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Sample records for air sac insufflation

  1. Usefulness of computed tomography with air insufflation of the stomach prior to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy procedure

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Kousaku; Adachi, Kyoichi; Onishi, Koji; Fukuda, Kosuke; Kazumori, Hideaki; Ohno, Yasuhiko; Katoh, Takao; Sonoyama, Hiroki; Tada, Yasumasa; Kusunoki, Ryusaku; Oka, Akihiko; Fukuba, Nobuhiko; Oshima, Naoki; Yuki, Takafumi; Ishihara, Shunji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    We examined the results of computed tomography (CT) with and without air insufflation of the stomach prior to performing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). We retrospectively analyzed 366 patients who underwent PEG. CT images obtained with and without air insufflation were examined for the presence or absence of contact between the gastric anterior wall and abdominal wall. PEG outcome based on CT findings was also examined. CT with and without air insufflation was performed in 272 and 94 patients, respectively. Contact between the gastric anterior wall and abdominal wall was shown in 254 (93.4%) with and 45 (47.9%) without air insufflation, all of whom underwent a successful PEG procedure. In patients without contact between the gastric anterior wall and abdominal wall, PEG was not successful in 3 of 49 (6.1%) examined by CT without and 6 of 18 (33.3%) examined with air insufflation (p = 0.004). Values for diagnostic accuracy for contact between the gastric anterior wall and abdominal wall shown by CT with and without air insufflation in successful PEG cases were 0.96 and 0.51, respectively. In conclusion, CT with air insufflation more often revealed contact between the gastric anterior wall and abdominal wall as compared to CT without air insufflation, which may help to predict PEG procedure success. PMID:27257351

  2. Comparison between air and carbon dioxide insufflation in the endoscopic submucosal excavation of gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei-Bin; Wang, Zi-Hao; Qu, Chun-Ying; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Han; Zhou, Min; Chen, Ying; Xu, Lei-Ming

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of CO2 insufflation compared with air insufflation in the endoscopic submucosal excavation (ESE) of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. METHODS: Sixty patients were randomized to undergo endoscopic submucosal excavation, with the CO2 group (n = 30) and the air group (n = 30) undergoing CO2 insufflation and air insufflation in the ESE, respectively. The end-tidal CO2 level (pETCO2) was observed at 4 time points: at the beginning of ESE, at total removal of the tumors, at completed wound management, and 10 min after ESE. Additionally, the patients’ experience of pain at 1, 3, 6 and 24 h after the examination was registered using a visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS: Both the CO2 group and air group were similar in mean age, sex, body mass index (all P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in PetCO2 values before and after the procedure (P > 0.05). However, the pain scores after the ESE at different time points in the CO2 group decreased significantly compared with the air group (1 h: 21.2 ± 3.4 vs 61.5 ± 1.7; 3 h: 8.5 ± 0.7 vs 42.9 ± 1.3; 6 h: 4.4 ± 1.6 vs 27.6 ± 1.2; 24 h: 2.3 ± 0.4 vs 21.4 ± 0.7, P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the percentage of VAS scores of 0 in the CO2 group after 1, 3, 6 and 24 h was significantly higher than that in the air group (60.7 ± 1.4 vs 18.9 ± 1.5, 81.5 ± 2.3 vs 20.6 ± 1.2, 89.2 ± 0.7 vs 36.8 ± 0.9, 91.3 ± 0.8 vs 63.8 ± 1.3, respectively, P < 0.05). Moreover, the condition of the CO2 group was better than that of the air group with respect to anal exsufflation. CONCLUSION: Insufflation of CO2 in the ESE of gastrointestinal stromal tumors will not cause CO2 retention and it may significantly reduce the level of pain, thus it is safe and effective. PMID:23326136

  3. Differential air sac pressures in diving tufted ducks Aythya fuligula.

    PubMed

    Boggs, D F; Butler, P J; Wallace, S E

    1998-09-01

    The air in the respiratory system of diving birds contains a large proportion of the body oxygen stores, but it must be in the lungs for gas exchange with blood to occur. To test the hypothesis that locomotion induces mixing of air sac air with lung air during dives, we measured differential pressures between the interclavicular and posterior thoracic air sacs in five diving tufted ducks Aythya fuligula. The peak differential pressure between posterior thoracic and interclavicular air sacs, 0.49+/-0.13 kPa (mean +/- s.d.), varied substantially during underwater paddling as indicated by gastrocnemius muscle activity. These data support the hypothesis that locomotion, perhaps through associated abdominal muscle activity, intermittently compresses the posterior air sacs more than the anterior ones. The result is differential pressure fluctuations that might induce the movement of air between air sacs and through the lungs during dives. PMID:9716518

  4. Venous air embolism following insufflation of the urethra.

    PubMed

    Vanlinthout, L; Boghaert, A; Thienpont, L

    1986-01-01

    Venous air embolism following urethral inflation only scarcely documented: an extensive search of the literature yielded four papers relating to this subject. We report a new case of venous air embolism due to this uncommon etiology. Careful study revealed some common pathogenetic features with previously reported cases. Some important precautions can diminish the likelihood of gas embolism and reduce its fatal outcome in situations, similar to the kind mentioned. PMID:3564882

  5. Insufflation esophagoscopy.

    PubMed

    Edens, E T

    1978-01-01

    A new electroscope has been designed from the conventional Haslinger tubes. The new rigid scope combines the advantage of air insufflation in the flexible system with the therapeutic possibilities of the rigid tubes and is trustworthy in the following esophageal procedures; a) finding entrance of severe strictures; b) introducing nasogastric feeding tubes; c) extraction of foreign bodies; d) tumor coagulation/spur in hypopharyngeal diverticuli; e) washing and suction in cases with severe food retention; f)making tumor smears in patients with clotting disorders; g) taking substantial biopsies with an optical forceps, and h) objective photodocumentation of esophageal pathology. PMID:686602

  6. Endoscopic examination of snakes by access through an air sac.

    PubMed

    Jekl, V; Knotek, Z

    2006-03-25

    Sixteen boa constrictors (Boa constrictor), three royal pythons (Python regius) and 15 Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) were examined endoscopically by access through the air sac. The snakes were immobilised in a ventral position using a half-open anaesthetic system with assisted ventilation and a mixture of isoflurane and oxygen. The rigid endoscope was introduced percutaneously and the internal structure of the lungs and the air sac, and the shape, size and external surface of the liver were visible in the cranial direction. In the smaller snakes the bifurcation and caudal part of the trachea could be viewed, provided the endoscope was positioned in a retrograde orientation. The caudal orientation of the endoscope made it possible to view the gall bladder and the size, shape and surface of the spleen. In some cases, the pancreas and the surface of the stomach and colon could be monitored. Endoscopy through the air sac also made it possible to check the major veins in the coelom. The snakes were monitored for at least 30 days after the intervention and no changes in their respiratory function or general health were observed. PMID:16565339

  7. AirSeal system insufflator to maintain a stable pneumorectum during TAMIS.

    PubMed

    Bislenghi, G; Wolthuis, A M; de Buck van Overstraeten, A; D'Hoore, A

    2015-01-01

    Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) is typically used for treating intraluminal rectal tumors. Other applications have recently been described. We here present the use of TAMIS as a tool to treat a chronic anastomotic fistula after restorative rectal resection. A new insufflation device expected to solve the problem of maintaining a stable pneumorectum is described. PMID:25421704

  8. The influence of locomotion on air-sac pressures in little penguins.

    PubMed

    Boggs, D F; Baudinette, R V; Frappell, P B; Butler, P J

    2001-10-01

    Air-sac pressures have been reported to oscillate with wing beat in flying magpies and with foot paddling in diving ducks. We sought to determine the impact on air-sac pressure of wing beats during swimming and of the step cycle during walking in little penguins (Eudyptula minor). Fluctuations averaged 0.16+/-0.06 kPa in the interclavicular air sacs, but only 0.06+/-0.04 kPa in the posterior thoracic sac, generating a small differential pressure between sacs of 0.06+/-0.02 kPa (means +/- S.E.M., N=4). These fluctuations occurred at approximately 3 Hz and corresponded to wing beats during swimming, indicated by electromyograms from the pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscles. There was no abdominal muscle activity associated with swimming or exhalation, but the abdominal muscles were active with the step cycle in walking penguins, and oscillations in posterior air-sac pressure (0.08+/-0.038 kPa) occurred with steps. We conclude that high-frequency oscillations in differential air-sac pressure enhance access to and utilization of the O(2) stores in the air sacs during a dive. PMID:11707507

  9. Nordic rattle: the hoarse vocalization and the inflatable laryngeal air sac of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Roland; Gebler, Alban; Fritsch, Guido; Nygrén, Kaarlo; Weissengruber, Gerald E

    2007-01-01

    Laryngeal air sacs have evolved convergently in diverse mammalian lineages including insectivores, bats, rodents, pinnipeds, ungulates and primates, but their precise function has remained elusive. Among cervids, the vocal tract of reindeer has evolved an unpaired inflatable ventrorostral laryngeal air sac. This air sac is not present at birth but emerges during ontogenetic development. It protrudes from the laryngeal vestibulum via a short duct between the epiglottis and the thyroid cartilage. In the female the growth of the air sac stops at the age of 2–3 years, whereas in males it continues to grow up to the age of about 6 years, leading to a pronounced sexual dimorphism of the air sac. In adult females it is of moderate size (about 100 cm3), whereas in adult males it is large (3000–4000 cm3) and becomes asymmetric extending either to the left or to the right side of the neck. In both adult females and males the ventral air sac walls touch the integument. In the adult male the air sac is laterally covered by the mandibular portion of the sternocephalic muscle and the skin. Both sexes of reindeer have a double stylohyoid muscle and a thyroepiglottic muscle. Possibly these muscles assist in inflation of the air sac. Head-and-neck specimens were subjected to macroscopic anatomical dissection, computer tomographic analysis and skeletonization. In addition, isolated larynges were studied for comparison. Acoustic recordings were made during an autumn round-up of semi-domestic reindeer in Finland and in a small zoo herd. Male reindeer adopt a specific posture when emitting their serial hoarse rutting calls. Head and neck are kept low and the throat region is extended. In the ventral neck region, roughly corresponding to the position of the large air sac, there is a mane of longer hairs. Neck swelling and mane spreading during vocalization may act as an optical signal to other males and females. The air sac, as a side branch of the vocal tract, can be considered as

  10. Evidence for Avian Intrathoracic Air Sacs in a New Predatory Dinosaur from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sereno, Paul C.; Martinez, Ricardo N.; Wilson, Jeffrey A.; Varricchio, David J.; Alcober, Oscar A.; Larsson, Hans C. E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Living birds possess a unique heterogeneous pulmonary system composed of a rigid, dorsally-anchored lung and several compliant air sacs that operate as bellows, driving inspired air through the lung. Evidence from the fossil record for the origin and evolution of this system is extremely limited, because lungs do not fossilize and because the bellow-like air sacs in living birds only rarely penetrate (pneumatize) skeletal bone and thus leave a record of their presence. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe a new predatory dinosaur from Upper Cretaceous rocks in Argentina, Aerosteon riocoloradensis gen. et sp. nov., that exhibits extreme pneumatization of skeletal bone, including pneumatic hollowing of the furcula and ilium. In living birds, these two bones are pneumatized by diverticulae of air sacs (clavicular, abdominal) that are involved in pulmonary ventilation. We also describe several pneumatized gastralia (“stomach ribs”), which suggest that diverticulae of the air sac system were present in surface tissues of the thorax. Conclusions/Significance We present a four-phase model for the evolution of avian air sacs and costosternal-driven lung ventilation based on the known fossil record of theropod dinosaurs and osteological correlates in extant birds: (1) Phase I—Elaboration of paraxial cervical air sacs in basal theropods no later than the earliest Late Triassic. (2) Phase II—Differentiation of avian ventilatory air sacs, including both cranial (clavicular air sac) and caudal (abdominal air sac) divisions, in basal tetanurans during the Jurassic. A heterogeneous respiratory tract with compliant air sacs, in turn, suggests the presence of rigid, dorsally attached lungs with flow-through ventilation. (3) Phase III—Evolution of a primitive costosternal pump in maniraptoriform theropods before the close of the Jurassic. (4) Phase IV—Evolution of an advanced costosternal pump in maniraptoran theropods before the close of the

  11. Acoustic analysis of primate air sacs and their effect on vocalization.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Bart

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the acoustic impedance of primate air sacs and their interaction with the vocal tract. A lumped element model is derived and it is found that the inertance of the neck and the volume of the air sac are relevant, as well as the mass and stiffness of the walls (depending on the tissue). It is also shown that at low frequencies, radiation from the air sac can be non-negligible, even if the mouth is open. It is furthermore shown that an air sac can add one or two low resonances to the resonances of the oral tract, and that it shifts up the oral tract's resonances below approximately 2000 Hz, and shifts them closer together. The theory was verified by acoustic measurements and applied to the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) and the siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus). The theory describes the physical models and the siamang calls correctly, but appears incomplete for the howler monkey vocalizations. The relation between air sacs and the evolution of speech is discussed briefly, and it is proposed that an air sac would reduce the ability to produce distinctive speech, but would enhance the impression of size of the vocalizer. PMID:20000947

  12. Anisotropic shrinkage of insect air sacs revealed in vivo by X-ray microtomography

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Chen, Rongchang; Du, Guohao; Yang, Yiming; Wang, Feixiang; Deng, Biao; Xie, Honglan; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Air sacs are thought to be the bellows for insect respiration. However, their exact mechanism of action as a bellows remains unclear. A direct way to investigate this problem is in vivo observation of the changes in their three-dimensional structures. Therefore, four-dimensional X-ray phase contrast microtomography is employed to solve this puzzle. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional image series reveals that the compression of the air sac during respiration in bell crickets exhibits obvious anisotropic characteristics both longitudinally and transversely. Volumetric changes of the tracheal trunks in the prothorax further strengthen the evidence of this finding. As a result, we conclude that the shrinkage and expansion of the insect air sac is anisotropic, contrary to the hypothesis of isotropy, thereby providing new knowledge for further research on the insect respiratory system. PMID:27580585

  13. Anisotropic shrinkage of insect air sacs revealed in vivo by X-ray microtomography.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Chen, Rongchang; Du, Guohao; Yang, Yiming; Wang, Feixiang; Deng, Biao; Xie, Honglan; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Air sacs are thought to be the bellows for insect respiration. However, their exact mechanism of action as a bellows remains unclear. A direct way to investigate this problem is in vivo observation of the changes in their three-dimensional structures. Therefore, four-dimensional X-ray phase contrast microtomography is employed to solve this puzzle. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional image series reveals that the compression of the air sac during respiration in bell crickets exhibits obvious anisotropic characteristics both longitudinally and transversely. Volumetric changes of the tracheal trunks in the prothorax further strengthen the evidence of this finding. As a result, we conclude that the shrinkage and expansion of the insect air sac is anisotropic, contrary to the hypothesis of isotropy, thereby providing new knowledge for further research on the insect respiratory system. PMID:27580585

