg/m3 and in the residential zone 294 microg/m3 and 198 microg/m3 respectively. No significant difference in the SO2 and NO2 levels was observed between the work and residential zones. In general, the values of air pollutants were highest in Winter followed by Summer and Rainy season. SPM and RSPM values exceeded the National Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in both the residential and work zones.

  14. Nasal Colonization with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Military Personnel in a Developing Country - Development of a Skin and Soft Tissue Infection Surveillance System in the Peruvian Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-07

    and soft tissue infection surveillance system in the Peruvian Air Force by Joan Neyra, MD, MPH Dissertation...and soft tissue infection surveillance system in the Peruvian Air Force” is appropriately acknowledged and, beyond brief excerpts, is with the... infection surveillance system in the Peruvian Air Force: Joan Neyra, MD, MPH, 2015 Thesis directed by: David L. Blazes, MD, MPH, Professor

  15. Using real-time syndromic surveillance systems to help explore the acute impact of the air pollution incident of March/April 2014 in England.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gillian E; Bawa, Zharain; Macklin, Yolande; Morbey, Roger; Dobney, Alec; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Elliot, Alex J

    2015-01-01

    During March and early April 2014 there was widespread poor air quality across the United Kingdom. Public Health England used existing syndromic surveillance systems to monitor community health during the period. Short lived statistically significant rises in a variety of respiratory conditions, including asthma and wheeze, were detected. This incident has demonstrated the value of real-time syndromic surveillance systems, during an air pollution episode, for helping to explore the impact of poor air quality on community health in real-time.

  16. Surveillance of a Ventilated Rack System for Corynebacterium bovis by Sampling Exhaust-Air Manifolds.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Christopher A; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Leszczynski, Jori K

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium bovis causes an opportunistic infection of nude (Foxn1, nu/nu) mice, leading to nude mouse hyperkeratotic dermatitis (scaly skin disease). Enzootic in many nude mouse colonies, C. bovis spreads rapidly to naive nude mice, despite modern husbandry practices, and is very difficult to eradicate. To facilitate rapid detection in support of eradication efforts, we investigated a surveillance method based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) evaluation of swabs collected from the horizontal exhaust manifold (HEM) of an IVC rack system. We first evaluated the efficacy of rack sanitation methods for removing C. bovis DNA from the HEM of racks housing endemic colonies of infected nude mice. Pressurized water used to flush the racks' air exhaust system followed by a standard rack-washer cycle was ineffective in eliminating C. bovis DNA. Only after autoclaving did all sanitized racks test negative for C. bovis DNA. We then measured the effects of stage of infection (early or established), cage density, and cage location on the rack on time-to-detection at the HEM. Stage of infection significantly affected time-to-detection, independent of cage location. Early infections required 7.3 ± 1.2 d whereas established infections required 1 ± 0 d for detection of C. bovis at the HEM. Cage density influenced the quantity of C. bovis DNA detected but not time-to-detection. The location of the cage on the rack affected the time-to-detection only during early C. bovis infections. We suggest that qPCR swabs of HEM are useful during the routine surveillance of nude mouse colonies for C. bovis infection.

  17. Surveillance of a Ventilated Rack System for Corynebacterium bovis by Sampling Exhaust-Air Manifolds

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Christopher A; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Leszczynski, Jori K

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium bovis causes an opportunistic infection of nude (Foxn1, nu/nu) mice, leading to nude mouse hyperkeratotic dermatitis (scaly skin disease). Enzootic in many nude mouse colonies, C. bovis spreads rapidly to naive nude mice, despite modern husbandry practices, and is very difficult to eradicate. To facilitate rapid detection in support of eradication efforts, we investigated a surveillance method based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) evaluation of swabs collected from the horizontal exhaust manifold (HEM) of an IVC rack system. We first evaluated the efficacy of rack sanitation methods for removing C. bovis DNA from the HEM of racks housing endemic colonies of infected nude mice. Pressurized water used to flush the racks’ air exhaust system followed by a standard rack-washer cycle was ineffective in eliminating C. bovis DNA. Only after autoclaving did all sanitized racks test negative for C. bovis DNA. We then measured the effects of stage of infection (early or established), cage density, and cage location on the rack on time-to-detection at the HEM. Stage of infection significantly affected time-to-detection, independent of cage location. Early infections required 7.3 ± 1.2 d whereas established infections required 1 ± 0 d for detection of C. bovis at the HEM. Cage density influenced the quantity of C. bovis DNA detected but not time-to-detection. The location of the cage on the rack affected the time-to-detection only during early C. bovis infections. We suggest that qPCR swabs of HEM are useful during the routine surveillance of nude mouse colonies for C. bovis infection. PMID:26817981

  18. Cerebral air embolism as a complication of computed tomography-guided marking of the lung: depiction of air inflow route from a pulmonary vein to the left atrium.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Takanori; Noma, Satoshi; Nishimoto, Yuko; Endo, Junki; Taguchi, Yoshio; Shindo, Toru

    2011-02-01

    Air embolism in the arterial system is a very rare but potentially fatal complication of percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy or marking. We report a case of a patient with interstitial pneumonia associated with Sjögren syndrome, who presented with systemic arterial air embolism as a complication of computed tomography-guided marking of the lung. The air inflow route was depicted clearly on computed tomography from the peripheral pulmonary vein that crossed the needle pathway to the left atrium.

  19. FAA Air Traffic Control Operations Concepts. Volume 3. ISSS (Initial Sector Suite System) En Route Controllers. Change 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-29

    series of ope-rations concepts for the FAA’s Advanced Automation System (AAS). It describes how en route controllers in Air Route Traffic Control Center...facilities may perform their operational jobs in the Initial Stector Suite System (ISSS) enviroinment- ISSS functionality is assumed to be as described...in the AAS System Level Specification, 28 August 1987. Included here are: Composition Graphs, showing the logizal flow of operational tasks performed

  20. GeoMedStat: an integrated spatial surveillance system to track air pollution and associated healthcare events.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Fazlay S; Li, Hui; Williams, Worth B; Waller, Lance A; Brackin, Bruce T; Zhang, Lei; Grimes, Kim A; Finley, Richard W

    2014-12-01

    Air pollutants, such as particulate matter with a diameter ≤2.5 microns (PM2.5) and ozone (O3), are known to exacerbate asthma and other respiratory diseases. An integrated surveillance system that tracks such air pollutants and associated disease incidence can assist in risk assessment, healthcare preparedness and public awareness. However, the implementation of such an integrated environmental health surveillance system is a challenge due to the disparate sources of many types of data and the implementation becomes even more complicated for a spatial and real-time system due to lack of standardised technological components and data incompatibility. In addition, accessing and utilising health data that are considered as Protected Health Information (PHI) require maintaining stringent protocols, which have to be supported by the system. This paper aims to illustrate the development of a spatial surveillance system (GeoMedStat) that is capable of tracking daily environmental pollutants along with both daily and historical patient encounter data. It utilises satellite data and the groundmonitor data from the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the US Environemental Protection Agenecy (EPA), rspectively as inputs estimating air pollutants and is linked to hospital information systems for accessing chief complaints and disease classification codes. The components, developmental methods, functionality of GeoMedStat and its use as a real-time environmental health surveillance system for asthma and other respiratory syndromes in connection with with PM2.5 and ozone are described. It is expected that the framework presented will serve as an example to others developing real-time spatial surveillance systems for pollutants and hospital visits.

  1. Air Traffic Management Technology Demostration: 1 Research and Procedural Testing of Routes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Sara R.; Kibler, Jennifer L.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Smail, James W.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) will operationally demonstrate the feasibility of efficient arrival operations combining ground-based and airborne NASA technologies. The ATD-1 integrated system consists of the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering which generates precise time-based schedules to the runway and merge points; Controller Managed Spacing decision support tools which provide controllers with speed advisories and other information needed to meet the schedule; and Flight deck-based Interval Management avionics and procedures which allow flight crews to adjust their speed to achieve precise relative spacing. Initial studies identified air-ground challenges related to the integration of these three scheduling and spacing technologies, and NASA's airborne spacing algorithm was modified to address some of these challenges. The Research and Procedural Testing of Routes human-in-the-loop experiment was then conducted to assess the performance of the new spacing algorithm. The results of this experiment indicate that the algorithm performed as designed, and the pilot participants found the airborne spacing concept, air-ground procedures, and crew interface to be acceptable. However, the researchers concluded that the data revealed issues with the frequency of speed changes and speed reversals.

  2. The Fort Collins Commuter Study: Impact of route type and transport mode on personal exposure to multiple air pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Good, Nicholas; Mölter, Anna; Ackerson, Charis; Bachand, Annette; Carpenter, Taylor; Clark, Maggie L; Fedak, Kristen M; Kayne, Ashleigh; Koehler, Kirsten; Moore, Brianna; L'Orange, Christian; Quinn, Casey; Ugave, Viney; Stuart, Amy L; Peel, Jennifer L; Volckens, John

    2016-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, yet few studies have examined strategies to reduce individual exposure while commuting. The present study aimed to quantify how choice of mode and route type affects personal exposure to air pollutants during commuting. We analyzed within-person difference in exposures to multiple air pollutants (black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), ultrafine particle number concentration (PNC), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5)) during commutes between the home and workplace for 45 participants. Participants completed 8 days of commuting by car and bicycle on direct and alternative (reduced traffic) routes. Mean within-person exposures to BC, PM2.5, and PNC were higher when commuting by cycling than when driving, but mean CO exposure was lower when cycling. Exposures to CO and BC were reduced when commuting along alternative routes. When cumulative exposure was considered, the benefits from cycling were attenuated, in the case of CO, or exacerbated, in the case of particulate exposures, owing to the increased duration of the commute. Although choice of route can reduce mean exposure, the effect of route length and duration often offsets these reductions when cumulative exposure is considered. Furthermore, increased ventilation rate when cycling may result in a more harmful dose than inhalation at a lower ventilation rate. PMID:26507004

  3. 78 FR 78302 - Proposed Modification and Establishment of Air Traffic Service (ATS) Routes in the Vicinity of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ..., except Federal holidays. An informal docket may also be examined during normal business hours at the... file V-243 are being vectored between the Bowling Green, KY (BWG), VOR Tactical Air Navigation (VORTAC... Bowling Green, KY. * * * * * Paragraph 6011 United States Area Navigation Routes * * * * * T-325...

  4. Development, Validation, and Deployment of a Revised Air Traffic Control Color Vision Test: Incorporating Advanced Technologies and Oceanic Procedures and En Route Automation Modernization Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    traffic in the U.S. National Airspace System. Color is an integral element of the air traffic control environment. Color is...REFERENCES American Institutes for Research (2006a). Air traffic control job analysis: A summary of job analytic information for air traf- fic en route... controllers . Contractor Report. Washington, DC: Federal Aviation Administration. American Institutes for Research (2006b). Air traffic control

  5. Control and design of multiple unmanned air vehicles for persistent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigam, Nikhil

    Control of multiple autonomous aircraft for search and exploration, is a topic of current research interest for applications such as weather monitoring, geographical surveys, search and rescue, tactical reconnaissance, and extra-terrestrial exploration, and the need to distribute sensing is driven by considerations of efficiency, reliability, cost and scalability. Hence, this problem has been extensively studied in the fields of controls and artificial intelligence. The task of persistent surveillance is different from a coverage/exploration problem, in that all areas need to be continuously searched, minimizing the time between visitations to each region in the target space. This distinction does not allow a straightforward application of most exploration techniques to the problem, although ideas from these methods can still be used. The use of aerial vehicles is motivated by their ability to cover larger spaces and their relative insensitivity to terrain. However, the dynamics of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) adds complexity to the control problem. Most of the work in the literature decouples the vehicle dynamics and control policies, but their interaction is particularly interesting for a surveillance mission. Stochastic environments and UAV failures further enrich the problem by requiring the control policies to be robust, and this aspect is particularly important for hardware implementations. For a persistent mission, it becomes imperative to consider the range/endurance constraints of the vehicles. The coupling of the control policy with the endurance constraints of the vehicles is an aspect that has not been sufficiently explored. Design of UAVs for desirable mission performance is also an issue of considerable significance. The use of a single monolithic optimization for such a problem has practical limitations, and decomposition-based design is a potential alternative. In this research high-level control policies are devised, that are scalable, reliable

  6. Mammoth Lakes Route 203 transportation project: a case study in air-quality modeling and mitigation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, P.; Nokes, W.; Cramer, R.

    1985-06-01

    An evaluation is made of the effects on carbon monoxide concentrations of transportation improvements incorporated in the Route 203 highway project. This includes a comparison of preconstruction and postconstruction field-sampling studies. The performance of the CALINE4 air-quality model is evaluated for use in complex terrain. The report describes the problems encountered in applying the model to mountainous locations, the tracer-release study used for assessing model performance, and the model-verification analysis.

  7. A Common Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Infrastructure for Accommodating Space Vehicles in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanSuetendael, RIchard; Hayes, Alan; Birr, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Suborbital space flight and space tourism are new potential markets that could significantly impact the National Airspace System (NAS). Numerous private companies are developing space flight capabilities to capture a piece of an emerging commercial space transportation market. These entrepreneurs share a common vision that sees commercial space flight as a profitable venture. Additionally, U.S. space exploration policy and national defense will impose significant additional demands on the NAS. Air traffic service providers must allow all users fair access to limited airspace, while ensuring that the highest levels of safety, security, and efficiency are maintained. The FAA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) will need to accommodate spacecraft transitioning to and from space through the NAS. To accomplish this, space and air traffic operations will need to be seamlessly integrated under some common communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) infrastructure. As part of NextGen, the FAA has been developing the Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) which utilizes the Global Positioning System (GPS) to track and separate aircraft. Another key component of NextGen, System-Wide Information Management/ Network Enabled Operations (SWIM/NEO), is an open architecture network that will provide NAS data to various customers, system tools and applications. NASA and DoD are currently developing a space-based range (SBR) concept that also utilizes GPS, communications satellites and other CNS assets. The future SBR will have very similar utility for space operations as ADS-B and SWIM has for air traffic. Perhaps the FAA, NASA, and DoD should consider developing a common space-based CNS infrastructure to support both aviation and space transportation operations. This paper suggests specific areas of research for developing a CNS infrastructure that can accommodate spacecraft and other new types of vehicles as an integrated part of NextGen.

  8. Design and Operational Evaluation of the Traffic Management Advisor at the Ft. Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Vincent, Danny; Tobias, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA and the FAA have designed and developed and an automation tool known as the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA). The system was operationally evaluated at the Ft. Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC). The TMA is a time-based strategic planning tool that provides Traffic Management Coordinators and En Route Air Traffic Controllers the ability to efficiently optimize the capacity of a demand impacted airport. The TMA consists of trajectory prediction, constraint-based runway scheduling, traffic flow visualization and controllers advisories. The TMA was used and operationally evaluated for forty-one rush traffic periods during a one month period in the Summer of 1996. The evaluations included all shifts of air traffic operations as well as periods of inclement weather. Performance data was collected for engineering and human factor analysis and compared with similar operations without the TMA. The engineering data indicates that the operations with the TMA show a one to two minute per aircraft delay reduction during rush periods. The human factor data indicate a perceived reduction in en route controller workload as well as an increase in job satisfaction. Upon completion of the evaluation, the TMA has become part of the normal operations at the Ft. Worth ARTCC.

  9. 77 FR 24156 - Proposed Amendment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Southwestern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Route J-2, and VOR Federal airways V-16, V-66, and V-202 in southern Arizona and New Mexico. The FAA is... V-16, V-66, and V-202. This action is necessary due to the decommissioning of the Cochise, AZ... remainder of the route would be unchanged). The portion of V-16 that currently extends from Tucson, AZ;...

  10. 76 FR 57902 - Amendment and Establishment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Northeast United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... deconflict air traffic. Some communities felt that they are unfairly impacted by low flying aircraft and that... impact is so minimal. Since this is a routine matter that will only affect air traffic procedures and air... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment and Establishment of Air...

  11. 78 FR 38236 - Proposed Establishment, Modification and Cancellation of Air Traffic Service (ATS) Routes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ...: is a newly established route to become effective August 22, 2013 (78 FR 29615, May 21, 2013... August 22, 2013 (78 FR 29615, May 21, 2013), extending between the LOUIE, MD, fix and the Lancaster,...

  12. 77 FR 3415 - Proposed Modification, Revocation and Establishment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Windsor Locks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... Bradley VORTAC and, instead, be routed through the Barnes, MA, VORTAC (located approximately 13 NM north..., NY, 204[deg] radials; Pawling; Barnes, MA; Putnam, CT; Providence, RI; INT Providence 151[deg]...

  13. 77 FR 20528 - Modification, Revocation and Establishment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Windsor Locks Area; CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... terminates at Putnam. V-405 is realigned to bypass the Bradley VORTAC and is routed through the Barnes, MA...; Pawling; Barnes, MA; Putnam, CT; Providence, RI; INT Providence 151 and Martha's Vineyard, MA, 267...

  14. A proper choice of route significantly reduces air pollution exposure--a study on bicycle and bus trips in urban streets.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Ole; Hvidberg, Martin; Ketzel, Matthias; Storm, Lars; Stausgaard, Lizzi

    2008-01-15

    A proper selection of route through the urban area may significantly reduce the air pollution exposure. This is the main conclusion from the presented study. Air pollution exposure is determined for two selected cohorts along the route going from home to working place, and back from working place to home. Exposure is determined with a street pollution model for three scenarios: bicycling along the shortest possible route, bicycling along the low exposure route along less trafficked streets, and finally taking the shortest trip using public transport. Furthermore, calculations are performed for the cases the trip takes place inside as well as outside the traffic rush hours. The results show that the accumulated air pollution exposure for the low exposure route is between 10% and 30% lower for the primary pollutants (NO(x) and CO). However, the difference is insignificant and in some cases even negative for the secondary pollutants (NO(2) and PM(10)/PM(2.5)). Considering only the contribution from traffic in the travelled streets, the accumulated air pollution exposure is between 54% and 67% lower for the low exposure route. The bus is generally following highly trafficked streets, and the accumulated exposure along the bus route is therefore between 79% and 115% higher than the high exposure bicycle route (the short bicycle route). Travelling outside the rush hour time periods reduces the accumulated exposure between 10% and 30% for the primary pollutants, and between 5% and 20% for the secondary pollutants. The study indicates that a web based route planner for selecting the low exposure route through the city might be a good service for the public. In addition the public may be advised to travel outside rush hour time periods.

  15. Joint NASA Ames/Langley Experimental Evaluation of Integrated Air/Ground Operations for En Route Free Maneuvering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Kopardekar, Parimal; Battiste, Vernol; Doble, Nathan; Johnson, Walter; Lee, Paul; Prevot, Thomas; Smith, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    In order to meet the anticipated future demand for air travel, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investigating a new concept of operations known as Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM). Under the En Route Free Maneuvering component of DAG-TM, appropriately equipped autonomous aircraft self separate from other autonomous aircraft and from managed aircraft that continue to fly under today s Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). Controllers provide separation services between IFR aircraft and assign traffic flow management constraints to all aircraft. To address concept feasibility issues pertaining to integrated air/ground operations at various traffic levels, NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers conducted a joint human-in-the-loop experiment. Professional airline pilots and air traffic controllers flew a total of 16 scenarios under four conditions: mixed autonomous/managed operations at three traffic levels and a baseline all-managed condition at the lowest traffic level. These scenarios included en route flights and descents to a terminal area meter fix in airspace modeled after the Dallas Ft. Worth area. Pilots of autonomous aircraft met controller assigned meter fix constraints with high success. Separation violations by subject pilots did not appear to vary with traffic level and were mainly attributable to software errors and procedural lapses. Controller workload was lower for mixed flight conditions, even at higher traffic levels. Pilot workload was deemed acceptable under all conditions. Controllers raised several safety concerns, most of which pertained to the occurrence of near-term conflicts between autonomous and managed aircraft. These issues are being addressed through better compatibility between air and ground systems and refinements to air and ground procedures.

  16. Radon as a tracer of daily, seasonal and spatial air movements in the Underground Tourist Route "Coal Mine" (SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, Dagmara Eulalia; Parkitny, Tomasz

    2015-11-01

    The surveys of radon concentrations in the Underground Tourist Route "Coal Mine" were carried out using passive and active measurement techniques. Passive methods with application of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors LR115 were used at 4 points in years 2004-2007 and at 21 points in year 2011. These detectors were exchanged at the beginning of every season in order to get information about seasonal and spatial changes of radon concentrations. The average radon concentration noted in this facility was 799 Bq m(-3) and is consistent with radon concentrations noted in Polish coal mines. Seasonal variations, observed in this underground tourist route, were as follows: the highest radon concentrations were noted during summers, the lowest during winters, during springs and autumns intermediate but higher in spring than in autumn. The main external factor that affected seasonal changes of radon concentrations was the seasonal variation of outside temperature. No correlation between seasonal variations of radon concentrations and seasonal average atmospheric pressures was found. Spatial variations of radon concentrations corresponded with air movements inside the Underground Tourist Route "Coal Mine". The most vivid air movements were noted along the main tunnel in adit and at the place located near no blinded (in the upper part) shaft. Daily variations of radon concentrations were recorded in May 2012 using RadStar RS-230 as the active measurement technique. Typical daily variations of radon concentrations followed the pattern that the highest radon concentrations were recorded from 8-9 a.m. to 7-8 p.m. and the lowest during nights. The main factor responsible for hourly variations of radon concentrations was the daily variation of outside temperatures. No correlations were found between radon concentration and other meteorological parameters such as atmospheric pressure, wind velocity or precipitation. Additionally, the influence of human factor on radon

  17. Value Focused Thinking Analysis of the Pacific Theater’s Future Air Mobility En Route System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    45 16. JTF-PO Sea-to-Air Transload Organization ...11 National Military Strategy (NMS) and its shift to the 1-4-2-1+ strategy, nor has it adapted to greater technological advances in both the organic ...Air Force Pamphlet 10-1403, Air Mobility Planning Factors, since its release in March, 1998. This is non - representative of the strategic airlift

  18. En Route Air Traffic Control Input Devices for the Next Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mainini, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of different input device configurations when trial planning new routes for aircraft in an advanced simulation of the en route workstation. The task of trial planning is one of the futuristic tools that is performed by the graphical manipulation of an aircraft's trajectory to reroute the aircraft without voice communication. In this study with two input devices, the FAA's current trackball and a basic optical computer mouse were evaluated with "pick" button in a click-and-hold state and a click-and-release state while the participant dragged the trial plan line. The trial plan was used for three different conflict types: Aircraft Conflicts, Weather Conflicts, and Aircraft + Weather Conflicts. Speed and accuracy were the primary dependent variables. Results indicate that the mouse conditions were significantly faster than the trackball conditions overall with no significant loss of accuracy. Several performance ratings and preference ratings were analyzed from post-run and post-simulation questionnaires. The release conditions were significantly more useful and likable than the hold conditions. The results suggest that the mouse in the release button state was the fastest and most well liked device configuration for trial planning in the en route workstation. Keywords-input devices, en route, controller, workstation, mouse, trackball, NextGen

  19. 78 FR 29613 - Modification and Revocation of Air Traffic Service Routes; Jackson, MS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ..., the J-20 description in FAA Order 7400.9 contains an editorial error whereby ``Montgomery, AL'' is... ``Montgomery, AL'' to follow ``Meridian, MS'' to match its proper geographic position along the route. It..., LA; Magnolia, MS; Meridian, MS; Montgomery, AL; INT Montgomery 051 and Colliers, SC, 268...

  20. 77 FR 35836 - Amendment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Southwestern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ...: This action modifies Jet Route J-2, and VOR Federal airways V- 16, V-66 and V-202 in southern Arizona... Register of May 23, 2012 (77 FR 30437) corrected the description of VOR Federal airway V-16. Interested... VOR Federal airways V-16, V-66 and V-202 in southern Arizona and New Mexico. The FAA is taking...

  1. Surveillance of air-travel-related tuberculosis incidents, England and Wales: 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, I; Welfare, R; Moore, J; Watson, J M

    2008-06-05

    The potential spread of tuberculosis (TB) from infectious passengers during air travel has recently received increasing attention in the media and from public health authorities. We reviewed all air travel-related tuberculosis incidents reported to the Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections between January 2007 and February 2008 in England and Wales and investigated the effectiveness of contact investigation. Incidents involving air travel were defined according to the World Health Organization's guidelines on TB and Air Travel. We collected data on the index case, the incident and the outcome of contact investigation where available. We identified 24 incidents involving 39 flights. The median flight duration was 8.9 hours (inter-quartile range (IQR) 8 to 11.7). Most flights (36) were from or to a high burden country and 19 of the 24 incidents reported had a smear-positive index case. Two index cases had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. In 17 incidents, no further investigation could be undertaken due to the lack of passenger information. In the remaining seven incidents, the quality of contact information obtained was variable. No further cases of TB infection or disease were identified. This study suggests that the process of investigating passenger contacts of a TB infected individual travelling by air is complicated and usually unsuccessful without dedicated resources and availability of high-quality contact information from airlines. Further research into the effectiveness of contact investigation in this setting is needed.

  2. Prediction of asthma exacerbations among children through integrating air pollution, upper atmosphere, and school health surveillances.

    PubMed

    Jayawardene, Wasantha Parakrama; Youssefagha, Ahmed Hassan; Lohrmann, David Kurt; El Afandi, Gamal Salah

    2013-01-01

    Climatic factors and air pollution are important in predicting asthma exacerbations among children. This study was designed to determine if a relationship exists between asthma exacerbations among elementary school children and the combined effect of daily upper atmosphere observations (temperature, relative humidity, dew point, and mixing ratio) and daily air pollution (particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone) and, if so, to predict asthma exacerbations among children using a mathematical model. Using an ecological study design, school health records of 168,825 students in elementary schools enrolled in "Health eTools for Schools" within 49 Pennsylvania counties were analyzed. Data representing asthma exacerbations were originally recorded by school nurses as the type of treatment given to a student during a clinic visit on a particular day. Daily upper atmosphere measurements from ground level to the 850-mb pressure level and air pollution measurements were obtained. A generalized estimating equation model was used to predict the occurrence of >48 asthma exacerbations, the daily mean for 2008-2010. The greatest occurrence of asthma among school children was in the fall, followed by summer, spring, and winter. Upper atmosphere temperature, dew point, mixing ratio, and six air pollutants as well as their interactions predicted the probability of asthma exacerbations occurring among children. Monitoring of upper atmosphere observation data and air pollutants over time can be a reliable means for predicting increases of asthma exacerbations among elementary school children. Such predictions could help parents and school officials implement effective precautionary measures.

  3. Decentralized Control of an Unidirectional Air Traffic Flow with Flight Speed Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yoichi; Takeichi, Noboru

    A decentralized control of an air traffic flow is discussed. This study aims to clarify a fundamental strategy for an unidirectional air traffic flow control considering the flight speed distribution. It is assumed that the decentralized control is made based on airborne surveillance systems. The separation control between aircraft is made by turning, and 4 types of route composition are compared; the optimum route only, the optimum route with permissible range, the optimum route with subroutes determined by relative speed of each aircraft, and the optimum route with subroutes defined according to the optimum speed of each aircraft. Through numerical simulations, it is clarified that the route composition with a permissible range makes the air traffic flow safer and more efficient. It is also shown that the route design with multiple subroutes corresponding to speed ranges and the aircraft control using route intent information can considerably improve the safety and workload of the air traffic flow.

  4. Design Principles for Personalized Decision Aiding: An Application to Tactical Air Force Route Planning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    contingency plans have not been in- corporated in an option, but significant information is likely to become available during its execution. 2.6.1.4...Technology Corporation , 16 September 1983. Riemenschneider, R.A., Rockmore, A.J., and Wikman, T.A.A. Route planning aid: System specification (PAR Report...83-135). New Hartford, NY: PAR Technology Corporation , 31 October 1983. Savage, L.J. The foundations of statistics. NY: Wiley, 1954. Schum, D

  5. Surveillance programme on dioxin levels in ambient air sites in Catalonia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Abad, Esteban; Caixach, Josep; Rivera, Josep; Gustems, Lluís; Massagué, Guillem; Puig, Oriol

    2002-11-01

    As part of a survey programme conducted by the Environment Department of the Autonomous Government of Catalonia in collaboration with the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), dioxin concentrations in ambient air were measured in the four provinces of Catalonia (Spain). The study was also performed with the intention of providing data as a basis for future monitoring and evaluation of temporal trends in ambient air. Thus, 91 samples were collected in 25 different sites (rural, urban, suburban and industrial) between 1994 and 2000. The levels revealed a variable content of PCDDs/PCDFs depending both on the area and the contamination source. In particular, industrial areas presented levels ranging from 18 to 954 fg I-TEQ/m3. However, findings in urban and suburban sites varied between 13 and 357 fg I-TEQ/m3. As expected, the lowest levels were found in rural areas with levels between 5 and 125 fg I-TEQ/m3.

  6. Air Force Command and Control Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance Center (AFC2ISRC) Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    Force Air Combat Command August 2005 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 1 FW ACAM 1st...designated industrial, Alternative B is outdoor recreation, and Alternative C is open area. A zoning waiver from HQ ACC would be required to change the

  7. Analysis of the Route-Based Aggregate Model for Strategic Air Traffic Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Los Santos Bernad, Victor

    Because of the vital importance of the National Airspace System (NAS) and its diagnosed growth over the next years, the planning and prediction at a strategic phase of the Traffic Flow Management (TFM) proves to be a difficult task but a useful tool to reduce the airspace congestion. Research has led to the creation of several models in order to address this challenge. Because of the complexity of the problem, the Eulerian (aggregate) approach may be the best to reduce the dimension and complexity of the problem, whilst maintaining accuracy. This study analyzes one of the latest aggregate models created, the Route-Based Aggregate Model (RBAM), and compares it to the Large-Capacity Cell Transmission Model (CTM(L)) and the Link Transmission Model (LTM). These three models share some similarities such as the non-existence of diverging nodes or, in the case of the CTM(L), the condition of submitting all the airplanes in a cell to the next cell after one time-stepBut there are also big differences which make them different enough to coexist. For example, the RBAM can be used without the need of historical data in order to model the NAS, only the information of the upcoming flight plans. Also, the RBAM is designed to base its controls from a ground perspective, allowing ground rerouting and ground delay. An explanation on how to implement the RBAM in Matlab can be found in this project, explaining the peculiarities of the translation of the cost function constraints into a Linear Programming (LP) problem, with several examples that show how the solution to the LP problem distributes the delays between ground delays and ground reroutings. Because the cost of a ground rerouting is different from the cost of a ground delay because of the extra fuel expense that the rerouting may cause (assuming always that the original route is shorter), a proper weighting of both controls is found, considering different variables such as the cost of the fuel or the cost of overtime parking

  8. A Cognitive-System Model for En Route Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin M.; Pisanich, Gregory; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has been engaged in the development of advanced air traffic management technologies whose basic form is cognitive aiding systems for air traffic controller and flight deck operations. In the design and evaluation of such systems the dynamic interaction between the airborne aiding system and the ground-based aiding systems forms a critical coupling for control. The human operator is an integral control element in the system and the optimal integration of human decision and performance parameters with those of the automation aiding systems offers a significant challenge to cognitive engineering. This paper presents a study in full mission simulation and the development of a predictive computational model of human performance. We have found that this combination of methodologies provide a powerful design-aiding process. We have extended the computational model Man Machine Integrated Design and Analysis System (N13DAS) to include representation of multiple cognitive agents (both human operators and intelligent aiding systems), operating aircraft airline operations centers and air traffic control centers in the evolving airspace. The demands of this application require the representation of many intelligent agents sharing world-models, and coordinating action/intention with cooperative scheduling of goals and actions in a potentially unpredictable world of operations. The operator's activity structures have been developed to include prioritization and interruption of multiple parallel activities among multiple operators, to provide for anticipation (knowledge of the intention and action of remote operators), and to respond to failures of the system and other operators in the system in situation-specific paradigms. We have exercised this model in a multi-air traffic sector scenario with potential conflict among aircraft at and across sector boundaries. We have modeled the control situation as a multiple closed loop system. The inner and outer

  9. Straightforward reductive routes to air-stable uranium(III) and neptunium(III) materials.

    PubMed

    Cross, Justin N; Villa, Eric M; Darling, Victoria R; Polinski, Matthew J; Lin, Jian; Tan, Xiaoyan; Kikugawa, Naoki; Shatruk, Michael; Baumbach, Ryan; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2014-07-21

    Studies of trivalent uranium (U(3+)) and neptunium (Np(3+)) are restricted by the tendency of these ions to oxidize in the presence of air and water, requiring manipulations to be carried out in inert conditions to produce trivalent products. While the organometallic and high-temperature reduction chemistry of U(3+) and, to a much smaller extent, Np(3+) has been explored, the study of the oxoanion chemistry of these species has been limited despite their interesting optical and magnetic properties. We report the synthesis of U(3+) and Np(3+) sulfates by utilizing zinc amalgam as an in situ reductant with absolutely no regard to the exclusion of O2 or water. By employing this method we have developed a family of alkali metal U(3+) and Np(3+) sulfates that are air and water stable. The structures, electronic spectra, and magnetic behavior are reported.

