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Sample records for air sac insufflation

  1. Sisters of the sinuses: cetacean air sacs.

    PubMed

    Reidenberg, Joy S; Laitman, Jeffrey T

    2008-11-01

    This overview assesses some distinguishing features of the cetacean (whale, dolphin, porpoise) air sac system that may relate to the anatomy and function of the paranasal sinuses in terrestrial mammals. The cetacean respiratory tract has been modified through evolution to accommodate living in water. Lack of paranasal sinuses in modern cetaceans may be a diving adaptation. Bone-enclosed air chambers are detrimental, as their rigid walls may fracture during descent/ascent due to contracting/re-expanding air volumes. Flexible-walled "sinuses" (extracranial diverticula) are a logical adaptation to diving. Odontocetes (toothed whales) exhibit several pairs of paranasal air sacs. Although fossil evidence indicates that paranasal sinuses occur in archaeocetes (ancestors/relatives of living cetaceans), it is not known whether the paranasal sacs derive from these sinuses. Sac pigmentation indicates that they derived from invaginations of the integument. Unlike sinuses, paranasal sacs are not circumferentially enclosed in bone, and therefore can accommodate air volume changes that accompany diving pressure changes. Paired pterygoid sacs, located ventrally along the cetacean skull, connect the pharynx and middle ear cavities. Mysticetes (baleen whales) have a large midline laryngeal sac. Although cetacean air sacs do not appear to be homologous to paranasal sinuses, they may serve some analogous respiratory, vocal, or structural functions. For example, these sacs may participate in gas exchange, thermoregulation, resonance, and skeletal pneumatization. In addition, they may subserve unique aquatic functions, such as increasing inspiratory volume, mitigating pressure-induced volume change, air shunting to reduce respiratory dead space, and facilitating underwater sound production and transmission.

  2. Comparison between air and carbon dioxide insufflation in the endoscopic submucosal excavation of gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei-Bin; Wang, Zi-Hao; Qu, Chun-Ying; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Han; Zhou, Min; Chen, Ying; Xu, Lei-Ming

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of CO2 insufflation compared with air insufflation in the endoscopic submucosal excavation (ESE) of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. METHODS: Sixty patients were randomized to undergo endoscopic submucosal excavation, with the CO2 group (n = 30) and the air group (n = 30) undergoing CO2 insufflation and air insufflation in the ESE, respectively. The end-tidal CO2 level (pETCO2) was observed at 4 time points: at the beginning of ESE, at total removal of the tumors, at completed wound management, and 10 min after ESE. Additionally, the patients’ experience of pain at 1, 3, 6 and 24 h after the examination was registered using a visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS: Both the CO2 group and air group were similar in mean age, sex, body mass index (all P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in PetCO2 values before and after the procedure (P > 0.05). However, the pain scores after the ESE at different time points in the CO2 group decreased significantly compared with the air group (1 h: 21.2 ± 3.4 vs 61.5 ± 1.7; 3 h: 8.5 ± 0.7 vs 42.9 ± 1.3; 6 h: 4.4 ± 1.6 vs 27.6 ± 1.2; 24 h: 2.3 ± 0.4 vs 21.4 ± 0.7, P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the percentage of VAS scores of 0 in the CO2 group after 1, 3, 6 and 24 h was significantly higher than that in the air group (60.7 ± 1.4 vs 18.9 ± 1.5, 81.5 ± 2.3 vs 20.6 ± 1.2, 89.2 ± 0.7 vs 36.8 ± 0.9, 91.3 ± 0.8 vs 63.8 ± 1.3, respectively, P < 0.05). Moreover, the condition of the CO2 group was better than that of the air group with respect to anal exsufflation. CONCLUSION: Insufflation of CO2 in the ESE of gastrointestinal stromal tumors will not cause CO2 retention and it may significantly reduce the level of pain, thus it is safe and effective. PMID:23326136

  3. Insufflation using carbon dioxide versus room air during colonoscopy: comparison of patient comfort, recovery time, and nursing resources.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Isabelle; Hayes, Ann; Buffum, Martha D; Conners, Erin E

    2015-01-01

    The standard of practice for colonoscopy is room air insufflation. Recent research demonstrates safety and significant decrease in postcolonoscopy discomfort from distention when carbon dioxide (CO2) is used during insufflation. Reducing abdominal pain after colonoscopy may lead to increased acceptance of colonoscopy screening for colorectal cancer. This study aims to compare patient comfort intra- and postprocedure, length of recovery, and nursing time in patients undergoing colonoscopy using room air vs. CO2 insufflation. This study uses an experimental design with patients randomly assigned to either room air or CO2 during colonoscopy. Physician endoscopists, postprocedure nurses, and patients were blinded to assignment. Prior bowel surgery, inflammatory bowel disease, or inability to consent excluded participants. Outcome measures included discomfort assessment, nursing tasks, and recovery time.Of 191 participants, 177 were men and 14 were women; 94 received room air; 97 received CO2. Patients insufflated with room air reported higher levels of some measures of discomfort: (a) during colonoscopy (p = .02), (b) on admission to recovery (p = .001), and (c) on discharge from recovery (p = .001). Patients receiving room air required more nursing tasks in recovery (p = .001) and more total nursing time (p = .001).Compared with room air, CO2 insufflation increases patient comfort and decreases nursing tasks and time.

  4. Venous air embolism following insufflation of the urethra.

    PubMed

    Vanlinthout, L; Boghaert, A; Thienpont, L

    1986-01-01

    Venous air embolism following urethral inflation only scarcely documented: an extensive search of the literature yielded four papers relating to this subject. We report a new case of venous air embolism due to this uncommon etiology. Careful study revealed some common pathogenetic features with previously reported cases. Some important precautions can diminish the likelihood of gas embolism and reduce its fatal outcome in situations, similar to the kind mentioned.

  5. Insufflation esophagoscopy.

    PubMed

    Edens, E T

    1978-01-01

    A new electroscope has been designed from the conventional Haslinger tubes. The new rigid scope combines the advantage of air insufflation in the flexible system with the therapeutic possibilities of the rigid tubes and is trustworthy in the following esophageal procedures; a) finding entrance of severe strictures; b) introducing nasogastric feeding tubes; c) extraction of foreign bodies; d) tumor coagulation/spur in hypopharyngeal diverticuli; e) washing and suction in cases with severe food retention; f)making tumor smears in patients with clotting disorders; g) taking substantial biopsies with an optical forceps, and h) objective photodocumentation of esophageal pathology.

  6. Loss of air sacs improved hominin speech abilities.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Bart

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the acoustic-perceptual effects of air sacs are investigated. Using an adaptive hearing experiment, it is shown that air sacs reduce the perceptual effect of vowel-like articulations. Air sacs are a feature of the vocal tract of all great apes, except humans. Because the presence or absence of air sacs is correlated with the anatomy of the hyoid bone, a probable minimum and maximum date of the loss of air sacs can be estimated from fossil hyoid bones. Australopithecus afarensis still had air sacs about 3.3 Ma, while Homo heidelbergensis, some 600 000 years ago and Homo neandethalensis some 60 000 years ago, did no longer. The reduced distinctiveness of articulations produced with an air sac is in line with the hypothesis that air sacs were selected against because of the evolution of complex vocal communication. This relation between complex vocal communication and fossil evidence may help to get a firmer estimate of when speech first evolved.

  7. Carbon dioxide versus room air insufflation during balloon-assisted enteroscopy: A systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shiani, Ashok; Lipka, Seth; Lai, Andrew; Rodriguez, Andrea C.; Andrade, Christian M.; Kumar, Ambuj; Brady, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims Carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation has been suggested to be an ideal alternative to room air insufflation to reduce trapped air within the bowel lumen after balloon assisted enteroscopy (BAE). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the safety and efficacy of utilizing CO2 insufflation as compared to room air during BAE. Patients and methods The primary outcome is mean change in visual analog scale (VAS; 10 cm) at 1, 3, and 6 hours to assess pain. Secondary outcomes include insertion depth (anterograde or retrograde), adverse events, total enteroscopy rate, diagnostic yield, mean anesthetic dosage, and PaCO2 at procedure completion. We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from inception until May 2015. Multiple independent extractions were performed, the process was executed as per the standards of the Cochrane collaboration. Results Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the meta-analysis. VAS at 6 hours favored CO2 over room air (MD 0.13; 95 % CI 0.01, 0.25; p = 0.03). Anterograde insertion depth (cm) was improved in the CO2 group (MD, 58.2; 95 % CI 17.17, 99.23; p = 0.005), with an improvement in total enteroscopy rate in the CO2 group (RR 1.91; 95 % CI 1.20, 3.06; p = 0.007). Mean dose of propofol (mg) favored CO2 compared to air (MD, – 70.53; 95 % CI – 115.07, – 25.98; P = 0.002). There were no differences in adverse events in either group. Conclusions Despite the ability of CO2 to improve insertion depth and decrease amount of anesthesia required, further randomized control trials are needed to determine the agent of choice for insufflation in balloon assisted enteroscopy. PMID:28191497

  8. Nordic rattle: the hoarse vocalization and the inflatable laryngeal air sac of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Roland; Gebler, Alban; Fritsch, Guido; Nygrén, Kaarlo; Weissengruber, Gerald E

    2007-01-01

    Laryngeal air sacs have evolved convergently in diverse mammalian lineages including insectivores, bats, rodents, pinnipeds, ungulates and primates, but their precise function has remained elusive. Among cervids, the vocal tract of reindeer has evolved an unpaired inflatable ventrorostral laryngeal air sac. This air sac is not present at birth but emerges during ontogenetic development. It protrudes from the laryngeal vestibulum via a short duct between the epiglottis and the thyroid cartilage. In the female the growth of the air sac stops at the age of 2–3 years, whereas in males it continues to grow up to the age of about 6 years, leading to a pronounced sexual dimorphism of the air sac. In adult females it is of moderate size (about 100 cm3), whereas in adult males it is large (3000–4000 cm3) and becomes asymmetric extending either to the left or to the right side of the neck. In both adult females and males the ventral air sac walls touch the integument. In the adult male the air sac is laterally covered by the mandibular portion of the sternocephalic muscle and the skin. Both sexes of reindeer have a double stylohyoid muscle and a thyroepiglottic muscle. Possibly these muscles assist in inflation of the air sac. Head-and-neck specimens were subjected to macroscopic anatomical dissection, computer tomographic analysis and skeletonization. In addition, isolated larynges were studied for comparison. Acoustic recordings were made during an autumn round-up of semi-domestic reindeer in Finland and in a small zoo herd. Male reindeer adopt a specific posture when emitting their serial hoarse rutting calls. Head and neck are kept low and the throat region is extended. In the ventral neck region, roughly corresponding to the position of the large air sac, there is a mane of longer hairs. Neck swelling and mane spreading during vocalization may act as an optical signal to other males and females. The air sac, as a side branch of the vocal tract, can be considered as

  9. Job Attitudes of SAC (Strategic Air Command) Pilots Compared.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    capitalize on attitudinal strengths and compensate for attitudinal weaknesses. JO OV I I tlli ’ All’ ABiLiT if 01- ABSVTRACT 21 AU3STRACT SECURITY...strengths and compensate for attitudinal weaknesses. Also! SAC commanders were advised what work issues they should be concerned about. IV. Results and...how they can capitalize on attitudinal strengths and compensate for attitudinal weaknesses; also to advise leaders within SAC what work issues they

  10. Evidence for Avian Intrathoracic Air Sacs in a New Predatory Dinosaur from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sereno, Paul C.; Martinez, Ricardo N.; Wilson, Jeffrey A.; Varricchio, David J.; Alcober, Oscar A.; Larsson, Hans C. E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Living birds possess a unique heterogeneous pulmonary system composed of a rigid, dorsally-anchored lung and several compliant air sacs that operate as bellows, driving inspired air through the lung. Evidence from the fossil record for the origin and evolution of this system is extremely limited, because lungs do not fossilize and because the bellow-like air sacs in living birds only rarely penetrate (pneumatize) skeletal bone and thus leave a record of their presence. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe a new predatory dinosaur from Upper Cretaceous rocks in Argentina, Aerosteon riocoloradensis gen. et sp. nov., that exhibits extreme pneumatization of skeletal bone, including pneumatic hollowing of the furcula and ilium. In living birds, these two bones are pneumatized by diverticulae of air sacs (clavicular, abdominal) that are involved in pulmonary ventilation. We also describe several pneumatized gastralia (“stomach ribs”), which suggest that diverticulae of the air sac system were present in surface tissues of the thorax. Conclusions/Significance We present a four-phase model for the evolution of avian air sacs and costosternal-driven lung ventilation based on the known fossil record of theropod dinosaurs and osteological correlates in extant birds: (1) Phase I—Elaboration of paraxial cervical air sacs in basal theropods no later than the earliest Late Triassic. (2) Phase II—Differentiation of avian ventilatory air sacs, including both cranial (clavicular air sac) and caudal (abdominal air sac) divisions, in basal tetanurans during the Jurassic. A heterogeneous respiratory tract with compliant air sacs, in turn, suggests the presence of rigid, dorsally attached lungs with flow-through ventilation. (3) Phase III—Evolution of a primitive costosternal pump in maniraptoriform theropods before the close of the Jurassic. (4) Phase IV—Evolution of an advanced costosternal pump in maniraptoran theropods before the close of the

  11. Anisotropic shrinkage of insect air sacs revealed in vivo by X-ray microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liang; Chen, Rongchang; Du, Guohao; Yang, Yiming; Wang, Feixiang; Deng, Biao; Xie, Honglan; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2016-09-01

    Air sacs are thought to be the bellows for insect respiration. However, their exact mechanism of action as a bellows remains unclear. A direct way to investigate this problem is in vivo observation of the changes in their three-dimensional structures. Therefore, four-dimensional X-ray phase contrast microtomography is employed to solve this puzzle. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional image series reveals that the compression of the air sac during respiration in bell crickets exhibits obvious anisotropic characteristics both longitudinally and transversely. Volumetric changes of the tracheal trunks in the prothorax further strengthen the evidence of this finding. As a result, we conclude that the shrinkage and expansion of the insect air sac is anisotropic, contrary to the hypothesis of isotropy, thereby providing new knowledge for further research on the insect respiratory system.

  12. Anisotropic shrinkage of insect air sacs revealed in vivo by X-ray microtomography

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Chen, Rongchang; Du, Guohao; Yang, Yiming; Wang, Feixiang; Deng, Biao; Xie, Honglan; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Air sacs are thought to be the bellows for insect respiration. However, their exact mechanism of action as a bellows remains unclear. A direct way to investigate this problem is in vivo observation of the changes in their three-dimensional structures. Therefore, four-dimensional X-ray phase contrast microtomography is employed to solve this puzzle. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional image series reveals that the compression of the air sac during respiration in bell crickets exhibits obvious anisotropic characteristics both longitudinally and transversely. Volumetric changes of the tracheal trunks in the prothorax further strengthen the evidence of this finding. As a result, we conclude that the shrinkage and expansion of the insect air sac is anisotropic, contrary to the hypothesis of isotropy, thereby providing new knowledge for further research on the insect respiratory system. PMID:27580585

  13. Penguin lungs and air sacs: implications for baroprotection, oxygen stores and buoyancy.

    PubMed

    Ponganis, P J; St Leger, J; Scadeng, M

    2015-03-01

    The anatomy and volume of the penguin respiratory system contribute significantly to pulmonary baroprotection, the body O2 store, buoyancy and hence the overall diving physiology of penguins. Therefore, three-dimensional reconstructions from computerized tomographic (CT) scans of live penguins were utilized to measure lung volumes, air sac volumes, tracheobronchial volumes and total body volumes at different inflation pressures in three species with different dive capacities [Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), king (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and emperor (A. forsteri) penguins]. Lung volumes scaled to body mass according to published avian allometrics. Air sac volumes at 30 cm H2O (2.94 kPa) inflation pressure, the assumed maximum volume possible prior to deep dives, were two to three times allometric air sac predictions and also two to three times previously determined end-of-dive total air volumes. Although it is unknown whether penguins inhale to such high volumes prior to dives, these values were supported by (a) body density/buoyancy calculations, (b) prior air volume measurements in free-diving ducks and (c) previous suggestions that penguins may exhale air prior to the final portions of deep dives. Based upon air capillary volumes, parabronchial volumes and tracheobronchial volumes estimated from the measured lung/airway volumes and the only available morphometry study of a penguin lung, the presumed maximum air sac volumes resulted in air sac volume to air capillary/parabronchial/tracheobronchial volume ratios that were not large enough to prevent barotrauma to the non-collapsing, rigid air capillaries during the deepest dives of all three species, and during many routine dives of king and emperor penguins. We conclude that volume reduction of airways and lung air spaces, via compression, constriction or blood engorgement, must occur to provide pulmonary baroprotection at depth. It is also possible that relative air capillary and parabronchial volumes are

  14. Air sac adenocarcinoma of the sternum in a Quaker parrot (Myiopsitta monachus).

    PubMed

    Loukopoulos, Panayiotis; Okuni, Julius Boniface; Micco, Teresa; Garcia, Jorge P; Uzal, Francisco A; Diab, Santiago S

    2014-12-01

    Respiratory neoplasia is rarely reported in avian species. A 17-yr-old Quaker parrot (Myiopsitta monachus) was admitted with a 2-wk history of anorexia, depression, and respiratory distress. Clinical examination revealed a large, firm mass in the left pectoral muscle. Radiology showed a mass silhouetting the heart and the liver. Supportive treatment was provided, but the bird died during the seventh weekly visit to drain thoracic cavity fluid. Necropsy showed a white, 3 x 3 x 2-cm, hard, gritty sternal mass. Histology showed a nonencapsulated, moderately differentiated air sac carcinoma of the sternum. Immunohistochemically the neoplasm was cytokeratin positive and vimentin and calretinin negative. This is the first report of an air sac neoplasia in a Quaker parrot and one of few respiratory tumors in psittacines.

  15. Histopathological and immunohistochemical study of air sac lesions induced by two strains of infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Bezuidenhout, A; Mondal, S P; Buckles, E L

    2011-11-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly contagious respiratory coronavirus of domestic chickens. Although mortality is low, infection with IBV results in substantial losses for the egg and meat chicken industries. Despite the economic importance of IBV and decades of research into the pathogenesis of infection, significant gaps in our knowledge exist. The aim of this study was to compare the early progression of air sac lesions in birds receiving a vaccine strain of the virus or a more virulent field strain. The air sacs are lined by different types of epithelia and are relatively isolated from the environment, so they represent a unique tissue in which to study virus-induced lesions. Both the pathogenic and vaccine strains of the virus produced significant lesions; however, the lesions progressed more rapidly in the birds receiving the pathogenic strain. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that in birds infected with the pathogenic strain of virus, IBV spike protein is detected first in the ciliated cells lining the air sac. These preliminary data provide important clues regarding potential mechanisms for IBV tissue tropism and spread and show that the nature of the virus isolate influences the early progression of IBV infection.

  16. Impact of new technology weapons on SAC (Strategic Air Command) conventional air operations. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodenheimer, C.E.

    1983-06-01

    Chapter I introduces the issue of conventional-response capability. The point stressed first is that the strategic bomber's primary mission is in support of the single integrated operations plan (SIOP) as a nuclear weapons delivery vehicle. However, as cited by Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, we must have a rapid deployment conventional capability to areas where there are small if any U.S. forces present. The SAC strategic projection force (SPF) is available but with gravity weapons of World War II vintage. New technology can provide answers to the problem by providing highly accurate long-range conventional standoff weapons. Chapter II gives a basic historical perspective on the use of the strategic bomber in past wars. It discusses the development of strategy, weapons, and targets in World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. Chapter III presents a very brief look at current US policy, strategy, and guidance. Chapter IV covers the aircraft attrition issue in today's highly lethal defensive environment. Chapter V describes the development of air-to-ground weapons. Chapter VI addresses the potential for the future in the shifting balance of Soviet and US technology. The final chapter makes the point that a decision must be made on weapons-acquisition programs and bomber force structure. New technology-standoff conventional weapons could make AAA and SAM defenses a modern Maginot Line.

  17. Evolution of Newcastle Disease Virus Quasispecies Diversity and Enhanced Virulence after Passage through Chicken Air Sacs

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Chunchun; Qiu, Xusheng; Yu, Shengqing; Li, Chuanfeng; Sun, Yingjie; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Kaichun; Zhang, Xiangle; Tan, Lei; Song, Cuiping; Liu, Guangqing

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT It has been reported that lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates have the potential to become velogenic after their transmission and circulation in chickens, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, a highly velogenic NDV variant, JS10-A10, was generated from the duck-origin lentogenic isolate JS10 through 10 consecutive passages in chicken air sacs. The velogenic properties of this selected variant were determined using mean death time (MDT) assays, intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI), the intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI), histopathology, and the analysis of host tissue tropism. In contrast, JS10 remained lentogenic after 20 serial passages in chicken eggs (JS10-E20). The JS10, JS10-A10, and JS10-E20 genomes were sequenced and found to be nearly identical, suggesting that both JS10-A10 and JS10-E20 were directly generated from JS10. To investigate the mechanism for virulence enhancement, the partial genome covering the F0 cleavage site of JS10 and its variants were analyzed using ultradeep pyrosequencing (UDPS) and the proportions of virulence-related genomes in the quasispecies were calculated. Velogenic NDV genomes accumulated as a function of JS10 passaging through chicken air sacs. Our data suggest that lentogenic NDV strains circulating among poultry might be a risk factor to future potential velogenic NDV outbreaks in chickens. IMPORTANCE An avirulent isolate, JS10, was passaged through chicken air sacs and embryos, and the pathogenicity of the variants was assessed. A virulent variant, JS10-A10, was generated from consecutive passage in air sacs. We developed a deep-sequencing approach to detect low-frequency viral variants across the NDV genome. We observed that virulence enhancement of JS10 was due to the selective accumulation of velogenic quasispecies and the concomitant disappearance of lentogenic quasispecies. Our results suggest that because it is difficult to avoid contact between natural waterfowl

  18. Singing with reduced air sac volume causes uniform decrease in airflow and sound amplitude in the zebra finch.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Emily Megan; Goller, Franz

    2008-01-01

    Song of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) is a complex temporal sequence generated by a drastic change to the regular oscillations of the normal respiratory pattern. It is not known how respiratory functions, such as supply of air volume and gas exchange, are controlled during song. To understand the integration between respiration and song, we manipulated respiration during song by injecting inert dental medium into the air sacs. Increased respiratory rate after injections indicates that the reduction of air affected quiet respiration and that birds compensated for the reduced air volume. During song, air sac pressure, tracheal airflow and sound amplitude decreased substantially with each injection. This decrease was consistently present during each expiratory pulse of the song motif irrespective of the air volume used. Few changes to the temporal pattern of song were noted, such as the increased duration of a minibreath in one bird and the decrease in duration of a long syllable in another bird. Despite the drastic reduction in air sac pressure, airflow and sound amplitude, no increase in abdominal muscle activity was seen. This suggests that during song, birds do not compensate for the reduced physiological or acoustic parameters. Neither somatosensory nor auditory feedback mechanisms appear to effect a correction in expiratory effort to compensate for reduced air sac pressure and sound amplitude.

  19. Myoblast cytonemes mediate Wg signaling from the wing imaginal disc and Delta-Notch signaling to the air sac primordium

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hai; Kornberg, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    The flight muscles, dorsal air sacs, wing blades, and thoracic cuticle of the Drosophila adult function in concert, and their progenitor cells develop together in the wing imaginal disc. The wing disc orchestrates dorsal air sac development by producing decapentaplegic and fibroblast growth factor that travel via specific cytonemes in order to signal to the air sac primordium (ASP). Here, we report that cytonemes also link flight muscle progenitors (myoblasts) to disc cells and to the ASP, enabling myoblasts to relay signaling between the disc and the ASP. Frizzled (Fz)-containing myoblast cytonemes take up Wingless (Wg) from the disc, and Delta (Dl)-containing myoblast cytonemes contribute to Notch activation in the ASP. Wg signaling negatively regulates Dl expression in the myoblasts. These results reveal an essential role for cytonemes in Wg and Notch signaling and for a signal relay system in the myoblasts. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06114.001 PMID:25951303

  20. Artificial External Glottic Device for Passive Lung Insufflation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kang, Seong-Woong; Park, Yoon Ghil; Lee, Hye Ree

    2011-01-01

    Purpose For patients with neuromuscular disease, air stacking, which inflates the lungs to deep volumes, is important for many reasons. However, neuromuscular patients with severe glottic dysfunction or indwelling tracheostomy tubes cannot air stack effectively. For these patients, we developed a device that permits deep lung insufflations substituting for glottic function. Materials and Methods Thirty-seven patients with bulbar-innervated muscle weakness and/or tracheostomies were recruited. Twenty-three had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and 14 were tetraplegic patients due to cervical spinal cord injury. An artificial external glottic device (AEGD) was used to permit passive deep lung insufflation. In order to confirm the utility of AEGD, vital capacity, maximum insufflation capacity (MIC), and lung insufflation capacity (LIC) with AEGD (LICA) were measured. Results For 30 patients, MICs were initially zero. However, with the use of the AEGD, LICA was measurable for all patients. The mean LICA was 1,622.7±526.8 mL. Although MIC was measurable for the remaining 7 patients without utilizing the AEGD, it was significantly less than LICA, which was 1,084.3±259.9 mL and 1,862.9±248 mL, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusion The AEGD permits lung insufflation by providing deeper lung volumes than possible by air stacking. PMID:22028162

  1. Effects of carbon dioxide insufflation in balloon-assisted enteroscopy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Fujimoto, Ai; Ochiai, Yasutoshi; Kanai, Takanori; Naohisa, Yahagi

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim The efficacy of CO2 insufflation during balloon-assisted enteroscopy remains controversial. This study aimed to perform a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which CO2 insufflation was compared with air insufflation in balloon-assisted enteroscopy. Methods PubMed, the Cochrane library, and the Igaku-Chuo-Zasshi database were searched to identify RCTs eligible for inclusion in the systematic review. Data from the eligible studies were combined to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs) or weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Four RCTs (461 patients) were identified. Compared with air insufflation, CO2 insufflation significantly increased intubation depth of oral enteroscopy (WMD: 55.2, 95% CI: 10.77–99.65, p = 0.015). However, there was significant heterogeneity. The intubation depth of anal enteroscopy showed no significant difference between the CO2 group and the air group. CO2 insufflation significantly reduced abdominal pain compared with air insufflation (WMD: −2.463, 95% CI: −4.452 to −0.474, p = 0.015), without significant heterogeneity. The PaCO2 or end-tidal CO2 level showed no significant difference between the CO2 group and air group. Conclusions Compared with air insufflation, CO2 insufflation during balloon-assisted enteroscopy caused less post-procedural pain without CO2 retention. PMID:26966518

  2. 21 CFR 884.5920 - Vaginal insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vaginal insufflator. 884.5920 Section 884.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5920 Vaginal insufflator. (a) Identification. A vaginal insufflator is a device used to...

  3. 21 CFR 884.5920 - Vaginal insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vaginal insufflator. 884.5920 Section 884.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5920 Vaginal insufflator. (a) Identification. A vaginal insufflator is a device used to...

  4. 21 CFR 884.5920 - Vaginal insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vaginal insufflator. 884.5920 Section 884.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5920 Vaginal insufflator. (a) Identification. A vaginal insufflator is a device used to...

  5. 21 CFR 884.5920 - Vaginal insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vaginal insufflator. 884.5920 Section 884.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5920 Vaginal insufflator. (a) Identification. A vaginal insufflator is a device used to...

  6. 21 CFR 884.5920 - Vaginal insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vaginal insufflator. 884.5920 Section 884.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5920 Vaginal insufflator. (a) Identification. A vaginal insufflator is a device used to...

  7. The SAC Mentality: The Origins of Strategic Air Command’s Organizational Culture, 1948-51

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    emergency action messages to determine if the alert response was an actual launch against the Soviet Union or just another exercise. SAC warriors...phoenix, SAC would not rise again. Forty years of alert posturing and preparation for an apocalyptic war caused the command and its war- riors to develop...Kenney of his transfer to Maxwell AFB, Alabama. Vandenberg also terminated the cross-training program. More importantly, he alerted Lt Gen Curtis Le

  8. Job Attitudes--How SAC (Strategic Air Command) Personnel Compare with the Rest of the Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    might be useful in evaluating the survey results. 2. Using the LMDC data base compiled from October 1981 through September 1985, the author...h 1ferences, whether positive or negative, Are evaluated and provided to SAC so they can use this information in educating their unit commanders...significant differences. Chapter Six summarizes the evaluation and lists recommended actions for SAC to pursue. ^u^u^ä^^Li^^ Chapter Two LITERATURE

  9. 21 CFR 884.1730 - Laparoscopic insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Laparoscopic insufflator. 884.1730 Section 884.1730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... accessory instruments that are not used to effect intra-abdominal insufflation (pneumoperitoneum)....

  10. 21 CFR 884.1730 - Laparoscopic insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Laparoscopic insufflator. 884.1730 Section 884.1730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... accessory instruments that are not used to effect intra-abdominal insufflation (pneumoperitoneum)....

  11. Highlights of the ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, 11–12 March 2016, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Marcelo Blanco; Bramajo, Marina; Bruno, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, held in Buenos Aires, included national, regional, and international experts in the field of prostate cancer. More than 200 professionals from a variety of areas (clinical urologists, pathologists, oncologists, biologists, imaging specialists, radiation therapists, and generalist doctors, among others) attended, and they proposed multidisciplinary management of prostate pathology from the start in concordance with the ideas set forth by the organising committee. A radiotherapy workshop was also held during the symposium, in which new techniques and their possible uses were specifically discussed. In addition to the local doctors, Dr Lilian Faroni (COI Group, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Dr Leonardo Carmona (Chilean Head and Neck Institute, Chile), and Dr Anthony Addesa (Jupiter Medical Centre, Florida, USA) also participated in this symposium. PMID:27350786

  12. A Cathepsin-L is required for invasive behavior during Air Sac Primordium development in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qian; Brenneman, Breanna; Fields, Christopher; Srivastava, Ajay

    2015-10-07

    The Drosophila Air Sac Primordium (ASP) has emerged as an important structure where cellular, genetic and molecular events responsible for invasive behavior and branching morphogenesis can be studied. In this report we present data which demonstrate that a Cathepsin-L encoded by the gene CP1 in Drosophila is necessary for invasive behavior during ASP development. We find that CP1 is expressed in ASP and knockdown of CP1 results in suppression of migratory and invasive behavior observed during ASP development. We further show that CP1 possibly regulates invasive behavior by promoting degradation of Basement Membrane. Our data provide clues to the possible role of Cathepsin L in human lung development and tumor invasion, especially, given the similarities between human lung and Drosophila ASP development.

  13. Wireless Insufflation of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Santina; Smith, Byron F.; Ciuti, Gastone; Gerding, Jason; Menciassi, Arianna; Obstein, Keith L.; Valdastri, Pietro; Webster, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite clear patient experience advantages, low specificity rates have thus far prevented swallowable capsule endoscopes from replacing traditional endoscopy for diagnosis of colon disease. One explanation for this is that capsule endoscopes lack the ability to provide insufflation, which traditional endoscopes use to distend the intestine for a clear view of the internal wall. To provide a means of insufflation from a wireless capsule platform, in this paper we use biocompatible effervescent chemical reactions to convert liquids and powders carried onboard a capsule into gas. We experimentally evaluate the quantity of gas needed to enhance capsule visualization and locomotion, and determine how much gas can be generated from a given volume of reactants. These experiments motivate the design of a wireless insufflation capsule, which is evaluated in ex vivo experiments. These experiments illustrate the feasibility of enhancing visualization and locomotion of endoscopic capsules through wireless insufflation. PMID:23212312

  14. Evolution of archosaurian body plans: skeletal adaptations of an air-sac-based breathing apparatus in birds and other archosaurs.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick Michael

    2009-10-01

    Living birds represent the only extant sauropsid group in which pulmonary air sacs pneumatize the postcranial skeleton. Notable in this regard is an extraordinary degree of variability, ranging from species that are completely apneumatic to those characterized by air within the entire postcranial skeleton. Although numerous factors (e.g., body size) have been linked with "relative" pneumaticity, comparative studies examining this system remain sparse. This project sought to (1) characterize whole-body patterns of skeletal pneumaticity in distantly related neognath birds and (2) evaluate putative relationships among relative pneumaticity, body size and locomotor specializations. Pneumaticity profiles were established for 52 species representing 10 higher-level groups. Although comparisons reveal relatively conserved patterns within most lower-level clades, apparent size- and locomotor-thresholds do impart predictable deviations from the clade norm. For example, the largest flying birds (vultures, pelicans) exhibit hyperpneumaticity (i.e., pneumaticity of distal limb segments) relative to smaller members of their respective clades. In contrast, skeletal pneumaticity has been independently lost in multiple lineages of diving specialists (e.g., penguins, auks). The application of pneumaticity profiling to extinct archosaurs reveals similar trends in body size evolution, particularly when examining patterns of pneumaticity in a size-diverse assemblage of pterosaurs (flying "reptiles"). As a fundamental organizing system, skeletal pneumaticity may play a role in relaxing constraints on body size evolution by allowing volumetric increases without concomitant increases in body mass. Not only might this be critical for taxa (birds, pterosaurs) exploiting the energetically costly aerial environment, but could be beneficial for any large-bodied terrestrial vertebrates such as the dinosaurs.

  15. [Colonoscopy with carbon dioxide insufflation: luxury or neccesity?].

    PubMed

    Herráiz, Maite

    2013-01-01

    Colonoscopy is an essential diagnostic and therapeutic tool for many gastrointestinal diseases and is also a key element in the prevention and early diagnosis of colon cancer. Despite numerous technical advances, colonoscopy continues to be uncomfortable for patients, both during and after the procedure. To a large extent, the discomfort of colonoscopy depends on the need to distend the colon, which usually produces abdominal pain. Although ambient air is usually employed to expand and inflate the colon, in the last few years devices that allow carbon dioxide (CO(2)) insufflation in colonoscopy have been developed. This gas is a highly attractive option for pain-free colonoscopy.

  16. Carbon dioxide insufflation during screening unsedated colonoscopy: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Szura, Miroslaw; Pach, Radoslaw; Matyja, Andrzej; Kulig, Jan

    2015-01-01

    One of the methods used to reduce pain and discomfort during colonoscopy is insufflation of carbon dioxide instead of air. However, the actual benefit of carbon dioxide insufflation is not unequivocally proven. The aim of the study was to evaluate the advantages of carbon dioxide insufflation during screening colonoscopy. A total of 200 patients undergoing screening colonoscopy between 2010 and 2011 were included in the prospective, randomized study carried out in a surgical referral center. Screening unsedated colonoscopy with either air or carbon dioxide insufflation was performed; patients were randomly assigned to air or carbon dioxide group by means of computer-generated randomization lists. All examinations were performed in an ambulatory setting with standard videocolonoscopes. The main outcomes analyzed were (a) duration of the entire procedure, (b) cecal intubation time, and (c) pain severity immediately, 15, and 60 min after the procedure. Group I included 59 women and 41 men and group II included 51 women and 49 men. The duration of the procedure was circa 10 min in both groups. Pain score values immediately and 15 min after the procedure were similar in both groups (P=0.624 and 0.305, respectively). A lower pain score was observed only after 60 min in patients insufflated with carbon dioxide (1.28 vs. 1.54, P=0.008). No pain reduction was observed in women and in obese patients (BMI>30). Carbon dioxide insufflation during unsedated screening colonoscopy does not decrease the duration of the procedure and appears to reduce pain intensity at 60 min after examination to an extent without clinical significance. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01461564.

  17. 13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. A Qualitative Analysis of SAC Aircraft Maintenance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    A122 815 A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC AIRCRAFT MRINTENANCE(U) 112 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PRTTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF SYSTEMS AND LOGISTICS D...Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio ’ ; " ... ..... ... ... . .. .. A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE Douglas P. Cook, Captain... QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC Master’s Thesis AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(q) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(a) Douglas

  19. 21 CFR 884.1700 - Hysteroscopic insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hysteroscopic insufflator. 884.1700 Section 884.1700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... and tubing/filter fits which only include accessory instruments that are not used to...

  20. 21 CFR 884.1700 - Hysteroscopic insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hysteroscopic insufflator. 884.1700 Section 884.1700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... and tubing/filter fits which only include accessory instruments that are not used to...

  1. Carbon dioxide insufflation in esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection reduces mediastinal emphysema: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Yuki; Hirasawa, Dai; Fujita, Naotaka; Ohira, Tetsuya; Harada, Yoshihiro; Yamagata, Taku; Koike, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Kenjirou

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the efficacy of CO2 insufflation for reduction of mediastinal emphysema (ME) immediately after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). METHODS A total of 46 patients who were to undergo esophageal ESD were randomly assigned to receive either CO2 insufflation (CO2 group, n = 24) or air insufflation (Air group, n = 22). Computed tomography (CT) was carried out immediately after ESD and the next morning. Pain and abdominal distention were chronologically recorded using a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). The volume of residual gas in the digestive tract was measured using CT imaging. RESULTS The incidence of ME immediately after ESD in the CO2 group was significantly lower than that in the Air group (17% vs 55%, P = 0.012). The incidence of ME the next morning was 8.3% vs 32% respectively (P = 0.066). There were no differences in pain scores or distention scores at any post-procedure time points. The volume of residual gas in the digestive tract immediately after ESD was significantly smaller in the CO2 group than that in the Air group (808 mL vs 1173 mL, P = 0.013). CONCLUSION CO2 insufflation during esophageal ESD significantly reduced postprocedural ME. CO2 insufflation also reduced the volume of residual gas in the digestive tract immediately after ESD, but not the VAS scores of pain and distention. PMID:27621583

  2. Boundary conditions for heat transfer and evaporative cooling in the trachea and air sac system of the domestic fowl: a two-dimensional CFD analysis.

    PubMed

    Sverdlova, Nina S; Lambertz, Markus; Witzel, Ulrich; Perry, Steven F

    2012-01-01

    Various parts of the respiratory system play an important role in temperature control in birds. We create a simplified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of heat exchange in the trachea and air sacs of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus) in order to investigate the boundary conditions for the convective and evaporative cooling in these parts of the respiratory system. The model is based upon published values for respiratory times, pressures and volumes and upon anatomical data for this species, and the calculated heat exchange is compared with experimentally determined values for the domestic fowl and a closely related, wild species. In addition, we studied the trachea histologically to estimate the thickness of the heat transfer barrier and determine the structure and function of moisture-producing glands. In the transient CFD simulation, the airflow in the trachea of a 2-dimensional model is evoked by changing the volume of the simplified air sac. The heat exchange between the respiratory system and the environment is simulated for different ambient temperatures and humidities, and using two different models of evaporation: constant water vapour concentration model and the droplet injection model. According to the histological results, small mucous glands are numerous but discrete serous glands are lacking on the tracheal surface. The amount of water and heat loss in the simulation is comparable with measured respiratory values previously reported. Tracheal temperature control in the avian respiratory system may be used as a model for extinct or rare animals and could have high relevance for explaining how gigantic, long-necked dinosaurs such as sauropoda might have maintained a high metabolic rate.

  3. Sac phosphatase domain proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, W E; Cooke, F T; Parker, P J

    2000-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of the roles of phosphatidylinositol phosphates in controlling cellular functions such as endocytosis, exocytosis and the actin cytoskeleton have included new insights into the phosphatases that are responsible for the interconversion of these lipids. One of these is an entirely novel class of phosphatase domain found in a number of well characterized proteins. Proteins containing this Sac phosphatase domain include the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins Sac1p and Fig4p. The Sac phosphatase domain is also found within the mammalian phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase synaptojanin and the yeast synaptojanin homologues Inp51p, Inp52p and Inp53p. These proteins therefore contain both Sac phosphatase and 5-phosphatase domains. This review describes the Sac phosphatase domain-containing proteins and their actions, with particular reference to the genetic and biochemical insights provided by study of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:10947947

  4. Endolymphatic sac tumors.

    PubMed

    Wick, Cameron C; Manzoor, Nauman F; Semaan, Maroun T; Megerian, Cliff A

    2015-04-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST) are slow-growing, locally aggressive, low-grade malignancies that originate from the epithelium of the endolymphatic duct and sac. ELST often present with sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo, which may mimic Meniere disease. Large tumors may present with additional cranial neuropathies. Management is primarily via microsurgical excision. Radiation therapy has a limited role for residual or unresectable disease. Early detection may enable hearing preservation techniques. ELST have an association with von Hippel-Lindau disease.

  5. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the...

  6. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the...

  7. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the...

  8. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the...

  9. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the...

  10. Endolymphatic sac tumour.

    PubMed

    Zulkarnaen, Mohammad; Tang, Ing Ping; Wong, Siong Lung

    2012-06-01

    We present a case of a papillary tumour at the cerebellopontine angle in a 41-year-old man. He presented with left-sided facial and ear pain associated with dizziness, nystagmus and hearing loss. CT scan of the temporal bone showed a destructive tumour at the left cerebellopontine angle. Surgical excision was performed and the diagnosis of the endolymphatic sac tumour was made. Endolymphatic tumour is a low grade adenocarcinoma that originates from the endolymphatic sac. The definitive diagnosis requires a combination of clinical features, radiological finding and pathological correlation.

  11. Efficacy and tolerability of medical ozone gas insufflations in patients with osteonecrosis of the jaw treated with bisphosphonates-Preliminary data: Medical ozone gas insufflation in treating ONJ lesions.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, C I; Maniezzo, M; Boldini, S; Pessi, M A; Mariani, L; Cislaghi, E

    2012-12-01

    Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ) is an adverse event reported especially in patients receiving cancer treatments regimen, bisphosphonates (BPs), and denosumab. We performed an open-label, prospective study in patients treated with zoledronic acid who developed ONJ lesions >2.5 cm, and had no benefit after the treatment with the standard therapy, to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of medical ozone (O3) treatment delivered as gas insufflations on each ONJ lesions. Twenty-four patients (mean age 62.5, range 41-80; 12 female) with bone metastases due to breast (11), prostate (4)and lung (4)cancers, myeloma (2), or osteoporosis (3), previously treated with zoledronic acid and not underwent dental preventive measures and with ONJ lesions >2.5 cm, were observed and treated with topical O3 gas insufflation every third day for a minimum of 10 for each pathological area or till necrotic bone sequestrum or surgery. We used a special insufflation bell-shaped device adjusted to the specific characteristics of the patient, capable of eliminating any residue of O3 diffusion by degrading it and releasing O2 into the air. Azithromicin 500 mg/day was administered for 10 days in all patients before the first three gas insufflation although they had previously received various cycles of antibiotics. Ten patients required more than 10 O3 gas insufflations due to multiple lesions and/or purulent sovrainfections; one patient received two further O3 insufflations while waiting the day of surgery. Six of 24 patients interrupted the O3 gas therapy for oncological disease progression (five patients) and for fear of an experimental therapy (one patient). Six patients had the sequestrum and complete or partial (one patient) spontaneous expulsion of the necrotic bone followed by oral mucosa re-epithelization after a range of 4-27 of O3 gas insufflations. No patient reported adverse events. In 12 patients with the largest and deeper ONJ lesions, O3 gas therapy produced the sequestrum of

  12. SAC: Sheffield Advanced Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Mike; Fedun, Viktor; Mumford, Stuart; Gent, Frederick

    2013-06-01

    The Sheffield Advanced Code (SAC) is a fully non-linear MHD code designed for simulations of linear and non-linear wave propagation in gravitationally strongly stratified magnetized plasma. It was developed primarily for the forward modelling of helioseismological processes and for the coupling processes in the solar interior, photosphere, and corona; it is built on the well-known VAC platform that allows robust simulation of the macroscopic processes in gravitationally stratified (non-)magnetized plasmas. The code has no limitations of simulation length in time imposed by complications originating from the upper boundary, nor does it require implementation of special procedures to treat the upper boundaries. SAC inherited its modular structure from VAC, thereby allowing modification to easily add new physics.

  13. 79. Sac digital network (Sacdin), summary fault indicator at top, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. Sac digital network (Sacdin), summary fault indicator at top, south side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  14. Simulation of carbon dioxide insufflation via a diffuser in an open surgical wound model.

    PubMed

    Cater, John E; van der Linden, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Flow within a model surgical opening during insufflation with heated carbon dioxide was studied using computational fluid dynamics. A volume of fluid method was used to simulate the mixture of ambient air and carbon dioxide gas. The negative buoyancy of the carbon dioxide caused it to fill the wound and form a protective layer on the internal surfaces for a range of flow rates, temperatures, and angles of patient inclination. It was observed that the flow remained attached to the surface of the model due to the action of the Coanda effect. A flow rate of 10 L/min was sufficient to maintain a warm carbon dioxide barrier for a moderately sized surgical incision for all likely angles of inclination.

  15. High-flow transtracheal insufflation treats obstructive sleep apnea. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schneider, H; O'Hearn, D J; Leblanc, K; Smith, P L; O'Donnell, C P; Eisele, D W; Peter, J H; Schwartz, A R

    2000-06-01

    To determine the effect of transtracheal insufflation (TTI) on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), we examined breathing patterns in five tracheostomized patients with OSA at varying TTI flow rates when breathing with a closed tracheostomy. The breathing patterns and polysomnographic responses to air insufflation were studied as TTI was increased from 0 to 15 L/min for brief periods of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (Experiment 1). The frequency of sleep-disordered breathing episodes remained high at 0 and 5 L/min (87.0 +/- 33.7 and 79.4 +/- 24.4 episodes per hour NREM) and decreased significantly to 41.3 +/- 31.5 and 43.4 +/- 31.4 episodes/h NREM sleep at rates of 10 and 15 L/min, respectively (p = 0.003). At high levels of TTI (10 and 15 L/min), obstructive apneas and hypopneas decreased but periodic laryngeal obstructions were induced during stage 1 NREM sleep. To prevent laryngeal obstructions, a servo-control system was used to briefly interrupt TTI during these events. When this system was implemented for more prolonged periods of sleep (Experiment 2, total sleep time 176.6 +/- 12.5 min), high-flow TTI (hf-TTI, 15 L/min) led to an overall reduction in the combined frequency of obstructive apneas and laryngeal obstructions from 63.8 +/- 21.8 to 10.7 +/- 9.1 (p < 0.03) and was associated with a marked reduction in arousal frequency from 60.0 +/- 26.0 to 8. 3 +/- 5.4/h in NREM sleep, and from 67.5 +/- 3.5 to 0 +/- 0/h in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Our findings demonstrate that hf-TTI stabilized breathing patterns in apneic patients, and was safe and efficacious for prolonged periods of sleep.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Insufflation or Warm-water Infusion for Unsedated Colonoscopy: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Patients with Chronic Constipation in China

    PubMed Central

    Xiaoling, Xu; Haihang, Zhu; Di, Chen; Langui, Fan; Ting, Lu; Qin, Shen; Chaowu, Chen; Denghao, Deng

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation and warm-water infusion during colonoscopy on patients with chronic constipation remains unknown. We evaluated CO2 insufflation and warm-water irrigation versus air insufflation in unsedated patients with chronic constipation in China. Patients and Methods: This randomized, single–center, controlled trial enrolled 287 consecutive patients, from January 2014 to January 2015, who underwent colonoscopy for chronic constipation. Patients were randomized to CO2 insufflation, warm-water irrigation and air insufflation colonoscopy insertion phase groups. Pain scores were assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS). The primary outcome was real-time maximum insertion pain, recorded by an unblinded nurse assistant. At discharge, the recalled maximum insertion pain was recorded. Meanwhile, patients were requested to select the VAS at 0, 10, 30, and 60 min after the procedure. In addition, cecal intubation and withdrawal time, total procedure time, and adjunct measures were recorded. Results: A total of 287 patients were randomized. The correlation between real-time and recalled maximum insertion pain ((Pearson coefficient r = 0.929; P < 0.0001) confirmed internal validation of the primary outcome. The mean real-time maximum pain scores during insertion 2.9 ± 2.1 for CO2, 2.7 ± 1.9 for water achieved a significantly lower pain score compared with air (5.7 ± 2.5) group (air vs CO2 P < 0.001; air vs water P < 0.001). However, no significant pain score differences were found between the patients in the CO2 and water groups (CO2 vs water, P = 0.0535). P values in painless colonoscopy and only discomfort colonoscopy (pain 1–2) were, respectively, 6 (6.4%) and 8 (8.5%) for air; 17 (17.7%) and 29 (30.2%) for CO2; 16 (16.5%) and 31 (31.9%) for water. At 0, 10, 30, and 60 min postprocedure, pain scores showed in the CO2 and water groups had significantly reduced than in air group. Insertion time was significantly different

  17. [Thoracoscopic thymectomy with carbon dioxide insufflation in the mediastinum].

    PubMed

    Ferrero-Coloma, C; Navarro-Martinez, J; Bolufer, S; Rivera-Cogollos, M J; Alonso-García, F J; Tarí-Bas, M I

    2015-02-01

    The case is presented of a 71 year-old male, diagnosed with a thymoma. A thoracoscopic thymectomy was performed using the carbon dioxide insufflation technique in the mediastinum. During the procedure, while performing one-lung ventilation, the patient's respiration worsened. The contralateral lung had collapsed, as carbon dioxide was travelling from the mediastinum to the thorax through the opened pleura. Two-lung ventilation was decided upon, which clearly improved oxygenation in the arterial gases and airway pressures. Both pH and pCO2 stabilized. The surgical approach and the carbon dioxide technique were continued because 2-lung ventilation did not affect the surgical procedure. This technique has many serious complications and it should always be performed using 2-lung ventilation.

  18. Aquarius/SAC-D mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Amit; Caruso, Daniel; Lagerloef, Gary; Torrusio, Sandra; Durham, David; Falcon, Carlos

    2008-10-01

    Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) is a key parameter in the global water cycle but it is not yet monitored from space. Conventional in situ SSS sampling is too sparse to give the global view of salinity variability that a remote sensing satellite can provide. The Aquarius/SAC-D Mission will make pioneering space-based measurements of global SSS with the precision, resolution, and coverage needed to characterize salinity variations (spatial and temporal), investigate the linkage between ocean circulation, the Earth's water cycle, and climate variability. It is being jointly developed by NASA and the Space Agency of Argentina, the Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE). The Project is currently in implementation phase with the flight Aquarius Instrument undergoing environmental testing at NASA-JPL/Caltech in California, USA and the SAC-D instruments and spacecraft development undergoing at CONAE/INVAP facilities in Argentina. Aquarius/SAC-D launch is scheduled for May 2010.

  19. Haemangiopericytoma of the lacrimal sac.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akihide; Wu, Albert; Sun, Michelle T; Inatani, Masaru; Katori, Nobutada; Selva, Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    Haemangiopericytomas (HPCs) are rare tumours which infrequently occur in the lacrimal sac. Only 8 cases of lacrimal sac HPC have previously been reported. The authors report 2 additional cases presenting clinically with epiphora and a mass. One case recurred 3 times during an 18-year period. The other case did not recur during 51 months of follow-up. The tumours showed immunohistochemical features consistent with a diagnosis of HPC. The authors recommend wide excision for these tumours and careful long-term follow-up to detect recurrence which is not uncommon.

  20. Cul-de-Sac Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochschild, Thomas R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research indicates that adults who live on cul-de-sac streets are more likely to have positive experiences with neighbors than residents of other street types (Brown and Werner, 1985; Hochschild Jr, 2011; Mayo Jr, 1979; Willmott, 1963). The present research ascertains whether street design has an impact on children's neighborhood…

  1. Tracheal gas insufflation: catheter effectiveness determined by expiratory flush volume.

    PubMed

    Ravenscraft, S A; Shapiro, R S; Nahum, A; Burke, W C; Adams, A B; Nakos, G; Marini, J J

    1996-06-01

    Used adjunctively during mechanical ventilation, tracheal gas insufflation (TGI) improves CO2 elimination, principally by decreasing effective anatomic dead space. Continuing lung deflation at end- expiration raises the end-expiratory C02 concentration within the proximal airway, and could theoretically reduce the efficiency of a given catheter flow. To test this possibility, we designed a series of experiments that examined the influence of TGI delivery patterns on the efficiency of CO2 elimination. Using a gating device, catheter flow was delivered selectively during desired portions of expiration. Paralyzed, ventilated dogs were studied at short and extended inspiratory time fractions (TI/TT) with inspiratory tidal volume and ventilator frequency held constant. The expiratory flush volume, not the pattern of gas delivery, determined the observed decline in PaCO2, provided that the end-expiratory period was included in the catheter flush period. Despite continuing end-expiratory lung deflation (extended TI/TT), catheter effectiveness remained the same at matched expiratory flush volumes. To determine if enhanced distal mixing at the higher catheter flows required during the extended TI/TT (to match expiratory flush volume) masked a decrease in efficiency, we repeated the experiment with a tip-inverted catheter. We again found that matched catheter delivered expiratory volumes were similarly effective. With or without ongoing lung deflation, the volume of gas flushed during the expiratory period determined the effectiveness of TGI, provided that inspired minute ventilation remains unchanged and end-expiration is included in the catheter flush period.

  2. Carbon dioxide insufflation for chronic subdural haematoma: a simple addition to burr-hole irrigation and closed-system drainage.

    PubMed

    Kubo, S; Takimoto, H; Nakata, H; Yoshimine, T

    2003-12-01

    Burr-hole irrigation with closed-system drainage is a common surgical method used for chronic subdural haematoma. However, the subdural space with air that entered during surgery sometimes remains for a prolonged period after surgery and may hamper uncomplicated healing of the subdural space. We combined a simple procedure, insufflation of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the subdural space through a drainage catheter, with conventional burr-hole irrigation and closed-system drainage. By this additional procedure, both the subdural space and the gas within the space decreased rapidly, and the subdural drain could be removed within 24 h. By promoting obliteration of the subdural space, this simple combined technique may contribute to early recovery and discharge of patients, and to a reduction in the recurrence rate of the disease.

  3. Survey of Use of the Insufflator-Exsufflator in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, James K; Stiens, Steven; Trincher, Rose; Lam, Mylam; Sarkarati, Mehdii; Linder, Steven; Ho, Chester H

    2007-01-01

    Background/Objective: The insufflator-exsufflator has been shown to be effective in assisting cough in individuals with spinal cord injury. However, many institutions do not use this device. The study was performed to assess use of the device and attitudes among health care providers. Methods: We developed a questionnaire with 4 categories of questions: knowledge of the device, type of facility, clinical practice with the device, and patient and provider satisfaction. The questionnaire was mailed to members of the American Paraplegia Society. Results: Eighty-six questionnaires (16%) were returned. The device was being used in 49% of the institutions. The device was most commonly used with a tracheostomy; use did not correlate with size or type of facility. Patient and provider satisfaction with the insufflator-exsufflator was high. Conclusions: The insufflator-exsufflator is used as a means of removal of secretions in approximately one half of institutions polled. Satisfaction with the device is high. PMID:17591224

  4. Effects of abdominal CO2 insufflation and changes of position on hepatic blood flow in anesthetized pigs.

    PubMed

    Klopfenstein, C E; Morel, D R; Clergue, F; Pastor, C M

    1998-09-01

    During surgical laparoscopy, total hepatic blood flow (THBF) may be modified by CO2 insufflation, changes of tilt, ventilation with high tidal volume, hypercapnia, and anesthesia, but little information is available on the THBF during the procedure. To investigate the changes of hepatic blood flow following the combination of abdominal CO2 insufflation and changes of tilt, we measured mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output, portal vein blood flow (PVBF), and hepatic artery blood flow (HABF) in anesthetized and ventilated pigs. CO2 was insufflated in the abdomen [intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) approximately 15 mmHg], and the hepatic blood flow was measured in various positions (horizontal, 10 degrees and 20 degrees head down, and 10 degrees and 20 degrees head up) before and during CO2 insufflation. CO2 insufflation in the horizontal position did not modify MAP, cardiac output, or PVBF but increased HABF. The head-up tilt decreased MAP, cardiac output, and both hepatic flows in the absence of pneumoperitoneum, but in the presence of abdominal CO2 only cardiac output and PVBF were decreased. The head-down tilt increased MAP and THBF in the absence of pneumoperitoneum, whereas no change was observed in the presence of abdominal CO2. The combination of CO2 insufflation and changes of tilt was not deleterious to hepatic perfusion. These results suggest that hepatic blood flow may be preserved during surgical laparoscopy if the tilt does not exceed 20 degrees and if IAP after CO2 insufflation remains <15 mmHg.

  5. A computerized tomography scan method for calculating the hernia sac and abdominal cavity volume in complex large incisional hernia with loss of domain.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, E Y; Yoo, J H; Rodrigues, A J; Utiyama, E M; Birolini, D; Rasslan, S

    2010-02-01

    Preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum (PPP) is a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of large incisional hernia (size > 10 cm in width or length) with loss of domain (LIHLD). There is no consensus in the literature on the amount of gas that must be insufflated in a PPP program or even how long it should be maintained. We describe a technique for calculating the hernia sac volume (HSV) and abdominal cavity volume (ACV) based on abdominal computerized tomography (ACT) scanning that eliminates the need for subjective criteria for inclusion in a PPP program and shows the amount of gas that must be insufflated into the abdominal cavity in the PPP program. Our technique is indicated for all patients with large or recurrent incisional hernias evaluated by a senior surgeon with suspected LIHLD. We reviewed our experience from 2001 to 2008 of 23 consecutive hernia surgical procedures of LIHLD undergoing preoperative evaluation with CT scanning and PPP. An ACT was required in all patients with suspected LIHLD in order to determine HSV and ACV. The PPP was performed only if the volume ratio HSV/ACV (VR = HSV/ACV) was >or=25% (VR >or= 25%). We have performed this procedure on 23 patients, with a mean age of 55.6 years (range 31-83). There were 16 women and 7 men with an average age of 55.6 years (range 31-83), and a mean BMI of 38.5 kg/m(2) (range 23-55.2). Almost all patients (21 of 23 patients-91.30%) were overweight; 43.5% (10 patients) were severely obese (obese class III). The mean calculated volumes for ACV and HSV were 9,410 ml (range 6,060-19,230 ml) and 4,500 ml (range 1,850-6,600 ml), respectively. The PPP is performed by permanent catheter placed in a minor surgical procedure. The total amount of CO(2) insufflated ranged from 2,000 to 7,000 ml (mean 4,000 ml). Patients required a mean of 10 PPP sessions (range 4-18) to achieve the desired volume of gas (that is the same volume that was calculated for the hernia sac). Since PPP sessions were performed

  6. Intra-Operative Tissue Oxygen Tension Is Increased by Local Insufflation of Humidified-Warm CO2 during Open Abdominal Surgery in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Jean K.; Lindner, Pernilla; Tait, Noel; Maddocks, Tracy; Riepsamen, Angelique; van der Linden, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Maintenance of high tissue oxygenation (PtO2) is recommended during surgery because PtO2 is highly predictive of surgical site infection and colonic anastomotic leakage. However, surgical site perfusion is often sub-optimal, creating an obstructive hurdle for traditional, systemically applied therapies to maintain or increase surgical site PtO2. This research tested the hypothesis that insufflation of humidified-warm CO2 into the abdominal cavity would increase sub-peritoneal PtO2 during open abdominal surgery. Materials and Methods 15 Wistar rats underwent laparotomy under general anesthesia. Three sets of randomized cross-over experiments were conducted in which the abdominal cavity was subjected to alternating exposure to 1) humidified-warm CO2 & ambient air; 2) humidified-warm CO2 & dry-cold CO2; and 3) dry-cold CO2 & ambient air. Sub-peritoneal PtO2 and tissue temperature were measured with a polarographic oxygen probe. Results Upon insufflation of humidified-warm CO2, PtO2 increased by 29.8 mmHg (SD 13.3; p<0.001), or 96.6% (SD 51.9), and tissue temperature by 3.0°C (SD 1.7 p<0.001), in comparison with exposure to ambient air. Smaller, but significant, increases in PtO2 were seen in experiments 2 and 3. Tissue temperature decreased upon exposure to dry-cold CO2 compared with ambient air (-1.4°C, SD 0.5, p = 0.001). Conclusions In a rat model, insufflation of humidified-warm CO2 into the abdominal cavity during open abdominal surgery causes an immediate and potentially clinically significant increase in PtO2. The effect is an additive result of the delivery of CO2 and avoidance of evaporative cooling via the delivery of the CO2 gas humidified at body temperature. PMID:25835954

  7. A microprocessor-controlled tracheal insufflation-assisted total liquid ventilation system.

    PubMed

    Parker, James Courtney; Sakla, Adel; Donovan, Francis M; Beam, David; Chekuri, Annu; Al-Khatib, Mohammad; Hamm, Charles R; Eyal, Fabien G

    2009-09-01

    A prototype time cycled, constant volume, closed circuit perfluorocarbon (PFC) total liquid ventilator system is described. The system utilizes microcontroller-driven display and master control boards, gear motor pumps, and three-way solenoid valves to direct flow. A constant tidal volume and functional residual capacity (FRC) are maintained with feedback control using end-expiratory and end-inspiratory stop-flow pressures. The system can also provide a unique continuous perfusion (bias flow, tracheal insufflation) through one lumen of a double-lumen endotracheal catheter to increase washout of dead space liquid. FRC and arterial blood gases were maintained during ventilation with Rimar 101 PFC over 2-3 h in normal piglets and piglets with simulated pulmonary edema induced by instillation of albumin solution. Addition of tracheal insufflation flow significantly improved the blood gases and enhanced clearance of instilled albumin solution during simulated edema.