  14. Postcranial skeletal pneumaticity and air-sacs in the earliest pterosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Richard J.; Barrett, Paul M.; Gower, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Patterns of postcranial skeletal pneumatization (PSP) indicate that pterosaurs possessed components of a bird-like respiratory system, including a series of ventilatory air-sacs. However, the presence of PSP in the oldest known pterosaurs has not been unambiguously demonstrated by previous studies. Here we provide the first unequivocal documentation of PSP in Late Triassic and earliest Jurassic pterosaurs. This demonstrates that PSP and, by inference, air-sacs were probably present in the common ancestor of almost all known pterosaurs, and has broader implications for the evolution of respiratory systems in bird-line archosaurs, including dinosaurs. PMID:19411265

  15. Ventilation patterns of the songbird lung/air sac system during different behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mackelprang, Rebecca; Goller, Franz

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Unidirectional, continuous airflow through the avian lung is achieved through an elaborate air sac system with a sequential, posterior to anterior ventilation pattern. This classical model was established through various approaches spanning passively ventilated systems to mass spectrometry analysis of tracer gas flow into various air sacs during spontaneous breathing in restrained ducks. Information on flow patterns in other bird taxa is missing, and these techniques do not permit direct tests of whether the basic flow pattern can change during different behaviors. Here we use thermistors implanted into various locations of the respiratory system to detect small pulses of tracer gas (helium) to reconstruct airflow patterns in quietly breathing and behaving (calling, wing flapping) songbirds (zebra finch and yellow-headed blackbird). The results illustrate that the basic pattern of airflow in these two species is largely consistent with the model. However, two notable differences emerged. First, some tracer gas arrived in the anterior set of air sacs during the inspiration during which it was inhaled, suggesting a more rapid throughput through the lung than previously assumed. Second, differences in ventilation between the two anterior air sacs emerged during calling and wing flapping, indicating that adjustments in the flow pattern occur during dynamic behaviors. It is unclear whether this modulation in ventilation pattern is passive or active. This technique for studying ventilation patterns during dynamic behaviors proves useful for establishing detailed timing of airflow and modulation of ventilation in the avian respiratory system. PMID:23788706

  16. Penguin lungs and air sacs: implications for baroprotection, oxygen stores and buoyancy.

    PubMed

    Ponganis, P J; St Leger, J; Scadeng, M

    2015-03-01

    The anatomy and volume of the penguin respiratory system contribute significantly to pulmonary baroprotection, the body O2 store, buoyancy and hence the overall diving physiology of penguins. Therefore, three-dimensional reconstructions from computerized tomographic (CT) scans of live penguins were utilized to measure lung volumes, air sac volumes, tracheobronchial volumes and total body volumes at different inflation pressures in three species with different dive capacities [Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), king (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and emperor (A. forsteri) penguins]. Lung volumes scaled to body mass according to published avian allometrics. Air sac volumes at 30 cm H2O (2.94 kPa) inflation pressure, the assumed maximum volume possible prior to deep dives, were two to three times allometric air sac predictions and also two to three times previously determined end-of-dive total air volumes. Although it is unknown whether penguins inhale to such high volumes prior to dives, these values were supported by (a) body density/buoyancy calculations, (b) prior air volume measurements in free-diving ducks and (c) previous suggestions that penguins may exhale air prior to the final portions of deep dives. Based upon air capillary volumes, parabronchial volumes and tracheobronchial volumes estimated from the measured lung/airway volumes and the only available morphometry study of a penguin lung, the presumed maximum air sac volumes resulted in air sac volume to air capillary/parabronchial/tracheobronchial volume ratios that were not large enough to prevent barotrauma to the non-collapsing, rigid air capillaries during the deepest dives of all three species, and during many routine dives of king and emperor penguins. We conclude that volume reduction of airways and lung air spaces, via compression, constriction or blood engorgement, must occur to provide pulmonary baroprotection at depth. It is also possible that relative air capillary and parabronchial volumes are

  17. Impact of new technology weapons on SAC (Strategic Air Command) conventional air operations. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodenheimer, C.E.

    1983-06-01

    Chapter I introduces the issue of conventional-response capability. The point stressed first is that the strategic bomber's primary mission is in support of the single integrated operations plan (SIOP) as a nuclear weapons delivery vehicle. However, as cited by Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, we must have a rapid deployment conventional capability to areas where there are small if any U.S. forces present. The SAC strategic projection force (SPF) is available but with gravity weapons of World War II vintage. New technology can provide answers to the problem by providing highly accurate long-range conventional standoff weapons. Chapter II gives a basic historical perspective on the use of the strategic bomber in past wars. It discusses the development of strategy, weapons, and targets in World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. Chapter III presents a very brief look at current US policy, strategy, and guidance. Chapter IV covers the aircraft attrition issue in today's highly lethal defensive environment. Chapter V describes the development of air-to-ground weapons. Chapter VI addresses the potential for the future in the shifting balance of Soviet and US technology. The final chapter makes the point that a decision must be made on weapons-acquisition programs and bomber force structure. New technology-standoff conventional weapons could make AAA and SAM defenses a modern Maginot Line.

  18. Evolution of Newcastle Disease Virus Quasispecies Diversity and Enhanced Virulence after Passage through Chicken Air Sacs

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Chunchun; Qiu, Xusheng; Yu, Shengqing; Li, Chuanfeng; Sun, Yingjie; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Kaichun; Zhang, Xiangle; Tan, Lei; Song, Cuiping; Liu, Guangqing

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT It has been reported that lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates have the potential to become velogenic after their transmission and circulation in chickens, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, a highly velogenic NDV variant, JS10-A10, was generated from the duck-origin lentogenic isolate JS10 through 10 consecutive passages in chicken air sacs. The velogenic properties of this selected variant were determined using mean death time (MDT) assays, intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI), the intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI), histopathology, and the analysis of host tissue tropism. In contrast, JS10 remained lentogenic after 20 serial passages in chicken eggs (JS10-E20). The JS10, JS10-A10, and JS10-E20 genomes were sequenced and found to be nearly identical, suggesting that both JS10-A10 and JS10-E20 were directly generated from JS10. To investigate the mechanism for virulence enhancement, the partial genome covering the F0 cleavage site of JS10 and its variants were analyzed using ultradeep pyrosequencing (UDPS) and the proportions of virulence-related genomes in the quasispecies were calculated. Velogenic NDV genomes accumulated as a function of JS10 passaging through chicken air sacs. Our data suggest that lentogenic NDV strains circulating among poultry might be a risk factor to future potential velogenic NDV outbreaks in chickens. IMPORTANCE An avirulent isolate, JS10, was passaged through chicken air sacs and embryos, and the pathogenicity of the variants was assessed. A virulent variant, JS10-A10, was generated from consecutive passage in air sacs. We developed a deep-sequencing approach to detect low-frequency viral variants across the NDV genome. We observed that virulence enhancement of JS10 was due to the selective accumulation of velogenic quasispecies and the concomitant disappearance of lentogenic quasispecies. Our results suggest that because it is difficult to avoid contact between natural waterfowl

  19. Myoblast cytonemes mediate Wg signaling from the wing imaginal disc and Delta-Notch signaling to the air sac primordium

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hai; Kornberg, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    The flight muscles, dorsal air sacs, wing blades, and thoracic cuticle of the Drosophila adult function in concert, and their progenitor cells develop together in the wing imaginal disc. The wing disc orchestrates dorsal air sac development by producing decapentaplegic and fibroblast growth factor that travel via specific cytonemes in order to signal to the air sac primordium (ASP). Here, we report that cytonemes also link flight muscle progenitors (myoblasts) to disc cells and to the ASP, enabling myoblasts to relay signaling between the disc and the ASP. Frizzled (Fz)-containing myoblast cytonemes take up Wingless (Wg) from the disc, and Delta (Dl)-containing myoblast cytonemes contribute to Notch activation in the ASP. Wg signaling negatively regulates Dl expression in the myoblasts. These results reveal an essential role for cytonemes in Wg and Notch signaling and for a signal relay system in the myoblasts. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06114.001 PMID:25951303

  20. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of air sac catfishes of the Heteropneustes fossilis species complex (Siluriformes: Heteropneustidae).

    PubMed

    Ratmuangkhwang, Sahat; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2014-10-01

    The air sac catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Siluriformes: Heteropneustidae), is widely distributed in freshwaters of the Indian subcontinent and mainland southeast Asia. No comprehensive molecular studies that cover the broad distributional areas have been carried out to date. Here, we conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses using both mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences to suggest that the Heteropneustes fossilis species complex consists of three clades that may potentially be separate species with distinct geographical distribution (southeast Asia, northeastern India, and southwestern India). The first and second clades are more closely related to each other than they are to the third clade. Within the first clade there is a basal divergence of a subclade consisting of individuals from the Upper Irrawaddy River basin of Myanmar, which share some morphological traits with members of the Indian clades. Our molecular and morphological data are congruent with hypotheses that the Early-Middle Miocene disconnection between the paleo-Tsangpo River and the Irrawaddy River caused the vicariant divergence between southeast Asian and northeastern Indian clades, and that the southeast Asian Heteropneustes originated from the Upper Irrawaddy. PMID:24875251

  1. Motor control of sound frequency in birdsong involves the interaction between air sac pressure and labial tension

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2014-01-01

    Frequency modulation is a salient acoustic feature of birdsong. Its control is usually attributed to the activity of syringeal muscles, which affect the tension of the labia responsible for sound production. We use experimental and theoretical tools to test the hypothesis that for birds producing tonal sounds such as domestic canaries (Serinus canaria), frequency modulation is determined by both the syringeal tension and the air sac pressure. For different models, we describe the structure of the isofrequency curves, which are sets of parameters leading to sounds presenting the same fundamental frequencies. We show how their shapes determine the relative roles of syringeal tension and air sac pressure in frequency modulation. Finally, we report experiments that allow us to unveil the features of the isofrequency curves. PMID:24730873

  2. Effects of carbon dioxide insufflation in balloon-assisted enteroscopy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Fujimoto, Ai; Ochiai, Yasutoshi; Kanai, Takanori; Naohisa, Yahagi

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim The efficacy of CO2 insufflation during balloon-assisted enteroscopy remains controversial. This study aimed to perform a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which CO2 insufflation was compared with air insufflation in balloon-assisted enteroscopy. Methods PubMed, the Cochrane library, and the Igaku-Chuo-Zasshi database were searched to identify RCTs eligible for inclusion in the systematic review. Data from the eligible studies were combined to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs) or weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Four RCTs (461 patients) were identified. Compared with air insufflation, CO2 insufflation significantly increased intubation depth of oral enteroscopy (WMD: 55.2, 95% CI: 10.77–99.65, p = 0.015). However, there was significant heterogeneity. The intubation depth of anal enteroscopy showed no significant difference between the CO2 group and the air group. CO2 insufflation significantly reduced abdominal pain compared with air insufflation (WMD: −2.463, 95% CI: −4.452 to −0.474, p = 0.015), without significant heterogeneity. The PaCO2 or end-tidal CO2 level showed no significant difference between the CO2 group and air group. Conclusions Compared with air insufflation, CO2 insufflation during balloon-assisted enteroscopy caused less post-procedural pain without CO2 retention. PMID:26966518

  3. Detection and Management of Air Sac Trematodes (Szidatitrema Species) in Captive Multispecies Avian Exhibits.

    PubMed

    Delaski, Kristina M; Nelson, Sudona; Dronen, Norman O; Craig, Thomas M; Pond, Joel; Gamble, Kathryn C

    2015-12-01

    From 2 exhibits in a zoological collection, 2 juvenile fairy bluebirds ( Irena puella ) and 1 adult blue-grey tanager (Thraupis episcopus) died within 3 months of one another. The cause of death was attributed to air sac trematodes, which were identified as Szidatitrema species based on morphology of adult trematodes and miracidia isolated from a snail intermediate host. To determine the extent of trematodiasis in the collection, individual exhibits within the same building as the original presenting cases were assessed, with birds representing 27 avian species from 9 orders. Sampling consisted of individual (n = 244) and pooled same-species group (n = 193) fecal examinations, and for some individuals, and tracheal swab (n = 106), resulting in a total of 543 samples. In addition, tracheal swabs were performed on 14 birds for comparative cytology, but no parasites were found. Flukes were positively identified in 4 tracheal swab samples (4%), 37 individual fecal samples (15%), and 52 of the group fecal samples (27%). When results of the swab method were compared with those of fecal examination, fecal testing was significantly associated (P < .001) with positive results. Based on these results, a screening process was instituted of 3- or 4-day combined fecal samples evaluated by both sedimentation and flotation techniques 2 weeks before outgoing shipments or intrazoo transfers of birds housed in exhibits known to have snail populations. Snail control methods also were initiated in all exhibits. Treatment with praziquantel was carried out on a case-by-case basis, and included oral, parenteral, and nebulized administration. Although control measures were expected to manage the infection and reduce distribution of the parasite to other collections, complete eradication of trematodes in the population is unlikely. PMID:26771325

  4. 21 CFR 884.1700 - Hysteroscopic insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hysteroscopic insufflator. 884.1700 Section 884.1700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.1700 Hysteroscopic insufflator. (a) Identification. A hysteroscopic insufflator is a...

  5. 21 CFR 884.5920 - Vaginal insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vaginal insufflator. 884.5920 Section 884.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5920 Vaginal insufflator. (a) Identification. A vaginal insufflator is a device used to...

  6. 21 CFR 884.1730 - Laparoscopic insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Laparoscopic insufflator. 884.1730 Section 884.1730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.1730 Laparoscopic insufflator. (a) Identification. A laparoscopic insufflator is a device used...

  7. 21 CFR 884.1730 - Laparoscopic insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Laparoscopic insufflator. 884.1730 Section 884.1730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.1730 Laparoscopic insufflator. (a) Identification. A laparoscopic insufflator is a device used...

  8. 21 CFR 884.5920 - Vaginal insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vaginal insufflator. 884.5920 Section 884.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5920 Vaginal insufflator. (a) Identification. A vaginal insufflator is a device used to...

  9. 21 CFR 884.1700 - Hysteroscopic insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hysteroscopic insufflator. 884.1700 Section 884.1700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.1700 Hysteroscopic insufflator. (a) Identification. A hysteroscopic insufflator is a...

  10. 21 CFR 884.5920 - Vaginal insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vaginal insufflator. 884.5920 Section 884.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5920 Vaginal insufflator. (a) Identification. A vaginal insufflator is a device used to...

  11. 21 CFR 884.1700 - Hysteroscopic insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hysteroscopic insufflator. 884.1700 Section 884.1700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.1700 Hysteroscopic insufflator. (a) Identification. A hysteroscopic insufflator is a...

  12. 21 CFR 884.5920 - Vaginal insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vaginal insufflator. 884.5920 Section 884.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5920 Vaginal insufflator. (a) Identification. A vaginal insufflator is a device used to...

  13. 21 CFR 884.1730 - Laparoscopic insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laparoscopic insufflator. 884.1730 Section 884.1730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.1730 Laparoscopic insufflator. (a) Identification. A laparoscopic insufflator is a device used...

  14. 21 CFR 884.5920 - Vaginal insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vaginal insufflator. 884.5920 Section 884.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5920 Vaginal insufflator. (a) Identification. A vaginal insufflator is a device used to...

  15. 21 CFR 884.1730 - Laparoscopic insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Laparoscopic insufflator. 884.1730 Section 884.1730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.1730 Laparoscopic insufflator. (a) Identification. A laparoscopic insufflator is a device used...