  10. Airport Activity Statistics of Certificated Route Air Carriers, 12 Months Ending December 31, 1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-31

    influence a Convenience and Necessity issued by the Department of community’s ability to generate air carrier or general aviation Transportation (DOT...the hub . c ft GENERAL NOTES CwrDATA MINNG t - ’rd This publication don not include complete yearly data for the Horzon A r Dec. 164 following list of...in a certificated point, and a point may be served as a single community. through more than one airport.) Interlcopoerl operatios. In general

  11. Radar Inaccuracies and Mid-Air Collision Risk: Part 2 En Route Radar Separation Minima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooker, Peter

    2004-01-01

    A review of safety targets for en route ATC radar separation suggests that the existing target level of safety (TLS) is over-cautious. If risk budgeting principles are followed consistently, a ‘radar TLS’ of 1·0×10[minus sign]9 fatal aircraft accidents per flying hour is appropriate. This rate is consistent with Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) guidance on system failure conditions leading to catastrophic accidents. Dynamic and static calculations using published data are compared. The new methodology shows where there are problems with the traditional static calculations, and how to improve the estimation. A further improvement introduces a simple robust model of the controller's decision processes. The focus is not on describing what controllers would generally do, but on setting criteria based on what they could not reasonably be expected to do. This additional ingredient into the calculation adds realism and ensures that attention is focused on hazardous correlated errors. Focused data collection would be an essential component of new risk estimates. The key information required would be on radar performance and the nature and frequency of use of radar separation, including the relative velocities for proximate events at closest point of approach and the frequency of correlated gross errors (through a conditional probability factor). If this factor is not properly taken into account, then the data collection and analysis could be inefficient.

  12. Future Expansion of the Lightning Surveillance System at the Kennedy Space Center and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, C. T.; Wilson, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Eastern Range (ER) use data from two cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning detection networks, the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) and the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and a volumetric mapping array, the lightning detection and ranging II (LDAR II) system: These systems are used to monitor and characterize lightning that is potentially hazardous to launch or ground operations and hardware. These systems are not perfect and both have documented missed lightning events when compared to the existing lightning surveillance system at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B). Because of this finding it is NASA's plan to install a lightning surveillance system around each of the active launch pads sharing site locations and triggering capabilities when possible. This paper shows how the existing lightning surveillance system at LC39B has performed in 2011 as well as the plan for the expansion around all active pads.

  13. STS-56 inflight maintenance (IFM) air duct routing on OV-103's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 inflight maintenance (IFM) repair on Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, middeck was required to offset overheating problems with one of the onboard experiments -- Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO) 322, Human lymphocyte locomotion in microgravity. This 'elephant's trunk' fix was rigged from the airlock's air recirculation duct to DSO 322's forward locker location by Commander Kenneth Cameron. The 'elephant's trunk' was fashioned from trash bags and other plastic items to extend an airline to the troubled area. DSO 322 is collecting data on the locomotion and migration of human lymphocytes through intercellular matrix and is testing the rotating wall vessel and the specimen temperature controller. In the background is the port side wall with the side hatch, middeck accomodations rack (MAR), and shuttle orbiter repackaged galley (SORG) visible.

  14. Air Mobility Command’s En Route Support Infrastructure: A Construct of Aircraft Type and Geographic Location Utilized to Assess En Route Aircraft Logistic Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    and during operations in Kosovo, C-5 major inspections were performed at Moron AB, Spain (AMC, 2002b). 9 Figure 2. Countries Visited by AMC...Minor LTAG Incirlik AB, Turkey 721 AMOG 728 Air Mobility Squadron Minor LPLA Lajes AB, Azores 721 AMOG 729 Air Mobility Squadron Minor LEMO Moron AB...A. (1999). Air mobility: The evolution of global reach. Vienna, VA: PointOne Publishing. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). (2006

  15. Relationship between Air Traffic Selection and Training (AT-SAT)) Battery Test Scores and Composite Scores in the Initial en Route Air Traffic Control Qualification Training Course at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Ronald Scott

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: This study focused on the development and use of the AT-SAT test battery and the Initial En Route Qualification training course for the selection, training, and evaluation of air traffic controller candidates. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was used to measure the linear relationship between the…

  16. 75 FR 37711 - Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out Performance Requirements To Support Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ..., Performance and Interoperability Requirements Document for Enhanced Air Traffic in Radar-Controlled Areas..., Performance and Interoperability Requirements Document for Enhanced Air Traffic in Radar-Controlled Areas... Interoperability Requirements Document for Enhanced Air Traffic in Radar-Controlled Areas Using ADS-B...

  17. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Samples are routinely collected and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, ground water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  18. 75 FR 30159 - Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out Performance Requirements To Support Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... traffic controllers to safely and efficiently accommodate aircraft operations and the expected increase in... Equipment, Model X ASSA--Airport Surface Situational Awareness ATC--Air Traffic Control CAA--Cargo Airline... expected to provide air traffic controllers and pilots with more accurate information to help keep...

  19. Final Environmental Assessment: Installation of Digital Airport Surveillance Radar at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-11

    northern pike (Esox lucius), white sucker (Catostomus commersonii), rock bass (Ambloplites sp.), black bullhead (Ameiurus melas), and channel...sedimentary sandstones, siltstones, and shales (Paleozoic and Mesozoic era) overlying igneous and metamorphic granites, schists, and greenstones (Precambrian...Air Base Wing 460 Steen Blvd Grand Forks AFB, ND 58205 Charles W. Murphy, Chairman Standing Rock Sioux Tribe POBoxD Fort Yates, ND 58538 Dear

  20. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  1. Automatic routing module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Janice A.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic Routing Module (ARM) is a tool to partially automate Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) routing. For any accessible launch point or target pair, ARM creates flyable routes that, within the fidelity of the models, are optimal in terms of threat avoidance, clobber avoidance, and adherence to vehicle and planning constraints. Although highly algorithmic, ARM is an expert system. Because of the heuristics applied, ARM generated routes closely resemble manually generated routes in routine cases. In more complex cases, ARM's ability to accumulate and assess threat danger in three dimensions and trade that danger off with the probability of ground clobber results in the safest path around or through difficult areas. The tools available prior to ARM did not provide the planner with enough information or present it in such a way that ensured he would select the safest path.

  2. Doppler ultrasound surveillance in deep tunneling compressed-air work with Trimix breathing: bounce dive technique compared to saturation-excursion technique.

    PubMed

    Vellinga, T P van Rees; Sterk, W; de Boer, A G E M; van der Beek, A J; Verhoeven, A C; van Dijk, F J H

    2008-01-01

    The Western Scheldt Tunneling Project in The Netherlands provided a unique opportunity to evaluate two deep-diving techniques with Doppler ultrasound surveillance. Divers used the bounce diving techniques for repair and maintenance of the TBM. The tunnel boring machine jammed at its deepest depth. As a result the work time was not sufficient. The saturation diving technique was developed and permitted longer work time at great depth. Thirty-one divers were involved in this project. Twenty-three divers were examined using Doppler ultrasound. Data analysis addressed 52 exposures to Trimix at 4.6-4.8 bar gauge using the bounce technique and 354 exposures to Trimix at 4.0-6.9 bar gauge on saturation excursions. No decompression incidents occurred with either technique during the described phase of the project. Doppler ultrasound revealed that the bubble loads assessed in both techniques were generally low. We find out, that despite longer working hours, shorter decompression times and larger physical workloads, the saturation-excursion technique was associated with significant lower bubble grades than in the bounce technique using Doppler Ultrasound. We conclude that the saturation-excursion technique with Trimix is a good option for deep and long exposures in caisson work. The Doppler technique proved valuable, and it should be incorporated in future compressed-air work.

  3. Evidence toward an expanded international civil aviation organization (ICAO) concept of a single unified global communication navigation surveillance air traffic management (CNS/ATM) system: A quantitative analysis of ADS-B technology within a CNS/ATM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Gregory S.

    This research dissertation summarizes research done on the topic of global air traffic control, to include technology, controlling world organizations and economic considerations. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) proposed communication, navigation, surveillance, air traffic management system (CNS/ATM) plan is the basis for the development of a single global CNS/ATM system concept as it is discussed within this study. Research will be evaluated on the efficacy of a single technology, Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) within the scope of a single global CNS/ATM system concept. ADS-B has been used within the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Capstone program for evaluation since the year 2000. The efficacy of ADS-B was measured solely by using National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) data relating to accident and incident rates within the Alaskan airspace (AK) and that of the national airspace system (NAS).

  4. CTAS and NASA Air Traffic Management Fact Sheets for En Route Descent Advisor and Surface Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Katharine

    2004-01-01

    The Surface Management System (SMS) is a decision support tool that will help controllers, traffic managers, and NAS users manage the movements of aircraft on the surface of busy airports, improving capacity, efficiency, and flexibility. The Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project at NASA is developing SMS in cooperation with the FAA's Free Flight Phase 2 (FFP2) pro5ram. SMS consists of three parts: a traffic management tool, a controller tool, and a National Airspace System (NAS) information tool.

  5. The U.S. commercial air tour industry: a review of aviation safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations defines commercial air tours as "flight[s] conducted for compensation or hire in an airplane or helicopter where a purpose of the flight is sightseeing." The incidence of air tour crashes in the United States is disproportionately high relative to similar commercial aviation operations, and air tours operating under Part 91 governance crash significantly more than those governed by Part 135. This paper reviews the government and industry response to four specific areas of air tour safety concern: surveillance of flight operations, pilot factors, regulatory standardization, and maintenance quality assurance. It concludes that the government and industry have successfully addressed many of these tenet issues, most notably by: advancing the operations surveillance infrastructure through implementation of en route, ground-based, and technological surveillance methods; developing Aeronautical Decision Making and cue-based training programs for air tour pilots; consolidating federal air tour regulations under Part 136; and developing public-private partnerships for raising maintenance operating standards and improving quality assurance programs. However, opportunities remain to improve air tour safety by: increasing the number and efficiency of flight surveillance programs; addressing pilot fatigue with more restrictive flight hour limitations for air tour pilots; ensuring widespread uptake of maintenance quality assurance programs, especially among high-risk operators not currently affiliated with private air tour safety programs; and eliminating the 25-mile exception allowing Part 91 operators to conduct commercial air tours without the safety oversight required of Part 135 operators.

  6. Competitive allocation of resources on a network: an agent-based model of air companies competing for the best routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurtner, Gérald; Valori, Luca; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2015-05-01

    We present a stylized model of the allocation of resources on a network. By considering as a concrete example the network of sectors of the airspace, where each node is a sector characterized by a maximal number of simultaneously present aircraft, we consider the problem of air companies competing for the allocation of the airspace. Each company is characterized by a cost function, weighting differently punctuality and length of the flight. We consider the model in the presence of pure and mixed populations of types of airline companies and we study how the equilibria depends on the characteristics of the network.

  7. A Reinforcement Learning Model Equipped with Sensors for Generating Perception Patterns: Implementation of a Simulated Air Navigation System Using ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) Technology.

    PubMed

    Álvarez de Toledo, Santiago; Anguera, Aurea; Barreiro, José M; Lara, Juan A; Lizcano, David

    2017-01-19

    Over the last few decades, a number of reinforcement learning techniques have emerged, and different reinforcement learning-based applications have proliferated. However, such techniques tend to specialize in a particular field. This is an obstacle to their generalization and extrapolation to other areas. Besides, neither the reward-punishment (r-p) learning process nor the convergence of results is fast and efficient enough. To address these obstacles, this research proposes a general reinforcement learning model. This model is independent of input and output types and based on general bioinspired principles that help to speed up the learning process. The model is composed of a perception module based on sensors whose specific perceptions are mapped as perception patterns. In this manner, similar perceptions (even if perceived at different positions in the environment) are accounted for by the same perception pattern. Additionally, the model includes a procedure that statistically associates perception-action pattern pairs depending on the positive or negative results output by executing the respective action in response to a particular perception during the learning process. To do this, the model is fitted with a mechanism that reacts positively or negatively to particular sensory stimuli in order to rate results. The model is supplemented by an action module that can be configured depending on the maneuverability of each specific agent. The model has been applied in the air navigation domain, a field with strong safety restrictions, which led us to implement a simulated system equipped with the proposed model. Accordingly, the perception sensors were based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technology, which is described in this paper. The results were quite satisfactory, and it outperformed traditional methods existing in the literature with respect to learning reliability and efficiency.

  8. A Reinforcement Learning Model Equipped with Sensors for Generating Perception Patterns: Implementation of a Simulated Air Navigation System Using ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) Technology

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez de Toledo, Santiago; Anguera, Aurea; Barreiro, José M.; Lara, Juan A.; Lizcano, David

    2017-01-01

    Over the last few decades, a number of reinforcement learning techniques have emerged, and different reinforcement learning-based applications have proliferated. However, such techniques tend to specialize in a particular field. This is an obstacle to their generalization and extrapolation to other areas. Besides, neither the reward-punishment (r-p) learning process nor the convergence of results is fast and efficient enough. To address these obstacles, this research proposes a general reinforcement learning model. This model is independent of input and output types and based on general bioinspired principles that help to speed up the learning process. The model is composed of a perception module based on sensors whose specific perceptions are mapped as perception patterns. In this manner, similar perceptions (even if perceived at different positions in the environment) are accounted for by the same perception pattern. Additionally, the model includes a procedure that statistically associates perception-action pattern pairs depending on the positive or negative results output by executing the respective action in response to a particular perception during the learning process. To do this, the model is fitted with a mechanism that reacts positively or negatively to particular sensory stimuli in order to rate results. The model is supplemented by an action module that can be configured depending on the maneuverability of each specific agent. The model has been applied in the air navigation domain, a field with strong safety restrictions, which led us to implement a simulated system equipped with the proposed model. Accordingly, the perception sensors were based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technology, which is described in this paper. The results were quite satisfactory, and it outperformed traditional methods existing in the literature with respect to learning reliability and efficiency. PMID:28106849

  9. Surveillance of Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Coleen A.; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the autism surveillance activities of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. It considers why surveillance to track prevalence of autistic disorders is needed, how such surveillance is conducted, and the special challenges of autism surveillance. (DB)

  10. A smart system for surveillance of animal welfare during transport.

    PubMed

    Gebresenbet, G; Wikner, I; Van de Water, G; Freson, L; Geers, R

    2003-12-01

    New welfare regulations will impose surveillance systems so that information on the quality of transport conditions is available. Moreover a route description is useful for optimisation of transport logistics, but also in relation to estimating of sanitary risk and food safety, including traceability of individual animals. Therefore a transport surveillance system has been developed which is integrating the following information: individual identification of animals, (un)loading place and time, air quality (temperature, relative humidity, emissions), vibration and behaviour of the animals. These data are collected by telemetry and GPS, and are transmitted to a dispatch centre by GSM. Hence, information is available on-line and on disk, so that the driver can be informed and corrected at the spot. Dynamic route optimization of cattle collection from farms and logistical activities of abattoirs are considered in relation to animal welfare. Another instrumentation package that comprises sensors of heart rate and vibration on the animal has been integrated. These sensors can be mounted on animals and the data is transferred to a database through a wireless network. Comprehensive field measurement has been made to evaluate the system and found that the package performs well. Hence, advice will be generated for vehicle manufacturers, hauliers, farmers, slaughterhouses and retailers.

  11. 40 CFR 52.2684 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2684 Section 52.2684 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2684 Source surveillance. (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 52.479 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.479 Section 52.479 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.479 Source surveillance. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 52.479 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.479 Section 52.479 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.479 Source surveillance. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2684 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2684 Section 52.2684 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2684 Source surveillance. (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1479 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.1479 Section 52.1479 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1479 Source surveillance. (a)...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1479 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.1479 Section 52.1479 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1479 Source surveillance. (a)...

  17. Influence of walking route choice on primary school children's exposure to air pollution--A proof of concept study using simulation.

    PubMed

    Mölter, Anna; Lindley, Sarah

    2015-10-15

    This study developed a walking network for the Greater Manchester area (UK). The walking network allows routes to be calculated either based on the shortest duration or based on the lowest cumulative nitrogen dioxide (NO2) or particulate matter (PM10) exposure. The aim of this study was to analyse the costs and benefits of faster routes versus lower pollution exposure for walking routes to primary schools. Random samples of primary schools and residential addresses were used to generate 100,000 hypothetical school routes. For 60% (59,992) and 40% (40,460) an alternative low NO2 and PM10 route was found, respectively. The median change in travel time (NO2: 4.5s, PM10: 0.5s) and average route exposure (NO2: -0.40 μg/m(3), PM10: -0.03 μg/m(3)) was small. However, quantile regression analysis indicated that for 50% of routes a 1% increase in travel time was associated with a 1.5% decrease in NO2 and PM10 exposure. The results of this study suggest that the relative decrease in pollution exposure on low pollution routes tends to be greater than the relative increase in route length. This supports the idea that a route planning tool identifying less polluted routes to primary schools could help deliver potential health benefits for children.

  18. Objective Lightning Forecasting at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station using Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred; Wheeler, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) forecasters at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in Florida include a probability of thunderstorm occurrence in their daily morning briefings. This information is used by personnel involved in determining the possibility of violating Launch Commit Criteria, evaluating Flight Rules for the Space Shuttle, and daily planning for ground operation activities on Kennedy Space Center (KSC)/CCAFS. Much of the current lightning probability forecast is based on a subjective analysis of model and observational data. The forecasters requested that a lightning probability forecast tool based on statistical analysis of historical warm-season (May - September) data be developed in order to increase the objectivity of the daily thunderstorm probability forecast. The tool is a set of statistical lightning forecast equations that provide a lightning occurrence probability for the day by 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) during the warm season. This study used 15 years (1989-2003) of warm season data to develop the objective forecast equations. The local CCAFS 1000 UTC sounding was used to calculate stability parameters for equation predictors. The Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data were used to determine lightning occurrence for each day. The CGLSS data have been found to be more reliable indicators of lightning in the area than surface observations through local informal analyses. This work was based on the results from two earlier research projects. Everitt (1999) used surface observations and rawinsonde data to develop logistic regression equations that forecast the daily thunderstorm probability at CCAFS. The Everitt (1999) equations showed an improvement in skill over the Neumann-Pfeffer thunderstorm index (Neumann 1971), which uses multiple linear regression, and also persistence and climatology forecasts. Lericos et al. (2002) developed lightning distributions over the Florida peninsula based on specific flow regimes. The

  19. Strategy for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    goals. In short, intent balances the ends, ways, and means of ISR operations and facilitates leaders’ efforts to integrate intelligence and... Intelligence , Surveillance, and Reconnaissance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Air University Air FOrCe reseArCH institUe strategy for intelligence , surveillance, and reconnaissance

  20. 14 CFR 121.95 - Route width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Route width. 121.95 Section 121.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Approval of Routes: Domestic and Flag Operations § 121.95 Route...

  1. "Recalculating Route".

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Can you imagine going to a doctor who uses a paper chart, sends you a bill on a ledger card, and handwrites a prescription? You wouldn't have a great deal of confidence that the clinical skills of the doctor were up to date. This would be an example of a doctor who did not "recalculate his or her route." This article provides 10 examples of adjustments that have been made in medicine where the route has been recalculated.

  2. Improving Operational Acceptability of Dynamic Weather Routes Through Analysis of Commonly Use Routings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Antony D.; Sridhar, Banavar; McNally, David

    2016-01-01

    The Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) tool is a ground-based trajectory automation system that continuously and automatically analyzes active in-flight aircraft in en route airspace to find simple modifications to flight plan routes that can save significant flying time, while avoiding weather and considering traffic conflicts, airspace sector congestion, special use airspace, and FAA routing restrictions. Trials of the DWR system have shown that significant delay savings are possible. However, some DWR advised routes are also rejected by dispatchers or modified before being accepted. Similarly, of those sent by dispatchers to flight crews as proposed route change requests, many are not accepted by air traffic control, or are modified before implementation as Center route amendments. Such actions suggest that the operational acceptability of DWR advised route corrections could be improved, which may reduce workload and increase delay savings. This paper analyzes the historical usage of different flight routings, varying from simple waypoint pairs to lengthy strings of waypoints incorporating jet routes, in order to improve DWR route acceptability. An approach is developed that can be incorporated into DWR, advising routings with high historical usage and savings potential similar to that of the nominal DWR advisory. It is hypothesized that modifying a nominal DWR routing to one that is commonly used, and nearby, will result in more actual savings since common routings are generally familiar and operationally acceptable to air traffic control. The approach allows routing segments with high historical usage to be concatenated to form routes that meet all DWR constraints. The relevance of a route's historical usage to its acceptance by dispatchers and air traffic control is quantified by analyzing historical DWR data. Results indicate that while historical usage may be less of a concern to flight dispatchers accepting or rejecting DWR advised route corrections, it may be

  3. Final Environmental Assessment, Construct Antenna Parts Storage Facility, Upgrade Perimeter Security Fence and Demolish Camera Shed, Red River Air Force Space Surveillance Station (AFSSS), Lewisville, Arkansas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    Substandard”). Condition Code 3 means this facility cannot be raised to meet Class A standard to house the function for which it is currently...and energy goals; • Have sufficient space to house all necessary parts and equipment; • Enhance security for the space surveillance system program...within the Red River AFSSS (NAVFAC, 2003). Radon Radon testing was performed in April 1999 and results indicate radon levels below the threshold

  4. Oceanic Situational Awareness Over the Western Atlantic Track Routing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the oceans impose a limitation on traffic capacity for a given corridor, given the projected traffic growth over the Western Atlantic Track Routing System (WATRS). The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over oceans where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. This study uses Federal Aviation Administration data from a single day for the WATRS corridor to analyze traffic loading to be used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from the aircraft to the satellites.

  5. Environmental Assessment for Nellis Air Force Range Complex Fiber Optic Line Route from Indian Springs AFAF, Clark County to Cedar Pass Facility, NAFR North Range Nye County, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Nevada Test Site and Nellis Air Force Range. Dr. Pippin was responsible for the cultural/ historical survey and cultural/ historical resources materials...transmits data generated by Air Force train ing, testing and evaluation programs related to air- and ground-based systems. A FOL network already...transmit data generated by Air Force training, testing and evaluation programs related to air- and ground-based systems. The proposed action would provide

  6. The surveillant assemblage.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy.

  7. Influenza surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, M.; Assaad, F. A.; Delon, P. J.

    1978-01-01

    The main objectives of influenza surveillance are: to measure the impact of the disease by collection and analysis of epidemiological information on morbidity and mortality, and to anticipate future epidemics and pandemics by the collection and analysis of influenza viruses. The World Health Organization's influenza programme is based on the collaboration of 98 national influenza centres in 70 countries and the 2 WHO Collaborating Centres in Atlanta and London. Epidemiological information may be based on morbidity figures derived from a variety of sources such as returns from physicians or hospitals; mortality statistics or new claims for sickness benefit; school or industrial absenteeism, etc. The laboratory aspects of influenza epidemiology are certainly more uniformly covered than the statistical aspects. Since the advent of the A/Hong Kong/1/68 (H3N2) influenza virus A subtype there have been a number of variants with antigenic ”drift” but only three succeeded in causing widespread epidemics: A/England/42/72, A/Port Chalmers/1/73, and A/Victoria/3/75. In 1972, the influenza B virus also showed some antigenic ”drift”, the new variants being characterized by B/Hong Kong/5/72. Whenever a new variant appears, the degree of protection afforded to the population by the available vaccine is assessed. In the light of these data, WHO publishes annually in the Weekly epidemiological record recommendations formulated by the WHO Collaborating Centres on vaccine composition. PMID:78771

  8. Air Traffic Control Capabilities: Opportunity to Utilize Automated Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Equipment on Aircraft for Military Air Traffic Control and Command and Control in Combat and Humanitarian Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-21

    management systems. For example, the International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO ), to which 183 members subscribe, is including Automated Dependent...Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) in ICAO standards and recommended practices. The purpose of this paper is to examine this new class of aircraft

  9. Tracking Theory for Airborne Surveillance Radars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    01803 _______________ _i- CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Naval Air System Command 13. NUMBER OF PAGES Wshntn DC 2036...Department of the Navy -Trr FRE _[LEASL, Naval Air System Command DSY ;0, Ui;UrALT£D Washington, D.C. 20360 Contract Number N00019-81-C-0182 SFor...snapshot" of detected target positions once per scan. In typical air - borne surveillance radars, each azimuth is revisited once per scan, but in a

  10. DoD Global Influenza Surveillance Program Season Summary: October 2004 - April 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    IOH-RS-BR-TR-2005-0002 UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AFIOH DoD Global Influenza Surveillance Program Season Summary: October 2004 - April 2005 Jill S. Trei...October 2004 - April 2005) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS DoD Global Influenza Surveillance Program Season Summary: October 2004 - April 2005 6...site component of the DoD Global Influenza Surveillance Program. AFIOH conducts influenza surveillance among 32 U.S. Air Force, Army, Navy, and Coast

  11. General Medical Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is presented. The purpose of the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the program are discussed.

  12. The U.S. Commercial Air Tour Industry: A Review of Aviation Safety Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations defines commercial air tours as “flight[s] conducted for compensation or hire in an airplane or helicopter where a purpose of the flight is sightseeing.” The incidence of air tour crashes in the United States is disproportionately high relative to similar commercial aviation operations, and air tours operating under Part 91 governance crash significantly more than those governed by Part 135. This paper reviews the government and industry response to four specific areas of air tour safety concern: surveillance of flight operations, pilot factors, regulatory standardization, and maintenance quality assurance. It concludes that the government and industry have successfully addressed many of these tenet issues, most notably by: advancing the operations surveillance infrastructure through implementation of en route, ground-based, and technological surveillance methods; developing Aeronautical Decision Making and cue-based training programs for air tour pilots; consolidating federal air tour regulations under Part 136; and developing public-private partnerships for raising maintenance operating standards and improving quality assurance programs. However, opportunities remain to improve air tour safety by: increasing the number and efficiency of flight surveillance programs; addressing pilot fatigue with more restrictive flight hour limitations for air tour pilots; ensuring widespread uptake of maintenance quality assurance programs, especially among high-risk operators not currently affiliated with private air tour safety programs; and eliminating the 25-mile exception allowing Part 91 operators to conduct commercial air tours without the safety oversight required of Part 135 operators. PMID:24597160

  13. 14 CFR 121.115 - Route width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Route width. 121.115 Section 121.115 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Approval of Areas and Routes for Supplemental Operations §...

  14. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L E

    1992-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. Samples for radiological analyses include Air-Particulate Filter, gases and vapor; Water/Columbia River, Onsite Pond, Spring, Irrigation, and Drinking; Foodstuffs/Animal Products including Whole Milk, Poultry and Eggs, and Beef; Foodstuffs/Produce including Leafy Vegetables, Vegetables, and Fruit; Foodstuffs/Farm Products including Wine, Wheat and Alfalfa; Wildlife; Soil; Vegetation; and Sediment. Direct Radiation Measurements include Terrestrial Locations, Columbia River Shoreline Locations, and Onsite Roadway, Railway and Aerial, Radiation Surveys.

  15. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  16. The Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System: Can Procedures Be Developed to Support the Requirements of the Land and Air Component Commanders?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-04

    ability to process a low to medium resolution image of static objects on the ground. The image appears in a vertical perspective, much like a photograph...FINITE ABILITY TO EXPAND PROBABLY LIMITED TO A TWO THEATER CONFLICT 62 A similar evaluation can be made against the Air Force Characteristics stated in...doctrine of both services. From a purely Army perspective however, there is another way to determine Joint STARS worth, evaluating the system within the

  17. Close ISR Support: Re-organizing the Combined Forces Air Component Commander’s Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Processes and Agencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    essentially map out where the rest of the Division is located on the map using the air defense locations as starting points for the template. Or, if an...fact that the CFACC’s ISR assets are optimized for tracking and taking down networks versus locating a single IED in an urban environment or...fight often are dependent upon the available ISR support used to locate , identify, and track insurgent operations.133 Furthermore, these operations

  18. Air pollution indicators predict outbreaks of asthma exacerbations among elementary school children: integration of daily environmental and school health surveillance systems in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    YoussefAgha, Ahmed H; Jayawardene, Wasantha P; Lohrmann, David K; El Afandi, Gamal S

    2012-12-01

    Objectives of this study are to determine if a relationship exists between asthma exacerbations among elementary school children in industrialized countries (with climatic seasons) and exposure to daily air pollution with particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and ozone, when controlled for potential confounders; and, if so, to derive a statistical model that predicts variation of asthma exacerbations among elementary school children. Using an ecological study design, health records of 168,25 students from elementary schools in 49 Pennsylvania counties employing "Health eTools for Schools" were analyzed. Asthma exacerbations were recorded by nurses as treatment given during clinic visits each day. Daily air pollution measurements were obtained from the EPA's air quality monitoring sites. The distribution of asthmatic grouping for pollen and calendar seasons was developed. A Poisson regression model was used to predict the number of asthma exacerbations. The greatest occurrence of asthma exacerbations was in autumn, followed by summer, spring and winter. If the number of asthma exacerbations on a day is N and the daily mean of asthma exacerbations for the three-year period is 48, the probabilities of N > 48 in tree pollen and grass pollen seasons were 56.5% and 40.8%, respectively (p < 0.001). According to the Poisson regression, the week number and prior day CO, SO₂, NO₂, NOx, PM₂.₅, and O₃ had significant effects on asthma exacerbations among students. Monitoring of air pollutants over time could be a reliable new means for predicting asthma exacerbations among elementary school children. Such predictions could help parents and school nurses implement effective precautionary measures.

  19. Knowledge-aided multisensor data fusion for maritime surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistello, Giulia; Ulmke, Martin; Koch, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    Multi sensor fusion techniques are widely employed in several surveillance applications (e.g., battlefield monitoring, air traffic control, camp protection, etc). The necessity of tracking the elements of a dynamic system usually requires combining information from heterogeneous data sources in order to overcome the limitations of each sensor. The gathered information might be related to the target kinematics (position, velocity), its physical features (shape, size, composition) or intentions (route plan, friend/foe, engaged sensor modes, etc). The combination of such heterogeneous sensor data proved to benefit from the exploitation of context information, i.e., static and dynamic features of the scenario, represented in a Knowledge Base (KB). A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a typical example for a KB that can be exploited for the enhancement of multi sensor data fusion. The present paper describes potential strategies for "knowledge-based" data fusion in the area of Maritime Situational Awareness (MSA). MSA is founded on the data from heterogeneous sources, including radars, Navigation Aids, air- and space-based monitoring services, and recently-conceived passive sensors. Several strategies for optimally fusing two or more of these information data flows have been proposed for MSA applications. Relevant KB information comprises port locations, coastal lines, preferred routes, traffic rules, and potentially a maritime vessel database. We propose mathematical models and techniques to integrate kinematic constraints, e.g., in terms of navigation fields, and different object behaviour into a data fusion approach. For an exemplary sensor suite, we evaluate performance measures in the framework of centralised and decentralised fusion architectures.

  20. 40 CFR 49.9864 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Implementation Plans for Tribes-Region X Implementation Plan for the Burns Paiute Tribe of the Burns Paiute Indian Colony of Oregon § 49.9864 Source surveillance....