  8. Single-port thoracoscopic surgery for pneumothorax under two-lung ventilation with carbon dioxide insufflation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kook Nam; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lee, Dong Kyu; Kim, Heezoo; Lim, Sang Ho; Choi, Young Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of single-port thoracoscopic surgery and two-lung ventilation reduced the invasiveness of minor thoracic surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of single-port thoracoscopic bleb resection for primary spontaneous pneumothorax using two-lung ventilation with carbon dioxide insufflation. Methods Between February 2009 and May 2014, 130 patients underwent single-port thoracoscopic bleb resection under two-lung ventilation with carbon dioxide insufflation. Access was gained using a commercial multiple-access single port through a 2.5-cm incision; carbon dioxide gas was insufflated through a port channel. A 5-mm thoracoscope, articulating endoscopic devices, and flexible endoscopic staplers were introduced through a multiple-access single port for bulla resection. Results The mean time from endotracheal intubation to incision was 29.2±7.8 minutes, the mean operative time was 30.9±8.2 minutes, and the mean total anesthetic time was 75.5±14.4 minutes. There were no anesthesia-related complications or wound problems. The chest drain was removed after a mean of 3.7±1.4 days and patients were discharged without complications 4.8±1.5 days from the operative day. During a mean 7.5±10.1 months of follow-up, there were five recurrences (3.8%) in operated thorax. Conclusions The anesthetic strategy of single-lumen intubation with carbon dioxide gas insufflation can be a safe and feasible option for single-port thoracoscopic bulla resection as it represents the least invasive surgical option with the potential advantages of reducing operative time and one-lung ventilation-related complications without diminishing surgical outcomes. PMID:27293823

  9. SACS: Spitzer Archival Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Daniel

    Emerging from the cosmic web, galaxy clusters are the most massive gravitationally bound structures in the universe. Thought to have begun their assembly at z > 2, clusters provide insights into the growth of large-scale structure as well as the physics that drives galaxy evolution. Understanding how and when the most massive galaxies assemble their stellar mass, stop forming stars, and acquire their observed morphologies in these environments remain outstanding questions. The redshift range 1.3 < z < 2 is a key epoch in this respect: elliptical galaxies start to become the dominant population in cluster cores, and star formation in spiral galaxies is being quenched. Until recently, however, this redshift range was essentially unreachable with available instrumentation, with clusters at these redshifts exceedingly challenging to identify from either ground-based optical/nearinfrared imaging or from X-ray surveys. Mid-infrared (MIR) imaging with the IRAC camera on board of the Spitzer Space Telescope has changed the landscape. High-redshift clusters are easily identified in the MIR due to a combination of the unique colors of distant galaxies and a negative k-correction in the 3-5 μm range which makes such galaxies bright. Even 90-sec observations with Spitzer/IRAC, a depth which essentially all extragalactic observations in the archive achieve, is sufficient to robustly detect overdensities of L* galaxies out to z~2. Here we request funding to embark on a ambitious scientific program, the “SACS: Spitzer Archival Cluster Survey”, a comprehensive search for the most distant galaxy clusters in all Spitzer/IRAC extragalactic pointings available in the archive. With the SACS we aim to discover ~2000 of 1.3 < z < 2.5 clusters, thus provide the ultimate catalog for high-redshift MIR selected clusters: a lasting legacy for Spitzer. The study we propose will increase by more than a factor of 10 the number of high-redshift clusters discovered by all previous surveys

  10. SAC Availability for the IRIS Community

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, P; Snoke, A

    2005-04-06

    SAC (also known as SAC2000) is a signal processing and analysis code that has been developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) over the past 20+ years for a variety of seismic and geophysical research projects. SAC has evolved into a general purpose interactive program designed for the study of sequential signals, especially time-series data. Emphasis has been placed on analysis tools used by research seismologists in the detailed study of seismic events. Analysis capabilities include general arithmetic operations, Fourier transforms, three spectral estimation techniques, IIR and FIR filtering, signal stacking, decimation, interpolation, correlation, and seismic phase picking. SAC also contains an extensive graphics capability. SAC is used extensively by the seismic community because: (1) it has a broad range of well-tested, efficient data analysis capabilities (examples include: data inspection, phase picking, signal correction, quality control, unary and binary data operations, travel-time analysis, spectral analysis including high-resolution spectral estimation, spectrograms and binary sonograms, and array and three-component analysis), (2) it is easy to use and reliable, (3) it has a macro programming language that allows users to develop innovative new analysis techniques, (4) it has interfaces to the Unix operating system, Matlab (www.mathworks.com), and the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) software (Wessel and Smith, 1991, 1998 and gmt.soest.hawaii.edu) that make it very flexible, allowing researchers to solve many research problems innovatively with minimal programming effort, and (5) the suite of analysis capabilities are integrated so that innovative processing schemes are easily implemented. SAC is also widely used because of its user oriented development philosophy, which has led to consistent, easy to use capabilities that are backward compatible. A sample of some of SAC's capabilities is displayed in Figure 1.

  11. SAC-B, Argentine scientific satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulich, J. M.; White, C.

    1994-01-01

    The project and the missions of the Argentine scientific satellite, SAC-B, are summarized. SAC-B is an international cooperative project between NASA and the Secretariat of State of Science and Technology of the Argentine Republic. The objective of SAC-B is to advance the study of solar physics and astrophysics through the examination of solar flares, gamma ray burst sources and the diffuse soft X-ray cosmic background. The scientific payload comprises an instrument to measure the temporal evolution of X-ray emissions from solar flares as well as nonsolar gamma ray bursts, a combined soft X-ray and gamma ray burst detector, a diffuse X-ray background detector, and an energetic neutral atoms detector.

  12. A Surprise in the Lacrimal Sac

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Nilay; Akcay, Emine; Kilicarslan, Aydan; Ozen, Umut; Ozturk, Faruk

    2016-01-01

    To present a case with recurrent dacryocystitis as an unusual complication of medial orbital wall fracture repair with cartilage tissue graft. A 20-year-old male had facial trauma and underwent surgery to reconstruct right medial orbital wall fracture. During follow–up, he presented with continuous epiphora, mucopurulent discharge from the right eye. A thorough history taking indicated that medial orbital fracture was reconstructed with postauricular cartilage. We planned a standard external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). During the creation of lacrimal sac flaps, hard tissue was noted in the lacrimal sac. This tissue was excised and sent for pathological examination. The pathological examination revealed cartilage tissue. There were no further ipsilateral symptoms or complications after DCR. In patients with lacrimal system injury related to orbital wall fracture, iatrogenic foreign bodies in the lacrimal sac should be considered in patients with recurrent dacryocystitis who had reconstructive surgery for facial and orbital trauma. PMID:27555715

  13. Video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy using 5-mm ports and carbon dioxide insufflation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The continuous development and refinement of minimally invasive approaches to thymectomy over the last two decades has potential benefits for patients in terms of better cosmesis, less postoperative pain, shorter length of stay, earlier return to daily activities, less bleeding and fewer complications overall with similar outcomes regarding survival, recurrence of thymoma and complete remission (CR) for myasthenia gravis patients. A variety of different approaches have been described previously. This is a detailed description of video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy using three 5 mm ports, carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation and bipolar electrocoagulation (LigaSure). PMID:26904432

  14. Acute Scrotum Caused by Hernia Sac Torsion.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Shinji; Aoki, Katsuya; Shimada, Keiji; Samma, Shoji

    2016-03-01

    A 9-year-old boy was referred to us with an acute pain attack of the left scrotal contents. Ultrasonography showed a normal blood supply to the left testis, suggesting an incarcerated left inguinal hernia. Surgical exploration did not demonstrate an incarcerated left inguinal hernia. After exploration of the left testis, a dark red pedunculated cystic mass, separate from the left testis, was found to be twisted. Immunohistochemical studies of the excised cyst demonstrated torsion of the hernia sac of the peritoneum. In conclusion, we encountered a case of acute scrotum which was probably caused by torsion of the hernia sac.

  15. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) software requirements specification (SRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.; Flanagan, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) Database, an Impact Level 3Q system. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organization with the requirements for the SACS Project.

  16. A status report on the development of SAC2000: A new seismic analysis code

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, P.; Minner, L.

    1995-08-01

    We are developing a new Seismic Analysis Code (SAC2000) that will meet the research needs of the seismic research and treaty monitoring communities. Our first step in this development was to rewrite the original Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) -- a Fortran code that was approximately 140,000 lines long -- in the C programming language. This rewrite has resulted in a much more robust code that is faster, more efficient, and more portable than the original. We have implemented important processing capabilities such as convolution and binary monograms, and we have significantly enhanced several previously existing capabilities. For example, the spectrogram command now produces a correctly registered plot of the input time series and a color image of the output spectrogram. We have also added an image plotting capability with access to 17 predefined color tables or custom color tables. A rewritten version of the readcss command can now be used to access any of the documented css.3.0 database data formats, a capability that is particularly important to the Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC) and the monitoring community. A much less visible, but extremely important contribution is the correction of numerous inconsistencies and errors that have evolved because of piecemeal development and limited maintenance since SAC was first written. We have also incorporated on-line documentation and have made SAC documentation available on the Internet via the world-wide-web at http://www-ep/tvp/sac.html.

  17. Rate of oral intake and effects of mechanical insufflation-exsufflation on pulmonary complications in patients with duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Toshihiko; Takami, Akiyoshi; Makino, Misato; Ishikawa, Akira; Ishikawa, Yuka

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] In Duchenne muscular dystrophy, it increases risks of difficulties of expectoration of secretion, asphyxia, aspiration pneumonia because of decreased cough function. The aim of this study is to prove that manually assisted coughing or mechanical insufflation-exsufflation prevents pulmonary complication and contribute to continue oral intake safely and continue rate of oral intake in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. [Subjects and Methods] We investigated the status of using ventilator, manually assisted coughing or mechanical insufflation-exsufflation, and oral intake or not. In addition, we inspected the frequency of fever (over 37 °C) needed antibiotics from medical records for index of respiratory tract infection, and compared with every period of using mechanical insufflation-exsufflation from respiratory evaluation on cough peak flow. [Results] Fifty-eight patients participated in this study. There were 45 Full-time noninvasive positive pressure ventilation patients. Forty-three in 45 Full-time noninvasive positive pressure ventilation patients (95.6%) avoided tracheostomy and continued noninvasive positive pressure ventilation because they continued oral intake without tracheal intubation due to the respiratory acute exacerbation by asphyxia or aspiration pneumonia. [Conclusion] Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients can continue oral intake safely while preventing pulmonary complication by using manually assisted coughing or mechanical insufflation-exsufflation. PMID:28356637

  18. Characterizing the Mechanical Properties of Actual SAC105, SAC305, and SAC405 Solder Joints by Digital Image Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Yu, D.; Park, S. B.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the mechanical properties of three lead-free solder alloys 95.5Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC405), 96.5Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305), and 98.5Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) at the solder joint scale. Several actual ChipArray ® ball grid array (CABGA) packages were cross-sectioned, polished, and used as test vehicles. Compressive tests were performed using a nanocharacterization system over the temperature range of 25°C to 105°C. Images of the cross-sectioned solder joints were recorded by microscope during the tests. The recorded images were then processed by using a digital image correlation (DIC) program to calculate the displacement and strain fields on the solder joints. Finite-element method (FEM) modeling was used to extract the Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the solder alloys over the temperature range. The methodology developed in this paper enables characterization of the mechanical properties of the actual solder joints at low strain range with high accuracy.

  19. What is inside the hernia sac?

    PubMed Central

    Virgínia, Ana Araújo; Santos, Cláudia; Contente, Helena; Branco, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Most ovarian inguinal hernias occur in children and are frequently associated with congenital genitalia defects. The authors present the case of a multiparous 89-year-old woman, without any genitalia defect, who was brought to the emergency department with an irreducible inguinal hernia. The patient was proposed for emergency surgery during which we encountered an ovary and a fallopian tube inside the hernial sac. An oophorosalpingectomy and a Lichtenstein procedure were carried out and the postoperative period was uneventful. This case shows that, even though it is rare, a hernial sac may contain almost any intra-abdominal organ, including those least frequent such as the appendix, an ovary or the fallopian tubes. PMID:27511751

  20. Insufflation of hydrogen gas restrains the inflammatory response of cardiopulmonary bypass in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yutaka; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Inamori, Shuji; Shimouchi, Akito; Sonobe, Takashi; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Pearson, James T; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki

    2013-02-01

    Systemic inflammatory responses in patients receiving cardiac surgery with the use of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) significantly contribute to CPB-associated morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that insufflated hydrogen gas (H₂) would provide systemic anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects during CPB, therefore reducing proinflammatory cytokine levels. In this study, we examined the protective effect of H₂ on a rat CPB model. Rats were divided into three groups: the sham operation (SHAM) group, received sternotomy only; the CPB group, which was initiated and maintained for 60 min; and the CPB + H₂ group in which H₂ was given via an oxygenator during CPB for 60 min. We collected blood samples before, 20 min, and 60 min after the initiation of CPB. We measured the serum cytokine levels of (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10) and biochemical markers (lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase). We also measured the wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratio of the left lung 60 min after the initiation of CPB. In the CPB group, the cytokine and biochemical marker levels significantly increased 20 min after the CPB initiation and further increased 60 min after the CPB initiation as compared with the SHAM group. In the CPB + H₂ group, however, such increases were significantly suppressed at 60 min after the CPB initiation. Although the W/D ratio in the CPB group significantly increased as compared with that in the SHAM group, such an increase was also suppressed significantly in the CPB + H₂ group. We suggest that H₂ insufflation is a possible new potential therapy for counteracting CPB-induced systemic inflammation.

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sacs in three dogs.

    PubMed

    Mellett, S; Verganti, S; Murphy, S; Bowlt, K

    2015-03-01

    Anal sac squamous cell carcinoma is rare in dogs. Five cases have been previously reported, treatment of which involved surgery alone. This report describes three further cases of canine anal sac squamous cell carcinoma which underwent medical (meloxicam) management alone, resulting in survival of up to seven months. No metastases were identified. Squamous cell carcinoma, although extremely uncommon, should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis when a dog is presented for investigation of an anal sac mass.

  2. [Comparison of Different Mechanical Insufflator-Exsufflator Systems by Measurement of the Peak Exspiratory Flow (PEF)].

    PubMed

    Schütz, Ansgar; Wagner, Janine; Conrad, Anne; Funke, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Background The management of pulmonary secretion in patients with respiratory muscle weakness using mechanical insufflator-exsufflator systems (MIE) is an established treatment option. There are significant differences in the efficiency of different devices in practical use. The intention of this study was to evaluate the peak exspiratory flow (PEF) values of different devices with and without use of equipment. Methods PEFs of ten MIE were investigated in vitro using different equipment. Results The efficiency of the devices showed significant differences. The use of two bacterial filters showed a significant reduction of 13 % compared to one filter, the use of a catheter mount revealed a significant reduction of 10 %, with an elbow connector additionally 15 %. With a commonly used equipment (1800 mm tube, one filter, catheter tube with elbow) there was a difference of 58 % between the devices Nippy (2,86 l/s) and Pulsar (1,2 l/s). Conclusion There are significant differences in PEF of different MIE and use of different equipment. That could be of therapeutic relevance. Further studies are needed to investigate the clinical relevance of these findings. Recommendations for the use of devices and equipment are necessary to ensure the efficacy of the elimination of pulmonary mucus.

  3. Endolymphatic Sac Tumor in Two Dogs.

    PubMed

    Barnes, K J; Clear, V; Youmans, K; Hardcastle, M R; Nelson, N; Petersen, A; Kiupel, M

    2017-01-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) are rare neoplasms of the inner and middle ear described in humans. Diagnosis of such neoplasms is difficult and largely dependent on a combination of histologic, immunohistochemical, and clinical findings. Although the neoplastic cells lack cellular features of malignancy, these are clinically aggressive tumors that often invade the surrounding temporal bone. Here, we describe 2 dogs with middle ear masses that share morphologic, immunohistochemical, and clinical similarities with human ELSTs. Advanced imaging of the masses revealed evidence of aggressive behavior such as bony lysis of the temporal bone. Histologically, the neoplastic epithelial cells formed papillary structures, lacked mitotic figures, and had mild anisocytosis and anisokaryosis. The neoplastic cells were immunohistochemically positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 but were negative for chromogranin, synaptophysin, and thyroglobulin. Local invasion and bone destruction but no evidence of metastases suggest a clinical behavior similar to human ELSTs.

  4. Krukenberg tumor with yolk sac tumor differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zamecnik, Michal; Voltr, Lubomir; Stuk, Jan; Chlumska, Alena

    2008-04-01

    An unusual case of bilateral Krukenberg tumor with foci of yolk sac tumor (YST) differentiation occurring in a 50-year-old patient is reported. The primary tumor was in the gastric antrum, and it showed morphology of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with diffuse and solid growth pattern. A component of typical YST was not found in the gastric primary and lymph node metastases, although some cells in these locations were positive for alpha-fetoprotein. In the ovarian metastases, YST element showed microcystic/reticular and solid patterns, whereas the adenocarcinoma component was of diffuse type with signet ring cells and with some undifferentiated areas. The case represents further example of the somatic cell-derived tumor with focal germ cell-type differentiation and the first report of YST differentiation in Krukenberg tumor.

  5. On the robustness of SAC silencing in closed mitosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruth, Donovan; Liu, Jian

    Mitosis equally partitions sister chromatids to two daughter cells. This is achieved by properly attaching these chromatids via their kinetochores to microtubules that emanate from the spindle poles. Once the last kinetochore is properly attached, the spindle microtubules pull the sister chromatids apart. Due to the dynamic nature of microtubules, however, kinetochore-microtubule attachment often goes wrong. When this erroneous attachment occurs, it locally activates an ensemble of proteins, called the spindle assembly checkpoint proteins (SAC), which halts the mitotic progression until all the kinetochores are properly attached by spindle microtubules. The timing of SAC silencing thus determines the fidelity of chromosome segregation. We previously established a spatiotemporal model that addresses the robustness of SAC silencing in open mitosis for the first time. Here, we focus on closed mitosis by examining yeast mitosis as a model system. Though much experimental work has been done to study the SAC in cells undergoing closed mitosis, the processes responsible are not well understood. We leverage and extend our previous model to study SAC silencing mechanism in closed mitosis. We show that a robust signal of the SAC protein accumulation at the spindle pole body can be achieved. This signal is a nonlinear increasing function of number of kinetochore-microtubule attachments, and can thus serve as a robust trigger to time the SAC silencing. Together, our mechanism provides a unified framework across species that ensures robust SAC silencing and fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. Intramural research program in NHLBI at NIH.

  6. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  7. Handbook for Strategic Air Command (SAC) Management Engineering Officers (MEOs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    Option 1. 30 .»v.i--iA’-iT"ix"iT^ C7 —»T’^Ti %-.■;:■’■■. ^.T"?""" V-"V;? , ;>T>T:’: , .V~ .:i-<.’^.-i:;rri;^i^r.:’.:’-ir^r.^.:r^.>v.<:o’^^T^..x>C^CtX^o...Kzw*rrTPX-i-VNrvä.-ViC.i C5 «»CTTtTÄT«J^TVT»j;vvtV^.T^Tr»;TVJVlV^Vr^ ELECTOIC auiT’ERIOSU£S !TatS SlR£D Fm ~ ME: 1 tl. 8-52 AIRCIWT MINTDIIII:EI 2...SACMET commander’s spine each time these fateful words are spoken; "I thought ... I assumed .... The OPR didn’t tell me . . . ." This is

  8. General effects of hyperosmolar agents on the endolymphatic sac.

    PubMed

    Erwall, C

    1988-11-01

    The effects of glycerol, urea and mannitol on the structure of the murine endolymphatic sac were investigated at various time intervals after their administration. Within 15 min after administration of glycerol and urea the lumen of the endolymphatic sac was partially collapsed and the density of its contents was increased. At the same time many light epithelial cells displayed abundant intracytoplasmic granules containing floccular and/or lamellar material. A similar type of material was observed in the lumen in close proximity to these cells. This suggested that macromolecular substances were secreted into the endolymphatic sac lumen from these cells. Mannitol induced similar changes, though less pronounced. It is proposed that the changes in the endolymphatic sac following systemic administration of hyperosmolar substances reflect an ability of the endolymphatic sac to compensate for endolymphatic volume and pressure changes caused by these agents.

  9. Evaluation of Refractivity Profiles from CHAMP and SAC-C GPS Radio Occultation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poli, Paul; Joiner, Joanna; delaTorreJuarez, Manuel; Hoff, Raymond M.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The CHAMP and SAC-C missions are the first missions to carry a second-generation 'Blackjack' GPS receiver. One of the new features of this receiver is its ability to sense the lower troposphere closer to the surface than the proof-of-concept GPS/MET 1995 experiment. Since their launch, CHAMP and SAC-C have collected thousands of GPS radio occultations, representing a wealth of measurements available for data assimilation in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. In order to evaluate the refractivity data derived by JPL from raw radio occultation measurements, we use Data Assimilation Office (DAO) 6-hour forecasts as an independent state of the atmosphere. We compare CHAMP and SAC-C refractivity (processed by JPL) with refractivity calculated from the DAO global fields of temperature, water vapor content and humidity. We will show statistics of the differences as well as Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of the differences. Depending upon availability of AIRS data, we plan to show individual profile comparisons between GPS radio occultation and AIRS retrievals.

  10. Evaluation of Refractivity Profiles From Champ and SAC-C GPS Radio Occultation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poli, Paul; Joiner, Joanna; delaTorreJuarez, Manuel; Hoff, Raymond M.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The CHAMP and SAC-C missions are the first missions to carry a second-generation 'Blackjack' GPS receiver. One of the new features of this receiver is its ability to sense the lower troposphere closer to the surface than the proof-of-concept GPS/MET 1995 experiment. Since their launch, CHAMP and SAC-C have collected thousands of GPS radio occultations, representing a wealth of measurements available for data assimilation in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. In order to evaluate the refractivity data derived by JPL from raw radio occultation measurements, we use Data Assimilation Office (DAO) shout forecasts as an independent state of the atmosphere. We compare CHAMP and SAC-C refractivity (processed by JPL) with refractivity calculated from the DAO global fields of temperature, water vapor content and humidity. We will show statistics of the differences as well as Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of the differences. Depending upon availability of AIRS data, we plan to show individual profile comparisons between GPS radio occultation and AIRS retrievals.

  11. Extraction of swallowed toothbrush in stomach by pneumatic insufflation and gastrotomy under local anesthesia: A rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mahesh; Gupta, Pooja; Gupta, Manoj

    2014-05-01

    Most of the ingested foreign bodies pass uneventfully through the gastrointestinal tract. However, long and rigid foreign bodies are associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal impaction, perforation, and bleeding. Spontaneous passage of a toothbrush has not been reported till date and the technique of its removal is a curiosity for surgeons. Endoscopy is a recommended technique for the removal of such complex foreign bodies. However, if it fails, the foreign body can be removed successfully with a laparoscopic gastrotomy. We devised an innovative technique by using pneumatic gastric insufflation and extracted the toothbrush by a tiny gastrotomy under local anesthesia.

  12. A Qualitative Analysis of Supervision in SAC Minuteman ICBM Maintenance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    8217~44IAA A -’ ff3 4% At S. ~ At .~ 4 ’ 󈧦k (A444 4 qg~ 1 ~ ~ H St P /4 .4.,* 4’ SN, h$ A 4., 4,f A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SUPERVISION IN SAC MINUTEMAN... QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SUPERVISION IN Master’s Thesis SAC MINUTEMAN ICBM MAINTENANCE 4. PERFORMING o1. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOR(s) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT...112-83 A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SUPERVISION IN SAC MINUTEMAN ICBM MAINTENANCE A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Systems and Logistics

  13. Chronological Change of the Sac after Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Hyun; Park, Hyung Sub; Ahn, Sanghyun; Min, Sang-Il; Min, Seung-Kee; Ha, Jongwon; Lee, Taeseung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential risk factors of type II endoleak and sac growth after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and the outcomes of secondary interventions. Materials and Methods: Ninety seven patients underwent elective EVAR for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms in two tertiary centers between April 2005 and July 2013. Clinical and imaging parameters were compared among sac growth (>5 mm) and non-growth groups. Risk factors associated with sac growth and persistent type II endoleak were analyzed. The outcomes of reinterventions for persistent type II endoleak were determined. Results: Sac growth was observed in 20 cases (20.6%) and endoleak was found in 90% of them compared to 28.6% (22/77) in the non-growth group (P<0.001). The majority of endoleaks were type II (36/40) and 80.5% were persistent. Sac diameter, neck diameter and number of patent accessory arteries were also statistically significant for sac growth. On multivariate analysis, grade of calcification at the neck, grade of mural thrombus at the inferior mesenteric artery and number of patent accessory arteries were risk factors of persistent type II endoleak. Twenty six reinterventions were done for 16 patients with persistent type II endoleak, with a technical success rate of 88.5%, yet 55.5% showed sac growth regardless of technical success. There were no ruptures during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Sac growth after EVAR was mostly associated with persistent type II endoleak. Secondary interventions using transarterial embolization is partially effective in achieving clinical success. PMID:28042554

  14. A Demonstration of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) Rev. 1 Software for the Hanford Remediation Assessment Project

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Kincaid, Charles T.; Nichols, William E.; Wurstner, Signe K.

    2006-11-06

    The System Assessment Capability (SAC) is a suite of interrelated computer codes that provides the capability to conduct large-scale environmental assessments on the Hanford Site. Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Department of Energy, SAC models the fate and transport of radioactive and chemical contaminants, starting with the inventory of those contaminants in waste sites, simulating transport through the environment, and continuing on through impacts to the environment and humans. Separate modules in the SAC address inventory, release from waste forms, water flow and mass transport in the vadose zone, water flow and mass transport in the groundwater, water flow and mass transport in the Columbia River, air transport, and human and ecological impacts. The SAC supports deterministic analyses as well as stochastic analyses using a Monte Carlo approach, enabling SAC users to examine the effect of uncertainties in a number of key parameters. The initial assessment performed with the SAC software identified a number of areas where both the software and the analysis approach could be improved. Since that time the following six major software upgrades have been made: (1) An air pathway model was added to support all-pathway analyses. (2) Models for releases from glass waste forms, buried graphite reactor cores, and buried naval reactor compartments were added. (3) An air-water dual-phase model was added to more accurately track the movement of volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. (4) The ability to run analyses was extended from 1,000 years to 10,000 years or longer after site closure. (5) The vadose zone flow and transport model was upgraded to support two-dimensional or three-dimensional analyses. (6) The ecological model and human risk models were upgraded so the concentrations of contaminants in food products consumed by humans are produced by the ecological model. This report documents the functions in the SAC software and provides a

  15. Intraoperative Sac Pressure Measurement During Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Hiroyuki; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Ohta, Takashi; Sugimoto, Ikuo; Iwata, Hirohide; Yamada, Tetsuya; Tadakoshi, Masao; Hida, Noriyuki; Orimoto, Yuki; Kamei, Seiji

    2010-10-15

    PurposeIntraoperative sac pressure was measured during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) to evaluate the clinical significance of sac pressure measurement.MethodsA microcatheter was placed in an aneurysm sac from the contralateral femoral artery, and sac pressure was measured during EVAR procedures in 47 patients. Aortic blood pressure was measured as a control by a catheter from the left brachial artery.ResultsThe systolic sac pressure index (SPI) was 0.87 {+-} 0.10 after main-body deployment, 0.63 {+-} 0.12 after leg deployment (P < 0.01), and 0.56 {+-} 0.12 after completion of the procedure (P < 0.01). Pulse pressure was 55 {+-} 21 mmHg, 23 {+-} 15 mmHg (P < 0.01), and 16 {+-} 12 mmHg (P < 0.01), respectively. SPI showed no significant differences between the Zenith and Excluder stent grafts (0.56 {+-} 0.13 vs. 0.54 {+-} 0.10, NS). Type I endoleak was found in seven patients (15%), and the SPI decreased from 0.62 {+-} 0.10 to 0.55 {+-} 0.10 (P = 0.10) after fixing procedures. Type II endoleak was found in 12 patients (26%) by completion angiography. The SPI showed no difference between type II endoleak positive and negative (0.58 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.55 {+-} 0.12, NS). There were no significant differences between the final SPI of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter decreased in the follow-up and that of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter did not change (0.53 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.57 {+-} 0.12, NS).ConclusionsSac pressure measurement was useful for instant hemodynamic evaluation of the EVAR procedure, especially in type I endoleaks. However, on the basis of this small study, the SPI cannot be used to reliably predict sac growth or regression.

  16. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling

    PubMed Central

    Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

  17. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling.

    PubMed

    Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems.

  18. Aquarius and the Aquarius/SAC-D Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Torrusio, S.

    2010-01-01

    Aquarius is a combination L-band radiometer and scatterometer designed to map the salinity field at the ocean surface from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA space agency (NASA) and Argentine space agency (CONAE). The mission is composed of two parts: (a) The Aquarius instrument being developed as part of NASA.s Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program; and (b) SAC-D the fourth spacecraft service platform in the CONAE Satellite de Aplicaciones Cientificas (SAC) program. The primary focus of the mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variations of the salinity field in the open ocean. The mission also meets the needs of the Argentine space program for monitoring the environment and for hazard detection and includes several instruments related to these goals.

  19. The short-circuited everted sac of rat colon mucosa.

    PubMed

    Goerg, K J; Wanitschke, R; Soergel, K H; Wood, C M; Nell, G

    1981-01-01

    A short-circuited preparation of everted rat colon sacs is described. The serosal current electrode is a AgAgCl wire. A cylindrical agar bridge or AgAgCl electrode may be employed on the mucosal side. Effects of Ag+ ions liberated from the electrodes on ion transport could not be demonstrated. Fluid and sodium are absorbed ad bicarbonate secreted. Potassium and chloride movements are not significantly different form zero. The preparation remains stable for at least 2 h. Sodium absorption is diminished by 50% and bicarbonate secretion abolished in the absence of glucose. In principle, similar ion transport properties were found as in Ussing-chamber preparations. The advantage of the everted sac is the capability of measuring net transport of fluid and electrolytes simultaneously and directly because of the large surface/inner volume ratio of the sac.

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac in five dogs.

    PubMed

    Esplin, D G; Wilson, S R; Hullinger, G A

    2003-05-01

    Tumors of the perianal area of dogs are common and include multiple tumor types. Whereas perianal adenomas occur often, adenocarcinomas of the apocrine glands of the anal sac occur less frequently. A review of the literature revealed no reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising from the epithelial lining of the anal sac. Squamous cell carcinomas originating from the lining of the anal sac were diagnosed in five dogs. Microscopically, the tumors consisted of variably sized invasive nests and cords of epithelial cells displaying squamous differentiation. Four of the five dogs were euthanatized because of problems associated with local infiltration by the tumors. In the fifth dog, there was no evidence of tumor 7 months after surgical removal, but further follow up was not available.

  1. Fast frequency hopping codes applied to SAC optical CDMA network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Shin-Pin

    2015-06-01

    This study designed a fast frequency hopping (FFH) code family suitable for application in spectral-amplitude-coding (SAC) optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. The FFH code family can effectively suppress the effects of multiuser interference and had its origin in the frequency hopping code family. Additional codes were developed as secure codewords for enhancing the security of the network. In considering the system cost and flexibility, simple optical encoders/decoders using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a set of optical securers using two arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexers (DeMUXs) were also constructed. Based on a Gaussian approximation, expressions for evaluating the bit error rate (BER) and spectral efficiency (SE) of SAC optical CDMA networks are presented. The results indicated that the proposed SAC optical CDMA network exhibited favorable performance.

  2. Vascular development and hemodynamic force in the mouse yolk sac

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Monica D.; Larina, Irina V.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of the mouse embryonic yolk sac is a highly dynamic process dependent on multiple genetic signaling pathways as well as biomechanical factors regulating proliferation, differentiation, migration, cell-cell, and cell-matrix interactions. During this early developmental window, the initial primitive vascular network of the yolk sac undergoes a dynamic remodeling process concurrent with the onset of blood flow, in which endothelial cells establish a branched, hierarchical structure of large vessels and smaller capillary beds. In this review, we will describe the molecular and biomechanical regulators which guide vascular remodeling in the mouse embryonic yolk sac, as well as live imaging methods for characterizing endothelial cell and hemodynamic function in cultured embryos. PMID:25191274

  3. Characterization of hematopoietic progenitors from human yolk sacs and embryos.

    PubMed

    Huyhn, A; Dommergues, M; Izac, B; Croisille, L; Katz, A; Vainchenker, W; Coulombel, L

    1995-12-15

    Hematopoiesis first arises in the extraembryonic yolk sac, and it is generally believed that yolk sac-derived stem cells migrate and seed the fetal liver at approximately week 6 of development in humans. Recently, the identification at day 8.5 to 9 of multipotential stem cells in intraembryonic sites different from the liver suggests that the establishment of hematopoiesis might be more complex than initially believed. In an attempt to understand initial steps of hematopoiesis during human ontogeny, we characterized clonogenic myeloid progenitor cells in human yolk sacs and corresponding embryos at 25 to 50 days of development. Most erythroid colonies derived from the yolk sacs differed from adult marrow-derived progenitors in that they also contained cells of the granulomacrophagic lineage, suggesting that they were pluripotent and exhibited a different response to cytokines. Furthermore, a subclass of nonerythroid progenitors generated very large granulomacrophagic colonies, some of which generated secondary erythroid colonies on replating. Analysis of the distribution of progenitors revealed that in contrast to erythroid progenitors, whose numbers were equally distributed between the yolk sac and the embryo, 80% of the nonerythroid progenitors were found in the embryo at stages II and III. Interestingly, a high proportion of nonerythroid progenitors (including high proliferative potential cells) was present in colony assays initiated with cells remaining after the liver has been removed. These findings were validated in colony assays established with CD34+ cells purified from extraembryonic yolk sacs and intraembryonic tissues. Increased knowledge about the biology of hematopoietic stem cells early in life may help to further understanding of the mechanisms associated with the restriction in proliferative and differentiative potential observed in the adult hematopoietic stem cell compartment.

  4. Sac Hygroma After Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair: Successful Treatment with Endograft Relining

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Robert K. Palestrant, Sarah; Ryu, Jessica; Trachtenberg, Jeffrey

    2007-06-15

    Aneurysm sac expansion following endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is typically associated with endoleaks that can be readily diagnosed on computed tomographic angiography (CTA), ultrasound, or catheter-directed arteriography. Sac hygromas are a cause of sac expansion without apparent endoleak and are presumed to be a result of ultrafiltration of serum manifested by accumulation of fibrinous, gelatinous material within the aneurysm sac following EVAR. Although there are no reported associated ruptures, sac expansion is nevertheless disconcerting and intervention is presumably indicated. We report a case of an expanding aneurysm after EVAR secondary to sac hygroma that was successfully treated with relining of the existing, original endograft.

  5. Mesotheliomas of the tunica vaginalis testis and hernial sacs.

    PubMed

    Grove, A; Jensen, M L; Donna, A

    1989-01-01

    Three histologically and immunohistochemically well-documented cases of mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis and hernial sac are presented. Analysis and follow-up data on our three patients and a review of 30 previously reported cases have revealed a varied and often unpredictable clinical course. A classification into high- and lowgrade malignant tumours is suggested, based on clinical and pathological findings.

  6. Unusual presentation of Enterobius vermicularis in conjunctival sac.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Sanjay Kumar; Sengupta, Ranadeep; Banerjee, Arup Kumar

    2015-10-01

    We report an unusual case of extraintestinal infection with adult Enterobius vermicularis worms in the conjunctival sac of a two-and-a-half year old boy from Alipurduar, West Bengal, India. Only two other similar cases have been reported in the English literature, one from Assam, India in 1976, and the other from Illinois and California in 2011.

  7. [Sarcoidosis of the lacrimal sac as a cause of dacriostenosis].

    PubMed

    Burduk, Paweł K; Seredyka-Burduk, Małgorzata; Kaźmierczak, Wojciech; Dalke, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. The course of sarcoidosis ranges from asymptomatic to severe. It could affect people of all ages. The disease affects predominantly the lungs and lymph nodes, skin, abdominal organs or eyes. Sarcoidosis of lacrimal sac is very uncommon. We describe a young man with lacrimal sac and nasal mucosa sarcoidosis present with epiphora. Few years before the onset of dacriocystitis the patient was treated because of lymph nodes sarcoidosis. The lacrimal sac sarcoidosis developed five years after systemic disease remission. An endoscopic dacriocystorhinostomy with intubation of nasolacrimal duct was performed. We used postoperatively systemic and local steroids for 3 months period. The patient is under observation for over four years with good health. The abnormal looking nasal or lacrimal sac mucosa could be associated with granulomatous disease as sarcoidosis and Wegener's or malignancies. If the sarcoidosis is established, it could be the first manifestation of sarcoidosis leading to future systemic sarcoidosis development or it may develop many years after the onset of systemic disease. Endoscopic dacriocystorhinostomy with intubation followed by intensive therapy with systemic and local corticosteroids may be helpful to maintain lacrimal drainage patency.

  8. SAC-C mission, an example of international cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomb, F.; Alonso, C.; Hofmann, C.; Nollmann, I.

    In comp liance with the objectives established in the National Space Program, Argentina in Space 1997-2008 ((Plan Espacial Nacional, Argentina en el Espacio 1997-2008), the National Commission on Space Activities (Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales - CONAE) undertook the design, construction, and launching of the SAC-C satellite in close collaboration with NASA. The purpose of this Mission is to carry out observations of interest both for the USA and Argentina, thus contributing effectively to NASA's Earth Science Program and to CONAE's National Space Program. The SAC-C is an international Earth observing satellite mission conceived as a partnership between CONAE and NASA, with additional support in instrumentation and satellite development from the Danish DSRI, the Italian ASI, the French CNES and the Brazilian INPE. A Delta II rocket successfully launched it on November 21st, 2000, from Vandenberg AFB, California, USA. Ten instruments on board the SAC-C perform different studies related to the ground and sea ecosystems, the atmosphere and the geomagnetic field. There are also technological experiments for determination of the satellite attitude and velocity as well as for the studies of the influence of space radiation on advanced electronic components . The inclusion of SAC-C in the AM Constellation, jointly with NASA satellites Landsat 7, EO 1 and Terra, is another example of important international cooperation which synergies the output of any single Mission. The Constellation has been working since March 2001 as a single mission and several cooperative activities have been undertaken including several jointly sponsored technical workshops and collaborative spacecraft navigation experiments. A flight campaign of the NASA AVIRIS instrument was performed in Argentine during January and February 2001, for calibration of SAC-C and EO 1 cameras and the development of joint scientific works. In Cordoba Space Center a jointly operated ground GPS reference

  9. A Q-GERT Model for Determining the Maintenance Crew Size for the SAC command Post Upgrade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    AFIT/GOR/OS/83D-1 l.2, II \\I * In SA Q-GERT MODEL FOR DETERMINING ’- THE MAINTENANCE CREW SIZE FOR •’THE SAC COMMAND POST UPGRADE THESIS Harold R...COMMAND POST UPGRADE * THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of’Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air University In...Thomas Clark, and my reader,.Lt. Col. Gerald Armstrong, for their assistance and guidance during the preparation of my thesis . I would also like to thank

  10. Expression of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in midgestation mouse yolk sac and mouse visceral yolk sac carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, A R; Habib, G M; Damjanov, A; Matacic, S; Damjanov, I; Lebovitz, R M; Lieberman, M W

    1995-08-01

    gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma GT) is a crucial enzyme for the metabolism of xenobiotics and endogenous mediators of biological functions (leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and hepoxillins). Yet little is known about its potential role during development. It is a single copy gene expressed from at least seven promoters. Using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry we demonstrate that gamma GT first appears in the midgestational yolk sacs of mouse embryos. Established cell lines with phenotypic features of yolk sac endoderm (JC-44) or embryonic stem cells were also assayed for the expression of gamma GT. Significant levels were detected in JC-44 cells and higher levels were found in JC-44-derived embryoid bodies. Because this cell line appears to be a good in vitro counterpart of yolk sac differentiation, we characterized the gamma GT mRNA types expressed in JC-44 cells. By ribonuclease protection analysis, gamma GT RNA types IV and VI represent about 80% of the total gamma GT RNA in JC-44 embryoid bodies. Reverse transcription-mediated polymerase chain reaction detected low amounts of gamma GT RNA types I, III, and V. Expression of gamma GT in yolk sac follows a pattern seen in many tissues in which one or two gamma GT RNA types dominate the expression profile; however, the reason for this tissue specificity is unknown.

  11. Acoustic communication in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) an examination into vocal sacs, sound propagation, and signal directionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dantzker, Marc Steven

    The thesis is an inquiry into the acoustic communication of a very unusual avian species, the Greater Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus. One of the most outstanding features of this animal's dynamic mating display is its use of paired air sacs that emerge explosively from an esophageal pouch. My first line of inquiry into this system is a review of the form and function of similar vocal apparatuses, collectively called vocal sacs, in birds. Next, with a combination of mathematical models and field measurements, My collaborator and I investigate the acoustic environment where the Greater Sage-Grouse display. The complexities of this acoustic environment are relevant both to the birds and to the subsequent examinations of the display's properties. Finally, my collaborators and I examine a cryptic component of the acoustic display --- directionality --- which we measured simultaneously from multiple locations around free moving grouse on their mating grounds.

  12. 2 CFR Appendix X to Part 200 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PRINCIPLES, AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Pt. 200, App. X Appendix X to Part 200—Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) The Data Collection Form SF-SAC is available on the FAC Web site....

  13. Inhibition of peritoneal dissemination of colon cancer by hyperthermic CO2 insufflation: A novel approach to prevent intraperitoneal tumor spread

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Houming; Zheng, Minhua

    2017-01-01

    Background The increasing use of laparoscopic surgery for advanced gastrointestinal cancer raises concerns about intra-peritoneal tumor spread. Prevention of peritoneal dissemination is extremely important but a preventive modality is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine a novel approach (hyperthermic CO2 insufflation, HT-CO2) for preventing peritoneal dissemination during laparoscopic surgery. Methods A peritoneal dissemination model was established in Balb/c nu/nu mice by intraperitoneal injection of human colon cancer cells (SW1116, 1×106). The mice (n = 48) were subsequently randomized into two groups and subjected to hyperthermic CO2 (43°C, >95% humidity, HT-CO2 group) or standard normothermic CO2 (21°C, <1% relative humidity, NT-CO2 group) insufflation for 3 hours. The mice were sacrificed 28 days later. The peritoneal dissemination was quantitatively analyzed by counting and weighing the peritoneal nodules. The port sites and ascites volume were measured. The peritoneal damage of HT-CO2 was histologically examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Intra-abdominal adhesions were evaluated 4 weeks later. Results The number of peritoneal nodules in the HT-CO2 group was significantly less than that in the NT-CO2 group (10.21±3.72 vs. 67.12±5.49, P<0.01). The mean weight of metastatic tumors in the HT-CO2 group was significantly lower than that in the NT-CO2 group (0.31±0.10g vs. 2.16±0.31g, P<0.01). Massive ascites were found in the NT-CO2 group while significantly less ascites developed in HT-CO2- treated mice (8.26±0.31ml vs. 1.27±0.28ml, P<0.01). No port-site metastases were detected in the HT-CO2 group while the incidence of the NT-CO2 group was 12.5% (3/24). HT-CO2 subjection resulted in slight peritoneal damage; the peritoneum returned to normal within five days. No adhesions formed after HT-CO2 treatment. Conclusions HT-CO2 can suppress peritoneal dissemination of colon cancer cells and only causes slight and

  14. 38 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Form SF-SAC) A Appendix A to Part 41 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pt. 41, App. A, Nt. Appendix A to Part 41—Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) Note: Data Collection Form SF-SAC and...

  15. Efficacy of Several Pesticide Products on Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) Egg Sacs and Their Penetration Through the Egg Sac Silk.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Richard S; Tarango, Jacob; Campbell, Kathleen A; Tham, Christine; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Information on pesticide effects on spiders is less common than for insects; similar information for spider egg sacs is scarcer in the open literature. Spider egg sacs are typically covered with a protective silk layer. When pesticides are directly applied to egg sacs, the silk might prevent active ingredients from reaching the eggs, blocking their insecticidal effect. We investigated the impact of six water-based pesticide sprays and four oil-based aerosol products against egg sacs of brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch. All water-based spray products except one failed to provide significant mortality to egg sacs, resulting in successful spiderling emergence from treated egg sacs at a similar rate to untreated egg sacs. In contrast to water-based sprays, oil-based aerosols provided almost complete control, with 94-100% prevention of spiderling emergence. Penetration studies using colored pesticide products indicated that oil-based aerosols were significantly more effective in penetrating egg sac silk than were the water-based sprays, delivering the active ingredients on most (>99%) of the eggs inside the sac. The ability of pesticides to penetrate spider egg sac silk and deliver lethal doses of active ingredients to the eggs is discussed in relation to the chemical nature of egg sac silk proteins. Our study suggests that pest management procedures primarily relying on perimeter application of water-based sprays might not provide satisfactory control of brown widow spider eggs. Determination of the most effective active ingredients and carrier characteristics warrant further research to provide more effective control options for spider egg sacs.

  16. SAC-C Mission and the Morning Constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomb, F. R.; Alonso, C.; Hofmann, C.; Frulla, L.; Nollmann, I.; Milovich, J.; Kuba, J.; Ares, F.; Kalemkarian, M.

    2002-01-01

    SAC-C is an international Earth observing satellite mission conceived as a partnership between CONAE and NASA, but with additional support in instrumentation and satellite development from the Danish DSRI, the Italian ASI, the French CNES and the Brazilian INPE. A Delta II rocket successfully launched it on November 21st, 2000, from Vandenberg AFB, California, USA. SAC-C has been designed primarily to fulfill the requirements of countries with large extension of territory or scarcely populated like Argentina. Its design is a good compromise between resolution and swath width that makes SAC-C an appropriate tool for global and high dynamic phenomena studies. There are ten instruments on board of SAC-C that will perform different studies, the Multispectral Medium Resolution Scanner (MMRS), provided by CONAE, Argentina, will help in the studies about desertification processes evaluation and their evolution in time (i.e., Patagonia, Argentina), to identify and predict agriculture production, to monitor flood areas and to make studies in coastal and fluvial areas. The MMRS will be associated with a High Resolution Technological Camera (HRTC), also provided by CONAE that will permit improvement in the MMRS resolution in the areas where it will be required. A High Sensitivity Technological Camera (HSTC) is also included in the mission. SAC-C also carries instruments to monitor the condition and dynamics of the terrestrial and marine biosphere and environment (GPS OccuLtation and Passive reflection Experiment (GOLPE)) from NASA/JPL. The Magnetic Mapping Payload, (MMP) developed by the Danish Space Research Institute helps to better understand the Earth's magnetic field and related Sun -Earth interactions .Italian Star Tracker (IST) and Italian Navigation Experiment (INES) developed by the Italian Space Agency, constitute a technological payload that will permit testing a fully autonomous system for attitude and orbit determination. Influence of space radiation on advanced

  17. SacB-SacR Gene Cassette As the Negative Selection Marker to Suppress Agrobacterium Overgrowth in Agrobacterium-Mediated Plant Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiming; Miao, Jiamin; Traore, Sy; Kong, Danyu; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Xunzhong; Nimchuk, Zachary L.; Liu, Zongrang; Zhao, Bingyu

    2016-01-01

    Agrobacterium overgrowth is a common problem in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. To suppress the Agrobacterium overgrowth, various antibiotics have been used during plant tissue culture steps. The antibiotics are expensive and may adversely affect plant cell differentiation and reduce plant transformation efficiency. The SacB-SacR proteins are toxic to most Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains when they are grown on culture medium supplemented with sucrose. Therefore, SacB-SacR genes can be used as negative selection markers to suppress the overgrowth of A. tumefaciens in the plant tissue culture process. We generated a mutant A. tumefaciens strain GV2260 (recA-SacB/R) that has the SacB-SacR cassette inserted into the bacterial genome at the recA gene locus. The mutant Agrobacterium strain is sensitive to sucrose but maintains its ability to transform plant cells in both transient and stable transformation assays. We demonstrated that the mutant strain GV2260 (recA-SacB/R) can be inhibited by sucrose that reduces the overgrowth of Agrobacterium and therefore improves the plant transformation efficiency. We employed GV2260 (recA-SacB/R) to generate stable transgenic N. benthamiana plants expressing a CRISPR-Cas9 for knocking out a WRKY transcription factor. PMID:27833912

  18. SacB-SacR Gene Cassette As the Negative Selection Marker to Suppress Agrobacterium Overgrowth in Agrobacterium-Mediated Plant Transformation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiming; Miao, Jiamin; Traore, Sy; Kong, Danyu; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Xunzhong; Nimchuk, Zachary L; Liu, Zongrang; Zhao, Bingyu

    2016-01-01

    Agrobacterium overgrowth is a common problem in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. To suppress the Agrobacterium overgrowth, various antibiotics have been used during plant tissue culture steps. The antibiotics are expensive and may adversely affect plant cell differentiation and reduce plant transformation efficiency. The SacB-SacR proteins are toxic to most Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains when they are grown on culture medium supplemented with sucrose. Therefore, SacB-SacR genes can be used as negative selection markers to suppress the overgrowth of A. tumefaciens in the plant tissue culture process. We generated a mutant A. tumefaciens strain GV2260 (recA-SacB/R) that has the SacB-SacR cassette inserted into the bacterial genome at the recA gene locus. The mutant Agrobacterium strain is sensitive to sucrose but maintains its ability to transform plant cells in both transient and stable transformation assays. We demonstrated that the mutant strain GV2260 (recA-SacB/R) can be inhibited by sucrose that reduces the overgrowth of Agrobacterium and therefore improves the plant transformation efficiency. We employed GV2260 (recA-SacB/R) to generate stable transgenic N. benthamiana plants expressing a CRISPR-Cas9 for knocking out a WRKY transcription factor.

  19. Excited states of Ne isoelectronic ions: SAC-CI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, A. K.; Ehara, M.; Nakatsuji, H.

    2001-01-01

    Excited states of the s, p, and d symmetries up to principal quantum number n = 4 are studied for the first eight members of Ne isoelectronic sequence (Ne to Cl7+) by the SAC-CI (symmetry-adapted-cluster configuration-interaction) method. The valence STO basis sets of Clementi et al. and the optimized excited STO are used by the STO-6G expansion method. The calculated transition energies agree well with the experimental values wherever available.

  20. Endometriosis in a spigelian hernia sac: an unexpected finding.

    PubMed

    Moris, Demetrios; Michalinos, Adamantios; Vernadakis, Spiridon

    2015-01-01

    Describes the existence of endometrioma in a spigelian hernia sac. Spigelian Hernia is a rare ventral hernia, presenting difficulties in diagnosis and carrying a high incarceration and obstruction risk. Endometriomas occur due to implantation of endometrial cells into a surgical wound, most often after a cesarean delivery. A 37-year-old woman presented to our department with persistent abdominal pain, exacerbating during menses, and vomiting for 2 days. Physical examination revealed a mass-like lesion in the border between the left-upper and left-lower quadrant. Ultrasound examination was inconclusive and a computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed an abdominal wall mass. During surgery, a spigelian hernia was found 5 to 7 cm above a previous cesarean incision. Tissue like "chocolate cysts" was present at the hernia sac. Hernia was repaired while tissue was excised and sent for histological examination that confirmed the diagnosis. Spigelian hernia is a hernia presenting difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. Endometrioma in a spigelian hernia sac is a rare diagnosis, confirmed only histologically. Clinical suspicion can be posed only through symptoms and thorough investigation.

  1. Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS): an online service for near real-time satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenot, H.; Theys, N.; Clarisse, L.; van Geffen, J.; van Gent, J.; Van Roozendael, M.; van der A, R.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P.-F.; Clerbaux, C.; Valks, P.; Hedelt, P.; Prata, F.; Rasson, O.; Sievers, K.; Zehner, C.

    2013-10-01

    Volcanic eruptions emit plumes of ash and gases in the atmosphere, potentially at very high altitudes. Ash rich plumes are hazardous for airplanes as ash is very abrasive and easily melts inside their engines. With more than 50 active volcanoes per year and the ever increasing number of commercial flights, the safety of airplanes is a real concern. Satellite measurements are ideal for monitoring global volcanic activity and, in combination with atmospheric dispersion models, to track and forecast volcanic plumes. Here we present the Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS, sacs.aeronomie.be" target ="_blank"> http://sacs.aeronomie.be), which is a free online service initiated by ESA for the near real-time (NRT) satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes of SO2 and ash. It combines data from two UV-visible (OMI, GOME-2) and two infrared (AIRS, IASI) spectrometers. This new multi-sensor warning system of volcanic plumes, running since April 2012, is based on the detection of SO2 and is optimised to avoid false alerts while at the same time limiting the number of notifications in case of large plumes. The system shows successful results with 95% of our notifications corresponding to true volcanic activity.

  2. Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS): an online service for near-real-time satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenot, H.; Theys, N.; Clarisse, L.; van Geffen, J.; van Gent, J.; Van Roozendael, M.; van der A, R.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P.-F.; Clerbaux, C.; Valks, P.; Hedelt, P.; Prata, F.; Rasson, O.; Sievers, K.; Zehner, C.

    2014-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions emit plumes of ash and gases into the atmosphere, potentially at very high altitudes. Ash-rich plumes are hazardous for airplanes as ash is very abrasive and easily melts inside their engines. With more than 50 active volcanoes per year and the ever-increasing number of commercial flights, the safety of airplanes is a real concern. Satellite measurements are ideal for monitoring global volcanic activity and, in combination with atmospheric dispersion models, to track and forecast volcanic plumes. Here we present the Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS, sacs.aeronomie.be/ecosystem"_target="blank">http://sacs.aeronomie.be/ecosystem), which is a free online service initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA) for the near-real-time (NRT) satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes of SO2 and ash. It combines data from three ultraviolet (UV)-visible and three infrared (IR) spectrometers. The UV-vis sensors are the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) on-board the two polar orbiting meteorological satellites (MetOp-A & MetOp-B) operated by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT). The IR sensors are the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on-board MetOp-A & MetOp-B. This new multi-sensor warning system of volcanic emissions is based on the selective detection of SO2 and ash. This system is optimised to avoid false alerts while at the same time limiting the number of notifications in case of large plumes. A successful rate with more than 95% of notifications corresponding to true volcanic activity is obtained by the SACS system.

  3. Impact of New Technology Weapons on SAC (Strategic Air Command) Conventional Air Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    material for analysis in depth and later recommendations in regard to U.S. policies and institutions. 16 The intent of this study is to achieve the...objectives outlined by Colonel Dupuy. All material here is unclassified. A large amount of research material has been condensed in this study, but the...insure no misunderstanding on your part, a few definitions are necessary. Conventional weapon. This is any weapon that does not use nuclear materials as

  4. Sac Angiography and Glue Embolization in Emergency Endovascular Aneurysm Repair for Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Yuya Nishimura, Jun-ichi Hase, Soichiro Yamasaki, Motoshige

    2015-04-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to demonstrate a sac angiography technique and evaluate the feasibility of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of the ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac in emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in hemodynamically unstable patients.MethodsA retrospective case series of three patients in whom sac angiography was performed during emergency EVAR for ruptured AAA was reviewed. After stent graft deployment, angiography within the sac of aneurysm (sac angiography) was performed by manually injecting 10 ml of contrast material through a catheter to identify the presence and site of active bleeding. In two patients, sac angiography revealed active extravasation of the contrast material, and NBCA embolization with a coaxial catheter system was performed to achieve prompt sealing.ResultsSac angiography was successful in all three patients. In the two patients who underwent NBCA embolization for aneurysm sac bleeding, follow-up computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated the accumulation of NBCA consistent with the bleeding site in preprocedural CT images.ConclusionsEVAR is associated with a potential risk of ongoing bleeding from type II or IV endoleaks into the disrupted aneurysm sac in patients with severe coagulopathy. Therefore, sac angiography and NBCA embolization during emergency EVAR may represent a possible technical improvement in the treatment of ruptured AAA in hemodynamically unstable patients.

  5. PREPARATION OF COLLODION SACS FOR USE IN BACTERIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Frederick L.

    1921-01-01

    A standardized method is described in detail by which collodion sacs suitable for intraperitoneal incubation and for other bacteriological experiments may be produced in large numbers, sterilized, and handled with convenience and the minimum danger of contamination. Various factors influencing permeability have been subjected to experiment. Like Brown, we found that immersion in alcohol is the most important factor, but the high permeability conferred by alcohol treatment is lost during heat sterilization if the membrane was previously allowed to dry. Quantitative experiments on the dialysis of sodium chloride, and simple tests with other substances indicate the general character of the membranes and their probable field of usefulness in bacteriology. PMID:19868478

  6. Anatomy and imaging of the lesser peritoneal sac

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, W.J.; Foley, W.D.; Lawson, T.L.; Stewart, E.T.; Taylor, A.

    1985-03-01

    The development of high-resolution computed tomographic (CT) imaging has substantially improved the radiologic examination of the lesser peritoneal sac (LPS). The fact that LPS anatomy remains obscure and difficult to remember often causes problems in the interpretation of CT as well as conventional radiologic examinations of the upper abdomen. This report reviews the embryologic development of the LPS, introduces a useful method for remembering three-dimensional LPS anatomy, and discusses LPS abnormalities on imaging examinations, with a special emphasis on the CT findings.

  7. SacPox from the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is a proficient lactonase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background SacPox, an enzyme from the extremophilic crenarchaeal Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (Sac), was isolated by virtue of its phosphotriesterase (or paraoxonase; Pox) activity, i.e. its ability to hydrolyze the neurotoxic organophosphorus insecticides. Later on, SacPox was shown to belong to the Phosphotriesterase-Like Lactonase family that comprises natural lactonases, possibly involved in quorum sensing, and endowed with promiscuous, phosphotriesterase activity. Results Here, we present a comprehensive and broad enzymatic characterization of the natural lactonase and promiscuous organophosphorus hydrolase activities of SacPox, as well as a structural analysis using a model. Conclusion Kinetic experiments show that SacPox is a proficient lactonase, including at room temperature. Moreover, we discuss the observed differences in substrate specificity between SacPox and its closest homologues SsoPox and SisLac together with the possible structural causes for these observations. PMID:24894602

  8. Brief Glutamine Pretreatment Increases Alveolar Macrophage CD163/Heme Oxygenase-1/p38-MAPK Dephosphorylation Pathway and Decreases Capillary Damage but Not Neutrophil Recruitment in IL-1/LPS-Insufflated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Agazio, Amanda; Wilson, Paul; Elkins, Nancy; Domaleski, Luke; He, Qianbin; Baer, Kaily A.; Moss, Angela F. D.; Wischmeyer, Paul E.; Repine, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Glutamine (GLN) attenuates acute lung injury (ALI) but its effect on alveolar macrophages is unknown. We hypothesized that GLN pretreatment would induce the anti-inflammatory CD163/heme oxygenase (HO)-1/p38-MAPK dephosphorylation pathway in alveolar macrophages and reduce ALI in rats insufflated with interleukin-1 (IL-1) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to the following groups: GLN-IL-1/LPS-, GLN+IL-1/LPS-, GLN-IL-1/LPS+, and GLN+IL-1/LPS+. GLN pretreatment was given via gavage (1g/kg L-alanyl-L-glutamine) daily for 2 days. ALI was subsequently induced by insufflating 50ng IL-1 followed by 5mg/kg E.coli LPS. After 24h, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and neutrophil concentrations were analyzed. BAL alveolar macrophage CD163+ expression, HO-1 and p38-MAPK concentrations were measured, as well as alveolar macrophage tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-10 concentrations. Histology and immunofluorescence studies were also performed. Results Following IL-1/LPS insufflation, GLN pretreated rats had significantly decreased BAL protein and LDH concentrations, but not BAL neutrophil counts, compared to non-GLN pretreated rats. The number of alveolar macrophages and the number of CD163+ macrophages were significantly increased in GLN pretreated IL-1/LPS-insufflated rats compared to non-GLN pretreated, IL-1/LPS-insufflated rats. GLN pretreatment before IL-1/LPS also significantly increased HO-1 concentrations and dephosphorylated p38-MAPK levels but not cytokine levels in alveolar macrophages. Immunofluorescence localized CD163 and HO-1 in alveolar macrophages. Conclusion Short-term GLN pretreatment activates the anti-inflammatory CD163/HO-1/p38-MAPK dephosphorylation pathway of alveolar macrophages and decreases capillary damage but not neutrophil recruitment in IL-1/LPS-insufflated rats. PMID:26147379

  9. Indirect inguinal hernia sac containing testis and spermatic cord in an adult patient with cryptorchidism.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Yusuf; Karaman, Kerem; Altintoprak, Fatih; Kahyaoglu, Zeynep; Zengin, Ismail; Uzunoglu, Mustafa Yener; Demir, Hakan

    2014-03-07

    Sliding hernias are those in which part of the sac wall is formed by a retroperitoneal organ and/or its mesentery protruding outside the abdominal wall cavity. The hernia sac may contain jejunum, ileum, vermiform appendix, Meckel's diverticulum, stomach, ovary, fallopian tube or urinary bladder. Our report features an adult case with cryptorchidism in which testis and spermatic cord constitute a component of the indirect inguinal hernia sac.