  16. 21 CFR 884.1730 - Laparoscopic insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Laparoscopic insufflator. 884.1730 Section 884.1730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.1730 Laparoscopic insufflator. (a) Identification. A laparoscopic insufflator is a device used...

  17. 21 CFR 884.1700 - Hysteroscopic insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hysteroscopic insufflator. 884.1700 Section 884.1700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.1700 Hysteroscopic insufflator. (a) Identification. A hysteroscopic insufflator is a...

  18. 21 CFR 884.1700 - Hysteroscopic insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hysteroscopic insufflator. 884.1700 Section 884.1700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.1700 Hysteroscopic insufflator. (a) Identification. A hysteroscopic insufflator is a...

  19. FGF coordinates air sac development by activation of the EGF ligand Vein through the transcription factor PntP2

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Josefa; Bota-Rabassedas, Neus; Franch-Marro, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    How several signaling pathways are coordinated to generate complex organs through regulation of tissue growth and patterning is a fundamental question in developmental biology. The larval trachea of Drosophila is composed of differentiated functional cells and groups of imaginal tracheoblasts that build the adult trachea during metamorphosis. Air sac primordium cells (ASP) are tracheal imaginal cells that form the dorsal air sacs that supply oxygen to the flight muscles of the Drosophila adult. The ASP emerges from the tracheal branch that connects to the wing disc by the activation of both Bnl-FGF/Btl and EGFR signaling pathways. Together, these pathways promote cell migration and proliferation. In this study we demonstrate that Vein (vn) is the EGF ligand responsible for the activation of the EGFR pathway in the ASP. We also find that the Bnl-FGF/Btl pathway regulates the expression of vn through the transcription factor PointedP2 (PntP2). Furthermore, we show that the FGF target gene escargot (esg) attenuates EGFR signaling at the tip cells of the developing ASP, reducing their mitotic rate to allow proper migration. Altogether, our results reveal a link between Bnl-FGF/Btl and EGFR signaling and provide novel insight into how the crosstalk of these pathways regulates migration and growth. PMID:26632449

  20. FGF coordinates air sac development by activation of the EGF ligand Vein through the transcription factor PntP2.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Josefa; Bota-Rabassedas, Neus; Franch-Marro, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    How several signaling pathways are coordinated to generate complex organs through regulation of tissue growth and patterning is a fundamental question in developmental biology. The larval trachea of Drosophila is composed of differentiated functional cells and groups of imaginal tracheoblasts that build the adult trachea during metamorphosis. Air sac primordium cells (ASP) are tracheal imaginal cells that form the dorsal air sacs that supply oxygen to the flight muscles of the Drosophila adult. The ASP emerges from the tracheal branch that connects to the wing disc by the activation of both Bnl-FGF/Btl and EGFR signaling pathways. Together, these pathways promote cell migration and proliferation. In this study we demonstrate that Vein (vn) is the EGF ligand responsible for the activation of the EGFR pathway in the ASP. We also find that the Bnl-FGF/Btl pathway regulates the expression of vn through the transcription factor PointedP2 (PntP2). Furthermore, we show that the FGF target gene escargot (esg) attenuates EGFR signaling at the tip cells of the developing ASP, reducing their mitotic rate to allow proper migration. Altogether, our results reveal a link between Bnl-FGF/Btl and EGFR signaling and provide novel insight into how the crosstalk of these pathways regulates migration and growth. PMID:26632449

  1. Safety and efficacy of carbon dioxide insufflation during gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Jun; Araki, Hiroshi; Onogi, Fumito; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kubota, Masaya; Ibuka, Takashi; Shimizu, Masahito; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the safety and efficacy of carbon dioxide (CO2) and air insufflation during gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). METHODS: This study involved 116 patients who underwent gastric ESD between January and December 2009. After eliminating 29 patients who fit the exclusion criteria, 87 patients, without known pulmonary dysfunction, were randomized into the CO2 insufflation (n = 36) or air insufflation (n = 51) groups. Standard ESD was performed with a CO2 regulation unit (constant rate of 1.4 L/min) used for patients undergoing CO2 insufflation. Patients received diazepam for conscious sedation and pentazocine for analgesia. Transcutaneous CO2 tension (PtcCO2) was recorded 15 min before, during, and after ESD with insufflation. PtcCO2, the correlation between PtcCO2 and procedure time, and ESD-related complications were compared between the two groups. Arterial blood gases were analyzed after ESD in the first 30 patients (12 with CO2 and 18 with air insufflation) to assess the correlation between arterial blood CO2 partial pressure (PaCO2) and PtcCO2. RESULTS: There were no differences in respiratory functions, median sedative doses, or median procedure times between the groups. Similarly, there was no significant difference in post-ESD blood gas parameters, including PaCO2, between the CO2 and air groups (44.6 mmHg vs 45 mmHg). Both groups demonstrated median pH values of 7.36, and none of the patients exhibited acidemia. No significant differences were observed between the CO2 and air groups with respect to baseline PtcCO2 (39 mmHg vs 40 mmHg), peak PtcCO2 during ESD (52 mmHg vs 51 mmHg), or median PtcCO2 after ESD (50 mmHg vs 50 mmHg). There was a strong correlation between PaCO2 and PtcCO2 (r = 0.66; P < 0.001). The incidence of Mallory-Weiss tears was significantly lower with CO2 insufflation than with air insufflation (0% vs 15.6%, P = 0.013). CO2 insufflation did not cause any adverse events, such as CO2 narcosis or gas embolisms

  2. Highlights of the ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, 11-12 March 2016, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Villalba, Marcelo Blanco; Bramajo, Marina; Bruno, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, held in Buenos Aires, included national, regional, and international experts in the field of prostate cancer. More than 200 professionals from a variety of areas (clinical urologists, pathologists, oncologists, biologists, imaging specialists, radiation therapists, and generalist doctors, among others) attended, and they proposed multidisciplinary management of prostate pathology from the start in concordance with the ideas set forth by the organising committee. A radiotherapy workshop was also held during the symposium, in which new techniques and their possible uses were specifically discussed. In addition to the local doctors, Dr Lilian Faroni (COI Group, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Dr Leonardo Carmona (Chilean Head and Neck Institute, Chile), and Dr Anthony Addesa (Jupiter Medical Centre, Florida, USA) also participated in this symposium. PMID:27350786

  3. Highlights of the ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, 11–12 March 2016, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Marcelo Blanco; Bramajo, Marina; Bruno, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, held in Buenos Aires, included national, regional, and international experts in the field of prostate cancer. More than 200 professionals from a variety of areas (clinical urologists, pathologists, oncologists, biologists, imaging specialists, radiation therapists, and generalist doctors, among others) attended, and they proposed multidisciplinary management of prostate pathology from the start in concordance with the ideas set forth by the organising committee. A radiotherapy workshop was also held during the symposium, in which new techniques and their possible uses were specifically discussed. In addition to the local doctors, Dr Lilian Faroni (COI Group, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Dr Leonardo Carmona (Chilean Head and Neck Institute, Chile), and Dr Anthony Addesa (Jupiter Medical Centre, Florida, USA) also participated in this symposium. PMID:27350786

  4. Cyclocoelid ( Morishitium sp.) Trematodes from an Air Sac of a Purple Sandpiper, Calidris maritima (Brünnich).

    PubMed

    Shutler, Dave; Mallory, Mark L; Elderkin, Mark; McLaughlin, J Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Like many shorebirds, purple sandpipers ( Calidris maritima [Brünnich] Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae) have experienced population declines in recent years, but causes of these declines have not been established. As part of a larger study to identify causes of these declines, we collected and examined 25 purple sandpipers in coastal Nova Scotia, Canada during March 2013. In the course of dissections to collect tissue samples, we detected a cluster of trematodes in the air sac of 1 bird that were subsequently identified as cyclocoelids belonging to the genus Morishitium Witenberg, 1928, which we believe is the first report of this genus of parasites in this host. Cyclocoelids have been reported from other scolopacids and other shorebird families, but we are unaware of reports of serious pathology arising from these trematodes. Given this and the low prevalence (4%) in our sample, our data cannot ascribe declines in purple sandpiper populations to these trematodes, but our sample is limited both spatially and temporally. PMID:26779884

  5. In vitro evaluation of the DP-4M PennCentury insufflator.

    PubMed

    Hoppentocht, M; Hoste, C; Hagedoorn, P; Frijlink, H W; de Boer, A H

    2014-09-01

    Dry powder formulations for inhalation have to be screened in animal studies for therapeutic efficacy and safety aspects and both are significantly affected by the dose and the particle size distribution (PSD) of the aerosol that is given. One of the most frequently used apparatus for pulmonary delivery of dry powder formulations in mice studies is the PennCentury DP-4M Dry Powder Insufflator. To make researchers of future preclinical animal studies with the DP-4M insufflator aware of the pitfalls regarding the conclusions to be drawn from their data, we investigated the dispersion behaviour by the DP-4M insufflator using two to three different powder preparation techniques for four different compounds. The primary PSDs of the different formulations were determined in duplicate by laser diffraction analysis. To measure the PSDs of the aerosols obtained with the DP-4M insufflator, the same diffractometer was used in combination with an in-house constructed adapter for the insufflator. The dispersion efficiency and delivered dose were highly affected by the amount of air available for dispersion; the 200 μL of air recommended for the type of insufflator used was insufficient for adequate dispersion. In contrast, the weighed dose did not have a profound effect on the dispersion behaviour and the delivered dose of the DP-4M insufflator. Also the physico-chemical powder properties and the applied particle preparation technique influenced the amount and PSD of the delivered aerosol only to a limited extend, with a few exceptions. We advise researchers to investigate the dispersion efficiency and delivered dose from the DP-4M insufflator with the formulation under investigation prior to in vivo studies and it may be necessary to optimise the formulation for administration to mice. PMID:24993307

  6. The Accuracy of Gastric Insufflation in Testing for Gastroesophageal Perforations during Laparoscopic Nissen Fundoplication

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Robert C.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication is an effective technique for the symptomatic relief of the manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disorder but is associated with a 0.8-1% rate of gastroesophageal perforation. Early detection and repair of these injuries is critical to patient outcome, but occult injuries occur and may be missed. Gastric insufflation technique evaluates the integrity of the gastroesophageal wall after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. Gastric insufflation technique involves occlusion of the proximal stomach with a non-crushing bowel clamp while insufflating the submerged gastroesophageal junction. We conducted an animal study to assess the utility of gastric insufflation technique. Methods: Five pigs (mean weight, 40.4 kg) underwent testing of laparoscopic gastric insufflation technique. In four animals, laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication was performed and then gastroesophageal junction injuries were created (3-5 mm distraction-type wall injuries). Non-crushing bowel clamps provided occlusion of the pylorus and then the proximal stomach during gastroesophageal insufflation. The gastroesophageal junction was then submerged. In the fifth animal, gastric insufflation technique was repeated while calibrated injuries were created to determine the smallest detectable injury. An injury was considered detectable if rising air bubbles were noted from the submerged gastroesophageal structures. Maximal luminal pressures needed to detect injuries were recorded with an in-line manometer. Results: In all animals, 5-7 mm injuries of the gastroesophageal junction were easily detected using gastric insufflation technique when the proximal stomach was occluded. When the pylorus alone was occluded, detection of gastroesophageal injuries was inconsistent. Small injuries (lt;3 mm) of the esophagus were difficult to visualize with pyloric occlusion alone but were consistently detectable with proximal stomach occlusion at pressures less than 20 mm Hg

  7. Wireless Insufflation of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Santina; Smith, Byron F.; Ciuti, Gastone; Gerding, Jason; Menciassi, Arianna; Obstein, Keith L.; Valdastri, Pietro; Webster, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite clear patient experience advantages, low specificity rates have thus far prevented swallowable capsule endoscopes from replacing traditional endoscopy for diagnosis of colon disease. One explanation for this is that capsule endoscopes lack the ability to provide insufflation, which traditional endoscopes use to distend the intestine for a clear view of the internal wall. To provide a means of insufflation from a wireless capsule platform, in this paper we use biocompatible effervescent chemical reactions to convert liquids and powders carried onboard a capsule into gas. We experimentally evaluate the quantity of gas needed to enhance capsule visualization and locomotion, and determine how much gas can be generated from a given volume of reactants. These experiments motivate the design of a wireless insufflation capsule, which is evaluated in ex vivo experiments. These experiments illustrate the feasibility of enhancing visualization and locomotion of endoscopic capsules through wireless insufflation. PMID:23212312

  8. “Cat Scratch Colon” and Cecal Barotrauma perforation during colonoscopy using CO2 insufflation

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Kristen; Fang, John C

    2014-01-01

    Cecal perforation due to barotrauma is an increasingly recognized complication of colonoscopy when using room air for insufflation. CO2 is increasingly being utilized for insufflation due to more rapid absorption compared to ambient air and results in reduced post-procedural pain and flatulence. Use of CO2 is thought to protect against barotrauma injury, and use of CO2 during endoscopy has not previously been reported to cause barotrauma perforation during colonoscopy. We present a case of cecal perforation secondary to barotrauma during routine screening colonoscopy with CO2. PMID:27489654

  9. A Genetic Mosaic Analysis With a Repressible Cell Marker Screen to Identify Genes Involved in Tracheal Cell Migration During Drosophila Air Sac Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chanut-Delalande, Hélène; Jung, Alain C.; Lin, Li; Baer, Magdalena M.; Bilstein, Andreas; Cabernard, Clemens; Leptin, Maria; Affolter, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis of the Drosophila tracheal system relies on the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway. The Drosophila FGF ligand Branchless (Bnl) and the FGFR Breathless (Btl/FGFR) are required for cell migration during the establishment of the interconnected network of tracheal tubes. However, due to an important maternal contribution of members of the FGFR pathway in the oocyte, a thorough genetic dissection of the role of components of the FGFR signaling cascade in tracheal cell migration is impossible in the embryo. To bypass this shortcoming, we studied tracheal cell migration in the dorsal air sac primordium, a structure that forms during late larval development. Using a mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker (MARCM) clone approach in mosaic animals, combined with an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-mutagenesis screen of the left arm of the second chromosome, we identified novel genes implicated in cell migration. We screened 1123 mutagenized lines and identified 47 lines displaying tracheal cell migration defects in the air sac primordium. Using complementation analyses based on lethality, mutations in 20 of these lines were genetically mapped to specific genomic areas. Three of the mutants were mapped to either the Mhc or the stam complementation groups. Further experiments confirmed that these genes are required for cell migration in the tracheal air sac primordium. PMID:17603108

  10. Carbon dioxide insufflation during screening unsedated colonoscopy: a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Szura, Miroslaw; Matyja, Andrzej; Kulig, Jan

    2015-01-01

    One of the methods used to reduce pain and discomfort during colonoscopy is insufflation of carbon dioxide instead of air. However, the actual benefit of carbon dioxide insufflation is not unequivocally proven. The aim of the study was to evaluate the advantages of carbon dioxide insufflation during screening colonoscopy. A total of 200 patients undergoing screening colonoscopy between 2010 and 2011 were included in the prospective, randomized study carried out in a surgical referral center. Screening unsedated colonoscopy with either air or carbon dioxide insufflation was performed; patients were randomly assigned to air or carbon dioxide group by means of computer-generated randomization lists. All examinations were performed in an ambulatory setting with standard videocolonoscopes. The main outcomes analyzed were (a) duration of the entire procedure, (b) cecal intubation time, and (c) pain severity immediately, 15, and 60 min after the procedure. Group I included 59 women and 41 men and group II included 51 women and 49 men. The duration of the procedure was circa 10 min in both groups. Pain score values immediately and 15 min after the procedure were similar in both groups (P=0.624 and 0.305, respectively). A lower pain score was observed only after 60 min in patients insufflated with carbon dioxide (1.28 vs. 1.54, P=0.008). No pain reduction was observed in women and in obese patients (BMI>30). Carbon dioxide insufflation during unsedated screening colonoscopy does not decrease the duration of the procedure and appears to reduce pain intensity at 60 min after examination to an extent without clinical significance. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01461564. PMID:24915135

  11. 60. SAC emblem on side of missile, front lawn, building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. SAC emblem on side of missile, front lawn, building 500, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 63. Aerial view of SAC command post construction, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Aerial view of SAC command post construction, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 67. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking northeast, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 62. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking east - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 3. Threequarter view of building 500 looking southeast from SAC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Three-quarter view of building 500 looking southeast from SAC Boulevard - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. 68. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking northeast, spring, 1957 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. Efficacy of cardiopulmonary resuscitation using intratracheal insufflation.