  1. 40 CFR 52.2030 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2030 Section 52.2030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2030 Source...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2030 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2030 Section 52.2030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2030 Source...

  3. Delphi Technique Used in Laser Incident Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    incidents, some recommendations will be made in how this useful tool can be part of a surveillance program primarily based on Air Force Occupational ... Safety and Health Standard (AFOSH) Standard 48-139. Future studies are needed toward promoting the use of this tool but a better system for reporting

  4. Community-Operated Environmental Surveillance Program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities with which citizens living near the Hanford Site have been participating. Local teachers have been managing and operating three special radiological air sampling stations located in Richland, Basin City, and Franklin County, Washington. Other expansion efforts of this program are also described.

  5. Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Priority Flows in a Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-14

    ADAPTIVE ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR PRIORITY FLOWS IN A NETWORK THESIS Timothy J. Carbino, Captain...ADAPTIVE ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR PRIORITY FLOWS IN A NETWORK THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer... Thesis 20 Aug 10 – 14 Jun 12 Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Priority Flows in a Network 12629PCarbino, Timothy J, Captain, USAF Air Force Institute of

  6. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  7. GEIS Surveillance Network Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    identification. Malaria Journal 2013, 12:113 Enterics: Enteric pathogen surveillance in a case- control study of acute diarrhoea in the town of...comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS...areas in which work is performed include respiratory illness surveillance (particularly influenza), acute febrile illness surveillance, malaria

  8. Surveillance as cultural practice.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Torin

    2011-01-01

    This special section of The Sociological Quarterly explores research on “surveillance as cultural practice,” which indicates an orientation to surveillance that views it as embedded within, brought about by, and generative of social practices in specific cultural contexts. Such an approach is more likely to include elements of popular culture, media, art, and narrative; it is also more likely to try to comprehend people's engagement with surveillance on their own terms, stressing the production of emic over etic forms of knowledge. This introduction sketches some key developments in this area and discusses their implications for the field of “surveillance studies” as a whole.

  9. Objective Lightning Forecasting at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station using Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winfred; Wheeler, Mark; Roeder, William

    2005-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) at Cape Canaveral Air-Force Station (CCAFS)ln Florida issues a probability of lightning occurrence in their daily 24-hour and weekly planning forecasts. This information is used for general planning of operations at CCAFS and Kennedy Space Center (KSC). These facilities are located in east-central Florida at the east end of a corridor known as 'Lightning Alley', an indication that lightning has a large impact on space-lift operations. Much of the current lightning probability forecast is based on a subjective analysis of model and observational data and an objective forecast tool developed over 30 years ago. The 45 WS requested that a new lightning probability forecast tool based on statistical analysis of more recent historical warm season (May-September) data be developed in order to increase the objectivity of the daily thunderstorm probability forecast. The resulting tool is a set of statistical lightning forecast equations, one for each month of the warm season, that provide a lightning occurrence probability for the day by 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) during the warm season.

  10. An emergency response UAV Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro A; Geckle, William J; Barton, Jeffrey D; Samsundar, John; Gao, Tia; Brown, Myron Z; Martin, Sean R

    2006-01-01

    A system using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), equipped for real time telemetry of video imagery, sensor support data, and GPS/INS navigation, is being developed to provide situational awareness (SA) to the central command of mass casualty incident response. UAVs provide an inexpensive and safe means of acquiring video surveillance in chaotic disaster scenes, while being durable and non-intrusive. The system provides autonomous surveillance of defined perimeters, video tracking and active following of targets of interest, and real time cueing to other imaging UAVs.

  11. Battlefield Optical Surveillance System (BOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Robert J.

    1997-02-01

    The battlefield optical surveillance system (BOSS) was developed for DARPA by the U.S. Air Force's Phillips Laboratory. BOSS is a HMMWV mounted laser surveillance and deterrence system. It is intended to be used to detect and to deter potentially hostile individuals, snipers and groups of agitators. The BOSS integrates the following: (1) a thermal camera (8-12 micrometer FLIR), that detects and cues to possible targets, (2) a 45 watt, 808 nm (near IR), air- cooled laser which provides covert illumination and designation for a day/night camera to acquire said target and attain a high-resolution image using night vision equipment, and (3) a 1 watt, 532 nm (green) laser that overtly illuminates and designates the target. It also has significant deterring effects both physiological and psychological on individuals and crowds. BOSS offers the potential capability to detect snipers before the first shot is fired. Detection of optical augmentations and the thermal characteristics of a sniper allows for this early detection. The integration of BOSS with acoustic sniper detection systems are being explored.

  12. Asbestos Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on asbestos is presented including the different types and the important medical distinctions between those different types. The four diseases associated with asbestos exposure are discussed: mesothelioma, lung cancer, asbestosis, and benign pleural disorders. The purpose of the LeRC Asbestos Surveillance Program is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Asbestos Monitoring at LeRC are discussed.

  13. Mercury Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on mercury exposure is presented including forms, sources, permissible exposure limits, and physiological effects. The purpose of the Mercury Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Mercury Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  14. Arsenic surveillance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background information about arsenic is presented including forms, common sources, and clinical symptoms of arsenic exposure. The purpose of the Arsenic Surveillance Program and LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Arsenic Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  15. Lead Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on lead exposure is presented including forms of lead, sources, hematologic effects, neurologic effects, endocrine effects, renal effects, and reproductive and developmental effects. The purpose of the Lead Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Lead Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  16. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  17. IMPROVING WATERBORNE DISEASE SURVEILLANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health surveillance has played a key role in controlling the spread of communicable disease and identifying the need for specific publich health practices, such as the filteration and chlorination of drinking water supplies. However, the characteristics of waterborne ou...

  18. Go the Yeshiva Route?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Leland

    1981-01-01

    The Supreme Court's decision in the National Labor Relations Board v. Yeshiva University court case is discussed. National reactions to the case, arguments in favor of the Yeshiva route, arguments against the Yeshiva route, and financial considerations are discussed. (MLW)

  19. Radio spectrum surveillance station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersey, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a general and functional description of a low-cost surveillance station designed as the first phase of NASA's program to develop a radio spectrum surveillance capability for deep space stations for identifying radio frequency interference sources. The station described has identified several particular interferences and is yielding spectral signature data which, after cataloging, will serve as a library for rapid identification of frequently observed interference. Findings from the use of the station are discussed.

  20. Detection and Elimination of Corynebacterium bovis from Barrier Rooms by Using an Environmental Sampling Surveillance Program.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Christopher; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Spiegel, Shannon; Leszczynski, Jori

    2017-02-16

    Rodent health-monitoring programs based on sampling an IVC system's exhaust air dust (EAD) has enhanced and evenreplaced traditional sentinels for some rodent pathogens. EAD testing by qPCR assay is an optimal surveillance methodfor the rapid detection of Corynebacterium bovis-infected immunodeficient mice. Here we demonstrate that an active EADsurveillance program for C. bovis can be used to maintain nude mice C. bovis-free after the transition from historically enzootically infected colonies. During 3 events over 3 y, rapid detection of infection, elimination of infected mice, aggressivequarantine measures, and local decontamination prevented the spread of C. bovis within 2 barrier rooms. In total, 4 cages ofinfected nude mice were identified and removed, preventing the spread of infection to 469 other cages of immunodeficientmice. In addition, we present data regarding a refinement to EAD testing which enables row-specific surveillance of an IVCrack. This technique systemically decreases the amount of testing required to locate an individually infected cage. Due to ourability to rapidly detect and localize an infected cage, we were able to investigate the route of C. bovis introduction into ourbarrier rooms. Our epidemiologic investigation suggested that the transmission of C. bovis occurred through contaminated,cryopreserved, patient-derived xenograft tumor tissue. This previously unknown source of C. bovis can infect mice used topropagate these tumors. Together, these data demonstrate that a remediation program that combines rapid detection, testand-cull, and local decontamination under quarantine conditions can eliminate C. bovis from a mouse colony.

  1. Integrated United States Air Surveillance Governance Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-07

    Committee/National Coordination Office; Interdepartment Radio Advisory Committee ( IRAC )/National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA... IRAC ); National Coordination Office for Health Information Technology (NCOHIT); and Program Manager—Information Sharing Environment (PM-ISE) (partial...entity should exhibit the following key characteristics, many of which are modeled on the successful NTIA/ IRAC example: • Clearly defined and documented

  2. Space surveillance satellite catalog maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Phoebe A.

    1990-04-01

    The United States Space Command (USSPACECOM) is a Unified Command of the Department of Defense with headquarters at Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado Springs, Co. One of the responsibilities of USSPACECOM is to detect, track, identify, and maintain a catalog of all manmade objects in earth orbit. This satellite catalog is the most important tool for space surveillance. The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, to identify why the command does the job of satellite catalog maintenance. Second, to describe what the satellite catalog is and how it is maintained. Third, and finally, to identify the questions that must be addressed if this command is to track small space object debris. This paper's underlying rationale is to describe our catalog maintenance services so that the members of our community can use them with assurance.

  3. A composite CBRN surveillance and testing service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeyer, Debra M.

    2004-08-01

    The terrorist threat coupled with a global military mission necessitates quick and accurate identification of environmental hazards, and CBRN early warning. The Air Force Institute for Operational Health (AFIOH) provides fundamental support to protect personnel from and mitigate the effects of untoward hazards exposures. Sustaining healthy communities since 1955, the organizational charter is to enhance warfighter mission effectiveness, protect health, improve readiness and reduce costs, assess and manage risks to human heath and safety, operational performance and the environment. The AFIOH Surveillance Directorate provides forward deployed and reach-back surveillance, agent identification, and environ-mental regulatory compliance testing. Three unique laboratories process and analyze over two million environmental samples and clinical specimens per year, providing analytical chemistry, radiological assessment, and infectious disease testing, in addition to supporting Air Force and Department of Defense (DoD) clinical reference laboratory and force health protection testing. Each laboratory has an applied or investigational testing section where new technologies and techniques are evaluated, and expert consultative support to assist in technology assessments and test analyses. The Epidemiology Surveillance Laboratory and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory are critical assets of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Laboratory Response Network. Deployable assets provide direct support to the Combatant Commander and include the Air Force Radiological Assessment Team, and the Biological Augmentation Team. A diverse directorate, the synergistic CBRN response capabilities are a commander"s force protection tool, critical to maintaining combat power.

  4. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  5. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  6. Defining Dynamic Route Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelinski, Shannon; Jastrzebski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This poster describes a method for defining route structure from flight tracks. Dynamically generated route structures could be useful in guiding dynamic airspace configuration and helping controllers retain situational awareness under dynamically changing traffic conditions. Individual merge and diverge intersections between pairs of flights are identified, clustered, and grouped into nodes of a route structure network. Links are placed between nodes to represent major traffic flows. A parametric analysis determined the algorithm input parameters producing route structures of current day flight plans that are closest to todays airway structure. These parameters are then used to define and analyze the dynamic route structure over the course of a day for current day flight paths. Route structures are also compared between current day flight paths and more user preferred paths such as great circle and weather avoidance routing.

  7. Respiratory disease surveillance in Hungary

    SciTech Connect

    Agocs, M.M.; Rudnai, P.; Etzel, R.A. )

    1992-08-28

    In October 1989, the Hungarian National Institute of Hygiene initiated the Children's Acute Respiratory Morbidity (CHARM) Surveillance System to assess the association between nine reportable respiratory diseases and air pollution. The weekly number of physician-diagnosed, reportable respiratory diseases among four age groups of children (less than 1, 1-2, 3-5, and 6-14 years) was tabulated for Sopron, a city with 60,000 residents. We calculated the proportion of diseases occurring during weeks with low, moderate, and high sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations. The weekly averages of the 24-hour median SO2 concentrations were divided into thirds at less than or equal to 17.6, greater than 17.6 to less than or equal to 26.3, and greater than 26.3 micrograms/m3 (range: 0.9-79.6 micrograms/m3), and the NO2 concentrations at less than or equal to 29.8, greater than 29.8 to less than or equal to 44.1, and greater than 44.1 micrograms/m3 (range: 4.2-90.1 micrograms/m3). During 1990, 11,474 respiratory disease cases occurred among the 4,020 children less than 15 years of age living in Sopron and monitored by the CHARM system. The two most frequently reported disease categories were rhinitis/tonsillitis/pharyngitis (71.5%) and acute bronchitis (8.5%). Sixty-seven percent of pneumonia cases occurred when SO2 concentrations were highest. We found no association between levels of NO2 and respiratory diseases. The CHARM Surveillance System may characterize more fully which groups of children develop particular respiratory diseases following exposure to air pollution.

  8. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  9. Surveillance metrics sensitivity study.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Michael S.; Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Robertson, Alix A.

    2011-09-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  10. Detection and Elimination of Corynebacterium bovis from Barrier Rooms by Using an Environmental Sampling Surveillance Program.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Christopher A; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Spiegel, Shannon P; Leszczynski, Jori K

    2017-03-01

    Rodent health-monitoring programs based on sampling an IVC system's exhaust air dust (EAD) has enhanced and even replaced traditional sentinels for some rodent pathogens. EAD testing by qPCR assay is an optimal surveillance method for the rapid detection of Corynebacterium bovis-infected immunodeficient mice. Here we demonstrate that an active EAD surveillance program for C. bovis can be used to maintain nude mice C. bovis-free after the transition from historically enzootically infected colonies. During 3 events over 3 y, rapid detection of infection, elimination of infected mice, aggressive quarantine measures, and local decontamination prevented the spread of C. bovis within 2 barrier rooms. In total, 4 cages of infected nude mice were identified and removed, preventing the spread of infection to 469 other cages of immunodeficient mice. In addition, we present data regarding a refinement to EAD testing which enables row-specific surveillance of an IVC rack. This technique systemically decreases the amount of testing required to locate an individually infected cage. Due to our ability to rapidly detect and localize an infected cage, we were able to investigate the route of C. bovis introduction into our barrier rooms. Our epidemiologic investigation suggested that the transmission of C. bovis occurred through contaminated, cryopreserved, patient-derived xenograft tumor tissue. This previously unknown source of C. bovis can infect mice used to propagate these tumors. Together, these data demonstrate that a remediation program that combines rapid detection, test-and-cull, and local decontamination under quarantine conditions can eliminate C. bovis from a mouse colony.

  11. [Worker's Health Surveillance

    PubMed

    Machado

    1997-01-01

    This paper is part of a broader discussion on the need for more in-depth study of workers' health surveillance practices, which are most often developed empirically, without well-defined theoretical or technical foundations. The paper presents a concept of surveillance in workers' health as a fulcrum for actions in the relationship between the work process and health. It emphasizes the exposure-based perspective involved in the epidemiological approach. Risk situations and effects are placed in spatial and technological context. The model provides an interdisciplinary approach with a technological, social, and epidemiological basis in a three-dimensional structure. A matrix for planning actions in workers' health surveillance is also presented, focusing on the connections between effects, risks, territory, and activities.

  12. What is a missing link among wireless persistent surveillance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2011-06-01

    The next generation surveillance system will equip with versatile sensor devices and information focus capable of conducting regular and irregular surveillance and security environments worldwide. The community of the persistent surveillance must invest the limited energy and money effectively into researching enabling technologies such as nanotechnology, wireless networks, and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) to develop persistent surveillance applications for the future. Wireless sensor networks can be used by the military for a number of purposes such as monitoring militant activity in remote areas and force protection. Being equipped with appropriate sensors these networks can enable detection of enemy movement, identification of enemy force and analysis of their movement and progress. Among these sensor network technologies, covert communication is one of the challenging tasks in the persistent surveillance because it is highly demanded to provide secured sensor nodes and linkage for fear of deliberate sabotage. Due to the matured VLSI/DSP technologies, affordable COTS of UWB technology with noise-like direct sequence (DS) time-domain pulses is a potential solution to support low probability of intercept and low probability of detection (LPI/LPD) data communication and transmission. This paper will describe a number of technical challenges in wireless persistent surveillance development include covert communication, network control and routing, collaborating signal and information processing, and etc. The paper concludes by presenting Hermitian Wavelets to enhance SNR in support of secured communication.

  13. View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial and residential buildings on the east and west sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  14. Proxies for Anonymous Routing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Michael G. Reed, Paul F. Syverson, and David M. Goldschlag. Proxies for Anonymous Routing, 12th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference...San Diego, CA, December 9-13, 1996. Proxies for Anonymous Routing Michael G. Reed, Paul F. Syverson, and David M. Goldschlag Naval Research Laboratory...implemented. Onion routing provides application independent, real-time, and bi-directional anonymous connections that are resistant to both

  15. Contact Graph Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  16. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  17. Diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection and diagnosis of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in animals requires a laboratory test since disease from IAV presents no pathognomonic signs. Diagnosis and surveillance of animal influenza focuses on the detection of virus or type specific antibodies. Whether one targets the virus or ...

  18. Sensing Surveillance & Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-07

    Fully Adaptive Radar” Sensor Processing including MIMO Sensing for Object Identification: Analysis and Synthesis of Invariants Integrated...Operators are overwhelmed by massive volumes of high dimensional multi-sensor data • Challenges -Efficiently process data to extract inherent...Sensing & Surveillance Systems • Develop toolkit for matrix treatment of MIMO radar wave-forms • Multiple-Input/Multiple-Output • enable performance

  19. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    category of “other.” The “other” cat - egory included cancers of unspecified sites or unknown behavior (n=56), myeloma and malignant plasma cell...the completeness and accuracy of case finding. In turn, the criteria used to detect and cat - egorize cases for surveillance purposes (e.g., as

  20. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  1. The Route Analysis Based On Flight Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feriyanto, Nur; Saleh, Chairul; Fauzi, Achmad; Rachman Dzakiyullah, Nur; Riza Iwaputra, Kahfi

    2016-02-01

    Economic development effects use of air transportation since the business process in every aspect was increased. Many people these days was prefer using airplane because it can save time and money. This situation also effects flight routes, many airlines offer new routes to deal with competition. Managing flight routes is one of the problems that must be faced in order to find the efficient and effective routes. This paper investigates the best routes based on flight performance by determining the amount of block fuel for the Jakarta-Denpasar flight route. Moreover, in this work compares a two kinds of aircraft and tracks by calculating flight distance, flight time and block fuel. The result shows Jakarta-Denpasar in the Track II has effective and efficient block fuel that can be performed by Airbus 320-200 aircraft. This study can contribute to practice in making an effective decision, especially helping executive management of company due to selecting appropriate aircraft and the track in the flight plan based on the block fuel consumption for business operation.

  2. Surface-water surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  3. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions.

  4. Understanding individual routing behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779–782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65–100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325–362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin–destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. PMID:26962031

  5. Ocean surveillance satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, D.

    Soviet and U.S. programs involving satellites for surveillance of ships and submarines are discussed, considering differences in approaches. The Soviet program began with the Cosmos 198 in 1967 and the latest, the Cosmos 1400 series, 15 m long and weighing 5 tons, carry radar for monitoring ships and a nuclear reactor for a power supply. Other Soviet spacecraft carrying passive microwave sensors and ion drives powered by solar panels have recently been detonated in orbit for unknown reasons. It has also been observed that the Soviet satellites are controlled in pairs, with sequential orbital changes for one following the other, and both satellites then overflying the same points. In contrast, U.S. surveillance satellites have been placed in higher orbits, thus placing greater demands on the capabilities of the on-board radar and camera systems. Project White Cloud and the Clipper Bow program are described, noting the continued operation of the White Cloud spacecraft, which are equipped to intercept radio signals from surface ships. Currently, the integrated tactical surveillance system program has completed its study and a decision is expected soon.

  6. Routing Vehicles with Ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

    Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

  7. Active surveillance for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Romero-Otero, Javier; García-Gómez, Borja; Duarte-Ojeda, José M; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Vilaseca, Antoni; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Touijer, Karim A

    2016-03-01

    It is worth distinguishing between the two strategies of expectant management for prostate cancer. Watchful waiting entails administering non-curative androgen deprivation therapy to patients on development of symptomatic progression, whereas active surveillance entails delivering curative treatment on signs of disease progression. The objectives of the two management strategies and the patients enrolled in either are different: (i) to review the role of active surveillance as a management strategy for patients with low-risk prostate cancer; and (ii) review the benefits and pitfalls of active surveillance. We carried out a systematic review of active surveillance for prostate cancer in the literature using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's electronic database, PubMed. We carried out a search in English using the terms: active surveillance, prostate cancer, watchful waiting and conservative management. Selected studies were required to have a comprehensive description of the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis, inclusion criteria for surveillance, and a protocol for the patients' follow up. Review articles were included, but not multiple papers from the same datasets. Active surveillance appears to reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer without compromising cancer-specific survival at 10 years. Therefore, active surveillance is an option for select patients who want to avoid the side-effects inherent to the different types of immediate treatment. However, inclusion criteria for active surveillance and the most appropriate method of monitoring patients on active surveillance have not yet been standardized.

  8. 14 CFR 91.1431 - CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional..., within 30 days after the program manager receives the notice. Except in the case of an...

  9. Class network routing

    DOEpatents

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  10. Reliable Internet Routing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    constraints [38]), and the destination of the packet (as needed for blackholing , motivated by security or politics). In particular, we admit as “typical...reducing convergence time, or adding mech- anisms to detect transient loops and blackholes , we avoid dynamic routing protocols entirely [18]. Our...solution can significantly reduce the occurrence of route blackholing and data interception caused either by malicious attacks or accidental

  11. 77 FR 54805 - Revocation of Jet Route J-528; WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... air traffic control purpose and causes flight plan error problems for the air traffic control... removes a redundant route segment that does not serve a useful navigation purpose, but causes problems for... only involves an established body of technical regulations for which frequent and routine...

  12. Coastal Surveillance Baseline Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-27

    reconnaissance (ISR) model for coastal surveillance. The model needs to be developed in the System Toolkit (STK) software package version 10.0 (or...reconnaissance (ISR) model for coastal surveillance. The model needs to be developed in the System Toolkit (STK) software package version 10.0 (or...Catalogue STK System Toolkit TA Technical Authority DRDC CORA Task #185 Coastal Surveillance Baseline Model Development 27 February 2015 F-1 5758-001

  13. Advanced Molecular Surveillance of Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves Rossi, Livia Maria; Escobar-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Rahal, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important public health problem worldwide. HCV exploits complex molecular mechanisms, which result in a high degree of intrahost genetic heterogeneity. This high degree of variability represents a challenge for the accurate establishment of genetic relatedness between cases and complicates the identification of sources of infection. Tracking HCV infections is crucial for the elucidation of routes of transmission in a variety of settings. Therefore, implementation of HCV advanced molecular surveillance (AMS) is essential for disease control. Accounting for virulence is also important for HCV AMS and both viral and host factors contribute to the disease outcome. Therefore, HCV AMS requires the incorporation of host factors as an integral component of the algorithms used to monitor disease occurrence. Importantly, implementation of comprehensive global databases and data mining are also needed for the proper study of the mechanisms responsible for HCV transmission. Here, we review molecular aspects associated with HCV transmission, as well as the most recent technological advances used for virus and host characterization. Additionally, the cornerstone discoveries that have defined the pathway for viral characterization are presented and the importance of implementing advanced HCV molecular surveillance is highlighted. PMID:25781918

  14. Advanced molecular surveillance of hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Livia Maria Gonçalves; Escobar-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Rahal, Paula

    2015-03-13

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important public health problem worldwide. HCV exploits complex molecular mechanisms, which result in a high degree of intrahost genetic heterogeneity. This high degree of variability represents a challenge for the accurate establishment of genetic relatedness between cases and complicates the identification of sources of infection. Tracking HCV infections is crucial for the elucidation of routes of transmission in a variety of settings. Therefore, implementation of HCV advanced molecular surveillance (AMS) is essential for disease control. Accounting for virulence is also important for HCV AMS and both viral and host factors contribute to the disease outcome. Therefore, HCV AMS requires the incorporation of host factors as an integral component of the algorithms used to monitor disease occurrence. Importantly, implementation of comprehensive global databases and data mining are also needed for the proper study of the mechanisms responsible for HCV transmission. Here, we review molecular aspects associated with HCV transmission, as well as the most recent technological advances used for virus and host characterization. Additionally, the cornerstone discoveries that have defined the pathway for viral characterization are presented and the importance of implementing advanced HCV molecular surveillance is highlighted.

  15. Bacteriological Surveillance of Drinking Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-15

    bacteriological surveillance and evaluation of drinking water quality. A separate information paper will address microbiological contaminants of a nonbacterial nature (e.g., Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia , and viruses).

  16. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program started in 1966 and conducted epidemiologic research to quantify the potential adverse effects of prescription drugs, utilizing in-hospital monitoring.

  17. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  18. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  19. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  20. Automated video surveillance with unattended ground sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moellman, Dennis E.

    1997-07-01

    Video sensors represent one facet of the unattended ground sensors family used to support military operations. This paper provides technical details on a modular, automated video surveillance (AVS) system concept that provides a 4D modeling and segmentation capability. This capability, combining 3D imaging and embedded information processing, enables the AVS to reliably detect and roughly classify objects and activities with a high probable certainty and minimal false alarms. The beneficial result is an elimination of the need for human monitoring and reduction in data transmission requirements by several orders of magnitude. This modular, forward observer AVS sensor package is comprised of integrated CMOS arrays and lenses (one for monoscopic view and two rigidly fixed for stereo), image processing, communication, GPS chips, and battery. This smart sensor is inexpensive, miniature, self-contained, and man-packable. Real-time video processing onboard the sensor provides: analysis and automatic target recognition algorithms enabling robust moving object detection; tracking and delimitation; and target characterization based on motion, size, form factor, texture, and specific identifying characteristics of objects. Automation of video screening tasks provides the benefits of visual surveillance without the associated burden or distraction from the mission. Because of its size and simplicity the AVS requires minimal man-in-the-field set up and lends itself to clandestine deployment.. In the future it may be possible to reliably and cost effectively air deploy the AVS. Each method offers great benefits as unmanned forward observers and sophisticated `tripwires' for battlefield awareness. While well suited for military reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition missions for peacetime and/or wartime applications, the AVS also lends itself to other clandestine applications such as drug interdiction surveillance, monitoring, and tip off.

  1. En route spacing system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz (Inventor); Green, Steven M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method of and computer software for minimizing aircraft deviations needed to comply with an en route miles-in-trail spacing requirement imposed during air traffic control operations via establishing a spacing reference geometry, predicting spatial locations of a plurality of aircraft at a predicted time of intersection of a path of a first of said plurality of aircraft with the spacing reference geometry, and determining spacing of each of the plurality of aircraft based on the predicted spatial locations.

  2. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  3. Development of simulation techniques suitable for the analysis of air traffic control situations and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A terminal area simulation is described which permits analysis and synthesis of current and advanced air traffic management system configurations including ground and airborne instrumentation and new and modified aircraft characteristics. Ground elements in the simulation include navigation aids, surveillance radars, communication links, air-route structuring, ATC procedures, airport geometries and runway handling constraints. Airborne elements include traffic samples with individual aircraft performance and operating characteristics and aircraft navigation equipment. The simulation also contains algorithms for conflict detection, conflict resolution, sequencing and pilot-controller data links. The simulation model is used to determine the sensitivities of terminal area traffic flow, safety and congestion to aircraft performance characteristics, avionics systems, and other ATC elements.

  4. Collective network routing

    DOEpatents

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  5. AIR QUALITY CHARACTERIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH TRACKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA and the CDC have conducted a collaborative effort entitled the Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) to pilot the development of integrated air quality data sets, from routinely available sources, for specific use by public health officials.

  6. Understanding Route Aggregation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-09

    routing anomalies, and is fingered to be the cause of many reported loops and blackholes . In this paper, we posit that the problem arises from a lack of...Route aggre- gation can also result in blackholes [18], which are surprisingly prevalent in the Internet [11]. We illustrate these known anomalies with...advertisement Forwarding paths A B C 10.1.30.0/24 10.1.16.0/22 10.1.16.0/2010.1.16.0/20 Figure 4: Illustration of a blackhole . forwards the packet to Y

  7. A Review of Function Allocation and En Route Separation Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Timothy A.; Aweiss, Arwa S.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Daiker, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Today's air traffic control system has reached a limit to the number of aircraft that can be safely managed at the same time. This air traffic capacity bottleneck is a critical problem along the path to modernization for air transportation. The design of the next separation assurance system to address this problem is a cornerstone of air traffic management research today. This report reviews recent work by NASA and others in the areas of function allocation and en route separation assurance. This includes: separation assurance algorithms and technology prototypes; concepts of operations and designs for advanced separation assurance systems; and specific investigations into air-ground and human-automation function allocation.

  8. The surveillance error grid.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Vigersky, Robert; Clarke, William; Parkes, Joan Lee; Sacks, David B; Kirkman, M Sue; Kovatchev, Boris

    2014-07-01

    Currently used error grids for assessing clinical accuracy of blood glucose monitors are based on out-of-date medical practices. Error grids have not been widely embraced by regulatory agencies for clearance of monitors, but this type of tool could be useful for surveillance of the performance of cleared products. Diabetes Technology Society together with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, and representatives of academia, industry, and government, have developed a new error grid, called the surveillance error grid (SEG) as a tool to assess the degree of clinical risk from inaccurate blood glucose (BG) monitors. A total of 206 diabetes clinicians were surveyed about the clinical risk of errors of measured BG levels by a monitor. The impact of such errors on 4 patient scenarios was surveyed. Each monitor/reference data pair was scored and color-coded on a graph per its average risk rating. Using modeled data representative of the accuracy of contemporary meters, the relationships between clinical risk and monitor error were calculated for the Clarke error grid (CEG), Parkes error grid (PEG), and SEG. SEG action boundaries were consistent across scenarios, regardless of whether the patient was type 1 or type 2 or using insulin or not. No significant differences were noted between responses of adult/pediatric or 4 types of clinicians. Although small specific differences in risk boundaries between US and non-US clinicians were noted, the panel felt they did not justify separate grids for these 2 types of clinicians. The data points of the SEG were classified in 15 zones according to their assigned level of risk, which allowed for comparisons with the classic CEG and PEG. Modeled glucose monitor data with realistic self-monitoring of blood glucose errors derived from meter testing experiments plotted on the SEG when compared to

  9. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  10. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  11. 76 FR 60020 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Laurie Trinca, Air Quality Assessment Division, Environmental Protection... initiating episode controls, air quality trends assessment, and air pollution research. The state and local... Quality Surveillance AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In...

  12. Surveillance Through Concrete Walls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    des radars à courte impulsion et très large bande de fréquence (UWB SP) pour effectuer de la surveillance à travers des murs de ciments . Cette étude...meilleures qualités quand on y inclut le délai de l’onde électromagnétique due au mur de ciments . L’impact de différent paramètre radars ou de traitement...à l’intérieur d’un édifice en ciment . Les murs de ciments ont trois impacts sur les images radars. Les images des cibles sont de- focussées et

  13. Other Priority Air Toxics in New England | Air Toxics | New ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    The air toxics of greatest concern in New England were selected due to risk modeling for only the inhalation route of exposure and these pollutants exceeded the health benchmarks in one or more of the New England states.