  10. Indirect inguinal hernia sac containing testis and spermatic cord in an adult patient with cryptorchidism

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Yusuf; Karaman, Kerem; Altintoprak, Fatih; Kahyaoglu, Zeynep; Zengin, Ismail; Uzunoglu, Mustafa Yener; Demir, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Sliding hernias are those in which part of the sac wall is formed by a retroperitoneal organ and/or its mesentery protruding outside the abdominal wall cavity. The hernia sac may contain jejunum, ileum, vermiform appendix, Meckel's diverticulum, stomach, ovary, fallopian tube or urinary bladder. Our report features an adult case with cryptorchidism in which testis and spermatic cord constitute a component of the indirect inguinal hernia sac. PMID:24876399

  11. Hypostase, embryonic sac and endosperm in Anethum graveolens L., and in various families.

    PubMed

    Szujkó-Lacza, J

    1978-01-01

    The presence of pyriform hypostase tissue was investigated before double fertilization till the fusion of free endosperm nuclei in the embryonic sac of A. graveolens. Hypostase a glandular tissue, can secrete its cell contents into the embryonic sac during the development of free endosperm nuclei. Of 78 randomly selected families, 19 display different numbers of species with hypostase. In 15 of these families the hypostase is present together with the Polygonum type of embryonic sac and nuclear type of endosperm.

  12. Potentiodynamic polarization effect on phase and microstructure of SAC305 solder in hydrochloric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaini, Nurwahida Binti Mohd; Nazeri, Muhammad Firdaus Bin Mohd

    2016-07-01

    The corrosion analysis of SAC305 lead free solder was investigated in Hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. Potentiodynamic polarization was used to polarize the SAC305. The effect of polarization on the phase and microstructure were compared to as-prepared SAC305 solder. Potentiodynamic polarization introduces mixed corrosion products on the surface of SAC305 solder. The XRD analysis confirms that the mixed corrosion products emerged on the surface after polarization by formation of SnO and SnO2 of which confirmed that dissolution of Sn was dominant during polarization. Microstructure analysis reveal the presence of gap and porosities produced limits the protection offered by the passivation film.

  13. The PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 triad in human breast cancer: Functional link between elevated Sac3 phosphatase and enhanced proliferation of triple negative cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ikonomov, Ognian C. Filios, Catherine Sbrissa, Diego Chen, Xuequn Shisheva, Assia

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •We assess PAS complex proteins and phosphoinositide levels in breast cancer cells. •Sac3 and ArPIKfyve are markedly elevated in triple-negative breast cancer cells. •Sac3 silencing inhibits proliferation in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. •Phosphoinositide profiles are altered in breast cancer cells. •This is the first evidence linking high Sac3 with breast cancer cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve and 5-phosphatase Sac3 are scaffolded by ArPIKfyve in the PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 (PAS) regulatory complex to trigger a unique loop of PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} synthesis and turnover. Whereas the metabolizing enzymes of the other 3-phosphoinositides have already been implicated in breast cancer, the role of the PAS proteins and the PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} conversion is unknown. To begin elucidating their roles, in this study we monitored the endogenous levels of the PAS complex proteins in cell lines derived from hormone-receptor positive (MCF7 and T47D) or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (BT20, BT549 and MDA-MB-231) as well as in MCF10A cells derived from non-tumorigenic mastectomy. We report profound upregulation of Sac3 and ArPIKfyve in the triple negative vs. hormone-sensitive breast cancer or non-tumorigenic cells, with BT cell lines showing the highest levels. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Sac3, but not that of PIKfyve, significantly inhibited proliferation of BT20 and BT549 cells. In these cells, knockdown of ArPIKfyve had only a minor effect, consistent with a primary role for Sac3 in TNBC cell proliferation. Intriguingly, steady-state levels of PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} in BT20 and T47D cells were similar despite the 6-fold difference in Sac3 levels between these cell lines. However, steady-state levels of PtdIns3P and PtdIns5P, both regulated by the PAS complex, were significantly reduced in BT20 vs. T47D or MCF10A cell lines, consistent with elevated Sac3 affecting directly or

  14. Oxygen Insufflation in University of Wisconsin Solution Ameliorates Reperfusion Injury in Small Bowel after Cold Storage and Reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Glowka, Tim R; Wei, Lai; Hata, Koichiro; Afify, Mamdouh; Kalff, Jörg C; Minor, Thomas; Tolba, René H

    2015-08-13

    BACKGROUND Results in small bowel transplantation are inferior compared to other solid organ transplantations, among other reasons, due to a specific vulnerability to ischemia/reperfusion injury. New strategies are needed to improve organ storage. Here we compare static cold storage in University of Wisconsin solution to storage supplemented with molecular oxygen gas insufflation. MATERIAL AND METHODS Rat small bowel was retrieved and either stored unoxygenated (UW) or oxygenated (UW+O2) for 18 h at 4°C. Biochemical parameters, mucosal function, Toll-like receptor upregulation, and parameters of structural integrity were evaluated following isolated reperfusion in vitro for 30 min at 37°C. RESULTS Oxygenation showed: ATP concentration was 82 times higher; lactate dehydrogenase release was continuously lower over 30 min; malondialdehyde, a final product of lipid peroxidation (UW+O2 vs. UW; 2.7±0.92 nmol/mL vs. 17.22±10.1 nmol/mL; P<0.05) and nitric oxide concentration (0.87±0.27 µmol/L vs. 2.17±0.29 µmol/L; P<0.001) were significantly lower; whereas mucosal functional integrity (galactose uptake) was better preserved (0.47±0.18 mg/dL vs. 0.35±0.05 mg/dL). Amelioration of tissue damage could be demonstrated by reduced apoptosis (3.3±1.2 AU vs. 28.4±10 AU; P>0.05), and preserved subcellular integrity. Toll-like receptors were significantly less upregulated (TLR2 0.32±0.1 vs. 2.1±1.5-fold and TLR4 1.53±1.14 vs. 11.79±5.4-fold; P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Oxygenated storage is superior to standard storage in University of Wisconsin solution in terms of energetics, tissue damage, and mucosal integrity.

  15. Abdominal insufflation decreases blood loss without worsening the inflammatory response: implications for prehospital control of internal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Velmahos, George C; Spaniolas, Konstantinos; Tabbara, Malek; Duggan, Michael; Li, Yongqing; De Moya, Marc; Alam, Hasan B

    2008-04-01

    Abdominal insufflation (AI) by carbon dioxide has been shown to decrease the rate of bleeding in different swine models of abdominal organ injuries. With development of appropriate tools, AI could be used to control bleeding temporarily in the prehospital setting. Concerns have been raised about the inflammatory response to AI, which could damage organs at a later stage despite initial hemostasis. We hypothesized that AI controls bleeding without inducing an unfavorable inflammatory response. An experimental splenic injury was caused in 28 Yorkshire pigs, which were randomized to: 1) standard resuscitation (n = 14) with crystalloids to a mean arterial pressure of 60 mm Hg, or 2) standard resuscitation and AI (n = 14) to an abdominal pressure of 20 cmH2O. The experiment lasted for 30 minutes, and intra-abdominal blood loss was measured. Blood serum interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), transforming growth factor beta1, and lung tissue heat shock protein 70 gene expression were measured at 0, 15, and 30 minutes, as markers of the inflammatory response. All animals survived to the end of the experiment. Total blood loss was significantly less in the AI group compared with the other standard resuscitation animals (733 +/- 76 vs 1094 +/- 153 mL, P = 0.049). The pH at the end of the experiment was significantly lower in the AI group (7.28 +/- 0.02 vs 7.44 +/- 0.05, P < 0.01) but there was no difference in lactate levels (1.5 +/- 0.4 vs 1.7 +/- 0.3, P = 0.7). Similarly, there was no difference in IL-1beta, transforming growth factor beta1, or lung tissue heat shock protein 70 gene expression between the two groups at any time point, although there was a trend towards lower IL-1beta levels in the AI group. Our conclusion is that AI reduces blood loss from splenic injury without a measurable effect on the early inflammatory response in a clinically relevant animal model.

  16. Performances of the SAC-D NIRST flight model radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, Mélanie R.; Marchese, Linda; Côté, Patrice; Châteauneuf, François; Chevalier, Claude; Marraco, Hugo; Ngo Phong, Linh

    2009-08-01

    Aquarius/SAC-D is a cooperative international mission conducted jointly by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States of America and the Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales of Argentina. Jointly developed by CONAE and the Canadian Space Agency, the New IR Sensor Technology (NIRST) instrument will monitor high temperature events. NIRST has one band in the mid-wave infrared and two bands in the thermal infrared. The baseline design of the NIRST is based on microbolometer technology developed jointly by INO and the CSA. This paper will first present an overview of the design of the NIRST camera module. The manufacturing and qualification activities for the Flight Model will be described and key performance parameters, as measured during the verification campaign, will be reported.

  17. Clearance of chlamydial elementary bodies from the conjunctival sac

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, H.R.; Velez, V.L.

    1987-07-01

    The rate of disappearance of inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis elementary body (EB) preparations from the conjunctival sac was studied in monkeys. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) cytology showed that the majority of EB had been cleared from the eye within 24 hr of the inoculation of 1 X 10(6) inactivated EB, although small numbers of EB could be detected for up to 144 hr. The rate of clearance in normal and ocular immune animals did not differ, and formalin-killed and UV-inactivated EBs disappeared at a comparable rate. These studies suggest that chlamydial EB are cleared relatively quickly from the eye and support the notion that EBs detected by DFA cytology indicate the presence of current infection.

  18. Sporadic endolymphatic sac tumor – a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Künzel, Julian; Agaimy, Abbas; Hornung, Joachim; Lell, Michael; Ganslandt, Oliver; Semrau, Sabine; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a rare low-grade locally aggressive neoplasm of the inner ear that may occur sporadically or in the setting of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. We herein present a case of sporadic ELST in a 39-year-old man, treated using an interdisciplinary approach (surgery + radiotherapy), with a 10-year follow-up. The patient presented with hearing loss of sudden onset. The treatment of choice for ELST is radical tumor resection, which is associated with a good long-term prognosis. Remission may last for years, but there may be local recurrences, probably as a result of incomplete resection. Adjuvant radiotherapy is an option in case of recurrence and could be discussed after incomplete resection. The purpose of this report is to call attention to ELSTs, which are difficult to diagnose due to their rarity and variety of presentations. PMID:24966979

  19. Ground water in the Cul-de-Sac Plain, Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1949-01-01

    The Cul-de-Sac Plain is perhaps the most important agricultural area in Haiti because of its nearness and accessibility to Port-au-Prince, the nation's capital, metropolis, and principal seaport. Most of the agricultural produce consumed in Port-au-Prince as well as a considerable part of that exported from Haiti is grown in the plain.Because of variable and poorly distributed rainfall, high temperature, and high evaporation, semiarid climatic conditions prevail in the plain. Irrigation is, therefore, necessary for successful farming. There are no regulatory or storage facilities on the streams that enter the plain, but the mean and low-water stream flow and the discharge of springs are almost entirely appropriated for irrigation. Ground water has been utilized for irrigation to an increasing extent by the Haitian American Sugar Company, which has put down about 100 wells in the plain since 1919.Outside the existing irrigated areas of the plain are large tracts of potentially irrigable land that are uncultivated and agriculturally unproductive for lack of water. The object of the present study was to determine the possibilities of bringing these lands into cultivation by irrigation from wells. This study was part of a larger program of the Food Supply Division, Institute of Inter-American Affairs, to increase the production of food in Haiti.From September through November 1948 the senior author, a member of the U. S. Geological Survey, spent three months in the field in an investigation of the geology and ground-water resources of the Cul-de-Sac Plain. He was ably assisted by Mr. Rémy C. Lemoine, Haitian engineer-geologist, employed by the Food Supply Division. The field work included principally the geologic mapping of' the plain and the adjacent mountain borders, a ground-water inventory of existing wells and springs, and a general evaluation of significant geologic and hydrologic features.

  20. 48 CFR 301.603-72 - FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FAC-C and HHS SAC... Responsibilities 301.603-72 FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements. (a) The FAC-C certification program is... thereunder are not required to re-take training courses, but shall follow FAC-C training requirements...

  1. Endolymphatic Sac Surgery for Ménière's Disease – Current Opinion and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Flores García, Maria de Lourdes; Llata Segura, Carolina de la; Cisneros Lesser, Juan Carlos; Pane Pianese, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The endolymphatic sac is thought to maintain the hydrostatic pressure and endolymph homeostasis for the inner ear, and its dysfunction may contribute to the pathophysiology of Ménière's disease. Throughout the years, different surgical procedures for intractable vertigo secondary to Ménière's disease have been described, and though many authors consider these procedures as effective, there are some who question its long-term efficacy and even those who think that vertigo control is achieved more due to a placebo effect than because of the procedure itself. Objective To review the different surgical procedures performed in the endolymphatic sac for the treatment of Ménière's disease. Data Sources PubMed, MD consult and Ovid-SP databases. Data Synthesis We focus on describing the different surgical procedures performed in the endolymphatic sac, such as endolymphatic sac decompression, endolymphatic sac enhancement, endolymphatic sac shunting and endolymphatic duct blockage, their pitfalls and advantages, their results in vertigo control and the complication rates. The senior author also describes his experience after 30 years of performing endolymphatic sac surgery. Conclusions The endolymphatic sac surgery, with all its variants, is a good option for patients with incapacitating endolymphatic hydrops, providing a high percentage of vertigo control and hearing preservation. PMID:28382128

  2. Diagnostic imaging features of normal anal sacs in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yechan; Jeong, Eunseok; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Jimo; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide normal reference features for canine and feline anal sacs using ultrasound, low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph contrast as diagnostic imaging tools. A total of ten clinically normal beagle dogs and eight clinically normally cats were included. General radiography with contrast, ultrasonography and low-field MRI scans were performed. The visualization of anal sacs, which are located at distinct sites in dogs and cats, is possible with a contrast study on radiography. Most surfaces of the anal sacs tissue, occasionally appearing as a hyperechoic thin line, were surrounded by the hypoechoic external sphincter muscle on ultrasonography. The normal anal sac contents of dogs and cats had variable echogenicity. Signals of anal sac contents on low-field MRI varied in cats and dogs, and contrast medium using T1-weighted images enhanced the anal sac walls more obviously than that on ultrasonography. In conclusion, this study provides the normal features of anal sacs from dogs and cats on diagnostic imaging. Further studies including anal sac evaluation are expected to investigate disease conditions. PMID:26645338

  3. Involvement of Sac1 phosphoinositide phosphatase in the metabolism of phosphatidylserine in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tani, Motohiro; Kuge, Osamu

    2014-04-01

    Sac1 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase that preferentially dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate. Mutation of SAC1 causes not only the accumulation of phosphoinositides but also reduction of the phosphatidylserine (PS) level in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we characterized the mechanism underlying the PS reduction in SAC1-deleted cells. Incorporation of (32) P into PS was significantly delayed in sac1∆ cells. Such a delay was also observed in SAC1- and PS decarboxylase gene-deleted cells, suggesting that the reduction in the PS level is caused by a reduction in the rate of biosynthesis of PS. A reduction in the PS level was also observed with repression of STT4 encoding phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase or deletion of VPS34 encoding phophatidylinositol 3-kinase. However, the combination of mutations of SAC1 and STT4 or VPS34 did not restore the reduced PS level, suggesting that both the synthesis and degradation of phosphoinositides are important for maintenance of the PS level. Finally, we observed an abnormal PS distribution in sac1∆ cells when a specific probe for PS was expressed. Collectively, these results suggested that Sac1 is involved in the maintenance of a normal rate of biosynthesis and distribution of PS.

  4. Development of the endolymphatic sac in chick embryos, with reference to the degradation of otoconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshihara, T.; Kaname, H.; Narita, N.; Ishii, T.; Igarashi, M.; Fermin, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac of chick embryos (from embryonic day 7 to 1-day-old chicks) was studied light- and electron-microscopically. At stage 30-31 (embryonic day 7-7.5), the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac were cuboidal to columnar in shape. Microvilli were relatively well developed. The intercellular space was wide. In the endolymphatic space of the endolymphatic sac, varying shapes and sizes of otoconia-like bodies were often observed. Intracytoplasmic phagosomes containing these bodies were rarely found. After stage 37 (embryonic day 11), otoconia-like bodies in the endolymphatic sac decreased in number and size. They were almost the same as the otoconia in the macular organs, ultrastructurally. These findings indicate that the endolymphatic sac of the chick embryos may possess the function of otoconial degradation and removal of calcium from otoconia.

  5. pH sensing via bicarbonate-regulated “soluble” adenylyl cyclase (sAC)

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Nawreen; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R.

    2013-01-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a source of the second messenger cyclic adenosine 3′, 5′ monophosphate (cAMP). sAC is directly regulated by bicarbonate (HCO−3) ions. In living cells, HCO−3 ions are in nearly instantaneous equilibrium with carbon dioxide (CO2) and pH due to the ubiquitous presence of carbonic anhydrases. Numerous biological processes are regulated by CO2, HCO−3, and/or pH, and in a number of these, sAC has been shown to function as a physiological CO2/HCO3/pH sensor. In this review, we detail the known pH sensing functions of sAC, and we discuss two highly-studied, pH-dependent pathways in which sAC might play a role. PMID:24324443

  6. Clinical significance of routine lacrimal sac biopsy during dacryocystorhinostomy: A comprehensive review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Koturović, Zoran; Knežević, Miroslav; Rašić, Dejan M.

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide the information about the incidence and types of pathology of secondary acquired obstructions of the lacrimal excretory outflow system caused by primary lacrimal sac non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. After a thorough literature search, 17 case-control studies were found and selected, data were extracted and categorized, to evaluate specific lacrimal sac pathology mimicking inflammation. A total of 3865 histopathologically examined lacrimal sac wall biopsy specimens from 3662 patients, taken during dacryocystorhinostomy for clinically presumed primary chronic dacryocystitis, were analyzed. The most common reported histopathological finding was non-specific chronic inflammation with or without fibrosis (94.15% of cases). Lacrimal sac-specific pathologies were present in 226 (5.85%) cases. Unsuspected lacrimal sac-specific pathologies were present in 55/226 (24.34%) cases. Almost 45% of primary lacrimal sac malignant neoplasms were not suspected, preoperatively and intraoperatively. Tumor-like lesions of the lacrimal sac were the most common pathology found: (1) lacrimal stones-dacryoliths, (2) pyogenic granuloma, (3) granulation tissues, (4) reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, and (5) lacrimal sac-specific inflammation (Wegener’s granulomatosis and sarcoidosis). Neoplastic pathology was found in 55/3865 (1.42%) lacrimal sac wall biopsy specimens; of those, malignant cases were 2.24 times more frequent than benign. Lymphoma was the most common preoperatively unsuspected or intraoperatively unexpected neoplastic pathology. This analysis of the relevant literature highlights the value of routine lacrimal sac biopsy during surgery for clinically presumed primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction. PMID:27754826

  7. Clinical significance of routine lacrimal sac biopsy during dacryocystorhinostomy: A comprehensive review of literature.

    PubMed

    Koturović, Zoran; Knežević, Miroslav; Rašić, Dejan M

    2017-02-21

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide the information about the incidence and types of pathology of secondary acquired obstructions of the lacrimal excretory outflow system caused by primary lacrimal sac non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. After a thorough literature search, 17 case-control studies were found and selected, data were extracted and categorized, to evaluate specific lacrimal sac pathology mimicking inflammation. A total of 3865 histopathologically examined lacrimal sac wall biopsy specimens from 3662 patients, taken during dacryocystorhinostomy for clinically presumed primary chronic dacryocystitis, were analyzed. The most common reported histopathological finding was non-specific chronic inflammation with or without fibrosis (94.15% of cases). Lacrimal sac-specific pathologies were present in 226 (5.85%) cases. Unsuspected lacrimal sac-specific pathologies were present in 55/226 (24.34%) cases. Almost 45% of primary lacrimal sac malignant neoplasms were not suspected, preoperatively and intraoperatively. Tumor-like lesions of the lacrimal sac were the most common pathology found: (1) lacrimal stones-dacryoliths, (2) pyogenic granuloma, (3) granulation tissues, (4) reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, and (5) lacrimal sac-specific inflammation (Wegener's granulomatosis and sarcoidosis). Neoplastic pathology was found in 55/3865 (1.42%) lacrimal sac wall biopsy specimens; of those, malignant cases were 2.24 times more frequent than benign. Lymphoma was the most common preoperatively unsuspected or intraoperatively unexpected neoplastic pathology. This analysis of the relevant literature highlights the value of routine lacrimal sac biopsy during surgery for clinically presumed primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

  8. Launch and on-orbit checkout of Aquarius/SAC-D Observatory: an international remote sensing satellite mission measuring sea surface salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Amit; Caruso, Daniel; Durham, David; Falcon, Carlos

    2011-11-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D observatory was launch in June 2011 from Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), in California, USA. This mission is the fourth joint earth-observation endeavor between NASA and CONAE. The primary objective of the Aquarius/SAC-D mission is to investigate the links between global water cycle, ocean circulation and climate by measuring Sea Surface Salinity (SSS). Over the last year, the observatory successfully completed system level environmental and functional testing at INPE, Brazil and was transported to VAFB for launch operations. This paper will present the challenges of this mission, the system, the preparation of the spacecraft, instruments, testing, launch, inorbit checkout and commissioning of this Observatory in space.

  9. Molecular detection and in vitro antioxidant activity of S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) extracted from Allium sativum.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y-E; Wang, W-D

    2016-06-30

    It is well known that Allium sativum has potential applications to clinical treatment of various cancers due to its remarkable ability in eliminating free radicals and increasing metabolism. An allyl-substituted cysteine derivative - S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) was separated and identified from Allium sativum. The extracted SAC was reacted with 1-pyrenemethanol to obtain pyrene-labelled SAC (Py-SAC) to give SAC fluorescence properties. Molecular detection of Py-SAC was conducted by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence method to quantitatively measure concentrations of Py-SAC solutions. The ability of removing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical using Py-SAC was determined through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Results showed the activity of Py-SAC and Vitamin C (VC) with ORAC as index, the concentrations of Py-SAC and VC were 58.43 mg/L and 5.72 mg/L respectively to scavenge DPPH, and 8.16 mg/L and 1.67 mg/L to scavenge •OH respectively. Compared with VC, the clearance rates of Py-SAC to scavenge DPPH were much higher, Py-SAC could inhibit hydroxyl radical. The ability of removing radical showed a dose-dependent relationship within the scope of the drug concentration.

  10. Guidance in vitro of the pollen tube to the naked embryo sac of torenia fournieri

    PubMed Central

    Higashiyama, T; Kuroiwa, H; Kawano, S; Kuroiwa, T

    1998-01-01

    The precise guidance of the pollen tube to the embryo sac is critical to the successful sexual reproduction of flowering plants. We demonstrate here the guidance of the pollen tube to the embryo sac in vitro by using the naked embryo sac of Torenia fournieri, which protrudes from the micropyle of the ovule. We developed a medium for culture of both the ovule and the pollen tube of T. fournieri and cocultivated them in a thin layer of solid medium. Although pollen tubes that had germinated in vitro passed naked embryo sacs, some pollen tubes that grew semi-in vitro through a cut style arrived precisely at the site of entry into the embryo sac, namely, the filiform apparatus of the synergids. When pollen tubes were unable to enter the embryo sac, they continuously grew toward the same filiform apparatus, forming narrow coils. Pollen tubes selectively arrived at complete, unfertilized embryo sacs but did not arrive at those of heat-treated ovules or those with disrupted synergids. These results convincingly demonstrate that pollen tubes are specifically attracted to the region of the filiform apparatus of living synergids in vitro. PMID:9836742

  11. The effect of pigeon yolk sac fluid on the growth behavior of calcium carbonate crystals.

    PubMed

    Song, Juan; Cheng, Haixia; Shen, Xinyu; Tong, Hua

    2015-03-01

    Previous experiments have proved that thermodynamically unstable calcium carbonate vaterite can exist for long periods in the yolk sac of a pigeon embryo. The aim of this article was to demonstrate the effect of in vitro mineralization of yolk sac fluid on calcium carbonate by direct precipitation. Experiments were conducted using pigeon yolk sac fluid and using lecithin extracted from pigeon yolk sac fluid as a control to investigate the regulating effects of the organic components in the embryo on the formation of the calcium carbonate precipitate. Multiple characterization methods were employed to study the various morphological patterns, sizes, crystal growth, and crystal phase transformations of the calcium carbonate precipitates as regulated by the yolk sac fluid extracted at different stages of incubation. The experimental results demonstrate that as the incubation proceeds towards the later stages, the composition and environmental features of the yolk sac fluid become more favorable for the formation of relatively unstable calcium carbonate phases with high energies of the vaterite state. The experiments conducted with extracted lecithin as the template for crystal growth yielded similar results. A large amount of organic molecules with polar functional groups carried by the yolk sac fluid have strong effects and can both initially induce the crystallization and regulate the aggregation of calcium carbonate. Furthermore, this regulation process is found to be closely related to the lecithin contained in yolk sac fluid. These observations confirm the changes in yolk sac fluid composition during incubation have significant effects on the production of vaterite, which implicates the calcium transport during embryo growth.

  12. Paired Comparison of Procedural Sequence in Same-day Bidirectional Endoscopy with Moderate Sedation and Carbon Dioxide Insufflation: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jui-Hsiang; Cheng, Chi-Liang; Kuo, Yen-Lin; Tsui, Yi-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Same-day bidirectional endoscopy (BDE) is a commonly performed procedure, but the optimal sequence of the procedure with carbon dioxide insufflation is not well established. In this study, we investigated the optimal sequence for same-day BDE without polypectomy under moderate sedation and carbon dioxide insufflation in terms of sedation doses and colonoscopy performance. Patients and Methods: We performed a prospective observational study of 63 asymptomatic patients who were admitted for physical check-ups. A colonoscopy-esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) examination was performed first and then an EGD-colonoscopy examination was performed within 1.5 years. Results: The total procedure time, procedure complexity, bowel preparation quality, cecal intubation time, colon polyp detection rate, and adverse events were similar between the two study groups. The total doses of fentanyl and midazolam were significantly higher for the colonoscopy-EGD group than that for the EGD-colonoscopy group (70.8 ± 9.6 μg vs. 56.6 ± 9.2 μg and 6.1 ± 1.3 mg vs. 4.6 ± 1.1 mg, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively). The recovery time to discharge was significantly longer for the colonoscopy-EGD group compared to the EGD-colonoscopy group (38.5 ± 3.9 min vs. 31.9 ± 3.2 min, P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: EGD-colonoscopy is the optimal sequence for same-day BDE. In this order, the procedures are better tolerated, the sedation doses are reduced, and the recovery time is shorter. PMID:27748321

  13. Age and egg-sac loss determine maternal behaviour and locomotor activity of wolf spiders (Araneae, Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Ruhland, Fanny; Chiara, Violette; Trabalon, Marie

    2016-11-01

    Wolf spiders' (Lycosidae) maternal behaviour includes a specific phase called "egg brooding" which consists of guarding and carrying an egg-sac throughout the incubation period. The transport of an egg-sac can restrict mothers' exploratory and locomotor activity, in particular when foraging. The present study details the ontogeny of maternal behaviour and assesses the influence of age of egg-sac (or embryos' developmental stage) on vagrant wolf spider Pardosa saltans females' exploration and locomotion. We observed these spiders' maternal behaviour in the laboratory and evaluated their locomotor activity using a digital activity recording device. Our subjects were virgin females (without egg-sac) and first time mothers (with her egg-sac) who were divided into three groups. The first group of mothers were tested on the day the egg-sac was built (day 0), and the females of the other two groups were tested 10 or 15days after they had built their egg-sac. We evaluated the effects of the presence and the loss of egg-sac on mothers' activity. Pardosa saltans females' behaviour depended on mothers' physiological state and/or age of egg-sac (developmental stage of embryos). Virgin females' behaviour was not modified by the presence of an egg-sac in their environment. Mothers' reactions to the presence, the loss and the recovery of their egg-sac varied during the maternal cycle. Maternal behaviour changed with age of egg-sac, but the levels of locomotor activity of mothers with egg-sacs was similar to those of virgin females. Loss of egg-sac modified the maternal behaviour and locomotor activity of all mothers; these modifications were greater on "day 15" when embryos had emerged from eggs. All mothers were able to retrieve their egg-sacs and to re-attach them to their spinnerets.

  14. Air tamponade of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Orłowski, Tadeusz; Iwanowicz, Katarzyna; Snarska, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Pneumopericardium is a rare disease defined as the presence of air or gas in the pericardial sac. Among the etiological factors, the following stand out: chest trauma, barotrauma, air-containing fistulas between the pericardium and the surrounding structures, secondary gas production by microorganisms growing in the pericardial sac, and iatrogenic factors. Until now, spontaneous pneumopericardium has been considered a harmless and temporary state, but a review of clinical cases indicates that the presence of air in the pericardium can lead to cardiac tamponade and life-threatening hemodynamic disturbances. We present the case of an 80-year-old patient with a chronic bronchopericardial fistula, who suffered from a cardiac arrest due to air tamponade of the heart. PMID:27516791

  15. Design of the SAC-D/NIRST camera module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauvin, Jonny; Châteauneuf, François; Marchese, Linda; Coté, Patrice; Leclerc, Mélanie; Chevalier, Claude; Marraco, Hugo; Phong, Linh N.

    2007-09-01

    Aquarius/SAC-D is a cooperative international mission conducted jointly by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States of America (USA) and the Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE) of Argentina. The overall mission targets the understanding of the total Earth system and the consequences of the natural and man-made changes in the environment of the planet. Jointly developed by CONAE and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the New IR Sensor Technology (NIRST) instrument will monitor high temperature events on the ground related to fires and volcanic events, and will measure their physical parameters. Furthermore, NIRST will take measurements of sea surface temperatures mainly off the coast of South America as well as other targeted opportunities. NIRST has one band in the mid-wave infrared centered at 3.8 um with a bandwidth of 0.8 um, and two bands in the thermal infrared, centered respectively at 10.85 and 11.85 um with a bandwidth of 0.9 um. The temperature range is from 300 to 600 K with an NEDT < 0.5 K for the mid-infrared band and from 200 to 400 K with an NEDT < 0.4 K for the thermal bands. The baseline design of the NIRST is based on micro-bolometer technology developed jointly by INO and the CSA. Two arrays of 512x3 uncooled bolometric sensors will be used to measure brightness temperatures. The instantaneous field-of-view is 534 microradians corresponding to a ground sampling distance of 350 m at the subsatellite point. A pointing mirror allows a total swath of +/- 500 km. This paper describes the detailed design of the NIRST camera module. Key performance parameters are also presented.

  16. Uptake of microparticles by rat visceral yolk sac.

    PubMed

    Pratten, M K; Lloyd, J B

    1997-09-01

    The visceral yolk sac (VYS) is responsible for a major part of the amino acid nutrition of the early post-implantation rat embryo and possibly also at the fetal stage of gestation. The mechanism involves endocytic uptake of proteins by the tissue's epithelial cells followed by intralysosomal digestion to amino acids. The amino acid so generated are used for protein synthesis in both the embryo and the VYS. Previous reports had indicated that the endocytic capacity of the VYS might be limited to exclude larger macromolecules. This study demonstrates that Percoll, which comprises 30-nm silica particles coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), is as effectively captured by the 17.5-day rat VYS cultured in vitro as PVP itself. Uptake of 125I-labelled Percoll was progressive with time over 5 h and was inhibited by a low incubation temperature, 2,4-dinitrophenol (50 micrograms/ml), EGTA (5 mM), colchicine (10 micrograms/ml) or cytochalasin B (10 micrograms/ml). After uptake of 125I-labelled Percoll, VYSs released only 20 per cent of their radioactivity when re-incubated in fresh medium for 3 h. These data, and electron micrographs showing Percoll in intracellular vacuoles, are all consistent with uptake by endocytosis. Percoll's rate of uptake by the VYS indicates that, like 125I-labelled PVP, it enters the cell chiefly by fluid-phase pinocytosis. It is concluded that endocytosis by the VYS will efficiently capture even the largest globular proteins, and that previous indications of a relatively low size exclusion reflected the loosely coiled configuration of the synthetic polymers used in the earlier studies.

  17. Experience of direct percutaneous sac injection in type II endoleak using cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoong-Seok; Do, Young Soo; Park, Hong Suk; Park, Kwang Bo; Kim, Dong-Ik

    2015-04-01

    Cone beam CT, usually used in dental area, could easily obtain 3-dimensional images using cone beam shaped ionized radiation. Cone beam CT is very useful for direct percutaneous sac injection (DPSI) which needs very precise measurement to avoid puncture of inferior vena cava or vessel around sac or stent graft. Here we describe two cases of DPSI using cone beam CT. In case 1, a 79-year-old male had widening of preexisted type II endoleak after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). However, transarterial embolization failed due to tortuous collateral branches of lumbar arteries. In case 2, a 72-year-old female had symptomatic sac enlargement by type II endoleak after EVAR. However, there was no route to approach the lumbar arteries. Therefore, we performed DPSI assisted by cone beam CT in cases 1, 2. Six-month CT follow-up revealed no sign of sac enlargement by type II endoleak.

  18. Coagulopathy associated with sac reperfusion for reversing paraplegia after endovascular repair of type II thoracoabdominal aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Lioupis, Christos; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Clough, Rachel; Matharu, Nick; Modarai, Bijan; Carrell, Tom; Taylor, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Sac perfusion may be helpful in preventing or reversing spinal cord injury after endovascular repair of thoracoabdominal aneurysms and it has been used as an adjunct to the standard physiologic measures of sustained hypertension and cerebrospinal fluid drainage. Coagulopathy as a result of endoleak after endovascular aneurysm repair has been reported, and very rare cases of treatment after repair of these endoleaks have been described. We report a 73-year-old man who had endovascular repair of a type II thoracoabdominal aneurysm with a branched stent graft. Sac reperfusion was initiated to manage postoperative paraplegia. The paraplegia partially resolved but severe hemorrhagic complications developed that were attributed to sac perfusion-related hyperfibrinolysis. Discontinuation of sac perfusion resolved the coagulopathy but resulted in paraplegia.

  19. Histological and histochemical analyses of the cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Zhaoping; Wang, Rucai

    2007-10-01

    The secretion function of mantle is closely related to shell formation in some bivalves and gastropods. Up to now, few researches have been reported for cuttlebone formation in the class Cephalopoda. In this study, the structure and secretion function of cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta was analyzed using the histological and histochemical methods. The results showed that high and columnar cells located in sac epithelium, and flat cells existed near the base membrane. A lot of fibroblasts were found in the lateral mantle collective tissue. Some mucus, mucopolysaccharide and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were found in the sac. The ultrastructural characteristics of Quasi-connective-tissue-calcium cells (QCTCC) were observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The relationship between cuttlebone sac secretion function and shell formation was discussed.

  20. Tarlov Cyst Is Correlated with a Short Broad Terminal of the Thecal Sac.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chaoran; Zheng, Xuesheng; Zhang, Nu

    2016-12-27

    Background In clinical practice, we noted that the end section of the thecal sac is apparently different in patients with Tarlov cyst compared with that of the normal population. We conducted this clinical study based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Our study included 30 patients with Tarlov cyst and 30 healthy volunteers as the control. The L4, L5 cross-section areas, the L4, L5 anteroposterior diameters, and the terminal length of the thecal sac were measured from the lumbosacral spine MRI. Results The L4, L5 cross-section areas and the L4, L5 anteroposterior diameters are larger for the Tarlov cyst patients than the controls, but the terminal length of the thecal sac is shorter. Conclusion The Tarlov cyst is correlated with a short broad end of the thecal sac. Possibly, this anatomical variant is a causative factor of Tarlov cyst.

  1. Perforated appendix in hernial sac mimicking torsion of undescended testis in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Renu; Mahajan, J K; Rao, K L N

    2008-04-01

    In pediatric surgical practice, finding of the vermiform appendix in an inguinal hernia sac is not that uncommon; however, a perforation is rare. There are only a few case reports of a perforated appendix with periappendicular abscess in the inguinal hernial sac in a neonate. We report an unusual case of inguinal hernia containing a perforated appendix that was clinically mimicking testicular torsion of the undescended testis.

  2. Deposition of anal-sac secretions by captive wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asa, C.S.; Peterson, E.K.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Deposition of anal-sac secretions by captive wolves was investigated by a labelling technique using protein-bound iodine125 and food dye. Wolves deposited secretions on some but not all scats. Adult males, especially the alpha male, deposited anal-sac secretions more frequently while defecating than did females or juveniles. Secretions sometimes also were deposited independently of defecation, suggesting a dual role in communication by these substances.

  3. Sac2/INPP5F is an inositol 4-phosphatase that functions in the endocytic pathway.

    PubMed

    Nakatsu, Fubito; Messa, Mirko; Nández, Ramiro; Czapla, Heather; Zou, Yixiao; Strittmatter, Stephen M; De Camilli, Pietro

    2015-04-13

    The recruitment of inositol phosphatases to endocytic membranes mediates dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2, a phosphoinositide concentrated in the plasma membrane, and prevents its accumulation on endosomes. The importance of the conversion of PI(4,5)P2 to PtdIns during endocytosis is demonstrated by the presence of both a 5-phosphatase and a 4-phosphatase (Sac domain) module in the synaptojanins, endocytic PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases conserved from yeast to humans and the only PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases in yeast. OCRL, another 5-phosphatase that couples endocytosis to PI(4,5)P2 dephosphorylation, lacks a Sac domain. Here we show that Sac2/INPP5F is a PI4P phosphatase that colocalizes with OCRL on endocytic membranes, including vesicles formed by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, macropinosomes, and Rab5 endosomes. An OCRL-Sac2/INPP5F interaction could be demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation and was potentiated by Rab5, whose activity is required to recruit Sac2/INPP5F to endosomes. Sac2/INPP5F and OCRL may cooperate in the sequential dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2 at the 5 and 4 position of inositol in a partnership that mimics that of the two phosphatase modules of synaptojanin.

  4. Sac1--Vps74 structure reveals a mechanism to terminate phosphoinositide signaling in the Golgi apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yiying; Deng, Yongqiang; Horenkamp, Florian; Reinisch, Karin M.; Burd, Christopher G.

    2014-08-25

    Sac1 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus that controls organelle membrane composition principally via regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate signaling. We present a characterization of the structure of the N-terminal portion of yeast Sac1, containing the conserved Sac1 homology domain, in complex with Vps74, a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase effector and the orthologue of human GOLPH3. The interface involves the N-terminal subdomain of the Sac1 homology domain, within which mutations in the related Sac3/Fig4 phosphatase have been linked to Charcot–Marie–Tooth disorder CMT4J and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Disruption of the Sac1–Vps74 interface results in a broader distribution of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate within the Golgi apparatus and failure to maintain residence of a medial Golgi mannosyltransferase. The analysis prompts a revision of the membrane-docking mechanism for GOLPH3 family proteins and reveals how an effector of phosphoinositide signaling serves a dual function in signal termination.

  5. Sac1-Vps74 structure reveals a mechanism to terminate phosphoinositide signaling in the Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yiying; Deng, Yongqiang; Horenkamp, Florian; Reinisch, Karin M; Burd, Christopher G

    2014-08-18

    Sac1 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus that controls organelle membrane composition principally via regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate signaling. We present a characterization of the structure of the N-terminal portion of yeast Sac1, containing the conserved Sac1 homology domain, in complex with Vps74, a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase effector and the orthologue of human GOLPH3. The interface involves the N-terminal subdomain of the Sac1 homology domain, within which mutations in the related Sac3/Fig4 phosphatase have been linked to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disorder CMT4J and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Disruption of the Sac1-Vps74 interface results in a broader distribution of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate within the Golgi apparatus and failure to maintain residence of a medial Golgi mannosyltransferase. The analysis prompts a revision of the membrane-docking mechanism for GOLPH3 family proteins and reveals how an effector of phosphoinositide signaling serves a dual function in signal termination.

  6. Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar Air Conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snegirjovs, A.; Shipkovs, P.; Lebedeva, K.; Kashkarova, G.; Migla, L.; Gantenbein, P.; Omlin, L.

    2016-12-01

    Information on the electrical-driven solar air conditioning (SAC) is rather scanty. A considerable body of technical data mostly concerns large-scale photo-voltaic solar air conditioning (PV-SAC) systems. Reliable information about the energy output has arisen only in recent years; however, it is still not easily accessible, and sometimes its sources are closed. Despite these facts, solar energy researchers, observers and designers devote special attention to this type of SAC systems. In this study, performance evaluation is performed for the PV-SAC technology, in which low-power (up to 15 kWp of cooling power on average) systems are used. Such a system contains a PV electric-driven compression chiller with cold and heat sensible thermal storage capacities, and a rejected energy unit used for preheating domestic hot water (DHW). In a non-cooling season, it is possible to partly employ the system in the reverse mode for DHW production. In this mode, the ambient air serves as a heat source. Besides, free cooling is integrated in the PV-SAC concept.

  7. Solar assisted heat pump on air collectors: A simulation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiorgas, Michalis; Galatis, Kostas; Tsagouri, Manolis; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Botzios-Valaskakis, Aristotelis

    2010-01-15

    The heating system of the bioclimatic building of the Greek National Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES) comprises two heating plants: the first one includes an air source heat pump, Solar Air Collectors (SACs) and a heat distribution system (comprising a fan coil unit network); the second one is, mainly, a geothermal heat pump unit to cover the ground floor thermal needs. The SAC configuration as well as the fraction of the building heating load covered by the heating plant are assessed in two operation modes; the direct (hot air from the collectors is supplied directly to the heated space) and the indirect mode (warm air from the SAC or its mixture with ambient air is not supplied directly to the heated space but indirectly into the evaporator of the air source heat pump). The technique of the indirect mode of heating aims at maximizing the efficiency of the SAC, saving electrical power consumed by the compressor of the heat pump, and therefore, at optimizing the coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump due to the increased intake of ambient thermal energy by means of the SAC. Results are given for three research objectives: assessment of the heat pump efficiency whether in direct or indirect heating mode; Assessment of the overall heating plant efficiency on a daily or hourly basis; Assessment of the credibility of the suggested simulation model TSAGAIR by comparing its results with the TRNSYS ones. (author)

  8. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals

    PubMed Central

    Tresguerres, Martin; Barott, Katie L.; Barron, Megan E.; Roa, Jinae N.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3−, and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3− sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sAC can functionally associate with carbonic anhydrases to act as a de facto sensor of pH and CO2. The two catalytic domains of sAC are related to HCO3−-regulated adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, suggesting the cAMP pathway is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensing CO2 levels and/or acid/base conditions. Reports of sAC in aquatic animals are still limited but are rapidly accumulating. In shark gills, sAC senses blood alkalosis and triggers compensatory H+ absorption. In the intestine of bony fishes, sAC modulates NaCl and water absorption. And in sea urchin sperm, sAC may participate in the initiation of flagellar movement and in the acrosome reaction. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR results reveal that sAC orthologs are present in most animal phyla. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the physiological roles of sAC in aquatic animals and suggests additional functions in which sAC may be involved. PMID:24574382

  9. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Tresguerres, Martin; Barott, Katie L; Barron, Megan E; Roa, Jinae N

    2014-03-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3(-), and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3(-) sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sAC can functionally associate with carbonic anhydrases to act as a de facto sensor of pH and CO2. The two catalytic domains of sAC are related to HCO3(-)-regulated adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, suggesting the cAMP pathway is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensing CO2 levels and/or acid/base conditions. Reports of sAC in aquatic animals are still limited but are rapidly accumulating. In shark gills, sAC senses blood alkalosis and triggers compensatory H(+) absorption. In the intestine of bony fishes, sAC modulates NaCl and water absorption. And in sea urchin sperm, sAC may participate in the initiation of flagellar movement and in the acrosome reaction. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR results reveal that sAC orthologs are present in most animal phyla. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the physiological roles of sAC in aquatic animals and suggests additional functions in which sAC may be involved.

  10. In Vivo and Cadaver Studies of the Canalicular/Lacrimal Sac Mucosal Folds

    PubMed Central

    You, Yongsheng; Cao, Jing; Zhang, Xiaogang; Wu, Wencan; Xiao, Tianlin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The study aimed to investigate canalicular/lacrimal sac mucosal folds (CLS-MFs) in vivo and in cadavers in order to explore their functional roles in the lacrimal drainage system. Method. The observations of CLS-MFs in vivo were performed on 16 patients with chronic dacryocystitis after undergoing an endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EE-DCR). The lacrimal sacs and common canaliculi of 19 adult cadavers were dissected. The opening/closing of an orifice and mucosal fold was recorded. All of the specimens were subjected to a histological examination. Results. The upper and lower lacrimal canaliculi in all of the samples united to form a common canaliculus that opened to the lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs were observed in 10 of the 16 patients (62.5%) and 9 of the 19 cadavers (47.4%). The orifices or mucosal folds could be opened or closed when related muscles contracted or relaxed. Histological sections showed a mucosal fold at one side of an orifice. Conclusion. Common canaliculus is the most common type that the canaliculus opens to lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs exist in a certain ratio that can be opened/closed with the movement of the orifices. They may be involved in the drainage of tears or the pathogenesis of acute dacryocystitis or lacrimal sac mucocele. PMID:27242921

  11. Direct Effects of Microalgae and Protists on Herring (Clupea harengus) Yolk Sac Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Illing, Björn; Moyano, Marta; Niemax, Jan; Peck, Myron A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of microalgae (Rhodomonas baltica) and heterotrophic protists (Oxyrrhis marina) on the daily growth, activity, condition and feeding success of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae from hatch, through the end of the endogenous (yolk sac) period. Yolk sac larvae were reared in the presence and absence of microplankton and, each day, groups of larvae were provided access to copepods. Larvae reared with microalgae and protists exhibited precocious (2 days earlier) and ≥ 60% increased feeding incidence on copepods compared to larvae reared in only seawater (SW). In the absence and presence of microalgae and protists, life span and growth trajectories of yolk sac larvae were similar and digestive enzyme activity (trypsin) and nutritional condition (RNA-DNA ratio) markedly declined in all larvae directly after yolk sac depletion. Thus, microplankton promoted early feeding but was not sufficient to alter life span and growth during the yolk sac phase. Given the importance of early feeding, field programs should place greater emphasis on the protozooplankton-ichthyoplankton link to better understand match-mismatch dynamics and bottom-up drivers of year class success in marine fish. PMID:26035592

  12. The Evolutionary Economics of Embryonic-Sac Fluids in Squamate Reptiles.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Xavier; Naulleau, Guy; Shine, Richard

    2017-03-01

    The parchment-shelled eggs of squamate reptiles take up substantial water from the nest environment, enabling the conversion of yolk into neonatal tissue and buffering the embryo against the possibility of subsequent dry weather. During development, increasing amounts of water are stored in the embryonic sacs (i.e., membranes around the embryo: amnion, allantois, and chorion). The evolution of viviparity (prolonged uterine retention of developing embryos) means that embryonic-sac fluid storage now imposes a cost (increased maternal burdening), confers less benefit (because the mother buffers fetal water balance), and introduces a potential conflict among uterine siblings (for access to finite water supplies). Our data on nine species of squamate reptiles and published information on three species show that the embryonic-sac fluids comprise around 33% of neonatal mass in viviparous species versus 94% in full-term eggs of oviparous squamates. Data on parturition in 149 vipers (Vipera aspis, a viviparous species) show that larger offspring store more fluids in their fetal sacs and that an increase in litter size is associated with a decrease in fluid-sac mass per offspring. Overall, the evolutionary transition from oviparity to viviparity may have substantially altered selective forces on offspring packaging and created competition among offspring for access to water reserves during embryonic development.

  13. Rectal sac distention is induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone in the pupa of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takumi; Sakurai, Sho; Iwami, Masafumi

    2009-03-01

    Holometabolous insects do not excrete but store metabolic wastes during the pupal period. The waste is called meconium and is purged after adult emergence. Although the contents of meconium are well-studied, the developmental and physiological regulation of meconium accumulation is poorly understood. In Bombyx mori, meconium is accumulated in the rectal sac; thereby, the rectal sac distends at the late pupal stage. Here, we show that rectal sac distention occurs between 4 and 5 days after pupation. The distention is halted by brain-removal just after larval-pupal ecdysis but not by brain-removal 1 day after pupation. In the pupae, brain-removal just after ecdysis kept the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer low during early and mid-pupal stages. An injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) evoked the distention that was halted by brain-removal in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, brain-removal caused the lack of ecdysteroid, and rectal sac distention did not appear in the brain-removed pupae because of the lack of ecdysteroid. We conclude that rectal sac distention is one of the developmental events regulated by 20E during the pupal period in B. mori.

  14. Vocal sac development and accelerated sexual maturity in the lesser swimming frog, Pseudis minuta (Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Javier; Barrasso, Diego A; Agostini, M Gabriela; Quinzio, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    Sexual maturity involves the differentiation of the reproductive system, the maturation of germ cells, and the development of secondary sexual characteristics. Even though this topic has received much attention, little is known about the sequence of events that encompass reproductive maturation in anurans and what it could reveal about the developmental basis of life cycle evolution. The discovery of froglets of Pseudis minuta with incipient vocal sacs calling in breeding pools alongside several larger adult specimens with fully developed vocal sacs raised the question of the timing of sexual maturity in this species. Here we describe the sequence and timing of differentiation, development and maturation of the vocal sac apparatus and the testes in P. minuta (Anura, Hylidae), in order to establish a timeline of events leading to sexual maturity. Differentiation of the vocal sac apparatus begins at the final metamorphic stages, earlier than reported for other species, and the vocal sac acquires its final shape during the early postmetamorphic period. These modifications occur after gonadal differentiation, which begins early during the larval period and proceeds with a highly accelerated rate of development (e.g., secondary spermatids appear well before metamorphic climax), a situation reported previously for other anuran species only in the genus Pseudis. These results, together with a skeletochronological analysis showing that some calling specimens presented no lines of arrested growth, indicate acceleration in the timing of sexual maturity in Pseudis, and raise questions about the interdependence/decoupling during the development of the different components involved in reaching the adult stage.

  15. Prox1 expression in the endolymphatic sac revealed by whole-mount fluorescent imaging of Prox1-GFP transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Takenori; Burford, James L; Hong, Young-Kwon; Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa; Hoshikawa, Hiroshi; Mori, Nozomu; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2015-01-30

    This study describes a technical breakthrough in endolymphatic sac research, made possible by the use of the recently generated Prox1-GFP transgenic mouse model. Whole-mount imaging techniques through the decalcified temporal bone and three-dimensional observations of Prox1-GFP mouse tissue revealed the positive labeling of the endolymphatic sac in adult stage, and allowed, for the first time, the GFP-based identification of endolymphatic sac epithelial cells. Prox1 expression was observed in all parts of the endolymphatic sac epithelia. In intermediate portion of the endolymphatic sac, mitochondria-rich cells did not express Prox1, although ribosome-rich cells showed strong GFP labeling. The anatomical relationship between the endolymphatic sac and the surrounding vasculature was directly observed. In the endolymphatic sac, expression of Prox1 may suggest progenitor cell-like pluripotency or developmental similarity to systemic lymphatic vessels in other organs. This whole-mount imaging technique of the endolymphatic sac can be combined with other conventional histological, sectioning, and labeling techniques and will be very useful for future endolymphatic sac research.

  16. [A case of ascending colon carcinoma metastasized to an inguinal hernia sac].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yasuhiro; Kato, Takeshi; Katayama, Kinzo; Doi, Takashi; Oshima, Kazuteru; Handa, Rio; Hoshi, Minako; Makari, Yoichi; Oshima, Satoshi; Iijima, Shohei; Kurokawa, Eiji; Kikkawa, Nobuteru

    2007-11-01

    While inguinal hernia is one of the most common diseases, metastatic cancer of an inguinal hernia sac is rare. We report a case of ascending colon cancer metastasized to an inguinal hernia sac. A 60-year-old man, who was undergone a right hemicolectomy for an ascending colon cancer, was pointed out a palpable inguinal mass at one year and eight months after the operation. He was diagnosed as inguinal hernia, and herniorrhaphy was performed. In the operation, a tumor of the inguinal hernia sac, which invaded to spermatic cord, could be found and was removed with right testis. Bassini's method was performed after the resection of the inguinal tumor. Histological examination revealed that the tumor was metastasis of colon carcinoma. Examination of the entire body showed no other metastasis. As for the advanced colon cancer, we need to mention the possibility of metastatic saccular tumor.

  17. Successful treatment of hydatid cyst of lesser sac with PAIR therapy.

    PubMed

    Fayyaz, Afshan; Ghani, Umar Fayyaz

    2013-12-01

    Hydatid disease has varied presentations and may involve any part of the body with hydatid disease of the liver being the most common site. Hydatid disease of lesser sac is a rare entity. Different treatment options of hydatid liver disease are available which include surgical, medical and radiological management. Surgical management has its limitations in terms of cost, morbidity, mortality, rate of recurrence and patient fitness to undergo surgery. Medical management alone carries a low chance of cure. Radiological management with PAIR therapy (percutaneous aspiration, injection and re-aspiration) of hydatid liver disease has been well described in literature. However, hydatid disease of lesser sac in itself is a rare entity and its treatment with PAIR procedure has not been described before. We describe a case of hydatid disease of lesser sac treated with the PAIR procedure.

  18. User's guide to SAC, a computer program for computing discharge by slope-area method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.

    1994-01-01

    This user's guide contains information on using the slope-area program, SAC. SAC can be used to compute peak flood discharges from measurements of high-water marks along a stream reach. The Slope-area method used by the program is the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) procedure presented in Techniques of Water Resources Investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey, beok 3, chapter A2, "Measurement of Peak Discharge by the Slope-Area Method." The program uses input files that have formats compatible with those used by the water-surface profile program (WSPRO) described in the Federal Highways Administration publication FHWA-IP-89-027. The guide briefly describes the slope-area method documents the input requirements and the output produced, and demonstrates use of SAC.

  19. Deafness due to bilateral endolymphatic sac tumours in a case of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Kempermann, G; Neumann, H P; Scheremet, R; Volk, B; Mann, W; Gilsbach, J; Laszig, R

    1996-01-01

    A case of bilateral endolymphatic sac tumours is reported. In a patient with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, tumour growth in the right cerebellopontine angle caused deafness. The tumour was removed and classified as a metastasis from a thyroid carcinoma. However, on thyroidectomy no primary neoplasm could be found. Eight years later a similar tumour was operated on in the left petrosal bone. Histological appearance, immunocytochemical findings, and the clinical context gave evidence that the tumours had to be reclassified as endolymphatic sac tumours--extremely rare entities. The report supports the hypothesis, suggested by the few earlier case reports, that endolymphatic sac tumours could be one of the inherent tumour manifestations in von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Images PMID:8795608

  20. An atypical case of lacrimal sac fistula located on the temporal side of the lateral canthus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyu-Nam; Huh, Hyun-Do; Park, Jong-Moon; Seo, Seong-Wook

    2012-12-01

    We report a case of congenital lacrimal sac fistula located on the temporal side of the lateral canthus. A systemically healthy 1-year-old girl came to the outpatient clinic with a complaint of tearing on the temporal side of the right lateral canthus since birth. On examination, a small orifice was found in the skin on the temporal side of the lateral canthus. There was no evidence of inflammation or swelling within the opening. Surgeons carried out an operation under general anesthesia. They passed a probe through the lacrimal orifice and advanced it toward the lacrimal sac. Next, they introduced saline to the inferior punctum and found that it drained to the lateral fistula. The lower lid stretched as the dissected fistula was pulled. After the operation, the patient was free of the symptom. This paper is to report a case of congenital lacrimal sac fistula located on the temporal side of the lateral canthus.

  1. sAC as a model for understanding the impact of endosymbiosis on cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Blackstone, Neil W

    2014-12-01

    As signaling pathways evolve, selection for new functions guides the co-option of existing material. Major transitions in the history of life, including the evolution of eukaryotes and multicellularity, exemplify this process. These transitions provided both strong selection and a plenitude of available material for the evolution of signaling pathways. Mechanisms that evolved to mediate conflict during the evolution of eukaryotes may subsequently have been co-opted during the many independent derivations of multicellularity. The soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) signaling pathway illustrates this hypothesis. Class III adenylyl cyclases, which include sAC, are found in bacteria, including the α-proteobacteria. These adenylyl cyclases are the only ones present in eukaryotes but appear to be absent in archaeans. This pattern suggests that the mitochondrial endosymbiosis brought sAC signaling to eukaryotes as part of an intact module. After transfer to the proto-nuclear genome, this module was then co-opted into numerous new functions. In the evolution of eukaryotes, sAC signaling may have mediated conflicts by maintaining metabolic homeostasis. In the evolution of multicellularity, in different lineages sAC may have been co-opted into parallel tasks originally related to conflict mediation. Elucidating the history of the sAC pathway may be relatively straightforward because it is ubiquitous and linked to near universal metabolic by-products (CO₂/HCO(3)(-)). Other signaling pathways (e.g., those involving STAT and VEGF) present a greater challenge but may suggest a complementary pattern. The impact of the mitochondrial endosymbiosis on cell signaling may thus have been profound. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The role of soluble adenylyl cyclase in health and disease.

  2. A Rare Case of Primary Anterior Mediastinal Yolk Sac Tumor in an Elderly Adult Male

    PubMed Central

    Nakhla, Sammy G.; Sundararajan, Srinath

    2016-01-01

    Mediastinal germ cell tumors are extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGGCTs) commonly seen in children and young adults. They are more common in men. Clinically they are classified as teratomas, seminomas, and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Primary mediastinal yolk sac neoplasm is an extremely rare tumor. We present here a very rare case of primary yolk sac tumor of the anterior mediastinum in a 73-year-old male. Mediastinal germ cell tumors have a worse prognosis than gonadal germ cell tumors. Chemotherapy followed by adjuvant surgery improves overall response in EGGCTs. However, comorbidities can render treatment with chemotherapy and surgery challenging in elderly patients. PMID:27144043

  3. Endolymphatic Sac Tumor Showing Increased Activity on 68Ga DOTATATE PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Georgios Z; Millo, Corina; Sadowski, Samira M; Bagci, Ulas; Patronas, Nicholas J

    2016-10-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) are rare tumors arising from the epithelium of the endolymphatic sac and duct that can be either sporadic or associated with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. We report a case of a VHL patient with histologically proven residual ELST who underwent Ga DOTATATE PET/CT showing increased activity (SUVmax, 6.29) by the ELST. The presented case of a VHL-associated ELST with increased Ga DOTATATE uptake indicates cell-surface expression of somatostatin receptors by this tumor, suggesting the potential application of somatostatin receptor imaging using Ga DOTA-conjugated peptides in the workup and management of these patients.

  4. Scanning electron microscopy of the human endolymphatic sac: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Galey, F R; House, W F

    1980-04-01

    Scanning electron microscopy has been used to examine and compare one normal endolymphatic sac with one endolymphatic sac from a patient with Meniere's disease. The surgical procedure for obtaining these specimens and their preparation for scanning electron microscopy are described. The luminal surface of the rugose portion of both specimens was lined with two populations of epithelial cells: one with a dome-shaped apical surface, the other with a flattened polygonal surface. The surface of dome-shaped cells in both specimens was covered with microvilli. Neither specimen had observable loss of epithelial integrity or fibrosis.

  5. 48 CFR 301.603-74 - Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. 301.603-74 Section 301.603-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations..., Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 301.603-74 Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. To maintain FAC-C certification, all warranted Contracting Officers, regardless of series,...

  6. The actin-related protein Sac1 is required for morphogenesis and cell wall integrity in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Yu, Qilin; Jia, Chang; Wang, Yuzhou; Xiao, Chenpeng; Dong, Yijie; Xu, Ning; Wang, Lei; Li, Mingchun

    2015-08-01

    Candida albicans is a common pathogenic fungus and has aroused widespread attention recently. Actin cytoskeleton, an important player in polarized growth, protein secretion and organization of cell shape, displays irreplaceable role in hyphal development and cell integrity. In this study, we demonstrated a homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sac1, in C. albicans. It is a potential PIP phosphatase with Sac domain which is related to actin organization, hyphal development, biofilm formation and cell wall integrity. Deletion of SAC1 did not lead to insitiol-auxotroph phenotype in C. albicans, but this gene rescued the growth defect of S. cerevisiae sac1Δ in the insitiol-free medium. Hyphal induction further revealed the deficiency of sac1Δ/Δ in hyphal development and biofilm formation. Fluorescence observation and real time PCR (RT-PCR) analysis suggested both actin and the hyphal cell wall protein Hwp1 were overexpressed and mislocated in this mutant. Furthermore, cell wall integrity (CWI) was largely affected by deletion of SAC1, due to the hypersensitivity to cell wall stress, changed content and distribution of chitin in the mutant. As a result, the virulence of sac1Δ/Δ was seriously attenuated. Taken together, this study provides evidence that Sac1, as a potential PIP phosphatase, is essential for actin organization, hyphal development, CWI and pathogenicity in C. albicans.