    PubMed

    Brochard, L; Boussignac, G; Adnot, S; Bertrand, C; Isabey, D; Harf, A

    1996-11-01

    The effects of constant-flow insufflation (CFI) of air in the trachea at the distal end of a modified endotracheal tube as the sole mode of ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) were studied in pigs. The ventilatory effect of CFI (15 +/- 2 L/min) generating a positive pressure of about 10 cm H2O with concomitant chest compression was studied first. In nine sedated, paralyzed animals disconnected from the ventilator, CFI alone did not significantly alter the decrease in PaO2 and the rise in PaCO2 observed during apnea. By contrast, the combination of precordial compression and CFI (CFI-CPR) maintained arterial blood gases over a 4-min period at the level obtained during mechanical ventilation. In the second part of the study, ventricular fibrillation was induced and CFI-CPR was compared with standard CPR using conventional mechanical ventilation during two successive 4-min periods, in random order. Ventilatory parameters were identical in the two situations, whereas hemodynamic parameters were similar or better with CFI-CPR than with standard CPR. Significant differences were observed between standard CPR and CFI-CPR for systolic aortic pressure (72 +/- 22 versus 82 +/- 27 mm Hg, respectively; p < 0.02) and for systolic (322 +/- 216 versus 431 +/- 237 ml/s; p < 0.01) and mean (116 +/- 106 versus 143 +/- 108 ml/s; p < 0.01) common carotid blood flows. The ease of use of CFI together with its beneficial hemodynamic effects suggests that CFI deserves to be investigated further as a mode of ventilation during CPR. PMID:8912743

  19. Carbon dioxide insufflation in esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection reduces mediastinal emphysema: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Yuki; Hirasawa, Dai; Fujita, Naotaka; Ohira, Tetsuya; Harada, Yoshihiro; Yamagata, Taku; Koike, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Kenjirou

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the efficacy of CO2 insufflation for reduction of mediastinal emphysema (ME) immediately after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). METHODS A total of 46 patients who were to undergo esophageal ESD were randomly assigned to receive either CO2 insufflation (CO2 group, n = 24) or air insufflation (Air group, n = 22). Computed tomography (CT) was carried out immediately after ESD and the next morning. Pain and abdominal distention were chronologically recorded using a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). The volume of residual gas in the digestive tract was measured using CT imaging. RESULTS The incidence of ME immediately after ESD in the CO2 group was significantly lower than that in the Air group (17% vs 55%, P = 0.012). The incidence of ME the next morning was 8.3% vs 32% respectively (P = 0.066). There were no differences in pain scores or distention scores at any post-procedure time points. The volume of residual gas in the digestive tract immediately after ESD was significantly smaller in the CO2 group than that in the Air group (808 mL vs 1173 mL, P = 0.013). CONCLUSION CO2 insufflation during esophageal ESD significantly reduced postprocedural ME. CO2 insufflation also reduced the volume of residual gas in the digestive tract immediately after ESD, but not the VAS scores of pain and distention. PMID:27621583

  20. Glossopharyngeal insufflation induces cardioinhibitory syncope in apnea divers.

    PubMed

    Dzamonja, Gordan; Tank, Jens; Heusser, Karsten; Palada, Ivan; Valic, Zoran; Bakovic, Darija; Obad, Ante; Ivancev, Vladimir; Breskovic, Toni; Diedrich, André; Luft, Friedrich C; Dujic, Zeljko; Jordan, Jens

    2010-12-01

    Apnea divers increase intrathoracic pressure voluntarily by taking a deep breath followed by glossopharyngeal insufflation. Because apnea divers sometimes experience hypotension and syncope during the maneuver, they may serve as a model to study the mechanisms of syncope. We recorded changes in hemodynamics and sympathetic vasomotor tone with microneurography during breath holding with glossopharyngeal insufflation. Five men became hypotensive and fainted during breath holding with glossopharyngeal insufflation within the first minute. In four divers, heart rate dropped suddenly to a minimum of 38 ± 4 beats/min. Therefore, cardioinhibitory syncope was more common than low cardiac output syncope. PMID:20623312

  1. Insufflation with carbon dioxide reduces pneumoperitoneum after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG): a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Christopher J.; Adler, Douglas G.; Cox, Kristen; Sommers, Daniel N.; Fang, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Pneumoperitoneum following PEG placement has been reported in up to 60 % of cases, and while usually benign and self-limited, it can lead to evaluation for suspected perforation. This study was designed to determine whether using CO2 compared to ambient air for insufflation during PEG reduces post-procedure pneumoperitoneum. Patients and Methods: Prospective, double-blind, randomized trial of 35 consecutive patients undergoing PEG at a single academic medical center. Patients were randomized to insufflation with CO2 or ambient air. The primary outcome was pneumoperitoneum determined by left-lateral decubitus abdominal x-rays 30 minutes after PEG placement. Secondary endpoints included abdominal distention, pain, and bloating. Results: PEG was successfully placed in 17 patients using CO2 and 18 patients using ambient air. Three patients in each arm were unable or declined to have x-rays completed and were excluded. Pneumoperitoneum was identified in 2/14 (14.3 %) using CO2 and 8/15 (53.3 %) using ambient air (P = 0.05). There was no significant difference in abdominal distention, visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain or bloating between CO2 and ambient air. Conclusion: Utilizing CO2 significantly reduces the frequency of post-procedural pneumoperitoneum compared to use of ambient air during PEG placement, with no difference in waist circumference, pain or bloating between CO2 and ambient air. CO2 appears to be safe and effective for use and may be the insufflation agent of choice during PEG. PMID:27004246

  2. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the...

  3. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the...

  4. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the...

  5. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the...

  6. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the...

  7. Mechanical insufflation-exsufflation. Comparison of peak expiratory flows with manually assisted and unassisted coughing techniques.

    PubMed

    Bach, J R

    1993-11-01

    Pulmonary complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality for patients with severe expiratory muscle weakness. The purpose of this study was to compare peak cough expiratory flows (PCEFs) during unassisted and assisted coughing and review the long-term use of mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E) for 46 neuromuscular ventilator users. These individuals used noninvasive methods of ventilatory support for a mean of 21.1 h/d for 17.3 +/- 15.5 years. They relied on manually assisted coughing and/or MI-E during periods of productive airway secretion. They reported a mean of 0.7 +/- 1.2 cases of pneumonia and other serious pulmonary complications and 2.8 +/- 5.6 hospitalizations during the 16.4-year period and no complications of MI-E. A sample of 21 of these patients with a mean forced vital capacity of 490 +/- 370 ml had a mean maximum insufflation capacity (MIC) achieved by a combination of air stacking of ventilator insufflations and glossopharyngeal breathing of 1,670 +/- 540 ml. The PCEFs for this sample were: following an unassisted inspiration, 1.81 +/- 1.03 L/s; following a MIC maneuver, 3.37 +/- 1.07 L/s; with manual assistance by abdominal compression following a MIC maneuver, 4.27 +/- 1.29 L/s; and with MI-E, 7.47 +/- 1.02 L/s. Each PCEF was significantly greater than the preceding, respectively (p < 0.01). We conclude that manually assisted coughing and MI-E are effective and safe methods for facilitating airway secretion clearance for neuromuscular ventilator users who would otherwise be managed by endotracheal suctioning. Severely decreased MIC, but not necessarily vital capacity, is an indication for tracheostomy. PMID:8222823

  8. The use of carbon dioxide as an insufflation agent in barium enema--does it have a role?

    PubMed

    Robson, N K; Lloyd, M; Regan, F

    1993-03-01

    A double blind prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit of using carbon dioxide in double contrast barium enema (DCBE). 142 consecutive patients referred for DCBE were randomly allocated to receive either air or carbon dioxide (CO2) as the insufflation agent. The use of CO2 reduced the incidence of immediate and delayed severe pain from 31% to 12.5% and from 12.9% to 4.2% respectively. There was a statistically significant higher incidence of delayed severe pain in the younger age group as found in previous studies. Post-evacuation films showed that there was less residual gas after CO2. The quality of the DCBE was unchanged. We urge the more widespread use of CO2 as insufflation agent in DCBE. PMID:8472110

  9. 79. Sac digital network (Sacdin), summary fault indicator at top, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. Sac digital network (Sacdin), summary fault indicator at top, south side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  10. Simulation of carbon dioxide insufflation via a diffuser in an open surgical wound model.

    PubMed

    Cater, John E; van der Linden, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Flow within a model surgical opening during insufflation with heated carbon dioxide was studied using computational fluid dynamics. A volume of fluid method was used to simulate the mixture of ambient air and carbon dioxide gas. The negative buoyancy of the carbon dioxide caused it to fill the wound and form a protective layer on the internal surfaces for a range of flow rates, temperatures, and angles of patient inclination. It was observed that the flow remained attached to the surface of the model due to the action of the Coanda effect. A flow rate of 10 L/min was sufficient to maintain a warm carbon dioxide barrier for a moderately sized surgical incision for all likely angles of inclination. PMID:25103346

  11. Recent developments in SAC2000

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, P.; Dodge, D.; Firpo, M

    1997-07-01

    Before discussing recent developments in SAC2000, I will summarize what SAC2000 is/does. SAC2000 is the rebirth and evolution of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) developed during the 1980`s for a variety of geophysical applications. Primary funding for the development of SAC2000 has been through the LLNL as part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) CTBT R&D program. The primary development goals for SAC2000 have been to meet the seismic signal processing and analysis needs of the DOE CTBT R&D teams and the rest of the CTBT R&D community. SAC2000`s strengths include its ability to process a diverse range of data types, its extensive, well documented signal processing capabilities (both on-line and on the web at http://www-ep.es.llnl.gov/tvp/sac.html), its macro language, and its ability to do both branch and interactive processing. Its extensive usage (over 200 institutions worldwide) had also made it much easier for researchers to develop collaborative research projects. SAC2000`s extensive signal processing capabilities include: data inspection, signal correction, and quality control, unary and binary data operations, travel-time analysis, spectral analysis including high-resolution spectral estimation, spectrograms and binary sonograms, and array and three-component analysis. Recent development in SAC2000 include: enhanced compatibility with the CSS3.0 database schema, complete compatibility with the widely used SEED data format instrument responses, map making capabilities via an interface to GMT, a new three component polarization and phase identification tool, an external interface that allows users to define their own commands, and an interface to MATLAB that allows the user to use MATLAB commands and scripts on SAC data from within SAC2000. We have also implemented a number of commands to enhance user efficiency and numerous improvements and enhancements to many individual SAC commands. Current development in SAC

  12. Carbon Dioxide Insufflation or Warm-water Infusion for Unsedated Colonoscopy: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Patients with Chronic Constipation in China

    PubMed Central

    Xiaoling, Xu; Haihang, Zhu; Di, Chen; Langui, Fan; Ting, Lu; Qin, Shen; Chaowu, Chen; Denghao, Deng

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation and warm-water infusion during colonoscopy on patients with chronic constipation remains unknown. We evaluated CO2 insufflation and warm-water irrigation versus air insufflation in unsedated patients with chronic constipation in China. Patients and Methods: This randomized, single–center, controlled trial enrolled 287 consecutive patients, from January 2014 to January 2015, who underwent colonoscopy for chronic constipation. Patients were randomized to CO2 insufflation, warm-water irrigation and air insufflation colonoscopy insertion phase groups. Pain scores were assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS). The primary outcome was real-time maximum insertion pain, recorded by an unblinded nurse assistant. At discharge, the recalled maximum insertion pain was recorded. Meanwhile, patients were requested to select the VAS at 0, 10, 30, and 60 min after the procedure. In addition, cecal intubation and withdrawal time, total procedure time, and adjunct measures were recorded. Results: A total of 287 patients were randomized. The correlation between real-time and recalled maximum insertion pain ((Pearson coefficient r = 0.929; P < 0.0001) confirmed internal validation of the primary outcome. The mean real-time maximum pain scores during insertion 2.9 ± 2.1 for CO2, 2.7 ± 1.9 for water achieved a significantly lower pain score compared with air (5.7 ± 2.5) group (air vs CO2 P < 0.001; air vs water P < 0.001). However, no significant pain score differences were found between the patients in the CO2 and water groups (CO2 vs water, P = 0.0535). P values in painless colonoscopy and only discomfort colonoscopy (pain 1–2) were, respectively, 6 (6.4%) and 8 (8.5%) for air; 17 (17.7%) and 29 (30.2%) for CO2; 16 (16.5%) and 31 (31.9%) for water. At 0, 10, 30, and 60 min postprocedure, pain scores showed in the CO2 and water groups had significantly reduced than in air group. Insertion time was significantly different

  13. Primary omental yolk sac tumor.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seon Hwa; Kim, Yon Hee; Yim, Ga Won; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Sunghoon

    2013-11-01

    Extra-ovarian yolk sac tumor arising in the omentum is extremely rare. As yolk sac tumor originated from the omentum has been rarely reported, its clinical information is very limited. The authors encountered a case of yolk sac tumor originated from the omentum, and reported the case herein. A 32-year-old woman was presented with developed low abdominal distension for a month. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were suggestive of ovarian malignancy with ascites and peritoneal seeding nodules. Explorative laparotomy was performed and then the findings from frozen biopsy of omentum were suggestive of poorly differentiated tumor though whether it was primary or metastatic was uncertain. Thus, staging laparotomy were performed. Histopathology confirmed that the tumor was a yolk sac tumor of omentum origin. Then, 6 cycles of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy at intervals of 3 weeks were performed using bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin regimen. Four-year outpatient follow-up thereafter showed no relapse. PMID:24396822

  14. Simultaneous hemodynamic and echocardiographic changes during abdominal gas insufflation.

    PubMed

    Myre, K; Buanes, T; Smith, G; Stokland, O

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate cardiovascular changes during CO2 pneumoperitoneum. We performed simultaneous hemodynamic recordings and transesophageal echocardiographic measurements of possible alterations in cardiac dimensions. Seven patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were investigated. With an intraabdominal pressure of 15 mm Hg, mean arterial pressure increased from 75 to 93 mm Hg (p < 0.05). Despite the increase in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) from 10 (9.5-12) to 17 (16-19.9) mm Hg (p < 0.05), left ventricular end-diastolic area index (EDAI) did not change significantly. The cardiac index remained unchanged. Thus abdominal gas insufflation substantially alters the PCWP/EDAI relation. During pneumoperitoneum, left ventricular filling pressure, estimated by PCWP, cannot be used as an indicator of left ventricular dilation. PMID:9348623

  15. [Technical aspects of mechanical insufflator-exsufflators. Construction and function of the Emerson CoughAssist].