  14. Drug approval and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance.

  15. Acute Diarrheal Syndromic Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Kam, H.J.; Choi, S.; Cho, J.P.; Min, Y.G.; Park, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective In an effort to identify and characterize the environmental factors that affect the number of patients with acute diarrheal (AD) syndrome, we developed and tested two regional surveillance models including holiday and weather information in addition to visitor records, at emergency medical facilities in the Seoul metropolitan area of Korea. Methods With 1,328,686 emergency department visitor records from the National Emergency Department Information system (NEDIS) and the holiday and weather information, two seasonal ARIMA models were constructed: (1) The simple model (only with total patient number), (2) the environmental factor-added model. The stationary R-squared was utilized as an in-sample model goodness-of-fit statistic for the constructed models, and the cumulative mean of the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) was used to measure post-sample forecast accuracy over the next 1 month. Results The (1,0,1)(0,1,1)7 ARIMA model resulted in an adequate model fit for the daily number of AD patient visits over 12 months for both cases. Among various features, the total number of patient visits was selected as a commonly influential independent variable. Additionally, for the environmental factor-added model, holidays and daily precipitation were selected as features that statistically significantly affected model fitting. Stationary R-squared values were changed in a range of 0.651-0.828 (simple), and 0.805-0.844 (environmental factor-added) with p<0.05. In terms of prediction, the MAPE values changed within 0.090-0.120 and 0.089-0.114, respectively. Conclusion The environmental factor-added model yielded better MAPE values. Holiday and weather information appear to be crucial for the construction of an accurate syndromic surveillance model for AD, in addition to the visitor and assessment records. PMID:23616829

  16. Distributed visual-target-surveillance system in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Sheng; Bi, Daowei

    2009-10-01

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a powerful unattended distributed measurement system, which is widely used in target surveillance because of its outstanding performance in distributed sensing and signal processing. This paper introduces a multiview visual-target-surveillance system in WSN, which can autonomously implement target classification and tracking with collaborative online learning and localization. The proposed system is a hybrid system of single-node and multinode fusion. It is constructed on a peer-to-peer (P2P)-based computing paradigm and consists of some simple but feasible methods for target detection and feature extraction. Importantly, a support-vector-machine-based semisupervised learning method is used to achieve online classifier learning with only unlabeled samples. To reduce the energy consumption and increase the accuracy, a novel progressive data-fusion paradigm is proposed for online learning and localization, where a feasible routing method is adopted to implement information transmission with the tradeoff between performance and cost. Experiment results verify that the proposed surveillance system is an effective, energy-efficient, and robust system for real-world application. Furthermore, the P2P-based progressive data-fusion paradigm can improve the energy efficiency and robustness of target surveillance.

  17. Hydrologic Flood Routing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggen, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses a short classroom-based BASIC program which routes stream flow through a system of channels and reservoirs. The program is suitable for analyses of open channel conveyance systems, flood detention reservoirs, and combinations of the two. (Author/JN)

  18. Submarine cable route survey

    SciTech Connect

    Herrouin, G.; Scuiller, T.

    1995-12-31

    The growth of telecommunication market is very significant. From the beginning of the nineties, more and more the use of optical fiber submarine cables is privileged to that of satellites. These submarine telecommunication highways require accurate surveys in order to select the optimum route and determine the cable characteristics. Advanced technology tools used for these surveys are presented along with their implementation.

  19. Unified messaging solution for biosurveillance and disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Abellera, John P; Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Danos, C Scott; McNabb, Scott; Rhodes, Barry

    2007-10-11

    Biosurveillance and disease surveillance systems serve different purposes. However, the richness and quality of an existing data stream and infrastructure used in biosurveillance may prove beneficial for any state-based electronic disease surveillance system, especially if an electronic laboratory data feed does not exist between a hospital and state-based system. The use of an Enterprise Application Integration(EAI) engine, such as the BioSense Integrator,will be necessary to map heterogeneous messages into standard representations, then validate and route them [1] to a disparate system. This poster illustrates the use of an existing BioSense Integrator in order to create a unified message to support the exchange of electronic lab messages necessary for reportable disease notification. An evaluation of the infrastructure for data messaging will be examined and presented, along with a cost and benefit analysis between hospital and state-based system.

  20. Review of Australia's polio surveillance.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2013-06-30

    With eradication almost within reach, the importance of detecting every poliomyelitis case has taken on additional significance. The selected surveillance strategy must be effective and efficient. A review of polio surveillance in Australia was conducted to consider whether current strategies were optimal. Document review and semi-structured key informant interviews were used to conduct the review. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The review was an iterative process with feedback on the findings sought from interviewees. Since Western Pacific Regional polio-elimination status was certified, one imported adult case was detected in 2007 in Australia, with no evidence of further transmission, and no Australian paediatric cases identified. Respondents reported that: it was not possible to prevent importations; paediatric cases were more likely to be identified than adult cases; and there may be a low level of suspicion among clinicians. Case detection and outbreak mitigation were considered key reasons to undertake polio surveillance. While Australia has not achieved one of the key World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance targets, this did not compromise Australias polio-free status. Identified issues with polio surveillance were the potential for an importation with high attendant investigation and containment costs, low stool sample collection rates, and the opportunity to improve safeguards around the importation and laboratory storage of biological samples containing poliovirus. The review found strong support for ongoing polio surveillance, particularly to detect imported cases and to demonstrate commitment to maintaining a polio-free region. Existing polio surveillance strategies were considered appropriate for Australia.

  1. An evolutionary algorithm technique for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance plan optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langton, John T.; Caroli, Joseph A.; Rosenberg, Brad

    2008-04-01

    To support an Effects Based Approach to Operations (EBAO), Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) planners must optimize collection plans within an evolving battlespace. A need exists for a decision support tool that allows ISR planners to rapidly generate and rehearse high-performing ISR plans that balance multiple objectives and constraints to address dynamic collection requirements for assessment. To meet this need we have designed an evolutionary algorithm (EA)-based "Integrated ISR Plan Analysis and Rehearsal System" (I2PARS) to support Effects-based Assessment (EBA). I2PARS supports ISR mission planning and dynamic replanning to coordinate assets and optimize their routes, allocation and tasking. It uses an evolutionary algorithm to address the large parametric space of route-finding problems which is sometimes discontinuous in the ISR domain because of conflicting objectives such as minimizing asset utilization yet maximizing ISR coverage. EAs are uniquely suited for generating solutions in dynamic environments and also allow user feedback. They are therefore ideal for "streaming optimization" and dynamic replanning of ISR mission plans. I2PARS uses the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) to automatically generate a diverse set of high performing collection plans given multiple objectives, constraints, and assets. Intended end users of I2PARS include ISR planners in the Combined Air Operations Centers and Joint Intelligence Centers. Here we show the feasibility of applying the NSGA-II algorithm and EAs in general to the ISR planning domain. Unique genetic representations and operators for optimization within the ISR domain are presented along with multi-objective optimization criteria for ISR planning. Promising results of the I2PARS architecture design, early software prototype, and limited domain testing of the new algorithm are discussed. We also present plans for future research and development, as well as technology

  2. Air traffic management evaluation tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar (Inventor); Sheth, Kapil S. (Inventor); Chatterji, Gano Broto (Inventor); Bilimoria, Karl D. (Inventor); Grabbe, Shon (Inventor); Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods for evaluating and implementing air traffic management tools and approaches for managing and avoiding an air traffic incident before the incident occurs. A first system receives parameters for flight plan configurations (e.g., initial fuel carried, flight route, flight route segments followed, flight altitude for a given flight route segment, aircraft velocity for each flight route segment, flight route ascent rate, flight route descent route, flight departure site, flight departure time, flight arrival time, flight destination site and/or alternate flight destination site), flight plan schedule, expected weather along each flight route segment, aircraft specifics, airspace (altitude) bounds for each flight route segment, navigational aids available. The invention provides flight plan routing and direct routing or wind optimal routing, using great circle navigation and spherical Earth geometry. The invention provides for aircraft dynamics effects, such as wind effects at each altitude, altitude changes, airspeed changes and aircraft turns to provide predictions of aircraft trajectory (and, optionally, aircraft fuel use). A second system provides several aviation applications using the first system. Several classes of potential incidents are analyzed and averted, by appropriate change en route of one or more parameters in the flight plan configuration, as provided by a conflict detection and resolution module and/or traffic flow management modules. These applications include conflict detection and resolution, miles-in trail or minutes-in-trail aircraft separation, flight arrival management, flight re-routing, weather prediction and analysis and interpolation of weather variables based upon sparse measurements. The invention combines these features to provide an aircraft monitoring system and an aircraft user system that interact and negotiate changes with each other.

  3. Surveillance of Anal Canal Cancers.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Anal squamous cell cancer is most frequently a locoregional disease that is amenable to curative therapy in a majority of fit patients. Complete response rates after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) are good, with up to 75% of patients with no evidence of relapse on surveillance. Relapse is most frequently locoregional and is often amendable to salvage surgery with curative intent. Effective surveillance attempts to improve outcomes by identifying recurrent or persistent disease early, managing both acute and late toxicities, and offering reassurance to patients. This article explores the rationale and evidence for surveillance programs after definitive CRT.

  4. Metagenomic Sequencing for Surveillance of Food- and Waterborne Viral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuijse, David F.; Koopmans, Marion P. G.

    2017-01-01

    A plethora of viruses can be transmitted by the food- and waterborne route. However, their recognition is challenging because of the variety of viruses, heterogeneity of symptoms, the lack of awareness of clinicians, and limited surveillance efforts. Classical food- and waterborne viral disease outbreaks are mainly caused by caliciviruses, but the source of the virus is often not known and the foodborne mode of transmission is difficult to discriminate from human-to-human transmission. Atypical food- and waterborne viral disease can be caused by viruses such as hepatitis A and hepatitis E. In addition, a source of novel emerging viruses with a potential to spread via the food- and waterborne route is the repeated interaction of humans with wildlife. Wildlife-to-human adaptation may give rise to self- limiting outbreaks in some cases, but when fully adjusted to the human host can be devastating. Metagenomic sequencing has been investigated as a promising solution for surveillance purposes as it detects all viruses in a single protocol, delivers additional genomic information for outbreak tracing, and detects novel unknown viruses. Nevertheless, several issues must be addressed to apply metagenomic sequencing in surveillance. First, sample preparation is difficult since the genomic material of viruses is generally overshadowed by host- and bacterial genomes. Second, several data analysis issues hamper the efficient, robust, and automated processing of metagenomic data. Third, interpretation of metagenomic data is hard, because of the lack of general knowledge of the virome in the food chain and the environment. Further developments in virus-specific nucleic acid extraction methods, bioinformatic data processing applications, and unifying data visualization tools are needed to gain insightful surveillance knowledge from suspect food samples. PMID:28261185

  5. Route repetition and route retracing: effects of cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Jan M; Kmecova, Hana; de Condappa, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Retracing a recently traveled route is a frequent navigation task when learning novel routes or exploring unfamiliar environments. In the present study we utilized virtual environments technology to investigate age-related differences in repeating and retracing a learned route. In the training phase of the experiment participants were guided along a route consisting of multiple intersections each featuring one unique landmark. In the subsequent test phase, they were guided along short sections of the route and asked to indicate overall travel direction (repetition or retracing), the direction required to continue along the route, and the next landmark they would encounter. Results demonstrate age-related deficits in all three tasks. More specifically, in contrast to younger participants, the older participants had greater problems during route retracing than during route repetition. While route repetition can be solved with egocentric response or route strategies, successfully retracing a route requires allocentric processing. The age-related deficits in route retracing are discussed in the context of impaired allocentric processing and shift from allocentric to egocentric navigation strategies as a consequence of age-related hippocampal degeneration.

  6. Automated Flight Routing Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Hok K.; Morando, Alex; Grabbe, Shon

    2010-01-01

    Airspace capacity reduction due to convective weather impedes air traffic flows and causes traffic congestion. This study presents an algorithm that reroutes flights in the presence of winds, enroute convective weather, and congested airspace based on stochastic dynamic programming. A stochastic disturbance model incorporates into the reroute design process the capacity uncertainty. A trajectory-based airspace demand model is employed for calculating current and future airspace demand. The optimal routes minimize the total expected traveling time, weather incursion, and induced congestion costs. They are compared to weather-avoidance routes calculated using deterministic dynamic programming. The stochastic reroutes have smaller deviation probability than the deterministic counterpart when both reroutes have similar total flight distance. The stochastic rerouting algorithm takes into account all convective weather fields with all severity levels while the deterministic algorithm only accounts for convective weather systems exceeding a specified level of severity. When the stochastic reroutes are compared to the actual flight routes, they have similar total flight time, and both have about 1% of travel time crossing congested enroute sectors on average. The actual flight routes induce slightly less traffic congestion than the stochastic reroutes but intercept more severe convective weather.

  7. En route noise annoyance laboratory test: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Until recently concerns about the impact of aircraft noise on people have centered around the takeoff and landing operations of aircraft in the vicinity of airport terminals. The development of the advanced turboprop (propfan) engine, modifications to air corridors, and the desire to maintain a natural environment in national parks and recreation areas have now focused attention on the impact at ground level of the en route noise produced by aircraft at cruise conditions and altitudes. Compared to terminal area noise, en route noise is characterized by relatively low noise levels, lack of high frequency spectral content, and long durations. Much research has been directed towards understanding and quantifying the annoyance caused by terminal area aircraft noise, but relatively little research has been conducted for en route noise. To address this need, a laboratory experiment was conducted to quantify the annoyance of people on the ground to en route noise generated by aircraft at cruise conditions. The objectives of the experiment are to determine the annoyance prediction ability of noise measurement procedures and corrections when applied to en route noise; to determine differences in annoyance response to en route noise and takeoff/landing noise; and to determine differences in annoyance response to advanced turboprop en route noise and conventional jet en route noise.

  8. Operational Evaluatioin of Dynamic Weather Routes at American Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNally, David; Sheth, Kapil; Gong, Chester; Borchers, Paul; Osborne, Jeff; Keany, Desmond; Scott, Brennan; Smith, Steve; Sahlman, Scott; Lee, Chuhan; Cheng, Jinn-Hwei

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) is a search engine that continuously and automatically analyzes inflight aircraft in en route airspace and proposes simple route amendments for more efficient routes around convective weather while considering sector congestion, traffic conflicts, and active Special Use Airspace. NASA and American Airlines (AA) are conducting an operational trial of DWR at the AA System Operations Center in Fort Worth, TX. The trial includes only AA flights in Fort Worth Center airspace. Over the period from July 31, 2012 through August 31, 2012, 45% of routes proposed by DWR and evaluated by AA users - air traffic control coordinators and flight dispatchers - were rated as acceptable as proposed or with some modifications. The wind-corrected potential flying time savings for these acceptable routes totals 470 flying min, and results suggest another 1,500 min of potential savings for flights not evaluated due to staffing limitations. A sector congestion analysis shows that in only two out of 83 DWR routes rated acceptable by AA staff were the flights predicted to fly through a congested sector inside of 30 min downstream of present position. This shows that users considered sector congestion data provided by DWR automation and in nearly all cases did not accept routes through over-capacity sectors. It is estimated that 12 AA flights were given reroute clearances as a direct result of DWR for a total savings of 67 flying min.

  9. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Evaluation FAQs Additional Evaluation Resources Health & Academics Anti-Bullying Policies and Enumeration: An Infobrief for Local Education ... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the ...

  10. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Mulford, Roberta Nancy

    2016-09-29

    This lecture discusses stockpile stewardship efforts and the role surveillance plays in the process. Performance of the RTGs is described, and the question of the absence of anticipated He is addressed.

  11. Increasingly minimal bias routing

    DOEpatents

    Bataineh, Abdulla; Court, Thomas; Roweth, Duncan

    2017-02-21

    A system and algorithm configured to generate diversity at the traffic source so that packets are uniformly distributed over all of the available paths, but to increase the likelihood of taking a minimal path with each hop the packet takes. This is achieved by configuring routing biases so as to prefer non-minimal paths at the injection point, but increasingly prefer minimal paths as the packet proceeds, referred to herein as Increasing Minimal Bias (IMB).

  12. ARPANET Routing Algorithm Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    IMPROVEMENTS . .PFOnINI ORG. REPORT MUNDER -- ) _ .. .... 3940 7, AUT񓂏(c) .. .. .. CONTRACT Of GRANT NUMSlet e) SJ. M. /Mc~uillan E. C./Rosen I...8217), this problem may persist for a very long time, causing extremely bad performance throughout the whole network (for instance, if w’ reports that one of...algorithm may naturally tend to oscillate between bad routing paths and become itself a major contributor to network congestion. These examples show

  13. Onion Routing Access Configurations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    eavesdropping and trac analysis. Thus it hides not only the data being sent, but who is talking to whom. Onion Routing’s anonymous connections are bidirec...Keywords: Security, privacy, anonymity , trac analysis. 1 Introduction Preserving privacy means not only hiding the con- tent of messages, but also...communication over a public network. It pro- vides anonymous connections that are strongly resis- tant to both eavesdropping and trac analysis. The

  14. Expert Opinion to Identify High-Risk Entry Routes of Canine Rabies into Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Brookes, V J; Ward, M P

    2017-03-01

    The proximity of Papua New Guinea (PNG) to canine rabies-endemic countries in South-East Asia presents a risk of incursion of this disease into PNG and the rest of the Oceanic region. The objective of this study was to identify the highest risk routes for entry of dogs - associated with movement of people - into PNG from canine rabies-endemic countries. A structured, in-country expert-elicitation workshop was used, and 20 entry routes were identified. The highest risk routes were three land routes from Papua, Indonesia (hunters, traditional border crossers and unregulated, unchecked 'shopper-crossers') and two sea routes (fishing and logging). These results will be used to direct more detailed risk assessments to develop surveillance strategies and incursion response plans.

  15. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    SciTech Connect

    RW Hanf; TM Poston

    2000-09-20

    Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual.

  16. Occupational Surveillance for Spaceflight Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarver, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of longterm occupational health surveillance of astronauts after exposure to the possible hazards of spaceflight. Because there is not much information about long term effects of spaceflight on human health, it is important to identify some of the possible results of exposure to the many possible factors that can influence longterm health impacts. This surveillance also allows for NASA to meet the obligation to care for the astronauts for their lifetime.

  17. Military Occupational Health Surveillance Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    Responses were received from 37 HSC medical treatment facilities (100%) regarding their occupational health surveillance programs. The occupational ...personnel determined to be potentially exposed to occupational or job- related hazards, medical surveillance programs are limited, if available at all. An...exposed to occupational or job-related hazards would require more adequate staffing to provide the services. Identification of personnel at risk could be

  18. Thermal surveillance of volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A systematic aircraft program to monitor changes in the thermal emission from volcanoes of the Cascade Range has been initiated and is being carried out in conjunction with ERTS-1 thermal surveillance experiments. Night overflights by aircraft equipped with thermal infrared scanners sensitive to terrestrial emission in the 4-5.5 and 8-14 micron bands are currently being carried out at intervals of a few months. Preliminary results confirm that Mount Rainier, Mount Baker, Mount Saint Helens, Mount Shasta, and the Lassen area continue to be thermally active, although with the exception of Lassen which erupted between 1914 and 1917, and Mount Saint Helens which had a series of eruptions between 1831 and 1834, there has been no recent eruptive activity. Excellent quality infrared images recorded over Mount Rainier, as recently as April, 1972, show similar thermal patterns to those reported in 1964-1966. Infrared images of Mount Baker recorded in November 1970 and again in April 1972 revealed a distinct array of anomalies 1000 feet below the crater rim and associated with fumaroles or structures permitting convective heat transfer to the surface.

  19. Distributed communications resource management for tracking and surveillance networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Edwin K. P.; Brewington, Brian

    2005-09-01

    We present a market-like method for distributed communications resource management in the context of networked tracking and surveillance systems. This method divides communication resources according to the expected utility provided by information of particular types. By formulating the problem as an optimization of the joint utility of information flow rates, the dual of the problem can be understood to provide a price for particular routes. Distributed rate control can be accomplished using primal-dual iteration in combination with communication of these route prices. We extend the previous work on the subject in a few important ways. First, we consider utility functions that are jointly-dependent on flow rates, to properly account for geometric synergy that can occur in sensor fusion problems. Second, we do not require that the rate-update algorithms have explicit knowledge of utility functions. Instead, our update algorithms involve transmitting marginal utility values. We present simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique.

  20. Zoonotic foodborne parasites and their surveillance.

    PubMed

    Murrell, K D

    2013-08-01

    Humans suffer from several foodborne helminth zoonotic diseases, some of which can be deadly (e.g., trichinellosis, cerebral cysticercosis) while others are chronic and cause only mild illness (e.g., intestinal taeniosis). The route of infection is normally consumption of the parasite's natural host as a human food item (e.g., meat). The risk for infection with these parasites is highest wherever people have an inadequate knowledge of infection and hygiene, poor animal husbandry practices, and unsafe management and disposal of human and animal waste products. The design of surveillance and control strategies for the various foodborne parasite species, and the involvement of veterinary and public health agencies, vary considerably because of the different life cycles of these parasites, and epidemiological features. Trichinella spiralis, which causes most human trichinellosis, is acquired from the consumption of pork, although increasingly cases occur from eating wild game. For cysticercosis, however, the only sources for human infection are pork (Taenia solium) or beef (T. saginata). The chief risk factor for infection of humans with these parasites is the consumption of meat that has been inadequately prepared. For the pig or cow, however, the risk factors are quite different between Trichinella and Taenia. For T. spiralis the major source of infection of pigs is exposure to infected animal meat (which carries the infective larval stage), while for both Taenia species it is human faecal material contaminated with parasite eggs shed by the adult intestinal stage of the tapeworm. Consequently, the means for preventing exposure of pigs and cattle to infective stages of T. spiralis, T. solium, and T. saginata vary markedly, especially the requirements for ensuring the biosecurity of these animals at the farm. The surveillance strategies and methods required for these parasites in livestock are discussed, including the required policy-level actions and the necessary

  1. Method and system for an automated tool for en route traffic controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz (Inventor); McNally, B. David (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for a new automation tool for en route air traffic controllers first finds all aircraft flying on inefficient routes, then determines whether it is possible to save time by bypassing some route segments, and finally whether the improved route is free of conflicts with other aircraft. The method displays all direct-to eligible aircraft to an air traffic controller in a list sorted by highest time savings. By allowing the air traffic controller to easily identify and work with the highest pay-off aircraft, the method of the present invention contributes to a significant increase in both air traffic controller and aircraft productivity. A graphical computer interface (GUI) is used to enable the air traffic controller to send the aircraft direct to a waypoint or fix closer to the destination airport by a simple point and click action.

  2. Hanford site environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1 {open_quotes}General Environmental Protection Program,{close_quotes} and DOE Order 5400.5, {open_quotes}Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.{close_quotes} The sampling methods are described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the 1998 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section of this document describes the planned sampling schedule for a specific media (air, surface water, biota, soil and vegetation, sediment, and external radiation). Each section includes the sample location, sample type, and analyses to be performed on the sample. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be planned for 1998 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map is included for each media showing sample locations.

  3. Robustness of airline route networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  4. For and from Cyberspace: Conceptualizing Cyber Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Conceptualizing Cyber Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Institute (AFRI),155 N. Twining...Street,Maxwell AFB,AL,36112 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S

  5. 78 FR 1149 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... requirements in 40 CFR part 58 (``Ambient Air Quality Surveillance''). Clark County DAQ's commitment in the... Plan clearly identify specific contingency measures, contain adequate tracking and...

  6. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 22, Number 7, July 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    Surveillance snapshot: Prevalence of antibodies to viral causes of vaccine- preventable illnesses by state home of record among Air Force recruits, 25 April...previous surveillance period. In addition to novel antibiotic research and development, these trends warrant enhanced local preventive eff orts and...account for this change. Whereas the rate of community - associated MRSA among the entire U.S. Military Health System has moderately declined in recent

  7. GPS-Squitter Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast: Flight Testing in the Gulf of Mexico,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-13

    serviced by oil platform helicopters. The report concludes that GPS- Squitter is a near-term option for providing accurate, real-time surveillance of aircraft operating in the offshore airspace in the Gulf of Mexico .... of Mexico . Three squitter ground stations were located in the vicinity of Morgan City, Louisiana, for this evaluation: two were located on offshore...During November - December 1994, MIT Lincoln Laboratory conducted a field evaluation of the air surveillance capabilities of GPS-Squitter in the Gulf

  8. Route Monopolie and Optimal Nonlinear Pricing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tournut, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    To cope with air traffic growth and congested airports, two solutions are apparent on the supply side: 1) use larger aircraft in the hub and spoke system; or 2) develop new routes through secondary airports. An enlarged route system through secondary airports may increase the proportion of route monopolies in the air transport market.The monopoly optimal non linear pricing policy is well known in the case of one dimension (one instrument, one characteristic) but not in the case of several dimensions. This paper explores the robustness of the one dimensional screening model with respect to increasing the number of instruments and the number of characteristics. The objective of this paper is then to link and fill the gap in both literatures. One of the merits of the screening model has been to show that a great varieD" of economic questions (non linear pricing, product line choice, auction design, income taxation, regulation...) could be handled within the same framework.VCe study a case of non linear pricing (2 instruments (2 routes on which the airline pro_ddes customers with services), 2 characteristics (demand of services on these routes) and two values per characteristic (low and high demand of services on these routes)) and we show that none of the conclusions of the one dimensional analysis remain valid. In particular, upward incentive compatibility constraint may be binding at the optimum. As a consequence, they may be distortion at the top of the distribution. In addition to this, we show that the optimal solution often requires a kind of form of bundling, we explain explicitly distortions and show that it is sometimes optimal for the monopolist to only produce one good (instead of two) or to exclude some buyers from the market. Actually, this means that the monopolist cannot fully apply his monopoly power and is better off selling both goods independently.We then define all the possible solutions in the case of a quadratic cost function for a uniform

  9. Surveillance and Datalink Communication Performance Analysis for Distributed Separation Assurance System Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, William W.; Linse, Dennis J.; Alaverdi, Omeed; Ifarraguerri, Carlos; Seifert, Scott C.; Salvano, Dan; Calender, Dale

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two technical enablers: Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) and digital datalink communication, of the Federal Aviation Administration s Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) under two separation assurance (SA) system architectures: ground-based SA and airborne SA, on overall separation assurance performance. Datalink performance such as successful reception probability in both surveillance and communication messages, and surveillance accuracy are examined in various operational conditions. Required SA performance is evaluated as a function of subsystem performance, using availability, continuity, and integrity metrics to establish overall required separation assurance performance, under normal and off-nominal conditions.

  10. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in 1979. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical substances was conducted on the Laboratory site and in the surrounding region to determine compliance with appropriate standards and permit early identification of possible undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of the data for 1979 on penetrating radiation, chemical and radiochemical quality of ambient air, surface and ground water, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, food, and airborne and liquid effluents are included. Comparisons with appropriate standards and regulations or with background levels from natural or other non-LASL sources provide a basis for concluding that environmental effects attributable to LASL operations are minor and cannot be considered likely to result in any hazard to the population of the area. Results of several special studies provide documentation of some unique environmental conditions in the LASL environs.

  11. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1987. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1987 cover: external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface and ground waters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are insignificant and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment. 113 refs., 33 figs., 120 tabs.

  12. Developing integrated multistate environmental public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wartenberg, Daniel; Thompson, W Douglas; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Gross, Hillary J; Condon, Suzanne K; Kim, Nancy; Goun, Barbara D; Opiekun, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    Environmental exposures cause substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States. A major goal of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Environmental Public Health Tracking program is the development of a national network of health and environmental data with analytic tools for rapid evaluation of specific national or regional environmental health concerns. A six-state collaborative project in the northeast United States was established to assess the feasibility of such a system, assessing the possible association between ambient air quality and adverse birth outcomes. For this regional surveillance project, issues were discussed surrounding the design of a mutually acceptable protocol, obtaining human subjects' protection approvals, obtaining and organizing both the exposure and outcome data, analyzing the data both locally and regionally, and planning subsequent interventions to address identified public health concerns.

  13. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1989. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1989 cover external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface and ground waters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment. 58 refs., 31 figs., 39 tabs.

  14. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) during 1995. The Laboratory routinely monitors for radiation and for radioactive and nonradioactive materials at (or on) Laboratory sites as well as in the surrounding region. LANL uses the monitoring result to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to identify potentially undesirable trends. Data were collected in 1995 to assess external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Using comparisons with standards, regulations, and background levels, this report concludes that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a demonstrable threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment.

  15. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kohen, K.; Stoker, A.; Stone, G.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1992. The Laboratory routinely monitors for radiation and for radioactive and nonradioactive materials at (or on) Laboratory sites as well as in the surrounding region. LANL uses the monitoring results to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to identify potentially undesirable trends. Data were collected in 1992 to assess external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Using comparisons with standards, regulations, and background levels, this report concludes that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a demonstrable threat to the public, laboratory employees, or the environment.

  16. 40 CFR 58.15 - Annual air monitoring data certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Monitoring Network § 58.15 Annual air monitoring data... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual air monitoring data... an annual air monitoring data certification letter to certify data collected at all SLAMS and at...

  17. Camera location optimisation for traffic surveillance in urban road networks with multiple user classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiao-Shan; Huang, Hai-Jun; Long, Jiancheng

    2013-12-01

    New sensor technologies (e.g. surveillance cameras, loop detectors) enable the synthesis of disaggregated vehicle information from multiple locations. This article studies the camera location problem for traffic surveillance in urban road networks with multiple user classes. All users are differentiated by their own acceptance degree of camera monitoring and make their route choices in a logit-based stochastic user equilibrium manner. A bi-level programming model is proposed to formulate the problem and solved by the sensitivity analysis based branch and bound method. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the model application and show the effectiveness of the solution method.

  18. Instability Free Routing: Beyond One Protocol Instance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    assigned a Rout- ing Information Base (RIB) [13]. This database is used to store the routing information related to the routing process (e.g., routes...presents routing anomalies that can derive from route selection by itself, i.e., without any route redis - tribution configured between the routing... redis - tributed into the RIP protocol, all RIP messages received from the neighbors are in fact discarded independently of the AD values. This

  19. Storage and flood routing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, R.W.; Godfrey, R.G.

    1960-01-01

    The basic equations used in flood routing are developed from the law of continuity. In each method the assumptions are discussed to enable the user to select an appropriate technique. In the stage-storage method the storage is related to the mean gage height in the reach under consideration. In the discharge-storage method the storage is determined, from weighted values of inflow and outflow discharge. In the reservoir-storage method the storage is considered as a function of outflow discharge alone. A detailed example is given for each method to illustrate that particular technique.

  20. New Routing Metrics for ADHOC Network Routing Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The performance and reliability of Internet is measured using different quantities. When the quantities measured are essential and have wide range of acceptance then they are called metrics. Performance metrics enable comparison and selection among the alternatives. In computer networks, metrics are used to evaluate an application, protocol etc. Routing in adhoc networks is nontrivial. Routing protocols for adhoc networks are still evolving and there is need for continuous evaluation of them. In the literature existing, several routing protocols are evaluated using standard metrics under different conditions. This paper proposes new metrics for evaluation of routing protocols and uses them to evaluate the adhoc network routing protocols AODV, DSR, DSDV and TORA. Simulation environment is created using NS-2 simulator. Typical range of speeds, pause times and data rates are used. The results provide new insights in to the working of the routing protocols.

  1. Channel erosion surveys along TAPS route, Alaska, 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, Joseph; Jones, Stanley H.

    1975-01-01

    Repeated site surveys and aerial photographs at 26 stream crossings along the trans-Alaska pipeline system (TAPS) route during the period 1969-74 provide chronologie records of channel changes that predate pipeline-related construction at the sites. The 1974 surveys and photographs show some of the channel changes wrought by construction of the haul road from the Yukon River to Prudhoe Bay and by construction of camps and working pads all along the pipeline route. No pipeline crossings were constructed before 1975. These records of channel changes together with flood and icing measurements are part of the United States Department of the lnterior's continuing surveillance program to document the hydrologic aspects of the trans-Alaska pipeline and its environmental impacts.

  2. Sticking with air

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, S.N.

    2005-06-01

    A decision to replace more than 300 aging damper actuators at Independence Plant in Newark, Arkensas forced Entergy to make a choice between pneumatic and electric actuator designs. The dampers route air flow through separate dedicated compartments to ensure proper firing of pulverised coal. The reasons that pneumatics was chosen are discussed in this article. 4 figs.

  3. Proceedings of the Fourth Integrated Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (ICNS) Conference and Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujikawa, Gene (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    The Integrated Communications, Navigational and Surveillance (ICNS) Technologies Conference and Workshop provides a forum for Government, industry, and academic communities performing research and technology development for advanced digital communications, navigation, and surveillance security systems and associated applications supporting the national and global air transportation systems. The event's goals are to understand current efforts and recent results in near-and far-term research and technology demonstration; identify integrated digital communications, navigation and surveillance research requirements necessary for a safe, high-capacity, advanced air transportation system; foster collaboration and coordination among all stakeholders; and discuss critical issues and develop recommendations to achieve the future integrated CNS vision for the national and global air transportation system.