  7. Absence of yolk sac hematopoiesis from mice with a targeted disruption of the scl gene.

    PubMed Central

    Robb, L; Lyons, I; Li, R; Hartley, L; Köntgen, F; Harvey, R P; Metcalf, D; Begley, C G

    1995-01-01

    The scl gene encodes a basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor which was identified through its involvement in chromosomal translocations in T-cell leukemia. To elucidate its physiological role, scl was targeted in embryonic stem cells. Mice heterozygous for the scl null mutation were intercrossed and their offspring were genotyped. Homozygous mutant (scl-/-) pups were not detected in newborn litters, and analysis at earlier time points demonstrated that scl-/- embryos were dying around embryonic day 9.5. The scl-/- embryos were pale, edematous, and markedly growth retarded after embryonic day 8.75. Histological studies showed complete absence of recognizable hematopoiesis in the yolk sac of these embryos. Early organogenesis appeared to be otherwise normal. Culture of yolk sac cells of wild-type, heterozygous, and homozygous littermates confirmed the absence of hematopoietic cells in scl-/- yolk sacs. Reverse transcription PCR was used to examine the transcripts of several genes implicated in early hematopoiesis. Transcripts of GATA-1 and PU.1 transcription factors were absent from RNA from scl-/- yolk sacs and embryos. These results implicate scl as a crucial regulator of early hematopoiesis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7624372

  8. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma in an inguinal hernial sac: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, M; Lakhar, B; Shetty, D; Ullal, S

    2000-01-01

    Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma, which is a rare neoplasm, usually presents with abdominal complaints. Though such tumours have been reported from tunica vaginalis testis presenting as para-testicular mass, there is only one documented case of the tumour arising from the inguinal hernial sac. In this paper, we are reporting a rare presentation of this tumour.

  9. Entire lacrimal sac within the ethmoid sinus: outcomes of powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad Javed; Singh, Swati; Naik, Milind N

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to report the outcomes of powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (PEnDCR) in patients with lacrimal sac within the sinus. Materials and methods Retrospective analysis was performed on all patients who underwent PEnDCR and were intraoperatively documented to have complete lacrimal sac in sinus. Data collected included demographics, clinical presentations, associated lacrimal and nasal anomalies, intraoperative findings, intraoperative guidance, complications, postoperative ostium behavior, and anatomical and functional success. A minimum follow-up of 6 months postsurgery was considered for final analysis. Results A total of 17 eyes of 15 patients underwent PEnDCR using standard protocols, but with additional intraoperative guidance where required and careful maneuvering in the ethmoid sinus. The mean age of the patients was 37.2 (range 17–60) years. Of the unilateral cases, 69% (nine of 13) showed left-side predisposition; 80% of patients showed regurgitation on pressure over the lacrimal sac area. Associated lacrimal and nasal anomalies were observed in 13.3% (two of 15) and 40% (six of 15), respectively. At a mean follow-up of 6.6 months, anatomical and functional success were observed in 93.3% (14 of 15). One patient showed failure secondary to cicatricial closure of the ostium. Conclusion An entire sac within an ethmoid sinus poses a surgical challenge. Good sinus-surgery training, thorough knowledge of endoscopic anatomy, careful maneuvering, and use of intraoperative navigation guidance result in good outcomes with PEnDCR. PMID:27462137

  10. Follow-Up Survey of Former SAC Students Who Transferred to a Four Year College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slark, Julie; Bateman, Harold

    In 1982, a follow-up study was conducted of Santa Ana College (SAC) graduates who had transferred to and were currently attending four neighboring four-year colleges: California State University, Fullerton; California State University, Long Beach; California Polytechnic University; and the University of California, Irvine. Surveys were mailed to…

  11. Cells of the connective tissue differentiate and migrate into pollen sacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. C. M.; Wijesekara, Kolitha B.

    2002-01-01

    In angiosperms, archesporial cells in the anther primordium undergo meiosis to form haploid pollen, the sole occupants of anther sacs. Anther sacs are held together by a matrix of parenchyma cells, the connective tissue. Cells of the connective tissue are not known to differentiate. We report the differentiation of parenchyma cells in the connective tissue of two Gordonia species into pollen-like structures (described as pseudopollen), which migrate into the anther sacs before dehiscence. Pollen and pseudopollen were distinguishable by morphology and staining. Pollen were tricolpate to spherical while pseudopollen were less rigid and transparent with a ribbed surface. Both types were different in size, shape, staining and surface architecture. The ratio of the number of pseudopollen to pollen was 1:3. During ontogeny in the connective tissue, neither cell division nor tetrad formation was observed and hence pseudopollen were presumed to be diploid. Only normal pollen germinated on a germination medium. Fixed preparations in time seemed to indicate that pseudopollen migrate from the connective tissue into the anther sac.

  12. Bleomycin-Induced Flagellate Erythema in a Patient Diagnosed with Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Boussios, Stergios; Moschetta, Michele; McLachlan, Jennifer; Banerjee, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Flagellate linear hyperpigmentation can rarely be caused by the chemotherapy agent, bleomycin. Herein, we describe the case of a 20-year-old woman treated with bleomycin for an ovarian yolk sac tumor and review the prominent features of this form of dermatitis. PMID:26798532

  13. Defective histone supply causes condensin-dependent chromatin alterations, SAC activation and chromosome decatenation impairment

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Pineda, Marina; Cabello-Lobato, María J.; Clemente-Ruiz, Marta; Monje-Casas, Fernando; Prado, Félix

    2014-01-01

    The structural organization of chromosomes is essential for their correct function and dynamics during the cell cycle. The assembly of DNA into chromatin provides the substrate for topoisomerases and condensins, which introduce the different levels of superhelical torsion required for DNA metabolism. In particular, Top2 and condensin are directly involved in both the resolution of precatenanes that form during replication and the formation of the intramolecular loop that detects tension at the centromeric chromatin during chromosome biorientation. Here we show that histone depletion activates the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and impairs sister chromatid decatenation, leading to chromosome mis-segregation and lethality in the absence of the SAC. We demonstrate that histone depletion impairs chromosome biorientation and activates the Aurora-dependent pathway, which detects tension problems at the kinetochore. Interestingly, SAC activation is suppressed by the absence of Top2 and Smc2, an essential component of condensin. Indeed, smc2-8 suppresses catenanes accumulation, mitotic arrest and growth defects induced by histone depletion at semi-permissive temperature. Remarkably, SAC activation by histone depletion is associated with condensin-mediated alterations of the centromeric chromatin. Therefore, our results reveal the importance of a precise interplay between histone supply and condensin/Top2 for pericentric chromatin structure, precatenanes resolution and centromere biorientation. PMID:25300489

  14. Regulation of ascorbic acid metabolism by blue LED light irradiation in citrus juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, the effects of red and blue LED lights on the accumulation of ascorbic acid (AsA) were investigated in the juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin, Valencia orange, and Lisbon lemon. The results showed that the blue LED light treatment effectively increased the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties, whereas the red LED light treatment did not. By increasing the blue LED light intensity, the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties accumulated more AsA. Moreover, continuous irradiation with blue LED light was more effective than pulsed irradiation for increasing the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties. Gene expression results showed that the modulation of AsA accumulation by blue LED light was highly regulated at the transcription level. The up-regulation of AsA biosynthetic genes (CitVTC1, CitVTC2, CitVTC4, and CitGLDH), AsA regeneration genes (CitMDAR1, CitMDAR2, and CitDHAR) and two GSH-producing genes (CitGR and CitchGR) contributed to these increases in the AsA content in the three citrus varieties.

  15. Efficacy of carbon dioxide insufflation for cerebral and cardiac protection during open heart surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanhua; Ji, Bingyang; Zhu, Xian; Zheng, Zhe

    2013-05-01

    In spite of widespread application around the world, there has been controversy on the cerebral and cardiac protection efficacy of carbon dioxide insufflation (CDI) during open heart surgery. To make a comprehensive evaluation, we screened all relevant published randomized controlled trials to perform the first systematic review and meta-analysis for CDI during open heart surgery. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trial register, WANFAN, CQVIP, and CNKI database for published articles. Randomized controlled trials were included when the research provided data of neurological complications postoperatively, creatinine kinase, MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) on the first postoperative day, or all-cause mortality. We chose a fixed-effects model when the trials showed low heterogeneity, otherwise a random effects model was used. The quality of studies was assessed by modified Jadad scale. Four studies were included in this meta-analysis. The overall pooled relative risk (RR) for neurological complications was 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [0.57, 4.46], and the z-score for overall effect was 0.89 (P = 0.37). The standardized mean difference of the CK-MB between groups was 1.15, 95% CI = [-1.27, 3.56], and the z-score for overall effect was 0.93 (P = 0.35). The overall pooled RR for all-cause mortality was 0.5, 95% CI = [0.16, 1.64], and the z-score for overall effect was 1.14 (P = 0.25). There was no significant difference between groups. Because of the insufficiency of powerful evidences, the cerebral and cardiac protection efficacy of CDI during open heart surgery needs to be further verified by more high-quality trials.

  16. Modeling the Rate-Dependent Durability of Reduced-Ag SAC Interconnects for Area Array Packages Under Torsion Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Vikram; Menon, Sandeep; Osterman, Michael; Pecht, Michael G.

    2013-08-01

    Solder durability models frequently focus on the applied strain range; however, the rate of applied loading, or strain rate, is also important. In this study, an approach to incorporate strain rate dependency into durability estimation for solder interconnects is examined. Failure data were collected for SAC105 solder ball grid arrays assembled with SAC305 solder that were subjected to displacement-controlled torsion loads. Strain-rate-dependent (Johnson-Cook model) and strain-rate-independent elastic-plastic properties were used to model the solders in finite-element simulation. Test data were then used to extract damage model constants for the reduced-Ag SAC solder. A generalized Coffin-Manson damage model was used to estimate the durability. The mechanical fatigue durability curve for reduced-silver SAC solder was generated and compared with durability curves for SAC305 and Sn-Pb from the literature.

  17. Effects of granulation on organic acid metabolism and its relation to mineral elements in Citrus grandis juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-You; Wang, Ping; Qi, Yi-Ping; Zhou, Chen-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Liao, Xin-Yan; Wang, Liu-Qing; Zhu, Dong-Huang; Chen, Li-Song

    2014-02-15

    We investigated the effects of granulation on organic acid metabolism and its relation to mineral elements in 'Guanximiyou' pummelo (Citrus grandis) juice sacs. Granulated juice sacs had decreased concentrations of citrate and isocitrate, thus lowering juice sac acidity. By contrast, malate concentration was higher in granulated juice sacs than in normal ones. The reduction in citrate concentration might be caused by increased degradation, as indicated by enhanced aconitase activity, whilst the increase in malate concentration might be caused by increased biosynthesis, as indicated by enhanced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). Real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the activities of most acid-metabolizing enzymes were regulated at the transcriptional level, whilst post-translational modifications might influence the PEPC activity. Granulation led to increased accumulation of mineral elements (especially phosphorus, magnesium, sulphur, zinc and copper) in juice sacs, which might be involved in the incidence of granulation in pummelo fruits.

  18. Dispensability of the SAC Depends on the Time Window Required by Aurora B to Ensure Chromosome Biorientation.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Barrera, Marta; Aguilar, Isabel; Monje-Casas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Aurora B and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) collaborate to ensure the proper biorientation of chromosomes during mitosis. However, lack of Aurora B activity and inactivation of the SAC have a very different impact on chromosome segregation. This is most evident in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, since in this organism the lack of Aurora B is lethal and leads to severe aneuploidy problems, while the SAC is dispensable under normal growth conditions and mutants in this checkpoint do not show evident chromosome segregation defects. We demonstrate that the efficient repair of incorrect chromosome attachments by Aurora B during the initial stages of spindle assembly in budding yeast determines the lack of chromosome segregation defects in SAC mutants, and propose that the differential time window that Aurora B kinase requires to establish chromosome biorientation is the key factor that determines why some cells are more dependent on a functional SAC than others.

  19. The corn snake yolk sac becomes a solid tissue filled with blood vessels and yolk-rich endodermal cells

    PubMed Central

    Elinson, Richard P.; Stewart, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The amniote egg was a key innovation in vertebrate evolution because it supports an independent existence in terrestrial environments. The egg is provisioned with yolk, and development depends on the yolk sac for the mobilization of nutrients. We have examined the yolk sac of the corn snake Pantherophis guttatus by the dissection of living eggs. In contrast to the familiar fluid-filled sac of birds, the corn snake yolk sac invades the yolk mass to become a solid tissue. There is extensive proliferation of yolk-filled endodermal cells, which associate with a meshwork of blood vessels. These novel attributes of the yolk sac of corn snakes compared with birds suggest new pathways for the evolution of the amniote egg. PMID:24402715

  20. Characterization of Sac10a, a hyperthermophile DNA-binding protein from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Stephen P; Kahsai, Mebrahtu A; Gupta, Ramesh; Shriver, John W

    2004-10-19

    Sac10a is a member of a group of basic DNA-binding proteins thought to be important in chromatin structure and regulation in the archaeon Sulfolobus. We describe here the isolation, gene identification, and biophysical characterization of native Sac10a. The protein exists as a 23.8 kDa homodimer at pH 7 and unfolds with a T degrees of 122 degrees C. Dissociation of the dimer into folded globular subunits is promoted by decreased pH and salt concentration. Thermal unfolding of the monomeric subunits occurred with two transitions, indicating two independent domains. The dimer demonstrated a high affinity for duplex poly(dAdT) with a K(D) of 5 x 10(-)(10) M and a site size of 17 bp (in 0.15 M KCl, pH 7), with only weak binding (K(D) > 5 x 10(-)(6) M) to poly(dA)-poly(dT), poly(dGdC), poly(dG)-poly(dC), and Escherichia coli DNA under similar conditions. Binding to poly(dAdT) resulted in distortions in the DNA duplex that were consistent with overwinding as indicated by inversion of the CD spectrum of the DNA. The monomeric subunits are predicted to adopt a winged helix DNA-binding motif which dimerizes through formation of a two-stranded coiled coil involving an extended C-terminal helix with more than four heptad repeats (about 45 A in length). This is the first example of the conserved archaeal transcription regulator domain COG3432 to be characterized. Sequences for homologous proteins containing both COG3432 and predicted coiled coil domains occur in the genomes of both crenarchaeota (Sulfolobus, Pyrobaculum, Aeropyrum) and euryarchaeota (Methanosarcina, Methanococcus, Archaeoglobus, Thermoplasma), with multiple genes in some species. Sac10a shows no sequence similarity to the other Sulfolobus chromatin proteins Sac7d, Sac8, Sso10b2, and Alba.

  1. Primitive fitting based on the efficient multiBaySAC algorithm.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhizhong; Li, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Although RANSAC is proven to be robust, the original RANSAC algorithm selects hypothesis sets at random, generating numerous iterations and high computational costs because many hypothesis sets are contaminated with outliers. This paper presents a conditional sampling method, multiBaySAC (Bayes SAmple Consensus), that fuses the BaySAC algorithm with candidate model parameters statistical testing for unorganized 3D point clouds to fit multiple primitives. This paper first presents a statistical testing algorithm for a candidate model parameter histogram to detect potential primitives. As the detected initial primitives were optimized using a parallel strategy rather than a sequential one, every data point in the multiBaySAC algorithm was assigned to multiple prior inlier probabilities for initial multiple primitives. Each prior inlier probability determined the probability that a point belongs to the corresponding primitive. We then implemented in parallel a conditional sampling method: BaySAC. With each iteration of the hypothesis testing process, hypothesis sets with the highest inlier probabilities were selected and verified for the existence of multiple primitives, revealing the fitting for multiple primitives. Moreover, the updated version of the initial probability was implemented based on a memorable form of Bayes' Theorem, which describes the relationship between prior and posterior probabilities of a data point by determining whether the hypothesis set to which a data point belongs is correct. The proposed approach was tested using real and synthetic point clouds. The results show that the proposed multiBaySAC algorithm can achieve a high computational efficiency (averaging 34% higher than the efficiency of the sequential RANSAC method) and fitting accuracy (exhibiting good performance in the intersection of two primitives), whereas the sequential RANSAC framework clearly suffers from over- and under-segmentation problems. Future work will aim at further

  2. FSI Simulations of Pulse Wave Propagation in Human Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: The Effects of Sac Geometry and Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Li, Han; Lin, Kexin; Shahmirzadi, Danial

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the effects of geometry and stiffness of aneurysms on the pulse wave velocity (PWV) and propagation in fluid–solid interaction (FSI) simulations of arterial pulsatile flow. Spatiotemporal maps of both the wall displacement and fluid velocity were generated in order to obtain the pulse wave propagation through fluid and solid media, and to examine the interactions between the two waves. The results indicate that the presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac and variations in the sac modulus affect the propagation of the pulse waves both qualitatively (eg, patterns of change of forward and reflective waves) and quantitatively (eg, decreasing of PWV within the sac and its increase beyond the sac as the sac stiffness increases). The sac region is particularly identified on the spatiotemporal maps with a region of disruption in the wave propagation with multiple short-traveling forward/reflected waves, which is caused by the change in boundary conditions within the saccular region. The change in sac stiffness, however, is more pronounced on the wall displacement spatiotemporal maps compared to those of fluid velocity. We conclude that the existence of the sac can be identified based on the solid and fluid pulse waves, while the sac properties can also be estimated. This study demonstrates the initial findings in numerical simulations of FSI dynamics during arterial pulsations that can be used as reference for experimental and in vivo studies. Future studies are needed to demonstrate the feasibility of the method in identifying very mild sacs, which cannot be detected from medical imaging, where the material property degradation exists under early disease initiation. PMID:27478394

  3. A randomised comparison of the self-pressurised air-QTM intubating laryngeal airway with the LMA Unique™ in children.

    PubMed

    Jagannathan, N; Sohn, L E; Sawardekar, A; Shah, R; Ryan, K; Jagannathan, R; Anderson, K

    2012-09-01

    We conducted a randomised trial comparing the self-pressurised air-Q™ intubating laryngeal airway (air-Q SP) with the LMA-Unique in 60 children undergoing surgery. Outcomes measured were airway leak pressure, ease and time for insertion, fibreoptic examination, incidence of gastric insufflation and complications. Median (IQR [range]) time to successful device placement was faster with the air-Q SP (12 (10-15 [5-18])) s than with the LMA-Unique (14 (12-17 [6-22]) s; p=0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between the air-Q SP and LMA-Unique in initial airway leak pressures (16 (14-18 [10-29]) compared with 18 (15-20 [10-30]) cmH2 O, p=0.12), an airway leak pressures at 10 min (19 (16-22 [12-30]) compared with 20 (16-22 [10-30]) cmH2 O, p=0.81); fibreoptic position, incidence of gastric insufflation, or complications. Both devices provided effective ventilation without the need for airway manipulation. The air-Q SP is an alternative to the LMA-Unique should the clinician prefer a device not requiring cuff monitoring during anaesthesia.

  4. Combining anti-cancer drugs with artificial sweeteners: synthesis and anti-cancer activity of saccharinate (sac) and thiosaccharinate (tsac) complexes cis-[Pt(sac)2(NH3)2] and cis-[Pt(tsac)2(NH3)2].

    PubMed

    Al-Jibori, Subhi A; Al-Jibori, Ghassan H; Al-Hayaly, Lamaan J; Wagner, Christoph; Schmidt, Harry; Timur, Suna; Baris Barlas, F; Subasi, Elif; Ghosh, Shishir; Hogarth, Graeme

    2014-12-01

    The new platinum(II) complexes cis-[Pt(sac)2(NH3)2] (sac=saccharinate) and cis-[Pt(tsac)2(NH3)2] (tsac=thiosaccharinate) have been prepared, the X-ray crystal structure of cis-[Pt(sac)2(NH3)2] x H2O reveals that both saccharinate anions are N-bound in a cis-arrangement being inequivalent in both the solid-state and in solution at room temperature. Preliminary anti-cancer activity has been assessed against A549 human alveolar type-II like cell lines with the thiosaccharinate complex showing good activity.

  5. New development of the yolk sac theory in diabetic embryopathy: molecular mechanism and link to structural birth defects

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Daoyin; Reece, E. Albert; Lin, Xue; Wu, Yanqing; AriasVillela, Natalia; Yang, Peixin

    2015-01-01

    Maternal diabetes is a significant risk factor for structural birth defects, including congenital heart defects and neural tube defects (NTDs). With the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity in women of childbearing age, diabetes-induced birth defects have become an increasingly significant public health problem. Maternal diabetes in vivo and high glucose in vitro induce yolk sac injuries by damaging the morphology of cells and altering the dynamics of organelles. The yolk sac vascular system is the first system to develop during embryogenesis, therefore, it is the most sensitive to hyperglycemia. The consequences of yolk sac injuries include impairment of nutrient transportation due to vasculopathy. Although the functional relationship between yolk sac vasculopathy and structural birth defects has not yet been established, a recent study reveals that the quality of yolk sac vasculature is inversely related to embryonic malformation rates. Studies in animal models have uncovered key molecular intermediates of diabetic yolk sac vasculopathy, including hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and its inhibitor thioredoxin-1 (Trx), c-Jun-N-terminal kinases (JNK), nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Yolk sac vasculopathy is also associated with abnormalities in arachidonic acid and myo-inositol. Dietary supplementation with fatty acids that restore lipid levels in the yolk sac lead to reduction in diabetes-induced malformations. Although the role of the human yolk in embryogenesis is less extensive than in rodents, nevertheless, human embryonic vasculogenesis is negatively affected by maternal diabetes. Mechanistic studies have identified potential therapeutic targets for future intervention against yolk sac vasculopathy, birth defects, and other complications associated with diabetic pregnancies. PMID:26432466

  6. New development of the yolk sac theory in diabetic embryopathy: molecular mechanism and link to structural birth defects.

    PubMed

    Dong, Daoyin; Reece, E Albert; Lin, Xue; Wu, Yanqing; AriasVillela, Natalia; Yang, Peixin

    2016-02-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus is a significant risk factor for structural birth defects, including congenital heart defects and neural tube defects. With the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in women of childbearing age, diabetes mellitus-induced birth defects have become an increasingly significant public health problem. Maternal diabetes mellitus in vivo and high glucose in vitro induce yolk sac injuries by damaging the morphologic condition of cells and altering the dynamics of organelles. The yolk sac vascular system is the first system to develop during embryogenesis; therefore, it is the most sensitive to hyperglycemia. The consequences of yolk sac injuries include impairment of nutrient transportation because of vasculopathy. Although the functional relationship between yolk sac vasculopathy and structural birth defects has not yet been established, a recent study reveals that the quality of yolk sac vasculature is related inversely to embryonic malformation rates. Studies in animal models have uncovered key molecular intermediates of diabetic yolk sac vasculopathy, which include hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, and its inhibitor thioredoxin-1, c-Jun-N-terminal kinases, nitric oxide, and nitric oxide synthase. Yolk sac vasculopathy is also associated with abnormalities in arachidonic acid and myo-inositol. Dietary supplementation with fatty acids that restore lipid levels in the yolk sac lead to a reduction in diabetes mellitus-induced malformations. Although the role of the human yolk in embryogenesis is less extensive than in rodents, nevertheless, human embryonic vasculogenesis is affected negatively by maternal diabetes mellitus. Mechanistic studies have identified potential therapeutic targets for future intervention against yolk sac vasculopathy, birth defects, and other complications associated with diabetic pregnancies.

  7. Plant-derived SAC domain of PAR-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) exhibits growth inhibitory effects in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Shayan; Jain, Sumeet; Rai, Vineeta; Sahoo, Dipak K.; Raha, Sumita; Suklabaidya, Sujit; Senapati, Shantibhusan; Rangnekar, Vivek M.; Maiti, Indu B.; Dey, Nrisingha

    2015-01-01

    The gene Par-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) was originally identified in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis and its product Par-4 showed cancer specific pro-apoptotic activity. Particularly, the SAC domain of Par-4 (SAC-Par-4) selectively kills cancer cells leaving normal cells unaffected. The therapeutic significance of bioactive SAC-Par-4 is enormous in cancer biology; however, its large scale production is still a matter of concern. Here we report the production of SAC-Par-4-GFP fusion protein coupled to translational enhancer sequence (5′ AMV) and apoplast signal peptide (aTP) in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN plants under the control of a unique recombinant promoter M24. Transgene integration was confirmed by genomic DNA PCR, Southern and Northern blotting, Real-time PCR, and Nuclear run-on assays. Results of Western blot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP protein and it was as high as 0.15% of total soluble protein. In addition, we found that targeting of plant recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP to the apoplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was essential for the stability of plant recombinant protein in comparison to the bacterial derived SAC-Par-4. Deglycosylation analysis demonstrated that ER-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP-SEKDEL undergoes O-linked glycosylation unlike apoplast-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP. Furthermore, various in vitro studies like mammalian cells proliferation assay (MTT), apoptosis induction assays, and NF-κB suppression suggested the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of plant-derived SAC-Par-4-GFP against multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Additionally, pre-treatment of MAT-LyLu prostate cancer cells with purified SAC-Par-4-GFP significantly delayed the onset of tumor in a syngeneic rat prostate cancer model. Taken altogether, we proclaim that plant made SAC-Par-4 may become a useful alternate therapy for effectively alleviating cancer in the new era. PMID:26500666

  8. Torsion of the hernia sac within a hydrocele of the scrotum in a child.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Akihiko; Nagatomi, Yutaka; Sakai, Masato; Oshi, Masaya

    2004-09-01

    Torsion of the hernia sac is a rare disease that presents as acute scrotum in children. Including the present case, only six cases have been reported in the English literature. We report a 10-year-old boy who presented with pain and swelling of his right scrotum. Ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic region adjacent to the normal right testis. The inflammatory changes of the right scrotum deteriorated. The patient underwent surgery and a necrotic cyst was recognized within a hydrocele of the scrotum. The cyst was not connected with the testis or epididymis and was twisted at an angle of 270 degrees. The cause of the necrotic cyst observed was anatomical and pathological torsion of the hernia sac.

  9. Pinocytosis in the rat visceral yolk sac. Effects of temperature, metabolic inhibitors and some other modifiers.

    PubMed

    Duncan, R; Lloyd, J B

    1978-12-18

    Low temperature,2,4-dinitrophenol and moniodoacetate could each completely abolish the pinocytic uptake of 125I-labelled polyvinylpyrrolidone, 125I-labelled bovine serum albumin or colloidal 198 Au by 17.5-day rat visceral yolk sac cultured in vitro. Cytochalasin B and colchicine caused a partial and dose-dependent inhibition. It is concluded that the mechanism of pinocytic uptake of these substrates is not micropinocytosis as conventionally defined. Removal of extracellular calcium or the presence of theophylline inhibited liquid-phase pinocytosis by the rat yolk sac, whereas addition of ouabain caused a biphasic response: a slight stimulation of pinosome formation at a low concentration, and an inhibitory effect at a higher concentration.

  10. Multi-level security for computer networking - SAC digital network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griess, W.; Poutre, D. L.

    The functional features and architecture of the SACDIN (SAC digital network) are detailed. SACDIN is the new data transmission segment for directing SAC's strategic forces. The system has 135 processor nodes at 32 locations and processes, distributes and stores data of any level of security classification. The sophistication of access nodes is dependent on the location. A reference monitor mediates the multilevel security by implementation of the multi-state machine concept, i.e., the Bell-LaPadula model (1973, 1974), which concludes that a secure state can never lead to an unsecure state. The monitor is controlled by the internal access control mechanism, which resides in PROM. Details of the access process are provided, including message flow on trusted paths appropriate to the security clearance of the user.

  11. A Rare Case of Endolymphatic Sac Tumour: Clinicopathologic Study and Surgical Management

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Emanuele; Amadori, Maurizio; Armato, Enrico; Pavon, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a rare neoplasm arising from the intrapetrous portion of the endolymphatic sac, either isolated or in association with the von Hippel-Lindau disease. We report a sporadic case of ELST with an overview of the literature and a discussion of clinic-radiological, histopathologic, and surgical findings. Case Report. A young woman presented with a progressive hearing loss in the left ear. Otoscopy showed a reddish, bleeding hypotympanic mass. CT demonstrated an expansile lytic mastoid lesion extending to the middle ear, with bone erosion. MRI confirmed a lesion of increased signal on T1-weighted sequences. The patient underwent a canal wall-down tympanoplasty with complete removal of the tumor. Histopathology was consistent with a papillary ELST. Immunohistochemistry was positive for cytokeratin and chromogranin A. Conclusion. This paper highlights the rarity of ELST, the need for an accurate neuroradiological and immunohistochemical study at the early stages, and the timeliness of surgical treatment. PMID:24991442

  12. A case of primary intracardiac yolk sac tumour with extracardiac extension

    PubMed Central

    Kunhi, Moosa; Sanagar, Sachin; Jagadeesh, N.; Gangadharan, Vadanattathil P.; Kumar., Anand; Mahadevan, Pushpa

    2016-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumour is a rare entity as secondaries in the heart are more common. A 2-year-old child was having repeated respiratory tract infection with poor oral intake and poor activity for 3 months. His symptoms progressed from New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II to IV. On evaluation he had an intracardiac mass with extracardiac extension. Emergency tumour excision under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest was performed with provisional diagnosis of sarcoma. But Serum markers, histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry confirmed diagnosis of yolk sac tumour. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and the child was receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Extensive literature review revealed only four cases of primary intracardiac yolk sac tumour published till date. Our case report is unique, in that intracardiac tumour had extracardiac extension by infiltration through right atrial wall. Previous four reports mention purely intracardiac mass. PMID:27887023

  13. Papillary neoplasm of the endolymphatic sac in a patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease.

    PubMed Central

    Delisle, M B; Uro, E; Rouquette, I; Yardeni, E; Rumeau, J L

    1994-01-01

    Glandular tumours involving the middle ear and the mastoid are rare, and distinguishing between adenoma and adenocarcinoma is difficult. Two distinct histopathological patterns are accepted. While their clinical presentation differs, both require primary surgical treatment and both have a high rate of local recurrence. The papillary form takes a more aggressive course and wider regional spread. This pattern occurs predominantly in women. Its microscopic appearance and clinical course have been extensively described by Heffner who considered it as "low-grade adenocarcinoma of probable endolymphatic sac origin". A few cases have been associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease. The case of a 32 year old black woman is described. It is suggested that papillary adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac should be considered in the spectrum of neoplasms seen in von Hippel-Lindau disease. Images PMID:7962613

  14. A preliminary randomized trial of the mechanical insufflator-exsufflator versus breath-stacking technique in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Muhammad K; Bradburn, Michael; Proctor, Alison R; Billings, Catherine G; Bianchi, Stephen; McDermott, Christopher J; Shaw, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    A major problem faced by patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in respiratory failure is the inability to cough effectively. Forty eligible ALS patients were randomized to the breath-stacking technique using a lung volume recruitment bag (n = 21) or mechanical insufflator-exsufflator MI-E (n = 19) and followed up at three-monthly intervals for at least 12 months or until death. Results showed that there were 13 episodes of chest infection in the breath-stacking group and 19 episodes in the MI-E group (p = 0.92), requiring 90 and 95 days of antibiotics, respectively (p = 0.34). The mean duration of symptoms per chest infection was 6.9 days in the breath-stacking group and 3.9 days in MI-E group (p = 0.16). There were six episodes of hospitalization in each group (p = 0.64). The chance of hospitalization, in the event of a chest infection, was 0.46 in the breath-stacking group and 0.31 in MI-E group (p = 0.47). Median survival in the breath-stacking group was 535 days and 266 days in the MI-E group (p = 0.34). The QoL was maintained above 75% of baseline for a median of 329 days in the breath-stacking group and 205 days in the MI-E group (p = 0.41). In conclusion, lack of statistically significant differences due to sub-optimal power and confounders precludes a definitive conclusion with respect to the relative efficacy of one cough augmentation technique over the other. This study however, provides useful lessons and informative data, needed to strengthen the power calculation, inclusion criteria and randomization factors for a large scale definitive trial. Until such a definitive trial can be undertaken, we recommend the breath-stacking technique as a low-cost, first-line intervention for volume recruitment and cough augmentation in patients with ALS who meet the criteria for intervention with non-invasive ventilation.

  15. Total laparorobotic repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm with sac exclusion obliteration and aortobifemoral bypass.

    PubMed

    Wu, Timothy; Prema, Jateen; Zagaja, Gregory; Shalhav, Arieh; Bassiouny, Hisham S

    2009-01-01

    A 65-year-old man with coronary artery disease, hypertension, and peripheral vascular disease was found to have an asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) of 5.5 cm on surveillance for his peripheral vascular disease. Cardiac stress testing demonstrated no evidence of myocardial ischemia, and he opted to undergo open repair of his aneurysm. Laparorobotic repair of the infrarenal AAA using the da Vinci robotic system was performed with an aortobifemoral bypass. We describe a novel technique for AAA exclusion using a cerclage method, which greatly facilitates repair of infrarenal AAAs using laparorobotic techniques. Laparorobotic repair of infrarenal AAA can be greatly facilitated by AAA sac exclusion and obliteration without the need to ligate all lumbar arteries or to open the aneurysm. This virtually avoids blood loss from the sac and minimizes the possibility for open conversion as a result of poor visualization. Minimally invasive aortic intervention for aneurysmal disease using laparascopic methods has been reported in the literature. Problems associated with this technique include a prolonged learning curve and difficulty completing intracorporeal anastomoses. Robotic surgery provides an advantage over laparoscopic surgery in its ability to provide greater degrees of freedom in a relatively small field of view along with superior high-definition, three-dimensional visualization. To date, there have been no known reports of using robotic surgery in the United States as a sole method for repair of AAA. We report our technique of combining robotic surgery with a novel procedure for sac exclusion and obliteration to successfully repair AAA without the need for opening the aneurysm sac and endoaneurysmorrhaphy.

  16. KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity Database for retrieving the relationships between metabolites and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yukiko; Afendi, Farit Mochamad; Parvin, Aziza Kawsar; Ono, Naoaki; Tanaka, Ken; Hirai Morita, Aki; Sato, Tetsuo; Sugiura, Tadao; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2014-01-01

    Databases (DBs) are required by various omics fields because the volume of molecular biology data is increasing rapidly. In this study, we provide instructions for users and describe the current status of our metabolite activity DB. To facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the interactions between the metabolites of organisms and the chemical-level contribution of metabolites to human health, we constructed a metabolite activity DB known as the KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB. It comprises 9,584 triplet relationships (metabolite-biological activity-target species), including 2,356 metabolites, 140 activity categories, 2,963 specific descriptions of biological activities and 778 target species. Approximately 46% of the activities described in the DB are related to chemical ecology, most of which are attributed to antimicrobial agents and plant growth regulators. The majority of the metabolites with antimicrobial activities are flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. The metabolites with plant growth regulatory effects include plant hormones. Over half of the DB contents are related to human health care and medicine. The five largest groups are toxins, anticancer agents, nervous system agents, cardiovascular agents and non-therapeutic agents, such as flavors and fragrances. The KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB is integrated within the KNApSAcK Family DBs to facilitate further systematized research in various omics fields, especially metabolomics, nutrigenomics and foodomics. The KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB could also be utilized for developing novel drugs and materials, as well as for identifying viable drug resources and other useful compounds.

  17. [Primary high malignancy B-cell lymphoma of the lacrimal sac].

    PubMed

    Brosig, J; Warzok, R; Clemens, S

    1998-06-01

    Case report on a 44-year-old woman in good health with the symptoms of epiphora, a plump elastic, not distressing swelling under the medial canthal tendon of 1 cm size on the right side. In ultrasonography and intraoperatively a tumour of moderate reflectivity with infiltration of the lacrimal sac was found. The histological evaluation, including immunohistochemical studies of the removed lesion, revealed a malignant B-cell lymphoma.

  18. Intrinsic Levanase Activity of Bacillus subtilis 168 Levansucrase (SacB)

    PubMed Central

    Raga-Carbajal, Enrique; Olvera, Clarita; Rodríguez-Alegría, Maria Elena; Carrillo-Nava, Ernesto; Costas, Miguel; López Munguía, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Levansucrase catalyzes the synthesis of fructose polymers through the transfer of fructosyl units from sucrose to a growing fructan chain. Levanase activity of Bacillus subtilis levansucrase has been described since the very first publications dealing with the mechanism of levan synthesis. However, there is a lack of qualitative and quantitative evidence regarding the importance of the intrinsic levan hydrolysis of B. subtilis levansucrase and its role in the levan synthesis process. Particularly, little attention has been paid to the long-term hydrolysis products, including its participation in the final levan molecules distribution. Here, we explored the hydrolytic and transferase activity of the B. subtilis levansucrase (SacB) when levans produced by the same enzyme are used as substrate. We found that levan is hydrolyzed through a first order exo-type mechanism, which is limited to a conversion extent of around 30% when all polymer molecules reach a structure no longer suitable to SacB hydrolysis. To characterize the reaction, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) was employed and the evolution of the hydrolysis products profile followed by HPLC, GPC and HPAEC-PAD. The ITC measurements revealed a second step, taking place at the end of the reaction, most probably resulting from disproportionation of accumulated fructo-oligosaccharides. As levanase, levansucrase may use levan as substrate and, through a fructosyl-enzyme complex, behave as a hydrolytic enzyme or as a transferase, as demonstrated when glucose and fructose are added as acceptors. These reactions result in a wide variety of oligosaccharides that are also suitable acceptors for fructo-oligosaccharide synthesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that SacB in the presence of levan and glucose, through blastose and sucrose synthesis, results in the same fructooligosaccharides profile as that observed in sucrose reactions. We conclude that SacB has an intrinsic levanase activity that contributes to the final

  19. Evaluation of Refractivity Profiles from CHAMP and SAC-C GPS Radio Occultation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poli, Paul; Ao, Chi On; Joiner, Joanna; delaTorreJuarez, Manuel; Hoff, Raymond

    2002-01-01

    The GeoForschungsZentrum's Challenging Minisatellite Payload for Geophysical Research and Application (CHAMP, Germany-US) and the Comision Nacional de Actividades Especiales' Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C (SAC-C, Argentina-US) missions are the first missions to carry a second-generation Blackjack Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. One of the new features of this receiver is its ability to sense the lower troposphere closer to the surface than the proof-of-concept GPS Meteorology experiment (GPS/MET). Since their launch, CHAMP and SAC-C have collected thousands of GPS radio occultations, representing a wealth of measurements available for data assimilation and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). In order to evaluate the refractivity data derived by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) from raw radio occultation measurements, we use Data Assimilation Office (DAO) 6-hour forecasts as an independent state of the atmosphere. We compare CHAMP and SAC-C refractivity (processed by JPL) with refractivity calculated from the DAO global fields of temperature, water vapor content and humidity. We show statistics of the differences as well as histograms of the differences.

  20. Characterization of calcium carbonate crystals in pigeon yolk sacs with different incubation times.

    PubMed

    Song, Juan; Cheng, Haixia; Shen, Xinyu; Hu, Jingxiao; Tong, Hua

    2014-05-01

    Calcium carbonate crystals are known to form in the yolk sacs of fertile pigeon eggs at late stages of incubation. The composition and structure of these crystals were investigated, the crystallization environment was inspected, and the physical chemistry constants of the yolk fluid were determined through the incubation period. Polarized light microscopy was used to observe the generation and distribution of calcium carbonate crystals in the yolk sac. In addition, X-ray diffraction was employed to analyze the composition and crystal phase of the yolk sac. A decalcification and deproteination method was established to analyze the ultrastructure and composition of the crystals, as well as the internal relationship between inorganic and organic phases of the crystals. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to evaluate the characteristics of the crystals. Our results demonstrated that the calcium carbonate crystals were mainly composed of vaterite and calcite, with vaterite being the major component. Vaterite, a type of biomaterial generated by an organic template control, presented as a concentric hierarchical spherical structure. The organic nature of the biomaterial prevented vaterite from transforming into calcite, which is more thermodynamically stable than vaterite. Additionally, the configuration, size, and aggregation of vaterite were also mediated by the organic template. This bio-vaterite was found during the incubation period and is valuable in calcium transport during embryonic development.

  1. Morphological specializations of the yolk sac for yolk processing in embryonic corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus: Colubridae).

    PubMed

    Powers, Kathryn G; Blackburn, Daniel G

    2017-03-23

    Non-avian reptiles commonly are assumed to be like birds in their overall patterns of development. However, colubrid corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) have mechanisms of yolk cellularization and processing that are entirely different from the avian pattern. In birds, a vascular "yolk sac" surrounds and digests the liquid yolk. In contrast, in corn snakes, the yolk material is converted into vascularized cords of yolk-filled cells. In this study, we used stereomicroscopy, histology, and scanning electron microscopy to analyze this unusual developmental pattern in corn snakes. Our observations reveal that the yolk sac cavity is invaded by endodermal cells that proliferate, absorb yolk spheres, and form aggregates of interconnected cells within the liquid yolk mass. As development proceeds, small blood vessels arise from the yolk sac omphalopleure, penetrate into the yolk mass, and become tightly encased in the endodermal cells. The entire vitellus ultimately becomes converted into a mass of vascularized, "spaghetti-like" strands of yolk-laden cells. The resulting arrangement allows yolk to be digested intracellularly and yolk products to be transported to the developing embryo. Indirect evidence for this pattern in other species raises the possibility that it is ancestral for squamates and quite possibly Reptilia in general.

  2. Expression of aquaporins in the cochlea and endolymphatic sac of guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shi-Xun; Liu, Zhao-Hua

    2003-01-01

    It has been shown that the aquaporin (AQP) family forms membrane pores selectively permeable for water and some small solutes such as glycerol and urea, and thus plays important roles in regulating the fluid in many organs involved in fluid transport such as kidney, lung and brain. The aims of the present study were to investigate the cellular localization and its significance of aquaporins (AQPs) in various subregions of the cochlea and endolymphatic sac of guinea pig. The expression patterns of AQP1, 2, 3 and 4 were immunolabeled with the specific polyclonal rabbit antibodies against the rat AQP1, 2, 3 and 4. Our immunohistochemical examination showed that in the cochlea, AQP1, 3 and 4 were widely distributed in various locations including stria vascularis, spiral ligament, the organ of Corti and spiral ganglion in the similar patterns except that AQP3 in the stria vascularis was lightly weaker than AQP1 and AQP4. AQP2 was labeled only in Reissner's membrane. In the endolymphatic sac, AQP1, AQP3 and AQP4 were strongly expressed in the epithelial cells and subepithelial cells similarly with the exception that AQP3 was lightly weaker than AQP1 and AQP4. No AQP2 immunoreactivity was detected in the endolymphatic sac. Theses results suggest that different members of the AQP family in the labyrinth may work in concert to regulate endolymph and to maintain homeostasis in the inner ear.

  3. Asymmetric cell division of rice zygotes located in embryo sac and produced by in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akiko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Okamoto, Takashi

    2010-09-01

    In angiosperms, a zygote generally divides into an asymmetric two-celled embryo consisting of an apical and a basal cell. This unequal division of the zygote is a putative first step for formation of the apical-basal axis of plants and is a fundamental feature of early embryogenesis and morphogenesis in angiosperms. Because fertilization and subsequent embryogenesis occur in embryo sacs, which are deeply embedded in ovular tissue, in vitro fertilization of isolated gametes is a powerful system to dissect mechanisms of fertilization and post-fertilization events. Rice is an emerging molecular and experimental model plant, however, profile of the first zygotic division within embryo sac and thus origin of apical-basal embryo polarity has not been closely investigated. Therefore, in the present study, the division pattern of rice zygote in planta was first determined accurately by observations employing serial sections of the egg apparatus, zygotes and two-celled embryos in the embryo sac. The rice zygote divides asymmetrically into a two-celled embryo consisting of a statistically significantly smaller apical cell with dense cytoplasm and a larger vacuolated basal cell. Moreover, detailed observations of division profiles of zygotes prepared by in vitro fertilization indicate that the zygote also divides into an asymmetric two-celled embryo as in planta. Such observations suggest that in vitro-produced rice zygotes and two-celled embryos may be useful as experimental models for further investigations into the mechanism and control of asymmetric division of plant zygotes.

  4. Erythropoiesis in the yolk sac of the bat Tadarida brasiliensis cynocephala.

    PubMed

    Stephens, R J; Cabral-Anderson, L J

    1976-12-01

    The process of erythropoiesis and vasculogenesis in the yolk sac of the bat (Tadarida brasiliensis cynocephala) has been studied through the use of both light and electron microscopy. Stem cells arise from the leading edge of the migrating splanchnic mesoderm and transform into primitive erythroblasts. Differentiation involves either contact or association with the endodermal cells, since all erythropoietic activity occurs on the endodermal side of the expanding vascular bed, and many of the cells are in close apposition to the lateral or basal plasma membranes of the endodermal cells. Endodermal cells also phagocytize developing primitive erythroblasts during the later stage of the process when erythropoiesis is subsiding in the yolk sac. Cells destined to become the endothelium of the expanding vascular bed also arise from the leading edge of the migrating splanchnic mesoderm. Their process of differentiation involves the development of cytoplasmic extensions that may surround a group of differentiating erythroblasts, enclosing them in the newly formed lumen of the blood vessel. The cytoplasmic extensions make contact and develop junctional complexes with similar processes from other cells to complete the lumen of the lengthening vascular bed. Cells of the granulocyte series or megakaryocytes are not observed in the yolk sac of the bat as has been described in certain other species.

  5. Air stacking: effects on pulmonary function in patients with spinal muscular atrophy and in patients with congenital muscular dystrophy*,**

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Tanyse Bahia Carvalho; Neves, Juliana de Carvalho; Portes, Leslie Andrews; Salge, João Marcos; Zanoteli, Edmar; Reed, Umbertina Conti

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Respiratory complications are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with neuromuscular disease (NMD). The objectives of this study were to determine the effects that routine daily home air-stacking maneuvers have on pulmonary function in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and in patients with congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD), as well as to identify associations between spinal deformities and the effects of the maneuvers. METHODS: Eighteen NMD patients (ten with CMD and eight with SMA) were submitted to routine daily air-stacking maneuvers at home with manual resuscitators for four to six months, undergoing pulmonary function tests before and after that period. The pulmonary function tests included measurements of FVC; PEF; maximum insufflation capacity (MIC); and assisted and unassisted peak cough flow (APCF and UPCF, respectively) with insufflations. RESULTS: After the use of home air-stacking maneuvers, there were improvements in the APCF and UPCF. In the patients without scoliosis, there was also a significant increase in FVC. When comparing patients with and without scoliosis, the increases in APCF and UPCF were more pronounced in those without scoliosis. CONCLUSIONS: Routine daily air-stacking maneuvers with a manual resuscitator appear to increase UPCF and APCF in patients with NMD, especially in those without scoliosis. PMID:25410841

  6. Adult metastatic yolk sac tumor descending from an intra-abdominal testis: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Yan, Bin; Wei, Yong-Bao; Yin, Zhuo; Zhou, Ke-Qin; Yang, Jin-Rui

    2015-12-01

    Pure yolk sac tumors are extremely rare in adults; to the best of our knowledge, <20 cases have been reported. Multiple metastases originating from a pure yolk sac testicular tumor, descending from an intra-abdominal testis, are additionally extremely rare. In the present case, a man exhibiting a 30-year history of cryptorchidism and indirect inguinal hernia, was admitted to the Department of Urology (The Second Xiangya Hospital, Changsha, China) due to a mass that had descended from the abdominal cavity 7 months previously. Elevated levels of specific serum marker (α-fetoprotein, lactate dehydrogenase and human chorionic gonadotropin) did not indicate potential testicular germ cell types prior to surgery and pathological examination. Pathological results and immunohistochemistry revealed a testicular pure yolk sac tumor subsequent to surgery. The present case report and literature review describes the typical characteristics of an adult testicular yolk sac tumor, as well as the diagnosis and management of the disease.

  7. Adult metastatic yolk sac tumor descending from an intra-abdominal testis: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    WANG, ZHAO; YAN, BIN; WEI, YONG-BAO; YIN, ZHUO; ZHOU, KE-QIN; YANG, JIN-RUI

    2015-01-01

    Pure yolk sac tumors are extremely rare in adults; to the best of our knowledge, <20 cases have been reported. Multiple metastases originating from a pure yolk sac testicular tumor, descending from an intra-abdominal testis, are additionally extremely rare. In the present case, a man exhibiting a 30-year history of cryptorchidism and indirect inguinal hernia, was admitted to the Department of Urology (The Second Xiangya Hospital, Changsha, China) due to a mass that had descended from the abdominal cavity 7 months previously. Elevated levels of specific serum marker (α-fetoprotein, lactate dehydrogenase and human chorionic gonadotropin) did not indicate potential testicular germ cell types prior to surgery and pathological examination. Pathological results and immunohistochemistry revealed a testicular pure yolk sac tumor subsequent to surgery. The present case report and literature review describes the typical characteristics of an adult testicular yolk sac tumor, as well as the diagnosis and management of the disease. PMID:26788184

  8. Abnormalities occurring during female gametophyte development result in the diversity of abnormal embryo sacs and leads to abnormal fertilization in indica/japonica hybrids in rice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yu-Xiang; Hu, Chao-Yue; Lu, Yong-Gen; Li, Jin-Quan; Liu, Xiang-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Embryo sac abortion is one of the major reasons for sterility in indica/japonica hybrids in rice. To clarify the causal mechanism of embryo sac abortion, we studied the female gametophyte development in two indica/japonica hybrids via an eosin B staining procedure for embryo sac scanning using confocal laser scanning microscope. Different types of abnormalities occurred during megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis were demonstrated. The earliest abnormality was observed in the megasporocyte. A lot of the chalazal-most megaspores were degenerated before the mono-nucleate embryo sac stage. Disordered positioning of nucleus and abnormal nucellus tissue were characteristics of the abnormal female gametes from the mono-nucleate to four-nucleate embryo sac stages. The abnormalities that occurred from the early stage of the eight-nucleate embryo sac development to the mature embryo sac stage were characterized by smaller sizes and wrinkled antipodals. Asynchronous nuclear migration, abnormal positioning of nucleus, and degeneration of egg apparatus were also found at the eight-nucleate embryo sac stage. The abnormalities that occurred during female gametophyte development resulted in five major types of abnormal embryo sacs. These abnormal embryo sacs led to abnormal fertilization. Hand pollination using normal pollens on the spikelets during anthesis showed that normal pollens could not exclude the effect of abnormal embryo sac on seed setting.

  9. Immunohistochemical expression of SALL4 in hepatocellular carcinoma, a potential pitfall in the differential diagnosis of yolk sac tumors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Katz, Betina; Chaux, Alcides; Sharma, Rajni; Munari, Enrico; Faraj, Sheila F; Illei, Peter B; Torbenson, Michael; Netto, George J

    2013-07-01

    SALL4 is a transcription factor that serves as a marker of yolk sac tumor. Yolk sac tumor and hepatocellular carcinoma share histologic, serologic, and immunohistochemical features. Previous studies have shown lack of SALL4 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting utility in this differential diagnosis. Sixty-nine samples of hepatocellular carcinoma were retrieved from surgical pathology archives and used to construct 9 tissue microarrays. A germ cell tumor tissue microarray containing 10 yolk sac tumors was used for comparison. Extent, intensity, and pattern of nuclear SALL4 expression were assessed in each spot. Mean percentage of expression was calculated for each tumor and used during analysis. Optimal discriminatory extent of expression cutoff was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Other potential discriminatory markers including Hep Par1 were also evaluated. Forty-six percent (32/69) of hepatocellular carcinoma and all yolk sac tumors revealed at least focal expression of SALL4. A unique punctuate/clumped pattern of nuclear staining was present in 94% (30/32) of hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas all yolk sac tumors displayed a diffuse finely granular nuclear staining pattern. A 25% extent of SALL4 expression cutoff was found to be optimal for the distinction of yolk sac tumor from hepatocellular carcinoma yielding a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 92.8%, and a positive predictive value of 66.6% for yolk sac tumor diagnosis. The addition of Hep Par1 increased the specificity (99%) and positive predictive value (90%). This is the first report of SALL4 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Our finding should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and yolk sac tumor. The unique punctuate/clumped pattern seen in hepatocellular carcinoma cases could be of further discriminatory value.

  10. Structure of the Sac3 RNA-binding M-region in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae TREX-2 complex.

    PubMed

    Gordon, James M B; Aibara, Shintaro; Stewart, Murray

    2017-03-15

    Transcription-export complex 2 (TREX-2, or THSC) facilitates localization of actively transcribing genes such as GAL1 to the nuclear periphery, contributes to the generation of export-competent mRNPs and influences gene expression through interactions with Mediator. TREX-2 is based on a Sac3 scaffold to which Thp1, Sem1, Cdc31 and Sus1 bind and consists of three modules: the N-region (Sac3∼1-100), which binds mRNA export factor Mex67:Mtr2; the M-region, in which Thp1 and Sem1 bind to Sac3∼100-550; and the CID region in which Cdc31 and two Sus1 chains bind to Sac3∼720-805. Although the M-region of Sac3 was originally thought to encompass residues ∼250-550, we report here the 2.3Å resolution crystal structure of a complex containing Sac3 residues 60-550 that indicates that the TPR-like repeats of the M-region extend to residue 137 and that residues 90-125 form a novel loop that links Sac3 to Thp1. These new structural elements are important for growth and mRNA export in vivo. Although deleting Sac3 residues 1-90 produced a wild-type phenotype, deletion of the loop as well generated growth defects at 37°C, whereas the deletion of residues 1-250 impaired mRNA export and also generated longer lag times when glucose or raffinose was replaced by galactose as the carbon source.

  11. SAC Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Scalise, Steve [R-LA-1

    2009-09-15

    10/23/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and Procurement. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Castor sacs and anal glands of the north american beaver (Castor canadensis): their histology, development, and relationship to scent communication.

    PubMed

    Walro, J M; Svendsen, G E

    1982-05-01

    Both sexes of beavers possess a pair of castor sacs and a pair of anal glands located in paired subcutaneous cavities between the pelvis and the base of the tail. The castor sacs are not glandular in the histological sense, hence references to these structures as preputial glands or castor glands are misnomers. The wall of the castor sacs is plicate and comprised of three distinct zones: an outer layer of vascular connective tissue, a two-to five-cell-thick layer of mitotic epithelial cells, and several densely packed layers of cornified epithelium which grade into more widely separated sheets toward the lumen. Monocultures of a gram-positive facultatively anaerobic bacterium were present in the lumen of all castor sac preparations. Differences in the frequency of castoreum deposition were not attributable to differences in the structure of the castor sacs. The anal glands of beavers are holocrine sebaceous glands. These glands develop more rapidly than the castor sacs. Anal gland tissue from embryos exhibited cellular characteristics associated with the production of sebum. Secretory activity was evident in all preparations. The relationship of castoreum and anal gland secretion to scent communication among beavers is discussed.

  13. Physiological requirements for 20-hydroxyecdysone-induced rectal sac distention in the pupa of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takumi; Sakurai, Sho; Iwami, Masafumi

    2010-06-01

    Successful insect development is achieved via appropriate fluctuation of ecdysteroid levels. When an insect's ecdysteroid level is disrupted, physiological and developmental defects occur. In the pupa of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the rectal sac is an essential organ that operates as a repository for degraded ecdysteroids, and it can be distended by administration of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Our previous study showed that rectal sac distention appears 4 days after 20E administration. Hemolymph ecdysteroid levels, however, decrease to lower level during this period. Thus, the timing of the rectal sac distention does not match with that of ecdysteroid elevation. Here, we examine how 20E induces rectal sac distention. A ligature experiment and ecdysteroid quantification showed that continuous 20E stimulation induces rectal sac distention. Thorax tissue contributed to the continuous 20E stimulation needed to induce distention. Ecdysteroid released from the thorax tissue may be converted to 20E by ecdysone 20-hydroxylase to produce continuous 20E stimulation. Thus, the ecdysone metabolic pathway plays a critical role in rectal sac distention.

  14. Ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac in the larva of the japanese red-bellied newt Cynops pyrrhogaster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, W.; Wiederhold, M.; Hejl, R.

    1998-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac (ES) of the late stage larva of the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster (stage 57), was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The two endolymphatic sacs are located at the dorsal-medial side of the otic vesicle on the dorsal-lateral side of the midbrain in the cranial cavity. The wall of the sac is composed of a layer of cubical epithelial cells with loose, interposed intercellular spaces. The sac contains a large luminal cavity, in which endolymph and numerous otoconia are present. The epithelial cells of different portions of the sac have a similar structure. These cells contain an abundance of cytoplasmic organelles, including ribosomes, Golgi complexes, and numerous vesicles. Two types of vesicles are found in the epithelial cells: the "floccular" vesicle and the "granular" vesicle. The floccular vesicles are located in the supra- and lateral-nuclear cytoplasm and contain floccular material. The granular vesicles have a fine granular substance and are usually situated apposed to the apical cell membrane. The granular vesicles are suggested to be secreted into the lumen, while the floccular vesicles are thought to be absorbed from the lumen and conveyed to the intercellular spaces by the epithelial cells. The apical surfaces of the epithelial cells bear numerous microvilli. Apparently floating cells, which bear long microvilli on the free surfaces, are observed in the lumen of the ES. Based on the fine structure, the function of the endolymphatic sac of the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster is discussed.

  15. Yolk Sac Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells from New World Mice (Necromys lasiurus) with Multipotent Differential Potential

    PubMed Central

    Favaron, Phelipe Oliveira; Mess, Andrea; Will, Sônia Elisabete; Maiorka, Paulo César; de Oliveira, Moacir Franco; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-01-01

    Fetal membranes are abundant, ethically acceptable and readily accessible sources of stem cells. In particular, the yolk sac is a source of cell lineages that do not express MHCs and are mainly free from immunological incompatibles when transferred to a recipient. Although data are available especially for hematopoietic stem cells in mice and human, whereas other cell types and species are dramatically underrepresented. Here we studied the nature and differentiation potential of yolk sac derived mesenchymal stem cells from a New World mouse, Necromys lasiurus. Explants from mid-gestation were cultured in DMEM-High glucose medium with 10% defined fetal bovine serum. The cells were characterized by standard methods including immunophenotyping by fluorescence and flow cytometry, growth and differentiation potential and tumorigenicity assays. The first adherent cells were observed after 7 days of cell culture and included small, elongated fibroblast-like cells (92.13%) and large, round epithelial-like cells with centrally located nuclei (6.5%). Only the fibroblast-like cells survived the first passages. They were positive to markers for mesenchymal stem cells (Stro-1, CD90, CD105, CD73) and pluripotency (Oct3/4, Nanog) as well as precursors of hematopoietic stem cells (CD117). In differentiation assays, they were classified as a multipotent lineage, because they differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages and, finally, they did not develop tumors. In conclusion, mesenchymal progenitor cells with multipotent differentiation potential and sufficient growth and proliferation abilities were able to be obtained from Necromys yolk sacs, therefore, we inferred that these cells may be promising for a wide range of applications in regenerative medicine. PMID:24918429

  16. Morphology of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct in adult human cadaver.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ganesh C; Kumar, Arunachalam; Nayak, Soubhagya R; Krishnamurthy, Ashwin; D'Costa, Sujata; Ramanathan, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    The lacrimal sac (LS) is a dilated structure that lies in the lacrimal fossa, and the nasolacrimal duct (NLD) is the continuation of LS from its neck up to the inferior meatus of the nose. A study of 50 specimens of formalin-fixed adult cadavers of both sexes of Indian origin was conducted. The morphological features like length and breadth of LS and NLD, along with the histology of LS has been observed. The mean length of LS and NLD on the right side was 10.5 mm (1.04) and 16 mm (2.6) respectively, whereas the mean breadth of the above structures, on the right side was 6 mm (0.63) and 5.66 mm (0.81) respectively. The mean length of LS and NLD on the left side was 10.57 mm (1.13) and 16.42 mm (2.29), whereas, the mean breadth of the same structure on the left side was 6.71 mm (0.95) and 5 mm (0.81) respectively. The sides did not show any significant statistical difference but when the correlation between the length and breadth of LS is considered, significance was observed in the lacrimal sac of the left side. No variations were observed in the gross structure of LS and NLD. Microscopic study showed the presence of elastic fibers in LS. The importance of LS and NLD is that the blockage of this lacrimal passage is the most common cause of epiphora (watering of the eye). The presence of elastic fibers in this study confirms the hypothesis that the sac elasticity may perform a dynamic role, in forceful evacuation of lacrimal fluid in reverse direction (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 10). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  17. The acid-induced folded state of Sac7d is the native state.