    PubMed

    Bosch, A; Winterholler, M

    2008-03-01

    The electromechanical insufflator-exsufflator (Emerson CoughAssist) was developed as an aid for patients with neuromuscular disorders suffering from impaired cough. The insufflator-exsufflator simulates and supports physiological cough by supporting inspiration with positive pressure and shifting this positive pressure rapidly into a negative pressure that supports exsufflation and thus bronchial clearance. Maximum pressures are +/- 60 cm H2O, pressures between 30 and 50 cm H2O are sufficient to produce assisted cough in adults with neuromuscular disease. The pressure shift from positive to negative occurs with 0.02 sec and is regulated by a magnetic valve. An anaesthetic facemask is used as interface, alternatively, a mouthpiece can be used in combination with a nose strap. It is also possible to use the insufflator-exsufflator in patients with tracheostomy. We present in this article detailed information about the technical principles and practical use of the electromechanical insufflator-exsufflator. PMID:18317985

  16. Haemangiopericytoma of the lacrimal sac.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akihide; Wu, Albert; Sun, Michelle T; Inatani, Masaru; Katori, Nobutada; Selva, Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    Haemangiopericytomas (HPCs) are rare tumours which infrequently occur in the lacrimal sac. Only 8 cases of lacrimal sac HPC have previously been reported. The authors report 2 additional cases presenting clinically with epiphora and a mass. One case recurred 3 times during an 18-year period. The other case did not recur during 51 months of follow-up. The tumours showed immunohistochemical features consistent with a diagnosis of HPC. The authors recommend wide excision for these tumours and careful long-term follow-up to detect recurrence which is not uncommon. PMID:27322416

  17. High flow insufflation for the maintenance of the pneumoperitoneum during bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Daskalakis, Markos; Scheffel, Oliver; Weiner, Rudolf A

    2009-01-01

    Minimally invasive bariatric procedures next to becoming more and more popular have established a new field of applications for carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflators. In laparoscopic bariatric procedures, gas is used to insufflate the peritoneal cavity and increase the intra-abdominal pressure up to 15 mm Hg for optimal exposure and a suitable operating field. The increased intra-abdominal pressure during pneumoperitoneum can reduce femoral venous flow, intra-operative urine output, portal venous flow, respiratory compliance,and cardiac output. However, clinical complications related to these effects are rare. Yet, surgeons should be constantly aware that the duration of an operation is an important factor in reducing the patient's exposure to CO2 pneumoperitoneum and its adverse effects. The optimized performance of the bariatric high flow insufflator allows reaching stable abdominal pressure conditions quicker and at a higher level than a common insufflator. Therefore, high flow insufflators offer great advantages in maintaining intra-abdominal pressure and temperature in comparison to conventional insufflators and thus enhance laparoscopic bariatric surgery by potentially reducing the operating time and the undesirable effects of CO2 pneumoperitoneum. PMID:20124777

  18. Cul-de-Sac Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochschild, Thomas R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research indicates that adults who live on cul-de-sac streets are more likely to have positive experiences with neighbors than residents of other street types (Brown and Werner, 1985; Hochschild Jr, 2011; Mayo Jr, 1979; Willmott, 1963). The present research ascertains whether street design has an impact on children's neighborhood…

  19. Chitosan microspheres as a delivery system for nasal insufflation.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sanjay B; Sawant, Krutika K

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and characterize chitosan mucoadhesive microspheres for nasal delivery. The microspheres were prepared by emulsification-crosslinking method and evaluated for morphology, particle size, swelling index, in vitro mucoadhesion and delivery properties from Miat(®) nasal insufflator. The results showed that the microspheres were spherical in shape with smooth surfaces. The particle size of microspheres was found to be dependent on the concentration of the chitosan. The mean particle size was significantly increased when high concentration of chitosan was used. Aqueous to oil phase ratio, stirring rate and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS) concentration also influenced the particle size distribution of the microspheres. It was found that, as stirring rate was increased, the size of the microspheres was decreased. The volume of glutaraldehyde and crosslinking time had very slight effect on particle size distribution. The % equilibrium water uptake of the microspheres was ranged from 124% to 232% and the mucoadhesive strength from 70.64±2.14 to 86.32±3.96%. The results of powder delivery from the device showed that, almost entire amount was delivered after three puffs. The images of the delivery sequences of microsphere powder clouds demonstrated that microspheres were delivered forming an elongated puff. The core of the clouds was homogeneous which can be expected to provide effective distribution pattern. PMID:21320767

  20. Intraoperative Evaluation of Laparoscopic Insufflation Technique for Quality Control in the OR

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, John E.; Mundhenke, Christoph; Golombeck, Kirstin; Jonat, Walter

    2000-01-01

    Objective: With increasing technology and computerized systems in the OR, the physician's responsibility is growing. For intraoperative evaluation of insufflation techniques, a data acquisition model for quality control study of potential insufflation problems is necessary. Methods: A computer-based, online data acquisition model was designed with a Pentium notebook, PCMCIA data acquisition board PCI-460-P1 and a Visual Designer 3.0 measurement program (both Intelligent Instrumentation, Inc., Tucson, AZ), temperature meters Therm 2280-1 and 2283-2 (Ahlborn, Holzkirchen, Germany) and temperature probes 401 AC and 402 AC (YSI, Inc., Yellow Springs, OH) and T-430-2R (Ahlborn, Holzkirchen, Germany). Gas flow was measured with laminar flow element LFE 1 and flow meters Digima premo 720 (both Special Instruments, Noerdlingen, Germany). During 73 standard laparoscopic procedures, gas flow (L/min) in the insufflation hose, pressure (mm Hg) in the hose and abdomen as well as temperature (°C) in the hose, abdomen and rectum were measured continuously at 3 Hz rate. Results: Actual values measured show a wide range often not identical with insufflator presetting. Pressure in the abdomen is usually less than hose pressure. Intraabdominal pressure peaks (≤50 mm Hg) occurred during insufficient anesthesia, while leaning on the abdomen, during trocar insertion and other manipulation. Blood irrigation fluids found in the hose (n=3/73) can lead to bacterial contamination. Negative pressure (−50 mm Hg) was measured due to Endobag removal. Negative flow (≤15 L/min) was caused by pressure on the abdomen, insufflator regulation and an empty CO2 gas tank. Gas temperature in the hose equals room temperature but can decrease in the abdomen to 27.7°C due to high gas flow, large amounts of gas used and prolonged insufflation. Further insufflation-related problems were documented. Conclusions: This computer-based measurement model proved to be useful for quality control study in the

  1. Administration of an insulin powder to the lungs of cynomolgus monkeys using a Penn Century insufflator.

    PubMed

    Grainger, C I; Alcock, R; Gard, T G; Quirk, A V; van Amerongen, G; de Swart, R L; Hardy, J G

    2004-01-28

    A powder formulation of live-attenuated measles vaccine is being developed for administration to the lungs. The safety and efficacy of the powder will be assessed by insufflation into cynomolgus monkeys. A Penn Century insufflator has been evaluated for powder dosing to the monkeys using an insulin formulation having similar physicochemical characteristics to the vaccine powder. Insulin pharmacokinetics were compared following dosing by powder insufflation, solution instillation into the trachea and subcutaneous injection. The insulin dosed to the lungs and trachea was more rapidly absorbed than that administered subcutaneously. Insulin bioavailability was greater from the inhaled powder than from the instilled solution. The findings confirm that the Penn Century device is suitable for vaccine powder dosing to the deep lung. PMID:14706262

  2. Endolymphatic sac involvement in bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Møller, Martin Nue; Brandt, Christian; Østergaard, Christian; Caye-Thomasen, Per

    2015-04-01

    The commonest sequelae of bacterial meningitis are related to the inner ear. Little is known about the inner ear immune defense. Evidence suggests that the endolymphatic sac provides some protection against infection. A potential involvement of the endolymphatic sac in bacterial meningitis is largely unaccounted for, and thus the object of the present study. A well-established adult rat model of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis was employed. Thirty adult rats were inoculated intrathecally with Streptococcus pneumoniae and received no additional treatment. Six rats were sham-inoculated. The rats were killed when reaching terminal illness or on day 7, followed by light microscopy preparation and PAS-Alcian blue staining. The endolymphatic sac was examined for bacterial invasion and leukocyte infiltration. Neither bacteria nor leukocytes infiltrated the endolymphatic sac during the first days. Bacteria invaded the inner ear through the cochlear aquaduct. On days 5-6, the bacteria invaded the endolymphatic sac through the endolymphatic duct subsequent to invasion of the vestibular endolymphatic compartment. No evidence of direct bacterial invasion of the sac through the meninges was found. Leukocyte infiltration of the sac occurred prior to bacterial invasion. During meningitis, bacteria do not invade the endolymphatic sac through the dura, but solely through the endolymphatic duct, following the invasion of the vestibular system. Leukocyte infiltration of the sac occurs prior to, as well as concurrent with bacterial invasion. The findings support the endolymphatic sac as part of an innate immune defense system protecting the inner ear from infection. PMID:24452771

  3. Performance Analysis of Wavelength Multiplexed Sac Ocdma Codes in Beat Noise Mitigation in Sac Ocdma Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhassan, A. M.; Badruddin, N.; Saad, N. M.; Aljunid, S. A.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of wavelength multiplexed spectral amplitude coding (WM SAC) codes in beat noise mitigation in coherent source SAC OCDMA systems. A WM SAC code is a low weight SAC code, where the whole code structure is repeated diagonally (once or more) in the wavelength domain to achieve the same cardinality as a higher weight SAC code. Results show that for highly populated networks, the WM SAC codes provide better performance than SAC codes. However, for small number of active users the situation is reversed. Apart from their promising improvement in performance, these codes are more flexible and impose less complexity on the system design than their SAC counterparts.

  4. Comparative morphology of the marrow sac.

    PubMed

    Bi, L X; Simmons, D J; Hawkins, H K; Cox, R A; Mainous, E G

    2000-12-01

    Electron microscopic techniques have been used to profile the morphologies of marrow sacs in different laboratory species. These structures all comprise a condensed layer of overlapping fibroblast-like stromal cells and apparently confine the medullary and endosteal osteoblast/lining cells to separate histiotypic compartments. There were some variations in the morphology of the sac cells in the different species. In rats, cats, and sheep, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed a seamless arrangement of marrow sac cells which resembled a thin, flat simple squamous epithelium; they displayed few intercellular cytoplasmic processes. In the rabbit and pigeon, the sac comprised a more woven, multilayered fabric of broadly elongate flat fibroblast-like cells which displayed numerous intercellular processes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that all marrow sac cells were attenuated with elongated nuclei, a few small round mitochondria, and a sparse rough endoplasmic reticulum. In the majority of animals, the sac was one to two cell layers thick. The rabbit and pigeon sacs were multilayered, and never less than three to four cells deep. The cell layers were not closely apposed. Tight or gap junctions were absent at the points of intercellular contact. These morphological results suggest that marrow sacs are common elements of the vertebrate skeleton with species specific morphologies. PMID:11074407

  5. Intra-Operative Tissue Oxygen Tension Is Increased by Local Insufflation of Humidified-Warm CO2 during Open Abdominal Surgery in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Jean K.; Lindner, Pernilla; Tait, Noel; Maddocks, Tracy; Riepsamen, Angelique; van der Linden, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Maintenance of high tissue oxygenation (PtO2) is recommended during surgery because PtO2 is highly predictive of surgical site infection and colonic anastomotic leakage. However, surgical site perfusion is often sub-optimal, creating an obstructive hurdle for traditional, systemically applied therapies to maintain or increase surgical site PtO2. This research tested the hypothesis that insufflation of humidified-warm CO2 into the abdominal cavity would increase sub-peritoneal PtO2 during open abdominal surgery. Materials and Methods 15 Wistar rats underwent laparotomy under general anesthesia. Three sets of randomized cross-over experiments were conducted in which the abdominal cavity was subjected to alternating exposure to 1) humidified-warm CO2 & ambient air; 2) humidified-warm CO2 & dry-cold CO2; and 3) dry-cold CO2 & ambient air. Sub-peritoneal PtO2 and tissue temperature were measured with a polarographic oxygen probe. Results Upon insufflation of humidified-warm CO2, PtO2 increased by 29.8 mmHg (SD 13.3; p<0.001), or 96.6% (SD 51.9), and tissue temperature by 3.0°C (SD 1.7 p<0.001), in comparison with exposure to ambient air. Smaller, but significant, increases in PtO2 were seen in experiments 2 and 3. Tissue temperature decreased upon exposure to dry-cold CO2 compared with ambient air (-1.4°C, SD 0.5, p = 0.001). Conclusions In a rat model, insufflation of humidified-warm CO2 into the abdominal cavity during open abdominal surgery causes an immediate and potentially clinically significant increase in PtO2. The effect is an additive result of the delivery of CO2 and avoidance of evaporative cooling via the delivery of the CO2 gas humidified at body temperature. PMID:25835954

  6. Sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to glossopharyngeal insufflation in trained apnea divers.

    PubMed

    Heusser, Karsten; Dzamonja, Gordan; Breskovic, Toni; Steinback, Craig D; Diedrich, André; Tank, Jens; Jordan, Jens; Dujic, Zeljko

    2010-12-01

    Glossopharyngeal insufflation (lung packing) is a common maneuver among experienced apnea divers by which additional air is pumped into the lungs. It has been shown that packing may compromise cardiovascular homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that the packing-mediated increase in intrathoracic pressure enhances the baroreflex-mediated increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in response to an exaggerated drop in cardiac output (CO). We compared changes in hemodynamics and MSNA (peroneal microneurography) during maximal breath-holds without and with prior moderate packing (0.79 ± 0.40 liters) in 14 trained divers (12 men, 2 women, 26.7 ± 4.5 yr, body mass index 24.8 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)). Packing did not change apnea time (3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 3.8 ± 1.2 min), hemoglobin oxygen desaturation (-17.6 ± 12.3 vs. -18.7 ± 12.8%), or the reduction in CO (1 min: -3.65 ± 1.83 vs. -3.39 ± 1.96 l/min; end of apnea: -2.44 ± 1.33 vs. -2.16 ± 1.44 l/min). On the other hand, packing dampened the early, i.e., 1-min increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP, 1 min: 9.2 ± 8.3 vs. 2.4 ± 11.0 mmHg, P < 0.01) and in total peripheral resistance (relative TPR, 1 min: 2.1 ± 0.5 vs. 1.9 ± 0.5, P < 0.05) but it augmented the concomitant rise in MSNA (1 min: 28.0 ± 11.7 vs. 39.4 ± 12.7 bursts/min, P < 0.001; 32.8 ± 16.4 vs. 43.9 ± 14.8 bursts/100 heart beats, P < 0.01; 3.3 ± 2.1 vs. 4.8 ± 3.2 au/min, P < 0.05). We conclude that the early sympathoactivation 1 min into apnea after moderate packing is due to mechanisms other than excessive reduction in CO. We speculate that lower MAP despite increased MSNA after packing might be explained by vasodilator substances released by the lungs. This idea should be addressed in future studies. PMID:20864558