  4. Proceedings of the Sixth Integrated Communications, Navigation and Surveillance (ICNS) Conference & Workshop 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, Denise (Compiler)

    2006-01-01

    The Integrated Communications, Navigation and Surveillance (ICNS) Technologies Conference and Workshop provides a forum for government, industry, and academic communities performing research and technology development for advanced digital communications, navigation, and surveillance security systems and associated applications supporting the national and global air transportation systems. The event s goals are to understand current efforts and recent results in near- and far-term research and technology demonstration; identify integrated digital communications, navigation and surveillance research requirements necessary for a safe, high-capacity, advanced air transportation system; foster collaboration and coordination among all stakeholders; and discuss critical issues and develop recommendations to achieve the future integrated CNS vision for the national and global air transportation system.

  5. Benefits Analysis of Multi-Center Dynamic Weather Routes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheth, Kapil; McNally, David; Morando, Alexander; Clymer, Alexis; Lock, Jennifer; Petersen, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic weather routes are flight plan corrections that can provide airborne flights more than user-specified minutes of flying-time savings, compared to their current flight plan. These routes are computed from the aircraft's current location to a flight plan fix downstream (within a predefined limit region), while avoiding forecasted convective weather regions. The Dynamic Weather Routes automation has been continuously running with live air traffic data for a field evaluation at the American Airlines Integrated Operations Center in Fort Worth, TX since July 31, 2012, where flights within the Fort Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center are evaluated for time savings. This paper extends the methodology to all Centers in United States and presents benefits analysis of Dynamic Weather Routes automation, if it was implemented in multiple airspace Centers individually and concurrently. The current computation of dynamic weather routes requires a limit rectangle so that a downstream capture fix can be selected, preventing very large route changes spanning several Centers. In this paper, first, a method of computing a limit polygon (as opposed to a rectangle used for Fort Worth Center) is described for each of the 20 Centers in the National Airspace System. The Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool, a nationwide simulation and analysis tool, is used for this purpose. After a comparison of results with the Center-based Dynamic Weather Routes automation in Fort Worth Center, results are presented for 11 Centers in the contiguous United States. These Centers are generally most impacted by convective weather. A breakdown of individual Center and airline savings is presented and the results indicate an overall average savings of about 10 minutes of flying time are obtained per flight.

  6. 14 CFR 121.555 - Compliance with approved routes and limitations: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance with approved routes and... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE... Operations § 121.555 Compliance with approved routes and limitations: Domestic and flag operations. No...

  7. 76 FR 13084 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Western United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Western... action establishes seven High Altitude Area Navigation (RNAV) routes in the Western United States (U.S... procedures and air navigation, it is certified that this rule, when promulgated, will not have a...

  8. Anonymous Connections and Onion Routing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Anonymous Connections and Onion Routing Michael G. Reed, Paul F. Syverson, and David M. Goldschlag Naval Research Laboratory Abstract Onion Routing...eavesdropping and trac analysis. Onion routing’s anonymous connections are bidirectional and near real- time, and can be used anywhere a socket connection...can be used. Any identifying information must be in the data stream carried over an anonymous connec- tion. An onion is a data structure that is

  9. Smart aircraft routing - a possibility for mitigation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannstein, H.; Gierens, K.; Graf, K.; Waibel, A.; Meilinger, S.; Seifert, A.; Köhler, C.

    2009-12-01

    Air traffic affects the energy balance of the earth in various ways. Emission of CO2 with atmospheric residence times measured in decades contributes to the greenhouse effect as well as emission of nitrous oxides, with their impact on ozone and methane chemistry. Soot has a direct effect on the net radiation and, much more important, is involved in the production of contrails and the triggering of contrail cirrus, which can be visible for several hours. These artificial clouds are initiated when flying in sufficiently cold and moist air. In total, their net radiative forcing is of the same order of magnitude as the forcing by the emitted CO2. The impact of contrail cirrus on net radiation results from the conversion of ambient moisture in ice super-saturated regions into ice crystals and depends strongly on the conditions of the ambient radiation field. It ranges from a warming at night or over bright low clouds to cooling during daytime over dark surfaces like the ocean. For the time being these effects are not at all taken into consideration in aircraft routing: the production of contrails and contrail cirrus happens by chance. The dependency of the radiative forcing by contrail cirrus clouds on the weather conditions opens the possibility for mitigation: Avoiding warming (and perhaps also producing cooling) contrails and contrail cirrus by changes of the flight routes has the potential to reduce the man-made imbalance in radiative forcing. As contrails are produced only in 10%- 20% of the flown distances and only the warming contrails should be avoided, the impact on the traffic system is likely to be limited. The basic idea of the project ’Environmentally compatible flight route optimisation’, funded by the German Ministry for Research and Education is, to predict the time integrated radiative forcing of a potential contrail cirrus based on the information given by a weather forecast model. This information is used in relation to total forcing of the

  10. Smart aircraft routing - a possibility for mitigation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannstein, H.; Gierens, K.; Waibel, A.; Meilinger, S.; Seifert, A.; Köhler, C.; Kühne, H.

    2009-04-01

    Air traffic affects the energy balance of the earth in various ways. Emission of CO2 with atmospheric residence times measured in decades contributes to the greenhouse effect as well as emission of nitrous oxides, with their impact on ozone and methane chemistry. Soot has a direct effect on the net radiation and, much more important, is involved the production of contrails and the triggering of contrail cirrus, which can be visible for several hours. These artificial clouds are initiated when flying in sufficiently cold and moist air. In total their net radiative forcing is of the same order of magnitude as the forcing by the emitted CO2. The impact of contrail cirrus on net radiation results from the conversion of ambient moisture in ice super-saturated regions into ice crystals and depends strongly on the conditions of the ambient radiation field. It ranges from a warming at night or over bright low clouds to cooling during daytime over dark surfaces like the ocean. For the time being these effects are not at all taken into consideration in aircraft routing: the production of contrails and contrail cirrus happens by chance. in. The dependency of the radiative forcing by contrail cirrus clouds on the weather conditions opens the possibility for a soft version of geo-engineering: Avoiding warming (and perhaps also producing cooling) contrails and contrail cirrus by small changes of the flight routes has the potential to reduce the man-made imbalance in radiative forcing by a few percent - not much compared to other geo-engineering strategies, but without any adverse consequences. With the exception of a small amount of additional fuel usage no other substances have to be brought into the atmosphere. As contrails are produced only in 10%-20% of the flown distances and only the warming contrails should be avoided, the impact on the traffic system is limited. The basic idea of the project 'Environmentally compatible flight route optimisation', funded by the German

  11. Advanced space system for geostationary orbit surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, N. N.; Nazarov, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    The structure and orbital configuration of the advanced space system for geostationary orbit surveillance, as well as possible approaches to the development of the satellite bus and payload for the geostationary orbit surveillance, are considered.

  12. Regional Disease Surveillance Meeting - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2006-08-08

    On June 1, 2006, public health officials working in surveillance, epidemiological modeling, and information technology communities from the Seattle/Tacoma area and State of Washington met with members of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to discuss the current state of disease surveillance and gaps and needs to improve the current systems. The meeting also included a discussion of PNNL initiatives that might be appropriate to enhance disease surveillance and the current tools being used for disease surveillance. Participants broke out into two groups to identify critical gaps and needs for improving a surveillance system, and discuss the requirements for developing improved surveillance. Each group developed a list of key priorities summarizing the requirements for improved surveillance. The objective of this meeting was to work towards the development of an improved disease surveillance system.

  13. Western equine encephalitis surveillance in Utah.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, K H; Dickson, S L; Bailey, A

    1986-06-01

    The history of WEE surveillance in Utah is reviewed, beginning with the 1933 outbreak involving 3,958 horses. The step by step formation of the Utah Mosquito Abatement Associations surveillance program from 1957 to the present is discussed. Results of an enlarged sentinel chicken flock surveillance program in Utah during 1983 (3 sero-conversions in September), 1984 and 1985 (no sero-conversion) show the lack of WEE activity in the surveillance area.

  14. Space Derived Air Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    COPAMS, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Air Monitoring System, derives from technology involved in building unmanned spacecraft. The Nimbus spacecraft carried experimental sensors to measure temperature, pressure, ozone, and water vapor, and instruments for studying solar radiation and telemetry. The process which relayed these findings to Earth formed the basis for COPAMS. The COPAMS system consists of data acquisition units which measure and record pollution level, and sense wind speed and direction, etc. The findings are relayed to a central station where the information is computerized. The system is automatic and supplemented by PAQSS, PA Air Quality Surveillance System.

  15. Integrated satellite imaging and syndromic surveillance reveal ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Rationale: Wildfire smoke often impacts rural areas without air quality monitors, limiting assessment of health impacts. A 2008 wildfire in Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge produced massive quantities of smoke affecting eastern NC, a rural area with limited air quality monitoring. To assess the association between smoke exposure and adverse health effects, we evaluated the rates of asthma-and other respiratory-related emergency department (ED) visits in the affected counties during and after the fire. Methods: Aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite was used to determine the location and extent of the smoke plume. Individual-level ED data, obtained from the NC Disease Event Tracking and Epidemiologic Collection Tool, included the visit date, list of chief complaints, up to 11 discharge ICD-9-CM codes, gender, age, and county of residence. We used Poisson regression to model the expected daily number of ED visits as a function of the dichotomous exposure predictor, adjusted for weekend and county-level disease rates. Results: Carbon particles in the smoke permitted satellite AOD to trace the plume. Exposure to wildfire smoke increased the relative risk for asthma-related ED visits by 12.4% (95% CI 0-26.4%) at lag 0 (today) and a 9.6% (95% CI 0-22%) at lag 1 (yesterday). Conclusions: Satellite data and syndromic surveillance can be combined to assess the health impacts of smoke in rural counties. Short-term

  16. Nutrition Surveillance. Annual Summary 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This report summarizes information, including selected indices of nutritional status, as reported from 28 states and the District of Columbia to the Nutritional Status Surveillance System. This system has two components, one addressing nutritional status among high-risk pediatric populations, and the other addressing nutritional status among…

  17. Video surveillance with speckle imaging

    DOEpatents

    Carrano, Carmen J.; Brase, James M.

    2007-07-17

    A surveillance system looks through the atmosphere along a horizontal or slant path. Turbulence along the path causes blurring. The blurring is corrected by speckle processing short exposure images recorded with a camera. The exposures are short enough to effectively freeze the atmospheric turbulence. Speckle processing is used to recover a better quality image of the scene.

  18. Instrumental Surveillance of Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. A.; And Others

    The role analytical instrumentation performs in the surveillance and control of the quality of water resources is reviewed. Commonly performed analyses may range from simple tests for physical parameters to more highly sophisticated radiological or spectrophotometric methods. This publication explores many of these types of water quality analyses…

  19. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  20. Privacy-protecting video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasuriya, Jehan; Alhazzazi, Mohanned; Datt, Mahesh; Mehrotra, Sharad; Venkatasubramanian, Nalini

    2005-02-01

    Forms of surveillance are very quickly becoming an integral part of crime control policy, crisis management, social control theory and community consciousness. In turn, it has been used as a simple and effective solution to many of these problems. However, privacy-related concerns have been expressed over the development and deployment of this technology. Used properly, video cameras help expose wrongdoing but typically come at the cost of privacy to those not involved in any maleficent activity. This work describes the design and implementation of a real-time, privacy-protecting video surveillance infrastructure that fuses additional sensor information (e.g. Radio-frequency Identification) with video streams and an access control framework in order to make decisions about how and when to display the individuals under surveillance. This video surveillance system is a particular instance of a more general paradigm of privacy-protecting data collection. In this paper we describe in detail the video processing techniques used in order to achieve real-time tracking of users in pervasive spaces while utilizing the additional sensor data provided by various instrumented sensors. In particular, we discuss background modeling techniques, object tracking and implementation techniques that pertain to the overall development of this system.

  1. 40 CFR 52.12 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.12 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.12 Source surveillance. (a) Each subpart identifies the plan provisions for source surveillance which are disapproved, and sets forth...

  2. Student Resistance to the Surveillance Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The growth of surveillance in UK schools in recent years has resulted in the development of what can be labelled as the surveillance curriculum. Operating through the overt and hidden curricula, contemporary surveillance practices and technologies not only engage students in a discourse of control, but also increasingly socialise them into a…

  3. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  4. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  5. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  6. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  7. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  8. Rare Adverse Event Monitoring of Medical Devices with the Use of an Automated Surveillance Tool

    PubMed Central

    Matheny, Michael E.; Arora, Nipun; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Resnic, Frederic S.

    2007-01-01

    Prospective outcomes surveillance using population level data allows for statistical methodologies and confounder adjustment not supported by the FDA’s current monitoring system. We explored propensity score matching integrated into an automated surveillance tool as a method for confounder adjustment in an observational cohort. The application analyzed all patients undergoing PCI via femoral access route from 2002–2006. The rare outcome of interest was retroperitoneal hemorrhage (RPH) and the device was a vascular closure device (VCD). A propensity score model was developed to match VCD and non-VCD match patients. Our tool was able to detect sustained elevations in RPH among those patients who received a VCD. A root cause analysis revealed an association between high femoral access and RPH which prompted an educational program to modify clinical practice. Our results suggest use of propensity score matching can play a useful role in computer-based surveillance of rare events in a prospective cohort. PMID:18693890

  9. Rare adverse event monitoring of medical devices with the use of an automated surveillance tool.

    PubMed

    Matheny, Michael E; Arora, Nipun; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Resnic, Frederic S

    2007-10-11

    Prospective outcomes surveillance using population level data allows for statistical methodologies and confounder adjustment not supported by the FDA's current monitoring system. We explored propensity score matching integrated into an automated surveillance tool as a method for confounder adjustment in an observational cohort. The application analyzed all patients undergoing PCI via femoral access route from 2002-2006. The rare outcome of interest was retroperitoneal hemorrhage (RPH) and the device was a vascular closure device (VCD). A propensity score model was developed to match VCD and non-VCD match patients. Our tool was able to detect sustained elevations in RPH among those patients who received a VCD. A root cause analysis revealed an association between high femoral access and RPH which prompted an educational program to modify clinical practice. Our results suggest use of propensity score matching can play a useful role in computer-based surveillance of rare events in a prospective cohort.

  10. Bat rabies surveillance in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1985, a bat researcher in Finland died of rabies encephalitis caused by European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2), but an epidemiological study in 1986 did not reveal EBLV-infected bats. In 2009, an EBLV-2-positive Daubenton’s bat was detected. The EBLV-2 isolate from the human case in 1985 and the isolate from the bat in 2009 were genetically closely related. In order to assess the prevalence of EBLVs in Finnish bat populations and to gain a better understanding of the public health risk that EBLV-infected bats pose, a targeted active surveillance project was initiated. Results Altogether, 1156 bats of seven species were examined for lyssaviruses in Finland during a 28–year period (1985–2012), 898 in active surveillance and 258 in passive surveillance, with only one positive finding of EBLV-2 in a Daubenton’s bat in 2009. In 2010–2011, saliva samples from 774 bats of seven species were analyzed for EBLV viral RNA, and sera from 423 bats were analyzed for the presence of bat lyssavirus antibodies. Antibodies were detected in Daubenton’s bats in samples collected from two locations in 2010 and from one location in 2011. All seropositive locations are in close proximity to the place where the EBLV-2 positive Daubenton’s bat was found in 2009. In active surveillance, no EBLV viral RNA was detected. Conclusions These data suggest that EBLV-2 may circulate in Finland, even though the seroprevalence is low. Our results indicate that passive surveillance of dead or sick bats is a relevant means examine the occurrence of lyssavirus infection, but the number of bats submitted for laboratory analysis should be higher in order to obtain reliable information on the lyssavirus situation in the country. PMID:24011337

  11. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David; Gallagher, Pat; Hjeresen, Denny; Isaacson, John; Johson, Scot; Morgan, Terry; Paulson, David; Rogers, David

    2009-09-30

    Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos reports are prepared annually by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) Environmental Programs Directorate, as required by US Department of Energy Order 450.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and US Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. These annual reports summarize environmental data that are used to determine compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and departmental policies. Additional data, beyond the minimum required, are also gathered and reported as part of the Laboratory’s efforts to ensure public safety and to monitor environmental quality at and near the Laboratory. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Laboratory’s major environmental programs and explains the risks and the actions taken to reduce risks at the Laboratory from environmental legacies and waste management operations. Chapter 2 reports the Laboratory’s compliance status for 2007. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the maximum radiological dose the public and biota populations could have potentially received from Laboratory operations and discusses chemical exposures. The environmental surveillance and monitoring data are organized by environmental media (Chapter 4, air; Chapters 5 and 6, water and sediments; Chapter 7, soils; and Chapter 8, foodstuffs and biota) in a format to meet the needs of a general and scientific audience. Chapter 9 provides a summary of the status of environmental restoration work around LANL. A glossary and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are in the back of the report. Appendix A explains the standards for environmental contaminants, Appendix B explains the units of measurements used in this report, Appendix C describes the Laboratory’s technical areas and their associated programs, and Appendix D provides web links to more information.

  12. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David; Poff, Ben; Hjeresen, Denny; Isaacson, John; Johnson, Scot; Morgan, Terry; Paulson, David; Salzman, Sonja; Rogers, David

    2010-09-30

    Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos reports are prepared annually by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) environmental organization, as required by US Department of Energy Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and US Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. These annual reports summarize environmental data that are used to determine compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and departmental policies. Additional data, beyond the minimum required, are also gathered and reported as part of the Laboratory’s efforts to ensure public safety and to monitor environmental quality at and near the Laboratory. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Laboratory’s major environmental programs and explains the risks and the actions taken to reduce risks at the Laboratory from environmental legacies and waste management operations. Chapter 2 reports the Laboratory’s compliance status for 2009. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the maximum radiological dose the public and biota populations could have potentially received from Laboratory operations and discusses chemical exposures. The environmental surveillance and monitoring data are organized by environmental media (air in Chapter 4; water and sediments in Chapters 5 and 6; soils in Chapter 7; and foodstuffs and biota in Chapter 8) in a format to meet the needs of a general and scientific audience. Chapter 9 provides a summary of the status of environmental restoration work around LANL. The new Chapter 10 describes the Laboratory’s environmental stewardship efforts and provides an overview of the health of the Rio Grande. A glossary and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are in the back of the report. Appendix A explains the standards for environmental contaminants, Appendix B explains the units of measurements used in this report, Appendix C describes the Laboratory’s technical

  13. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 2005

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-30

    Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos reports are prepared annually by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) environmental organization, as required by US Department of Energy Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and US Department of Energy Order 231.IA, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. These annual reports summarize environmental data that are used to determine compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and departmental policies. Additional data, beyond the minimum required, are also gathered and reported as part of the Laboratory's efforts to ensure public safety and to monitor environmental quality at and near the Laboratory. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Laboratory's major environmental programs. Chapter 2 reports the Laboratory's compliance status for 2005. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the maximum radiological dose the public and biota populations could have potentially received from Laboratory operations. The environmental surveillance and monitoring data are organized by environmental media (Chapter 4, Air; Chapters 5 and 6, Water and Sediments; Chapter 7, Soils; and Chapter 8, Foodstuffs and Biota) in a format to meet the needs of a general and scientific audience. Chapter 9, new for this year, provides a summary of the status of environmental restoration work around LANL. A glossary and a list ofacronyms and abbreviations are in the back of the report. Appendix A explains the standards for environmental contaminants, Appendix B explains the units of measurements used in this report, Appendix C describes the Laboratory's technical areas and their associated programs, and Appendix D provides web links to more information.

  14. Environmental public health tracking/surveillance in Canada: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Abelsohn, Alan; Frank, John; Eyles, John

    2009-02-01

    Although public debate in Canada about climate change and air pollution is louder than ever, the state of the environment remains a relatively neglected determinant of health, and environmental public health infrastructure and programs are poorly developed. Health Canada has only recently begun to develop a national environmental public health tracking or surveillance system. The authors review progress on environmental public health tracking in other jurisdictions and suggest a strategic approach to the development of a coherent national system of sensitive, targeted surveillance indicators for environmental health by addressing the following questions: Which environmental hazards and exposures, and which health effects along the continuum from "release" to "health effect," should be tracked? Which indicators are scientifically robust and practical for tracking environmental health problems in Canada?

  15. The Department of Defense laboratory-based global influenza surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Canas, L C; Lohman, K; Pavlin, J A; Endy, T; Singh, D L; Pandey, P; Shrestha, M P; Scott, R M; Russell, K L; Watts, D; Hajdamowicz, M; Soriano, I; Douce, R W; Neville, J; Gaydos, J C

    2000-07-01

    Military global influenza surveillance began in 1976 as an Air Force program. In 1997, the Department of Defense (DoD) Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System expanded the program to include all services. Also included were local residents in areas where DoD overseas research activities operated. This new, worldwide DoD surveillance infrastructure provides valuable information and can respond quickly to outbreaks. This was demonstrated during the current influenza season when a suspected outbreak was reported in Panama. In less than 3 weeks, specimens were collected, transported, and cultured, and isolates were subtyped and sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for further studies. This influenza surveillance initiative combines viral isolation, antigenic characterization, and molecular sequencing with clinical and public health management of information. The information obtained is shared with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization and has contributed to important decisions in influenza vaccine composition.

  16. An overview of environmental surveillance of waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, T.H.; Chew, E.W.; Hedahl, T.G.; Mann, L.J.; Pointer, T.F.; Wiersma, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), in southeastern Idaho, is a principal center for nuclear energy development for the Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Nuclear Navy. Fifty-two reactors have been built at the INEL, with 15 still operable. Extensive environmental surveillance is conducted at the INEL by DOE's Radiological Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), EG&G Idaho, Inc., and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). Surveillance of waste management facilities radiation is integrated with the overall INEL Site surveillance program. Air, warer, soil, biota, and environmental radiation are monitored or sampled routinely at INEL. Results to date indicate very small or no impacts from INEL on the surrounding environment. Environmental surveillance activities are currently underway to address key environmental issues at the INEL.

  17. Air traffic management evaluation tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar (Inventor); Sheth, Kapil S. (Inventor); Chatterji, Gano Broto (Inventor); Bilimoria, Karl D. (Inventor); Grabbe, Shon (Inventor); Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for evaluating and implementing air traffic management tools and approaches for managing and avoiding an air traffic incident before the incident occurs. The invention provides flight plan routing and direct routing or wind optimal routing, using great circle navigation and spherical Earth geometry. The invention provides for aircraft dynamics effects, such as wind effects at each altitude, altitude changes, airspeed changes and aircraft turns to provide predictions of aircraft trajectory (and, optionally, aircraft fuel use). A second system provides several aviation applications using the first system. These applications include conflict detection and resolution, miles-in trail or minutes-in-trail aircraft separation, flight arrival management, flight re-routing, weather prediction and analysis and interpolation of weather variables based upon sparse measurements.

  18. Audits and surveillance: A functional quality surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, R.J.; Duda, J.E.

    1987-03-01

    The implementation of a quality surveillance program can be painless and productive. The system described in this report has been in use at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) for more than a year and effectively fills the void between audits and inspections. Recognized benefits of this system include: minimum administrative overhead; excellent management overview; ease of implementing trending efforts; audit supplement; fully computerization; lower cost than traditional methods; early problem detection, adaptability to other projects and facilities.

  19. Route visualization using detail lenses.

    PubMed

    Karnick, Pushpak; Cline, David; Jeschke, Stefan; Razdan, Anshuman; Wonka, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We present a method designed to address some limitations of typical route map displays of driving directions. The main goal of our system is to generate a printable version of a route map that shows the overview and detail views of the route within a single, consistent visual frame. Our proposed visualization provides a more intuitive spatial context than a simple list of turns. We present a novel multifocus technique to achieve this goal, where the foci are defined by points of interest (POI) along the route. A detail lens that encapsulates the POI at a finer geospatial scale is created for each focus. The lenses are laid out on the map to avoid occlusion with the route and each other, and to optimally utilize the free space around the route. We define a set of layout metrics to evaluate the quality of a lens layout for a given route map visualization. We compare standard lens layout methods to our proposed method and demonstrate the effectiveness of our method in generating aesthetically pleasing layouts. Finally, we perform a user study to evaluate the effectiveness of our layout choices.

  20. Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars

    SciTech Connect

    MARTINEZ, R.

    2000-02-01

    Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities. However, ongoing S&M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations.

  1. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington.

  2. Congenital anomalies surveillance in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lowry, R Brian

    2008-01-01

    Congenital anomalies (CA) are present in approximately 3% of all newborn babies and account for about 12% of paediatric hospital admissions. They represent an important public health problem. Surveillance is especially important so that preventive measures such as folic acid fortification can be properly assessed without resorting to a series of ad hoc studies. Canada's surveillance of CAs is weak, with only Alberta and British Columbia having established sytems. Most provinces have perinatal systems but their CA data are incomplete and they do not capture terminations of pregnancy. The same is true of the Public Health Agency of Canada's system. A new system, the Fetal Alert Network, has been proposed for Ontario, which represents a start but will require additional sources of ascertainment if it is to be a truly population-based system for Ontario.

  3. The Sharper Image for Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-13

    A technique adapted by Livermore scientists to take the twinkle out of stars is now being used to improve the resolution of long-range surveillance systems trained on earthbound objects. The speckle-imaging technique involves taking tens to hundreds of pictures with short-exposure times and reconstructing a single, sharp image using image-processing software. The technique drew the interest of Livermore engineer Carmen Carrano. She developed a prototype remote-surveillance system that can produce a detailed image of a face from a couple of kilometers away. The system also helps identify vehicles tens of kilometers away and improves the viewing of large structures more than 60 kilometers away.

  4. Surveillance of Space in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsam, G.

    Australia's geography and technology base got it off to a flying start in the early days of surveillance of space, starting with CSIRO's first radio telescope in the 1940's and climaxing in NASA's establishment of station 43 in the Deep Space Network at Tidbinbilla in 1965. But Britain's exit from space and the subsequent closure of the Woomera launch range and associated space tracking facilities in the early 1970's saw the start of a long draw-down of capability. Programs such as CSIRO's radio astronomy telescopes, Electro-Optic Systems' adoption of laser technology for satellite laser ranging and tracking system, and the exploration of the use of technology developed in Australia's over-the-horizon-radar program for surveillance of space, kept some interest in the problem alive, but there has been no serious national investment in the area for the last thirty years. Recently, however, increased awareness of the vulnerability of space systems and the need to include potential opponents' space capabilities in operations planning has led to a revival of interest in space situational awareness within the Australian Defence Organisation. While firm commitments to new systems must wait on the next Defence White Paper due out at the end of 2007 and the policy directions it formally endorses, discussions have already started with the US on participating in the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and developing a comprehensive space situational awareness capability. In support of these initiatives the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) is drawing up an inventory of relevant Australian capabilities, technologies and activities: the paper will describe the findings of this inventory, and in particular local technologies and systems that might be deployed in Australia to contribute to the SSN. In the optical regime the available options are rather limited; they centre primarily on the satellite laser ranging technology developed by Electro-Optic Systems and

  5. Multisensor/multimission surveillance aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobe, John T.

    1994-10-01

    The realignment of international powers, and the formation of new nations has resulted in increasing worldwide concern over border security, an expanding refugee problem, protection of fishery and mineral areas, and smuggling of all types. The focus on military services, to protect or defend against these threats of vital, national interest, is shifting to other government agencies and even commercial contractors to apply innovative and cost effective solutions. Previously, airborne surveillance and reconnaissance platforms have been large, mission dedicated military aircraft. The time has arrived for a smaller, more efficient, and more effective airborne capability. This paper briefly outlines a system of systems approach that smaller nations can afford to incorporate in their budgets, while greatly expanding their surveillance capability. The characteristics of specific cameras and sensors are purposely not addressed, so the emphasis can be placed on the integration of multiple sensors and capabilities.

  6. Dynamic vehicle routing with time windows in theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiwei; van Osta, Jan-Paul; van Veen, Barry; van Krevelen, Rick; van Klaveren, Richard; Stam, Andries; Kok, Joost; Bäck, Thomas; Emmerich, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The vehicle routing problem is a classical combinatorial optimization problem. This work is about a variant of the vehicle routing problem with dynamically changing orders and time windows. In real-world applications often the demands change during operation time. New orders occur and others are canceled. In this case new schedules need to be generated on-the-fly. Online optimization algorithms for dynamical vehicle routing address this problem but so far they do not consider time windows. Moreover, to match the scenarios found in real-world problems adaptations of benchmarks are required. In this paper, a practical problem is modeled based on the procedure of daily routing of a delivery company. New orders by customers are introduced dynamically during the working day and need to be integrated into the schedule. A multiple ant colony algorithm combined with powerful local search procedures is proposed to solve the dynamic vehicle routing problem with time windows. The performance is tested on a new benchmark based on simulations of a working day. The problems are taken from Solomon's benchmarks but a certain percentage of the orders are only revealed to the algorithm during operation time. Different versions of the MACS algorithm are tested and a high performing variant is identified. Finally, the algorithm is tested in situ: In a field study, the algorithm schedules a fleet of cars for a surveillance company. We compare the performance of the algorithm to that of the procedure used by the company and we summarize insights gained from the implementation of the real-world study. The results show that the multiple ant colony algorithm can get a much better solution on the academic benchmark problem and also can be integrated in a real-world environment.

  7. Remote sensing as a research tool. [sea ice surveillance from aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F. D.; Zwally, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    The application of aircraft and spacecraft remote sensing techniques to sea ice surveillance is evaluated. The effects of ice in the air-sea-ice system are examined. The measurement principles and characteristics of remote sensing methods for aircraft and spacecraft surveillance of sea ice are described. Consideration is given to ambient visible light, IR, passive microwave, active microwave, and laser altimeter and sonar systems. The applications of these systems to sea ice surveillance are discussed and examples are provided. Particular attention is placed on the use of microwave data and the relation between ice thickness and sea ice interactions. It is noted that spacecraft and aircraft sensing techniques can successfully measure snow cover; ice thickness; ice type; ice concentration; ice velocity field; ocean temperature; surface wind vector field; and air, snow, and ice surface temperatures.

  8. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  9. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  10. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  11. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  12. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  13. Minuteman 3, stage 3 surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R.; Porter, L. C., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The program effort during this reporting period consisted of laboratory testing of both the Morton Thiokol, Inc./ASPC Minuteman 3 Third Stage Surveillance components and material samples. In addition, bondline aging testing and analysis using samples from previously dissected motors were accomplished. In support of the program, all flight and static tests, for both First and Third Stage Minuteman motors, were reviewed and tabulated for incorporation into reliability and motor historical records.

  14. Infiltration route analysis using thermal observation devices (TOD) and optimization techniques in a GIS environment.

    PubMed

    Bang, Soonam; Heo, Joon; Han, Soohee; Sohn, Hong-Gyoo

    2010-01-01

    Infiltration-route analysis is a military application of geospatial information system (GIS) technology. In order to find susceptible routes, optimal-path-searching algorithms are applied to minimize the cost function, which is the summed result of detection probability. The cost function was determined according to the thermal observation device (TOD) detection probability, the viewshed analysis results, and two feature layers extracted from the vector product interim terrain data. The detection probability is computed and recorded for an individual cell (50 m × 50 m), and the optimal infiltration routes are determined with A* algorithm by minimizing the summed costs on the routes from a start point to an end point. In the present study, in order to simulate the dynamic nature of a real-world problem, one thousand cost surfaces in the GIS environment were generated with randomly located TODs and randomly selected infiltration start points. Accordingly, one thousand sets of vulnerable routes for infiltration purposes could be found, which could be accumulated and presented as an infiltration vulnerability map. This application can be further utilized for both optimal infiltration routing and surveillance network design. Indeed, dynamic simulation in the GIS environment is considered to be a powerful and practical solution for optimization problems. A similar approach can be applied to the dynamic optimal routing for civil infrastructure, which requires consideration of terrain-related constraints and cost functions.