    PubMed Central

    Bedell, J. L.; McCrary, B. S.; Edmondson, S. P.; Shriver, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Sac7d unfolds at low pH in the absence of salt, with the greatest extent of unfolding obtained at pH 2. We have previously shown that the acid unfolded protein is induced to refold by decreasing the pH to 0 or by addition of salt (McCrary BS, Bedell J. Edmondson SP, Shriver JW, 1998, J Mol Biol 276:203-224). Both near-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectra and ANS fluorescence enhancements indicate that the acid- and salt-induced folded states have a native fold and are not molten globular. 1H,15N heteronuclear single quantum coherence NMR spectra confirm that the native, acid-, and salt-induced folded states are essentially identical. The most significant differences in amide 1H and 15N chemical shifts are attributed to hydrogen bonding to titrating carboxyl side chains and through-bond inductive effects. The 1H NMR chemical shifts of protons affected by ring currents in the hydrophobic core of the acid- and salt-induced folded states are identical to those observed in the native. The radius of gyration of the acid-induced folded state at pH 0 is shown to be identical to that of the native state at pH 7 by small angle X-ray scattering. We conclude that acid-induced collapse of Sac7d does not lead to a molten globule but proceeds directly to the native state. The folding of Sac7d as a function of pH and anion concentration is summarized with a phase diagram that is similar to those observed for other proteins that undergo acid-induced folding except that the A-state is encompassed by the native state. These results demonstrate that formation of a molten globule is not a general property of proteins that are refolded by acid. PMID:11106160

  18. Loss of PiT-1 results in abnormal endocytosis in the yolk sac visceral endoderm.

    PubMed

    Wallingford, Mary C; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2014-08-01

    PiT-1 protein is a transmembrane sodium-dependent phosphate (Pi) transporter. PiT-1 knock out (KO) embryos die from largely unknown causes by embryonic day (E) 12.5. We tested the hypothesis that PiT-1 is required for endocytosis in the embryonic yolk sac (YS) visceral endoderm (VE). Here we present data supporting that PiT-1 KO results in a YS remodeling defect and decreased endocytosis in the YS VE. The remodeling defect is not due to an upstream cardiomyocyte requirement for PiT-1, as SM22αCre-specific KO of PiT-1 in the developing heart and the YS mesodermal layer (ME) does not recapitulate the PiT-1 global KO phenotype. Furthermore, we find that high levels of PiT-1 protein localize to the YS VE apical membrane. Together these data support that PiT-1 is likely required in YS VE. During normal development maternal immunoglobulin (IgG) is endocytosed into YS VE and accumulates in the apical side of the VE in a specialized lysosome termed the apical vacuole (AV). We have identified a reduction in PiT-1 KO VE cell height and a striking loss of IgG accumulation in the PiT-1 KO VE. The endocytosis genes Tfeb, Lamtor2 and Snx2 are increased at the RNA level. Lysotracker Red staining reveals a loss of distinct AVs, and yolk sacs incubated ex vivo with phRODO Green Dextran for Endocytosis demonstrate a functional loss of endocytosis. As yolk sac endocytosis is controlled in part by microautophagy, but expression of LC3 had not been examined, we investigated LC3 expression during yolk sac development and found stage-specific LC3 RNA expression that is predominantly from the YS VE layer at E9.5. Normalized LC3-II protein levels are decreased in the PiT-1 KO YS, supporting a requirement for PiT-1 in autophagy in the YS. Therefore, we propose the novel idea that PiT-1 is central to the regulation of endocytosis and autophagy in the YS VE.

  19. Water quality in the Little Sac River basin near Springfield, Missouri, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Brenda J.

    2002-01-01

    The Little Sac River, north of Springfield, Missouri, flows through mainly agricultural and forest land. However, the quality of the river water is a concern because the river flows into Stockton Lake, which is a supplemental drinking water source for Springfield. Large bacterial densities and nutrient concentrations are primary concerns to the water quality of the river.A 29-river mile reach of the Little Sac River is on the 1998 list of waters of Missouri designated under section 303(d) of the Federal Clean Water Act because of fecal coliform densities larger than the Missouri Department of Natural Resources standard (hereinafter referred to as Missouri standard) of 200 colonies per 100 milliliters for whole-body contact recreation. During an investigation of the water quality in the Little Sac River by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Watershed Committee of the Ozarks, fecal coliform bacteria densities exceeded the Missouri standard (the standard applies from April 1 through October 31) in one sample from a site near Walnut Grove. At other sites on the Little Sac River, the Missouri standard was exceeded in two samples and equalled in one sample upstream from the Northwest Wastewater Treatment Plant (NW WTP) and in one sample immediately downstream from the NW WTP.Effluent from the NW WTP flows into the Little Sac River. Annually from April 1 through October 31, the effluent is disinfected to meet the Missouri standard for whole-body contact recreation. Fecal coliform bacteria densities in samples collected during this period generally were less than 100 colonies per 100 milliliters. For the rest of the year when the effluent was not disinfected, the bacteria densities in samples ranged from 50 (sample collected on November 1, 2000) to 10,100 colonies per 100 milliliters (both counts were non-ideal). When the effluent was disinfected and the fecal coliform bacteria density was small, samples from sites upstream and downstream from the NW WTP

  20. [The problems of yolk sac tumor morphogenesis in a light of the tumor stem cell theory].

    PubMed

    Karseladze, A I

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of possible morphogenesis of the different structures in human yolk sac tumor has been considered. The author has supposed that features of blood vessel microarchitecture formation and perpetual differentiation of tumor cells or theirs functional modification play a crucial role in the morphogenesis of YST. The immunohistochemical investigation of some stem cells markers has showed the necessity of accounting of their distribution pattern in various cellular structures for the differential diagnosis of morphogenetical steps of YST. The growth of tumor cells differentiation rate correlates with increasing of stem cells markers expression as well c-kit > OCT4 > CD30 > PLAP.

  1. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrow, Lyle W.; Suchyna, Thomas M.; Sachs, Frederick

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca{sup 2+} permeant SACs. {yields} The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. {yields} SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch (<20%) of a rubber substrate increased ET-1 secretion, and 4 {mu}M GsMTx-4 (a specific inhibitor of SACs) inhibited secretion by 30%. GsMTx-4 did not alter basal ET-1 levels in the absence of stretch. Decreasing the calcium influx by lowering extracellular calcium also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion without effecting ET-1 secretion in unstretched controls. Furthermore, inhibiting SACs with the less specific inhibitor streptomycin also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion. The data can be explained with a simple model in which ET-1 secretion depends on an internal Ca{sup 2+} threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  2. Cystic Lymhangioma of the Lesser Sac in Adult Presenting with Features of Gastric Outlet Obstruction - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sathasivam Suresh; Das, Sri Aurobindo Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Cystic lymphangioma is a paediatric benign tumour, occurs commonly in head and neck region. Adult intraabdominal lymphangiomas are uncommon and only few cases of lesser sac cystic lymphangioma are reported in the literature. We present a case of lesser sac cystic lymphangioma in a 26-year-old lady who presented with features of gastric outlet obstruction. Clinical examination revealed a 10x10 cm firm, non tender, mobile intraabdominal lump in the epigastrium. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed possible external compression at the body of the stomach. Ultrasound demonstrated a multicystic lesion, with internal echoes in one locule. CECT showed a large multiloculated cystic lesion with hyper-dense content in the lesser sac extending up to the left lobe of the liver and indenting the stomach, lesser sac, and upper border of pancreas. On surgical exploration, a 10X8 cm multi cystic lesion with clear fluid was found in the lesser sac very close to the lesser curvature of stomach. Histopathological examination of the excised lesion showed features of cystic lymphangioma. Though very rare, intraabdominal cystic lymphangiomas should be considered in all atypical cases of gastric outlet obstruction. A reasonable knowledge about these benign lesions will aid in establishing the diagnosis and surgical management. PMID:26672967

  3. Fine structures of the ejaculatory sac and sperm pump of the scorpionfly Panorpa liui Hua (Mecoptera: Panorpidae).

    PubMed

    Shen, Jian; Hua, Baozhen

    2013-08-01

    Male adults of Panorpidae possess a special sperm pump, through which the males transfer liquid sperm to the females. However, the structures of the sperm pump and the transfer mechanism have not been satisfactorily elucidated hitherto. In this paper the structures of the ejaculatory sac and sperm pump of the scorpionfly Panorpa liui Hua were investigated using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ejaculatory sac is located between the basal end of the paired vasa deferentia and the aedeagus, comprising a small anterior part and a large posterior part. The anterior part is simple and functions only as a channel for sperm transfer. The epithelial cells of the large posterior part likely have secretory functions. The sperm pump is formed by the posterior region of the ejaculatory sac and derivates of the genital field, which enclose the pumping chamber, a piston and the associated muscles. The orifice of the ejaculatory duct lies ventrad of the piston. The piston of the sperm pump is heavily sclerotized and controlled by two antagonistic muscle pairs. A pair of simple tubular accessory glands opens to the pumping chamber. Two well-developed sex pheromone glands are located on the ventral side of the ejaculatory sac, and are composed of two fan-shaped lamellae. The epithelium of the sex pheromone glands is single-layered, and forms densely filamentous processes. The ejaculation mechanism is briefly discussed based on the morphology of ejaculatory sac and sperm pump.

  4. Evaluation of cloned cells, animal model, and ATRA sensitivity of human testicular yolk sac tumor

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The testicular yolk sac tumor (TYST) is the most common neoplasm originated from germ cells differentiated abnormally, a major part of pediatric malignant testicular tumors. The present study aimed at developing and validating the in vitro and vivo models of TYST and evaluating the sensitivity of TYST to treatments, by cloning human TYST cells and investigating the histology, ultra-structure, growth kinetics and expression of specific proteins of cloned cells. We found biological characteristics of cloned TYST cells were similar to the yolk sac tumor and differentiated from the columnar to glandular-like or goblet cells-like cells. Chromosomes for tumor identification in each passage met nature of the primary tumor. TYST cells were more sensitive to all-trans-retinoic acid which had significantly inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Cisplatin induced apoptosis of TYST cells through the activation of p53 expression and down-regulation of Bcl- expression. Thus, we believe that cloned TYST cells and the animal model developed here are useful to understand the molecular mechanism of TYST cells and develop potential therapies for human TYST. PMID:22410253

  5. Metastatic anal sac carcinoma with hypercalcaemia and associated hypertrophic osteopathy in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, A.; Salgüero, R.; Dobson, J.

    2015-01-01

    A seven-year-old male neutered Irish setter was treated for a metastatic anal sac adenocarcinoma (ASAC) and hypercalcaemia by complete surgical excision of the primary tumour and partial excision of the sublumbar lymph nodes. Further enlargement of the sublumbar lymph nodes was linked to recurrent hypercalcaemia 3 months after surgical treatment. Medical treatment with Toceranib and Clodronate showed modest results in the treatment of the tumour and the hypercalcaemia. Radiotherapy of the sublumbar lymph nodes and later concurrent carboplatin chemotherapy resulted in partial tumour remission with marked reduction in size of the lymph nodes and normalization of the calcaemia. Unfortunately, concurrently with subsequent relapse of the hypercalaemia, the dog developed hypertrophic osteopathy (HO) and lumbar spinal metastasis and the dog was euthanized. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the second case of metastatic apocrine gland carcinoma of the anal sac associated with HO and the first case that describe the development of HO late in the stage of the disease. PMID:26623365

  6. From embryo sac to oil and protein bodies: embryo development in the model legume Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Ding; Song, Youhong; Sheahan, Michael B; Garg, Manohar L; Rose, Ray J

    2012-01-01

    • The cell and developmental biology of zygotic embryogenesis in the model legume Medicago truncatula has received little attention. We studied M. truncatula embryogenesis from embryo sac until cotyledon maturation, including oil and protein body biogenesis. • We characterized embryo development using light and electron microscopy, measurement of protein and lipid fatty acid accumulation and by profiling the expression of key seed storage genes. • Embryo sac development in M. truncatula is of the Polygonum type. A distinctive multicellular hypophysis and suspensor develops before the globular stage and by the early cotyledon stage, the procambium connects the developing apical meristems. In the storage parenchyma of cotyledons, ovoid oil bodies surround protein bodies and the plasma membrane. Four major lipid fatty acids accumulate as cotyledons develop, paralleling the expression of OLEOSIN and the storage protein genes, VICILIN and LEGUMIN. • Zygotic embryogenesis in M. truncatula features the development of a distinctive multicellular hypophysis and an endopolyploid suspensor with basal transfer cell. A clear procambial connection between the apical meristems is evident and there is a characteristic arrangement of oil bodies in the cotyledons and radicle. Our data help link embryogenesis to the genetic regulation of oil and protein body biogenesis in legume seed.

  7. Comparative analysis and functional mapping of SACS mutations reveal novel insights into sacsin repeated architecture.

    PubMed

    Romano, Alessandro; Tessa, Alessandra; Barca, Amilcare; Fattori, Fabiana; de Leva, Maria Fulvia; Terracciano, Alessandra; Storelli, Carlo; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Verri, Tiziano

    2013-03-01

    Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) is a neurological disease with mutations in SACS, encoding sacsin, a multidomain protein of 4,579 amino acids. The large size of SACS and its translated protein has hindered biochemical analysis of ARSACS, and how mutant sacsins lead to disease remains largely unknown. Three repeated sequences, called sacsin repeating region (SRR) supradomains, have been recognized, which contribute to sacsin chaperone-like activity. We found that the three SRRs are much larger (≥1,100 residues) than previously described, and organized in discrete subrepeats. We named the large repeated regions Sacsin Internal RePeaTs (SIRPT1, SIRPT2, and SIRPT3) and the subrepeats sr1, sr2, sr3, and srX. Comparative analysis of vertebrate sacsins in combination with fine positional mapping of a set of human mutations revealed that sr1, sr2, sr3, and srX are functional. Notably, the position of the pathogenic mutations in sr1, sr2, sr3, and srX appeared to be related to the severity of the clinical phenotype, as assessed by defining a severity scoring system. Our results suggest that the relative position of mutations in subrepeats will variably influence sacsin dysfunction. The characterization of the specific role of each repeated region will help in developing a comprehensive and integrated pathophysiological model of function for sacsin.

  8. Giant pandas are not an evolutionary cul-de-sac: evidence from multidisciplinary research.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fuwen; Hu, Yibo; Yan, Li; Nie, Yonggang; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Zejun

    2015-01-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the world's most endangered mammals and remains threatened by environmental and anthropogenic pressure. It is commonly argued that giant pandas are an evolutionary cul-de-sac because of their specialized bamboo diet, phylogenetic changes in body size, small population, low genetic diversity, and low reproductive rate. This notion is incorrect, arose from a poor understanding or appreciation of giant panda biology, and is in need of correction. In this review, we summarize research across morphology, ecology, and genetics to dispel the idea, once and for all, that giant pandas are evolutionary dead-end. The latest and most advanced research shows that giant pandas are successful animals highly adapted to a specialized bamboo diet via morphological, ecological, and genetic adaptations and coadaptation of gut microbiota. We also debunk misconceptions around population size, population growth rate, and genetic variation. During their evolutionary history spanning 8 My, giant pandas have survived diet specialization, massive bamboo flowering and die off, and rapid climate oscillations. Now, they are suffering from enormous human interference. Fortunately, continued conservation effort is greatly reducing impacts from anthropogenic interference and allowing giant panda populations and habitat to recover. Previous ideas of a giant panda evolutionary cul-de-sac resulted from an unsystematic and unsophisticated understanding of their biology and it is time to shed this baggage and focus on the survival and maintenance of this high-profile species.

  9. The Importance of Gestational Sac Size of Ectopic Pregnancy in Response to Single-Dose Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Kimiaei, Parichehr; Khani, Zahra; Marefian, Azadeh; Gholampour Ghavamabadi, Maryam; Salimnejad, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study was designed in a selective group of 185 patients diagnosed with and treated for ectopic pregnancy. Intramuscular administration of a single dose of methotrexate (50 mg/m2) was performed to measure predictors of failure or resistance to treatment necessitating surgical intervention. During the time of treatment with a single dose of MTX, 20 patients (10.8%) failed to response, in which 6 of 20 (30%) indicated side effects to MTX and rupture of the ectopic pregnancy. Remaining cases (n = 14) showed resistance to the drug; the level of β-hCG did not fall at least 15% during 7 days after treatment and necessitated laparotomy. In backward-step analysis by multiple logistic regressions of various types of predictor factors, size of gestational sac (coefficient = 1.91, OR = 6.78, 95% confidence interval = 3.18–8.22) and baseline level β-hCG (coefficient = 1.60, OR = 5.0, 95% confidence interval = 4.26–6.72) had significant correlation with leading EP patients failing to response to MTX. This study suggests that further investigation for finding relative contraindications of MTX treatment in EP women should be considered on the gestational sac size because other variables are in the causal pathway of this variable. PMID:23762575

  10. Interplay between SOX7 and RUNX1 regulates hemogenic endothelial fate in the yolk sac.

    PubMed

    Lilly, Andrew J; Costa, Guilherme; Largeot, Anne; Fadlullah, Muhammad Z H; Lie-A-Ling, Michael; Lacaud, Georges; Kouskoff, Valerie

    2016-12-01

    Endothelial to hematopoietic transition (EHT) is a dynamic process involving the shutting down of endothelial gene expression and switching on of hematopoietic gene transcription. Although the factors regulating EHT in hemogenic endothelium (HE) of the dorsal aorta have been relatively well studied, the molecular regulation of yolk sac HE remains poorly understood. Here, we show that SOX7 inhibits the expression of RUNX1 target genes in HE, while having no effect on RUNX1 expression itself. We establish that SOX7 directly interacts with RUNX1 and inhibits its transcriptional activity. Through this interaction we demonstrate that SOX7 hinders RUNX1 DNA binding as well as the interaction between RUNX1 and its co-factor CBFβ. Finally, we show by single-cell expression profiling and immunofluorescence that SOX7 is broadly expressed across the RUNX1(+) yolk sac HE population compared with SOX17. Collectively, these data demonstrate for the first time how direct protein-protein interactions between endothelial and hematopoietic transcription factors regulate contrasting transcriptional programs during HE differentiation and EHT.

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac in a spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta).

    PubMed

    Goodnight, Andrea L; Traslavina, Ryan P; Emanuelson, Karen; Affolter, Verena K; Gaffney, Patricia M; Vernau, William; Williams, Colette; Wu, Connie I-kuan; Sturges, Beverly K; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2013-12-01

    A 25-yr-old spayed female spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) developed intermittent right pelvic limb lameness that persisted following conservative medical therapy. No obvious musculoskeletal lesions were noted on initial physical exam; however, spinal radiography was suspicious for possible intervertebral degenerative joint disease or discospondylitis. Despite prolonged medical therapy, the lameness progressed to minimal weight bearing and marked muscle atrophy of the right pelvic limb. Electromyography showed spontaneous activity in the muscles of right sciatic nerve distribution. Sensory and motor nerve conduction velocities in the right tibial and peroneal nerves were undetectable and markedly reduced, respectively. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed a large, space-occupying mass on the right side of the sacrum and pelvis. Antemortem fine-needle aspiration of the mass and postmortem histopathology resulted in diagnosis of a high-grade squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac is very rare in domestic dogs and previously unreported in spotted hyenas.

  12. The Protein Complex of Neurodegeneration-related Phosphoinositide Phosphatase Sac3 and ArPIKfyve Binds the Lewy Body-associated Synphilin-1, Preventing Its Aggregation*

    PubMed Central

    Ikonomov, Ognian C.; Sbrissa, Diego; Compton, Lauren M.; Kumar, Rita; Tisdale, Ellen J.; Chen, Xuequn; Shisheva, Assia

    2015-01-01

    The 5-phosphoinositide phosphatase Sac3, in which loss-of-function mutations are linked to neurodegenerative disorders, forms a stable cytosolic complex with the scaffolding protein ArPIKfyve. The ArPIKfyve-Sac3 heterodimer interacts with the phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve in a ubiquitous ternary complex that couples PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis with turnover at endosomal membranes, thereby regulating the housekeeping endocytic transport in eukaryotes. Neuron-specific associations of the ArPIKfyve-Sac3 heterodimer, which may shed light on the neuropathological mechanisms triggered by Sac3 dysfunction, are unknown. Here we conducted mass spectrometry analysis for brain-derived interactors of ArPIKfyve-Sac3 and unraveled the α-synuclein-interacting protein Synphilin-1 (Sph1) as a new component of the ArPIKfyve-Sac3 complex. Sph1, a predominantly neuronal protein that facilitates aggregation of α-synuclein, is a major component of Lewy body inclusions in neurodegenerative α-synucleinopathies. Modulations in ArPIKfyve/Sac3 protein levels by RNA silencing or overexpression in several mammalian cell lines, including human neuronal SH-SY5Y or primary mouse cortical neurons, revealed that the ArPIKfyve-Sac3 complex specifically altered the aggregation properties of Sph1-GFP. This effect required an active Sac3 phosphatase and proceeded through mechanisms that involved increased Sph1-GFP partitioning into the cytosol and removal of Sph1-GFP aggregates by basal autophagy but not by the proteasomal system. If uncoupled from ArPIKfyve elevation, overexpressed Sac3 readily aggregated, markedly enhancing the aggregation potential of Sph1-GFP. These data identify a novel role of the ArPIKfyve-Sac3 complex in the mechanisms controlling aggregate formation of Sph1 and suggest that Sac3 protein deficiency or overproduction may facilitate aggregation of aggregation-prone proteins, thereby precipitating the onset of multiple neuronal disorders. PMID:26405034

  13. Les rivières et les sources de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac: extrait du rapport sur les eaux souterraines de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1949-01-01

    Les principales rivières de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac, la Rivière Grise ou Grande Rivière du Cul-de-Sac et la Rivière Blanche, prennent naissance sur le flanc Nord du Massif de la Selle à des altitudes de 1,300 à 1,800 mètres au dessus du niveau de la mer. Elles coulent à l’amont à travers des gorges profondes et sont éloignées de 9 Kms. dans la partie central de la bordure Sud de la plaine.

  14. Chemically intuitive indices for charge-transfer excitation based on SAC-CI and TD-DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Ehara, Masahiro; Fukuda, Ryoichi; Adamo, Carlo; Ciofini, Ilaria

    2013-11-05

    A recently proposed charge-transfer (CT) index and some related quantities aimed to the description of CT excitations in push-pull donor-acceptor model systems were computed in vacuum and in ethanol by the direct symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method including solvent effects by means of the nonequilibrium state-specific approach. The effects of both solvation and electron correlations on these quantities were found to be significant. The present results are also in line with previous time-dependent (TD) density functional theory calculations and they demonstrate that SAC-CI provides a description of the excitation character close to that of TD-PBE0. Indeed, CT indices evaluated by the SAC-CI and TD-PBE0 would be useful in the field of materials chemistry, for the design and development of novel molecular materials.

  15. Enlarging cells initiating apomixis in Hieracium praealtum transition to an embryo sac program prior to entering mitosis.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Hu, Yingkao; Tucker, Matthew R; Taylor, Jennifer M; Johnson, Susan D; Spriggs, Andrew; Tsuchiya, Tohru; Oelkers, Karsten; Rodrigues, Julio C M; Koltunow, Anna M G

    2013-09-01

    Hieracium praealtum forms seeds asexually by apomixis. During ovule development, sexual reproduction initiates with megaspore mother cell entry into meiosis and formation of a tetrad of haploid megaspores. The sexual pathway ceases when a diploid aposporous initial (AI) cell differentiates, enlarges, and undergoes mitosis, forming an aposporous embryo sac that displaces sexual structures. Embryo and endosperm development in aposporous embryo sacs is fertilization independent. Transcriptional data relating to apomixis initiation in Hieracium spp. ovules is scarce and the functional identity of the AI cell relative to other ovule cell types is unclear. Enlarging AI cells with undivided nuclei, early aposporous embryo sacs containing two to four nuclei, and random groups of sporophytic ovule cells not undergoing these events were collected by laser capture microdissection. Isolated amplified messenger RNA samples were sequenced using the 454 pyrosequencing platform and comparatively analyzed to establish indicative roles of the captured cell types. Transcriptome and protein motif analyses showed that approximately one-half of the assembled contigs identified homologous sequences in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), of which the vast majority were expressed during early Arabidopsis ovule development. The sporophytic ovule cells were enriched in signaling functions. Gene expression indicative of meiosis was notably absent in enlarging AI cells, consistent with subsequent aposporous embryo sac formation without meiosis. The AI cell transcriptome was most similar to the early aposporous embryo sac transcriptome when comparing known functional annotations and both shared expressed genes involved in gametophyte development, suggesting that the enlarging AI cell is already transitioning to an embryo sac program prior to mitotic division.

  16. Altered callose deposition during embryo sac formation of multi-pistil mutant (mp1) in Medicago sativa.

    PubMed

    Zhou, H C; Jin, L; Li, J; Wang, X J

    2016-06-03

    Whether callose deposition is the cause or result of ovule sterility in Medicago sativa remains controversial, because it is unclear when and where changes in callose deposition and dissolution occur during fertile and sterile embryo sac formation. Here, alfalfa spontaneous multi-pistil mutant (mp1) and wild-type plants were used to compare the dynamics of callose deposition during embryo sac formation using microscopy. The results showed that both mutant and wild-type plants experienced megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis, and there was no significant difference during megasporogenesis. In contrast to the wild-type plants, in which the mature embryo sac was observed after three continuous cycles of mitosis, functional megaspores of mutant plants developed abnormally after the second round of mitosis, leading to degeneration of synergid, central, and antipodal cells. Callose deposition in both mutant and wild-type plants was first observed in the walls of megasporocytes, and then in the megaspore tetrad walls. After meiosis, the callose wall began to degrade as the functional megaspore underwent mitosis, and almost no callose was observed in the mature embryo sac in wild-type plants. However, callose deposition was observed in mp1 plants around the synergid, and increased with the development of the embryo sac, and was mainly deposited at the micropylar end. Our results indicate that synergid, central, and antipodal cells, which are surrounded by callose, may degrade owing to lack of nutrition. Callose accumulation around the synergid and at the micropylar end may hinder signals required for the pollen tube to enter the embryo sac, leading to abortion.

  17. Expression and immunolocalisation of the endocytic receptors megalin and cubilin in the human yolk sac and placenta across gestation.

    PubMed

    Burke, K A; Jauniaux, E; Burton, G J; Cindrova-Davies, T

    2013-11-01

    Megalin and cubilin are multifunctional endocytic receptors associated with many transporting epithelia. They play an essential role in transport of nutrients through the visceral yolk sac of rodents during embryogenesis. Here, we immunolocalise them to the endodermal layer of the human yolk sac, and to the syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast cells of placental villi. In villi, the protein level of both receptors increased with gestation. The mRNA for megalin remained constant, while that encoding cubilin increased with gestation. These results suggest megalin and cubilin may be important in human maternal-fetal transfer, and that they increase across gestation to facilitate this function.

  18. Amniotic Sac Herniation Through a Prior Cornual Scar in The Third Trimester

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Antonio F.; Costantine, Maged M.; Saade, George; Makhlouf, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Uterine rupture occurs in less than 0.1% of pregnancies. This complication can be detrimental to mother and fetus if not detected and managed in a timely manner. We report an unusual presentation of uterine scar rupture that was diagnosed on ultrasound in a completely stable patient with reassuring fetal status. Case Report A 24-year-old Gravida 5, Para 3 with history of cornual resection for ectopic pregnancy and two previous uterine ruptures presented at 30 weeks' gestation with worsening abdominal pain. Ultrasound identified herniation of the amniotic sac with fetal parts. The patient underwent cesarean delivery and cornual defect repair. Conclusion Close observation and early delivery remain vital to the patient's management. PMID:26495171

  19. Sertoli cell tumor arising in a cryptorchid testis presenting as a content of inguinal hernial sac.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Kusuma; Hemalata, Mahantappa; Sathyavathi, S; Kumar, Satish

    2016-01-01

    Sertoli cell tumors (SCTs) are rare tumors accounting for <1% of all testicular tumors. Here, we report a rare case of SCT in a 60-year-old man presenting as a painless swelling in the right groin since childhood. Clinically, he presented with right-sided inguinal hernia with absence of the right testis. He had normal left testis and had no gynecomastia or infertility. The specimen of hernial sac showed testis with a 1.6 cm × 1.5 cm nodular mass having gray tan-cut surface. Histopathologically, the testis showed atrophy and the nodular portion showed tumor cells arranged in tubular and microcystic pattern, with no solid pattern or necrosis. The diagnosis of SCT was confirmed with immunohistochemical staining for inhibin which showed fine granular cytoplasmic positivity. Cryptorchid testis having SCT and presenting as a content of inguinal hernia is a rare occurrence.

  20. Small bowel perforation in a hernia sac after TVT placement at the time of colpocleisis.

    PubMed

    Gurshumov, Emil L; Klapper, Allan S; Sierecki, Ava R

    2010-03-01

    Tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) is commonly considered as the first line of treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) with demonstrated efficacy and limited complications. An 82-year-old woman with complete uterine procidentia and SUI underwent a Le Forte colpocleisis, TVT, posterior repair, and cystoscopy. A 4-cm bulge was noted over the site of the left TVT incision on postoperative day 1. On postoperative day 3, she developed bilious vomiting with slight abdominal distention. Computed tomography scan showed a strangulated left inguinal hernia. An immediate exploratory laparotomy noted an inguinal hernia displaced medially with loops of small bowel in the hernia sac. Although properly positioned, one loop of bowel was perforated by the sling mesh. A small bowel resection was performed and the mesh trimmed below the resection on involved side. At 2 months postoperative visit, the patient was asymptomatic, denied stress or urge incontinence. Vaginal examination noted well-supported vaginal walls.

  1. Automatic measurement of early gestational sac diameters from one scan session

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Chen, Siping; Li, Shengli; Wang, Tianfu

    2011-03-01

    Gestational sac (GS) diameters are commonly measured by routine ultrasound in early pregnancy. However, manually searching for the standardized plane of GS (SPGS) and measuring the diameters are time-consuming. In this paper, we develop a three-stage automatic solution for this procedure. In order to precisely and efficiently locate the position of GS in each frame, a coarse to fine GS detection scheme based on AdaBoost algorithm is explored. Then, an efficient method based on local context information is introduced to reduce the false positives (FP) generated by the above detection process. Finally, a database (DB) guided spectral segmentation is proposed to separate GS region from the background for further diameters measurement. Experiments carried out on 31 videos show that by using the proposed methods, the number of SPGS searching error is only one, and the average measurement error is 0.059 for the length diameters and 0.083 for the depth diameters.

  2. The fluid mechanics of a sac-type ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Clark, C; Jin, W; Glaser, A

    1990-12-01

    Flow visualisation and velocity measurement studies have been carried out on the liquid side of a sac-type VAD. The objectives have been to identify both good (e.g. short residence times) and bad (e.g. high turbulence levels) flow characteristics. The flow was visualised using polystyrene micro-spheres illuminated with white light on selected transverse planes across the pumping chamber and its inlet and outlet connections. These results then served as a guide for velocity measurements using laser-Doppler anemometry. Flow tests were run using water or a water/glycerol mixture. Operating conditions were determined from the appropriate fluid mechanics modelling laws to ensure dynamical similarity. Initially, steady flow behaviour was investigated including the effects of removal and insertion of the tilting-disc inlet and outlet valves. In subsequent full pumping tests, using a pneumatic driver, regions of high shear, separation, and high turbulence intensity have been identified.

  3. Response of the pigeon crop sac to mammotrophic hormones: Comparison between relaxin and prolactin

    SciTech Connect

    Bani, G.; Sacchi, T.B.; Bigazzi, M. )

    1990-10-01

    The effects of relaxin (RLX), a hormone that has previously been demonstrated to have mammotrophic properties, were studied in the pigeon crop sac, a well-known target organ for mammotrophic and lactogenic hormones, and compared with the effects produced by prolactin (PRL). The two hormones were injected directly over the crop at different doses and the response was evaluated after differing times of exposure. RLX causes a dose-related increase in wet and dry weights and ({sup 3}H)thymidine and ({sup 3}H)uridine uptake by the crop mucosa, as well as morphological changes indicating growth and differentiation of the epithelial cells similar to those occurring during physiological activation in incubation and hatching. At the doses assayed, the effects of RLX were nearly identical to those obtained following PRL in the short-term experiments, but differences in functional responses were found in the long-term experiment.

  4. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Reducing Light Pollution in U.S. Coastal Regions Using the High Sensitivity Cameras on the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Jane C.; Knowlton, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    Light pollution has significant adverse biological effects on humans, animals, and plants and has resulted in the loss of our ability to view the stars and planets of the universe. Over half of the U.S. population resides in coastal regions where it is no longer possible to see the stars and planets in the night sky. Forty percent of the entire U.S. population is never exposed to conditions dark enough for their eyes to convert to night vision capabilities. In coastal regions, urban lights shine far out to sea where they are augmented by the output from fishing boat, cruise ship and oil platform floodlights. The proposed candidate solution suggests using HSCs (high sensitivity cameras) onboard the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D satellites to quantitatively evaluate light pollution at high spatial resolution. New products modeled after pre-existing, radiance-calibrated, global nighttime lights products would be integrated into a modified Garstang model where elevation, mountain screening, Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering by aerosols, and atmospheric extinction along light paths and curvature of the Earth would be taken into account. Because the spatial resolution of the HSCs on SAC-C and the future Aquarius/SAC-D missions is greater than that provided by the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) OLS (Operational Linescan System) or VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite), it may be possible to obtain more precise light intensity data for analytical DSSs and the subsequent reduction in coastal light pollution.

  5. Sac-D Aquarius a Satellite for Ocean, Climate and Environment. One Year of Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrusio, S.; Lagerloef, G.; Rabolli, M.; LeVine, D.

    2012-07-01

    The SAC-D/Aquarius satellite was launched in June 10, 2011. It's a joint mission between Argentina (through CONAE) and US (NASA). This satellite is a true Observatory with a suite of sensors for Earth Observation, its weight is 1400 kg, sun-synchronous orbit at 657 km (6 pm ascendant node), revisit of seven days. Other space agencies have contributed with instruments and support (facilities and ground segment), as CNES, CSI, ASI and AEB/INPE. The primary objective is to monitor global variations in ocean surface salinity (SSS) in order to improve the knowledge about ocean circulation, water cycle and climate. The SSS is performed with Aquarius instrument (NASA). Other oceanic and atmospheric parameters are measured with a MWR, from CONAE, in K and Ka band, as wind speed, rain rate, sea ice, water vapour and liquid water in clouds. The thermal camera (NIRST) estimates sea surface temperature and detect high temperature events (fires and volcanic eruptions). The High Sensitivity Camera (HSC) generates night images (very useful for fishery activity monitoring in the sea, studying of electrical storms, polar auroras and urban application). The DCS (Data Collection System, from CONAE) can receive meteorological and environmental data from ground platforms and distribute among users. The TDP (Technological Demonstration Package, from CONAE) measures different parameters of satellite position and velocity. Other two important instruments are ROSA (from Italy) and CARMEN 1 (from France). The first is an atmospheric sounder, it allows elaborating atmospheric profiles of temperature, pressure and humidity, and the second has detectors for studies of space debris and the effects of radiation on electronic devices. This work provides a review of the first year of data, including the status of calibration and validation, other finding and at the same time we want to present the progress in the active educational and outreach program including the information of SAC-D Aquarius

  6. The effects of sinomenine on intestinal absorption of paeoniflorin by the everted rat gut sac model.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kelvin; Liu, Zhong Qiu; Jiang, Zhi Hong; Zhou, Hua; Wong, Yuen Fan; Xu, Hong-Xi; Liu, Liang

    2006-02-20

    Paeoniflorin and sinomenine, derived from the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. (family Ranunculaceae) and the stem of Sinomenium acutum Rehder & Wilson (family Menispermaceae), respectively, have been, and are currently, widely used for treatment of rheumatic and arthritic diseases in China and Japan. Our previous studies demonstrated that sinomenine could significantly improve the bioavailability of paeoniflorin in rats, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The present study aims to investigate the intestinal kinetic absorptive characteristics of paeoniflorin as well as the absorptive behavior influenced by co-administration of sinomenine using an in vitro everted rat gut sac model. The results showed a good linear correlation between the paeoniflorin absorption in sac contents and the incubation time from 0 to 90 min. However, the concentration dependence showed that a non-linear correlation exists between the paeoniflorin absorption and its concentrations from 10 to 160 microM, and the absorption was saturated at about 80 microM of the drug. Sinomenine at 16 and 136 microM concentrations could significantly enhance the absorption of paeoniflorin (20 microM) by 1.5- and 2.5-fold, respectively. Moreover, two well-known P-glycoprotein inhibitors, verapamil and quinidine, could significantly elevate the absorption of paeoniflorin by 2.1- and 1.5-fold, respectively. Furthermore, sinomenine in a pattern, which influenced paeoniflorin's absorption, manifested as similar to that of P-glycoprotein inhibitors. In conclusion, sinomenine significantly enhance the intestinal absorption of paeoniflorin, subsequently improve the bioavailability of paeoniflorin. The mechanism underlying the improvement of paeoniflorin's bioavailability was proposed that sinomenine could decrease the efflux transport of paeoniflorin by P-glycoprotein.

  7. PolySac3DB: an annotated data base of 3 dimensional structures of polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Polysaccharides are ubiquitously present in the living world. Their structural versatility makes them important and interesting components in numerous biological and technological processes ranging from structural stabilization to a variety of immunologically important molecular recognition events. The knowledge of polysaccharide three-dimensional (3D) structure is important in studying carbohydrate-mediated host-pathogen interactions, interactions with other bio-macromolecules, drug design and vaccine development as well as material science applications or production of bio-ethanol. Description PolySac3DB is an annotated database that contains the 3D structural information of 157 polysaccharide entries that have been collected from an extensive screening of scientific literature. They have been systematically organized using standard names in the field of carbohydrate research into 18 categories representing polysaccharide families. Structure-related information includes the saccharides making up the repeat unit(s) and their glycosidic linkages, the expanded 3D representation of the repeat unit, unit cell dimensions and space group, helix type, diffraction diagram(s) (when applicable), experimental and/or simulation methods used for structure description, link to the abstract of the publication, reference and the atomic coordinate files for visualization and download. The database is accompanied by a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). It features interactive displays of polysaccharide structures and customized search options for beginners and experts, respectively. The site also serves as an information portal for polysaccharide structure determination techniques. The web-interface also references external links where other carbohydrate-related resources are available. Conclusion PolySac3DB is established to maintain information on the detailed 3D structures of polysaccharides. All the data and features are available via the web

  8. Tough Tommy’s Space Force: General Thomas S. Power and the Air Force Space Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    owe deep thanks to Archie Difante, Maranda Gilmore, Tammy Horton, and the staff of the Air Force Historical Research Agency for their help finding...Power and SAC in historical context of both the Air Force and the national space program. Also, I must thank Dr. Tom Hughes for explaining to an...development. They could envision future potential by which armies, navies, and air forces should best deploy forces to defeat their enemies.”2

  9. Distal Regeneration Involves the Age Dependent Activity of Branchial Sac Stem Cells in the Ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, William R

    2015-02-01

    Tunicates have high capacities for regeneration but the underlying mechanisms and their relationship to life cycle progression are not well understood. Here we investigate the regeneration of distal structures in the ascidian tunicate Ciona intestinalis. Analysis of regenerative potential along the proximal-distal body axis indicated that distal organs, such as the siphons, their pigmented sensory organs, and the neural complex, could only be replaced from body fragments containing the branchial sac. Distal regeneration involves the formation of a blastema composed of cells that undergo cell proliferation prior to differentiation and cells that differentiate without cell proliferation. Both cell types originate in the branchial sac and appear in the blastema at different times after distal injury. Whereas the branchial sac stem cells are present in young animals, they are depleted in old animals that have lost their regeneration capacity. Thus Ciona adults contain a population of age-related stem cells located in the branchial sac that are a source of precursors for distal body regeneration.

  10. The formation of abdomino-perineal sacs by the fasciae of Scarpa and Colles, and their clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Martin, B F

    1984-06-01

    It has been shown that the membranous layer of the subcutaneous tissue, known as Scarpa's fascia, is confined to an oval area on each side of the abdominal wall. By its attachment to the deep fascia it encloses an obliquely directed oval sac which extends into the perineum by three pocket-like diverticulae. The fascial extension which forms the pockets is known as the fascia of Colles. Medially, the sac blends with the fundiform ligament, so that the sacs do not communicate with each other or with the interfascial space deep to the penile dartos. Laterally, the inferior margin creates the crease-line of the groin by its attachment to the fascia lata. Between these attachments the pockets arise from the sac. The lateral pocket continues into the superficial perineal pouch. The medial pocket, together with the intermediate, occupies the scrotum or labium majus. The intermediate pocket is associated with the spermatic cord or the round ligament of the uterus and blends with their coverings posteriorly. In the male it terminates just above the testis. The significance of the fascial arrangements in relation to urinary extravasation is discussed, and also the relationship of the intermediate pocket to an indirect inguinal hernia.

  11. sAC from aquatic organisms as a model to study the evolution of acid/base sensing.

    PubMed

    Tresguerres, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is poised to play multiple physiological roles as an acid/base (A/B) sensor in aquatic organisms. Many of these roles are probably similar to those in mammals; a striking example is the evolutionary conservation of a mechanism involving sAC, carbonic anhydrase and vacuolar H⁺-ATPase that acts as a sensor system and regulator of extracellular A/B in shark gills and mammalian epididymis and kidney. Additionally, the aquatic environment presents unique A/B and physiological challenges; therefore, sACs from aquatic organisms have likely evolved distinct kinetic properties as well as distinct physiological roles. sACs from aquatic organisms offer an excellent opportunity for studying the evolution of A/B sensing at both the molecular and whole organism levels. Moreover, this information could help understand and predict organismal responses to environmental stress based on mechanistic models.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "The Role of Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase in Health and Disease," guest edited by J. Buck and L. R. Levin.

  12. Location and identification of the collagen found in the 14.5-d rat embryo visceral yolk sac

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    The collagens associated with 14.5-d rat visceral yolk sacs were localized and identified by a variety of procedures. Morphological examination showed that both the visceral epithelium and mesothelium rested upon thin basement membranes, whereas the majority of the extracellular matrix consisted of a stroma containing occasional cells and abundant banded fibrils. Immunohistochemistry at the electron microscope level showed that the basement membranes specifically cross- reacted with antibodies directed against mouse basement membrane components, whereas the stroma specifically cross-reacted with antibodies directed against rat type I collagen. Extractions of acellular visceral yolk sacs and subsequent analyses showed that type I collagen components were prevalent. Furthermore, in vitro biosynthetic studies showed only the presence of type I procollagen components (or their conversion products) and alpha-fetoprotein. These findings, taken together with our previous studies on the 14.5-d rat parietal yolk sac, provide us with protein markers for studying the origin of cells in rat parietovisceral yolk sac carcinomas. PMID:7096438

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Propionibacterium avidum Strain UCD-PD2 Isolated from a Feline Anal Sac

    PubMed Central

    Dahms, Petra A.; Martin, Alexandra L.; Coil, David A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Propionibacterium (Cutibacterium) avidum strain UCD-PD2. The assembly contains 2,667,287 bp in 51 contigs. The strain was isolated from anal sac secretion samples collected from a feral domestic cat (Felis catus) as part of a larger project to study the microbiology of cats. PMID:28336587

  14. Radiologic-pathologic findings of primary osseous adamantinoma with unusual metastasis to the posterior cul-de-sac in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Flug, Jonathan A; Scalcione, Luke R; Hakima, Laleh; Ganson, George; Mazzie, Joseph P; Katz, Douglas S; Brooks, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adamantinoma is a rare primary bone malignancy with a predilection for the tibial cortex. Metastases have been reported to the long bones, lung, pleura and spine. We present a 26-year-old pregnant woman with metastatic disease to the posterior cul-de-sac, lungs, liver and retroperitoneum, which collectively have not been previously reported in a single patient to our knowledge.

  15. Migration of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt into a Hernia Sac: An Unusual Complication of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Surgery in Children.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhir; Pant, Nitin; Kumar, Piyush; Pandey, Anand; Khan, Tanvir Roshan; Gupta, Archika; Rawat, Jiledar

    2016-01-01

    We report 2 cases of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt migration into an inguinal hernia sac. In both cases hernia manifested itself on the right side in late infancy. We attempted to analyse the anatomical and mechanical factors leading to shunt migration as seen in the X-rays of our cases.

  16. The formation of abdomino-perineal sacs by the fasciae of Scarpa and Colles, and their clinical significance.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, B F

    1984-01-01

    It has been shown that the membranous layer of the subcutaneous tissue, known as Scarpa's fascia, is confined to an oval area on each side of the abdominal wall. By its attachment to the deep fascia it encloses an obliquely directed oval sac which extends into the perineum by three pocket-like diverticulae. The fascial extension which forms the pockets is known as the fascia of Colles. Medially, the sac blends with the fundiform ligament, so that the sacs do not communicate with each other or with the interfascial space deep to the penile dartos. Laterally, the inferior margin creates the crease-line of the groin by its attachment to the fascia lata. Between these attachments the pockets arise from the sac. The lateral pocket continues into the superficial perineal pouch. The medial pocket, together with the intermediate, occupies the scrotum or labium majus. The intermediate pocket is associated with the spermatic cord or the round ligament of the uterus and blends with their coverings posteriorly. In the male it terminates just above the testis. The significance of the fascial arrangements in relation to urinary extravasation is discussed, and also the relationship of the intermediate pocket to an indirect inguinal hernia. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:6235202

  17. Environmental Noise Assessment for Military Aircraft Training Routes. Volume 1. SAC (Strategic Air Command) Low-Level Routes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    Det 24 IR-986 43 SW Andersen AFB GU 2000/1000 320 Det 24 IR-982 43 SW Osan AB, Korea 1000 320 Det 9 Bann STR HQ USAFE/DOOB Bann , Germany Det 4 STRC HQ...operates under the MS-DOS operating system. A BASIC program was used to initialize and program the LD-700s, and to read data and store them for subsequent...dB (L eq) Interval Data Interval Period I Hour Basic Data Stored Leq , SEL, Lmax Lmi n Statistical Levels L01 , L10 , L50 , L9 0 Exceedance Counts RMS

  18. Effects of breeder age on mineral contents and weight of yolk sac, embryo development, and hatchability in Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Onbasilar, E E; Erdem, E; Hacan, O; Yalçin, S

    2014-02-01

    The current study was carried out to investigate the effects of breeder age on egg composition, changes of embryo, yolk sac, and yolk minerals during incubation and hatchability in Pekin ducks. A total of 495 freshly laid eggs were obtained from the same flock of Pekin ducks, aged 28, 34, and 40 wk, and were reared in accordance with the management guide of the duck breeders (Star 53-Grimaud Freres). At each breeder age, egg measurements were made on a random subsample of unincubated eggs. Embryo and yolk sac measurements were made on embryonic day (E) 12, E16, E20, and E25. On d 28 of incubation, the healthy ducklings were removed and sex of chicks was determined. All chicks were weighed and hatching results were determined. Egg weight and yolk percentages increased; however, albumen percentages, shell thickness, and yolk index decreased as the flock aged. Shell percentages, shell breaking strength, albumen index, and haugh units were not affected by breeder age. Also, breeder age affected the Mg, P, K, Ca, Cu, and Zn levels in the yolk, except for Na level on day of setting, and breeder age affected the mineral consumed by embryo during incubation. However, on E25, the levels of examined minerals, except for P level in the yolk sac, were not statistically different in duck breeder age groups. Relative yolk sac and embryo weights of eggs obtained from different breeder ages varied from E16 to E25; however, embryo length was different in breeder age groups from E12 to E20. Hatching weight was affected by breeder age and sex. Hatching results were not different among breeder age groups. This study indicates that breeder age is important for some egg characteristics, relative yolk sac weight, some contents of minerals in the yolk, embryonic growth during incubation, and duckling weight.

  19. Results and validation of marine surface wind speed obtained from SAC-D/Aquarius MWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauro, C. B.; Etala, P.; Echevarría, P.; Hejazin, Y.; Jacob, M. M.; Jones, L.

    2012-12-01

    MWR (MicroWave Radiometer) is a radiometer on board SAC-D/Aquarius satellite, launched in June 2011. The SAC-D/Aquarius science mission was developed jointly by the Nacional Space Agency of Argentina (CONAE, Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of USA (NASA), that focuses on understanding the interaction between the global water cycle, ocean circulation and climate by measuring sea surface salinity. MWR is a three channel push broom, Dicke radiometer, that has 16 beams, 8 forward-looking at 36.5 GHz (in vertical and horizontal polarization) and 8 aft-looking at 23.8 GHz (in horizontal polarization), with a swath of approximately 380 Km. The beams are arranged to have two incidence angles, one of 52° (odd beams) and one of 58° (even beams) for both forward and aft-looks. Since recently, CONAE with collaboration of CFRSL (Central Florida Remote Sensing Laboratory), are generating geophysical parameters, all over the sea surface, using brightness temperature measurements from MWR. These parameters include columnar water vapor, wind speed, sea ice concentration and rain rate, which are ancillary data for the Aquarius salinity measurements. We present in this paper the first results of wind speed over the sea, obtained using the MWR data. The wind speed retrieval algorithm is based on the microwave radiative transfer theory by Wentz [1]. The algorithm developed uses MWR brigthness temperature at 36.5 GHz in both polarizations and sea surface temperature obtained from GDAS. As a result, the neutral stability ocean surface wind speed at 10 m height and the atmospheric trasnmissivity at 36.5 GHz are retrieved. In addition, a validation process in collaboration with the Naval Hydrographic Service of Argentina (SHN) has started. The final goal of this on-going work is to assess the quality of MWR wind data in conjunction with surface wind observations from other sources in a data assimilation system. At this

  20. Retrenchment: General Russell E. Dougherty and the Strategic Air Command During the Age of Detente

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Air Force Base can wander its halls without sensing the enduring achievement made possible by the thousands of Airmen and civilians who served in SAC... mind . There was a lot of change for change’s sake.”78 One such change was to move away from the nuclear strategy of massive retaliation. The new

  1. Generation of functional platelets from human embryonic stem cells in vitro via ES-sacs, VEGF-promoted structures that concentrate hematopoietic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Naoya; Nishikii, Hidekazu; Usui, Joichi; Tsukui, Hiroko; Sawaguchi, Akira; Hiroyama, Takashi; Eto, Koji; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2008-06-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) could potentially represent an alternative source for blood transfusion therapies and a promising tool for studying the ontogeny of hematopoiesis. When we cultured hESCs on either C3H10T1/2 or OP-9 cells to facilitate hematopoiesis, we found that exogenous administration of vascular endothelial growth factor promoted the emergence of sac-like structures, which we named embryonic stem cell-derived sacs (ES-sacs). These ES-sacs consisted of multiple cysts demarcated by cellular monolayers that retained some of the properties of endothelial cells. The spherical cells inside ES-sacs expressed primarily CD34, along with VE-cadherin, CD31, CD41a, and CD45, and were able to form hematopoietic colonies in semisolid culture and to differentiate into mature megakaryocytes by day 24 in the presence of thrombopoietin. Apparently, ES-sacs provide a suitable environment for hematopoietic progenitors. Relatively large numbers of mature megakaryocytes could be induced from the hematopoietic progenitors within ES-sacs, which were then able to release platelets that displayed integrin alpha IIb beta 3 activation and spreading in response to ADP or thrombin. This novel protocol thus provides a means of generating platelets from hESCs, which could serve as the basis for efficient production of platelets for clinical transfusion and studies of thrombopoiesis.

  2. Electronic structure and optical properties of conjugated molecules: SAC-CI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehara, Masahiro; Saha, Biswajit; Poolmee, Potjaman; Promkatkaew, Malinee; Hannongbua, Supa; Lu, Yun-peng; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

    2012-12-01

    Electronic structure and optical properties of some organic conjugated molecules, that is the oligomers for organic-light emitting diodes (OLED), chelating hetero-atomic conjugated ligands, and UVB blocking molecules, have been investigated by the SAC-CI method. The absorption and emission spectra of these molecules were reproduced accurately. For OLED molecules, chain length dependence of the excitation and emission energies was evaluated for poly para-phenylene vinylene and poly para-phenylene. Thermal effect on the electronic spectra of fluorene-thiophene and its derivatives was examined with taking accounts the Boltzmann distribution. The photophysical properties of the chelating hetero-atomic molecules including pyridine-, benxazole-, and benzothiazole derivatives which are useful for electroluminescent metal complex were systematically calculated. The UVB blocking function of the methoxy substituted cinnamates was investigated with regard to the substitution position. The excited-state geometry relaxation of these molecules was interpreted based on the electrostatic force theory. The present work provides a useful basis for the theoretical design predicting the optical properties of the photo-functional molecules.

  3. Integrated Phase Array Antenna/Solar Cell System for Flexible Access Communication (IA/SAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, E. B.; Lee, R. Q.; Pal, A. T.; Wilt, D. M.; McElroy, B. D.; Mueller, C. H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes recent efforts to integrate advanced solar cells with printed planar antennas. Several previous attempts have been reported in the literature, but this effort is unique in several ways. It uses Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) multi-junction solar cell technology. The solar cells and antennas will be integrated onto a common GaAs substrate. When fully implemented, IA/SAC will be capable of dynamic beam steering. In addition, this program targets the X-band (8 - 12 GHz) and higher frequencies, as compared to the 2.2 - 2.9 GHz arrays targeted by other organizations. These higher operating frequencies enable a greater bandwidth and thus higher data transfer rates. The first phase of the effort involves the development of 2 x 2 cm GaAs Monolithically Integrated Modules (MIM) with integrated patch antennas on the opposite side of the substrate. Subsequent work will involve the design and development of devices having the GaAs MIMs and the antennas on the same side of the substrate. Results from the phase one efforts will be presented.

  4. Electrogenic transport and K(+) ion channel expression by the human endolymphatic sac epithelium.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Huhn; Kim, Bo Gyung; Kim, Jin Young; Roh, Kyung Jin; Suh, Michelle J; Jung, JinSei; Moon, In Seok; Moon, Sung K; Choi, Jae Young

    2015-12-14

    The endolymphatic sac (ES) is a cystic organ that is a part of the inner ear and is connected to the cochlea and vestibule. The ES is thought to be involved in inner ear ion homeostasis and fluid volume regulation for the maintenance of hearing and balance function. Many ion channels, transporters, and exchangers have been identified in the ES luminal epithelium, mainly in animal studies, but there has been no functional study investigating ion transport using human ES tissue. We designed the first functional experiments on electrogenic transport in human ES and investigated the contribution of K(+) channels in the electrogenic transport, which has been rarely identified, even in animal studies, using electrophysiological/pharmacological and molecular biological methods. As a result, we identified functional and molecular evidence for the essential participation of K(+) channels in the electrogenic transport of human ES epithelium. The identified K(+) channels involved in the electrogenic transport were KCNN2, KCNJ14, KCNK2, and KCNK6, and the K(+) transports via those channels are thought to play an important role in the maintenance of the unique ionic milieu of the inner ear fluid.

  5. Mass-marking of otoliths of lake trout sac fry by temperature manipulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, R.A.; Eshenroder, R.L.; Bowen, C. II; Seelye, J.G.; Locke, J.C.; Parker, N.C.; Giorgi, A.E.; Heidenger, R.C.; Jester, D. B.; Prince, E.D.; Winans, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The otoliths of 676,000 sac fry of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in 1986, and of 1,100,000 in 1987, were marked by daily manipulation of water temperature. The fish were stocked into Lake Huron in the spring. Otolith marks consisted of groups of daily growth rings accentuated into recognizable patterns by steadily raising and lowering the temperature about IOA?C (from a base of 1-4A?C) over 14h. In 1987, groups of marked and control fish were held for 6 months. The otoliths were removed from samples of the fish, embedded in epoxy, thin-sectioned by grinding in the sagittal plane, etched, and viewed by using a combination of a compound microscope (400-1000x) and a video enhancement system. One or more readable otolith sections were obtained from 39 of a sample of 40 fish. Three independent readers examined 41 otoliths for marks and correctly classified the otoliths, with accuracies of 85, 98,and 100%, as being from marked or unmarked fish. The exact number of rings in a recognizable pattern sometimes differed from the number of temperature cycles to which the fish were exposed. Counts of daily rings within groups of six rings varied less than counts within groups of three rings.

  6. Mass-marking of otoliths of lake trout sac fry by temperature manipulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Bowen, Charles; Seelye, James G.; Locke, Jeffrey C.

    1990-01-01

    The otoliths of 676,000 sac fry of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in 1986, and of 1,100,000 in 1987, were marked by daily manipulation of water temperature. The fish were stocked into Lake Huron in the spring. Otolith marks consisted of groups of daily growth rings accentuated into recognizable patterns by steadily raising and lowering the temperature about 10 degrees C (from a base of 1-4 degrees C) over 14 h. In 1987, groups of marked and control fish were held for 6 months. The otoliths were removed from samples of the fish, embedded in epoxy, thin sectioned by grinding in the sagittal plane, etched, and viewed by using a combination of a compound microscope (400-1000x) and a video enhancement system. One or more readable otolith sections were obtained from 39 of a sample of 40 fish. Three independent readers examined 41 otoliths for marks and correctly classified the otoliths, with accuracies of 85, 98, and 100%, as being from marked or unmarked fish. The exact number of rings in a recognizable pattern sometimes differed from the number of temperature cycles to which the fish were exposed. Counts of daily rings within groups of six rings varied less than counts within groups of rings.

  7. Electrogenic transport and K+ ion channel expression by the human endolymphatic sac epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Huhn; Kim, Bo Gyung; Kim, Jin Young; Roh, Kyung Jin; Suh, Michelle J.; Jung, JinSei; Moon, In Seok; Moon, Sung K.; Choi, Jae Young

    2015-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac (ES) is a cystic organ that is a part of the inner ear and is connected to the cochlea and vestibule. The ES is thought to be involved in inner ear ion homeostasis and fluid volume regulation for the maintenance of hearing and balance function. Many ion channels, transporters, and exchangers have been identified in the ES luminal epithelium, mainly in animal studies, but there has been no functional study investigating ion transport using human ES tissue. We designed the first functional experiments on electrogenic transport in human ES and investigated the contribution of K+ channels in the electrogenic transport, which has been rarely identified, even in animal studies, using electrophysiological/pharmacological and molecular biological methods. As a result, we identified functional and molecular evidence for the essential participation of K+ channels in the electrogenic transport of human ES epithelium. The identified K+ channels involved in the electrogenic transport were KCNN2, KCNJ14, KCNK2, and KCNK6, and the K+ transports via those channels are thought to play an important role in the maintenance of the unique ionic milieu of the inner ear fluid. PMID:26655723

  8. [An implantable micro-device using wireless power transmission for measuring aortic aneurysm sac pressure].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xudong; Ge, Bin; Wang, Wenxing

    2013-08-01

    In order to detect endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), we developed an implantable micro-device based on wireless power transmission to measure aortic aneurysm sac pressure. The implantable micro-device is composed of a miniature wireless pressure sensor, an energy transmitting coil, a data recorder and a data processing platform. Power transmission without interconnecting wires is performed by a transmitting coil and a receiving coil. The coupling efficiency of wireless power transmission depends on the coupling coefficient between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil. With theoretical analysis and experimental study, we optimized the geometry of the receiving coil to increase the coupling coefficient. In order to keep efficiency balance and satisfy the maximizing conditions, we designed a closed loop power transmission circuit, including a receiving voltage feedback module based on wireless communication. The closed loop improved the stability and reliability of transmission energy. The prototype of the micro-device has been developed and the experiment has been performed. The experiments showed that the micro-device was feasible and valid. For normal operation, the distance between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil is smaller than 8cm. Besides, the distance between the micro-device and the data recorder is within 50cm.

  9. Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in extragonadal yolk sac tumor with hepatoid differentiation: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Zeremski, Vanja; Mawrin, Christian; Fischer, Thomas; Schalk, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare aggressive tumors, arising most commonly in the gonads and occurring mainly in young adults. We herein report a case of an extragonadal YST with hepatoid differentiation localized in the brain and lung. A 41-year old man presented to our hospital with a generalized seizure. A head computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging examination revealed a large mass in the left occipital lobe with associated edema. Following complete resection, the histopathological examination revealed that the mass was a highly malignant epithelial tumor with a hepatoid pattern. The serum lactate dehydrogenase and α-fetoprotein levels were elevated. Additional diagnostic imaging revealed a lesion in the upper lobe of the right lung, but no other tumor manifestations. Based on the clinical and immunohistochemical characteristics, hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatoid adenocarcinoma were excluded and the diagnosis of extragonadal hepatoid YST was established. A multimodal therapeutic approach (high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation, radiation and surgery) was applied; however, the patient succumbed to refractory disease 10 months after the diagnosis. Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment of hepatoid YST is an interdisciplinary challenge. PMID:28123734

  10. Effect of blue LED light intensity on carotenoid accumulation in citrus juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the effects of blue LED light intensity on carotenoid accumulation and expression of genes related to carotenoid biosynthesis were investigated in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) and Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) in vitro. The results showed that 100 μmol m(-2)s(-1) blue LED light (100B) was effective for increasing carotenoid content, especially β-cryptoxanthin, in Satsuma mandarin after cultured in vitro for four weeks. In Valencia orange, in contrast, 50 μmol m(-2)s(-1) blue LED light (50B) treatment was effective for inducing carotenoid accumulation through increasing the contents of two major carotenoids, all-trans-violaxanthin and 9-cis-violaxanthin. In addition, gene expression results showed that the simultaneous increases in the expression of genes (CitPSY, CitPDS, CitZDS, CitLCYb2, and CitHYb) involved in producing β,β-xanthophylls were well consistent with the accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin in Satsuma mandarin under 100B, and violaxanthin in Valencia orange under 50B. The results presented herein contribute to further elucidating the regulatory mechanism of carotenoid accumulation by blue LED light.