  7. An autopsy case of acetyl fentanyl intoxication caused by insufflation of 'designer drugs'.

    PubMed

    Takase, Izumi; Koizumi, Takako; Fujimoto, Ihoko; Yanai, Aya; Fujimiya, Tatsuya

    2016-07-01

    We present a fatal case of intoxication due to insufflation of acetyl fentanyl. His blood concentration of acetyl fentanyl was 270ng/mL, and the manner of death was classified as an accident. This is the first report of an autopsy case of acetyl fentanyl delivered by insufflation, rather than intravenous administration. He had been snoring loudly for at least 12h prior to death, and transport to a hospital during this time and treatment with naloxone may have saved his life. In this sense, it can be said that his death was preventable. This case reemphasizes the risk of death associated with drug overdose and the narrow range of acetyl fentanyl between the effective dose (ED50) and lethal dose (LD50). The case should also raise awareness among medical professionals of the effectiveness of naloxone and the need to establish a comprehensive system for toxicological analysis while keeping the possibility of use of 'designer drugs' in mind. PMID:27497332

  8. Gas analysis using Raman spectroscopy demonstrates the presence of intraperitoneal air (nitrogen and oxygen) in a cohort of children undergoing pediatric laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan P; Sato, Thomas T; Balcom, Anthony H; Groth, Travis; Hoffman, George M

    2015-02-01

    Clinically significant gas embolism during laparoscopy is a rare but potentially catastrophic event. Case reports suggest that air, in addition to the insufflation gas, may be present. We studied the effects of equipment design and flushing techniques on the composition of gas present under experimental and routine pediatric surgical conditions. Concentrations of nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured by Raman spectroscopy in gas delivered to and retrieved from a mock peritoneum during simulated laparoscopy. We then analyzed the composition of insufflated and recovered gases during elective laparoscopic procedures conducted with CO2-preflushed and unflushed tubing to determine the presence of significant (10%) quantities of air. In vitro, CO2 was not detected at the distal end of insufflator tubing until after delivery of approximately 0.2 L of gas, and N2 persisted until >0.4 L was delivered, with 40% ± 8% (mean ± SD, range 33%-49%) recovered from the mock peritoneum at the termination of initial insufflation. In clinical studies, preflushing reduced the initial concentration of N2 from 78% ± 0.5% to 23% ± 15%, but >10% air was detected in all subsequent samples, regardless of insufflation technique. Laparoscopic equipment and practice routinely permit delivery of air to the insufflated cavity. Purging the equipment with CO2 reduces but does not eliminate air (N2, O2) within the peritoneal cavity during laparoscopy. Thus, when vascular injury occurs, embolized gases will contain variable quantities of N2, O2, and CO2. As the initial insufflation volume diminishes and approaches the volume of the insufflation tubing, which occurs in infants and young pediatric patients, the concentration of N2 will approximate that of room air in an unflushed system. Small insufflation volumes containing high N2 concentrations can contribute to catastrophic air emboli in neonates and small pediatric patients. PMID:25602452

  9. Single-port thoracoscopic surgery for pneumothorax under two-lung ventilation with carbon dioxide insufflation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kook Nam; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lee, Dong Kyu; Kim, Heezoo; Lim, Sang Ho; Choi, Young Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of single-port thoracoscopic surgery and two-lung ventilation reduced the invasiveness of minor thoracic surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of single-port thoracoscopic bleb resection for primary spontaneous pneumothorax using two-lung ventilation with carbon dioxide insufflation. Methods Between February 2009 and May 2014, 130 patients underwent single-port thoracoscopic bleb resection under two-lung ventilation with carbon dioxide insufflation. Access was gained using a commercial multiple-access single port through a 2.5-cm incision; carbon dioxide gas was insufflated through a port channel. A 5-mm thoracoscope, articulating endoscopic devices, and flexible endoscopic staplers were introduced through a multiple-access single port for bulla resection. Results The mean time from endotracheal intubation to incision was 29.2±7.8 minutes, the mean operative time was 30.9±8.2 minutes, and the mean total anesthetic time was 75.5±14.4 minutes. There were no anesthesia-related complications or wound problems. The chest drain was removed after a mean of 3.7±1.4 days and patients were discharged without complications 4.8±1.5 days from the operative day. During a mean 7.5±10.1 months of follow-up, there were five recurrences (3.8%) in operated thorax. Conclusions The anesthetic strategy of single-lumen intubation with carbon dioxide gas insufflation can be a safe and feasible option for single-port thoracoscopic bulla resection as it represents the least invasive surgical option with the potential advantages of reducing operative time and one-lung ventilation-related complications without diminishing surgical outcomes. PMID:27293823

  10. SACS: Spitzer Archival Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Daniel

    Emerging from the cosmic web, galaxy clusters are the most massive gravitationally bound structures in the universe. Thought to have begun their assembly at z > 2, clusters provide insights into the growth of large-scale structure as well as the physics that drives galaxy evolution. Understanding how and when the most massive galaxies assemble their stellar mass, stop forming stars, and acquire their observed morphologies in these environments remain outstanding questions. The redshift range 1.3 < z < 2 is a key epoch in this respect: elliptical galaxies start to become the dominant population in cluster cores, and star formation in spiral galaxies is being quenched. Until recently, however, this redshift range was essentially unreachable with available instrumentation, with clusters at these redshifts exceedingly challenging to identify from either ground-based optical/nearinfrared imaging or from X-ray surveys. Mid-infrared (MIR) imaging with the IRAC camera on board of the Spitzer Space Telescope has changed the landscape. High-redshift clusters are easily identified in the MIR due to a combination of the unique colors of distant galaxies and a negative k-correction in the 3-5 μm range which makes such galaxies bright. Even 90-sec observations with Spitzer/IRAC, a depth which essentially all extragalactic observations in the archive achieve, is sufficient to robustly detect overdensities of L* galaxies out to z~2. Here we request funding to embark on a ambitious scientific program, the “SACS: Spitzer Archival Cluster Survey”, a comprehensive search for the most distant galaxy clusters in all Spitzer/IRAC extragalactic pointings available in the archive. With the SACS we aim to discover ~2000 of 1.3 < z < 2.5 clusters, thus provide the ultimate catalog for high-redshift MIR selected clusters: a lasting legacy for Spitzer. The study we propose will increase by more than a factor of 10 the number of high-redshift clusters discovered by all previous surveys

  11. Transient ischemic attacks from arterial gas embolism induced by glossopharyngeal insufflation and a possible method to identify individuals at risk.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Tomas A; Lindholm, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Breath-hold divers report transient, severe neurological symptoms that could be caused by arterial gas embolism after glossopharyngeal insufflation. This technique is often used to overinflate the lungs and stretch the chest prior to breath-holding and can increase the transpulmonary pressure to around 7-8 kPa, so introducing risk of pulmonary barotrauma. Airway pressure, blood pressure and static spirometry (nitrogen dilution) were measured simultaneously in ten subjects attempting to identify individuals at risk. Compared to baseline, total lung capacity (TLC) after glossopharyngeal insufflation increased by 19 % along with increased vital capacity (23 %) and residual volume (6 %) (P < 0.05), while mean relaxed airway pressure (P (aw)) at TLC increased from 3.62 ± 0.93 to 7.26 ± 2.04 kPa as a result of performing glossopharyngeal insufflation (P = 0.0001). Blood pressure fell during glossopharyngeal insufflation and attained relaxed airway pressure correlated positively to baseline mean arterial pressure in the subjects. Two of the subjects had glossopharyngeal insufflation-related accidents before the study and two subjects (with the highest P (aw) during GI; 9 and 10.3 kPa respectively) suffered glossopharyngeal insufflation-related accidents within 6 months after our study, with one suffering a non-fatal drowning accident. The principal finding of this study was that some subjects were able to use GI to reach P (aw) high enough to suggest a risk of pulmonary barotrauma, while other subjects would lose consciousness due to hypotension while still within safe limits of pulmonary pressure. This mechanism could offer an alternative explanation to drowning in breath-hold divers, and indicates that glossopharyngeal insufflation should be avoided or done with extreme caution. PMID:22983570

  12. A Surprise in the Lacrimal Sac

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Nilay; Akcay, Emine; Kilicarslan, Aydan; Ozen, Umut; Ozturk, Faruk

    2016-01-01

    To present a case with recurrent dacryocystitis as an unusual complication of medial orbital wall fracture repair with cartilage tissue graft. A 20-year-old male had facial trauma and underwent surgery to reconstruct right medial orbital wall fracture. During follow–up, he presented with continuous epiphora, mucopurulent discharge from the right eye. A thorough history taking indicated that medial orbital fracture was reconstructed with postauricular cartilage. We planned a standard external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). During the creation of lacrimal sac flaps, hard tissue was noted in the lacrimal sac. This tissue was excised and sent for pathological examination. The pathological examination revealed cartilage tissue. There were no further ipsilateral symptoms or complications after DCR. In patients with lacrimal system injury related to orbital wall fracture, iatrogenic foreign bodies in the lacrimal sac should be considered in patients with recurrent dacryocystitis who had reconstructive surgery for facial and orbital trauma. PMID:27555715

  13. SAC-B, Argentine scientific satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulich, J. M.; White, C.

    1994-01-01

    The project and the missions of the Argentine scientific satellite, SAC-B, are summarized. SAC-B is an international cooperative project between NASA and the Secretariat of State of Science and Technology of the Argentine Republic. The objective of SAC-B is to advance the study of solar physics and astrophysics through the examination of solar flares, gamma ray burst sources and the diffuse soft X-ray cosmic background. The scientific payload comprises an instrument to measure the temporal evolution of X-ray emissions from solar flares as well as nonsolar gamma ray bursts, a combined soft X-ray and gamma ray burst detector, a diffuse X-ray background detector, and an energetic neutral atoms detector.

  14. Butorphanol with oxygen insufflation improves cardiorespiratory function in field-immobilised white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    PubMed

    Haw, Anna; Hofmeyr, Markus; Fuller, Andrea; Buss, Peter; Miller, Michele; Fleming, Gregory; Meyer, Leith

    2015-01-01

    Opioid-induced immobilisation results in severe respiratory compromise in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). The effectiveness of oxygen insufflation combined with butorphanol in alleviating respiratory depression in free-ranging chemically immobilised white rhinoceroses was investigated. In this prospective intervention study 14 free-ranging white rhinoceroses were immobilised with a combination of etorphine, azaperone and hyaluronidase. Six minutes (min) after the animals became recumbent, intravenous butorphanol was administered and oxygen insufflation was initiated. Previous boma trial results were used for comparison, using repeated measures two-way analysis of variance. The initial immobilisation-induced hypoxaemia in free-ranging rhinoceroses (arterial partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2] 35.4 mmHg ± 6.6 mmHg) was similar to that observed in boma-confined rhinoceroses (PaO2 31 mmHg ± 6 mmHg, n = 8). Although the initial hypercapnia (PaCO2 63.0 mmHg ± 7.5 mmHg) was not as severe as that in animals in the boma trial (79 mmHg ± 7 mmHg), the field-immobilised rhinoceroses were more acidaemic (pH 7.10 ± 0.14) at the beginning of the immobilisation compared with boma-immobilised rhinoceroses (pH 7.28 ± 0.04). Compared with pre-intervention values, butorphanol with oxygen insufflation improved the PaO2 (81.2 mmHg ± 23.7 mmHg, p < 0.001, 5 min vs 20 min), arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (55.3 mmHg ± 5.2 mmHg, p < 0.01, 5 min vs 20 min), pH (7.17 ± 0.11, p < 0.001, 5 min vs 20 min), heart rate (78 breaths/min ± 20 breaths/min, p < 0.001, 5 min vs 20 min) and mean arterial blood pressure (105 mmHg ± 14 mmHg, p < 0.01, 5 min vs 20 min). Oxygen insufflation combined with a single intravenous dose of butorphanol improved oxygenation and reduced hypercapnia and acidaemia in immobilised free-ranging white rhinoceroses. PMID:26304140

  15. Video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy using 5-mm ports and carbon dioxide insufflation.

    PubMed

    Petersen, René Horsleben

    2016-01-01

    The continuous development and refinement of minimally invasive approaches to thymectomy over the last two decades has potential benefits for patients in terms of better cosmesis, less postoperative pain, shorter length of stay, earlier return to daily activities, less bleeding and fewer complications overall with similar outcomes regarding survival, recurrence of thymoma and complete remission (CR) for myasthenia gravis patients. A variety of different approaches have been described previously. This is a detailed description of video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy using three 5 mm ports, carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation and bipolar electrocoagulation (LigaSure). PMID:26904432

  16. Video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy using 5-mm ports and carbon dioxide insufflation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The continuous development and refinement of minimally invasive approaches to thymectomy over the last two decades has potential benefits for patients in terms of better cosmesis, less postoperative pain, shorter length of stay, earlier return to daily activities, less bleeding and fewer complications overall with similar outcomes regarding survival, recurrence of thymoma and complete remission (CR) for myasthenia gravis patients. A variety of different approaches have been described previously. This is a detailed description of video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy using three 5 mm ports, carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation and bipolar electrocoagulation (LigaSure). PMID:26904432

  17. Histopathology after Endolymphatic Sac Surgery for Meniere’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jong Woo; Fayad, Jose; Linthicum, Fred; Ishiyama, Akira; Merchant, Saumil N.

    2011-01-01

    Background The putative goal of sac surgery in Meniere’s syndrome is to promote the flow of endolymph from the labyrinth to the endolymphatic sac, and thereby relieving hydrops. There is scant published histopathological data whether sac surgery actually accomplishes this goal. Objective To determine if sac surgery relieves hydrops by examining the histopathologic changes in temporal bones obtained from individuals who had undergone sac surgery during life for Meniere’s syndrome. Methods Temporal bones were examined from 15 patients who had sac surgery. Data was collected on presence and severity of hydrops, histology of the sac, and whether the procedure relieved vertigo. Results The surgery failed to expose the sac in 5 cases; 4 of the 5 had relief from vertigo. The sac was exposed, but the shunt failed to reach the lumen of the sac in 8 cases; 4 of the 8 had relief from vertigo. The shunt was successfully placed within the lumen of the sac in two cases; both cases failed to experience relief from vertigo. Endolymphatic hydrops was present in all 15 cases. Conclusion Endolymphatic sac surgery does not relieve hydrops in patients with Meniere’s syndrome. Yet, sac surgery relieves vertigo in some patients, but the mechanism of such symptomatic relief remains unknown. PMID:21436748

  18. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) software requirements specification (SRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.; Flanagan, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) Database, an Impact Level 3Q system. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organization with the requirements for the SACS Project.

  19. A status report on the development of SAC2000: A new seismic analysis code

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, P.; Minner, L.