  15. Infiltration Route Analysis Using Thermal Observation Devices (TOD) and Optimization Techniques in a GIS Environment

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Soonam; Heo, Joon; Han, Soohee; Sohn, Hong-Gyoo

    2010-01-01

    Infiltration-route analysis is a military application of geospatial information system (GIS) technology. In order to find susceptible routes, optimal-path-searching algorithms are applied to minimize the cost function, which is the summed result of detection probability. The cost function was determined according to the thermal observation device (TOD) detection probability, the viewshed analysis results, and two feature layers extracted from the vector product interim terrain data. The detection probability is computed and recorded for an individual cell (50 m × 50 m), and the optimal infiltration routes are determined with A* algorithm by minimizing the summed costs on the routes from a start point to an end point. In the present study, in order to simulate the dynamic nature of a real-world problem, one thousand cost surfaces in the GIS environment were generated with randomly located TODs and randomly selected infiltration start points. Accordingly, one thousand sets of vulnerable routes for infiltration purposes could be found, which could be accumulated and presented as an infiltration vulnerability map. This application can be further utilized for both optimal infiltration routing and surveillance network design. Indeed, dynamic simulation in the GIS environment is considered to be a powerful and practical solution for optimization problems. A similar approach can be applied to the dynamic optimal routing for civil infrastructure, which requires consideration of terrain-related constraints and cost functions. PMID:22315544

  16. Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robots

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberly, Howard R.; Shipers, Larry R.

    1999-07-14

    Long-term nuclear material storage will require in-vault data verification, sensor testing, error and alarm response, inventory, and maintenance operations. System concept development efforts for a comprehensive nuclear material management system have identified the use of a small flexible mobile automation platform to perform these surveillance and maintenance operations. In order to have near-term wide-range application in the Complex, a mobile surveillance system must be small, flexible, and adaptable enough to allow retrofit into existing special nuclear material facilities. The objective of the Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robot project is to satisfy these needs by development of a human scale mobile robot to monitor the state of health, physical security and safety of items in storage and process; recognize and respond to alarms, threats, and off-normal operating conditions; and perform material handling and maintenance operations. The system will integrate a tool kit of onboard sensors and monitors, maintenance equipment and capability, and SNL developed non-lethal threat response technology with the intelligence to identify threats and develop and implement first response strategies for abnormal signals and alarm conditions. System versatility will be enhanced by incorporating a robot arm, vision and force sensing, robust obstacle avoidance, and appropriate monitoring and sensing equipment.

  17. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    PubMed

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  18. Effective Teaming of Airborne and Ground Assets for Surveillance and Interdiction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Effectiveness MUT Manned-Unmanned Teaming OAS Offensive Air Support RTB Return to Base SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar SASIO Situational Awareness for Surveillance...include Cargo UAS, Casualty Evacuation (CASE- VAC) UAS, Manned-Unmanned Teaming ( MUT ), Unmanned Combat Air System (UCAS), cross cueing (adding...evacuate casualties from the combat zone and deliver them to field hospitals throughout the AO. MUT is the focus of this thesis and will be discussed in

  19. Protocol independent adaptive route update for VANET.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Asim; Ajmal, Sana; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route.

  20. Protocol Independent Adaptive Route Update for VANET

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Asim; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route. PMID:24723807

  1. [Microbiological methods for surveillance of carrier status of multiresistant bacteria].

    PubMed

    Oteo, Jesús; Bou, Germán; Chaves, Fernando; Oliver, Antonio

    2016-02-08

    The presence of colonised patients is one of the main routes for the spread of multiresistant bacteria, and its containment is a clinical and public health priority. Surveillance studies are essential for early detection of colonisation by these bacteria. This article discusses the different microbiological methods, both based on culturing and molecular methods, for detection of carriers of multiresistant bacteria. Those species with a high clinical/epidemiological impact or generating therapeutic difficulties are included: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp. resistant to glycopeptides, enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamases and plasmid-mediated AmpC, carbapenemases producing enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii and multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The information in this document should be considered as a structure matrix to be tailored to the specific needs of each centre.

  2. A Global Airport-Based Risk Model for the Spread of Dengue Infection via the Air Transport Network

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Lauren; Sarkar, Sahotra

    2013-01-01

    The number of travel-acquired dengue infections has seen a consistent global rise over the past decade. An increased volume of international passenger air traffic originating from regions with endemic dengue has contributed to a rise in the number of dengue cases in both areas of endemicity and elsewhere. This paper reports results from a network-based risk assessment model which uses international passenger travel volumes, travel routes, travel distances, regional populations, and predictive species distribution models (for the two vector species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) to quantify the relative risk posed by each airport in importing passengers with travel-acquired dengue infections. Two risk attributes are evaluated: (i) the risk posed by through traffic at each stopover airport and (ii) the risk posed by incoming travelers to each destination airport. The model results prioritize optimal locations (i.e., airports) for targeted dengue surveillance. The model is easily extendible to other vector-borne diseases. PMID:24009672

  3. Environmental surveillance data report for the second quarter of 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Gheesling, S.E.; Gideon, J.C.; Gregory, S.M.; Hamilton, L.V.; Loffman, R.S.; Salmons, M.C.; Stevens, M.M.

    1994-02-01

    The Environmental Surveillance and Protection Section within the Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is responsible for the development and implementation of an environmental program to (1) ensure compliance with all federal, state, and Department of Energy (DOE) reporting requirements to quantitatively demonstrate prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution; (2) monitor the adequacy of containment and effluent controls; and (3) assess impacts of releases from ORNL facilities on the environment. Environmental monitoring consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is the collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid and gaseous effluents. Environmental surveillance is the collection and analysis of samples, or direct measurements of air, water, soil, foodstuff, biota, and other media from DOE sites and their environs. Monthly or quarterly summaries are presented in this report for each medium sampled. All data are rounded to two significant digits. The summary tables generally give the number of samples collected during the period and the maximum, minimum, average, and standard error of the mean (SE) values of parameters for which determinations were made. The SE is based upon multiple samples collected throughout the period.

  4. Environmental surveillance data report for the first quarter of 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Gheesling, S.E.; Gideon, J.C.; Gregory, S.M.; Hamilton, L.V.; Horwedel, B.M.; Loffman, R.S.; Salmons, M.C.; Stevens, M.M.

    1993-10-01

    The Environmental Surveillance and Protection Section within the Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is responsible for the development and implementation of an envirorunental program to (1) ensure compliance with all federal, state, and Department of Energy (DOE) reporting requirements to quantitatively demonstrate prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution; (2) monitor the adequacy of containment and effluent controls; and (3) assess impacts of releases from ORNL facilities on the environment. Environmental monitoring, as defined by the Regulatory Guide, consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is the collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid and gaseous effluents. Environmental surveillance is the collection and analysis of samples, or direct measurements of air, water, soil, foodstuff, biota, and other media from DOE sites and their environs. Monthly or quarterly summaries are presented in this report for each medium sampled. All data are rounded to two significant digits. The summary tables generally give the number of samples collected during the period and the maximum, minimum, average, and standard error of the mean (SE) values of parameters for which determinations were made.

  5. Environmental surveillance data report for the third quarter of 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.D.; Gheesling, S.E.; Gideon, J.C.; Gregory, S.M.; Hamilton, L.V.; Hughes, J.F.; Loffman, R.S.; Salmons, M.C.; Stevens, M.M.

    1994-12-01

    The Environmental Surveillance and Protection Section within the Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is responsible for the development and implementation of an environmental program to (1) ensure compliance with all federal, state, and Department of Energy (DOE) reporting requirements to quantitatively demonstrate prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution; (2) monitor the adequacy of containment and effluent controls; and (3) assess impacts of releases from ORNL facilities on the environment. Environmental monitoring consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is the collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid and gaseous effluents. Environmental surveillance is the collection and analysis of samples, or direct measurements of air, water, soil, foodstuff, biota, and other media from DOE sites and their environs. Monthly or quarterly summaries are presented in this re-port for each medium sampled. All data are rounded to two significant digits. The summary tables generally give the number of samples collected during the period and the maximum, minimum, average, and standard error of the mean (SE) values of parameters for which determinations were made.

  6. Raven concept applied to asteroid and satellite surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervin, Paul W.; Nishimoto, Daron L.; Sydney, Paul F.; Africano, John L.; Soo Hoo, Vicki; Talent, David L.; Fricke, Gregory J.; Angara, Amor F.; O'Connell, Daniel G.; Africano, Brian M.

    1998-07-01

    Not all realms of observation require an 8-meter telescope. Some, such as space surveillance of asteroids and man-made satellites, are too important to ignore, yet obviously inappropriate to consign to the new generation of large telescopes. The United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), with Boeing, Rocketdyne Technical Services (RTS), has developed a low-cost, rapidly deployable surveillance telescope concept called Raven which takes advantage of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) telescopes, detectors and software. The development of the Raven concept was originally a response to a recognized need to support the timely follow- up of asteroid discoveries. Early astrometric tests using Raven telescope in the 12- to 16-inch diameter range proved to be comparable in accuracy to the much larger telescopes of the existing space surveillance network. Observations of man-made satellites have also produced quality results. A high level of productivity is achieved by automating all of the observing functions and much of the data reduction and analysis. Performance data in both the areas of asteroid and satellite metrics will be presented, and performance parameters discussed.

  7. An analysis of foliage effects on long-range surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, D. L.

    1980-04-01

    Visibility is one of the key factors in determining the outcome of battles. With the advent of long range, moving target, air to ground surveillance radars, the motion of both the observing platform and the target have added to the visibility problem, which heretofore was analyzed in terms of shielding. The interaction of such factors as the minimum detectable velocity of the target, the trajectories of the target and the airborne radar platform, and the terrain and foliage masking combine to control the amount of time which a target is observed in a given scenario. This report continues the work done on dynamic masking, compares the masking calculation with and without foliage on a typical super highway in New England, and finally examines the correlation between predicted and observed foliage and terrain masking. The work was done in connection with the test and evaluation of the Multiple Antenna Surveillance Radar (MASR), a scaled model of a long range moving target surveillance system. MASR operated at L-band with a beamwidth of approximately 4.5 deg. In typical flight operation it observed the target complex from a range of 25 to 40 km. The altitude was selected to give lookdown angles ranging from 3 deg to 6 deg.

  8. Routing and Allocation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with Communication Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabo, Chelsea

    Cooperative Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) teams are anticipated to provide much needed support for human intelligence, measurement and signature intelligence, signals intelligence, imagery intelligence, and open source intelligence through algorithms, software, and automation. Therefore, it is necessary to have autonomous algorithms that route multiple UAVs effectively and efficiently throughout missions and that these are realizable in the real-world given the associated uncertainties. Current routing strategies ignore communication constraints altogether. In reality, communication can be restricted by bandwidth, line-of-sight, maximum communication ranges, or a need for uninterrupted transmission. Generating autonomous algorithms that work effectively around these communication constraints is key for the future of UAV surveillance applications. In this work, both current and new routing strategies for UAVS are analyzed to determine how communications impact efficiency of information return. It is shown that under certain communication conditions, a new approach on routing can be more efficient than typically adopted strategies. This new approach defines and presents a new formulation based on a minimum delivery latency objective function. The problem is formulated such that information is not considered delivered until it is returned back to a high-bandwidth connection (depot) which is common when communication is restricted. The size of the region is shown to be dependent upon distance between requests, UAV bandwidth, UAV velocity, and data size, but it was shown that for large-sized data, long distances, and low bandwidth, it is generally better to route UAVs with this new minimum latency objective. With the added decision of when to deliver information to a high-bandwidth connection, an already computationally complex problem grows even faster. Because of scaling issues, a heuristic algorithm was developed that was constructed by analyzing the optimal

  9. Immune surveillance of the lung by migrating tissue monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rodero, Mathieu P; Poupel, Lucie; Loyher, Pierre-Louis; Hamon, Pauline; Licata, Fabrice; Pessel, Charlotte; Hume, David A; Combadière, Christophe; Boissonnas, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes are phagocytic effector cells in the blood and precursors of resident and inflammatory tissue macrophages. The aim of the current study was to analyse and compare their contribution to innate immune surveillance of the lung in the steady state with macrophage and dendritic cells (DC). ECFP and EGFP transgenic reporters based upon Csf1r and Cx3cr1 distinguish monocytes from resident mononuclear phagocytes. We used these transgenes to study the migratory properties of monocytes and macrophages by functional imaging on explanted lungs. Migratory monocytes were found to be either patrolling within large vessels of the lung or locating at the interface between lung capillaries and alveoli. This spatial organisation gives to monocytes the property to capture fluorescent particles derived from both vascular and airway routes. We conclude that monocytes participate in steady-state surveillance of the lung, in a way that is complementary to resident macrophages and DC, without differentiating into macrophages. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07847.001 PMID:26167653

  10. Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Deverell, Marie; Zurynski, Yvonne A; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2014-12-31

    This report provides an update on the surveillance conducted by the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit (APSU) during the period January to December 2013. The APSU facilitates national active surveillance of uncommon diseases of childhood including selected communicable diseases. This report includes data on the following conditions: acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV), congenital rubella, perinatal exposure to HIV and paediatric HIV infection, neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV), congenital varicella, neonatal varicella, severe complications of varicella and juvenile onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JoRRP). Surveillance of severe complications of influenza was undertaken during the influenza season (July to September 2013).

  11. 48 CFR 42.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... use of any reliable contractor production control or data management systems. (d) In performing... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting...

  12. 48 CFR 42.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... use of any reliable contractor production control or data management systems. (d) In performing... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting...

  13. 48 CFR 42.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... use of any reliable contractor production control or data management systems. (d) In performing... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting...

  14. 48 CFR 42.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... use of any reliable contractor production control or data management systems. (d) In performing... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting...

  15. 48 CFR 42.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... use of any reliable contractor production control or data management systems. (d) In performing... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting...

  16. Measles surveillance in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yung-Hsuan J.; Andrews, Ross M.; Lambert, Stephen B.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many countries are implementing measles elimination strategies. In Australia, the State of Victoria has conducted enhanced measles surveillance since 1997 using case interviews and home-based specimen collection for laboratory confirmation. We attempted to identify features of notified cases that would better target surveillance resources. METHODS: We retrospectively classified notifications received from 1998 to 2003 as having been received in an epidemic (one or more laboratory-confirmed cases) or an interepidemic period (no laboratory-confirmed cases). We labelled the first case notified in any epidemic period that was not laboratory-confirmed at the time of notification as a "sentinel case". To maximize detection of sentinel cases while minimizing the follow-up of eventually discarded notifications, we generated algorithms using sentinel cases and interepidemic notifications. FINDINGS: We identified 10 sentinel cases with 422 interepidemic notifications from 1281 Victorian notifications. Sentinel cases were more likely to report fever at rash onset (odds ratio (OR) 15.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) CI: 2.1-688.9), cough (OR 10.4, 95% CI: 1.4-456.7), conjunctivitis (OR 7.9, 95% CI: 1.8-39.1), or year of birth between 1968 and 1981 (OR 31.8, 95% CI: 6.7-162.3). Prospective application of an algorithm consisting of fever at rash onset or born between 1968 and 1981 in the review period would have detected all sentinel cases and avoided the need for enhanced follow-up of 162 of the 422 eventually discarded notifications. CONCLUSION: Elimination strategies should be refined to suit regional and local priorities. The prospective application of an algorithm in Victoria is likely to reduce enhanced measles surveillance resource use in interepidemic periods, while still detecting early cases during measles outbreaks. PMID:16501727

  17. Air Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  18. AIR Model Preflight Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, H.; Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) ER-2 preflight analysis, one of the first attempts to obtain a relatively complete measurement set of the high-altitude radiation level environment, is described in this paper. The primary thrust is to characterize the atmospheric radiation and to define dose levels at high-altitude flight. A secondary thrust is to develop and validate dosimetric techniques and monitoring devices for protecting aircrews. With a few chosen routes, we can measure the experimental results and validate the AIR model predictions. Eventually, as more measurements are made, we gain more understanding about the hazardous radiation environment and acquire more confidence in the prediction models.

  19. LANL surveillance requirements management and surveillance requirements from NA-12 tasking memo

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, Charles R

    2011-01-25

    Surveillance briefing to NNSA to support a tasking memo from NA-12 on Surveillance requirements. This talk presents the process for developing surveillance requirements, discusses the LANL requirements that were issued as part of that tasking memo, and presents recommendations on Component Evaluation and Planning Committee activities for FY11.

  20. Channel routing for VLSI layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schory, Michael

    1988-12-01

    Channel routing for VLSI layout is reviewed and a set of features required of an industrial channel router is defined. A channel router, CAR, was implemented, based on the Greedy and Detour routers. Integrated circuit design is discussed, with attention to the various channel routing problems and models. The major requirements for an industrial channel router to be integrated within general cells and standard cells routing environments are discussed and their fulfillment in CAR is considered. CAR comprises: the Greedy router functionality; the Detour router's obstacle, obstruction and switch box extensions; rectilinear channels; ports located not on standard and immediately surrounding layers; middle ports within the channel; jog on conflict-only to reduce jog use; single layer jogs; and partial pre-routing and dynamic layer optimization. Special features of CAR include: extension of the net definition with a short range tendency; definition of net preferred track; net visibility range in rectilinear channels; an extended area mechanism to deal with obstacles, rectilinear edges, pre-routing and ports on unusual layers; unified jog cost evaluation functions; unified, efficient jog selection; a general evaluation function for track worth; and a net connectivity part to control and handle split nets. Examples are presented of CAR operations.

  1. The Consistent Vehicle Routing Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Groer, Christopher S; Golden, Bruce; Edward, Wasil

    2009-01-01

    In the small package shipping industry (as in other industries), companies try to differentiate themselves by providing high levels of customer service. This can be accomplished in several ways, including online tracking of packages, ensuring on-time delivery, and offering residential pickups. Some companies want their drivers to develop relationships with customers on a route and have the same drivers visit the same customers at roughly the same time on each day that the customers need service. These service requirements, together with traditional constraints on vehicle capacity and route length, define a variant of the classical capacitated vehicle routing problem, which we call the consistent VRP (ConVRP). In this paper, we formulate the problem as a mixed-integer program and develop an algorithm to solve the ConVRP that is based on the record-to-record travel algorithm. We compare the performance of our algorithm to the optimal mixed-integer program solutions for a set of small problems and then apply our algorithm to five simulated data sets with 1,000 customers and a real-world data set with more than 3,700 customers. We provide a technique for generating ConVRP benchmark problems from vehicle routing problem instances given in the literature and provide our solutions to these instances. The solutions produced by our algorithm on all problems do a very good job of meeting customer service objectives with routes that have a low total travel time.

  2. Central East Pacific Flight Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Sridhar, Banavar; Kopardekar, Parimal; Cheng, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of the Federal Aviation Administration s Advanced Technology and Oceanic Procedures system at the Oakland Oceanic Center, a level of automation now exists in the oceanic environment to potentially begin accommodating increased user preferred routing requests. This paper presents the results of an initial feasibility assessment which examines the potential benefits of transitioning from the fixed Central East Pacific routes to user preferred routes. As a surrogate for the actual user-provided routing requests, a minimum-travel-time, wind-optimal dynamic programming algorithm was developed and utilized in this paper. After first describing the characteristics (e.g., origin airport, destination airport, vertical distribution and temporal distribution) of the westbound flights utilizing the Central East Pacific routes on Dec. 14-16 and 19-20, the results of both a flight-plan-based simulation and a wind-optimal-based simulation are presented. Whereas the lateral and longitudinal distribution of the aircraft trajectories in these two simulations varied dramatically, the number of simulated first-loss-of-separation events remained relatively constant. One area of concern that was uncovered in this initial analysis was a potential workload issue associated with the redistribution of traffic in the oceanic sectors due to thc prevailing wind patterns.

  3. Fatigue mitigation effects of en-route napping on commercial airline pilots flying international routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Jarret Taylor

    The introduction of ultra-long range commercial aircraft and the evolution of the commercial airline industry has provided new opportunities for air carriers to fly longer range international route segments while deregulation, industry consolidation, and the constant drive to reduce costs wherever possible has pressured airline managements to seek more productivity from their pilots. At the same time, advancements in the understanding of human physiology have begun to make their way into flight and duty time regulations and airline scheduling practices. In this complex and ever changing operating environment, there remains an essential need to better understand how these developments, and other daily realities facing commercial airline pilots, are affecting their fatigue management strategies as they go about their rituals of getting to and from their homes to work and performing their flight assignments. Indeed, the need for commercial airline pilots to have access to better and more effective fatigue mitigation tools to combat fatigue and insure that they are well rested and at the top of their game when flying long-range international route segments has never been greater. This study examined to what extent the maximum fatigue states prior to napping, as self-accessed by commercial airline pilots flying international route segments, were affected by a number of other common flight assignment related factors. The study also examined to what extent the availability of scheduled en-route rest opportunities, in an onboard crew rest facility, affected the usage of en-route napping as a fatigue mitigation strategy, and to what extent the duration of such naps affected the perceived benefits of such naps as self-accessed by commercial airline pilots flying international route segments. The study utilized an online survey tool to collect data on crew position, prior flight segments flown in the same duty period, augmentation, commuting, pre-flight rest obtained in the

  4. Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos during 2007

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-30

    Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos reports are prepared annually by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) Environmental Directorate, as required by US Department of Energy Order 450.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and US Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. These annual reports summarize environmental data that are used to determine compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and departmental policies. Additional data, beyond the minimum required, are also gathered and reported as part of the Laboratory’s efforts to ensure public safety and to monitor environmental quality at and near the Laboratory. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Laboratory’s major environmental programs and explains the risks and the actions taken to reduce risks at the Laboratory from environmental legacies and waste management operations. Chapter 2 reports the Laboratory’s compliance status for 2007. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the maximum radiological dose the public and biota populations could have potentially received from Laboratory operations and discusses chemical exposures. The environmental surveillance and monitoring data are organized by environmental media (Chapter 4, air; Chapters 5 and 6, water and sediments; Chapter 7, soils; and Chapter 8, foodstuffs and biota) in a format to meet the needs of a general and scientific audience. Chapter 9 provides a summary of the status of environmental restoration work around LANL. A glossary and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are in the back of the report. Appendix A explains the standards for environmental contaminants, Appendix B explains the units of measurements used in this report, Appendix C describes the laboratory’s technical areas and their associated programs, and Appendix D provides web links to more information. In printed copies of this report or Executive Summary, we have

  5. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 58 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ambient Air Quality Monitoring... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Pt. 58, App. C Appendix C to Part 58—Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology 1.0 Purpose 2.0 SLAMS Ambient Air Monitoring Stations 3.0 NCore Ambient...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 58 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient Air Quality Monitoring... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Pt. 58, App. C Appendix C to Part 58—Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology 1.0 Purpose 2.0 SLAMS Ambient Air Monitoring Stations 3.0 NCore Ambient...

  7. Rocky Flats beryllium health surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, A.W.; Furman, F.J.; Hilmas, D.E.

    1996-10-01

    The Rocky Flats Beryllium Health Surveillance Program (BHSP), initiated in June 1991, was designed to provide medical surveillance for current and former employees exposed to beryllium. The BHSP identifies individuals who have developed beryllium sensitivity using the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). A detailed medical evaluation to determine the prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is offered to individuals identified as beryllium sensitized or to those who have chest X-ray changes suggestive of CBD. The BHSP has identified 27 cases of CBD and another 74 cases of beryllium sensitization out of 4268 individuals tested. The distribution of BeLPT values for normal, sensitized, and CBD-identified individuals is described. Based on the information collected during the first 3 1/3 years of the BHSP, the BeLPT is the most effective means for the early identification of beryllium-sensitized individuals and to identify individuals who may have CBD. The need for BeLPT retesting is demonstrated through the identification of beryllium sensitization in individuals who previously tested normal. Posterior/anterior chest X-rays were not effective in the identification of CBD. 12 refs., 8 tabs.

  8. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

  9. Surveillance for emerging respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Zumla, Alimuddin; Gautret, Philippe; Gray, Gregory C; Hui, David S; Al-Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Memish, Ziad A

    2014-10-01

    Several new viral respiratory tract infectious diseases with epidemic potential that threaten global health security have emerged in the past 15 years. In 2003, WHO issued a worldwide alert for an unknown emerging illness, later named severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV) rapidly spread worldwide, causing more than 8000 cases and 800 deaths in more than 30 countries with a substantial economic impact. Since then, we have witnessed the emergence of several other viral respiratory pathogens including influenza viruses (avian influenza H5N1, H7N9, and H10N8; variant influenza A H3N2 virus), human adenovirus-14, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In response, various surveillance systems have been developed to monitor the emergence of respiratory-tract infections. These include systems based on identification of syndromes, web-based systems, systems that gather health data from health facilities (such as emergency departments and family doctors), and systems that rely on self-reporting by patients. More effective national, regional, and international surveillance systems are required to enable rapid identification of emerging respiratory epidemics, diseases with epidemic potential, their specific microbial cause, origin, mode of acquisition, and transmission dynamics.

  10. Video surveillance using JPEG 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufaux, Frederic; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes a video surveillance system which is composed of three key components, smart cameras, a server, and clients, connected through IP-networks in wired or wireless configurations. The system has been designed so as to protect the privacy of people under surveillance. Smart cameras are based on JPEG 2000 compression where an analysis module allows for events detection and regions of interest identification. The resulting regions of interest can then be encoded with better quality and scrambled. Compressed video streams are scrambled and signed for the purpose of privacy and data integrity verification using JPSEC compliant methods. The same bitstream may also be protected for robustness to transmission errors based on JPWL compliant methods. The server receives, stores, manages and transmits the video sequences on wired and wireless channels to a variety of clients and users with different device capabilities, channel characteristics and preferences. Use of seamless scalable coding of video sequences prevents any need for transcoding operations at any point in the system.

  11. Cyber surveillance for flood disasters.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-22

    Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  12. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-01

    Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective. PMID:25621609

  13. Supracervical hysterectomy - the vaginal route.

    PubMed

    Wilczyński, Miłosz; Cieślak, Jarosław; Malinowski, Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    Removal of the cervix during hysterectomy is not mandatory. There has been no irrefutable evidence so far that total hysterectomy is more beneficial to patients in terms of pelvic organ function. The procedure that leaves the cervix intact is called a subtotal hysterectomy. Traditional approaches to this surgery include laparoscopic and abdominal routes. Vaginal total hysterectomy has been proven to present many advantages over the other approaches. Therefore, it seems that this route should also be applied in the case of subtotal hysterectomy. We present 9 cases of patients who underwent subtotal hysterectomy performed through the vagina for benign gynecological diseases.

  14. Routing Algorithm Exploits Spatial Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okino, Clayton; Jennings, Esther

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed routing algorithm for broadcasting in an ad hoc wireless communication network takes account of, and exploits, the spatial relationships among the locations of nodes, in addition to transmission power levels and distances between the nodes. In contrast, most prior algorithms for discovering routes through ad hoc networks rely heavily on transmission power levels and utilize limited graph-topology techniques that do not involve consideration of the aforesaid spatial relationships. The present algorithm extracts the relevant spatial-relationship information by use of a construct denoted the relative-neighborhood graph (RNG).

  15. Weather-enabled future onboard surveillance and navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutuel, L.; Baillon, B.; Barnetche, B.; Delpy, P.

    2009-09-01

    With the increasing traffic and the development of business trajectories, there is a widespread need to anticipate any adverse weather conditions that could impact the performance of the flight or to use of atmospheric parameters to optimize trajectories. Current sensors onboard air transport are challenged to provide the required service, while new products for business jets and general aviation open the door to innovative assimilation of weather information in onboard surveillance and navigation. The paper aims at surveying current technology available to air transport aircraft and pointing out their shortcomings in view of the modernization proposed in SESAR and NextGen implementation plans. Foreseen innovations are then illustrated via results of ongoing research like FLYSAFE or standardization efforts, in particular meteorological datalink services and impact on Human-Machine Interface. The paper covers the operational need to avoid adverse weather like thunderstorm, icing, turbulence, windshear and volcanic ash, but also the requirement to control in 4D the trajectory through the integration of wind and temperature grids in the flight management. The former will lead to enhanced surveillance systems onboard the aircraft with new displays and new alerting schemes, ranging from targeted information supporting better re-planning to auto-escape strategies. The latter will be standard in next generation flight management systems. Finally both will rely on ATM products that will also assimilate weather information so that situational awareness is shared and decision is collaborative.

  16. 40 CFR 52.234 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.234 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.234 Source surveillance. (a) Except in... emission data by sources. (1) Amador County APCD. (2) Bay Area AQMD. (3) Calaveras County APCD. (4)...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2075 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2075 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2075 Source surveillance... authority to require owners or operators of stationary sources to maintain records of, and...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2075 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2075 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2075 Source surveillance... authority to require owners or operators of stationary sources to maintain records of, and...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1479 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.1479 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1479 Source surveillance. (a) The... adequate legally enforceable procedures for requiring owners or operators of stationary sources to...

  20. 40 CFR 52.794 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.794 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.794 Source surveillance. (a) The... County sources specifically listed in Table 2 of 325 IAC 6-1-10.2 (§ 52.770(c)(57)); for pushing...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1479 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.1479 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1479 Source surveillance. (a) The... adequate legally enforceable procedures for requiring owners or operators of stationary sources to...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1077 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.1077 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1077 Source surveillance. (a... procedures for stationary sources to be periodically tested....

  3. 40 CFR 52.794 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.794 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.794 Source surveillance. (a) The... County sources specifically listed in Table 2 of 325 IAC 6-1-10.2 (§ 52.770(c)(57)); for pushing...

  4. 40 CFR 52.130 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.130 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.130 Source surveillance. (a) The... procedures for requiring sources in the Northern Arizona, Mohave-Yuma, Central Arizona, and Southeast...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1077 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.1077 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1077 Source surveillance. (a... procedures for stationary sources to be periodically tested....

  6. Citizen Science and Wildlife Disease Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Becki; Petrovan, Silviu O; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2015-12-01

    Achieving effective wildlife disease surveillance is challenging. The incorporation of citizen science (CS) in wildlife health surveillance can be beneficial, particularly where resources are limited and cost-effectiveness is paramount. Reports of wildlife morbidity and mortality from the public facilitate large-scale surveillance, both in time and space, which would otherwise be financially infeasible, and raise awareness of incidents occurring on privately owned land. CS wildlife disease surveillance schemes benefit scientists, the participating public and wildlife alike. CS has been employed for targeted, scanning and syndromic surveillance of wildlife disease. Whilst opportunistic surveillance is most common, systematic observations enable the standardisation of observer effort and, combined with wildlife population monitoring schemes, can allow evaluation of disease impacts at the population level. Near-universal access to digital media has revolutionised reporting modalities and facilitated rapid and economical means of sharing feedback with participants. Here we review CS schemes for wildlife disease surveillance and highlight their scope, benefits, logistical considerations, financial implications and potential limitations. The need to adopt a collaborative and multidisciplinary approach to wildlife health surveillance is increasingly recognised and the general public can make a significant contribution through CS.

  7. 40 CFR 52.12 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.12 Source surveillance. (a) Each subpart identifies the plan provisions for source surveillance which are disapproved, and sets forth the... procedures for testing, inspection, investigation, or detection, but detailed critiques of such portions...

  8. 48 CFR 242.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... production surveillance is required, shall— (A) Conduct a periodic risk assessment of the contractor to... risk assessment shall consider information provided by the contractor and the contracting officer; (B) Develop a production surveillance plan based on the risk level determined during a risk assessment;...

  9. 48 CFR 242.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... production surveillance is required, shall— (A) Conduct a periodic risk assessment of the contractor to... risk assessment shall consider information provided by the contractor and the contracting officer; (B) Develop a production surveillance plan based on the risk level determined during a risk assessment;...

  10. 48 CFR 242.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... production surveillance is required, shall— (A) Conduct a periodic risk assessment of the contractor to... risk assessment shall consider information provided by the contractor and the contracting officer; (B) Develop a production surveillance plan based on the risk level determined during a risk assessment;...

  11. 48 CFR 242.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... production surveillance is required, shall— (A) Conduct a periodic risk assessment of the contractor to... risk assessment shall consider information provided by the contractor and the contracting officer; (B) Develop a production surveillance plan based on the risk level determined during a risk assessment;...