  11. Human embryonic hemopoiesis. Kinetics of progenitors and precursors underlying the yolk sac----liver transition.

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, G; Migliaccio, A R; Petti, S; Mavilio, F; Russo, G; Lazzaro, D; Testa, U; Marinucci, M; Peschle, C

    1986-01-01

    Human embryonic development involves transition from yolk sac (YS) to liver (L) hemopoiesis. We report the identification of pluripotent, erythroid, and granulo-macrophage progenitors in YS, L, and blood from human embryos. Furthermore, comprehensive studies are presented on the number of hemopoietic progenitors and precursors, as well as of other cell types, in YS, L, and blood at precisely sequential stages in embryos and early fetuses (i.e., at 4.5-8 wk and 9-10 wk postconception, respectively). Our results provide circumstantial support to a monoclonal hypothesis for human embryonic hemopoiesis, based on migration of stem and early progenitor cells from a generation site (YS) to a colonization site (L) via circulating blood. The YS----L transition is associated with development of the differentiation program in proliferating stem cells: their erythroid progeny shows, therefore, parallel switches of multiple parameters, e.g., morphology (megaloblasts----macrocytes) and globin expression (zeta----alpha, epsilon----gamma). Images PMID:3722384

  12. Relative investment in egg load and poison sac in fig wasps: Implications for physiological mechanisms underlying seed and wasp production in figs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinson, Ellen O.; Jandér, K. Charlotte; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Chen, Huan-Huan; Machado, Carlos A.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Herre, Edward Allen

    2014-05-01

    Fig pollinating wasps and most non-pollinator wasps apply secretions from their poison sacs into oviposited flowers that appear necessary to the formation of the galls that their developing offspring consume. Thus, both eggs and poison sac secretions appear to be essential for wasp reproduction, but the relative investment in each is unknown. We measured relative investment in poison sac and egg production in pollinating and non-pollinating wasps associated with seven species of monoecious Panamanian figs representing both active and passive pollination syndromes. We then collected similar data for four fig hosts in China, where some wasp species in the genus Eupristina have lost the ability to pollinate ("cheaters"). All wasps examined possessed large poison sacs, and we found a strong positive correlation between poison sac size and absolute egg production. In the Panamanian species, the relative poison sac to egg investment was highest in the externally ovipositing non-pollinator wasps, followed by active pollinators, then by passive pollinators. Further, pollinator wasps of fig species with demonstrated host sanctions against "cheating" wasps showed higher investment in the poison sac than wasps of species without sanctions. In the Chinese samples, relative investment in the poison sac was indistinguishable between pollinators and "cheaters" associated with the same fig species. We suggest that higher relative investment in poison sac across fig wasp species reflects higher relative difficulty in initiating formation of galls and subsequently obtaining resources from the fig. We discuss the implications for the stability of the fig-wasp mutualism, and for the ability of non-pollinators to exploit this mutualism.

  13. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS--USE OF RADIOGRAPHY AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF A MINERALIZED YOLK SAC IN A BROWN KIWI (APTERYX MANTELLI).

    PubMed

    Wightman, Paul; Cohen, Eli B; Hunter, Stuart; Gartrell, Brett

    2015-01-01

    A 12-day-old Brown Kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) was presented with anorexia, torticollis, head-tilt, and coelomic distension. Radiographs showed an ill-defined, fat-opaque, coelomic mass displacing viscera craniodorsally. Curvilinear mineral opacities were superimposed over the ventral aspect of the mass. Computed tomography demonstrated the presence of mineral within the periphery of a fat attenuating mass consistent with a retained yolk sac. A deutectomy (yolk sac excision) was performed. Histopathology of the excised tissue confirmed the diagnosis of a retained yolk sac with multifocal mineralization.

  14. Generalized optical code construction for enhanced and Modified Double Weight like codes without mapping for SAC-OCDMA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumawat, Soma; Ravi Kumar, M.

    2016-07-01

    Double Weight (DW) code family is one of the coding schemes proposed for Spectral Amplitude Coding-Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA) systems. Modified Double Weight (MDW) code for even weights and Enhanced Double Weight (EDW) code for odd weights are two algorithms extending the use of DW code for SAC-OCDMA systems. The above mentioned codes use mapping technique to provide codes for higher number of users. A new generalized algorithm to construct EDW and MDW like codes without mapping for any weight greater than 2 is proposed. A single code construction algorithm gives same length increment, Bit Error Rate (BER) calculation and other properties for all weights greater than 2. Algorithm first constructs a generalized basic matrix which is repeated in a different way to produce the codes for all users (different from mapping). The generalized code is analysed for BER using balanced detection and direct detection techniques.

  15. Percutaneous discal cyst rupture in a professional football player using sublaminar epidural injection for thecal sac displacement.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Michael V; Park, Andrew; Bumpass, David; Jennings, Jack W; Matava, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    A case of percutaneous discal cyst rupture in a 25-year-old professional American football player is reported. The patient presented with a 3-day history of severe left-sided back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a discal cyst effacing the left L4-L5 lateral recess, with interposed thecal sac. A sublaminar epidural injection was performed displacing the thecal sac, exposing the discal cyst, and allowing for percutaneous perforation. The patient had complete resolution of symptoms after discal cyst rupture and was able to compete in a professional football game 3 days later. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous rupture is a therapeutic modality that may be considered for treatment of a symptomatic discal cyst.

  16. Take time to smell the frogs: vocal sac glands of reed frogs (Anura: Hyperoliidae) contain species-specific chemical cocktails

    PubMed Central

    Starnberger, Iris; Poth, Dennis; Peram, Pardha Saradhi; Schulz, Stefan; Vences, Miguel; Knudsen, Jette; Barej, Michael F; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Walzl, Manfred; Hödl, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Males of all reed frog species (Anura: Hyperoliidae) have a prominent, often colourful, gular patch on their vocal sac, which is particularly conspicuous once the vocal sac is inflated. Although the presence, shape, and form of the gular patch are well-known diagnostic characters for these frogs, its function remains unknown. By integrating biochemical and histological methods, we found strong evidence that the gular patch is a gland producing volatile compounds, which might be emitted while calling. Volatile compounds were confirmed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in the gular glands in 11 species of the hyperoliid genera Afrixalus, Heterixalus, Hyperolius, and Phlyctimantis. Comparing the gular gland contents of 17 specimens of four sympatric Hyperolius species yielded a large variety of 65 compounds in species-specific combinations. We suggest that reed frogs might use a complex combination of at least acoustic and chemical signals in species recognition and mate choice. PMID:24277973

  17. Fairy Chemicals, 2-Azahypoxanthine and 2-Aza-8-oxohypoxanthine, Regulate Carotenoid Accumulation in Citrus Juice Sacs in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Ma, Gang; Zhang, Lancui; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Yahata, Masaki; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Kato, Masaya

    2015-08-19

    "Fairy chemicals", 2-azahypoxanthine (AHX) and 2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine (AOH), are two novel plant-growth regulating compounds isolated from a fairy ring forming fungus, Lepista sordida. In the present study, the effects of AHX and AOH on the accumulation of carotenoids and expression of genes related to carotenoid metabolism were investigated in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) in vitro. The results showed that AHX and AOH regulated carotenoid metabolism in the citrus juice sacs. Carotenoid accumulation was induced by AHX in the second week and by AOH in the fourth week. In the meanwhile, the modification of carotenoid accumulation by the AHX and AOH treatments was highly regulated at the transcriptional level. The results presented herein provide new information on the functions of AHX and AOH in plants and contribute to elucidating the mechanisms by which AHX and AOH stimulate plant growth.

  18. Tumeur du sac vitellin du testicule au stade IIIc métastatique : à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Zizi, Mohamed; Ziouziou, Imad; El Yacoubi, Souhail; Khmou, Mouna; Jahid, Ahmed; Mahassini, Najat; Karmouni, Tariq; El Khader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Iben Attya

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Les tumeurs du sac vitellin du testicule sont rares chez l’adulte. Ces tumeurs se caractérisent par un mauvais pronostic à un stade métastatique avancé. Cependant, nous rapportons, dans le présent article, le cas clinique d’un adulte de 32 ans qui présentait une tumeur du sac vitellin du testicule au stade IIIc métastatique. Ce patient a subi une orchidectomie haute, accompagnée de quatre cycles de chimiothérapie à base de bléomycine, d’étoposide et de cisplatine. Il a répondu complètement au traitement, moyennant un recul de deux ans. PMID:25295144

  19. Successful treatment of advanced stage yolk sac tumour of extragonadal origin: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Vilius, Rudaitis; Ugnius, Mickys; Justina, Katinaite; Justyna, Dulko

    2016-01-01

    Background. Yolk sac tumour diagnosis should be considered for young age patients admitted to the hospital with non-specific complaints of widespread disease. Correct diagnosis and carefully planned treatment is the key to a successful outcome. Methods and materials. We present a rare case of a widespread yolk sack tumour of a uterine broad ligament. Our team directed a special attention towards the patient’s young age, advanced disease, and fertility sparing strategy of treatment. Results and conclusions. Stage IV yolk sac tumours of extragonadal origin are rarely reported in the literature. Hence, diagnosis and treatment often pose a challenge for emergency care unit doctors, gynaecologists, and oncologists. However, it can be a potentially curable disease. Moreover, patients’ fertility can also be preserved. We believe that further analysis of similar cases is necessary to study outcomes and evaluate patients’ responses to a sequence of medical decisions taken for this specific case.

  20. Primary Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Localized to the Lacrimal Sac: A Case Presentation and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Brandom; Gabig, Theodore G.

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the lacrimal sac in a 50-year-old male. The incidence of primary ocular lymphoma is low and it is considered a rare disease. Moreover, reports of ocular DLBCL are uncommon and the disease remains poorly characterized. Our patient presented for management of osteomyelitis and was incidentally found to have a painless swelling and cyst around his right eye. A PET/CT scan revealed hypermetabolic activity within the lacrimal sac and a subsequent excisional biopsy of the mass yielded histopathology consistent with DLBCL. Consequently, the patient underwent treatment with R-CHOP therapy. The patient responded well to chemotherapy with a substantial shrinkage in tumor burden and the disease remained localized. Herein, we present a rare case of primary ocular lymphoma, highlight the importance of early diagnosis, and review current treatment modalities. PMID:27672460

  1. Primary Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Localized to the Lacrimal Sac: A Case Presentation and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Zarrabi, Kevin; Desai, Ved; Yim, Brandom; Gabig, Theodore G

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the lacrimal sac in a 50-year-old male. The incidence of primary ocular lymphoma is low and it is considered a rare disease. Moreover, reports of ocular DLBCL are uncommon and the disease remains poorly characterized. Our patient presented for management of osteomyelitis and was incidentally found to have a painless swelling and cyst around his right eye. A PET/CT scan revealed hypermetabolic activity within the lacrimal sac and a subsequent excisional biopsy of the mass yielded histopathology consistent with DLBCL. Consequently, the patient underwent treatment with R-CHOP therapy. The patient responded well to chemotherapy with a substantial shrinkage in tumor burden and the disease remained localized. Herein, we present a rare case of primary ocular lymphoma, highlight the importance of early diagnosis, and review current treatment modalities.

  2. Failure of fluid absorption in the endolymphatic sac initiates cochlear enlargement that leads to deafness in mice lacking pendrin expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung-Mi; Wangemann, Philine

    2010-11-17

    Mutations of SLC26A4 are among the most prevalent causes of hereditary deafness. Deafness in the corresponding mouse model, Slc26a4(-/-), results from an abnormally enlarged cochlear lumen. The goal of this study was to determine whether the cochlear enlargement originates with defective cochlear fluid transport or with a malfunction of fluid transport in the connected compartments, which are the vestibular labyrinth and the endolymphatic sac. Embryonic inner ears from Slc26a4(+/-) and Slc26a4(-/-) mice were examined by confocal microscopy ex vivo or after 2 days of organ culture. Culture allowed observations of intact, ligated or partially resected inner ears. Cochlear lumen formation was found to begin at the base of the cochlea between embryonic day (E) 13.5 and 14.5. Enlargement was immediately evident in Slc26a4(-/-) compared to Slc26a4(+/-) mice. In Slc26a4(+/-) and Slc26a4(-/-) mice, separation of the cochlea from the vestibular labyrinth by ligation at E14.5 resulted in a reduced cochlear lumen. Resection of the endolymphatic sacs at E14.5 led to an enlarged cochlear lumen in Slc26a4(+/-) mice but caused no further enlargement of the already enlarged cochlear lumen in Slc26a4(-/-) mice. Ligation or resection performed later, at E17.5, did not alter the cochlea lumen. In conclusion, the data suggest that cochlear lumen formation is initiated by fluid secretion in the vestibular labyrinth and temporarily controlled by fluid absorption in the endolymphatic sac. Failure of fluid absorption in the endolymphatic sac due to lack of Slc26a4 expression appears to initiate cochlear enlargement in mice, and possibly humans, lacking functional Slc26a4 expression.

  3. Local control of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate signaling in the Golgi apparatus by Vps74 and Sac1 phosphoinositide phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Christopher S.; Hung, Chia-Sui; Huoh, Yu-San; Mousley, Carl J.; Stefan, Christopher J.; Bankaitis, Vytas; Ferguson, Kathryn M.; Burd, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    In the Golgi apparatus, lipid homeostasis pathways are coordinated with the biogenesis of cargo transport vesicles by phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks) that produce phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P), a signaling molecule that is recognized by downstream effector proteins. Quantitative analysis of the intra-Golgi distribution of a PtdIns4P reporter protein confirms that PtdIns4P is enriched on the trans-Golgi cisterna, but surprisingly, Vps74 (the orthologue of human GOLPH3), a PI4K effector required to maintain residence of a subset of Golgi proteins, is distributed with the opposite polarity, being most abundant on cis and medial cisternae. Vps74 binds directly to the catalytic domain of Sac1 (KD = 3.8 μM), the major PtdIns4P phosphatase in the cell, and PtdIns4P is elevated on medial Golgi cisternae in cells lacking Vps74 or Sac1, suggesting that Vps74 is a sensor of PtdIns4P level on medial Golgi cisternae that directs Sac1-mediated dephosphosphorylation of this pool of PtdIns4P. Consistent with the established role of Sac1 in the regulation of sphingolipid biosynthesis, complex sphingolipid homeostasis is perturbed in vps74Δ cells. Mutant cells lacking complex sphingolipid biosynthetic enzymes fail to properly maintain residence of a medial Golgi enzyme, and cells lacking Vps74 depend critically on complex sphingolipid biosynthesis for growth. The results establish additive roles of Vps74-mediated and sphingolipid-dependent sorting of Golgi residents. PMID:22553352

  4. Archaeological Survey and Site Testing in Sloughing Easement Areas along the Sac River Downstream from Stockton Dam, Missouri.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (PL89-665) aa amended by Public Laws 94-422 and 96-515 and is authoriied tn funding under Public Law 86-523 as amended...Enhancement of the Cultural Envizonment,*’ dated 13 May 1971 and Section 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act. The project area consists of lands... Preservation Office (SHPO) is indicated in Figure 1. The study area is contained within the Sac River watershed, the Osage River principal drainage

  5. Yolk-sac larval development of the substrate-brooding cichlid Archocentrus nigrofasciatus in relation to temperature.

    PubMed

    Vlahos, Nikolaos; Vasilopoulos, Michael; Mente, Eleni; Hotos, George; Katselis, George; Vidalis, Kosmas

    2015-09-01

    In order to conserve and culture the cichlid fish Archocentrus nigrofasciatus, more information about its reproductive biology and its larval behavior and morphogenesis is necessary. Currently, temperatures ranging from 21 to 27 °C are used in ornamental aquaculture hatcheries. Lower temperatures are preferred to reduce the costs of water heating, and 23 °C is usually the selected temperature. However, there is limited information on culturing protocols for ornamental species and most of the information generated on this topic remains scarce. Thus, the present study examines the morphological development of Archocentrus nigrofasciatus during the yolk-sac period up to the age of 100 h post-hatching in relation to 2 temperature regimes used in ornamental aquaculture: a temperature of 27 °C (thermal optimum) and a decreased temperature of 23 °C (thermal tolerance). The results of this study suggest that the 27 °C temperature generates intense morphological changes in yolk-sac development in a shorter period. This has advantages as it reduces the time of yolk-sac larval development, and, thus, minimizes the transition phase to exogenous feeding and maximizes the efficiency at which yolk is converted into body tissues. The present paper provides necessary information to produce freshwater ornamental fish with better practices so as to increase larval survival and capitalize on time for growth.

  6. Parkinson Sac Domain Mutation in Synaptojanin 1 Impairs Clathrin Uncoating at Synapses and Triggers Dystrophic Changes in Dopaminergic Axons.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mian; Wu, Yumei; Ashrafi, Ghazaleh; McCartney, Amber J; Wheeler, Heather; Bushong, Eric A; Boassa, Daniela; Ellisman, Mark H; Ryan, Timothy A; De Camilli, Pietro

    2017-02-22

    Synaptojanin 1 (SJ1) is a major presynaptic phosphatase that couples synaptic vesicle endocytosis to the dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2, a reaction needed for the shedding of endocytic factors from their membranes. While the role of SJ1's 5-phosphatase module in this process is well recognized, the contribution of its Sac phosphatase domain, whose preferred substrate is PI4P, remains unclear. Recently a homozygous mutation in its Sac domain was identified in early-onset parkinsonism patients. We show that mice carrying this mutation developed neurological manifestations similar to those of human patients. Synapses of these mice displayed endocytic defects and a striking accumulation of clathrin-coated intermediates, strongly implicating Sac domain's activity in endocytic protein dynamics. Mutant brains had elevated auxilin (PARK19) and parkin (PARK2) levels. Moreover, dystrophic axonal terminal changes were selectively observed in dopaminergic axons in the dorsal striatum. These results strengthen evidence for a link between synaptic endocytic dysfunction and Parkinson's disease.

  7. Low-lying π∗ resonances associated with cyano groups: A CAP/SAC-CI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehara, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yuki; Sommerfeld, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The complex absorbing potential (CAP)/symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method is applied to low-lying π∗ resonance states of molecules containing one or two cyano (CN) groups. Benchmark calculations are carried out comparing the non-variational and approximate variational approach of SAC-CI and studying the selection threshold of operators. Experimental resonance positions from electron transmission spectroscopy (ETS) are reproduced provided the anticipated deviations due to vibronic effects are taken into account. Moreover, the calculated positions and widths agree well with those obtained in previous electron scattering calculations for HCN, CH3CN and their isonitriles. Based on our results, we suggest a reassignment of the experimental ETS of fumaronitrile and malononitrile. Our present results demonstrate again that the CAP/SAC-CI method reliably predicts low-lying π∗ resonances, and regarding the total numbers of molecules and resonances investigated, it is fair to say that it is presently the most extensively used high-level method in the temporary anion field.

  8. Advanced techniques in magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the large endolymphatic duct and sac syndrome.

    PubMed

    Harnsberger, H R; Dahlen, R T; Shelton, C; Gray, S D; Parkin, J L

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare temporal bone computed tomography (CT) to high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using a novel thin-section fast spin echo (FSE) pulse sequence in identifying and characterizing patients with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome. Sixteen patients with sensorineural hearing loss and a CT diagnosis of large vestibular aqueduct(s) underwent high-resolution fast spin echo magnetic resonance imaging with dual, 3-in phased array receiver coils centered over the external auditory canals. Magnetic resonance imaging parameters included axial and oblique sagittal fast spin echo with an effective slice thickness of 1 mm contiguous. Thirty-eight patients with 76 normal inner ears who underwent MR imaging using this technique had their endolymphatic duct measured. MR alone identified the enlarged endolymphatic sac seen along with the large endolymphatic duct in all cases. Three cases (five inner ears) with enlarged bony vestibular aqueducts on CT showed no evidence of endolymphatic duct or sac enlargement on MR. MR alone identified a single case of mild cochlear anomaly in conjunction with an enlarged endolymphatic duct and sac. In the normal population the size of the normal endolymphatic duct at its midpoint measured from 0.1 to 1.4 mm. Thin-section, high-resolution fast spin echo MR imaging of the inner ear may be superior to CT in the evaluation of patients with the large vestibular aqueduct syndrome.

  9. Air Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  10. Ion transport its regulation in the endolymphatic sac: suggestions for clinical aspects of Meniere's disease.

    PubMed

    Mori, Nozomu; Miyashita, Takenori; Inamoto, Ryuhei; Matsubara, Ai; Mori, Terushige; Akiyama, Kosuke; Hoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    Ion transport and its regulation in the endolymphatic sac (ES) are reviewed on the basis of recent lines of evidence. The morphological and physiological findings demonstrate that epithelial cells in the intermediate portion of the ES are more functional in ion transport than those in the other portions. Several ion channels, ion transporters, ion exchangers, and so on have been reported to be present in epithelial cells of ES intermediate portion. An imaging study has shown that mitochondria-rich cells in the ES intermediate portion have a higher activity of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and a higher Na(+) permeability than other type of cells, implying that molecules related to Na(+) transport, such as epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter 2 (NKCC2) and thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), may be present in mitochondria-rich cells. Accumulated lines of evidence suggests that Na(+) transport is most important in the ES, and that mitochondria-rich cells play crucial roles in Na(+) transport in the ES. Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that aldosterone may regulate Na(+) transport in ES, resulting in endolymph volume regulation. The presence of molecules related to acid/base transport, such as H(+)-ATPase, Na(+)-H(+) exchanger (NHE), pendrin (SLC26A4), Cl(-)-HCO3(-) exchanger (SLC4A2), and carbonic anhydrase in ES epithelial cells, suggests that acid/base transport is another important one in the ES. Recent basic and clinical studies suggest that aldosterone may be involved in the effect of salt-reduced diet treatment in Meniere's disease.

  11. Automatic segmentation and measurements of gestational sac using static B-mode ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Dheyaa Ahmed; Al-Assam, Hisham; Du, Hongbo; Farren, Jessica; Al-karawi, Dhurgham; Bourne, Tom; Jassim, Sabah

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasound imagery has been widely used for medical diagnoses. Ultrasound scanning is safe and non-invasive, and hence used throughout pregnancy for monitoring growth. In the first trimester, an important measurement is that of the Gestation Sac (GS). The task of measuring the GS size from an ultrasound image is done manually by a Gynecologist. This paper presents a new approach to automatically segment a GS from a static B-mode image by exploiting its geometric features for early identification of miscarriage cases. To accurately locate the GS in the image, the proposed solution uses wavelet transform to suppress the speckle noise by eliminating the high-frequency sub-bands and prepare an enhanced image. This is followed by a segmentation step that isolates the GS through the several stages. First, the mean value is used as a threshold to binarise the image, followed by filtering unwanted objects based on their circularity, size and mean of greyscale. The mean value of each object is then used to further select candidate objects. A Region Growing technique is applied as a post-processing to finally identify the GS. We evaluated the effectiveness of the proposed solution by firstly comparing the automatic size measurements of the segmented GS against the manual measurements, and then integrating the proposed segmentation solution into a classification framework for identifying miscarriage cases and pregnancy of unknown viability (PUV). Both test results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in segmentation the GS and classifying the outcomes with high level accuracy (sensitivity (miscarriage) of 100% and specificity (PUV) of 99.87%).

  12. Basement membrane procollagen is not converted to collagen in organ cultures of parietal yolk sac endoderm.

    PubMed

    Minor, R R; Clark, C C; Strause, E L; Koszalka, T R; Brent, R L; Kefalides, N A

    1976-03-25

    Basement membrane procollagen biosynthesis was studied in organ cultures of embryonic rat parietal yolk sac endoderm by following [14C]proline incorporation into nondialyzable proteins. After reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol the 14C-proteins synthesized were characterized by agarose gel filtration and disc electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The labeled procollagen was identified by its content of hydroxy[14C]proline, its sensitivity to digestion with bacterial collagenase, and its resistance to digestion with pepsin. In cultures which were continuously labeled for periods from 6 hours to 4 days, the pro-alpha chains consistently eluted as a single peak with an apparent molecular weight of 160,000. After pepsin digestion the resultant alpha chains had an apparent molecular weight between 125,000 and 140,000. This suggests that basement membrane procollagen either contains non-triple helical pepsin-resistant regions or a triple helical region which is larger than the corresponding region of interstitial procollagen. Two experiments were performed to determine whether the chains of newly synthesized basement membrane procollagen were cleaved to a smaller molecular species. In the first, the hydroxylation and secretion of procollagen were blocked with alpha, alpha'-dipyridyl, and the resulting intracellular chains of basement membrane protocollagen were found to co-elute with fully hydroxylated and secreted pro-alpha chains. In the second, cultures were labeled for 1 day and chased for 3 days with unlabeled medium. Autoradiography had shown that most of the label was chased into new basement membrane. Agarose chromotography showed that after 3-day chase the pro-alpha chains still eluted with an apparent molecular weight of 160,000. Thus, the data indicated that basement membrane procollagen was deposited in new basement membrane without undergoing a time-dependent extracellular conversion.

  13. Maternal offloading of organochlorine contaminants in the yolk-sac placental scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini).

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kady; Adams, Douglas H

    2015-04-01

    Elasmobranchs are a group of animals that typically occupy upper trophic levels in food webs and have a propensity to accumulate high contaminant concentrations. To date, few studies have investigated maternal offloading processes in sharks, despite the fact that this process represents a substantial source of exposure for young sharks and is a significant pathway for contaminant redistribution within marine ecosystems. Comparable to mammalian systems, scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) utilize a yolk-sac placental strategy to nourish young in utero, which may allow females to transfer contaminants to young. Organic contaminants (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides) were measured in livers of both females and males from several age classes that were collected from U.S. Atlantic waters, including two near-term pregnant females and their embryos. Adult female hammerheads (n = 3) were found to have lower levels of PCBs compared to the younger, adult male (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 1.0 vs. 22.8 μg g(-1) lw), but had substantially higher concentrations of pesticides (4.1 ± 0.9 vs. 1.9 μg g(-1) lw). Embryos from the two litters (n = 36) had similar levels of summed organic contaminant concentrations (4.6 ± 0.9 μg g(-1) lw) and pregnant females were estimated to offload approximately 0.03-2.3% of their hepatic contaminant load to offspring. While the potential health impacts of these transferred contaminants is unknown, this is the first study to demonstrate that scalloped hammerheads are exposed to a substantial amount of contaminants prior to birth and document maternal offloading of organochlorines in a pseudo-placental shark species. Therefore, future research should continue to investigate the potential adverse effects these contaminants have on elasmobranch physiology.

  14. Percutaneous Treatment of an Infected Aneurysmal Sac Secondary to Aortoesophageal Fistula with a History of Stent-Graft Treatment for Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Numan, Furuzan Gulsen, Fatih; Cantasdemir, Murat; Solak, Serdar; Arbatli, Harun

    2012-06-15

    A 68-year-old man who was subjected to stent-grafting of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) 4 months previously was admitted to our hospital with constitutional symptoms, including high fever, sweating, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and backache. An infected aneurysmal sac was suspected based on computed tomography (CT) findings, and an aortoesophageal fistula (AEF) was identified during esophagoscopy. CT-guided aspiration was performed using a 20-G Chiba needle, confirming the presence of infection. For treatment of the infected aneurysmal sac, CT-guided percutaneous catheter drainage in a prone position was performed under general anesthesia with left endobronchial intubation. Drainage catheter insertion was successfully performed using the Seldinger technique, which is not a standard treatment of an infected aneurysmal sac. Improvement in the patient's clinical condition was observed at follow-ups, and CT showed total regression of the collection in the aneurysmal sac.

  15. SacRALF1, a peptide signal from the grass sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), is potentially involved in the regulation of tissue expansion.

    PubMed

    Mingossi, Fabiana B; Matos, Juliana L; Rizzato, Ana Paula; Medeiros, Ane H; Falco, Maria C; Silva-Filho, Marcio C; Moura, Daniel S

    2010-06-01

    Rapid alkalinization factor (RALF) is part of a growing family of small peptides with hormone characteristics in plants. Initially isolated from leaves of tobacco plants, RALF peptides can be found throughout the plant kingdom and they are expressed ubiquitously in plants. We took advantage of the small gene family size of RALF genes in sugarcane and the ordered cellular growth of the grass sugarcane leaves to gain information about the function of RALF peptides in plants. Here we report the isolation of two RALF peptides from leaves of sugarcane plants using the alkalinization assay. SacRALF1 was the most abundant and, when added to culture media, inhibited growth of microcalli derived from cell suspension cultures at concentrations as low as 0.1 microM. Microcalli exposed to exogenous SacRALF1 for 5 days showed a reduced number of elongated cells. Only four copies of SacRALF genes were found in sugarcane plants. All four SacRALF genes are highly expressed in young and expanding leaves and show a low or undetectable level of expression in expanded leaves. In half-emerged leaf blades, SacRALF transcripts were found at high levels at the basal portion of the leaf and at low levels at the apical portion. Gene expression analyzes localize SacRALF genes in elongation zones of roots and leaves. Mature leaves, which are devoid of expanding cells, do not show considerable expression of SacRALF genes. Our findings are consistent with SacRALF genes playing a role in plant development potentially regulating tissue expansion.

  16. Primary Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of the Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue of the Lacrimal Sac Found with Epiphora: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kitaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Mupas-Uy, Jacqueline; Takahashi, Emiko; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a primary marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue of the lacrimal sac, which was found in a patient with epiphora without palpable mass. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated mucosal thickening of the lacrimal sac with a patent lumen, consistent with the intraoperative finding. Epiphora resolved, which was confirmed by smooth syringing, 1 month after starting the immunotherapy. PMID:27790131

  17. Integrated Antenna/Solar Array Cell (IA/SAC) System for Flexible Access Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ricard Q.; Clark, Eric B.; Pal, Anna Maria T.; Wilt, David M.; Mueller, Carl H.

    2004-01-01

    Present satellite communications systems normally use separate solar cells and antennas. Since solar cells generally account for the largest surface area of the spacecraft, co-locating the antenna and solar cells on the same substrate opens the possibility for a number of data-rate-enhancing communications link architecture that would have minimal impact on spacecraft weight and size. The idea of integrating printed planar antenna and solar array cells on the same surface has been reported in the literature. The early work merely attempted to demonstrate the feasibility by placing commercial solar cells besides a patch antenna. Recently, Integrating multiple antenna elements and solar cell arrays on the same surface was reported for both space and terrestrial applications. The application of photovoltaic solar cell in a planar antenna structure where the radiating patch antenna is replaced by a Si solar cell has been demonstrated in wireless communication systems (C. Bendel, J. Kirchhof and N. Henze, 3rd Would Photovotaic Congress, Osaka, Japan, May 2003). Based on a hybrid approach, a 6x1 slot array with circularly polarized crossdipole elements co-located on the same surface of the solar cells array has been demonstrated (S. Vaccaro, J. R. Mosig and P. de Maagt, IEEE Trans. Ant. and Propag., Vol. 5 1, No. 8, Aug. 2003). Amorphous silicon solar cells with about 5-10% efficiency were used in these demonstrations. This paper describes recent effort to integrate advanced solar cells with printed planar antennas. Compared to prior art, the proposed WSAC concept is unique in the following ways: 1) Active antenna element will be used to achieve dynamic beam steering; 2) High efficiency (30%) GaAs multi-junction solar cells will be used instead of Si, which has an efficiency of about 15%; 3) Antenna and solar cells are integrated on a common GaAs substrate; and 4) Higher data rate capability. The IA/SAC is designed to operate at X-band (8-12 GH) and higher frequencies

  18. Development of the endolymphatic sac and duct in the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, W.; Wiederhold, M. L.; Harrison, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    The development and maturation of the endolymphatic sac (ES) and duct (ED) were studied in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster. The ES first appears as an oval capsule at the dorsal-medial tip of the otic vesicle at stage 39, about 11 days after oviposition. The ES consists of polymorphous epithelial cells with a minimum of cytoplasm. The intercellular space (IS) between the epithelial cells is narrow and has a smooth surface. At stage 44, the size of the ES increases as many vacuoles in the IS become filled. At stage 46, 18 days after oviposition, the ES elongates markedly and a slit-like lumen is found in the ES. The epithelium contains a few cell organelles which are scattered in the cytoplasm. The vacuoles in the IS are fused, which expands the IS. Two days later (stage 48), floccular material (endolymph) is present in the expanded lumen. The IS dilates and has a wide and irregular appearance. At stage 50, approximately 26 days after oviposition, the ES extends and expands significantly and crystals (otoconia) can now be seen in the widened lumen of the ES. The cytoplasm of the cuboidal epithelial cells contains an abundance of vesicles surrounded by ribosomes and Golgi complexes. Intercellular digitations are formed in the expanded IS. At stage 54, the ES forms a large bellow-like pouch. Numerous otoconia accumulate in the lumen. Free floating cells and cell debris can be seen in the lumen at this stage. The epithelial cells contain numerous cytoplasmic organelles which are evenly distributed in the cytoplasm. Granules are found in the apical and lateral cytoplasm. The IS is loose and displays a labyrinthine appearance. The primitive ED first appears as a connection between the ES and the saccule but no lumen is present inside at stage 39. At stage 46, a narrow lumen is formed in the ED, which corresponds to the formation of the ES lumen. At stage 50, as the ED extends, floccular material is seen in the lumen. At stage 54, the ED bears numerous microvilli on its

  19. Changes in yolk sac membrane absorptive area and fat digestion during chick embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Yadgary, L; Kedar, O; Adepeju, O; Uni, Z

    2013-06-01

    The capacity of yolk sac (YS) utilization by the chick embryo may be affected by structural changes in the YS membrane (YSM) and by the mechanisms within its cells for digestion, absorption, and transfer of nutrients. Two experiments were conducted to examine structural and digestive changes in the YS of the broiler chick embryo; weights of embryo, YS, and YSM, as well as the total area of the YSM and the absorptive area of the YSM, were measured between embryonic day (E) 5 and E21. In addition, fat content, lipase activity, and bile acid concentration in the YSM and YS contents (YSC) were measured between E11 and E21. Results showed that YSM weight increased from 0.19 g on E5 to 6.46 g on E15, and decreased by 3.74 g between E17 and E21. The absorptive YSM area increased from 536 mm² on E5 (51% of total YSM area) to 6,370 mm² (86% of total area) on E17, and decreased to 4,439 mm(2) on E21 (85% of total area). The smaller YSM area between E17 and E21 did not decrease the rate of YS fat utilization, which could suggest that YSM mechanisms for fat absorption, digestion, and secretion increased during that period. Total YSM lipase activity relative to fat content (units per g of YSM fat) increased from approximately 1,000 units on E15 to 1,500 units on E21. The detection of lipase in the YSM lends support to the hypothesis that YS lipids are hydrolyzed in the lipolysosomes of the YSM. The current study also confirmed for the first time that bile acids are present in the YS, with levels that ranged from 0.61 to 1.06 µmol/g in the YSM, and may suggest that bile is synthesized in the YSM of the chick embryo. Results of the current study contribute to our understanding of the developmental changes that affect YS functionality and could give insight into the coordination between the embryo's demands and YSM morphological, absorptive, digestive, and secretive changes.

  20. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  1. Evidence of the Most Stretchable Egg Sac Silk Stalk, of the European Spider of the Year Meta menardi

    PubMed Central

    Lepore, Emiliano; Marchioro, Andrea; Isaia, Marco; Buehler, Markus J.; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2012-01-01

    Spider silks display generally strong mechanical properties, even if differences between species and within the same species can be observed. While many different types of silks have been tested, the mechanical properties of stalks of silk taken from the egg sac of the cave spider Meta menardi have not yet been analyzed. Meta menardi has recently been chosen as the “European spider of the year 2012”, from the European Society of Arachnology. Here we report a study where silk stalks were collected directly from several caves in the north-west of Italy. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images showed that stalks are made up of a large number of threads, each of them with diameter of 6.03±0.58 µm. The stalks were strained at the constant rate of 2 mm/min, using a tensile testing machine. The observed maximum stress, strain and toughness modulus, defined as the area under the stress-strain curve, are 0.64 GPa, 751% and 130.7 MJ/m3, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, such an observed huge elongation has never been reported for egg sac silk stalks and suggests a huge unrolling microscopic mechanism of the macroscopic stalk that, as a continuation of the protective egg sac, is expected to be composed by fibres very densely and randomly packed. The Weibull statistics was used to analyze the results from mechanical testing, and an average value of Weibull modulus (m) is deduced to be in the range of 1.5–1.8 with a Weibull scale parameter (σ0) in the range of 0.33–0.41 GPa, showing a high coefficient of correlation (R2 = 0.97). PMID:22347380

  2. Progress in Measuring the Earth's Total Field Variation 2001-2003 using the Scalar Helium Magnetometer on SAC-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, C. A.; Kulikov, I. K.; Jewell, J. B.; Purucker, M. E.; Smith, E. J.

    2004-05-01

    A Scalar Helium Magnetometer (SHM) built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was included as part of the Danish Magnetic Mapping Payload on the Argentine/NASA Satellite Applicaciones Cientificas-C (SAC-C) which launched in November, 2000. The SHM on SAC-C comprises two orthogonal sensors (gas cells) mounted at the end of an 8-meter boom. The SHM data must be corrected for biases termed "light shifts" that are an inherent characteristic of optically-pumped devices. Properly calibrated, the SHM is expected to achieve accuracy on the order of 1 nanotesla. The real light shift is a constant that adds to the measured magnitude, whereas the virtual light shift has a cosine dependency on the angle between the field direction and the sensor optical axis. There are also small offsets in the X, Y, and Z axes that are intrinsic to the sensors and also have a cosine dependency on field direction. SHM data processed using the correction parameters obtained in a pre-flight calibration produce poor agreeement with field models and near-coincident passes of Orsted and CHAMP; however, the uncalibrated data generally agree well. We have analyzed a selected SAC-C quiet day data set ( Kp < 2) spanning 2001-2003 to determine the optimal values of the instrument biases. An inversion was performed to derive the optimal correction parameters and to solve for the off-nominal, and poorly determined boom orientation about the Z-axis. The inversion minimized the fit to the Comprehensive Magnetic Field Model - 3 (CM3) predicted field, coincident passes of Orsted and CHAMP when available, as well as internal crossovers of SHM tracks that were temporally proximal. The CM3 model was also used to provide the field direction relative to the SHM sensors for the corrections. The methods will be discussed, along with the resulting total field maps and their errors.

  3. Ultrastructure of the cirrus sac of echinophallid tapeworms (Cestoda, Bothriocephalidea) and the terminology of cirrus hard structures.

    PubMed

    Poddubnaya, L; Mackiewicz, J S

    2009-02-01

    Transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscope methods were used to study the fine structure of the cirrus, cirrus sac, internal seminal vesicle, ejaculatory duct, prostate glands and cirrus armature of Echinophallus wageneri (Monticelli, 1890) and Paraechinophallus japonicus (Yamaguti, 1934) (Bothriocephallidea: Echinophallidae). The cirrus sac of these species has two unique ultrastructural features: a thick wall with two bands of muscles and prominent, rooted hard structures. Rare traits echinophallids share with diphyllobothriideans are microtriches on the ejaculatory duct and with spathebothriideans, well-developed unicellular prostate glands outside the cirrus sac. Because there is a similarity of cirrus armature and rostellar hooks in having a tegumental localisation and in having a heterogenous structure of the blade and root, a cortex, a central pulp region and a recurved apex, these structures are named "modified hooks" instead of spines. They also have a spiral arrangement; no base plate was observed. True spines, as found in trematodes, are between the surface and basal plasma membrane of the external syncytial layer of the tegument, rest on the basal plasma membrane of the distal epithelial cytoplasm, show a homogeneous electron-dark crystalline appearance and are covered by the surface plasma membrane. Aside from the characteristic hooks on the scolex of various cestodes, we see no evidence that would preclude the development of still other specialised structures, such as these modified hooks, from microtriches. In spite of the absence of studies on the development of modified hooks from the cirrus of echinophallids and/or its consideration as derived from microtriches, we assume that like microtriches, formation of modified hooks is from tegumental bodies and therefore they are derivative structures of the cestode tegument.

  4. Regulation of carotenoid accumulation and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in citrus juice sacs in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Kato, Masaya; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Takagi, Toshihiko; Kiriiwa, Yoshikazu; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Nesumi, Hirohisa

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, to investigate the mechanisms regulating carotenoid accumulation in citrus, a culture system was set up in vitro with juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), and Lisbon lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.). The juice sacs of all the three varieties enlarged gradually with carotenoid accumulation. The changing patterns of carotenoid content and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in juice sacs in vitro were similar to those ripening on trees in the three varieties. Using this system, the changes in the carotenoid content and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in response to environmental stimuli were investigated. The results showed that carotenoid accumulation was induced by blue light treatment, but was not affected by red light treatment in the three varieties. Different regulation of CitPSY expression, which was up-regulated by blue light while unaffected by red light, led to different changes in carotenoid content in response to these two treatments in Satsuma mandarin and Valencia orange. In all three varieties, increases in carotenoid content were observed with sucrose and mannitol treatments. However, the accumulation of carotenoid in the two treatments was regulated by distinct mechanisms at the transcriptional level. With abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, the expression of the genes investigated in this study was up-regulated in Satsuma mandarin and Lisbon lemon, indicating that ABA induced its own biosynthesis at the transcriptional level. This feedback regulation of ABA led to decreases in carotenoid content. With gibberellin (GA) treatment, carotenoid content was significantly decreased in the three varieties. Changes in the expression of genes related to carotenoid metabolism varied among the three varieties in response to GA treatment. These results provided insights into improving carotenoid content and composition in citrus during fruit

  5. Pre-labor silent rupture of unscarred uterus at 32 weeks with intact amniotic sac extrusion: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Manju

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Spontaneous rupture of uterus in unscarred uterus prior to onset of labor in third trimester is extremely rare and to our knowledge, very few cases have been reported so far. Case presentation A 26-year-old third gravida women with 32 weeks pregnancy presented with pre-labor rupture uterus with extrusion of intact amniotic sac from the rent in uterine fundus. Conclusion Rupture uterus can present in third trimester even before labor and should be kept in differential diagnosis of pregnancy with abdominal pain of any degree with fetal demise. PMID:19829907

  6. Redox activity of melanin from the ink sac of Sepia officinalis by means of colorimetric oxidative assay.

    PubMed

    Srisuk, Pathomthat; Correlo, Vitor M; Leonor, Isabel B; Palladino, Pasquale; Reis, Rui L

    2016-01-01

    The redox properties of natural extract from cuttlefish ink sac (Sepia officinalis) and synthetic melanin used as a biomimetic in melanin structural investigation were determined by comparison of this phenol-based heterogeneous pigment with gallic acid used as a standard in Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay widely employed for characterisation of oxidative properties of biomaterials. Reactivity of sepia melanin reported here is much higher than previously indicated and this protocol should allow the redox characterisation of all melanins irrespective of their origin and composition.

  7. SAC3B, a central component of the mRNA export complex TREX-2, is required for prevention of epigenetic gene silencing in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu; La, Honggui; Tang, Kai; Miki, Daisuke; Yang, Lan; Wang, Bangshing; Duan, Cheng-Guo; Nie, Wenfeng; Wang, Xingang; Wang, Siwen; Pan, Yufeng; Tran, Elizabeth J.; An, Lizhe; Zhang, Huiming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation is important for organismal development and response to the environment. Alteration in epigenetic status has been known mostly from the perspective of enzymatic actions of DNA methylation and/or histone modifications. In a genetic screen for cellular factors involved in preventing epigenetic silencing, we isolated an Arabidopsis mutant defective in SAC3B, a component of the conserved TREX-2 complex that couples mRNA transcription with nuleo-cytoplasmic export. Arabidopsis SAC3B dysfunction causes gene silencing at transgenic and endogenous loci, accompanied by elevation in the repressive histone mark H3K9me2 and by reduction in RNA polymerase Pol II occupancy. SAC3B dysfunction does not alter promoter DNA methylation level of the transgene d35S::LUC, although the DNA demethylase ROS1 is also required for d35S::LUC anti-silencing. THP1 and NUA were identified as SAC3B-associated proteins whose mutations also caused d35S::LUC silencing. RNA-DNA hybrid exists at the repressed loci but is unrelated to gene suppression by the sac3b mutation. Genome-wide analyses demonstrated minor but clear involvement of SAC3B in regulating siRNAs and DNA methylation, particularly at a group of TAS and TAS-like loci. Together our results revealed not only a critical role of mRNA-export factors in transcriptional anti-silencing but also the contribution of SAC3B in shaping plant epigenetic landscapes. PMID:27672037

  8. The indeterminate gametophyte1 Gene of Maize Encodes a LOB Domain Protein Required for Embryo Sac and Leaf Development[W

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Matthew M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Angiosperm embryo sac development begins with a phase of free nuclear division followed by cellularization and differentiation of cell types. The indeterminate gametophyte1 (ig1) gene of maize (Zea mays) restricts the proliferative phase of female gametophyte development. ig1 mutant female gametophytes have a prolonged phase of free nuclear divisions leading to a variety of embryo sac abnormalities, including extra egg cells, extra polar nuclei, and extra synergids. Positional cloning of ig1 was performed based on the genome sequence of the orthologous region in rice. ig1 encodes a LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES domain protein with high similarity to ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 of Arabidopsis thaliana. A second mutant allele of ig1 was identified in a noncomplementation screen using active Mutator transposable element lines. Homozygous ig1 mutants have abnormal leaf morphology as well as abnormal embryo sac development. Affected leaves have disrupted abaxial–adaxial polarity and fail to repress the expression of meristem-specific knotted-like homeobox (knox) genes in leaf primordia, causing a proliferative, stem cell identity to persist in these cells. Despite the superficial similarity of ig1-O leaves and embryo sacs, ectopic knox gene expression cannot be detected in ig1-O embryo sacs. PMID:17209126

  9. Highly expressed EGFR in pearl sac may facilitate the pearl formation in the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenjie; Fan, Sigang; Huang, Guiju; Zhang, Dongling; Liu, Baosuo; Bi, Xiaomin; Yu, Dahui

    2015-07-25

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and migration. Yet whether it functions in pearl formation or not is not reported. In this study, EGFR was cloned from the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata (named as Pf-EGFR) and its expression profiles were investigated. The cDNA was 2156bp long with an ORF of 1017bp encoding 338 amino acid residues. The deduced polypeptide contained an L domain and a cysteine-rich domain, consistent with the characteristics of ErbB family. The sequence of Pf-EGFR shared 22.78-56.71% identity with other EGFRs. The genomic sequence of Pf-EGFR consisted of six exons and five introns, being 5190bp in total length, and expressed in all the tested tissues with a higher expression level in the pearl sac (P<0.05). In situ hybridization showed that Pf-EGFR was specifically expressed on both the inner side of the outer fold and the outer side of the inner fold of the mantle, as well as on the whole pearl sac including the connective tissues. In addition, Pf-EGFR was markedly increased at larval metamorphosis, significantly higher than other development periods (P<0.05). These results indicated that the Pf-EGFR may facilitate pearl formation as well as larval metamorphosis.

  10. Even an old technique is suitable in the molecular world of science: the everted sac preparation turns 60 years old.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kirk L

    2014-04-15

    An old proverb states "necessity is the mother of invention." This certainly holds true in science as one pursues research questions. Experimental techniques have evolved as scientists have asked more specific research questions. Indeed, techniques such as the Ussing chamber, the perfused renal tubule preparation, patch-clamp, polymerase chain reaction, and site-directed mutagenesis have been developed over the past 60 years. However, sometimes, simple techniques may be useful and still very informative, and this certainly applies to intestinal physiology. Indeed, Gerald Wiseman and Thomas Hastings Wilson described the intestinal everted sac preparation some 60 years ago. Since then, this technique has been used for numerous research purposes including determining ion, amino acid, water and solute transport across the intestinal epithelium; and drug metabolism, absorption, and interactions in pharmaceutical/pharmacological research and even in education. This article provides a historical review of the development of the in vitro intestinal preparation that led to the everted sac preparation and its use in science.

  11. An anomalous portal vein crossing the lesser sac and ending at the upper part of ductus venosus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hee Chul; Murakami, Gen; Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Francisco; Cho, Baik Hwan

    2015-01-01

    In serial sagittal sections of a fetus on week 9 (crown-rump length, 36 mm), we incidentally found absence of the usual portal vein through the hepatoduodenal ligament. Instead, an anomalous portal vein originated behind the pancreatic body, crossed the lesser sac and merged with the upper part of the ductus venosus. During the course across the lesser sac, the vein provided a deep notch of the liver caudate lobe (Spiegel's lobe). The hepatoduodenal ligament contained the hepatic artery, the common bile duct and, at the right posterior margin of the ligament, and a branch of the anomalous portal vein which communicated with the usual right branch of the portal vein at the hepatic hilum. The umbilical portion of the portal vein took a usual morphology and received the umbilical vein and gave off the ductus venosus. Although it seemed not to be described yet, the present anomalous portal vein was likely to be a persistent left vitelline vein. The hepatoduodenal ligament was unlikely to include the left vitelline vein in contrast to the usual concept. PMID:26417483

  12. Endolymphatic sac enlargement in a girl with a novel mutation for distal renal tubular acidosis and severe deafness.

    PubMed

    Nikki, Rink; Martin, Bitzan; Gus, O'Gorman; Mato, Nagel; Elena, Torban; Paul, Goodyer

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is caused by mutations of genes encoding subunits of the H(+)-ATPase (ATP6V0A4 and ATP6V1B1) expressed in α-intercalated cells of the distal renal tubule and in the cochlea. We report on a 2-year-old girl with distal RTA and profound speech delay which was initially misdiagnosed as autism. Genetic analysis showed compound heterozygous mutations with one known and one novel mutation of the ATP6V1B1 gene; cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral enlargement of the endolymphatic sacs of the inner ear. With improved cooperation, audiometric testing showed that hearing loss was most profound on the right, where endolymphatic sac enlargement was greatest, demonstrating a clear link between the degree of deafness and the degree of inner ear abnormality. This case indicates the value of MRI for diagnosis of inner ear involvement in very young children with distal RTA. Although citrate therapy quickly corrects the acidosis and restores growth, early diagnosis of deafness is crucial so that hearing aids can be used to assist acquisition of speech and to provide enough auditory nerve stimulation to assure the affected infants remain candidates for cochlear implantation.

  13. Assay and properties of rat yolk sac 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ 1. cap alpha. -hydroxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, S.K.; Phelps, M.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1986-11-04

    An in vitro assay has been developed for the rat yolk sac 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ 1..cap alpha..-hydroxylase (1..cap alpha..-hydroxylase). The subcellular location and some properties of the enzyme are described. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ produced from incubations of yolk sac homogenates was extracted, purified by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and straight- and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and measured by a competitive binding assay using chick intestinal receptor. The reaction is linear with time for up to 45 min at a substrate concentration of 80 ..mu..M and 4-6 mg/mL microsomal protein. The enzyme, located in the microsomes, requires molecular oxygen and NADPH. Metyrapone (1 x 10/sup -3/ M) was found to inhibit 1-hydroxylation, but a 90% carbon monoxide-10% oxygen atmosphere did not, leaving open the question of involvement of cytochrome P-450. Diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine, a lipid peroxidase inhibitor, inhibited 1..cap alpha..-hydroxylation.

  14. Aneurysm Sac Pressure Measurement with Minimally Invasive Implantable Pressure Sensors: An Alternative to Current Surveillance Regimes after EVAR?

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, Fabian Guenther, Rolf W.; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas

    2008-05-15

    Current protocols for surveillance after endovascular repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms are mostly based on costly and time-consuming imaging procedures and aim to detect adverse events such as graft migration, endoleaks or aneurysm sac enlargement. These imaging procedures are either associated with radiation exposure to the patients or may be harmful to the patient due to the use of iodine- or gadolinium-containing contrast agents. Furthermore the advantages of EVAR in the short term might be negated by the necessity for endograft surveillance over years. Thus, alternative modalities for follow-up are being investigated. One of these technologies provides pressure information directly from the aneurysm sac. This noninvasive, telemetric pressure sensing was tested in vitro as well as in first clinical trials and was able to identify successful aneurysm exclusion after EVAR. The telemetric pressure sensors showed a promising efficacy and accuracy in detecting type I and type III endoleaks and will help to clarify the clinical relevance of type II endoleaks. This article provides an overview of the in vitro sensors investigated as well as the first clinical trials and the sensors' potential to change the current endograft surveillance regimes.

  15. Toxicity of parathion on embryo and yolk-sac larvae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata l.): effects on survival, cholinesterase, and carboxylesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Arufe, M Isabel; Arellano, Juana M; Albendín, Gemma; Sarasquete, Carmen

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the acute toxicity of the organophosphorus pesticide (OP) parathion on embryos and yolk-sac larvae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), and to investigate the effects of this compound on cholinesterase and carboxylesterase activity of seabream larvae in the phase of endogenous feeding. The 72-h LC50 for yolk-sac larvae (0.523 mg L⁻¹) was about two-fold lower than the 48-h LC50 for embryos (1.005 mg L⁻¹). Parathion significantly inhibited the activity of ChE and CaE activity in yolk sac larvae but there were not significant differences in the sensitivity of both esterases to parathion as inferred by their 72-h IC50 values. Larvae exposed to parathion for 72 h showed a 70% inhibition of the whole body acetylcholinesterase at approximately the LC50.

  16. The Effects of Oscillator Stability on High-frequency GPS Phase Measurements:A Comparison of the First Atmospheric Sounding Data from GRACE with SAC-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehan, T.; Ao, C.; Hajj, G.; Iijima, B.

    2003-04-01

    Collection of atmospheric occultation data from identical instruments on CHAMP and SAC-C has been ongoing for nearly 2 full years. Atmospheric occultation data from both instruments show significant high-frequency phase signatures that do not cancel with the traditional single-difference technique. These signatures are due to a flaw in the design of the simple crystal-oscillator reference built in to the occultation instrument. Whether these phase errors cause significant upper-atmospheric measuring errors is unclear. The launch of the twin GRACE spacecraft in 2002 placed in orbit a nearly identical occultation instrument as SAC-C/CHAMP with the augmentation of an Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) as the frequency reference. The relative merits of this higher-performance oscillator towards GPS occultation measurements will be presented along with comparisons of the GRACE occultation data with that of SAC-C.

  17. Pelvic inflammatory disease isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae are distinguished by C1q-dependent virulence for newborn rats and by the sac-4 region.

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, S; Ram, P; Pham, T; Goluszko, P; Morse, S; Anderson, G D; Nowicki, B

    1997-01-01

    The virulence mechanism of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is not well understood, and an objective diagnostic method to identify patients with PID is lacking. We investigated the hypothesis that development of PID was associated with a C1q-dependent virulence property of gonococcal strains. Recent development of a C1q-dependent experimental model of gonococcal infection (S. Nowicki, M. Martens, and B. Nowicki, Infect. Immun. 63:4790-4794, 1995) created an opportunity to evaluate this hypothesis in vivo. Therefore, the virulence of 32 clinical isolates (18 PID isolates and 14 local infection [LI] isolates) was evaluated in experimental rat pups. A serum bactericidal assay was used to characterize a gonococcal serum-resistant (ser(r)) phenotype. PCR primers designed to amplify a suitable-size gonococcal sac-4 DNA fragment (unique for serum-resistant donor JC1) were used to evaluate the association of serum-resistant genotype sac-4 with two phenotypes: C1q-dependent virulence expressed in vivo and resistance to bactericidal activity of human serum expressed in vitro. Strains were also characterized by auxotyping and serotyping. Of 32 gonococcal strains, 15 (46.7%) caused C1q-dependent bacteremia in rat pups and were sac-4 positive and ser(r). However, of the 15 isolates, 13 (87%) represented strains associated with human PID and 2 (13%) were associated with LI. None of the strains that were completely serum-sensitive (ser(s)) and sac-4 negative produced C1q-dependent bacteremia in rat pups, suggesting that both ser(r) and sac-4 were required for infection. The serum-resistant recombinant recipient of sac-4 produced C1q-dependent bacteremia in the rat model similarly to the serum-resistant donor of sac-4; the serum-sensitive parent strain did not produce bacteremia. These data suggest that sac-4-mediated serum resistance conferred C1q-dependent virulence and is a unique characteristic associated with PID. These newly identified features may

  18. Morphoproteomics Identifies the EZH2 and SIRT1 Pathways as Potential Blocks to Differentiation in Yolk Sac Tumor of the Ovary and Provides Therapeutic Options: a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yumi A; Assylbekova, Binara; Zhao, Bihong; Nugent, Elizabeth; Brown, Robert E

    2017-01-01

    Yolk sac tumor of the ovary is a rare but highly malignant and aggressive germ cell tumor. The objective of this case study of an ovarian yolk sac tumor was to identify putative pathways that are known to pose a block in differentiation, both in early embryogenesis and in tumorigenesis, that might be amenable to low toxicity therapies designed to promote differentiation to a more benign state and prevent recurrent disease in such tumors. The enhancer of Zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a histone methyl transferase, and silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+ histone deacetylase, are two such pathways.

  19. Expression of histamine receptors in the human endolymphatic sac: the molecular rationale for betahistine use in Menieres disease.

    PubMed

    Møller, M Nue; Kirkeby, S; Vikeså, J; Nielsen, F Cilius; Caye-Thomasen, P

    2016-07-01

    The human endolymphatic sac (ES) is situated in a duplicature of the dura in the posterior cranial fossa and constitutes a part of the inner ear. The sac possesses immunological capacities and is responsible for a major part of the trans-epithelial ion transport occurring within the inner ear, via molecular mechanisms similar to that of the kidney collecting duct epithelia. Dysfunction of the trans-epithelial ion transport has been hypothesized as the reason for the endolymphatic hydrops occurring in Menieres diseases. Thus, candidate drug selection for medical treatment of Menieres disease has been based on a potential capability of improving trans-epithelial ion transport. However, recent human studies seems to rule out diuretic therapy and The Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use redrew the recommendation for trimetazidine (Vastarel) treatment in the management of Meniere disease in 2012. This leaves betahistine (Betaserc) as the only drug for potential prevention of the incapacitating attacks of dizziness, tinnitus and hearing loss. However, the histamine receptors targeted by betahistine have never been demonstrated in the human ES. Accordingly, this study aims to investigate the expression of histamine receptors of the human ES epithelium and sub-epithelial stroma. Following sampling of human endolymphatic sac tissue during translabyrinthine surgery, the expression of histamine receptor genes was determined by cDNA microarray analysis. Results were subsequently verified by immuno-histochemistry. The combined results of microarrays and immuno-histochemistry showed expression of the histamine receptor HRH1 in the epithelial lining of the ES, whereas HRH3 was expressed exclusively in the sub-epithelial capillary network. Receptors HRH2 and -4 were not expressed. The present data provide the first direct evidence of a molecular rationale for betahistine treatment in Menieres disease. A potential betahistine effect in Menieres disease may primarily be

  20. Sophono Alpha System and subtotal petrosectomy with external auditory canal blind sac closure.

    PubMed

    Magliulo, Giuseppe; Turchetta, Rosaria; Iannella, Giannicola; Valperga di Masino, Riccardo; di Masino, Riccardo Valpega; de Vincentiis, Marco

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a new acoustic device, the so-called Sophono Alpha System, has been introduced into clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess Sophono Alpha System hearing aids in ten patients suffering from recurrent chronic middle ear disease who underwent subtotal petrosectomy. Presence of mixed hearing loss with bone conduction thresholds better than or equal to 45 dB was present in each patient. Audiometric tests were performed before and after Sophono implantation and using a conventional bone conduction hearing aid (hearing glasses). Speech audiometry data (speech recognition threshold and word recognition score) were also collected. Speech recognition threshold in dB and percentage of word recognition score at 65 dB were subsequently calculated. After implantation and activation of the Sophono Alpha System, audiological data showed an average air conduction value of 42.1 dB. By comparing this data with the values of air conduction following subtotal petrosectomy, an average acoustic improvement of 29.7 dB could be calculated. The hearing results showed significantly better outcomes of Sophono Alpha System vs. conventional bone conduction aid. Indications to MRI use in patients undergoing Sophono Alpha System implantation are also provided.

  1. Structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) to inhibit chicken yolk sac membrane kynurenine formamidase related to OPI teratogenesis.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Josef

    2013-03-01

    This paper provides new information related to the mechanism of OPI (organophosphorus insecticides) teratogenesis. The COMFA (comparative molecular field analysis) and COMSIA (comparative molecular similarity indices analysis) suggest that the electrostatic and steric fields are the best predictors of OPI structural requirements to inhibit in ovo chicken embryo yolk sac membrane kynurenine formamidase, the proposed target for OPI teratogens. The dominant electrostatic interactions are localized at nitrogen-1, nitrogen-3, nitrogen of 2-amino substituent of the pyrimidinyl of pyrimidinyl phosphorothioates, and the oxygen of crotonamide carbonyl in crotonamide phosphates. Bulkiness of the substituents at carbon-2 and carbon-6 of the pyrimidinyls and/or N-substituents and carbon-3 substituents of crotonamides are the steric structural components that contribute to superiority of those OPI as in ovo inhibitors of kynurenine formamidase.