    1995-08-01

    We are developing a new Seismic Analysis Code (SAC2000) that will meet the research needs of the seismic research and treaty monitoring communities. Our first step in this development was to rewrite the original Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) -- a Fortran code that was approximately 140,000 lines long -- in the C programming language. This rewrite has resulted in a much more robust code that is faster, more efficient, and more portable than the original. We have implemented important processing capabilities such as convolution and binary monograms, and we have significantly enhanced several previously existing capabilities. For example, the spectrogram command now produces a correctly registered plot of the input time series and a color image of the output spectrogram. We have also added an image plotting capability with access to 17 predefined color tables or custom color tables. A rewritten version of the readcss command can now be used to access any of the documented css.3.0 database data formats, a capability that is particularly important to the Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC) and the monitoring community. A much less visible, but extremely important contribution is the correction of numerous inconsistencies and errors that have evolved because of piecemeal development and limited maintenance since SAC was first written. We have also incorporated on-line documentation and have made SAC documentation available on the Internet via the world-wide-web at http://www-ep/tvp/sac.html.

  20. Quantitative assessment of gestational sac shape: the gestational sac shape score

    PubMed Central

    Deter, R.L.; Li, J.; Lee, W.; Liu, S.; Romero, R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a quantitative method for characterizing gestational sac shape. Methods Twenty first-trimester gestational sacs in normal pregnancies were studied with three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography. The 3D coordinates of surface-point sets were obtained for each sac using 30-, 15- and six-slice sampling. Cubic spline interpolation was used with the 15- and six-slice surface-point samples to generate coordinates for those 30-slice surface points not measured. Interpolated and measured values, the latter from the 30-slice sample, were compared and the percent error calculated. Cubic spline interpolation was used to determine the coordinates of a standard surface-point sample (3660) for each sac in each slice sample. These coordinate data were used to give each sac a standard configuration by moving its center of gravity to the origin, aligning its inertial axes along the coordinate axes and converting its volume to 1.0 mL. In this form, a volume shape descriptor could be generated for each sac that was then transformed into a vector containing only shape information. The 20 shape vectors of each slice sample were subjected to principal components analysis, and principal component scores (PCSs) calculated. The first four PCSs were used to define a gestational sac shape score (GSSS-30, GSSS-15 or GSSS-6) for each sac in a given slice sample. The characteristics of each set of GSSSs were determined and those for the GSSS-15 and GSSS-6 were compared with the GSSS-30 characteristics. Results Cubic spline interpolations were very accurate in most cases, with means close to 0%, and approximately 95% of the errors being less than 10%. GSSS-30 accounted for 67.6% of the shape variance, had a mean of zero and an SD of 1.1, was normally distributed and was not related to menstrual age (R = −0.16, P = 0.51). GSSS-15 and GSSS-6 had essentially the same characteristics. No significant differences between individual GSSS-30 values and those for GSSS-15 or GSSS-6

  1. Selective Intrabronchial Air Insufflation for Acute Lobar Collapse in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Wohlauer, Max V.; Moore, Ernest E.; Haenel, James B.; Burlew, Clay C.; Barnett, Carlton C.

    2011-01-01

    Overview The horseshoe kidney is more prone to blunt abdominal trauma because of its low position and the presence of the isthmus across the midline. This is a rare case of complete transection of a horseshoe kidney at the isthmus due to blunt abdominal trauma with two sites of active extravasation on initial CT imaging. This extravasation was successfully treated by embolization with coils. Superselective embolization may be used for effective, minimally invasive control of active extravasation due to blunt renal trauma, even in kidneys with congenital malformations such as the horseshoe kidney. PMID:21687834

  2. What is inside the hernia sac?

    PubMed Central

    Virgínia, Ana Araújo; Santos, Cláudia; Contente, Helena; Branco, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Most ovarian inguinal hernias occur in children and are frequently associated with congenital genitalia defects. The authors present the case of a multiparous 89-year-old woman, without any genitalia defect, who was brought to the emergency department with an irreducible inguinal hernia. The patient was proposed for emergency surgery during which we encountered an ovary and a fallopian tube inside the hernial sac. An oophorosalpingectomy and a Lichtenstein procedure were carried out and the postoperative period was uneventful. This case shows that, even though it is rare, a hernial sac may contain almost any intra-abdominal organ, including those least frequent such as the appendix, an ovary or the fallopian tubes. PMID:27511751

  3. Aquarius/SAC-D Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Amit; Kim, Yunjin; Caruso, Daniel; Lagerloef, Gary; Colomb, Raul; Yueh, Simon; LeVine, David

    2006-01-01

    Aquarius/SAC-D is a cooperative international mission developed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of United States of America (USA) and the Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE) of Argentina. The overall mission objective is to contribute to the understanding of the total Earth system and the consequences of the natural and man-made changes in the environment of the planet. Major themes are: ocean surface salinity, water cycle, climate, natural hazards and cryosphere.

  4. Differential effects of insufflated, subcutaneous, and intravenous growth hormone on bone growth, cognitive function, and NMDA receptor subunit expression.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Won; Shin, Sooyoung; Kim, Chi Hwa; Ko, Ah-ra; Kwak, Min Jung; Nam, Mi Hyun; Park, So Young; Kim, Su Jin; Sohn, Young Bae; Galinsky, Raymond E; Kim, Hojoong; Yeo, Yoon; Jin, Dong-Kyu

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of inhalable growth hormone (GH) delivered by an insufflator to the lungs of hypophysectomized Sprague Dawley rats. In the first cohort, the safety and efficacy of the insufflated GH were evaluated. Three experimental groups (n = 7 per group) were treated with GH for 15 d: One group received sc injection of GH daily at 200 microg/kg (SC200). Two other groups received GH by insufflation daily: 200 microg/kg (INS 200) and 600 microg/kg (INS 600). In the second set of experiments, GH was administered in three routes [SC200, INS200, intravenous (IV200)] (n=10) for 5 d, and escape latency and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression were evaluated. In the first cohort, INS200 showed similar bioactivity as SC200 in growth promotion, tibial growth, as well as escape latency on the 12th day of treatment. Insufflated GH was well tolerated without significant inflammatory responses. In the second cohort, expression of the NMDA receptor 1 and 2B in hippocampus measured after 3 or 6 d of daily treatments were significantly higher in INS200 as compared to IV200, consistent with the improvement of the escape latency. In summary, the inhalable form of GH delivered by intratracheal insufflation was safe, and its bioactivity was comparable to sc injection both in promotion of growth and acquisition of learning ability. If applied properly to human, inhalable GH would be effective for growth promotion and possibly for several disorders caused by underexpression of NMDA receptors. PMID:20610568

  5. Primary Nasopharngeal Yolk Sac Tumor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Dhanalakshmi; Chidambaram, Lalitha; Boj, Sudha; Marudasalam, Sumathi

    2016-01-01

    Yolk sac tumour also known as primitive endodermal tumour is the most common malignant germ cell tumour (GCT) in the paediatric age group. Most common sites of involvement are ovaries and testes, but rarely can occur in the extragonadal sites. In the head and neck region, yolk sac tumours have been reported in the nasopharynx, sinonasal tract, orbit, ear and parotid gland. Nasopharynx is an uncommon site for yolk sac tumour and very few cases of nasopharngeal pure yolk sac tumour have been reported so far. Yolk sac tumours are highly malignant and have a poor prognosis. This is a case of pure GCT in a three-year-old female child who presented with a rapidly growing nasopharyngeal mass. Histopathological examination followed by immunohistochemistry and serum AFP study clinched the diagnosis of yolk sac tumour. The tumour responded well to chemotherapy as evidenced by decrease in serum AFP levels. PMID:27437234

  6. Primary Nasopharngeal Yolk Sac Tumor: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Dhanalakshmi; Thandavarayan, Pavithra; Chidambaram, Lalitha; Boj, Sudha; Marudasalam, Sumathi

    2016-05-01

    Yolk sac tumour also known as primitive endodermal tumour is the most common malignant germ cell tumour (GCT) in the paediatric age group. Most common sites of involvement are ovaries and testes, but rarely can occur in the extragonadal sites. In the head and neck region, yolk sac tumours have been reported in the nasopharynx, sinonasal tract, orbit, ear and parotid gland. Nasopharynx is an uncommon site for yolk sac tumour and very few cases of nasopharngeal pure yolk sac tumour have been reported so far. Yolk sac tumours are highly malignant and have a poor prognosis. This is a case of pure GCT in a three-year-old female child who presented with a rapidly growing nasopharyngeal mass. Histopathological examination followed by immunohistochemistry and serum AFP study clinched the diagnosis of yolk sac tumour. The tumour responded well to chemotherapy as evidenced by decrease in serum AFP levels. PMID:27437234

  7. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  8. Progressive myoclonus epilepsy associated with SACS gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Fábio A; Canafoglia, Laura; Aljaafari, Danah; Muona, Mikko; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Berkovic, Samuel F; Franceschetti, Silvana; Andrade, Danielle M

    2016-08-01

    Pathogenic variants in the SACS gene (OMIM #604490) cause autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS). ARSACS is a neurodegenerative early-onset progressive disorder, originally described in French Canadians, but later observed elsewhere.(1) Whole-exome sequencing of a large group of patients with unclassified progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) identified 2 patients bearing SACS gene mutations.(2) We detail the PME clinical features associated with SACS mutations and suggest the inclusion of the SACS gene in diagnostic screening of PMEs. PMID:27433545

  9. Whisker Formation on SAC305 Soldered Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschter, S.; Snugovsky, P.; Bagheri, Z.; Kosiba, E.; Romansky, M.; Kennedy, J.; Snugovsky, L.; Perovic, D.

    2014-11-01

    This article describes the results of a whisker formation study on SAC305 assemblies, evaluating the effects of lead-frame materials and cleanliness in different environments: low-stress simulated power cycling (50-85°C thermal cycling), thermal shock (-55°C to 85°C), and high temperature/high humidity (85°C/85% RH). Cleaned and contaminated small outline transistors, large leaded quad flat packs (QFP), plastic leaded chip carrier packages, and solder balls with and without rare earth elements (REE) were soldered to custom designed test boards with Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder. After assembly, all the boards were cleaned, and half of them were recontaminated (1.56 µg/cm2 Cl-). Whisker length, diameter, and density were measured. Detailed metallurgical analysis on components before assembly and on solder joints before and after testing was performed. It was found that whiskers grow from solder joint fillets, where the thickness is less than 25 µm, unless REE was present. The influence of lead-frame and solder ball material, microstructure, cleanliness, and environment on whisker characteristics is discussed. This article provides detailed metallurgical observations and select whisker length data obtained during this multiyear testing program.

  10. Intentional Right Atrial Exit and Carbon Dioxide Insufflation to Facilitate Subxiphoid Needle Entry Into the Empty Pericardial Space

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Adam B.; Rogers, Toby; Paone, Gaetano; Flynn, Shawn E.; Guerrero, Mayra E.; O’Neill, William W.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to test whether a microcatheter can safely be advanced across the right atrial appendage to access the pericardium and then withdrawn despite subsequent high-intensity anticoagulation. We also tested whether transatrial pericardial insufflation of carbon dioxide (CO2) would enhance the safety of subxiphoid needle access to the empty pericardium by separating the heart from the anterior pericardium. BACKGROUND Subxiphoid needle access to the empty pericardium, required for left atrial suture ligation and epicardial ablation for rhythm disorders, risks myocardial or coronary laceration. METHODS A catheter from the femoral vein engaged the right atrial appendage for angiographic confirmation of position. Through that catheter, the back end of a 0.014- or 0.018-inch guidewire crossed the right atrial wall to enter the pericardium and delivered a 2.4-F microcatheter. CO2 1 to 2 ml/kg was insufflated into the pericardium immediately before subxiphoid needle access under lateral projection fluoroscopy. Thirteen patients undergoing subxiphoid suture ligation of the left atrial appendage consented to participate in this research protocol. RESULTS Right atrial exit succeeded in 11 subjects (85%) and failed uneventfully in 2 subjects. CO2 insufflation of 96 ± 22 ml achieved 12 ± 4 mm separation of the anterior pericardium from the myocardial wall, allowed rapid and successful subxiphoid anterior needle and guidewire entry in all 11 subjects, and did not have any evident hemodynamic effects. The immediate pericardial aspirate was serous in all but 1 subject. CONCLUSIONS We report the first human intentional transatrial exit procedure. Transatrial microcatheter access to the pericardium can be achieved safely. Pericardial insufflation with CO2 makes subxiphoid access to the empty pericardium rapid and safe. Although our clinical experience to date remains small, with further experience, this approach may prevent the life

  11. Adding a custom made pressure release valve during air enema for intussusception: A new technique

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Hosni Morsi; Ahmed, Osama; Ahmed, Refaat Khodary

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-surgical reduction remains the first line treatment of choice for intussusception. The major complication of air enema reduction is bowel perforation. The authors developed a custom made pressure release valve to be added to portable insufflation devices, delivering air at pressures accepted as safe for effective reduction of intussusception in children under fluoroscopic guidance. The aim of this study was to develop a custom made pressure release valve that is suitable for the insufflation devices used for air enema reduction of intussusception and to put this valve into regular clinical practice. Materials and Methods: An adjustable, custom made pressure release valve was assembled by the authors using readily available components. The valve was coupled to a simple air enema insufflation device. The device was used for the trial of reduction of intussusception in a prospective study that included 132 patients. Results: The success rate for air enema reduction with the new device was 88.2%. The mean pressure required to achieve complete reduction was 100 mmHg. The insufflation pressure never exceeded the preset value (120 mmHg). Of the successful cases, 58.3% were reduced from the first attempt while 36.1% required a second insufflation. Only 5.55% required a third insufflation to complete the reduction. In cases with unsuccessful pneumatic reduction attempt (18.1%), surgical treatment was required. Surgery ranged from simple reduction to resection with a primary end to end anastomosis. No complications from air enema were recorded. Conclusions: The authors recommend adding pressure release valves to ensure safety by avoiding pressure overshoot during the procedure. PMID:26712286

  12. Laparoscopic management of hydatid cyst in the lesser sac

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Manash Ranjan; Kumar, Saurabh; Panda, Srikanta; Shameel, P. Ahammed

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid cyst is a disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Various anatomical location of hydatid cyst has been described in literature. Liver is the most common site of hydatid cyst and lungs are the second most common site. Hydatid cyst of lesser sac is a rare entity. Here we present a rare case report of laparoscopic management of hydatid cyst in lesser sac. PMID:27073313

  13. On the robustness of SAC silencing in closed mitosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruth, Donovan; Liu, Jian

    Mitosis equally partitions sister chromatids to two daughter cells. This is achieved by properly attaching these chromatids via their kinetochores to microtubules that emanate from the spindle poles. Once the last kinetochore is properly attached, the spindle microtubules pull the sister chromatids apart. Due to the dynamic nature of microtubules, however, kinetochore-microtubule attachment often goes wrong. When this erroneous attachment occurs, it locally activates an ensemble of proteins, called the spindle assembly checkpoint proteins (SAC), which halts the mitotic progression until all the kinetochores are properly attached by spindle microtubules. The timing of SAC silencing thus determines the fidelity of chromosome segregation. We previously established a spatiotemporal model that addresses the robustness of SAC silencing in open mitosis for the first time. Here, we focus on closed mitosis by examining yeast mitosis as a model system. Though much experimental work has been done to study the SAC in cells undergoing closed mitosis, the processes responsible are not well understood. We leverage and extend our previous model to study SAC silencing mechanism in closed mitosis. We show that a robust signal of the SAC protein accumulation at the spindle pole body can be achieved. This signal is a nonlinear increasing function of number of kinetochore-microtubule attachments, and can thus serve as a robust trigger to time the SAC silencing. Together, our mechanism provides a unified framework across species that ensures robust SAC silencing and fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. Intramural research program in NHLBI at NIH.