  12. 48 CFR 242.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... production surveillance is required, shall— (A) Conduct a periodic risk assessment of the contractor to... risk assessment shall consider information provided by the contractor and the contracting officer; (B) Develop a production surveillance plan based on the risk level determined during a risk assessment;...

  13. Video Surveillance: All Eyes Turn to IP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2011-01-01

    Many university officials recognize the need to upgrade their older analog video surveillance systems. In a 2010 survey by "Campus Safety" magazine, half of university respondents expressed dissatisfaction with the quality and coverage of their current video surveillance systems. Among the limitations of analog closed-circuit television…

  14. Syndromic Surveillance: Adapting Innovations to Developing Settings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Potential Utility in Developing Countries Syndromic surveillance offers a useful adjunct to diagnosis- based surveillance of emerging infections in...influenza-like illness caused by multiple epidemic-prone tropical infections, could indicate outbreaks requiring laboratory- based investigation and...countries. Computer- based automation of routine data analysis is helpful because, with multiple reporting units and reportable events, the number of

  15. 17 CFR 38.604 - Financial surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Financial surveillance. 38.604... MARKETS Financial Integrity of Transactions § 38.604 Financial surveillance. A designated contract market must monitor members' compliance with the designated contract market's minimum financial standards...

  16. Design Strategies for Efficient Arbovirus Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Scarpino, Samuel V.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2017-01-01

    As public health agencies struggle to track and contain emerging arbovirus threats, timely and efficient surveillance is more critical than ever. Using historical dengue data from Puerto Rico, we developed methods for streamlining and designing novel arbovirus surveillance systems with or without historical disease data. PMID:28322711

  17. A Computer Simulation of the System-Wide Effects of Parallel-Offset Route Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauderdale, Todd A.; Santiago, Confesor; Pankok, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Most aircraft managed by air-traffic controllers in the National Airspace System are capable of flying parallel-offset routes. This paper presents the results of two related studies on the effects of increased use of offset routes as a conflict resolution maneuver. The first study analyzes offset routes in the context of all standard resolution types which air-traffic controllers currently use. This study shows that by utilizing parallel-offset route maneuvers, significant system-wide savings in delay due to conflict resolution of up to 30% are possible. It also shows that most offset resolutions replace horizontal-vectoring resolutions. The second study builds on the results of the first and directly compares offset resolutions and standard horizontal-vectoring maneuvers to determine that in-trail conflicts are often more efficiently resolved by offset maneuvers.

  18. [Computerized surveillance of communicable diseases as a part of public health surveillance].

    PubMed

    Cavaljuga, S

    1999-01-01

    Conducting surveillance of communicable diseases and/or public health surveillance in general, in developing countries such is B&H has some common specific things-health care system is an integral part of organized government services thus, fewer impediments to implementing any part of a surveillance system are recorded. Limited health care providers and laboratories reduce the number of data source and can facilitate quality assurance. An ideal surveillance system is discussed in this paper (what kind of surveillance system an epidemiologist would like to have in future), as well as barriers to the ideal surveillance system and technology of the future. Some elements of computerised public health surveillance system and surveillance of communicable diseases, particularly, are given (e.g. hardware, software, data entry, editing the data, analysis of data, ...) Computerising a surveillance system will results in increasing speed of processing providing graphic capability, enhancing analytic capabilities, improving quality of data of reports and improving quantity of data. The most important step in beginning to conduct computerising a surveillance system is identifying the public health objective such is, for example, surveillance of communicable diseases.

  19. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xiaoyan; Li, Ning; Guo, Yunchang; Liu, Xiumei; Yan, Lin; Li, Ying; Yang, Shuran; Hu, Jing; Zhu, Jianghui; Yang, Dajin

    2015-08-28

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  20. Improved Global Capacity for Influenza Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Outin-Blenman, Sajata; Moen, Ann C.

    2016-01-01

    During 2004–2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) partnered with 39 national governments to strengthen global influenza surveillance. Using World Health Organization data and program evaluation indicators collected by CDC in 2013, we retrospectively evaluated progress made 4–9 years after the start of influenza surveillance capacity strengthening in the countries. Our results showed substantial increases in laboratory and sentinel surveillance capacities, which are essential for knowing which influenza strains circulate globally, detecting emergence of novel influenza, identifying viruses for vaccine selection, and determining the epidemiology of respiratory illness. Twenty-eight of 35 countries responding to a 2013 questionnaire indicated that they have leveraged routine influenza surveillance platforms to detect other pathogens. This additional surveillance illustrates increased health-system strengthening. Furthermore, 34 countries reported an increased ability to use data in decision making; data-driven decisions are critical for improving local prevention and control of influenza around the world. PMID:27192395

  1. A tool for debugging internet multicast routing

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, D.; Floyd, S.

    1994-03-01

    In this paper the authors describe a debugging tool that is an effective means of analyzing problems with multicast packet routing in a network. Multicast packet routing is a source-driven distributed calculation performed by the routers in a multicast network. The routes taken by multicast packets are difficult to predict manually due to the large number of variables that must be considered. The multicast route debugging tool allows off-line investigation of the route taken by a multicast packet and the effects of network modifications on that route. The tool has already proved useful in debugging the problems that have occurred in the experimental Internet Multicast Backbone. The multicast route debugging tool currently predicts multicast routes of packets using the distance-vector truncated-broadcast algorithm implemented for Internet multicast traffic. They will be upgrading the tool to allow the user to choose other multicast routing algorithms.

  2. Digital Dashboard Design Using Multiple Data Streams for Disease Surveillance With Influenza Surveillance as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Calvin KY; Ip, Dennis KM; Cowling, Benjamin J; Ho, Lai Ming; Leung, Gabriel M

    2011-01-01

    Background Great strides have been made exploring and exploiting new and different sources of disease surveillance data and developing robust statistical methods for analyzing the collected data. However, there has been less research in the area of dissemination. Proper dissemination of surveillance data can facilitate the end user's taking of appropriate actions, thus maximizing the utility of effort taken from upstream of the surveillance-to-action loop. Objective The aims of the study were to develop a generic framework for a digital dashboard incorporating features of efficient dashboard design and to demonstrate this framework by specific application to influenza surveillance in Hong Kong. Methods Based on the merits of the national websites and principles of efficient dashboard design, we designed an automated influenza surveillance digital dashboard as a demonstration of efficient dissemination of surveillance data. We developed the system to synthesize and display multiple sources of influenza surveillance data streams in the dashboard. Different algorithms can be implemented in the dashboard for incorporating all surveillance data streams to describe the overall influenza activity. Results We designed and implemented an influenza surveillance dashboard that utilized self-explanatory figures to display multiple surveillance data streams in panels. Indicators for individual data streams as well as for overall influenza activity were summarized in the main page, which can be read at a glance. Data retrieval function was also incorporated to allow data sharing in standard format. Conclusions The influenza surveillance dashboard serves as a template to illustrate the efficient synthesization and dissemination of multiple-source surveillance data, which may also be applied to other diseases. Surveillance data from multiple sources can be disseminated efficiently using a dashboard design that facilitates the translation of surveillance information to public

  3. Ebola Surveillance - Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Lucy A; Schafer, Ilana J; Nolen, Leisha D; Gorina, Yelena; Redd, John T; Lo, Terrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Henao, Olga; Dahl, Benjamin A; Morgan, Oliver; Hersey, Sara; Knust, Barbara

    2016-07-08

    Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons. Through the work of CDC and numerous partners, including the countries' ministries of health, the World Health Organization, and other government and nongovernment organizations, functional Ebola surveillance was established and maintained in these countries. CDC staff were heavily involved in implementing case-based surveillance systems, sustaining case surveillance and contact tracing, and interpreting surveillance data. In addition to helping the ministries of health and other partners understand and manage the epidemic, CDC's activities strengthened epidemiologic and data management capacity to improve routine surveillance in the countries affected, even after the Ebola epidemic ended, and enhanced local capacity to respond quickly to future public health emergencies. However, the many obstacles overcome during development of these Ebola surveillance systems highlight the need to have strong public health, surveillance, and information technology infrastructure in place before a public health emergency occurs. Intense, long-term focus on strengthening public health surveillance systems in developing countries, as described in the Global Health Security Agenda, is needed.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html).

  4. Judaism and the Silk Route.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates that the Judeans traveled along the Ancient Silk Route. Discusses the Iranian influence on the formation of Jewish religious ideas. Considers the development of Jewish trade networks, focusing on the Radanites (Jewish traders), the Jewish presence in the Far East, and the survival of Judaism in central Asia. (CMK)

  5. Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eslami, Hassan; Eshow, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview, presents the high level software architecture of DWR, based on the CTAS software framework and the Direct-To automation tool. The document also covers external and internal data flows, required dataset, changes to the Direct-To software for DWR, collection of software statistics, and the code structure.

  6. Roots/Routes: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. Following Part I of the same research journey of rootedness/routedness, it debates the nature of transformation and transcendence beyond personal and political paradoxes informed by neoliberalism and related repressive globalizing discourses. Through a more personal, descriptive,…

  7. Genetic algorithms for route discovery.

    PubMed

    Gelenbe, Erol; Liu, Peixiang; Lainé, Jeremy

    2006-12-01

    Packet routing in networks requires knowledge about available paths, which can be either acquired dynamically while the traffic is being forwarded, or statically (in advance) based on prior information of a network's topology. This paper describes an experimental investigation of path discovery using genetic algorithms (GAs). We start with the quality-of-service (QoS)-driven routing protocol called "cognitive packet network" (CPN), which uses smart packets (SPs) to dynamically select routes in a distributed autonomic manner based on a user's QoS requirements. We extend it by introducing a GA at the source routers, which modifies and filters the paths discovered by the CPN. The GA can combine the paths that were previously discovered to create new untested but valid source-to-destination paths, which are then selected on the basis of their "fitness." We present an implementation of this approach, where the GA runs in background mode so as not to overload the ingress routers. Measurements conducted on a network test bed indicate that when the background-traffic load of the network is light to medium, the GA can result in improved QoS. When the background-traffic load is high, it appears that the use of the GA may be detrimental to the QoS experienced by users as compared to CPN routing because the GA uses less timely state information in its decision making.

  8. Planning Safe Routes to School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleyard, Bruce S.

    2003-01-01

    Describes "Safe Routes to School" efforts in the United States and other countries to make walking and biking to school the transportation of choice. Offers a plan of action for formulating and carrying out such a program and information on funding sources. (EV)

  9. Roots/Routes: Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative and poetic rendering acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. It is a storying of critical research issues and events as performances of lived experience. It is a metissage of hybrid, but interrelated, themes that find cohesion through fragmentation and coalescence, severance, and regrowth. These themes are invoked by…

  10. Alternative Routes for Teacher Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This publication presents a series of charts, designed for quick reference, which describe the status of alternative teacher certification routes in each of the 50 states. The charts were prepared in response to an increasing number of inquiries from educators, policy makers, and the public. Information was gathered by telephone surveys of state…

  11. Energy-aware Scheduling of Surveillance in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Sheng; Ma, Junjie; Sun, Xinyao

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks involve a large number of sensor nodes with limited energy supply, which impacts the behavior of their application. In wireless multimedia sensor networks, sensor nodes are equipped with audio and visual information collection modules. Multimedia contents are ubiquitously retrieved in surveillance applications. To solve the energy problems during target surveillance with wireless multimedia sensor networks, an energy-aware sensor scheduling method is proposed in this paper. Sensor nodes which acquire acoustic signals are deployed randomly in the sensing fields. Target localization is based on the signal energy feature provided by multiple sensor nodes, employing particle swarm optimization (PSO). During the target surveillance procedure, sensor nodes are adaptively grouped in a totally distributed manner. Specially, the target motion information is extracted by a forecasting algorithm, which is based on the hidden Markov model (HMM). The forecasting results are utilized to awaken sensor node in the vicinity of future target position. According to the two properties, signal energy feature and residual energy, the sensor nodes decide whether to participate in target detection separately with a fuzzy control approach. Meanwhile, the local routing scheme of data transmission towards the observer is discussed. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of energy-aware scheduling of surveillance in wireless multimedia sensor network, where significant energy saving is achieved by the sensor awakening approach and data transmission paths are calculated with low computational complexity. PMID:22319289

  12. Airport Activity Statistics of Certificated Route Air Carriers, 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-31

    An exception to this policy occurs in those cases where a hyphenated point shown in a Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity is serviced by a...single airport and a state line separates the communities named. In those cases the data are listed under the state in which the airport serving the...DEPARUi, PEWOliA ATAW OR U.& AIMA TYPE OF DEPARTUIES coWITY CARER OPERATION AM , PINN HEDUL e m SCHEIXRM .E R 10NTAN-wfw Wmor .A--C••u (JOHNSON. BELL RELD

  13. Airport Activity Statistics of Certificated Route Air Carriers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-31

    4. 77 I4 3404A 1,1973 1.9. 3.44A t AA 3* 34433 0.61 Is.. 4. 2 4.06 .4.6 7 W.34 87 4ILL 3𔃾IL! 1375.24 .44 C6 .06 344 34 I 0.444 ’.---3 2 .6[0 533.64I...2d 4; /03 SY4- I(. it -5t 3 1 1 3 0 2 " IL 34433 3351 02/-03 135 IS A$-L 1-1115 24l l 1.45" 6 43 3-1-3 2 2 l’-1, -jIs PA-/I 2AL 10/3 58,4 to, 11k,..a

  14. Airport Activity Statistics of Certificated Route Air Carriers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-31

    6u 60 3 o-137-1oU/20U 293u 2930 U C-9-10 F4 ? 747 ALL IPls 12631 1: 12641 14603 12218 95.43 I C (AL IFIRNIA II II IINYIKFN-KFRN LCUNIY A1IecT Gk...05E511c 81,1-10 9 1 4598-1 21-2 00 1231 33 12641 01>9-S 191 7,ALL TYPES 17089 34 1142 1926 1658 96.61 SL ---055HE511L 0L-9-30 154 154 0£-9-50 63 63 a-2-206

  15. Airport Activity Statistics of Certificated Route Air Carriers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-31

    GA 0 Sn mi U.4 U. It - 514 N N n Snu - - NU 0 0 In U 0 m~ a 0 0 -194 a N N 91 W! W! c1NN U n IA N U in al A co . 0 . n g 9 0 0 -E Nn In r- so E 0 lz...a_ ____ __ 1 i 88 8 ti a, it ’COO - ’al In 00 In- 18 N -W N urIn a, N N N z0 3 ES N * N ~~~ N N 0c I __88_8 - 88. 8 0 N288 848 IL C___z 0. Nco 0 -> I...N 0 0 In urin U Z 4 0 . UL Inv1I Il - N ) .- ~ N u 0 a, a.- -LU W A A ( U U - w 0 w CVIf -C Ns H0 ,24)Il 06 c 0 W, 4O mom 1 w< 0 0 o w 5 --- -i 4

  16. Airport Activity Statistics of Certificated Route Air Carriers, 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-31

    PERU N 0.00 (ILLNOIS VALLEY REGIONAL) S IM M O N S ......................................................................................... TO TA L...By Aircraft Type 12 Months Ended December 31, 1993 TOTAL OEPARTIMES PBI <OWASTATE OK U.S. AEA TYPE OT w1A TIMCAIR OPOAF O00A 01110?MN)CFM0w " AIRCR1AFT...737-500 ............. 107 107 B-737-300 ............. 183 183 ALL TYPES ........... 8,058 431 8,489 8,302 PERU (ILLINOIS VALLEY REGIONAL

  17. Airport Activity Statistics of Certificated Route Air Carriers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-31

    28.3 It ITr �--([3 2078 2326 2435 343837 84157.00 739.62 971.93 998.59 .18 .3 241IIAL--(8J0S0 213 2916 29 51.79 12.51 I0 iLIL 2. . . INi...11428 9S.49 20 df-9 1 11., 2!, I-27 106115 1321 13.,1 23 U81 ct .271. 23F-2b-t3./60J .14 61 4 24 ALL IYPty .43’, a439 9424 * 6340 8.49 26 EtC-OrPESTIC

  18. En Route/Terminal ATC (Air Traffic Control) Operations Concept.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-28

    been provided It is recognized that for events such as catastro - controllers interface phes, hi-jackings, or sensi- with pilots and control- tive U.S...idetiie .icat " nbokcd Tig ~ l ~ C nttt V. DrONe ~iy n ieto vco Itwddr lc’ PoutionSymbls tne mpced aeadof Wet)O~te w0b9f ,i29 6 Fre tack No ~i~t pln

  19. Airport Activity Statistics of Certificated Route Air Carriers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-31

    13!141 2.39 B." $.IV s OR Ms Insslac KIs 9, .2s .4s .10 .10 IS "IN& a 0. 55 so i sik - CGA 4. 10 w sMInSlTac--ss KOR.AN .01.40 . S2.0 Di 16034. O .1...109.10, 11.20 64.41 63. 41.401 113.34 CMIT 0O TAL--3.0 L0 30333 .ST 61.fSV96 L DI i stc-3AU 10104 44.6 042 40041100l,10 3843 .1, .7 .011 .51 * AL 3...1.40 Sal 4-OomAIl a- A mlA" $M90 114 UA U141 tol4 * A-~uL 0-181A 6946 sea. A-9$ASAA 414 f * ~I&--om14 b. a"I~ dI L a" 10,9- 44141 414 1 *11 t-gollo04

  20. Radiation surveillance using an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    PubMed

    Pöllänen, Roy; Toivonen, Harri; Peräjärvi, Kari; Karhunen, Tero; Ilander, Tarja; Lehtinen, Jukka; Rintala, Kimmo; Katajainen, Tuure; Niemelä, Jarkko; Juusela, Marko

    2009-02-01

    Radiation surveillance equipment was mounted in a small unmanned aerial vehicle. The equipment consists of a commercial CsI detector for count rate measurement and a specially designed sampling unit for airborne radioactive particles. Field and flight tests were performed for the CsI detector in the area where (137)Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident is 23-45 kBq m(-2). A 3-GBq (137)Cs point source could be detected at the altitude of 50 m using a flight speed of 70 km h(-1) and data acquisition interval of 1s. Respective response for (192)Ir point source is 1 GBq. During the flight, the detector reacts fast to ambient external dose rate rise of 0.1 microSv h(-1), which gives for the activity concentration of (131)I less than 1 kB qm(-3). Operation of the sampler equipped with different type of filters was investigated using wind-tunnel experiments and field tests with the aid of radon progeny. Air flow rate through the sampler is 0.2-0.7 m(3)h(-1) at a flight speed of 70 km h(-1) depending on the filter type in question. The tests showed that the sampler is able to collect airborne radioactive particles. Minimum detectable concentration for transuranium nuclides, such as (239)Pu, is of the order of 0.2 Bq m(-3) or less when alpha spectrometry with no radiochemical sample processing is used for activity determination immediately after the flight. When a gamma-ray spectrometer is used, minimum detectable concentrations for several fission products such as (137)Cs and (131)I are of the order of 1 Bq m(-3).

  1. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  2. Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) System for Ownership and Traffic Situational Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arteaga, Ricardo A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention proposes an automatic dependent surveillance broadcast (ADS-B) architecture and process, in which priority aircraft and ADS-B IN traffic information are included in the transmission of data through the telemetry communications to a remote ground control station. The present invention further proposes methods for displaying general aviation traffic information in three and/or four dimension trajectories using an industry standard Earth browser for increased situation awareness and enhanced visual acquisition of traffic for conflict detection. The present invention enable the applications of enhanced visual acquisition of traffic, traffic alerts, and en-route and terminal surveillance used to augment pilot situational awareness through ADS-B IN display and information in three or four dimensions for self-separation awareness.

  3. Metabarcoding approach for the ballast water surveillance--an advantageous solution or an awkward challenge?

    PubMed

    Zaiko, Anastasija; Martinez, Jose L; Schmidt-Petersen, Julia; Ribicic, Deni; Samuiloviene, Aurelija; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2015-03-15

    Transfer of organisms with ships' ballast water is recognized as a major pathway of non-indigenous species introduction and addressed in a few recent legislative initiatives. Among other they imply scientific and technical research and monitoring to be conducted in a efficient and reliable way. The recent development of DNA barcoding and metabarcoding technologies opens new opportunities for biodiversity and biosecurity surveillance. In the current study, the performance of metabarcoding approach was assessed in comparison to the conventional (visual) observations, during the en route experimental ballast water survey. Opportunities and limitations of the molecular method were identified from taxonomical datasets rendered by two molecular markers of different degree of universality - the universal cytochrome oxydase sub-unit I gene and a fragment of RuBisCO gene. The cost-efficacy and possible improvements of these methods are discussed for the further successful development and implementation of the approach in ballast water control and NIS surveillance.

  4. Standardized rendering from IR surveillance motion imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, F. J.

    2014-06-01

    Government agencies, including defense and law enforcement, increasingly make use of video from surveillance systems and camera phones owned by non-government entities.Making advanced and standardized motion imaging technology available to private and commercial users at cost-effective prices would benefit all parties. In particular, incorporating thermal infrared into commercial surveillance systems offers substantial benefits beyond night vision capability. Face rendering is a process to facilitate exploitation of thermal infrared surveillance imagery from the general area of a crime scene, to assist investigations with and without cooperating eyewitnesses. Face rendering automatically generates greyscale representations similar to police artist sketches for faces in surveillance imagery collected from proximate locations and times to a crime under investigation. Near-realtime generation of face renderings can provide law enforcement with an investigation tool to assess witness memory and credibility, and integrate reports from multiple eyewitnesses, Renderings can be quickly disseminated through social media to warn of a person who may pose an immediate threat, and to solicit the public's help in identifying possible suspects and witnesses. Renderings are pose-standardized so as to not divulge the presence and location of eyewitnesses and surveillance cameras. Incorporation of thermal infrared imaging into commercial surveillance systems will significantly improve system performance, and reduce manual review times, at an incremental cost that will continue to decrease. Benefits to criminal justice would include improved reliability of eyewitness testimony and improved accuracy of distinguishing among minority groups in eyewitness and surveillance identifications.

  5. Modernization of existing VVER-1000 surveillance programs

    SciTech Connect

    Kochkin, V.; Erak, D.; Makhotin, D.

    2011-07-01

    According to generally accepted world practice, evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material behavior during operation is carried out using tests of surveillance specimens. The main objective of the surveillance program consists in insurance of safe RPV operation during the design lifetime and lifetime-extension period. At present, the approaches of pressure vessels residual life validation based on the test results of their surveillance specimens have been developed and introduced in Russia and are under consideration in other countries where vodo-vodyanoi energetichesky reactors- (VVER-) 1000 are in operation. In this case, it is necessary to ensure leading irradiation of surveillance specimens (as compared to the pressure vessel wall) and to provide uniformly irradiated specimen groups for mechanical testing. Standard surveillance program of VVER-1000 has several significant shortcomings and does not meet these requirements. Taking into account program of lifetime extension of VVER-1000 operating in Russia, it is necessary to carry out upgrading of the VVER-1000 surveillance program. This paper studies the conditions of a surveillance specimen's irradiation and upgrading of existing sets to provide monitoring and prognosis of RPV material properties for extension of the reactor's lifetime up to 60 years or more. (authors)

  6. Implementation of direct routing mobile IP for solving triangular routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jongwook; Jang, SeongHo; Park, Miri; Lee, Dae-bong

    2001-10-01

    Mobility support on the network layer is of special importance, as the network layer holds together the huge Internet with common protocol IP. Although based on possibility different wireless or wired technologies, all nodes of the network should be able to communicate. Therefore, mobile IP(an extension of the classical IP) has been designed which enablemobility in the Internet without changing existing wired systems. However, mobile IP leaves some points unsolved. Especially, if it comes to security, efficiency of the packet flow that is called triangular routing. Especially triangular routing can cause unnecessary overhead for the network. Furthermore latency can increase dramatically. This is particularly unfortunate if two communicating hosts are separated by transatlantic links. In order to this problem, many methods like IPv6 and ROMIP are proposed. But these methods have limitation. In other words, they have not compatibility because of needing modification of original IP scheme. Especially ROMIP is very complex and the overhead of control message and processing are serious. The problem of inconsistency of Binding caches may occur too. We therefore propose and analyze the performance of the DRMIP (Direct Routing Mobile IP) which do not modify IP source needed in the sender, is compatible with IP and Mobile IP.

  7. 7 CFR 1000.3 - Route disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Definitions § 1000.3 Route disposition. Route disposition means a delivery to a retail or wholesale outlet... store, vendor, or vending machine) of a fluid milk product in consumer-type packages or dispenser...

  8. 14 CFR 221.41 - Routing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Individually stated routings—Method of publication. The routing required by paragraph (a) of this section shall... with their respective explanations of the applicable routings shall be arranged in numerical order...

  9. [Surveillance and prevention of influenza in Belgium].

    PubMed

    Yane, F

    2001-09-01

    Influenza is a major public health problem. The national influenza surveillance system is based on the collaboration of sentinel general practitioners who collect nose and throat swabs from their patients and report the percentage of consultations which concern influenza-like illness or acute respiratory infections. During the influenza season, a report is published each week on the website http://www.lph.fgov.be/epidemio. Belgium participates in the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme and the global Influenza surveillance system of the W.H.O.

  10. Computationally-Efficient Minimum-Time Aircraft Routes in the Presence of Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jardin, Matthew R.

    2004-01-01

    A computationally efficient algorithm for minimizing the flight time of an aircraft in a variable wind field has been invented. The algorithm, referred to as Neighboring Optimal Wind Routing (NOWR), is based upon neighboring-optimal-control (NOC) concepts and achieves minimum-time paths by adjusting aircraft heading according to wind conditions at an arbitrary number of wind measurement points along the flight route. The NOWR algorithm may either be used in a fast-time mode to compute minimum- time routes prior to flight, or may be used in a feedback mode to adjust aircraft heading in real-time. By traveling minimum-time routes instead of direct great-circle (direct) routes, flights across the United States can save an average of about 7 minutes, and as much as one hour of flight time during periods of strong jet-stream winds. The neighboring optimal routes computed via the NOWR technique have been shown to be within 1.5 percent of the absolute minimum-time routes for flights across the continental United States. On a typical 450-MHz Sun Ultra workstation, the NOWR algorithm produces complete minimum-time routes in less than 40 milliseconds. This corresponds to a rate of 25 optimal routes per second. The closest comparable optimization technique runs approximately 10 times slower. Airlines currently use various trial-and-error search techniques to determine which of a set of commonly traveled routes will minimize flight time. These algorithms are too computationally expensive for use in real-time systems, or in systems where many optimal routes need to be computed in a short amount of time. Instead of operating in real-time, airlines will typically plan a trajectory several hours in advance using wind forecasts. If winds change significantly from forecasts, the resulting flights will no longer be minimum-time. The need for a computationally efficient wind-optimal routing algorithm is even greater in the case of new air-traffic-control automation concepts. For air

  11. CHARACTERIZING AIR QUALITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    NERL's Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division and other participants in the Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) project will be presenting their results to the Environmnetal Public Health Tracking (EPHT) workshop in Tampa FL. The PHASE project is a collab...

  12. Optimizing the response to surveillance alerts in automated surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Masoumeh; Buckeridge, David L

    2011-02-28

    Although much research effort has been directed toward refining algorithms for disease outbreak alerting, considerably less attention has been given to the response to alerts generated from statistical detection algorithms. Given the inherent inaccuracy in alerting, it is imperative to develop methods that help public health personnel identify optimal policies in response to alerts. This study evaluates the application of dynamic decision making models to the problem of responding to outbreak detection methods, using anthrax surveillance as an example. Adaptive optimization through approximate dynamic programming is used to generate a policy for decision making following outbreak detection. We investigate the degree to which the model can tolerate noise theoretically, in order to keep near optimal behavior. We also evaluate the policy from our model empirically and compare it with current approaches in routine public health practice for investigating alerts. Timeliness of outbreak confirmation and total costs associated with the decisions made are used as performance measures. Using our approach, on average, 80 per cent of outbreaks were confirmed prior to the fifth day of post-attack with considerably less cost compared to response strategies currently in use. Experimental results are also provided to illustrate the robustness of the adaptive optimization approach and to show the realization of the derived error bounds in practice.

  13. Sustaining surveillance: Evaluating syndromic surveillance in the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Beverley J.; Kool, Jacob L.; Durrheim, David N.; Pavlin, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Prior to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs) had agreed to develop a standardised, simple syndromic surveillance system to ensure compliance with International Health Regulations requirements (rapid outbreak detection, information sharing and response to outbreaks). In October 2010, the new system was introduced and over the next 12 months implemented in 20 of 22 PICTs. An evaluation was conducted to identify strengths and weaknesses of the system, ease of use and possible points for improvement. An in-country quantitative and qualitative evaluation in five PICTs identified that the most important determinants of the system's success were: simplicity of the system; support from all levels of government; clearly defined roles and responsibilities; feedback to those who collect the data; harmonisation of case definitions; integration of data collection tools into existing health information systems; and availability of clinical and epidemiological advice from external agencies such as the World Health Organization and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community. Regional reporting of alerts, outbreaks and outbreak updates has dramatically increased since implementation of the system. This syndromic system will assist PICTs to detect future influenza pandemics and other emerging infectious diseases and to rapidly contain outbreaks in the Pacific. PMID:22817479

  14. Automated Alerting for Black Hole Routing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    BGP Blackhole Routing Performance.” Kleffman used simulation as the evaluation technique for his research. A simulation software package, Opnet...stated: Second, we concluded that, of the three basic BGP Blackhole routing methods, the customer-triggered method has the worst performance. Neither...trigger router or the ‘Black Hole Route Server’ in the network. This router will be pushing out BGP blackhole route announcements (both addition

  15. Optimizing Flight Departure Delay and Route Selection Under En Route Convective Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, Avijit; Sridhar, Banavar; Grabbe, Shon

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a linear Integer Programming model for managing air traffic flow in the United States. The decision variables in the model are departure delays and predeparture reroutes of aircraft whose trajectories are predicted to cross weather-impacted regions of the National Airspace System. The model assigns delays to a set of flights while ensuring their trajectories are free of any conflicts with weather. In a deterministic setting, there is no airborne holding due to unexpected weather incursion in a flight s path. The model is applied to solve a large-scale traffic flow management problem with realistic weather data and flight schedules. Experimental results indicate that allowing rerouting can reduce departure delays by nearly 57%, but it is associated with an increase in total airborne time due to longer routes flown by aircraft. The computation times to solve this problem were significantly lower than those reported in the earlier studies.

  16. CHARACTERIZING AIR QUALITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH TRACKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides a brief summary of EPA's perspective on Environmental Public Health Tracking, the Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE), and EPA's efforts to provide air quality data to three states (Maine, New York, and Wisconsin) that are partners with CD...

  17. Daisy Found on 'Route 66'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This composite image from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit gives an approximately true-color rendering of a daisy-like pattern of brushed circles that Spirit produced on a rock called 'Route 66.' Spirit used the rock abrasion tool to complete this 6-position 'RAT daisy' on sol 99. It took this image on sol 100, April 14, 2004.

    The purpose for these large brushings is to create a large enough patch of treated surface area for the miniature thermal emission spectrometer to analyze. Scientists had previously conducted a brushing like this one on the rock 'Mazatzal.' The brushed area of Route 66 looks very different from the brushed area of Mazatzal, leading scientists to think that the rocks although both light in tone actually have different coating types.

  18. Multicast Routing of Hierarchical Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shacham, Nachum

    1992-01-01

    The issue of multicast of broadband, real-time data in a heterogeneous environment, in which the data recipients differ in their reception abilities, is considered. Traditional multicast schemes, which are designed to deliver all the source data to all recipients, offer limited performance in such an environment, since they must either force the source to overcompress its signal or restrict the destination population to those who can receive the full signal. We present an approach for resolving this issue by combining hierarchical source coding techniques, which allow recipients to trade off reception bandwidth for signal quality, and sophisticated routing algorithms that deliver to each destination the maximum possible signal quality. The field of hierarchical coding is briefly surveyed and new multicast routing algorithms are presented. The algorithms are compared in terms of network utilization efficiency, lengths of paths, and the required mechanisms for forwarding packets on the resulting paths.