  2. Theoretical investigation of EPR and molecular orbital coefficient parameters for [Cu(hsm) 2(sac) 2] complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalfaoğlu, Emel; Karabulut, Bünyamin

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the molecular orbital coefficients and the spin Hamiltonian parameters of bis(histamine-saccharinate) copper(II) complex, [Cu(hsm) 2(sac) 2], are calculated theoretically. Two d- d transition spectra and four EPR parameters g∥,g⊥,A∥,A⊥ for the Cu(II) complex are calculated by using crystal-field theory. The calculated values are in good agreement with the experimental values. The g and A parameters have indicated that the paramagnetic centre is axially symmetric. Having the relations of g∥>g⊥>ge and A∥>A⊥ for Cu 2+ ions, it can be concluded that Cu 2+ ions are located in distorted octahedral sites (D 4h) elongated along the z-axis and that the ground state of the paramagnetic electron is d ( 2B1g state).

  3. Evaluation of adjuvant carboplatin chemotherapy in the management of surgically excised anal sac apocrine gland adenocarcinoma in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wouda, R M; Borrego, J; Keuler, N S; Stein, T

    2016-03-01

    There is no widely accepted standard of care for canine anal sac apocrine gland adenocarcinoma (ASAGAC). Surgery alone is inadequate in many cases, but the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy is not well established. The primary objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the role of carboplatin chemotherapy in the post-operative management of ASAGAC. Seventy-four dogs with naturally occurring ASAGAC underwent surgery. Forty-four dogs received adjuvant carboplatin and 30 did not. Median overall survival (OS) was 703 days. Median time to progression (TTP) was 384 days. Only primary tumour size and lymph node metastasis at diagnosis significantly impacted the outcome. Differences in OS and TTP, between the dogs that received adjuvant carboplatin and those that did not, failed to reach statistical significance. Treatment of progressive disease, whilst not limited to chemotherapy, significantly prolonged the survival. This study shows that adjuvant carboplatin chemotherapy is well tolerated and may have a role in the management of dogs with ASAGAC.

  4. β1- and β2-adrenergic stimulation-induced electrogenic transport by human endolymphatic sac epithelium and its clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kim, Jin Young; Jung, JinSei; Moon, In Seok; Yoon, Joo-Heon; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Sung Huhn

    2017-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac (ES) is a cystic structure of the inner ear connected to the cochlea and vestibule, which plays a role in regulating ion homeostasis in inner ear fluid. Disruption of ion homeostasis can cause inner ear disorders with hearing loss and dizziness, such as Meniere’s disease. Herein, we found, for the first time, functional evidence for the involvement of β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors in apical electrogenic ion transport by human ES epithelium by using electrophysiological/pharmacological and molecular biological methods, which were dependent on K+ and Cl− ion transport. The apical electrogenic transport was absent or very weak in ES epithelia of patients with Meniere’s disease. These results suggested that adrenergic stimulation via β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors in the human ES was involved in regulation of inner ear fluid ion homeostasis and impairment of this response could be a pathological mechanism of Meniere’s disease. PMID:28165045

  5. Development of a new code family based on SAC-OCDMA system with large cardinality for OCDMA network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd, Thanaa Hussein; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan; Ahmad, R. A.; Saad, N. M.

    2011-07-01

    We have proposed a new Multi-Diagonal (MD) code for Spectral Amplitude - Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA). Although this new MD code has many properties, one of the important properties of this code is that the cross correlation is always zero. Simplicity in code construction and flexibility in cross correlation control has made this code a compelling candidate for future OCDMA applications. The Multiple access interference (MAI) effects have been successfully and completely eliminated. Based on the theoretical analysis MD code is shown here to provide a much better performance compared to Modified Quadratic Congruence (MQC) code and Random Diagonal (RD) code. Proof-of-principle simulations of encoding with 5 and 10 users with 622 Mb/s data transmission at a BER of 10 -12 have been successfully demonstrated together with the DIRECT detection scheme.

  6. Whispering to the Deaf: Communication by a Frog without External Vocal Sac or Tympanum in Noisy Environments

    PubMed Central

    Boistel, Renaud; Aubin, Thierry; Cloetens, Peter; Langer, Max; Gillet, Brigitte; Josset, Patrice; Pollet, Nicolas; Herrel, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Atelopus franciscus is a diurnal bufonid frog that lives in South-American tropical rain forests. As in many other frogs, males produce calls to defend their territories and attract females. However, this species is a so-called “earless” frog lacking an external tympanum and is thus anatomically deaf. Moreover, A. franciscus has no external vocal sac and lives in a sound constraining environment along river banks where it competes with other calling frogs. Despite these constraints, male A. franciscus reply acoustically to the calls of conspecifics in the field. To resolve this apparent paradox, we studied the vocal apparatus and middle-ear, analysed signal content of the calls, examined sound and signal content propagation in its natural habitat, and performed playback experiments. We show that A. franciscus males can produce only low intensity calls that propagate a short distance (<8 m) as a result of the lack of an external vocal sac. The species-specific coding of the signal is based on the pulse duration, providing a simple coding that is efficient as it allows discrimination from calls of sympatric frogs. Moreover, the signal is redundant and consequently adapted to noisy environments. As such a coding system can be efficient only at short-range, territory holders established themselves at short distances from each other. Finally, we show that the middle-ear of A. franciscus does not present any particular adaptations to compensate for the lack of an external tympanum, suggesting the existence of extra-tympanic pathways for sound propagation. PMID:21779377

  7. Enhanced expression of an endoglucanase in Bacillus subtilis by using the sucrose-inducible sacB promoter and improved properties of the recombinant enzyme.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sen-Lin; Du, Kun

    2012-06-01

    An endoglucanase from Bacillus akibai I-1 was successfully overexpressed in Bacillus subtilis 168 and the expression level of the recombinant enzyme was greatly enhanced by using the sucrose-inducible sacB promoter. The endoglucanase activity in the culture supernatant of recombinant B. subtilis by using itself promoter (HpaII) in plasmid pMA5 was 3U/ml. Interestingly, with the addition of sacB promoter at downstream from the HpaII promoter or the replacement of HpaII promoter by the sacB promoter, the endoglucanase activities reached 62 and 60U/ml, respectively, under the optimal culture conditions. These results demonstrated that the sacB promoter might be more efficient for the expression of the endoglucanase than the HpaII promoter. More interestingly, the purified native enzyme had broad pH stability, good thermostability and resistibility to various metal ions and chelating agents examined, while the recombinant enzyme had improved resistibility to SDS, which was stable in 0.2% (w/v) laundry detergent and thus showed great potential in detergents industry.

  8. Comparison of GPS/SAC-C and MIPAS/ENVISAT temperature profiles and its implementation for EOS AURA-MLS observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Jonathan H.; Wang, Ding-Yi; Romans, Larry J.; Ao, Chi O.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Stiller, Gabriele P.; von Clarmann, Thomas; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Funke, Bernd; Gil-Lopez, Sergio; Glatthor, Norbert; Grabowski, Udo; Hopfner, Michael; Kellmann, Sylvia; Kiefer, Michael; Linden, Andrea; Tsidu, Glzaw Mengitsu; Milz, Mathias; Steck, Tilman; Fischer, Herbert

    2003-01-01

    A new generation GPS flight receiver was launched on the Argentinian satellite SAC-C in 2001. It has demonstrated the potential applicability for the continuous monitoring of the earth's atmosphere with radio occultation technology, and providing high vertical resolution profiles of temperature and water vapour data complementary to other sounding techniques.

  9. Different mechanisms of Na(+) uptake and ammonia excretion by the gill and yolk sac epithelium of early life stage rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Alex M; Wilson, Jonathan M; Wright, Patricia A; Hiroi, Junya; Wood, Chris M

    2017-03-01

    In rainbow trout, the dominant site of Na(+) uptake (JNa,in) and ammonia excretion (Jamm) shifts from the skin to the gills over development. Post-hatch (PH; 7 days post-hatch) larvae utilize the yolk sac skin for physiological exchange, whereas by complete yolk sac absorption (CYA; 30 days post-hatch), the gill is the dominant site. At the gills, JNa,in and Jamm occur via loose Na(+)/NH4(+) exchange, but this exchange has not been examined in the skin of larval trout. Based on previous work, we hypothesized that, contrary to the gill model, JNa,in by the yolk sac skin of PH trout occurs independently of Jamm Following a 12 h exposure to high environmental ammonia (HEA; 0.5 mmol l(-1) NH4HCO3; 600 µmol l(-1) Na(+); pH 8), Jamm by the gills of CYA trout and the yolk sac skin of PH larvae, which were isolated using divided chambers, increased significantly. However, this was coupled to an increase in JNa,in across the gills only, supporting our hypothesis. Moreover, gene expression of proteins involved in JNa,in [Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger-2 (NHE2) and H(+)-ATPase] increased in response to HEA only in the CYA gills. We further identified expression of the apical Rhesus (Rh) proteins Rhcg2 in putative pavement cells and Rhcg1 (co-localized with apical NHE2 and NHE3b and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) in putative peanut lectin agglutinin-positive (PNA(+)) ionocytes in gill sections. Similar Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-positive cells expressing Rhcg1 and NHE3b, but not NHE2, were identified in the yolk sac epithelium. Overall, our findings suggest that the mechanisms of JNa,in and Jamm by the dominant exchange epithelium at two distinct stages of early development are fundamentally different.

  10. Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial of The Stabilis Stand Alone Cage (SAC) Versus Bagby and Kuslich (BAK) Implants for Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lavelle, William; McLain, Robert F.; Rufo-Smith, Candace; Gurd, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Degenerative disc disease is common and debilitating for many patients. If conservative extensive care fails, anterior lumbar interbody fusion has proven to be an alternative form of surgical management. The Stabilis Stand Alone Cage(SAC) was introduced as a method to obtain stability and fusion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Stabilis Stand Alone Cage (SAC) is comparable in safety and efficacy to the Bagby and Kuslich (BAK) device. Methods As part of a prospective, randomized, controlled FDA trial, 73 patients underwent anterior interbody fusion using either the SAC(56%) or the BAK device (44%). Results Background characteristics were similar between the two groups. There was no significant difference between the SAC and BAK groups in mean operative time or mean blood loss during surgery. Adverse event rates did not differ between the groups. Assessment of plain radiographs could not confirm solid fusion in 63% of control and 71% of study patients. Functional scores from Owestry and SF-36 improved in both groups by the two-year follow-up. There were no significant differences between the SAC and BAK patients with respect to outcome. Conclusions Both the Stabilis Stand Alone Cage and the BAK Cage provided satisfactory improvement in function and pain relief, despite less than expected radiographic fusion rates. The apparent incongruency between fusion rates and functional outcomes suggests that either radiographs underestimate the true incidence of fusion, or that patients are obtaining good pain relief and improved function despite a lower rate of fusion than previously reported. This was a Level III study. PMID:25694930

  11. Functional characterization of folic acid transport in the intestine of the laying hen using the everted intestinal sac model.

    PubMed

    Tactacan, G B; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Karmin, O; House, J D

    2011-01-01

    Absorption at the level of the intestine is likely a primary regulatory mechanism for the deposition of dietary supplemented folic acid into the chicken egg. Therefore, factors affecting the intestinal transport of folic acid in the laying hen may influence the level of egg folate concentrations. To this end, a series of experiments using intestinal everted sacs were conducted to characterize intestinal folic acid absorption processes in laying hens. Effects of naturally occurring folate derivatives (5-methyl and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate) as well as heme on folic acid absorption were also investigated. Folic acid absorption was measured based on the rate of uptake of (3)H-labeled folic acid in the everted sac from various segments of the small and large intestines. Folic acid concentration, incubation length, and pH condition were optimized before the performance of uptake experiments. The distribution profile of folic acid transport along the intestine was highest in the upper half of the small intestine. Maximum uptake rate (nmol·100 g tissue(-1)·min(-1)) was observed in the duodenum (20.6 ± 1.9) and jejunum (22.3 ± 2.0) and decreased significantly in the ileum (15.3 ± 1.1) and cecum (9.3 ± 0.9). Transport increased proportionately (P < 0.05) between 0.0001 and 0.1 µM folic acid. Above 0.1 µM, the slope of the regression line was not significantly different from zero (P < 0.137). Folic acid uptake in the jejunum showed a maximum rate of transport at pH 6.0, but was lowest at pH 7.5. The presence of 5-methyl and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate as well as heme impeded folic acid uptake, reducing intestinal folic acid absorption when added at concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 µM. Overall, these data indicated the presence of a folic acid transport system in the entire intestine of the laying hen. Uptake of folic acid in the cecum raises the likelihood of absorption of bacterial-derived folate.

  12. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  13. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Climate Change on Children's Health: Session Two: Air Quality Impacts MODERATOR: Susan Anenberg, EPA Meredith McCormack, Johns ... University • Effects of Climate Change on Children’s Health: Air Quality Impacts Frederica Perera, Columbia University • Air quality Impacts ...

  14. Modeling Molecular Systems at Extreme Pressure by an Extension of the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) Based on the Symmetry-Adapted Cluster-Configuration Interaction (SAC-CI) Method: Confined Electronic Excited States of Furan as a Test Case.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Ryoichi; Ehara, Masahiro; Cammi, Roberto

    2015-05-12

    Novel molecular photochemistry can be developed by combining high pressure and laser irradiation. For studying such high-pressure effects on the confined electronic ground and excited states, we extend the PCM (polarizable continuum model) SAC (symmetry-adapted cluster) and SAC-CI (SAC-configuration interaction) methods to the PCM-XP (extreme pressure) framework. By using the PCM-XP SAC/SAC-CI method, molecular systems in various electronic states can be confined by polarizable media in a smooth and flexible way. The PCM-XP SAC/SAC-CI method is applied to a furan (C4H4O) molecule in cyclohexane at high pressure (1-60 GPa). The relationship between the calculated free-energy and cavity volume can be approximately represented with the Murnaghan equation of state. The excitation energies of furan in cyclohexane show blueshifts with increasing pressure, and the extents of the blueshifts significantly depend on the character of the excitations. Particularly large confinement effects are found in the Rydberg states. The energy ordering of the lowest Rydberg and valence states alters under high-pressure. The pressure effects on the electronic structure may be classified into two contributions: a confinement of the molecular orbital and a suppression of the mixing between the valence and Rydberg configurations. The valence or Rydberg character in an excited state is, therefore, enhanced under high pressure.

  15. Modeling the Photochromism of S-Doped Sodalites Using DFT, TD-DFT, and SAC-CI Methods.

    PubMed

    Curutchet, Antton; Le Bahers, Tangui

    2017-01-03

    S-doped sodalite minerals of the Na8Al6Si6O24(Cl,S)2 formula, also known as hackmanites, are computationally investigated for the first time, in order to understand their photochromic properties. With combined periodic boundary conditions and embedded cluster-type approaches, this paper brings a theoretical overview of the photochromism mechanism, also called tenebrescence in geology. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations of sodalite systems containing electrons trapped in Cl vacancies showed an absorption spectrum and a simulated color in agreement with experiment. This modeling highlights the huge effect of the F center's environment such as the direct contribution of the β cage on the trapped electron and a strong vibronic coupling of the absorption spectrum. TD-DFT and post-Hartree-Fock (SAC-CI) calculations were also operated on S2(2-)-containing systems in order to determine the exact mechanism of coloration and discoloration, supporting that the key step is a direct through-space charge transfer between the S2(2-) ion and a Cl vacancy. The geometry modification induced by this charge transfer leads to a large electronic reorganization stabilizing the F center, thus explaining the high stability of the colored state of the mineral.

  16. Intensity Variations of Narrow Bands of Solar UV Radiation during Descending Phases of SACs 21-23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigolashvili, M.; Kapanadze, N.

    2014-12-01

    The study of variations of four narrow bands of solar spectral irradiance (SSI) in the ultraviolet (UV) range for period 1981-2008 is presented. Observational data obtained by space-flight missions SORCE, UARS, SME and daily meanings of international sunspot number (ISN) have been used. The investigated data cover the decreasing phases of the solar activity cycles (SACs) 21, 22 and 23. We have revealed a peculiar behavior of intensity variability of some solar ultraviolet spectral lines originated in the solar chromospheres for period corresponding to the declining phase of the solar cycle 23. It is found that variability of emission of different solar spectral narrow bands (289.5 nm, 300.5 nm) does not agree equally well with ISN variability during decreasing phase of the solar activity cycle 23. The negative correlations between total solar irradiance and the solar spectral narrow bands of UV emission (298.5 nm, 300.5 nm) had been revealed. The existence of the negative correlation can be explained by the sensitivity of SSI of some emission lines to the solar global magnetic field.

  17. Structure of the yellow sac spider Cheiracanthium punctorium genes provides clues to evolution of insecticidal two-domain knottin toxins.

    PubMed

    Sachkova, M Y; Slavokhotova, A A; Grishin, E V; Vassilevski, A A

    2014-08-01

    Yellow sac spiders (Cheiracanthium punctorium, family Miturgidae) are unique in terms of venom composition, because, as we show here, two-domain toxins have replaced the usual one-domain peptides as the major constituents. We report the structure of the two-domain Che. punctorium toxins (CpTx), along with the corresponding cDNA and genomic DNA sequences. At least three groups of insecticidal CpTx were identified, each consisting of several members. Unlike many cone snail and snake toxins, accelerated evolution is not typical of cptx genes, which instead appear to be under the pressure of purifying selection. Both CpTx modules present the inhibitor cystine knot (ICK), or knottin signature; however, the sequence similarity between the domains is low. Conversely, notable similarity was found between separate domains of CpTx and one-domain toxins from spiders of the Lycosidae family. The observed chimerism is a landmark of exon shuffling events, but in contrast to many families of multidomain protein genes no introns were found in the cptx genes. Considering the possible scenarios, we suggest that an early transcription-mediated fusion event between two related one-domain toxin genes led to the emergence of a primordial cptx-like sequence. We conclude that evolution of toxin variability in spiders appears to be quite different from other venomous animals.

  18. Rapid genetic and ecological differentiation during the northern range expansion of the venomous yellow sac spider Cheiracanthium punctorium in Europe.

    PubMed

    Krehenwinkel, Henrik; Rödder, Dennis; Năpăruş-Aljančič, Magdalena; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-12-01

    Although poleward range expansions are commonly attributed to global change, a complex interaction of ecological and evolutionary factors might contribute to expansion success. Here, we study the expansion of the yellow sac spider Cheiracanthium punctorium, a medically important species in Central Europe. Using microsatellite markers and DNA sequences, morphological and climate niche analyses, we identify factors associated with the spider's expansion success. Our results indicate that the species' initial expansion has been triggered by environmental change and preadaptation in the source populations. However, despite extensive gene flow, expanding populations maintain genetic and morphological differentiation from native ones, which is correlated with climatic niche differences. Moreover, expanding spiders might have temporarily escaped an eggsac parasite that causes high mortality in the native range. Hence, our results paint a complex picture of diverse factors associated with expansion success. We speculate that expanding populations might be capable of adapting to novel ecological conditions in northern Europe. This could allow a substantial range expansion, much farther than by environmental change alone. Our distribution model predicts that the spider will soon massively spread over most of northern Europe, bringing along considerable health concerns.

  19. Claudin expression in the rat endolymphatic duct and sac - first insights into regulation of the paracellular barrier by vasopressin

    PubMed Central

    Runggaldier, Daniel; Pradas, Lidia Garcia; Neckel, Peter H.; Mack, Andreas F.; Hirt, Bernhard; Gleiser, Corinna

    2017-01-01

    Hearing and balance functions of the inner ear rely on the homeostasis of the endolymphatic fluid. When disturbed, pathologic endolymphatic hydrops evolves as observed in Menière’s disease. The molecular basis of inner ear fluid regulation across the endolymphatic epithelium is largely unknown. In this study we identified the specific expression of the tight junction (TJ) molecules Claudin 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, and 16 in epithelial preparations of the rat inner ear endolymphatic duct (ED) and endolymphatic sac (ES) by high-throughput qPCR and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Further we showed that Claudin 4 in the ES is a target of arginine-vasopressin (AVP), a hormone elevated in Menière’s disease. Moreover, our transmission-electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that the TJs of the ED were shallow and shorter compared to the TJ of the ES indicating facilitation of a paracellular fluid transport across the ED epithelium. The significant differences in the subcellular localization of the barrier-forming protein Claudin 3 between the ED and ES epithelium further support the TEM observations. Our results indicate a high relevance of Claudin 3 and Claudin 4 as important paracellular barrier molecules in the ED and ES epithelium with potential involvement in the pathophysiology of Menière’s disease. PMID:28374851

  20. Expression of thiazide-sensitive Na{sup +}-Cl{sup -} cotransporter in the rat endolymphatic sac

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Kosuke Miyashita, Takenori; Mori, Terushige; Inamoto, Ryuhei; Mori, Nozomu

    2008-07-11

    The endolymphatic sac (ES) is a part of the membranous labyrinth and is believed to absorb endolymph. It has been well-established that the endolymph absorption is dependent on several ion transporters in a manner similar to that in the kidney, and the ES is regulated by hormones such as aldosterone and vasopressin that also affect on the kidney. The thiazide-sensitive Na{sup +}, Cl{sup -} cotransporter (TSC) is an electroneutral cotransporter specific to the kidney that plays an important role in absorption of NaCl in renal tubules. In the inner ear, TSC expression has never been examined. The expression of TSC in the rat ES was examined by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. These analyses indicated that TSC genes and proteins were expressed in the rat ES. In contrast, it was not observed in the rat cochlea by RT-PCR. This is the first report confirming the expression of TSC in the ES.

  1. Current evidence for endolymphatic sac surgery in the treatment of Meniere’s disease: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ming Yann; Zhang, Margaret; Yuen, Heng Wai; Leong, Jern-Lin

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to identify emerging evidence for endolymphatic sac surgery (ESS) in the treatment of Meniere’s disease since the landmark study by Thomsen et al, published in 1998 (conducted from 1981 to 1989). Using the MEDLINE database (PubMed), a systematic review of the literature published from January 1990 to June 2014 was performed. We included all English-language, peer-reviewed randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled studies. Single-arm cohort studies were included if the sample size was ≥ 90 with a response rate > 60%. Altogether, 11 studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria; one was an RCT, two were controlled trials and eight were single-arm cohort studies. There currently exists a low level of evidence for the use of ESS in the treatment of Meniere’s disease. Further studies, in particular RCTs and/or controlled studies, are required to fully evaluate this modality. However, there are difficulties in designing a valid placebo and achieving adequate blinding of observers and investigators. PMID:26668402

  2. Prospective randomized controlled study of excision versus distal splitting of hernial sac and processus vaginalis in the repair of inguinal hernias and communicating hydroceles.

    PubMed

    Gahukamble, D B; Khamage, A S

    1995-04-01

    A total of 798 pediatric patients between the ages of 16 days and 10 years underwent a randomized trial of two surgical procedures to assess the superiority of one over the other. In the first group of 231 patients, 236 hernial sacs (HS)/processus vaginalis (PV) were excised completely after transfixation and transection of the sac at the internal ring, whereas in the second group of 567 patients, 595 residual HS/PV were not excised but split longitudinally. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the two groups as far as complications were concerned. Considering the results of these two procedures, it could be concluded that even the less extensive process of distal longitudinal splitting of the residual HS or PV can be preferred in the repair of hernias or communicating hydroceles in male children.

  3. Isolation of insertion elements from gram-positive Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium and Rhodococcus strains using the Bacillus subtilis sacB gene as a positive selection marker.

    PubMed

    Jäger, W; Schäfer, A; Kalinowski, J; Pühler, A

    1995-02-01

    The sacB gene of Bacillus subtilis was successfully applied in various Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium and Rhodococcus strains for the isolation of transposable elements. Three different insertion sequence (IS) elements entrapped in sacB were isolated. The IS elements IS-Bl and IS-Cg isolated from Brevibacterium lactofermentum and Corynebacterium glutamicum, respectively, were found to be similar in size (1.45 kb) and generated target duplications of 8 bp. Their inverted repeats showed homology. In contrast, the IS element IS-Rf isolated from Rhodococcus fascians was only 1.3 kb long and generated a 3-bp target duplication. IS-Cg and IS-Rf were not restricted to their original host strains, and we also found strains harbouring more than one element.

  4. Are single entry communities and cul-de-sacs a barrier to active transport to school in 11 elementary schools in Las Vegas, NV metropolitan area?

    PubMed

    Coughenour, Courtney; Clark, Sheila; Singh, Ashok; Huebner, Joshua

    2017-06-01

    Single entry communities (SECs) and cul-de-sacs minimize route choices and increase trip distance. Las Vegas' built environment facilitates the examination of these variables and active transport to school (ATS) rates. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of SECs and cul-de-sacs on ATS rates in Las Vegas, NV elementary children. Parental-reported data was collected from 11 elementary schools on ATS rates (n = 1217). SECs and cul-de-sacs were quantified for each school zone. Logistic regression models were used to predict ATS. 23.9% of students reported ATS all of the time and 31.4% some of the time. SECs per school zone ranged from 0 to 25 (mean = 11.9). Cul-de-sacs ranged from 12 to 315 (mean = 138.3). Some ATS use was predicted by distance from school (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.61), parental education (high school: p = 0.004;OR = 0.53, some college: p = 0.001;OR = 0.50, 4 year degree: p = 0.004;OR = 0.52) and cul-de-sacs (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.99). A separate model using distance from school (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.61), parental education (high school: p = 0.002;OR = 0.51, some college: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.45, 4 year degree: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.45) and SECs (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.96) predicted some ATS. All ATS use was predicted by distance from school (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.58), parental education (Grades 9-11: p = 0.05;OR = 0.61, high school: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.45, some college: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.41, 4 year degree: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.38) and SECs (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.97). A separate model using distance from school (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.58), parental education (Grades 9-11: p = 0.041;OR = 0.59, high school: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.47, some college: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.44, 4 year degree: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.43) and cul-de-sacs (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.99) predicted all ATS. Current findings reveal that both SECs and cul-de-sacs were predictors of ATS beyond distance. Students with

  5. The Fourier Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (FIXS) for the Argentinian, Scout-launched satelite de Aplicaciones Cienficas-1 (SAC-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Crannell, Carol JO; Desai, Upendra D.; Orwig, Larry E.; Kiplinger, Alan L.; Schwartz, Richard A.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Emslie, A. Gordon; Machado, Marcos; Wood, Kent

    1988-01-01

    The Fourier Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (FIXS) is one of four instruments on SAC-1, the Argentinian satellite being proposed for launch by NASA on a Scout rocket in 1992/3. The FIXS is designed to provide solar flare images at X-ray energies between 5 and 35 keV. Observations will be made on arcsecond size scales and subsecond time scales of the processes that modify the electron spectrum and the thermal distribution in flaring magnetic structures.

  6. The Association between the Cross-Sectional Area of the Dural Sac and Low Back Pain in a Large Population: The Wakayama Spine Study

    PubMed Central

    Iwahashi, Hiroki; Yoshimura, Noriko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Oka, Hiroyuki; Matsudaira, Ko; Shinto, Kazunori; Ishimoto, Yuyu; Nagata, Keiji; Teraguchi, Masatoshi; Kagotani, Ryohei; Muraki, Shigeyuki; Akune, Toru; Tanaka, Sakae; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kozo; Minamide, Akihito; Nakagawa, Yukihiro; Yoshida, Munehito

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between the degree of encroachment, measured as the cross-sectional area of the dural sac, and low back pain in a large population. Methods In this cross-sectional study, data from 802 participants (247 men, 555 women; mean age, 63.5 years) were analyzed. The measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural sac from the level of L1/2 to L4/5 was taken using axial T2-weighted images. The minimum cross-sectional area was defined as the cross-sectional area of the dural sac at the most constricted level in the examined spine. Participants were divided into three groups according to minimum cross-sectional area measurement quartiles (less than the first quartile, between the first and third quartiles, and greater than the third quartile). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between the minimum cross-sectional area and the prevalence of low back pain. Results The mean minimum cross-sectional area was 117.3 mm2 (men: 114.4 mm2; women: 118.6 mm2). A logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and other confounding factors, including disc degeneration, showed that a narrow minimum cross-sectional area (smaller than the first quartile) was significantly associated with low back pain (odds ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.80 compared to the wide minimum cross-sectional area group: minimum cross-sectional area greater than the third quartile measured). Conclusion This study showed that a narrow dural sac cross-sectional area was significantly associated with the presence of low back pain after adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index. Further investigations that include additional radiographic findings and psychological factors will continue to elucidate the causes of low back pain. PMID:27486899

  7. Homology of the internal sac components in the leaf beetle subfamily Criocerinae and evolutionary novelties related to the extremely elongated flagellum.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yoko; Yoshizawa, Kazunori

    2012-05-01

    Extremely elongated intromittent organs are found in a wide range of taxa, especially among insects. This phenomenon is generally thought to result from sexual selection, but it is predicted that limited storage space in the body cavity and the difficulty of using the elongated organs should have constrained the evolution of extreme elongation, neutralizing any selective advantage. Therefore, in groups with long intromittent organs, features that overcome these constraints may have evolved or coevolved together with intromittent organ elongation. Using a comparative morphological approach and outgroup comparisons, we identified potential constraints and key novelties that may neutralize such constraints in the leaf beetle subfamily Criocerinae. Observations of the internal sac structure throughout Criocerinae were performed. Comparing the results with preceding studies from outgroups, a ground plan of the criocerine internal sac was constructed. Our analysis also identified specific features that are always correlated with extreme elongation: the rotation of whole internal-sac sclerites and the possession of a pocket in which to store the elongated flagellum. The pocket is thought to be formed by the rotation of the sclerites, markedly altering internal sac shape from the criocerine ground plan. Onlythe clades that have acquired this derived state contain species with an elongated flagellum that distinctly exceeds the median lobe length. It is presumed that these character correlations evolved independently three times. The detected character correlations corroborate the hypothesis that there are latent adaptive constraints for the evolution of extremely elongated intromittent organs. The constraints may have been neutralized by the alteration from the criocerine ground plan resulting in the formation of a storage pocket. In conclusion, deviation from the criocerine ground plan is considered to be the evolutionary innovation that neutralized the latent adaptive

  8. The FRK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) from Solanum chacoense is involved in embryo sac and pollen development.

    PubMed

    Lafleur, Edith; Kapfer, Christelle; Joly, Valentin; Liu, Yang; Tebbji, Faiza; Daigle, Caroline; Gray-Mitsumune, Madoka; Cappadocia, Mario; Nantel, André; Matton, Daniel P

    2015-04-01

    The fertilization-related kinase 1 (ScFRK1), a nuclear-localized mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) from the wild potato species Solanum chacoense, belongs to a small group of pMEKKs that do not possess an extended N- or C-terminal regulatory domain. Initially selected based on its highly specific expression profile following fertilization, in situ expression analyses revealed that the ScFRK1 gene is also expressed early on during female gametophyte development in the integument and megaspore mother cell and, later, in the synergid and egg cells of the embryo sac. ScFRK1 mRNAs are also detected in pollen mother cells. Transgenic plants with lower or barely detectable levels of ScFRK1 mRNAs lead to the production of small fruits with severely reduced seed set, resulting from a concomitant decline in the number of normal embryo sacs produced. Megagametogenesis and microgametogenesis were affected, as megaspores did not progress beyond the functional megaspore (FG1) stage and the microspore collapsed around the first pollen mitosis. As for other mutants that affect embryo sac development, pollen tube guidance was severely affected in the ScFRK1 transgenic lines. Gametophyte to sporophyte communication was also affected, as observed from a marked change in the transcriptomic profiles of the sporophytic tissues of the ovule. The ScFRK1 MAPKKK is thus involved in a signalling cascade that regulates both male and female gamete development.

  9. Effect of Graphene Nanoplatelets on Wetting, Microstructure, and Tensile Characteristics of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC) Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Sohn, Heung-Rak; Jung, Jae Pil

    2016-01-01

    The effect of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) on the wettability, microstructure, and tensile properties of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC 305) was studied using melting and casting route. The microstructure of the bulk solder is observed with a scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, and the intermetallic compound (IMC) phases are identified by electron probe micro-analyzer. The solderability of the samples is assessed by spreading and wetting tests on a Cu substrate. The experimental results indicate that an addition of 0.05 wt pct GNPs in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder improves the spreading and wettability significantly compared to monolithic SAC. It is also revealed that the thickness of the Ag3Sn IMCs is reduced as compared to the monolithic SAC alloy. Tensile results show that the composite solder exhibits the 13.9 pct elongation and 17 pct increase in the ultimate tensile strength when 0.05 wt pct GNPs in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu alloy are added. This may be due to the refinement of the IMCs in composite solders compared to the same in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu alloy brought about by the uniform dispersion of graphene nanoplatelets. It is suggested in this study that the amount of GNPs in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu alloy should not exceed 0.05 wt pct as it may degrade the desired properties due to the agglomeration of GNPs.

  10. Emergence of multipotent hemopoietic cells in the yolk sac and paraaortic splanchnopleura in mouse embryos, beginning at 8.5 days postcoitus.

    PubMed Central

    Godin, I; Dieterlen-Lièvre, F; Cumano, A

    1995-01-01

    We show by an in vitro approach that multipotent hemopoietic cells can be detected in the body of the mouse embryo between the stages of 10-25 somites (8.5-9.5 days of gestation)--i.e., prior to liver colonization (28-32 pairs of somites). Interestingly, hemopoietic cells appear in parallel in this location, the paraaortic splanchnopleura, and in the yolk sac, where they represent a new generation by reference to the primitive hemopoietic stem cells. Lymphoid cell clones, which could differentiate into mature B cells, were obtained from yolk sac and paraaortic splanchnopleura cell preparations but not from other tissues of the embryonic body. These B-cell precursors were first detected around the stage of 10 somites; thereafter, their initial minute numbers increased in parallel in the yolk sac and the paraaortic splanchnopleura, suggesting that their emergence in the two sites was simultaneous. By single cell manipulation, we show that these precursors can generate B and T lymphocytes and myeloid cells; these precursors can thus be defined as multipotent hemopoietic cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:7846049

  11. Presence of an isoform of H+-pyrophosphatase located in the alveolar sacs of a scuticociliate parasite of turbot: physiological consequences.

    PubMed

    Mallo, Natalia; Lamas, Jesús; Defelipe, Ana-Paula; Decastro, Maria-Eugenia; Sueiro, Rosa-Ana; Leiro, José-Manuel

    2016-04-01

    H+-pyrophosphatases (H+-PPases) are integral membrane proteins that couple pyrophosphate energy to an electrochemical gradient across biological membranes and promote the acidification of cellular compartments. Eukaryotic organisms, essentially plants and protozoan parasites, contain various types of H+-PPases associated with vacuoles, plasma membrane and acidic Ca+2 storage organelles called acidocalcisomes. We used Lysotracker Red DND-99 staining to identify two acidic cellular compartments in trophozoites of the marine scuticociliate parasite Philasterides dicentrarchi: the phagocytic vacuoles and the alveolar sacs. The membranes of these compartments also contain H+-PPase, which may promote acidification of these cell structures. We also demonstrated for the first time that the P. dicentrarchi H+-PPase has two isoforms: H+-PPase 1 and 2. Isoform 2, which is probably generated by splicing, is located in the membranes of the alveolar sacs and has an amino acid motif recognized by the H+-PPase-specific antibody PABHK. The amino acid sequences of different isolates of this ciliate are highly conserved. Gene and protein expression in this isoform are significantly regulated by variations in salinity, indicating a possible physiological role of this enzyme and the alveolar sacs in osmoregulation and salt tolerance in P. dicentrarchi.

  12. Loss of Centromere Cohesion in Aneuploid Human Oocytes Correlates with Decreased Kinetochore Localization of the Sac Proteins Bub1 and Bubr1

    PubMed Central

    Lagirand-Cantaloube, Julie; Ciabrini, Cendrine; Charrasse, Sophie; Ferrieres, Alice; Castro, Anna; Anahory, Tal; Lorca, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    In human eggs, aneuploidy increases with age and can result in infertility and genetic diseases. Studies in mouse oocytes suggest that reduced centromere cohesion and spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activity could be at the origin of chromosome missegregation. Little is known about these two features in humans. Here, we show that in human eggs, inter-kinetochore distances of bivalent chromosomes strongly increase with age. This results in the formation of univalent chromosomes during metaphase I (MI) and of single chromatids in metaphase II (MII). We also investigated SAC activity by checking the localization of BUB1 and BUBR1. We found that they localize at the kinetochore with a similar temporal timing than in mitotic cells and in a MPS1-dependent manner, suggesting that the SAC signalling pathway is active in human oocytes. Moreover, our data also suggest that this checkpoint is inactivated when centromere cohesion is lost in MI and consequently cannot inhibit premature sister chromatid separation. Finally, we show that the kinetochore localization of BUB1 and BUBR1 decreases with the age of the oocyte donors. This could contribute to oocyte aneuploidy. PMID:28287092

  13. [Ultrasound echographic imaging and measurement of the amniotic cavity and yolk sac in early pregnancy: comparative study of intact and disordered pregnancies].

    PubMed

    Funk, A; Fendel, H

    1988-01-01

    The chorionic cavity, vertex-breech length, yolk sac, and amnion were systematically demonstrated and measured in 50 early pregnancies, i.e., between the end of the sixth and the tenth week of gestation post menstruationem (p.m.). This was done in 23 cases with clinically and sonographically intact pregnancies without symptoms of abortion, in 12 cases with living embryos with symptoms of abortion, and in 15 cases of retained miscarriage. The thin amniotic membrane is sonographically demonstrated as a narrow, sharply defined reflected band in the chorionic cavity. In addition to direct demonstration of the amniotic membrane, the amniotic cavity can be demonstrated by a density difference in the echogenicity of the chorionic and amniotic fluids. While there are delicate, homogenously distributed inner echoes in the chorionic cavity, the amniotic cavity is empty save for the embryo structure. Sonographically, therefore, the amniotic cavity stands out as a spherical structure within the chorionic cavity. In all pregnancies with a living embryo it was possible to demonstrate the yolk sac sonographically as a sharply defined ring structure in the chorionic cavity. In 10 of the 15 cases of retained miscarriage only a rudimentary remnant of the yolk sac could be detected. The development of the amniotic and chorionic cavities and vertex-breech length was constant in the pregnancies with living embryos, the amnion developing synchronously with the vertex-breech length.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Air Policing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Iraq. To provide a background for understanding why Britain commenced the policy of air policing, this paper begins with a review of contemporary...7 Omissi, Air Power, XV. 8 policing actions or the pushing home of advantages gained by the air.” Within the context of this paper , the...control operations, and therefore within the context of this paper , the term coercive airpower refers to the threat of harming a population or the threat

  15. Endocytosis and subsequent processing of 125I-labelled immunoglobulin G by guinea pig yolk sac in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, G C; King, B F

    1985-01-01

    We have developed conditions for studying the binding, uptake, degradation and transport of 125I-labelled IgG by yolk sac in vitro. Specific binding to tissue at 4 degrees C and to paraformaldehyde-treated tissue at 37 degrees C was time- and temperature-dependent and showed saturation kinetics (Kd,4 degrees C = 2.9 X 10(-6) M, Kd,37 degrees C = 5.3 X 10(-6) M). Uptake was studied at 37 degrees C using untreated tissue (K uptake = 13.3 X 10(-6) M) and was inhibited by preincubation with metabolic poisons but not with cycloheximide. Tissue that had been incubated with 125I-labelled IgG at 37 degrees C released radiolabelled degradation products and intact 125I-labelled IgG into the medium. Experiments with paraformaldehyde-treated and untreated tissue showed that release of intact 125I-labelled IgG was mostly the result of ligand dissociation from surface binding sites. However, more 125I-labelled IgG was released from untreated tissue than could be accounted for solely by loss of surface-bound ligand and the difference was presumed to reflect uptake, transport and exocytosis of 125I-labelled IgG. Degradation of 125I-labelled IgG was inhibited by leupeptin and lysosomotropic amines. These drugs had no detectable effect on 125I-labelled IgG release. The results suggest that degradation and transport of IgG are not intimately related and are consistent with a previously proposed model for IgG transport via coated vesicles which do not fuse with lysosomes and for non-selective uptake into another class of vesicle which does fuse with lysosomes. PMID:4004783

  16. Prophylactic Residual Aneurysmal Sac Embolization with Expandable Hydrogel Embolic Devices for Endoleak Prevention: Preliminary Study in Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraki, Takao; Pavcnik, Dusan Uchida, Barry T.; Timmermans, Hans A.; Yin Qiang; Wu Renghong; Niyyati, Mahtab; Keller, Frederick S.; Roesch, Josef

    2005-05-15

    Objective. To explore the feasibility and efficacy of residual aneurysmal sac (RAS) embolization with the expandable hydrogel embolic device (EHED) in prevention of endoleaks in a surgically created and endoluminally treated abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods. In eight dogs, an AAA was created by means of side-to-side anastomosis between the infrarenal abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava (IVC) with ligation of the IVC above and below the anastomotic end, followed by deployment of an endograft with holes. The RAS was then embolized with the EHED. One animal was killed immediately after RAS embolization and one animal died 12 hr after the procedure. Follow-up aortograms were obtained in six animals after 1 day (1 animal), 2 weeks and 6 months (1 animal), and 8 weeks (4 animals). Results. Four animals had no endoleaks on the follow-up aortograms. The remaining two animals with incomplete RAS embolization had moderate type III endoleaks. Type I or II endoleaks were not seen in any animals. Complications included RAS wall penetration by the devices with platinum wires in two animals (nos. 1 and 2), device migration into an aortic circulation through the endograft holes in two animals (nos. 2 and 3) or through distal interstices between the aortic wall and endograft in one animal (no. 8), aortic occlusion in three animals (nos. 3, 7, and 8), and RAS rupture in one animal (no. 7). Histologic examination showed expanded hydrogels occupying the RAS with associated mature or immature organized thrombus, fibrinous thrombus, or degenerate blood cells. Conclusion. RAS embolization was feasible with the EHED, although additional modifications to the device are required to avoid complications. Angiographic and histologic results suggested that RAS embolization with the EHED may help in the prevention of endoleaks.

  17. Fine mapping of S31, a gene responsible for hybrid embryo-sac abortion in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z G; Jiang, L; Zhang, W W; Yu, C Y; Zhu, S S; Xie, K; Tian, H; Liu, L L; Ikehashi, H; Wan, J M

    2007-10-01

    Partial abortion of female gametes and the resulting semi-sterility of indica x japonica inter-subspecific rice hybrids have been ascribed to an allelic interaction, which can be avoided by the use of wide compatibility varieties. To further understand the genetic mechanism of hybrid sterility, we have constructed two sets of hybrids, using as male parent either the typical japonica variety Asominori, or the wide compatibility variety 02428; and as female, a set of 66 chromosome segment substitution lines in which various chromosomal segments from the indica variety IR24 have been introduced into a common genetic background of Asominori. Spikelet semi-sterility was observed in hybrid between CSSL34 and Asominori, which is known to carry the sterility gene S31 (Zhao et al. in Euphytica 151:331-337, 2006). Cytological analysis revealed that the semi-sterility of the CSSL34 x Asominori hybrid was caused primarily by partial abortion of the embryo sac at the stage of the mitosis of the functional megaspore. A population of 1,630 progeny of the three-way cross (CSSL34 x 02428) x Asominori was developed to map S31. Based on the physical location of linked molecular markers, S31 was thereby delimited to a 54-kb region on rice chromsome 5. This fragment contains eight predicted open reading frames, four of which encode known proteins and four putative proteins. These results are relevant to the map-based cloning of S31, and the development of marker-assisted transfer of non-sterility allele inducing alleles to breeding germplasm, to allow for a more efficient exploitation of heterosis in hybrid rice.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of differentially expressed genes during embryo sac development in apomeiotic non-parthenogenetic interspecific hybrid of Pennisetum glaucum.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Gupta, Sarika; Malaviya, D R; Roy, Ajoy Kumar; Kaushal, Pankaj; Prasad, Manoj

    2012-07-01

    Apomixis results in the production of genetically uniform progeny, derived from the fertilization independent development (parthenogenesis) of an unreduced egg cell (apomeiosis). To identify genes involved in the apomeiosis, a comparative transcriptome analysis of differentially expressed genes during embryo sac (ES) development in a sexual Pennisetum glaucum (genotype 81A1) and its apomeiotic (aposporic) non-parthenogenetic interspecific hybrid (BC1GO) was investigated. BC1GO exhibited the partitioned apomeiosis component, whereby the second apomixis component viz., parthenogenesis was completely lacking. A total of 96 non-redundant transcripts were recovered using suppression subtractive hybridization and classified into 11 different categories according to their putative functions. Amongst the identified transcripts, many of them belonged to unknown function (40%) followed by those involved in protein metabolism, stress response, pollen/ovule/embryo development, and translation/protein modification process. A data search of transcriptional profiling in other apomictic species revealed that 75% of the differentially expressed transcripts have not been reported in previous studies. By macroarray analysis, we identified differential expression pattern of 96 transcripts, 45 (47%) of which showed ≥2-fold induction in apomeiotic BC1GO. Further, the obtained results were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to have a comparative expression profiling of eight selected up-regulated transcripts (≥2.5-fold) between BC1GO and 81A1 at different phases of ovule development. In silico mapping demonstrated that 13 transcripts were located onto rice chromosome 2, region syntenic with the apospory locus as reported in Brachiaria brizantha and Paspalum notatum. The expression patterns of these transcripts showed a significant difference at differentiating megaspore mother cell and gametogenesis stages thereby suggesting their involvement in floral

  19. New dense-grid aeromagnetic map of Gulf of Guinea cul-de-sac, northeastern equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Babalola, O.O.

    1985-02-01

    As part of a major project to procure miscellaneous geophysical coverage of the entire country, the Geological Survey of Nigeria has acquired aeromagnetic data, presented as contour maps at various scales, over the nation's 7 sedimentary basins. The coverage over the Nigerian continental margin, acquired at 2500 ft above sea level, was flown at 4-km flight-line spacing in a north-northeasterly direction and at 20-km tie-line spacing in a west-northwesterly direction. Another tie line was flown along the coastline. Twenty 1:250,000 one-degree square, total intensity aeromagnetic contour maps covering the marginal basins down to the shelf break were assembled into a single aeromagnetic map of the Gulf of Guinea cul-desac. The map area lies within lat. 3/sup 0/-8/sup 0/N, and long. 2/sup 0/-9/sup 0/E. It covers the Nigerian portion of the Dahomey embayment, the Anambra and Niger delta basins, and the southern portion of the Benue rift. The map covers the location of the postulated Late Cretaceous triple junction involving the Benue Trough aulacogen, the northward-propagating South Atlantic, and the transform-dominated Equatorial Atlantic. In addition to the region seaward of the continental shelf, the map covers the Niger Delta basin, the basement of which is also inferred to consist mainly of oceanic crust prograded by the thick sediments of the Tertiary Niger delta. This areas is also the location of the Late Cretaceous coalescence of the North Atlantic and South Atlantic spreading systems hitherto separate from one another. This new aeromagnetic map fills an important data gap (due to proprietary restrictions and acquisition difficulties) in previous studies of this oil-prolific and geologically unique province. The map would be useful in future structural and tectonics studies of the Gulf of Guinea cul-de-sac.

  20. Air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, F Handley

    1924-01-01

    I purpose (sic) in this paper to deal with the development in air transport which has taken place since civil aviation between England and the Continent first started at the end of August 1919. A great deal of attention has been paid in the press to air services of the future, to the detriment of the consideration of results obtained up to the present.

  1. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  2. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  3. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  4. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Sunday, April 9, 2017 About | Contact InfoBites Quick ... general dentist, who has been trained in restorative dentistry techniques, will perform any procedures that use air- ...

  5. Effects of acidic water in combination with aluminum on swimming behavior and survival of yolk-sac larval in Goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Vahid; Imanpoor, Mohammad Reza; Hosseinzadeh, Mahboubeh; Azarin, Hajar

    2013-12-01

    Yolk-sac fry of Goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio) were exposed to various concentrations of Al and pH for 3, 7 and 10 days. In this study number of dead fish, total length of larvae, yolk sac length, swimming activity, the number of gill cover movements and the number of heart beat was measured. The lowest and highest number of gill cover movements belong to the waters containing 50 mg L-1 of aluminum, pH 5.25 and acidic waters with pH 6.7 respectively. There was no significant difference in the number of heartbeat between control group and larvae exposure to acidic waters with pH 6.7 and waters containing 150 mgL-1 of aluminum and the highest number of heartbeat belong to these larvae than other experiment doses. The larval of Goldfish in the all experiment doses lost their swimming ability after 3 days. The highest number of swimming larvae and also lowest number of non-swimming larvae significantly belong to control group compared to other experiment doses (p < 0.05). The larval in the control group only were maintained their swimming activity after 7 and 10 days and in the all experiment treatments lost their swimming ability. There was significant difference in the number of dead larvae and the number of non-swimming larvae between control group and larvae exposure to acidic waters and waters containing 300 mgL-1 of aluminum and pH 4.75 (p < 0.05) and lowest number of non-swimming larvae was observed in the control group. Also the highest of yolk sac length belong to the waters containing 600 mgL-1 of aluminum and pH 4.75. The larvae of Goldfish were not survived in the waters containing 300 and 600 mgL-1 of aluminum and waters with low acidity after 7 days.

  6. Don't forget the porpoise: acoustic monitoring reveals fine scale temporal variation between bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise in Cardigan Bay SAC.

    PubMed

    Nuuttila, Hanna K; Courtene-Jones, Winnie; Baulch, Sarah; Simon, Malene; Evans, Peter G H

    2017-01-01

    Populations of bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise inhabit Cardigan Bay, which was designated a Special Area of Conservation (SAC), with bottlenose dolphin listed as a primary feature for its conservation status. Understanding the abundance, distribution and habitat use of species is fundamental for conservation and the implementation of management. Bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise usage of feeding sites within Cardigan Bay SAC was examined using passive acoustic monitoring. Acoustic detections recorded with calibrated T-PODs (acoustic data loggers) indicated harbour porpoise to be present year round and in greater relative abundance than bottlenose dolphin. Fine-scale temporal partitioning between the species occurred at three levels: (1) seasonal differences, consistent between years, with porpoise detections peaking in winter months and dolphin detections in summer months; (2) diel variation, consistent across sites, seasons and years, with porpoise detections highest at night and dolphin detections highest shortly after sunrise; and (3) tidal variation was observed with peak dolphin detections occurring during ebb at the middle of the tidal cycle and before low tide, whereas harbour porpoise detections were highest at slack water, during and after high water with a secondary peak recorded during and after low water. General Additive Models (GAMs) were applied to better understand the effects of each covariate. The reported abundance and distribution of the two species, along with the temporal variation observed, have implications for the design and management of protected areas. Currently, in the UK, no SACs have been formally designated for harbour porpoise while three exist for bottlenose dolphins. Here, we demonstrate a need for increased protection and species-specific mitigation measures for harbour porpoise.

  7. Molecular cloning of otoconin-22 complementary deoxyribonucleic acid in the bullfrog endolymphatic sac: effect of calcitonin on otoconin-22 messenger ribonucleic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tomura, Hideaki; Sasayama, Yuichi; Kikuyama, Sakae; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2003-08-01

    Anuran amphibians have a special organ called the endolymphatic sac (ELS), containing many calcium carbonate crystals, which is believed to have a calcium storage function. The major protein of aragonitic otoconia, otoconin-22, which is considered to be involved in the formation of calcium carbonate crystals, has been purified from the saccule of the Xenopus inner ear. In this study, we cloned a cDNA encoding otoconin-22 from the cDNA library constructed for the paravertebral lime sac (PVLS) of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, and sequenced it. The bullfrog otoconin-22 encoded a protein consisting of 147 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 20 amino acids. The protein had cysteine residues identical in a number and position to those conserved among the secretory phospholipase A(2) family. The mRNA of bullfrog otoconin-22 was expressed in the ELS, including the PVLS and inner ear. This study also revealed the presence of calcitonin receptor-like protein in the ELS, with the putative seven-transmembrane domains of the G protein-coupled receptors. The ultimobranchialectomy induced a prominent decrease in the otoconin-22 mRNA levels of the bullfrog PVLS. Supplementation of the ultimobranchialectomized bullfrogs with synthetic salmon calcitonin elicited a significant increase in the mRNA levels of the sac. These findings suggest that calcitonin secreted from the ultimobranchial gland, regulates expression of bullfrog otoconin-22 mRNA via calcitonin receptor-like protein on the ELS, thereby stimulating the formation of calcium carbonate crystals in the lumen of the ELS.

  8. Aplicación del método SAC a líneas de Fe II en atmósferas extendidas de estrellas Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, M. L.; Zorec, J.; Cidale, L.; Morrell, N.; Friedjung, M.; Chauville, J.; Ballereau, D.

    En el presente trabajo hemos analizado las líneas de Fe II en emisión, para varios multipletes en el rango óptico, presentes en los espectros de un grupo de estrellas Be. Mediante la aplicación del método de curvas de autoabsorción (SAC), obtenemos una estimación del valor de los parámetros característicos de la región en la cual se forman dichas líneas, tales como temperatura de excitación, opacidad y dimensión.

  9. Biology of the subtropical sac-spawning euphausiid Nyctiphanes simplex in the northwestern seas of Mexico: Interbrood period, gonad development, and lipid content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Jaime; Rodríguez-Jaramillo, Carmen; Del Ángel-Rodríguez, Jorge; Robinson, Carlos J.; Zavala-Hernández, Christian; Martínez-Gómez, Samuel; Tremblay, Nelly

    2010-04-01

    Interbrood period, gonad development, and total lipid content throughout the oogenesis and spermatogenesis processes of the subtropical euphausiid Nyctiphanes simplex were studied. Specimens were collected during six oceanographic cruises in Bahía Magdalena (March, July, and December 2004) and in the Gulf of California (November 2005 and January and July 2007). Females attained first spawning when ˜7.5 mm total length (>52 days old). Histological evidence indicates that N. simplex females have group-synchronous ovaries, able to produce four broods per gonadic cycle, since ovigerous females develop simultaneously in three and four distinct substages (Oc1, Oc2, Oc3, and Oc4) in their gonads. Once females mature, as shown by pale pink gonads, they may reabsorb their gonads in <4 days. Direct observations indicate that after a variable resting period, the formation of oogonia to vitellogenesis takes ˜3 days, investing ˜8% (4-14%) of weight-specific carbon body weight to reproduction (lipid approach) with an average interbrood period of 10 days (range: 7-26 days, estimated by three distinct methods). About 22% of the ovigerous females in the metanauplius stage show gonad development in vitellogenesis, likely spawning between 7 and 9 days. The rest of the female population have an interbrood period that is considerably >10 days. Embryonic development in the ovigerous sac last <3 days (16 °C), hatching always as nauplius (usually 100% hatching success); the metanauplii are released from the ovigerous sac in a median of 5 days after spawning. Although sac-spawning euphausiid species may have comparatively lower total fecundity than broadcast-spawning species, they seem to have relatively similar reproductive effort and higher hatching success that increases larval recruitment rates, compared to similar size temperate broadcast-spawners. This partially explains why sac-spawners of the genera Nyctiphanes, Nematoscelis, and Pseudeuphausia are numerically dominant

  10. Three-dimensional conformal versus non-graphic radiation treatment planning for apocrine gland adenocarcinoma of the anal sac in 18 dogs (2002-2007).

    PubMed

    Keyerleber, M A; Gieger, T L; Erb, H N; Thompson, M S; McEntee, M C

    2012-12-01

    Differences in dose homogeneity and irradiated volumes of target and surrounding normal tissues between 3D conformal radiation treatment planning and simulated non-graphic manual treatment planning were evaluated in 18 dogs with apocrine gland adenocarcinoma of the anal sac. Overall, 3D conformal treatment planning resulted in more homogenous dose distribution to target tissues with lower hot spots and dose ranges. Dose homogeneity and guarantee of not under-dosing target tissues with 3D conformal planning came at the cost, however, of delivering greater mean doses of radiation and of irradiating greater volumes of surrounding normal tissue structures.

  11. Freshwater resources and saline water near the Sac and Fox Nation tribal lands, eastern Lincoln County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Marvin M.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the freshwater resources and possible sources of high-chloride and high-sulfate concentrations in parts of the aquifer near the Sac and Fox Nation tribal land in eastern Lincoln County, Oklahoma. Water-quality sampling and borehole geophysical data indicate the potential for fresh ground water on tribal land generally is greatest in the Vanoss Formation, in the SE1/4 sec. 21, T. 14 N., R. 06 E. and in the NE1/4 sec. 22, T. 14 N., R. 06 E. These locations avoid the flood-prone areas and borehole geophysical resistivity logs indicate the altitude of the base of fresh ground water is below 650 ft. The altitude of the base of fresh ground water is indicated to be generally near the surface under the W1/2 sec. 22, T. 14 N., R. 06 E., the SE1/4 sec. 22, SE1/4 SE1/4 NE1/4 sec. 21, and NE1/4 NW1/4 NW1/4 sec. 27. Conditions are more favorable for placement of fresh ground-water wells in sec. 34, T. 14 N., R. 06 E., where the tribe has leased water rights, than on tribal land in secs. 15, 16, 21, and 22, T. 14 N., R. 06 E. Sandstones overlain by or enclosed in thick clay and shale sequences are likely to be somewhat isolated from the flow system and retain some of the residual brine. Borehole geophysical logs suggest that sandstones near CH1, CM1, and WT1 have more clay and shale content than the sandstones near L2. Greater amounts of clay in the sandstones will retard the flushing of residual brines from the sandstones and could result in a shallow base of fresh water near CH1, CM1, and WT1. For these reasons and because circulation of fresh ground water is limited by discharge to the Deep Fork, general water quality under tribal land would probably be poorer than in the area where the tribe has leased water rights. Samples have chloride or sulfate concentrations greater than 250 milligrams per liter in the W1/2 sec. 22, T. 14 N., R. 06 E. Six cluster well samples from tribal land have chloride or sulfate concentrations above the

  12. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Air Toxics Website Rules and Implementation Related Information Air Quality Data and Tools Clean Air Act Criteria Air ... Resources Visibility and Haze Voluntary Programs for Improving Air Quality Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, ...

  13. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  14. The Sac1 domain of SYNJ1 identified mutated in a family with early-onset progressive parkinsonism with generalized seizures

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Catharine E.; Karkheiran, Siamak; Powell, James C.; Cao, Mian; Makarov, Vladimir; Darvish, Hossein; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Walker, Ruth H.; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; De Camilli, Pietro; Yue, Zhenyu; Paisán-Ruiz, Coro

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the genetic causes underlying early-onset parkinsonism (EOP) in a consanguineous Iranian family. To attain this, homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing were performed. As a result, a homozygous mutation (c.773G>A; p.Arg258Gln) lying within the NH2-terminal Sac1-like inositol phosphatase domain of polyphosphoinositide phosphatase synaptojanin 1 (SYNJ1), which has been implicated in the regulation of endocytic traffic at synapses, was identified as the disease-segregating mutation. This mutation impaired the phosphatase activity SYNJ1 against its Sac1 domain substrates in vitro. We concluded that the SYNJ1 mutation identified here is responsible for the EOP phenotype seen in our patients probably due to deficiencies in its phosphatase activity and consequent impairment of its synaptic functions. Our finding not only opens new avenues of investigation in the synaptic dysfunction mechanisms associated with parkinsonism, but also suggests phosphoinositide metabolism as a novel therapeutic target for parkinsonism. PMID:23804563

  15. Dietary amino acids fed in free form or as protein do differently affect amino acid absorption in a rat everted sac model.

    PubMed

    Nolles, J A; Peeters, I G S; Bremer, B I; Moorman, R; Koopmanschap, R E; Verstegen, M W A; Schreurs, V V A M

    2008-10-01

    In the present study, the effect of free amino acid (FAA) diets on the intestinal absorption rate of methionine and leucine was studied 'ex vivo' with rats adapted for different periods of time to the diets, using the everted sac method. The adaptation period to the 21% FAA diet with an amino acid content based on casein was either, 0 (no adaptation, N-ADA), 5 (short-term adaptation, ST-ADA), or 26-33 days (long-term adaptation, LT-ADA). Within the ST-ADA and the LT-ADA groups, three different levels of methionine were included: 50%, 100% and 200% of the level normally present in casein. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric. After the adaptation period (0, 5, or 26-33 days), intestinal everted sacs were prepared. Methionine or leucine was added to the medium as transport substrate. The methionine absorption rate of the rats of the LT-ADA groups was higher than that of the N-ADA groups. Furthermore, adaptation to 200% dietary methionine levels caused a significantly slower leucine absorption compared to the 100%, and 50% group. Methionine absorption was similar in the 100% and 200% groups, but the absorption of methionine in the 50% group was enhanced in the distal part of the intestines. We concluded that in response diets with 21% FAAs as only amino acid source, amino acid absorption is decreased to avoid toxic effects of high levels of methionine in the circulation.

  16. /Air Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Samar; Sohn, Hong Yong; Kim, Hang Goo

    2014-08-01

    Molten magnesium oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air causing melt loss and handling difficulties. The use of certain additive gases such as SF6, SO2, and CO2 to form a protective MgO layer over a magnesium melt has been proposed. The oxidation behavior of molten magnesium in air containing various concentrations of SF6 was investigated. Measurements of the kinetics of the oxide layer growth at various SF6 concentrations in air and temperatures were made. Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis unit in the temperature range of 943 K to 1043 K (670 °C to 770 °C). Results showed that a thin, coherent, and protective MgF2 layer was formed under SF6/Air mixtures, with a thickness ranging from 300 nm to 3 μm depending on SF6 concentration, temperature, and exposure time. Rate parameters were calculated and a model for the process was developed. The morphology and composition of the surface films were studied using scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscope.