  19. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  20. Single-Layer Wire Routing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    Theorem: (Ascoli’s Theorem) Let f be an equicontinuous family of functions from a separable space X to a metric space Y. Let (f,) be a sequence in 4o... separable : A separable space is one that has a countable dense subset. settle: Section 8A defines for each suitably restricted sketch a family of...a four-year study on the general problem of wire routing under separation and homotopy constraints. Originally intended as a master’s thesis, the

  1. A New Distributed Routing Protocol.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Kindm ’[t., BMnclh CntMU Consider a attuatJion in %, Adhd them am n n es0 ndh lidkd to at least ne &her node sudh that all moe a wwmwted. either...distributed Itn r that is cpable, of failsafe distributed routing. 37 ~L MANHATAN %SQ.ARE GP :,!: NETWORK, - CONNECTTVY S . .. . I ip p- t 0 4 Figure 4-3

  2. 76 FR 766 - Amtrak Emergency Routing Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Parts 1011, 1034, 1102, 1104, and 1115 Amtrak Emergency Routing Orders... Transportation Board (Board or STB) proposes to establish regulations governing the issuance of emergency routing... routings due to rail line closures or other emergencies. DATES: Comments are due by February 7, 2011....

  3. 49 CFR 236.379 - Route locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Route locking. 236.379 Section 236.379 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.379 Route locking. Route locking or other type of switch locking shall be tested...

  4. 49 CFR 236.379 - Route locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Route locking. 236.379 Section 236.379 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.379 Route locking. Route locking or other type of switch locking shall be tested...

  5. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  6. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-03-31

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  7. Cyber-Surveillance: A Case Study in Policy and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Richard S. Y.

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation examines the historical development of surveillance, electronic surveillance, and cyber-surveillance from colonial times in the United States to the present. It presents the surveillance laws, technologies and policies as a balance between national security and privacy. To examine more recent developments, the dissertation…

  8. Reporting and Surveillance for Norovirus Outbreaks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Norovirus Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology Reporting and Surveillance for Norovirus Recommend on Facebook ... Norovirus Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  9. Evaluation of historical dry well surveillance logs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.K.

    1996-09-09

    Several dry well surveillance logs from 1975 through 1995 for the SX Tank Farm have been examined to identify potential subsurface zones of radioactive contaminant migration. Several dynamic conditions of the gamma-ray emitting radioactive contaminant shave been identified.

  10. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2000-01-27

    This document contains the CY2000 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed.

  11. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program

    Cancer.gov

    A premier source for cancer statistics in the US. We collect incidence, prevalence and survival data and publish reports on these and cancer mortality. For those interested in cancer statistics and surveillance methods.

  12. 40 CFR 52.234 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.234 Source surveillance. (a) Except in... stationary source in the State of California, except for those APCD's specified in paragraph (a) of...

  13. 40 CFR 52.234 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.234 Source surveillance. (a) Except in... stationary source in the State of California, except for those APCD's specified in paragraph (a) of...

  14. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... Historical reported cases and estimates Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  15. Medical Surveillance Requirements For Nonionizing Radiation Workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, James A.

    1980-10-01

    The potential value of medical surveillance examinations for laser workers and other workers potentially exposed to high intensity optical radiation is evaluated. A review of the known adverse biological effects leads to the conclusion that most effects are related to acute and subacute exposures which do not lend themselves to effective medical surveillance. In addition, surveys of thousands of laser workers conducted since 1965 demonstrated that routine periodic medical surveillance has been unnecessary and/or impractical using currently available ophthalmic screening methods. Examination techniques to detect early changes in cataract formation or retinal degeneration (two potential chronic effects of optical radiation) are not sufficiently reliable or specific to be of value as routine screening tests. Epidemiologic studies of large worker groups are suggested to evaluate the potential for these chronic conditions to develop as the result of job exposure; however, specific recommendations for routine medical surveillance are limited to preplacement and termination examinations with appropriate evaluation of individuals following acute injury.

  16. Investigation of prototype volcano-surveillance network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, J. P. (Principal Investigator); Ward, P. L.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The equipment installed in the volcano surveillance network continues to work quite reliably and earthquakes are being recorded at all sites. A summary of platform receptions per day has been prepared.

  17. 49 CFR 356.9 - Elimination of routing restrictions-regular route carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elimination of routing restrictions-regular route...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS MOTOR CARRIER ROUTING REGULATIONS § 356.9 Elimination of routing restrictions—regular...

  18. Conflict Resolution Performance in an Experimental Study of En Route Free Maneuvering Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Barhydt, Richard; Hitt, James M., II

    2005-01-01

    NASA has developed a far-term air traffic management concept, termed Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM). One component of DAG-TM, En Route Free Maneuvering, allows properly trained flight crews of equipped autonomous aircraft to assume responsibility for separation from other autonomous aircraft and from Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) aircraft. Ground-based air traffic controllers continue to separate IFR traffic and issue flow management constraints to all aircraft. To examine En Route Free Maneuvering operations, a joint human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted in summer 2004 at the NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers. Test subject pilots used desktop flight simulators to resolve traffic conflicts and adhere to air traffic flow constraints issued by subject controllers. The experimental airspace integrated both autonomous and IFR aircraft at varying traffic densities. This paper presents a subset of the En Route Free Maneuvering experimental results, focusing on airborne and ground-based conflict resolution, and the effects of increased traffic levels on the ability of pilots and air traffic controllers to perform this task. The results show that, in general, increases in autonomous traffic do not significantly impact conflict resolution performance. In addition, pilot acceptability of autonomous operations remains high throughout the range of traffic densities studied. Together with previously reported findings, these results continue to support the feasibility of the En Route Free Maneuvering component of DAG-TM.

  19. Enhanced surveillance program FY1998 accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, J

    1998-10-01

    This report highlights the accomplishments of the Enhanced Surveillance Program (ESP), the highest-priority research and development effort in stockpile management today. This is volume one of eleven, the unclassified summary of selected program highlights. These highlights fall into the following focus areas: pits, high explosives, organics, dynamics, diagnostics, systems, secondaries, materials-aging models, non-nuclear components, and routine surveillance testing system upgrades. Principal investigators from around the DOE complex contributed to this report.

  20. Stereographic Projection in the Joint Surveillance System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    Dlvision Joint Surveillance Sjya h-og oI’c Jaint Surveillance SY4 Prog Ofc FOR TH~ OOAD~ JILYSELL If. WOESME, GS -14 Deputy Syritem Progran Director...937 1.875 650 1200 .9852 1,485 2.969 430 120 .9998 .021 .042 410 240 .9993 .072 .145 390 360 .9985 .154 .308 370 480 . 9973 .266 .533 330 720 .9942 .581

  1. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2002-01-16

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. The document contains the CY 2002 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project.

  2. U.S. space surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    1993-08-01

    The United States operates a diverse set of more than two dozen radar and optical facilities around the world to monitor near-Earth space. The mission of the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) to detect, track, catalog, and identify all man-made objects in space pertains not only to routine space operations but also to special event processing, e.g., satellite breakups. The SSN provides both the Government and the civilian space communities with a wide variety of services and products, including comprehensive historical records on more than 22,000 objects and current, high fidelity orbital parameters on approximately 7,000 satellites now in Earth orbit. Although upgrades to both sensors and processing techniques continue to increase the sensitivity and capacity of the SSN, modifications to the operational procedures at existing facilities and the employment of special, non-network sensors can provide additional insight concerning the magnitude of the Earth satellite population which lies below the normal network reporting level.

  3. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M. Report for 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.

    1997-05-01

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for 1996 are presented. The surveillance program is the ongoing remedial action that resulted from the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site. That study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current program consists of sample collection and analysis of air, surface and subsurface water, and bottom sediment. The results of the analyses are used to (1) monitor the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and (3) generally characterize the radiological environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Tritiated water continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. For many years it was the only radionuclide found to have migrated in measurable quantities. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The available data does not allow a firm conclusion as to whether the presence of this nuclide represents recent migration or movement that may have occurred before Plot M was capped. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 58 - Probe and Monitoring Path Siting Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 23. Hughes, E.E. Development of Standard Reference Material for Air Quality Measurement. ISA... Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring E Appendix E to Part 58 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Pt. 58, App....

  5. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 58 - Probe and Monitoring Path Siting Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Material for Air Quality Measurement. ISA Transactions, 14:281-291, 1975. 24. Altshuller, A.D. and A.G... Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring E Appendix E to Part 58 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Pt. 58, App....

  6. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 58 - Probe and Monitoring Path Siting Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 23. Hughes, E.E. Development of Standard Reference Material for Air Quality Measurement. ISA... Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring E Appendix E to Part 58 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Pt. 58, App....

  7. The Cost of Surveillance After Urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Zaid, Uwais B.; Hawkins, Mitchel; Wilson, Leslie; Ting, Jie; Harris, Catherine; Alwaal, Amjad; Zhao, Lee C.; Morey, Allen F.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine variability in urethral stricture surveillance. Urethral strictures impact quality of life and exact a large economic burden. Although urethroplasty is the gold standard for durable treatment, strictures recur in 8–18%. There are no universally accepted guidelines for post-urethroplasty surveillance. We performed a literature search to evaluate variability in surveillance protocols, analyzed costs, and reviewed performance of each commonly employed modality. Methods Medline search was performed using the keywords: “urethroplasty,” “urethral stricture,” “stricture recurrence” to ascertain commonly used surveillance strategies for stricture recurrence. We included English language manuscripts from the past 10 years with at least 10 patients, and age greater than 18. Cost data was calculated based on standard 2013 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services physician’s fees. Results Surveillance methods included retrograde urethrogram/voiding cystourethrogram (RUG/VCUG), cystourethroscopy, urethral ultrasound, AUA-Symptom Score, and post void residual (PVR) and urine flowmetry (UF) measurement. Most protocols call for a RUG/VCUG at time of catheter removal. Following this, UF/PVR, cystoscopy, urine culture, or a combination of UF and AUA-SS were performed at variable intervals. The first year follow-up cost of anterior urethral surgery ranged from $205 to $1,784. For posterior urethral surgery, follow-up cost for the first year ranged from $404 to $961. Conclusions Practice variability for surveillance of urethral stricture recurrence after urethroplasty leads to significant differences in cost. PMID:25819624

  8. Behavioral surveillance: current perspectives, and its role in catalyzing action.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tim

    2003-02-01

    In the age of 2nd generation surveillance, behavioral surveillance systems form one of the central components of national HIV monitoring systems. Different approaches to behavioral monitoring and the comparative role of behavioral surveillance are discussed, followed by an exploration of some of the practical issues that arise in the implementation of behavioral surveillance systems. This article concludes by stressing the importance of ensuring that the results of behavioral surveillance work are translated into actions that improve the national response to HIV.

  9. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-01-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function. PMID:27067257

  10. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-04-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function.

  11. Persistent Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (P-ISR): Debunking the Myth, Establishing the Concept, and Achieving the Possible

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-03

    MEF MGL MROC NAI NRT OIF OSINT P-ISR POM PPBE RMA ROMO SIGINT UAS us USMC Joint Publication Joint Task Force Marine Air Ground Task...signatures intelligence (MASINT), open source intelligence ( OSINT ), ground reconnaissance and surveillance; and non-traditional assets, such as fixed

  12. A Canadian application of one health: integration of Salmonella data from various Canadian surveillance programs (2005-2010).

    PubMed

    Parmley, Elizabeth Jane; Pintar, Katarina; Majowicz, Shannon; Avery, Brent; Cook, Angela; Jokinen, Cassandra; Gannon, Vic; Lapen, David R; Topp, Ed; Edge, Tom A; Gilmour, Matthew; Pollari, Frank; Reid-Smith, Richard; Irwin, Rebecca

    2013-09-01

    Most bacterial pathogens associated with human enteric illness have zoonotic origins and can be transmitted directly from animals to people or indirectly through food and water. This multitude of potential exposure routes and sources makes the epidemiology of these infectious agents complex. To better understand these illnesses and identify solutions to reduce human disease, an integrative approach like One Health is needed. This article considers the issue of Salmonella in Canada and interprets data collected by several Canadian surveillance and research programs. We describe recovery of Salmonella from various samples collected along the exposure pathway and compare the serovars detected in the different components under surveillance (animal, food, environment, and human). We then present three examples to illustrate how an approach that interprets multiple sources of surveillance data together is able to address issues that transcend multiple departments and jurisdictions. First, differences observed in recovery of Salmonella from different cuts of fresh chicken collected by different programs emphasize the importance of considering the surveillance objectives and how they may influence the information that is generated. Second, the high number of Salmonella Enteritidis cases in Canada is used to illustrate the importance of ongoing, concurrent surveillance of human cases and exposure sources to information domestic control and prevention strategies. Finally, changing patterns in the occurrence of ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg in retail meats and humans demonstrates how integrated surveillance can identify an issue in an exposure source and link it to a trend in human disease. Taken together, surveillance models that encompass different scales can leverage infrastructure, costs, and benefits and generate a multidimensional picture that can better inform disease prevention and control programs.

  13. Cooperation among wirelessly connected static and mobile sensor nodes for surveillance applications.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Edison Pignaton; Heimfarth, Tales; Vinel, Alexey; Wagner, Flávio Rech; Pereira, Carlos Eduardo; Larsson, Tony

    2013-09-25

    This paper presents a bio-inspired networking strategy to support the cooperation between static sensors on the ground and mobile sensors in the air to perform surveillance missions in large areas. The goal of the proposal is to provide low overhead in the communication among sensor nodes, while allocating the mobile sensors to perform sensing activities requested by the static ones. Simulations have shown that the strategy is efficient in maintaining low overhead and achieving the desired coordination.

  14. Routing System for Building Block Layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nang-Ping

    With the advent VLSI, layout techniques become more and more crucial to IC design. An automatic building block layout system is a useful tool to deal with the increasing complexity of custom chip layout problem. An approach to the routing part of this layout system is proposed. This routing system can handle arbitrarily shaped rectilinear blocks with pins on the boundary. A feature of this system is its ability to shift blocks at any moment so that better placement and hence better routing can be achieved. The system minimizes layout area and assures 100% routing completion. A relative placement is the input to this routing system. The prerouting analysis will calculate the expected routing density around each block and the routing space is allocated accordingly. The "bottleneck" idea is introduced to represent the critical regions of the layout plane where the congestion of routing is most likely to occur. It also serves as a link between blocks whereby all information are easily updated when some blocks have to move their positions. A weighted "global routing graph" is constructed to reflect the current routing situation associated with bottlenecks. The global routing of each signal is done by a "Steiner-Tree-on-Graphs" (STOG) algorithm. The basic element of STOG is a three-point Steiner-Tree-on-Graphs algorithm. Some theoretical results are derived and an efficient algorithm is developed based on them. STOG has reasonable computational complexities and yields very good results from experimental tests. In the detailed routing phase, an existing channel router and a switch-box router are called for track assignment. Special emphasis has been put on terminal position alignment between two neighboring channels to avoid unnecessary jogs. The power and ground will be allowed different wire width and routed on the metal layer. Several examples have been tested against this routing system. It has achieved very compact layout in short running time.

  15. U.S. Air Force Posture Statement 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    command and control; electronic Warfare; network Warfare; and intelligence , surveillance and Reconnaissance ( isR ). Many air Force programs, while...persistent isR and—in the case of Predator—a lethal strike option. in addition to their global responsibilities, stateside airborne Warning and control...Joint sTaRs) is an airborne battle management, command and control, intelligence , surveillance, and reconnaissance platform. its primary mission

  16. Studies in the demand for short haul air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanafani, A.; Gosling, G.; Taghavi, S.

    1975-01-01

    Demand is analyzed in a short haul air transportation corridor. Emphasis is placed on traveler selection from available routes. Model formulations, estimation techniques, and traffic data handling are included.

  17. Route to Attosecond Nonlinear Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, F.; Kienberger, R.; Graf, U.; Schweinberger, W.; Fiess, M.; Goulielmakis, E.; Serebryannikov, E. E.; Zheltikov, A. M.; Schultze, M.; Krausz, F.; Azzeer, A. M.

    2010-12-10

    We demonstrate generation of coherent microjoule-scale, low-order harmonic supercontinua in the deep and vacuum ultraviolet (4-9 eV), resulting from the nonlinear transformations of near-single-cycle laser pulses in a gas cell. We show theoretically that their formation is connected to a novel nonlinear regime, holding promise for the generation of powerful deep-UV and vacuum ultraviolet subfemtosecond pulses. Our work opens the route to pump-probe spectroscopy of subfemtosecond-scale valence-shell phenomena in atoms, molecules, and condensed matter.

  18. Organizing, Training, and Equipping the Air Force for Crises and Lesser Conflicts,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    forces; • surveillance, from air and space, especially airborne warning and control systems (AWACS) for the enforcement of air security; Summary...APADS Advanced precision airborne delivery system AWACS Airborne warning and control system C3I Command, control , communications, and intelligence...munition PME Professional military education PSYOPS Psychological operations RAF Royal Air Force (British) RED HORSE Rapid engineer deployable

  19. 77 FR 55832 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... monitoring agencies under the requirements of 40 CFR part 58, Ambient Air Quality Surveillance. For such..., Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Program'' EPA-454/B-08-003, December, 2008. Provisions...

  20. A system safety approach to the FAA surveillance process

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, P.W.; Olson, D.R.

    1997-08-08

    As commercial air travel grows in terms of the number of passenger miles flown, there is expected to be a corresponding dramatic increase in the absolute number of accidents. This despite an enviable safety record and a very low accident rate. The political environment is such that an increase in the absolute number of accidents is not acceptable, with a stated goal of a factor of five reduction in the aviation fatal accident rate within ten years. The objective of this project is to develop an improved surveillance process that will provide measurements of the current state-of-health and predictions of future state of health of aircraft, operators, facilities, and personnel. Methodologies developed for nuclear weapon safety, in addition to more well known system safety and high-consequence engineering techniques, will be used in this approach.

  1. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1991. Environmental protection group

    SciTech Connect

    Dewart, J.; Kohen, K.L.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1991. Routine monitoring for radiation and for radioactive and chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1991 cover external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment.

  2. Miniature Blimps for Surveillance and Collection of Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Miniature blimps are under development as robots for use in exploring the thick, cold, nitrogen atmosphere of Saturn's moon, Titan. Similar blimps can also be used for surveillance and collection of biochemical samples in buildings, caves, subways, and other, similar structures on Earth. The widely perceived need for means to thwart attacks on buildings and to mitigate the effects of such attacks has prompted consideration of the use of robots. Relative to rover-type (wheeled) robots that have been considered for such uses, miniature blimps offer the advantage of ability to move through the air in any direction and, hence, to perform tasks that are difficult or impossible for wheeled robots, including climbing stairs and looking through windows. In addition, miniature blimps are expected to have greater range and to cost less, relative to wheeled robots.

  3. Economics of zoonoses surveillance in a 'One Health' context: an assessment of Campylobacter surveillance in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2017-01-23

    Cross-sectorial surveillance and general collaboration between the animal and the public health sectors are increasingly recognized as needed to better manage the impacts of zoonoses. From 2009, the Swiss established a Campylobacter mitigation system that includes human and poultry surveillance data-sharing within a multi-sectorial platform, in a 'One Health' approach. The objective of this study was to explore the economics of this cross-sectorial approach, including surveillance and triggered interventions. Costs and benefits of the One Health and of the uni-sectorial approach to Campylobacter surveillance were identified using an economic assessment framework developed earlier. Cost information of surveillance activities and interventions was gathered and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with the disease estimated for 2008 and 2013. In the first 5 years of this One Health approach to Campylobacter mitigation, surveillance contributed with information mainly used to perform risk assessments, monitor trends and shape research efforts on Campylobacter. There was an increase in costs associated with the mitigation activities following integration, due mainly to the allocation of additional resources to research and implementation of poultry surveillance. The overall burden of campylobacteriosis increased by 3·4-8·8% to 1751-2852 DALYs in 2013. In the timing of the analysis, added value associated with this cross-sectorial approach to surveillance of Campylobacter in the country was likely generated through non-measurable benefits such as intellectual capital and social capital.

  4. A review of zoonotic disease surveillance supported by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center.

    PubMed

    Burke, R L; Kronmann, K C; Daniels, C C; Meyers, M; Byarugaba, D K; Dueger, E; Klein, T A; Evans, B P; Vest, K G

    2012-05-01

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC), Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System conducts disease surveillance through a global network of US Department of Defense research laboratories and partnerships with foreign ministries of agriculture, health and livestock development in over 90 countries worldwide. In 2010, AFHSC supported zoonosis survey efforts were organized into four main categories: (i) development of field assays for animal disease surveillance during deployments and in resource limited environments, (ii) determining zoonotic disease prevalence in high-contact species which may serve as important reservoirs of diseases and sources of transmission, (iii) surveillance in high-risk human populations which are more likely to become exposed and subsequently infected with zoonotic pathogens and (iv) surveillance at the human-animal interface examining zoonotic disease prevalence and transmission within and between human and animal populations. These efforts have aided in the detection, identification and quantification of the burden of zoonotic diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, Hantaan virus, influenza, Lassa fever, leptospirosis, melioidosis, Q fever, Rift Valley fever, sandfly fever Sicilian virus, sandfly fever Naples virus, tuberculosis and West Nile virus, which are of military and public health importance. Future zoonotic surveillance efforts will seek to develop local capacity for zoonotic surveillance focusing on high risk populations at the human-animal interface.

  5. An integrated national mortality surveillance system for death registration and mortality surveillance, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiwei; Wu, Xiaoling; Lopez, Alan D; Wang, Lijun; Cai, Yue; Page, Andrew; Yin, Peng; Liu, Yunning; Li, Yichong; Liu, Jiangmei; You, Jinling; Zhou, Maigeng

    2016-01-01

    In China, sample-based mortality surveillance systems, such as the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention's disease surveillance points system and the Ministry of Health's vital registration system, have been used for decades to provide nationally representative data on health status for health-care decision-making and performance evaluation. However, neither system provided representative mortality and cause-of-death data at the provincial level to inform regional health service needs and policy priorities. Moreover, the systems overlapped to a considerable extent, thereby entailing a duplication of effort. In 2013, the Chinese Government combined these two systems into an integrated national mortality surveillance system to provide a provincially representative picture of total and cause-specific mortality and to accelerate the development of a comprehensive vital registration and mortality surveillance system for the whole country. This new system increased the surveillance population from 6 to 24% of the Chinese population. The number of surveillance points, each of which covered a district or county, increased from 161 to 605. To ensure representativeness at the provincial level, the 605 surveillance points were selected to cover China's 31 provinces using an iterative method involving multistage stratification that took into account the sociodemographic characteristics of the population. This paper describes the development and operation of the new national mortality surveillance system, which is expected to yield representative provincial estimates of mortality in China for the first time.

  6. Weighing in on Surveillance: Perception of the Impact of Surveillance on Female Ballet Dancers' Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryburgh, Anne; Fortin, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate professional ballet dancers' perceptions of the impact of surveillance on their psychological and physical health. The theoretical framework was inspired by Foucault's writing, particularly his concepts of surveillance, power, discipline and docile bodies. Fifteen professional ballet dancers…

  7. Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2014-10-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality.

  8. Using Poison Center Data for Postdisaster Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H.; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25205009

  9. View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel Putnam Memorial - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  10. Volcano surveillance by ACR silver fox

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, M.C.L.; Mulligair, A.; Douglas, J.; Robinson, J.; Pallister, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Recent growth in the business of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) both in the US and abroad has improved their overall capability, resulting in a reduction in cost, greater reliability and adoption into areas where they had previously not been considered. Uses in coastal and border patrol, forestry and agriculture have recently been evaluated in an effort to expand the observed area and reduce surveillance and reconnaissance costs for information gathering. The scientific community has both contributed and benefited greatly in this development. A larger suite of light-weight miniaturized sensors now exists for a range of applications which in turn has led to an increase in the gathering of information from these autonomous vehicles. In October 2004 the first eruption of Mount St Helens since 1986 caused tremendous interest amoUg people worldwide. Volcanologists at the U.S. Geological Survey rapidly ramped up the level of monitoring using a variety of ground-based sensors deployed in the crater and on the flanks of the volcano using manned helicopters. In order to develop additional unmanned sensing methods that can be used in potentially hazardous and low visibility conditions, a UAV experiment was conducted during the ongoing eruption early in November. The Silver Fox UAV was flown over and inside the crater to perform routine observation and data gathering, thereby demonstrating a technology that could reduce physical risk to scientists and other field operatives. It was demonstrated that UAVs can be flown autonomously at an active volcano and can deliver real time data to a remote location. Although still relatively limited in extent, these initial flights provided information on volcanic activity and thermal conditions within the crater and at the new (2004) lava dome. The flights demonstrated that readily available visual and infrared video sensors mounted in a small and relatively low-cost aerial platform can provide useful data on volcanic phenomena. This was

  11. A novel load-balanced fixed routing (LBFR) algorithm for wavelength routed optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Gangxiang; Li, Yongcheng; Peng, Limei

    2011-11-01

    In the wavelength-routed optical transport networks, fixed shortest path routing is one of major lightpath service provisioning strategies, which shows simplicity in network control and operation. Specifically, once a shortest route is found for a node pair, the route is always used for any future lightpath service provisioning, which therefore does not require network control and management system to maintain any active network-wide link state database. On the other hand, the fixed shortest path routing strategy suffers from the disadvantage of unbalanced network traffic load distribution and network congestion because it keeps on employing the same fixed shortest route between each pair of nodes. To avoid the network congestion and meanwhile retain the operational simplicity, in this study we develop a Load-Balanced Fixed Routing (LBFR) algorithm. Through a training process based on a forecasted network traffic load matrix, the proposed algorithm finds a fixed (or few) route(s) for each node pair and employs the fixed route(s) for lightpath service provisioning. Different from the fixed shortest path routes between node pairs, these routes can well balance traffic load within the network when they are used for lightpath service provisioning. Compared to the traditional fixed shortest path routing algorithm, the LBFR algorithm can achieve much better lightpath blocking performance according to our simulation and analytical studies. Moreover, the performance improvement is more significant with the increase of network nodal degree.

  12. An investigation of TNAV equipped aircraft in a simulated en route metering environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groce, J. L.; Izumi, K. H.; Markham, C. H.; Schwab, R. W.; Taylor, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    This document presents the results of an effort to estimate how often a TNAV (Time Navigation) equipped aircraft could be given a TNAV clearance in the En Route Metering (ERM) system as a function of the percentage of arriving traffic which is TNAV equipped. A fast-time simulation of Denver Stapleton international arrival traffic in the Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center route structure, including en route metering operations, was used to develop data on estimated conflicts, clearance communications and fuel usage for traffic mixes of 25, 50, 75 and 100% TNAV equipped. This study supports an overall effort by NASA to assess the benefits and required technology for using TNAV-equipped aircraft in the ERM environment.

  13. Target Acquisition Involving Multiple Unmanned Air Vehicles: Interfaces for Small Unmanned Air Systems (ISUS) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    03/12/09; 88ABW-09-0990. 14. ABSTRACT The use of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs) in military reconnaissance...unmanned aerial systems. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Target acquisition, reconnaissance/surveillance, micro air vehicles 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...more than doubled its use of drones between January and October 2007 while the number of unmanned flight hours for DoD systems soared to over

  14. Topological Entropy Measure of Artificial Grammar Complexity for Use in Designing Experiments on Human Performance in Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Tasks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-02

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2015-0037 TOPOLOGICAL ENTROPY MEASURE OF ARTIFICIAL GRAMMAR COMPLEXITY FOR USE IN DESIGNING EXPERIMENTS ON HUMAN PERFORMANCE IN...INTELLIGENCE, SURVEILLANCE, AND RECONNAISSANCE (ISR) TASKS Richard Warren, Ph.D. Human Analyst Augmentation Branch 711 Human Performance Wing...AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY 711TH HUMAN PERFORMANCE WING HUMAN EFFECTIVENESS DIRECTORATE WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OH 45433 AIR FORCE

  15. Integrating animal health and foodborne disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Berman, E M; Shimshony, A

    2013-08-01

    The control of foodborne diseases from an animal source has become an important part of public health policy. Since the agents that cause these diseases originate in animals, Veterinary Services, as well as Public Health Services, must be involved in their control. Control programmes should be established either through cooperation between the two Services or by the consolidation of all those involved into a single food control agency. Surveillance is an important part of these control programmes. The following questions must be addressed when planning an effective surveillance programme. What is the relative incidence, morbidity, mortality and economic cost of the foodborne disease in humans? Is the animal population the exclusive or a significant source of the human foodborne infection? What kind of surveillance is needed to identify the disease-causing agent in the animal population? Are we interested in identifying all cases of a disease in order to eradicate it or is our aim to reduce its incidence in the animal population? Do we have the ability to control the disease in the animal population? What disease detection tests are available? What are the sensitivity, specificity and cost of these diagnostic tests? Finally, does the country, region or agency involved have the legal, financial and educational resources to carry out this surveillance and follow it up with appropriate action? After these questions have been resolved,the veterinary and public health sectors must jointly decide if surveillance and control are feasible. If so, they can then begin to develop an appropriate programme.

  16. Novel findings in colorectal polyp surveillance.

    PubMed

    Carballal, Sabela

    2016-09-01

    Colorectal adenomas and serrated polyps are the best characterised premalignant lesions involved in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, the identification and removal of these lesions, as well as post-polypectomy surveillance of affected patients, are key goals in the field of CRC prevention. Current post-polypectomy surveillance strategies differ among the various scientific societies and have several limitations that hamper their application in clinical practice. First, current surveillance intervals are based only on polyp characteristics, excluding other potential clinical conditions, such as diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Second, serrated polyps and adenomas are considered separately, but there is no recommendation in cases of the simultaneous occurrence of both types of lesion. Third, the incorporation of endoscopic technologies implies an increase in polyp detection, whose clinical impact is controversial and directly affects the number of scheduled colonoscopies with an indication of surveillance. Some of the studies presented at the AGA (American Gastroenterological Association) meeting aimed to provide new evidence on the follow-up of colorectal polyps, with a view to optimising the applicability and suitability of current surveillance strategies.

  17. Veterinary surveillance laboratories: developing the training program.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Staci L; McCline, Katasha T; Hanfelt, Margery M

    2010-01-01

    The increased need and demand for onsite, frequent, rapid, and portable food and bottled water testing for indicators of microbiological and chemical agents led to the deployment of 2 laboratory veterinary equipment sets. A Surveillance Food Laboratory Program (SFLP) was developed to allow Veterinary Corps commanders to establish targeted testing programs to enhance food safety and wholesomeness, along with faster responses to food defense, suspected foodborne illness, and food/water risk assessment missions. To support the deployment of the veterinary equipment sets and the SFLP, 2 new functional courses were developed by the Department of Veterinary Science. The Surveillance Food Laboratory Technician Course teaches essential technical skills that include sample processing, assay methodologies, results review, and interpretation of results produced by these laboratories. The Surveillance Food Laboratory Manager Course, developed for designated managers of the laboratories and laboratory programs, teaches the skills critical to ensuring proper surveillance laboratory oversight, testing, evaluation of results, risk communication, and response to presumptive positive results produced by the laboratories. Together, the courses allowed for the successful deployment of the unique veterinary equipment sets, resulting in development of fully operational surveillance laboratories in support of food protection missions in every major theater of operations.

  18. Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (PSMP) describes the procedures that will be used by the US Department of Energy (DOE), or other agency as designated by the President to verify that inactive uranium tailings disposal facilities remain in compliance with licensing requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for remedial actions. The PSMP will be used as a guide for the development of individual Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (part of a license application) for each of the UMTRA Project sites. The PSMP is not intended to provide minimum requirements but rather to provide guidance in the selection of surveillance measures. For example, the plan acknowledges that ground-water monitoring may or may not be required and provides the (guidance) to make this decision. The Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (SSMPs) will form the basis for the licensing of the long-term surveillance and maintenance of each UMTRA Project site by the NRC. Therefore, the PSMP is a key milestone in the licensing process of all UMTRA Project sites. The Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1984a) describes the licensing process. 11 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. 14 CFR 135.369 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: All...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND... Limitations § 135.369 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route...

  20. 14 CFR 135.369 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: All...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND... Limitations § 135.369 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route...