  17. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  18. Installation Restoration Program, Phase I: Records Search, Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    was first activated, with the exception of 1957 to 1961, when it was used by Strategic Air Command (SAC). The type of aircraft used in pilot training...Operations at Listed Sites NoI -- Potential Hazard to Health Welfare Ye i~elt e S e1 or Environment Refer to Installation NedfrFthrRP Environmental...during Phase I of the IRP and recommendations for any necessary Phase II action. The objective of Phase I was to identify the potential for

  19. In vitro potential modulation of baicalin and baicalein on P-glycoprotein activity and expression in Caco-2 cells and rat gut sacs.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qing; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Miao, Peipei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yujie; Ma, Shuangcheng

    2016-09-01

    Context Previous studies have shown that Scutellariae Radix, the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Labiatae), has a certain inhibitory effect on P-glycoprotein (P-gp), but the effects of its main active constituents on P-gp are still ambiguous. Objectives In vitro studies were performed to investigate the effects of its main active constituents (baicalin and its aglycone, baicalein) on the activity and expression of P-gp in intestine using Caco-2 cells and rat gut sacs. Materials and methods In Caco-2 cell experiments, the effects of baicalin and baicalein on P-gp activity were investigated using a P-gp substrate, rhodamine 123 and non-substrate fluorescein Na, by determining their intracellular fluorescence accumulation, and their effects on P-gp expression were determined using flow cytometry. In addition, rat gut sac model was selected to investigate the effects of baicalin and baicalein on the transport of verapamil, a classical P-gp substrate. The gut sacs of male Sprague-Dawley rats were filled with 0.4 mL the test solution contained verapamil (0.2575 mg/mL) and the drugs [baicalin and baicalein, at concentrations of 1/8 IC50 (59.875, 41.5 μg/mL), 1/4 IC50 (119.75, 83 μg/mL) and 1/2 IC50 (239.5, 166 μg/mL)], and then incubated in Tyrode's solution for a period of time. After termination of the incubation, the incubated solution was processed for the subsequent detection. Results According to the results of MTT assay, the IC50 values of verapamil, baicalin and baicalein were 104, 479, 332 μg/mL, respectively. The obtained results from the two models were confirmed mutually. As a result, baicalin exhibited no obvious effect on intracellular accumulation of Rh-123, and almost had no effect on P-gp expression and verapamil transportation, while baicalein significantly increased intracellular accumulation of Rh-123 (p < 0.01), down-regulated P-gp expression (p < 0.01) and increased the transport of verapamil (p < 0

  20. Air pollution.

    PubMed

    Le, Nhu D; Sun, Li; Zidek, James V

    2010-01-01

    Toxic air pollutants are continuously released into the air supply. Various pollutants come from chemical facilities and small businesses, such as automobile service stations and dry cleaning establishments. Others, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other volatile organic chemicals, arise primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) and are emitted from sources that include car exhausts, home heating and industrial power plants. Pollutants in the atmosphere also result from photochemical transformations; for example, ozone is formed when molecular oxygen or nitrogen interacts with ultraviolet radiation. An association between air pollution exposure and lung cancer has been observed in several studies. The evidence for other cancers is far less conclusive. Estimates of the population attributable risk of cancer has varied substantially over the last 40 years, reflecting the limitations of studies; these include insufficient information on confounders, difficulties in characterizing associations due to a likely lengthy latency interval, and exposure misclassification. Although earlier estimates were less than one percent, recent cohort studies that have taken into account some confounding factors, such as smoking and education amongst others, suggest that approximately 3.6% of lung cancer in the European Union could be due to air pollution exposure, particularly to sulphate and fine particulates. A separate cohort study estimated 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers could be due to air pollution exposure. Therefore, while cigarette smoking remains the predominant risk factor, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to air pollution may be higher than previously thought. Overall, major weaknesses in all air-pollution-and-cancer studies to date have been inadequate characterization of long-term air pollution exposure and imprecise or no measurements of covariates. It has only been in the last

  1. Cloning, expression, purification and physical and kinetic characterization of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from orange (Citrus sinensis osbeck var. Valencia) fruit juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Perotti, Valeria E; Figueroa, Carlos M; Andreo, Carlos S; Iglesias, Alberto A; Podestá, Florencio E

    2010-11-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase (PEPCase) from orange fruit juice sacs has been cloned and heterogously expressed in high yield. The purified recombinant enzyme displays properties typical of plant PEPCase, including activation by sugar phosphates and inhibition by malate and citrate. Malate inhibition is weak in the physiological pH range, and the enzyme is also poorly affected by Glu and Asp, known inhibitors of C(3) plants PEPCases. However, it is strongly inhibited by citrate. Orange fruit PEPCase phosphorylation by mammalian protein kinase A decreased inhibition by malate. The enzyme presents an unusual high molecular mass in the absence of PEP, while in its presence it displays a more common tetrameric arrangement. The overall properties of the enzyme suggest that it is suited for organic acid synthesis and NADH reoxidation in the mature fruit. The present study provides the first analysis of a recombinant fruit PEPCase.

  2. Differential gene regulation by V(IV) and V (V) ions in the branchial sac, intestine, and blood cells of a vanadium-rich ascidian, Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Kume, Satoshi; Ueki, Tatsuya; Matsuoka, Hiroki; Hamada, Mayuko; Satoh, Nori; Michibata, Hitoshi

    2012-10-01

    Ascidians are hyperaccumulators that have been studied in detail. Proteins and genes involved in the accumulation process have been identified, but regulation of gene expression related to vanadium accumulation remains unknown. To gain insights into the regulation of gene expression by vanadium in a genome-wide manner, we performed a comprehensive study on the effect of excess vanadium ions on a vanadium-rich ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, using a microarray. RT-PCR and enzyme activity assay were performed from the perspective of redox and accumulation of metal ions in each tissue. Glutathione metabolism-related proteins were significantly up-regulated by V(IV) treatment. Several genes involved in the transport of vanadium and protons, such as Nramp and V-ATPase, were significantly up-regulated by V(IV) treatment. We observed significant up-regulation of glutathione synthesis and degradation pathways in the intestine and branchial sac. In blood cells, expression of Ci-Vanabin4, glutathione reductase activity, glutathione levels, and vanadium concentration increased after V(IV) treatment. V(IV) treatment induced significant changes related to vanadium exclusion, seclusion, and redox pathways in the intestine and branchial sac. It also induced an enhancement of the vanadium reduction and accumulation cascade in blood cells. These differential responses in each tissue in the presence of excess vanadium ions suggest that vanadium accumulation and reduction may have regulatory functions. This is the first report on the gene regulation by the treatment of vanadium-rich ascidians with excess vanadium ions. It provided much information for the mechanism of regulation of gene expression related to vanadium accumulation.

  3. Unenhanced Cone Beam Computed Tomography and Fusion Imaging in Direct Percutaneous Sac Injection for Treatment of Type II Endoleak: Technical Note

    SciTech Connect

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo Ierardi, Anna Maria; Radaelli, Alessandro; Marchi, Giuseppe De; Floridi, Chiara; Piffaretti, Gabriele; Federico, Fontana

    2016-03-15

    AimTo evaluate safety, feasibility, technical success, and clinical success of direct percutaneous sac injection (DPSI) for the treatment of type II endoleaks (T2EL) using anatomical landmarks on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and fusion imaging (FI).Materials and MethodsEight patients with T2EL were treated with DPSI using CBCT as imaging guidance. Anatomical landmarks on unenhanced CBCT were used for referencing T2EL location in the first five patients, while FI between unenhanced CBCT and pre-procedural computed tomography angiography (CTA) was used in the remaining three patients. Embolization was performed with thrombin, glue, and ethylene–vinyl alcohol copolymer. Technical and clinical success, iodinated contrast utilization, procedural time, fluoroscopy time, and mean radiation dose were registered.ResultsDPSI was technically successful in all patients: the needle was correctly positioned at the first attempt in six patients, while in two of the first five patients the needle was repositioned once. Neither minor nor major complications were registered. Average procedural time was 45 min and the average administered iodinated contrast was 13 ml. Mean radiation dose of the procedure was 60.43 Gy cm{sup 2} and mean fluoroscopy time was 18 min. Clinical success was achieved in all patients (mean follow-up of 36 months): no sign of T2EL was reported in seven patients until last CT follow-up, while it persisted in one patient with stability of sac diameter.ConclusionsDPSI using unenhanced CBCT and FI is feasible and provides the interventional radiologist with an accurate and safe alternative to endovascular treatment with limited iodinated contrast utilization.

  4. Effect of different postharvest temperatures on the accumulation of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hikaru; Ikoma, Yoshinori

    2012-10-03

    To elucidate the effect of different postharvest temperatures on the accumulation of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids and to determine the best temperature to minimize their postharvest change, their content after harvest was investigated at 5, 10, 20, and 30 °C for 14 days in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Aoshima-unshiu) fruit. In all sugars, the changes were negligible at all temperatures. Organic acids decreased slightly at all temperatures, with the exception of malic acid at 30 °C, which increased slightly. Two amino acids, ornithine and glutamine, increased at 5 °C, but they did not increase at other temperatures. In 11 amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, isoleucine, leucine, valine, threonine, lysine, methionine, histidine, and γ-amino butyric acid), the content was higher at 20 and 30 °C than at other temperatures. Thus, the content of amino acids was more variable than that of sugars and organic acids in response to temperatures. Moreover, amino acids responded to temperature differently: two amino acids were cold responsive, and 11 were heat-responsive. The best temperature to minimize the postharvest changes in amino acid profiles in the juice sacs of Aoshima-unshiu was 10 °C. The responsiveness to temperatures in two cold-responsive (ornithine and glutamine) and five heat-responsive (phenylalanine, tryptophan, valine, lysine, and histidine) amino acids was conserved among three different Satsuma mandarin cultivars, Aoshima-unshiu (late-maturing cultivar), Silverhill (midmaturing cultivar), and Miyagawa-wase (early-maturing cultivar). The metabolic responsiveness to temperature stress was discussed on the basis of the changes in the amino acid profile.

  5. Air Quality System (AQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  6. Air cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Okiyoshi; Wakasa, Masayuki; Tamanoi, Yoshihito

    1991-04-01

    The present invention relates to an air cell. This air cell provides a compact light-weight power source for model aircraft permitting them to fly for an extended period so that they may be used for such practical purposes as crop dusting, surveying, and photographing. The cell is comprised of a current collector so disposed between a magnesium, zinc, or aluminum alloy cathode and a petroleum graphite anode that it is in contact with the anode. The anode is formed by adding polytetrafluoroethylene dispersion liquid in a mixture of active carbon and graphite powder, pouring the mixture into a mold and heating it to form the anode. It is fabricated by a plurality of anode sections and is formed with at least one hole so that it can provide a cell which is compact in size and light in weight yet is capable of generating a high output. The anode, the cathode, and a separator are wetted by an electrolytic liquid. The electrolyte is continuously supplied through the life of the cell.

  7. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  8. Mammalian inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase II can compensate for the absence of all three yeast Sac1-like-domain-containing 5-phosphatases.

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, C J; McColl, B K; Kong, A M; Ellis, S L; Wijayaratnam, A P; Sambrook, J; Mitchell, C A

    2001-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P(2)] plays a complex role in generating intracellular signalling molecules, and also in regulating actin-binding proteins, vesicular trafficking and vacuolar fusion. Four inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (hereafter called 5-phosphatases) have been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Inp51p, Inp52p, Inp53p and Inp54p. Each enzyme contains a 5-phosphatase domain which hydrolyses PtdIns(4,5)P(2), forming PtdIns4P, while Inp52p and Inp53p also express a polyphosphoinositide phosphatase domain within the Sac1-like domain. Disruption of any two yeast 5-phosphatases containing a Sac1-like domain results in abnormalities in actin polymerization, plasma membrane, vacuolar morphology and bud-site selection. Triple null mutant 5-phosphatase strains are non-viable. To investigate the role of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) in mediating the phenotype of double and triple 5-phosphatase null mutant yeast, we determined whether a mammalian PtdIns(4,5)P(2) 5-phosphatase, 5-phosphatase II, which lacks polyphosphoinositide phosphatase activity, could correct the phenotype of triple 5-phosphatase null mutant yeast and restore cellular PtdIns(4,5)P(2) levels to near basal values. Mammalian 5-phosphatase II expressed under an inducible promoter corrected the growth, cell wall, vacuolar and actin polymerization defects of the triple 5-phosphatase null mutant yeast strains. Cellular PtdIns(4,5)P(2) levels in various 5-phosphatase double null mutant strains demonstrated significant accumulation (4.5-, 3- and 2-fold for Deltainp51Deltainp53, Deltainp51Deltainp52 and Deltainp52Deltainp53 double null mutants respectively), which was corrected significantly following 5-phosphatase II expression. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the functional and cellular consequences of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) accumulation and the evolutionary conservation of function between mammalian and yeast PtdIns(4,5)P(2) 5-phosphatases. PMID:11311145

  9. Transformation of a Ruptured Giant Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm into an Air Cavity After Transcatheter Embolization in a Behcet's Patient

    SciTech Connect

    Cil, Barbaros E. Turkbey, Baris; Canyigit, Murat; Kumbasar, Ozlem O.; Celik, Gokhan; Demirkazik, Figen B.

    2006-02-15

    Pulmonary artery aneurysms due to Behcet's disease are mainly seen in young males and very rarely in females. To our knowledge there are only 10 cases reported in the related literature. Emergent transcatheter embolization was performed in a female patient with a known history of Behcet's disease in whom massive hemoptysis developed because of rupture of a giant pulmonary artery aneurysm. At 6-month follow-up, transformation of the aneurysm sac into an air cavity was detected. To our knowledge, such a transformation has never been reported in the literature before. Embolization of the pulmonary artery aneurysm and the mechanism of cavity transformation are reviewed and discussed.

  10. Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... can protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  11. Air Sensor Toolbox

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  12. HEPA air filter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  13. Needed: Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on air pollution for young readers. Discusses damage to substances and sickness from air pollution, air quality, and what to do in a pollution alert. Includes questions with answers, illustrations, and activities for the learner. (MA)

  14. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  15. Novel, high-yield red blood cell production methods from CD34-positive cells derived from human embryonic stem, yolk sac, fetal liver, cord blood, and peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Emmanuel; Qiu, Caihong; Bouhassira, Eric E

    2012-08-01

    The current supply of red blood cells expressing rare blood groups is not sufficient to cover all the existing transfusion needs for chronically transfused patients, such as sickle cell disease homozygous carriers, because of alloimmunization. In vitro production of cultured red blood cells is slowly emerging as a possible complement to the existing collection-based red blood cell procurement system. The yield of cultured red blood cells can theoretically be maximized by amplifying the stem, progenitor, or precursor compartment. Here, we combined methods designed to expand these three compartments to optimize the yield of cultured red blood cells and found that exposing CD34(+) cells to a short pulse of cytokines favorable for erythroid differentiation prior to stem cell expansion followed by progenitor expansion produced the highest yield of erythroid cells. This novel serum-free red blood cell production protocol was efficient on CD34(+) cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, 6-8-week yolk sacs, 16-18-week fetal livers, cord blood, and peripheral blood. The yields of cells obtained with these new protocols were larger by an order of magnitude than the yields observed previously. Globin expression analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that these expansion protocols generally yielded red blood cells that expressed a globin profile similar to that expected for the developmental age of the CD34(+) cells.

  16. Establishment of the Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) and Infestation of its Egg Sacs by a Parasitoid, Philolema latrodecti (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), in French Polynesia and the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Marie, Jérôme; Vetter, Richard S

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents two newly established species for French Polynesia: the invasive brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, and its potential biocontrol agent, the parasitoid wasp, Philolema latrodecti (Fullaway). The brown widow spider was recorded from the island of Moorea in 2006 and, since that discovery, the occurrence of this species has expanded to two of the five archipelagos of French Polynesia including the main island of Tahiti and four of the Cook Islands. Although the tropical climate contributes to the establishment of L. geometricus, a biotic factor, P. latrodecti, may restrain population from demographic explosion. This eurytomid wasp is present in French Polynesia and is a parasitoid that has been used in biological control of the southern black widow Latrodectus mactans (F.) in Hawaii. This wasp could become a significant limiting factor for L. geometricus distribution on these islands, as it was found in 31% of the Tahitian brown widow spider egg sacs that were dissected. However, thus far, the wasp was only found on Tahiti in association with the brown widow spider. Although the brown widow is generally considered to be less toxic than its black widow relatives, it remains of medical concern in French Polynesia because reactions to its bites can, at times, be severe. The spider remains of public concern because it is a novel species; it has the word widow in its name and dark morphs are mistaken as black widows.

  17. The Role of Elastic and Plastic Anisotropy of Sn in Recrystallization and Damage Evolution During Thermal Cycling in SAC305 Solder Joints

    SciTech Connect

    Bieler, Thomas R.; Zhou, Bite; Blair, Lauren; Zamiri, Amir; Darbandi, Payam; Pourboghrat, Farhang; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Liu, Kuo-Chuan

    2013-04-08

    Because failures in lead-free solder joints occur at locations other than the most highly shear-strained regions, reliability prediction is challenging. To gain physical understanding of this phenomenon, physically based understanding of how elastic and plastic deformation anisotropy affect microstructural evolution during thermomechanical cycling is necessary. Upon solidification, SAC305 (Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu) solder joints are usually single or tricrystals. The evolution of microstructures and properties is characterized statistically using optical and orientation imaging microscopy. In situ synchrotron x-ray measurements during thermal cycling are used to examine how crystal orientation and thermal cycling history change strain history. Extensive characterization of a low-stress plastic ball grid array (PBGA) package design at different stages of cycling history is compared with preliminary experiments using higher-stress package designs. With time and thermal history, microstructural evolution occurs mostly from continuous recrystallization and particle coarsening that is unique to each joint, because of the specific interaction between local thermal and displacement boundary conditions and the strong anisotropic elastic, plastic, expansion, and diffusional properties of Sn crystals. The rate of development of recrystallized microstructures is a strong function of strain and aging. Cracks form at recrystallized (random) boundaries, and then percolate through recrystallized regions. Complications arising from electromigration and corrosion are also considered.

  18. Serum alpha-fetoprotein subfractions identified by Ricinus communis agglutinin I in hepatic malignancies, yolk sac tumor, benign hepatic diseases, and fetal stage.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, T; Takahashi, Y

    1989-01-01

    Using Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA-I) affinity crossed-line immunoelectrophoresis, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) subfractions were studied in sera from patients with primary hepatic cancer (PHC), hepatic metastasis of gastric cancer (HMGC), yolk sac tumor (YST), acute or chronic hepatitis or hepatic cirrhosis. Fetal AFP subfractions were also examined in amniotic fluids or in culture fluids of fetal tissues. RCA-I non-reactive subfraction was commonly found in PHC, HMGC, YST, benign hepatic diseases, and fetal stage. RCA-I weakly reactive (WR) or strongly reactive (SR) subfraction was noted only in malignant diseases. RCA-I has a specific affinity to terminal galactose in oligosaccharide, and the presence of sialic acid on galactose residue(s) inhibits the affinity with RCA-I. Therefore, common AFP subfraction non-reactive with RCA-I was assumed to be galactosialyl form, while RCA-I WR and SR subfractions found only in malignancies were monogalactosyl and digalactosyl, respectively. Clinically this approach to detect the RCA-I WR or SR subfraction facilitates a differential diagnosis of AFP-producing malignancies and benign conditions.

  19. CM5, a Pre-Swarm Comprehensive Geomagnetic Field Model Derived from Over 12 Yr of CHAMP, Orsted, SAC-C and Observatory Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Olsen, Nils; Tyler, Robert H.; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive magnetic field model named CM5 has been derived from CHAMP, Ørsted and SAC-C satellite and observatory hourly-means data from 2000 August to 2013 January using the Swarm Level-2 Comprehensive Inversion (CI) algorithm. Swarm is a recently launched constellation of three satellites to map the Earth's magnetic field. The CI technique includes several interesting features such as the bias mitigation scheme known as Selective Infinite Variance Weighting (SIVW), a new treatment for attitude error in satellite vector measurements, and the inclusion of 3-D conductivity for ionospheric induction. SIVW has allowed for a much improved lithospheric field recovery over CM4 by exploiting CHAMP along-track difference data yielding resolution levels up to spherical harmonic degree 107, and has allowed for the successful extraction of the oceanic M2 tidal magnetic field from quiet, nightside data. The 3-D induction now captures anomalous Solar-quiet features in coastal observatory daily records. CM5 provides a satisfactory, continuous description of the major magnetic fields in the near-Earth region over this time span, and its lithospheric, ionospheric and oceanic M2 tidal constituents may be used as validation tools for future Swarm Level-2 products coming from the CI algorithm and other dedicated product algorithms.

  20. Structural and energetic determinants of thermal stability and hierarchical unfolding pathways of hyperthermophilic proteins, Sac7d and Sso7d.

    PubMed

    Priyakumar, U Deva; Ramakrishna, S; Nagarjuna, K R; Reddy, S Karunakar

    2010-02-04

    Identification of the structural and energetic determinants responsible for enhancing the stability of proteins is crucial. Hyperthermophilic proteins are naturally occurring proteins that exhibit high thermal stability and are good candidates for the investigation and understanding of structure-stability relationships. Sac7d from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and Sso7d from Sulfolobus solfactaricus are two homologous hyperthermophilic proteins that were shown to be quite stable at high temperatures. Molecular dynamics simulations at the nanosecond time scale at different temperatures were performed to examine the factors affecting their stability. The three-dimensional structures of these proteins were observed to be similar to the experimental structure at 300 and 360 K but were found to undergo denaturation at 500 K. Both proteins exhibit similar unfolding pathways that correlates well with the calculated intermolecular interaction energies. The differential dynamic behaviors of these molecules at different temperatures were examined. Structural and energetic analysis of the contributions of salt bridges indicates a stabilizing effect at higher temperatures. However, the lifetimes of the salt bridges were found to be quite short, and several new salt bridges formed at 500 K supporting previous studies that the desolvation penalty due to the formation of salt bridges decreases at elevated temperatures. Hydrophobic interactions, which decrease with increase in temperature, were also found to be crucial in the stability of these proteins. Overall, the study shows that a balance among the salt bridge interactions, hydrophobic interactions, and solvent properties is primarily responsible for the high thermal stability of this class of proteins.

  1. Production of otoconia in the endolymphatic sac in the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster: light and transmission electron microscopic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, W.; Wiederhold, M. L.; Hejl, R.

    1998-01-01

    The formation of otoconia in the endolymphatic sac (ES) of the larval newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, has been studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. Some of the epithelial cells of the ES contain an abundance of swollen vesicles, Golgi complexes, rough endoplasmic reticula and ribosomes at the late larval stages 50 and 51, approximately 26-30 days after eggs are laid. Five days later, at stage 52, crystals are present in the vacuoles between the epithelial cells. Serial sections indicate that these vacuoles actually form small canals which lie in the wall and join the lumen of the ES. Reconstruction of the ES shows that several canals are contained in the ES wall. At stage 56, about 72 days after eggs are laid, a large number of otoconia are present in the ES lumen, while the otoconia disappear from the canals. It appears that the otoconia are first produced in the canals and then released to the lumen. Some epithelial cells of the ES are thought to expel the organic and inorganic material to the canals to form the otoconia in situ. The process of formation of the otoconia in the ES is discussed.

  2. Expressed sequence-tag analysis of ovaries of Brachiaria brizantha reveals genes associated with the early steps of embryo sac differentiation of apomictic plants.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Erica Duarte; Guimarães, Larissa Arrais; de Alencar Dusi, Diva Maria; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Martins, Natália Florencio; do Carmo Costa, Marcos Mota; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; de Campos Carneiro, Vera Tavares

    2012-02-01

    In apomixis, asexual mode of plant reproduction through seeds, an unreduced megagametophyte is formed due to circumvented or altered meiosis. The embryo develops autonomously from the unreduced egg cell, independently of fertilization. Brachiaria is a genus of tropical forage grasses that reproduces sexually or by apomixis. A limited number of studies have reported the sequencing of apomixis-related genes and a few Brachiaria sequences have been deposited at genebank databases. This work shows sequencing and expression analyses of expressed sequence-tags (ESTs) of Brachiaria genus and points to transcripts from ovaries with preferential expression at megasporogenesis in apomictic plants. From the 11 differentially expressed sequences from immature ovaries of sexual and apomictic Brachiaria brizantha obtained from macroarray analysis, 9 were preferentially detected in ovaries of apomicts, as confirmed by RT-qPCR. A putative involvement in early steps of Panicum-type embryo sac differentiation of four sequences from B. brizantha ovaries: BbrizHelic, BbrizRan, BbrizSec13 and BbrizSti1 is suggested. Two of these, BbrizSti1 and BbrizHelic, with similarity to a gene coding to stress induced protein and a helicase, respectively, are preferentially expressed in the early stages of apomictic ovaries development, especially in the nucellus, in a stage previous to the differentiation of aposporous initials, as verified by in situ hybridization.

  3. [Rat intestine absorption kinetics study on cucurbitacin B-sodium deoxycholate/phospholipid mixed nanomicelles with in vitro everted gut sacs model].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ling; Shen, Bao-de; Li, Juan-juan; Qiu, Ling; Shen, Gang; Zhang, Li-hong; Han, Jin; Yuan, Hai-long

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the absorption kinetics of Cu B-SDC/PLC-MMs in rat different intestinal segments and compared with the absorption of Cu B suspension. The in vitro everted gut sacs model was established to study the absorption characteristics of Cu B-SDC/ PLC-MMs in rat duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon, and the content of cucurbitacin B was detected by HPLC method, and the effects of concentrations on intestinal absorption were evaluated as well. The results showed that the absorption of Cu B-SDC/PLC-MMs was linearity at different intestine segment and different concentrations (R2 > 0.9), which was consistent with zero order rate process. The Ka of different intestine segments showed a concentration-dependent increasing along with the raised concentration of Cu B-SDC/ PLC-MMs, indicating that it was likely to be a mechanism of passive absorption. The best absorption site of Cu B-SDC/PLC-MMs was ileum, and its absorptions in different intestinal segments were superior to cucurbitacin B suspension. SDC/PLC-MMs could significantly enhance the intestinal absorption of cucurbitacin B, and the study of intestinal absorption kinetics of Cu B-SDC/PLC-MMs had gave a support to its further reasonable solidfication.

  4. Effects of blood and different media on the production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 by Staphylococcus aureus in the tampon sac method.

    PubMed

    Reiser, R F; Denzin, L K; Bergdoll, M S

    1988-12-01

    The use of three different agar concentrations in the tampon sac method resulted in slightly higher fluid uptake by the tampons when a 0.5% agar concentration was used. However, there was essentially no difference in the total amount of toxin produced. The largest amount of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 was produced with brain heart infusion agar, followed closely by 3% NZ-amine NAK-1% yeast extract medium. The addition of plasma and serum to the inoculum resulted in increases (62 and 73%, respectively) in toxin production. The addition of whole blood to the inoculum had a variable effect on toxin production, with an increase in the amount of toxin produced with some tampons and not with others. Over fivefold differences in the amount of toxin produced were obtained when duplicate experiments were done on successive days, whereas the differences were less than twofold for experiments done on the same day. This was related to the effect of small changes in the parameters on toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 production.

  5. Delineation by fluorescence in situ hybridization of a single hemizygous chromosomal region associated with aposporous embryo sac formation in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris.

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Shailendra; Chen, Zhenbang; Conner, Joann A; Akiyama, Yukio; Hanna, Wayne W; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2003-01-01

    Apomixis is a means of asexual reproduction by which plants produce embryos without meiosis and fertilization; thus the embryo is of clonal, maternal origin. We previously reported molecular markers showing no recombination with the trait for aposporous embryo sac development in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris, and the collective single-dose alleles defined an apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to confirm that the ASGR is a hemizygous genomic region and to determine its chromosomal position with respect to rDNA loci and centromere repeats. We also documented chromosome transmission from P. squamulatum in several backcrosses (BCs) with P. glaucum using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). One to three complete P. squamulatum chromosomes were detected in BC(6), but only one of the three hybridized with the ASGR-linked markers. In P. squamulatum and in all BCs examined, the apospory-linked markers were located in the distal region of the short arm of a single chromosome. All alien chromosomes behaved as univalents during meiosis and segregated randomly in BC(3) and later BC generations, but presence of the ASGR-carrier chromosome alone was sufficient to confer apospory. FISH results support our hypotheses that hemizygosity, proximity to centromeric sequences, and chromosome structure may all play a role in low recombination in the ASGR. PMID:12663545

  6. A strategic approach for direct recovery and stabilization of Fusarium sp. ICT SAC1 cutinase from solid state fermented broth by carrier free cross-linked enzyme aggregates.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Sandeep A; Singhal, Rekha S

    2017-05-01

    The major hurdles in commercial exploitation of cutinase (having both esterolytic and lipolytic activities) with potent industrial applications are its high production cost, operational instability and reusability. Although commercially available in immobilized form, its immobilization process (synthesis of support/carrier) makes it expensive. Herein we tried to address multiple issues of production cost, stability, and reusability, associated with cutinase. Waste watermelon rinds, an agroindustrial waste was considered as a cheap support for solid state fermentation (SSF) for cutinase production by newly isolated Fusarium sp. ICT SAC1. Subsequently, carrier free cross-linked enzyme aggregates of cutinase (cut-CLEA) directly from the SSF crude broth were developed. All the process variables affecting CLEA formation along with the different additives were evaluated. It was found that 50% (w/v) of ammonium sulphate, 125μmol of glutaraldehyde, cross-linking for 1h at 30°C and broth pH of 7.0, yielded 58.12% activity recovery. All other additives (hexane, butyric acid, sodium dodecyl sulphate, Trition-X 100, Tween-20, BSA) evaluated presented negative results to our hypothesis. Kinetics and morphology studies confirmed the diffusive nature of cut-CLEA and BSA cut-CLEA. Developed CLEA showed better thermal, solvent, detergent and storage stability, making it more elegant and efficient for industrial biocatalytic process.

  7. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  8. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  9. Comparison of Endobronchial and Tracheal Insufflation for Acute Respiratory Distress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-14

    end of the El catheters. Cardiogenic oscillations were the major mechanism in the most peripheral -6- 1,I3 airways, and jet-induced turbulence...investigators also examined the contribution of cardiogenic oscillations to the production of gas exchange during TRIO". They found that cardiogenic ...oscillations increased gas mixing about fourfold. The cardiogenic effect was independent of TRIO flow rates between 0.2 and 10 b’min. It can be

  10. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  11. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  12. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to threaten the lives and health of ... sources such as fires and dust contribute to air pollution. Learn more Fighting for Healthy Air The American ...

  13. Amino Acid Starvation Induced by Protease Inhibition Produces Differential Alterations in Redox Status and the Thiol Proteome in Organogenesis-Stage Rat Embryos and Visceral Yolk Sacs

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Craig; Jilek, Joseph L.; Sant, Karilyn E.; Pohl, Jan; Reed, Matthew; Hansen, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    The process of embryonic nutrition in rodent conceptuses during organogenesis has been shown to involve a dominant histiotrophic mechanism where essential developmental substrates and micronutrients are supplied as whole maternal proteins or cargoes associated with proteins. The histiotrophic nutrition pathways (HNP) responsible for uptake and initial processing of proteins across maternal-conceptal interfaces involve uptake via receptor mediated endocytosis and protein degradation via lysosomal proteolysis. Chemical inhibition of either process can lead to growth deficits and malformation in the embryo (EMB), but selective inhibition of either HNP component will elicit a different subset of developmental perturbations. In vitro, whole embryo culture (WEC) exposure of GD10 or GD11 rat conceptuses to the natural protease inhibitor, leupeptin, leads to significant reductions in all measured embryonic growth parameters as well as a myriad of other effects. Leupeptin doses of 10 μM or 20 μM over a 26 hr period (GD10-GD11) and 50 μM over a 3 hr pulse period produced significant decreases in the clearance of FITC-albumin from culture media. The near complete loss of acid soluble fluorescence and increased total visceral yolk sac (VYS) protein content confirmed the selective inhibition of proteolysis. Inhibition of lysosomal proteolysis thus deprives the developing EMB of essential nutrient amino acids producing conditions akin to amino acid starvation, but may also cause direct effects on pathways critical for normal growth and differentiation. Following leupeptin exposure for 26 or 6 hr, total glutathione (GSH) concentrations dropped significantly in the VYS, but only slightly in yolk sac (YSF) and amniotic (AF) fluids. Cys concentrations increased in VYS and EMB, but dropped in YSF and AF fluids. Redox potentials (Eh) for the GSSG/GSH redox couple trended significantly toward the positive, confirming the net oxidation of conceptual tissues following leupeptin

  14. Crustal structure and tectonic development of Gulf of Guinea Cul-deSac from integrated interpretation of new aeromagnetic and existing geophysical data

    SciTech Connect

    Babalola, O.O.

    1985-02-01

    Data-acquisition difficulties and propriety restrictions on industry data have necessitated liberal extrapolations and generalizations in previous tectono-structural studies of the Gulf of Guinea cul-de-sac. This region is the locus of a postulated Late Cretaceous triple junction whose arms were the transform-dominated Equatorial Atlantic, the northward-propagating South Atlantic, and the Benue Trough aulacogen. Oceanic crust has been inferred to underlie most of the thick sedimentary wedge of the oil-prolific Niger Delta basin. Integrated interpretation of new aeromagnetic data of the Geological Survey of Nigeria and existing geophysical data corroborates previous work on the general structure of the marginal basins. New aeromagnetic data, however, reveal a detail structure more complex than previously known. Low-frequency magnetic anomalies over the Niger delta indicate that oceanic crust extends northward to about Onitsha. From Onitsha, the edge of oceanic crust extends northward to about Onitsha. From Onitsha, the edge of oceanic crust trends southwestward along the Benin hinge line (an apparent continental continuation of either the Chain fracture zone or a new Okitipupa fracture zone) and also wiggles southeastward (adjoined by a wide margin of transitional crust) toward the shelf break off Cameroon. Linear magnetic anomalies trending northeast indicate about 7 fracture zones beneath the Niger Delta basin. The region of high-frequency magnetic anomalies west of the Niger delta represent the Okitipupa basement ridge complex, which separates the Niger Delta basin from the Dahomey embayment. In this embayment, 2 wide bands of intervening high- and low-frequency aeromagnetic anomalies are interpreted to represent a basement high or ridge and a fault-bonded trough, respectively.

  15. Advanced Observation Operators for GPS Radio Occultation. Part 1; Validation of the 2D Ray Tracing Approach with CHAMP and SAC-C bending angle and refractivity data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poli, P.; Joiner, J.

    2003-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) Radio Occultations (RO) bending angles and refractivity data characterize mostly the vertical structure of the Earth's atmosphere. We answer the question whether proper simulation of GPS RO data for data assimilation can be obtained with one-dimensional vertical operators, or if accounting also for horizontal atmospheric structures via ray-tracing makes a positive difference when compared with real data. We present a detailed implementation of a geometrical optics multi-plane two-dimensional (2D) ray-tracing as an observation operator to simulate GPS RO bending angles and refractivities within the Finite Volume Data Assimilation System (FVDAS). Comparisons of the outputs of that 2D observation operator with those of simpler ID observation operators are used to generate estimates of errors induced by neglecting tangent point drift (TPD) and horizontal gradients (HG). These error estimates are then confronted with errors estimates derived using 6335 real CHAMP and SAC-C occultations. The agreement for TPD-induced (HG-induced) errors is remarkably positive at altitudes 10-30 km (below 10 km). Comparisons in bending angles O - B STD of the outputs of the multi-plane 2D ray-tracer with those of a vertical Abel transform show reductions of about 8% of the usual O - B bending angle STD due to TPD in the stratosphere (3% due to HG, in the troposphere only). In terms of refractivity, the O - B STD reductions are about 1520% for TPD and 3-5% for HG in the same regions. These reductions are obtained using either 6-hour forecasts or analyses as backgrounds, and using Geometrical Optics (GO) or Canonical Transform (CT) data.

  16. Urea-based osmoregulation in the developing embryo of oviparous cartilaginous fish (Callorhinchus milii): contribution of the extraembryonic yolk sac during the early developmental period.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Wataru; Kajimura, Makiko; Tanaka, Hironori; Hasegawa, Kumi; Bell, Justin D; Toop, Tes; Donald, John A; Hyodo, Susumu

    2014-04-15

    Marine cartilaginous fish retain a high concentration of urea to maintain the plasma slightly hyperosmotic to the surrounding seawater. In adult fish, urea is produced by hepatic and extrahepatic ornithine urea cycles (OUCs). However, little is known about the urea retention mechanism in developing cartilaginous fish embryos. In order to address the question as to the mechanism of urea-based osmoregulation in developing embryos, the present study examined the gene expression profiles of OUC enzymes in oviparous holocephalan elephant fish (Callorhinchus milii) embryos. We found that the yolk sac membrane (YSM) makes an important contribution to the ureosmotic strategy of the early embryonic period. The expression of OUC enzyme genes was detectable in the embryonic body from at least stage 28, and increased markedly during development to hatching, which is most probably due to growth of the liver. During the early developmental period, however, the expression of OUC enzyme genes was not prominent in the embryonic body. Meanwhile, we found that the mRNA expression of OUC enzymes was detected in the extra-embryonic YSM; the mRNA expression of cmcpsIII in the YSM was much higher than that in the embryonic body during stages 28-31. Significant levels of enzyme activity and the existence of mitochondrial-type cmgs1 transcripts in the YSM supported the mRNA findings. We also found that the cmcpsIII transcript is localized in the vascularized inner layer of the YSM. Taken together, our findings demonstrate for the first time that the YSM is involved in urea-based osmoregulation during the early to mid phase of development in oviparous cartilaginous fish.

  17. Development of cystic embryoid bodies with visceral yolk-sac-like structures from mouse embryonic stem cells using low-adherence 96-well plate.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Emiko; Seki, Yuji; Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nakashima, Fumio; Noda, Tomozumi; Kurosawa, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    Cystic embryoid bodies with visceral yolk-sac-like structure (cystic EB-Vs) are used as a model for the study of early extraembryonic tissue formation containing visceral endoderm-like derivatives. In this study, we optimized the cell density of embryonic stem (ES) cells for developing cystic EB-Vs in a low-adherence 96-well plate. When ES cells were seeded at a density of 4000 cells/well, the cystic EB-Vs were most efficiently developed from ES cells via forming multicellular spherical aggregates called embryoid bodies (EBs). The suspension culture in the low-adherence plate was preferable for developing EBs into cystic EB-Vs rather than the attachment culture in the plate coated with 0.1% gelatin. The seeding cell density of 4000 cells/well was always superior to 1000 cells/well in the efficiency of cystic EB-V development. Because the high-cell density culture generally raises the limitation of oxygen and nutrient supplies, we investigated the effects of low-oxygen and low-nutrient conditions on the development of cystic EB-Vs. It was found that low oxygen tension was not a factor for promoting the development of cystic EB-Vs. It was suggested that a low-nutrient medium is preferred for developing cystic EB-Vs rather than a sufficient-nutrient medium. In conclusion, the suspension culture in the low-adherence 96-well plate seeded with 4000 ES cells/well was optimum for developing cystic EB-Vs. The low-nutrient condition may be one of the factors for promoting the development of cystic EB-Vs.

  18. Assessing the In Vitro Drug Release from Lipid-Core Nanocapsules: a New Strategy Combining Dialysis Sac and a Continuous-Flow System.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Diego Fontana; Zuglianello, Carine; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver

    2015-12-01

    The in vitro assessment of drug release from polymeric nanocapsules suspensions is one of the most studied parameters in the development of drug-loaded nanoparticles. Nevertheless, official methods for the evaluation of drug release from submicrometric carriers are not available. In this work, a new approach to assess the in vitro drug release profile from drug-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC) was proposed. A continuous-flow system (open system) was designed to evaluate the in vitro drug release profiles from different LNC formulations containing prednisolone or clobetasol propionate (LNC-CP) as drug model (LNC-PD) using a homemade apparatus. The release medium was constantly renewed throughout the experiment. A dialysis bag containing 5 mL of formulation (0.5 mg mL(-1)) was maintained inside the apparatus, under magnetic stirring and controlled temperature (37°C). In parallel, studies based on the conventional dialysis sac technique (closed system) were performed. It was possible to discriminate the in vitro drug release profile of different formulations using the open system. The proposed strategy improved the sink condition, by constantly renewing the release medium, thus maintaining the drug concentration farther from the saturated concentration in the release medium. Moreover, problems due to sampling errors can be easily overcome using this semi-automated system, since the collection is done automatically without interference from the analyst. The system proposed in this paper brings important methodological and analytical advantages, becoming a promising prototype semi-automated apparatus for performing in vitro drug release studies from drug-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules and other related nanoparticle drug delivery systems.

  19. Immunocytochemical analysis of cubilin-mediated endocytosis of high density lipoproteins (HDL) in epithelial cells of the rat visceral yolk sac.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Tetsuya; Hatae, Tanenori; Nishi, Nozomu; Araki, Nobukazu; Hamasaki, Masao

    2004-12-01

    Cubilin was recently shown to function as an endocytic receptor for high density lipoprotein (HDL) holoparticles and apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the main protein constituent of HDL. In the present study, we analyzed the distribution and intracellular trafficking of cubilin and HDL in rat visceral yolk sac epithelial cells. After epithelial cells were loaded with apolipoprotein E-free HDL for 30 min in vitro, double immunofluorescence showed that the apical cytoplasm of the cells was strongly stained with anti-cubilin antibodies and anti-apo A-I/HDL. Furthermore, double immunogold electron-microscopic observations revealed the distinct localization of cubilin and HDL in endocytic vacuoles. In early endosomes, both were colocalized on the membrane. Although, in late endosomes, cubilin was also localized on the membrane, HDL was mainly located in the matrix. Both were found in the matrix in lysosomes. In addition, cubilin was markedly localized in apical tubules (ATs), which are generally accepted as being receptor recycling compartments. Thus, HDL is internalized through cubilin-mediated endocytosis and is finally transported to lysosomes. By contrast, cubilin is mainly translocated to ATs for recycling, although some of the cubilin is degraded in lysosomes. Quantitative analysis further revealed that cubilin was not concentrated on the membranes of ATs, although it accumulated in the AT area. Some HDL were also observed in the AT area. These findings suggest that the translocation of cubilin and HDL to ATs from early endosomes occurs through a simple sorting mechanism based on the geometry of these compartments and the bulk membrane and volume flow.

  20. Expression of the H+-ATPase AHA10 proton pump is associated with citric acid accumulation in lemon juice sac cells.

    PubMed

    Aprile, Alessio; Federici, Claire; Close, Timothy J; De Bellis, Luigi; Cattivelli, Luigi; Roose, Mikeal L

    2011-12-01

    The sour taste of lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) is determined by the amount of citric acid in vacuoles of juice sac cells. Faris is a "sweet" lemon variety since it accumulates low levels of citric acid. The University of California Riverside Citrus Variety Collection includes a Faris tree that produces sweet (Faris non-acid; FNA) and sour fruit (Faris acid; FA) on different branches; it is apparently a graft chimera with layer L1 derived from Millsweet limetta and layer L2 from a standard lemon. The transcription profiles of Faris sweet lemon were compared with Faris acid lemon and Frost Lisbon (L), which is a standard sour lemon genetically indistinguishable from Faris in prior work with SSR markers. Analysis of microarray data revealed that the transcriptomes of the two sour lemon genotypes were nearly identical. In contrast, the transcriptome of Faris sweet lemon was very different from those of both sour lemons. Among about 1,000 FNA-specific, presumably pH-related genes, the homolog of Arabidopsis H(+)-ATPase proton pump AHA10 was not expressed in FNA, but highly expressed in FA and L. Since Arabidopsis AHA10 is involved in biosynthesis and acidification of vacuoles, the lack of expression of the AHA10 citrus homolog represents a very conspicuous molecular feature of the FNA sweet phenotype. In addition, high expression of several 2-oxoglutarate degradation-related genes in FNA suggests activation of the GABA shunt and degradation of valine and tyrosine as components of the mechanism that reduces the level of citric acid in sweet lemon.

  1. Mt. SAC Research Briefs, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mt. SAC Research Briefs, 2000

    2000-01-01

    These Research Briefs examine Mt. San Antonio College District's (MSAC's) (California) enrollment trends. Over the last few years, the district has drawn a large number of students from surrounding areas; however, there are concerns as to whether this fact will remain the same as new forms of educational techniques such as distance education and…

  2. Isokinetic air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Sehmel, George A.

    1979-01-01

    An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

  3. The Use of OMPS Near Real Time Products in Volcanic Cloud Risk Mitigation and Smoke/Dust Air Quality Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seftor, C. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; McPeters, R. D.; Li, J. Y.; Durbin, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Near real time (NRT) SO2 and aerosol index (AI) imagery from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has proven invaluable in mitigating the risk posed to air traffic by SO2 and ash clouds from volcanic eruptions. The OMI products, generated as part of NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) NRT system and available through LANCE and both NOAA's NESDIS and ESA's Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS) portals, are used to monitor the current location of volcanic clouds and to provide input into Volcanic Ash (VA) advisory forecasts. NRT products have recently been developed using data from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite onboard the Suomi NPP platform; they are currently being made available through the SACS portal and will shortly be incorporated into the LANCE NRT system. We will show examples of the use of OMPS NRT SO2 and AI imagery to monitor recent volcanic eruption events. We will also demonstrate the usefulness of OMPS AI imagery to detect and track dust storms and smoke from fires, and how this information can be used to forecast their impact on air quality in areas far removed from their source. Finally, we will show SO2 and AI imagery generated from our OMPS Direct Broadcast data to highlight the capability of our real time system.

  4. Fatal venous air embolism during anesthesia in an apparently healthy adult Chihuahua.

    PubMed

    Mouser, Pamela J; Wilson, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    An apparently healthy adult female Chihuahua was presented for elective ovariohysterectomy. After induction of general anesthesia, but prior to the start of the surgery, air was inadvertently administered to the patient via the i.v. fluid line. The patient convulsed, became apneic, arrested, and died despite attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation. At necropsy, the pericardial sac was incised and filled with water to entirely submerge the intact heart. The right ventricular free wall was punctured, releasing several air bubbles from the right ventricle. Death was attributed to venous air embolism based on the clinical history, gross findings, and paucity of underlying gross and microscopic pathology that might have predisposed the dog to an anesthetic-related death. The discussion of this case includes a review of previously reported veterinary cases of fatal venous air embolism, including the varied mechanisms of embolus formation, the potential impact of pre-existing cardiopulmonary disease, and the methods used to detect emboli. This report outlines the events of fatal iatrogenic venous air embolization and emphasizes the importance of considering this entity in the case of sudden death of a patient with an indwelling catheter in order to pursue either appropriate diagnostic tests or necropsy techniques to aid in the diagnosis.

  5. Enhanced oral bioavailability of felodipine by naringenin in Wistar rats and inhibition of P-glycoprotein in everted rat gut sacs in vitro.

    PubMed

    Surya Sandeep, M; Sridhar, V; Puneeth, Y; Ravindra Babu, P; Naveen Babu, K

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of naringenin on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of felodipine in rats and membrane permeability across rat everted gut sacs in vitro. Rats were simultaneously co-administered with felodipine 10 mg/kg, p.o. and naringenin (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) for 15 consecutive days. Rats of the control groups received the corresponding volume of vehicle. Blood samples were withdrawn from retro-orbital plexus on first day in single dose PK study (SDS) and on 15th day in multiple dosing PK study (MDS). The PK parameters were calculated using Thermo kinetica. The co-administration of naringenin significantly elevated the Cmax and increased the AUCtotal of felodipine in dose-dependent manner. The Cmax of felodipine was increased from 173.25 ± 14.65 to 275.61 ± 44.62 and 223.26 ± 26.35 to 561.32 ± 62.53 ng/mL in SDS and MDS, respectively, at the dose of naringenin 100 mg/kg. The AUCtotal of felodipine was significantly (p < 0.001) increased from 2050.48 ± 60.57 to 3650.22 ± 78.61 and 3276.51 ± 325.61 to 7265.25 ± 536.11 (ng/mL/h) in SDS and MDS, respectively. The permeability of felodipine was increased in presence of naringenin and ritonavir (standard P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4 inhibitor). Felodipine is a substrate of CYP3A4, and naringenin was reported to be a modulator of P-gp and CYP3A4. These results suggest that naringenin significantly increased the Cmax and AUC of felodipine is due to P-gp and CYP3A4 inhibition.

  6. Gene transfer to pre-hematopoietic and committed hematopoietic precursors in the early mouse Yolk Sac: a comparative study between in situ electroporation and retroviral transduction

    PubMed Central

    Giroux, Sébastien JD; Alves-Leiva, Celmar; Lécluse, Yann; Martin, Patrick; Albagli, Olivier; Godin, Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    Background Hematopoietic development in vertebrate embryos results from the sequential contribution of two pools of precursors independently generated. While intra-embryonic precursors harbour the features of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), precursors formed earlier in the yolk sac (YS) display limited differentiation and self-renewal potentials. The mechanisms leading to the generation of the precursors in both sites are still largely unknown, as are the molecular basis underlying their different potential. A possible approach to assess the role of candidate genes is to transfer or modulate their expression/activity in both sites. We thus designed and compared transduction protocols to target either native extra-embryonic precursors, or hematopoietic precursors. Results One transduction protocol involves transient modification of gene expression through in situ electroporation of the prospective blood islands, which allows the evolution of transfected mesodermal cells in their "normal" environment, upon organ culture. Following in situ electroporation of a GFP reporter construct into the YS cavity of embryos at post-streak (mesodermal/pre-hematopoietic precursors) or early somite (hematopoietic precursors) stages, high GFP expression levels as well as a good preservation of cell viability is observed in YS explants. Moreover, the erythro-myeloid progeny typical of the YS arises from GFP+ mesodermal cells or hematopoietic precursors, even if the number of targeted precursors is low. The second approach, based on retroviral transduction allows a very efficient transduction of large precursor numbers, but may only be used to target 8 dpc YS hematopoietic precursors. Again, transduced cells generate a progeny quantitatively and qualitatively similar to that of control YS. Conclusion We thus provide two protocols whose combination may allow a thorough study of both early and late events of hematopoietic development in the murine YS. In situ electroporation constitutes

  7. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel better ... and getting rid of pollutants can improve the quality of your indoor air. Environmental Protection Agency

  8. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... and 2014. In 2008, EPA significantly strengthened the air quality standards for lead to provide health protection for ... time? Setting and Reviewing Standards What are lead air quality standards? How are they developed and reviewed? What ...

  9. Transforming air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Janet McCabe

    2005-04-01

    Earlier this year, the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee submitted to EPA 38 recommendations intended to improve air quality management in the United States. This article summarizes the evaluation process leading up to the Committee's recommendations. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  10. National Air Toxics Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NATA is an ongoing comprehensive evaluation of air toxics in the U.S. As a screening tool, it helps air agencies prioritize pollutants, emission sources and locations of interest for further study to gain a better understanding of risks.

  11. Airing It Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzemeyer, Ted

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how proper maintenance can help schools eliminate sources contributing to poor air quality. Maintaining heating and air conditioning units, investigating bacterial breeding grounds, fixing leaking boilers, and adhering to ventilation codes and standards are discussed. (GR)

  12. Air Quality Analysis

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides information for air quality data analysts inside and outside EPA. Much of the information is in the form of documented analyses that support the review of the national air qualiyt standards.

  13. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  14. Air Data - Concentration Map

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Make a map of daily concentrations over several days. The daily air quality can be displayed in terms of the Air Quality Index or in concentration ranges for certain PM species like organic carbon, nitrates, and sulfates.

  15. Roadmap for a New Command: Lessons from Strategic Air Command and Air Combat Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release, distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The original document contains color images...nuclear forces. An analysis of SAC at its origin provides a look at the fundamental difference between the distant past and the modern application...although this was because of disillusionment with the UN concept and not a desire to get to SAC.40F24 In General Kenney’s defense, he originally

  16. Into Thin Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Shows how schools are working to avoid the types of equipment, supplies, and maintenance practices that harm indoor air quality. Simple steps to maintaining a cleaner indoor air environment are highlighted as are steps to reducing the problem air quality and the occurrence of asthma. (GR)

  17. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  18. Air Sensor Guidebook

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Air Sensor Guidebook has been developed by the U.S. EPA to assist those interested in potentially using lower cost air quality sensor technologies for air quality measurements. Its development was in direct response to a request for such a document following a recent scienti...

  19. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  20. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  1. Clean Air Act Text

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Act is the law that defines EPA's responsibilities for protecting and improving the nation's air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer. The last major change in the law, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, enacted in 1990 by Congress.

  2. Towards a rational terminology in the study of the gubernaculum testis: arguments in support of the notion that the cremasteric sac should be considered the gubernaculum in postnatal rats and other mammals.

    PubMed Central

    van der Schoot, P

    1996-01-01

    There is need for a consistent definition of structures caudal to the testis that variously are termed 'gubernaculum testis' as a basis for understanding the emergence and sexually dimorphic further growth and differentiation of this specifically mammalian structure. Rodent fetuses undergo a stage of development during which there is almost complete unanimity as to the definition of the 'gubernaculum' as a papilla-like structure (often called conus inguinalis) protruding from the area of the internal inguinal ring. This structure shows at least 3 readily distinguishable components before birth. Postnatally, the papilla-like gubernaculum starts to undergo inversion to become the tunica of the sac-like processus vaginalis. The 3 components of the fetal gubernaculum develop further uninterruptedly, but with a different spatial arrangement, as parts of the wall of a sac rather than as parts of a papilla-like structure. Comparison of this process in rodents with that in other mammals (pig, horse, man) revealed an essentially identical emergence of a papilla-shaped gubernaculum with similar constituents. Initial development of the processus vaginalis also began with the inversion of the gubernacular papilla. Cattle fetuses appeared exceptional as outgrowth of the processus vaginalis occurred without a preceding papilla-shaped gubernaculum in the area of the inner inguinal ring. The findings lead to the following conclusions. (1) In rodents, the whole of the postnatally developing processus vaginalis, including therefore its cremasteric muscles but without the attached genital mesentery, is to be viewed as the male postnatal gubernaculum. Sexual differentiation of the gubernacular primordia includes a sex-specific effect on the morphogenesis of all constituents of the processus vaginalis sac including cremasteric muscle cells. (2) Gubernacular growth and differentiation appear essentially a uniform process throughout the placentalia mammalian class; only quantitative

  3. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  4. Air Parity: Re-Discovering Contested Air Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    AIR PARITY: RE-DISCOVERING CONTESTED AIR OPERATIONS BY CHRISTOPHER LAZIDIS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF...THE SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES FOR COMPLETION OF GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES AIR ...UNIVERSITY MAXWELL AIR FORCE BASE, ALABAMA JUNE 2016 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited ii APPROVAL The

  5. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  6. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  7. Draft air deflecting device

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, J.E.

    1982-05-18

    A draft air deflecting device is mountable proximate to a window contained in a firebox and serves as a conduit which directs draft air across the inner surface of the window prior to its supporting combustion of the fuel in the firebox. In this respect , the draft air deflecting device is formed as a box which communicates with draft air holes located in the firebox and which includes a forwardly extending lip serving to define a nozzle for both increasing the velocity and directing the incoming draft air across the firebox window. The incoming draft air is thus utilized to cool and to prevent soot, creosote and other particulates from accumulating on the window.

  8. Air Power and Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    American air ace.- New York: Putnam , 1958. (UG!3 290 G98) Guild, Richard E. The double attack system: a formalization. Yokota Air Base, Japan, 1968...1962) Sa..dby;•Robert H.M.S. Air bombardment: the story of it- development New York: Harper, 1961. (UGK 207 S25) Saunders, Hilary A.S. .Per ardua; the...1961. Letchworth, Herts: Harleyford Publications, 1961. (UGH 3215 .F5 887) Bruce, John N. British ,aeroplance 1914-1918. London: Putnam ; 1957. (Ref

  9. Contact air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Porth, R

    1999-05-01

    The advantages of contact air abrasion techniques are readily apparent. The first, of course, is the greatly increased ease of use. Working with contact also tends to speed the learning curve by giving the process a more natural dental feel. In addition, as one becomes familiar with working with a dust stream, the potential for misdirecting the air flow is decreased. The future use of air abrasion for deep decay removal will make this the treatment of choice for the next millennium.

  10. Applications Using AIRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  11. Air modulation apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenahan, D. T.; Corsmeier, R. J.; Sterman, A. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An air modulation apparatus, such as for use in modulating cooling air to the turbine section of a gas turbine engine is described. The apparatus includes valve means disposed around an annular conduit, such as a nozzle, in the engine cooling air circuit. The valve means, when in a closed position, blocks a portion of the conduit, and thus reduces the amount and increases the velocity of cooling air flowing through the nozzle. The apparatus also includes actuation means, which can operate in response to predetermined engine conditions, for enabling opening and closing of the valve means.

  12. Clean Air Excellence Awards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These non-monetary awards honor sustainable efforts toward pollutant emissions reduction from innovators in clean air technology, community action and outreach, policy development, and transportation efficiency.

  13. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Ronald G.; Salazar, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  14. Bad Air For Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    1976-01-01

    Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)

  15. Next Generation Air Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development is evaluating and developing a rang...

  16. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  17. Air Pollution and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  18. Discriminatory Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaull, Julian

    1976-01-01

    Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

  19. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  20. Air Cargo Marketing Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in developing a market for air cargo services are discussed. A comparison is made between the passenger traffic problems and those of cargo traffic. Emphasis is placed on distribution analyses which isolates total distribution cost, including logistical costs such as transportation, inventory, materials handling, packaging, and processing. Specific examples of methods for reducing air cargo costs are presented.

  1. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  2. Air Pollution Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  3. AIR HEATER EXPERIMENT,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The test program described in this report was designed to determine the feasibility of using a vitiated air heater for the PLUTO facility from the...profiles across the outlet proved relatively flat. The feasibility of using this burner for PLUTO facility air heating was established. (Author)

  4. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  5. The Air We Breathe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Dina

    2010-01-01

    Topics discussed include NASA mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research; the role of Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric gases, layers of the Earth's atmosphere, ozone layer, air pollution, effects of air pollution on people, the Greenhouse Effect, and breathing on the International Space Station.

  6. Air pollution and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2010-12-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  7. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  8. Portable oven air circulator

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Jorgen A.; Nygren, Donald W.

    1983-01-01

    A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

  9. Bearings Only Air-to-Air Ranging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-25

    sensor, observer and target parameters still remain. In order to reduce the number of cases to a manageable one, while preserving the geometric...perforance of variotu. ulro-air passive ranging tecnique has been examined as a fimn- tiam of uarget location andi motiom, observer motion. and length

  10. Culture systems: air quality.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Poor laboratory air quality is a known hazard to the culture of human gametes and embryos. Embryologists and chemists have employed analytical methods for identifying and measuring bulk and select air pollutants to assess the risk they pose to the embryo culture system. However, contaminant concentrations that result in gamete or embryotoxicity are poorly defined. Combating the ill effects of poor air quality requires an understanding of how toxicants can infiltrate the laboratory, the incubator, and ultimately the culture media. A further understanding of site-specific air quality can then lead to the consideration of laboratory design and management strategies that can minimize the deleterious effects that air contamination may have on early embryonic development in vitro.

  11. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S

    2016-12-30

    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  12. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  13. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  14. Air washer/scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.H.; Gerdes, D.F.; Telchuk, S.E.

    1982-05-04

    An air washer or scrubber, particularly for paint spray booths and especially adapted for removing paint particles from air passing downwardly through the grille floor of a paint spray booth and against a water-washed subfloor, comprises an elongated v-shaped slot in the subfloor extending along the longitudinal centerline of the booth. The inner edges of the walls forming the v-shaped slot are upturned to form ledges so that water flowed over the subfloor and the walls of the slot impinges against the ledges and is thrown upwardly and inwardly to form a curtain of water completely covering the slot. Exhaust means pulls paintladen air from the spray chamber through the water curtain and the slot and into an expansion chamber, the bottom walls of which form a second v-shaped slot contiguous with the first mentioned slot. The water, in which virtually all of the paint particles are entrained, and the air are discharged from the second slot and impinged against a baffle sheet angling downwardly away from the expansion chamber. The end of the sheet is upturned at a small angle to deflect the water and form an umbrella of water through which the air must pass for a final cleaning action. An optional curved deflector plate positioned beneath the umbrella of water aids in separating the water and air so that only clean, dry air is exhausted to atmosphere.

  15. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  16. Air Quality Management Process Cycle

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  17. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    MedlinePlus

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Forecast Current AQI AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - ... September 2016, Busan, South Korea. More more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke ...

  18. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    MedlinePlus

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one ... exposure and protect your health. For your local air quality, visit www.airnow.gov View or print guide ...

  19. Lean in Air Permitting Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Lean in Air Permitting Guide is designed to help air program managers at public agencies better understand the potential value and results that can be achieved by applying Lean improvement methods to air permitting processes.

  20. Liquid-Air Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Compact unit supplies air longer than compressed-air unit. Emergency breathing apparatus stores air as cryogenic liquid instead of usual compressed gas. Intended for firefighting or rescue operations becoming necessary during planned potentially hazardous procedures.