  14. Pituitary carcinoma with endolymphatic sac metastasis.

    PubMed

    Balili, Irida; Sullivan, Steven; Mckeever, Paul; Barkan, Ariel

    2014-06-01

    Pituitary carcinoma is characterized by the presence of a metastatic lesion(s) in a location non-contiguous with the original pituitary tumor. The mechanism(s) of malignant transformation are not known. A 15 year-old male was diagnosed in 1982 with a pituitary macroadenoma and acromegaly (random GH 67 ng/ml and no suppression by oral glucose). His prolactin was normal between 18 and 23 ng/ml. Transcranial resection in July 1983 was followed by radiation therapy. The tumor was immunopositive for GH and prolactin. The proliferation MIB-1 index was 0-1%. With aqueous Octreotide 100 mcg 4× daily both GH and IGF-1 became normal. The patient was lost to follow-up and was treated by his local physician. In 2001, his IGF-1 level was 1271 ng/ml, and his random GH was 1.8-2.4 ng/ml by ILMA despite progressive increase in the dose of Sandostatin LAR to 140 mg/month in divided doses. Prolactin remained normal or minimally increased between 15 and 25 ng/ml. In 2009 he was diagnosed with the tumor in the location of left endolymphatic sac. Histological examination showed low grade pituitary carcinoma strongly immunopositive for prolactin but negative for GH. MIB-1 antibody labeled 0-5% cells. In 2012 endoscopic resection of the pituitary tumor remnant was attempted. Immunohistochemical stains were strongly immunopositive for both prolactin and GH, similar to his original pituitary tumor. The MIB-1 proliferation index was low from 0 to 1%. To our knowledge this is the first case of pituitary carcinoma in the endolymphatic sac region. The dichotomy between the cell population of the pituitary lesion (GH/prolactin producing) and the metastasis (purely prolactin-producing) may suggest that the metastatic pituitary lesion derived from a clone distinct from the original one. PMID:23645293

  15. Multi-level security for computer networking: SAC digital network approach

    SciTech Connect

    Griess, W.; Poutre, D.L.

    1983-10-01

    For telecommunications systems simultaneously handling data of different security levels, multilevel secure (MLS) operation permits maximum use of resources by automatically providing protection to users with various clearances and needs-to-know. The strategic air command (SAC) is upgrading the primary record data system used to command and control its strategic forces. The upgrade, called the SAC Digital Network (SACDIN), is designed to provide multilevel security to support users and external interfaces, with allowed accesses ranging from unclassified to top secret. SACDIN implements a security kernel based upon the Bell and Lapadula security model. This study presents an overview of the SACDIN security architecture and describes the basic message flow across the MLS network. 7 references.

  16. Mechanical insufflation-exsufflation: Practice patterns among respiratory therapists in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Prevost, Shelley; Brooks, Dina; Bwititi, Phillip T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanical insufflator-exsufflator (MIE) is effective in assisting cough and in helping to avoid unplanned hospitalizations, tracheostomy and long-term ventilation in patients with neuromuscular disease or spinal cord injury. Despite this, the availability and usage of the device in Canada is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate practice patterns and availability of the MIE in Ontario hospitals. METHODS: A cross-sectional, self-administered mail survey was sent to a random sample of 400 respiratory therapists practicing in 96 Ontario hospitals. RESULTS: A total of 114 (28%) completed surveys were returned from 62 (65%) hospitals. Twenty (32%) hospitals had a MIE. The respiratory therapist was the predominant health care provider using the MIE. The device was most commonly used in the intensive care unit, and medical/surgical units in patients with neuromuscular diseases or spinal cord injuries. Optimal pressure spans of 35 cmH2O to 40 cmH2O were used by 54% of respondents. Fourteen of the 20 hospitals with an MIE had policies or guidelines in place, and four of these hospitals had established staff competencies. Measurements of peak cough flow, maximal inspiratory/expiratory pressure and vital capacity were reported to be infrequently performed. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that the MIE device is not widely available in Ontario hospitals and there are variations in how the devices are applied, possibly resulting in suboptimal therapy. A comprehensive educational program about MIE devices that incorporates best practices and a practical component is recommended for current providers as well as for inclusion in student curricula. PMID:26089736

  17. Gas exchange by intratracheal insufflation in a ventilatory failure dog model.

    PubMed Central

    Gavriely, N; Eckmann, D; Grotberg, J B

    1992-01-01

    Respiratory insufficiency patients who need only partial ventilatory support are, nevertheless, intubated and connected to a respirator. In search of a partial respiratory assistance method we evaluated the gas exchange, mechanisms, and hemodynamic effects of intratracheal insufflation (ITI) via a narrow (0.2-cm) catheter. The effects of flow rate (0.05-0.2 liter/min per kg), catheter tip position (carina, bronchus, and trachea), and superimposed chest vibration at 22 Hz were studied in seven anesthetized and partially paralyzed dogs. ITI in the carina induced CO2 removal (VCO2) of 48 +/- 16 ml/min in the periods between breaths, which was 39% of the control VCO2. CO2 removal rates between breaths with ITI in a bronchus and in the trachea were 63 and 28% of control, respectively (P < 0.05). ITI at 0.15-0.2 liter/min per kg augmented total VCO2 by > 50% over control (P < 0.05) and decreased PaCO2 by 10% (P < 0.05) despite a 28% fall in VE and 32% lower work of breathing (P < 0.05). Adding vibration to ITI at 0.15 liter/min per kg induced VCO2 of 162 +/- 34 ml/min, which was significantly greater than control, while PaCO2 fell from 69 +/- 24 to 47 +/- 6 mmHg (P < 0.05), despite complete cessation of spontaneous breathing. ITI with or without vibration did not cause any hemodynamic changes, except for a fall in the shunt fraction from 14.6 +/- 9.9% to 5.8 +/- 2.8% with vibration. Thus, ITI at low flow rates can support respiration with no hemodynamic side effects. Adding chest vibration further enhances gas exchange and can provide total ventilation. Images PMID:1469093

  18. [Ovarian yolk sac tumour: general review].

    PubMed

    Even, Caroline; Lhommé, Catherine; Duvillard, Pierre; Morice, Philippe; Balleyguier, Corinne; Pautier, Patricia; Troalen, Frédéric; de La Motte Rouge, Thibault

    2011-08-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumour (OYST) is a very rare malignancy arising most often in young women. Preoperative clinical, biological (alpha-foetoprotein) and radiological findings should help to establish the diagnosis of OYST, in order to propose adequate surgical treatment. The aim of surgery is to remove the primary tumour, to obtain an accurate histological diagnosis and to assess the disease extent. In young women, fertility-sparing surgery should be performed, in order to preserve the possibility of pregnancy later on. Chemotherapy has substantially modified the prognosis of these tumours, and practically all patients will be cured. The overall 5-year survival rate is 94% when patients are treated with BEP chemotherapy. Depending on the clinical situation, two to four cycles of the BEP regimen should be administered after surgery. Identification of prognostic factors may help to propose risk-adapted treatment in order to increase the cure rate in patients with a poor prognosis and to decrease toxicity in patients with a low risk of relapse. Fertility preservation represents a major objective in women treated for OYSTs. PMID:21708513

  19. Transdifferentiation of mouse visceral yolk sac cells into parietal yolk sac cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Shinomi; Tagawa, Yoh-Ichi; Shiojiri, Nobuyoshi

    2016-02-19

    The mouse embryonic yolk sac is an extraembryonic membrane that consists of a visceral yolk sac (VYS) and parietal yolk sac (PYS), and functions in hematopoietic-circulation in the fetal stage. The present study was undertaken to examine the normal development of both murine VYS and PYS tissues using various molecular markers, and to establish a novel VYS cell culture system in vitro for analyzing differentiation potentials of VYS cells. RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses of gene expression in VYS and PYS tissues during development revealed several useful markers for their identification: HNF1β, HNF4α, Cdh1 (E-cadherin), Krt8 and Krt18 for VYS epithelial cells, and Stra6, Snail1, Thbd and vimentin for PYS cells. PYS cells exhibited mesenchymal characteristics in gene expression and morphology. When VYS cells at 11.5 days of gestation were cultured in vitro for 7 days, the number of HNF1β-, HNF4α-, E-cadherin- and cytokeratin-positive VYS epithelial cells was significantly reduced and, instead, Stra6-and vimentin-positive PYS-like cells increased with culture. RT-PCR analyses also demonstrated that gene expression of VYS markers decreased, whereas that of PYS markers increased in the primary culture of VYS cells. These data indicate that VYS epithelial cells rapidly transdifferentiate into PYS cells having mesenchymal characteristics in vitro, which may provide a culture system suitable for studying molecular mechanisms of VYS transdifferentiation into PYS cells and also epithelial-mesenchymal transition. PMID:26820538

  20. Giant prosthetic reinforcement of the visceral sac.

    PubMed

    Wantz, G E

    1989-11-01

    One hundred and seventy-nine patients with 237 hernias of the groin who were at high risk for recurrence after classic hernioplasty were operated upon; the procedure of giant prosthetic reinforcement of the visceral sac (GPRVS) was used. The patients in this series had predominantly recurrent and re-recurrent hernias. However, a few were obese with bilateral primary direct hernias and some had associated connective tissue disorders, such as Marfan and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes. GPRVS eliminates hernias of the groin by rendering the peritoneum inextensible by placing, in the preperitoneal space, a large prosthesis that extends far beyond the borders of the myopectineal orifice. The myopectineal orifice is the weak spot at which all hernias of the groin begin and is bounded by the rectus, oblique abdominal and iliopsoas muscles and the pectin of the pubis. In bilateral GPRVS, the peritoneum of both groins is reinforced with a single prosthesis inserted in the preperitoneal space through the midline. In unilateral GPRVS, the mesh envelops the peritoneum of a single groin. This simplifies the operation and makes it suitable for surgical centers that perform outpatient operations. The prosthesis with the best physical characteristics for GPRVS is Mersilene (polyester fiber). Unsutured prostheses of polypropylene and Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) may not adhere at the far edges, leading to a failure and recurrence. The over-all recurrence rate in this series of problem hernias was 3.7 per cent, which is extremely good. However, the rate becomes outstanding if recurrences resulting from meshes unsuitable for GPRVS are excluded. PMID:2814751

  1. Giant dacryocystomucopyocele in an adult: a review of lacrimal sac enlargements with clinical and histopathologic differential diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Perry, Lynn J P; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Zakka, Fouad R; Rubin, Peter A D

    2012-09-01

    Dacryocystocele is an umbrella term that refers to any diffuse, centrifugal enlargement of the lacrimal sac that results from combined proximal and distal obstructions in the tear drainage system. In adults, the presence of mucus in the cyst's contents leads to the modified term of dacryocystomucocele. If infection supervenes, which almost always occurs in protracted cases and adds the clinical dimension of a dacryocystitis, then a dacryocystomucopyocele is created. Dacryocystocele and its congeners are much rarer in adults than in children. We describe a 95-year-old woman with an acquired, enormous dacryocystomucopyocele, larger than any previously reported, that developed over 25 years and produced globe displacement with an associated conspicuous enlargement of the nasolacrimal duct. The aspirated sac fluid was mucopurulent and harbored low-virulence bacterial organisms of the Prevotella and Petosteptococcus species. In infants, dacryocystoceles are transitory as the result of spontaneously reversible factors. In adults, secondary proximal irreversible fibrotic strictures or bony changes around the nasolacrimal duct typically arise from chronic inflammation or low grade infection. Other possible causations of duct obstruction, in addition to florid mucosal edema, include encroachment on the duct by enlarged contiguous ethmoid air cells; a sinus mucocele or sinusitis; idiopathic, post-traumatic or dysplastic bony remodeling of the wall of the duct; and a neoplasm-all of which require some form of surgical intervention, typically dacryocystorhinostomy. The differential diagnosis of medial canthal swellings centered on the lacrimal sac spans malformations, diverticula, dermoid/epidermoid cysts, sac inflammations/infections causing swelling without generalized sac enlargement, encephaloceles and primary epithelial tumors, as well as extrinsic tumors impinging on the sac. PMID:22784678

  2. Automatic segmentation and classification of gestational sac based on mean sac diameter using medical ultrasound image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazendar, Shan; Farren, Jessica; Al-Assam, Hisham; Sayasneh, Ahmed; Du, Hongbo; Bourne, Tom; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2014-05-01

    Ultrasound is an effective multipurpose imaging modality that has been widely used for monitoring and diagnosing early pregnancy events. Technology developments coupled with wide public acceptance has made ultrasound an ideal tool for better understanding and diagnosing of early pregnancy. The first measurable signs of an early pregnancy are the geometric characteristics of the Gestational Sac (GS). Currently, the size of the GS is manually estimated from ultrasound images. The manual measurement involves multiple subjective decisions, in which dimensions are taken in three planes to establish what is known as Mean Sac Diameter (MSD). The manual measurement results in inter- and intra-observer variations, which may lead to difficulties in diagnosis. This paper proposes a fully automated diagnosis solution to accurately identify miscarriage cases in the first trimester of pregnancy based on automatic quantification of the MSD. Our study shows a strong positive correlation between the manual and the automatic MSD estimations. Our experimental results based on a dataset of 68 ultrasound images illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in identifying early miscarriage cases with classification accuracies comparable with those of domain experts using K nearest neighbor classifier on automatically estimated MSDs.

  3. A Demonstration of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) Rev. 1 Software for the Hanford Remediation Assessment Project

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Kincaid, Charles T.; Nichols, William E.; Wurstner, Signe K.

    2006-11-06

    The System Assessment Capability (SAC) is a suite of interrelated computer codes that provides the capability to conduct large-scale environmental assessments on the Hanford Site. Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Department of Energy, SAC models the fate and transport of radioactive and chemical contaminants, starting with the inventory of those contaminants in waste sites, simulating transport through the environment, and continuing on through impacts to the environment and humans. Separate modules in the SAC address inventory, release from waste forms, water flow and mass transport in the vadose zone, water flow and mass transport in the groundwater, water flow and mass transport in the Columbia River, air transport, and human and ecological impacts. The SAC supports deterministic analyses as well as stochastic analyses using a Monte Carlo approach, enabling SAC users to examine the effect of uncertainties in a number of key parameters. The initial assessment performed with the SAC software identified a number of areas where both the software and the analysis approach could be improved. Since that time the following six major software upgrades have been made: (1) An air pathway model was added to support all-pathway analyses. (2) Models for releases from glass waste forms, buried graphite reactor cores, and buried naval reactor compartments were added. (3) An air-water dual-phase model was added to more accurately track the movement of volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. (4) The ability to run analyses was extended from 1,000 years to 10,000 years or longer after site closure. (5) The vadose zone flow and transport model was upgraded to support two-dimensional or three-dimensional analyses. (6) The ecological model and human risk models were upgraded so the concentrations of contaminants in food products consumed by humans are produced by the ecological model. This report documents the functions in the SAC software and provides a

  4. Intraoperative Sac Pressure Measurement During Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Hiroyuki; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Ohta, Takashi; Sugimoto, Ikuo; Iwata, Hirohide; Yamada, Tetsuya; Tadakoshi, Masao; Hida, Noriyuki; Orimoto, Yuki; Kamei, Seiji

    2010-10-15

    PurposeIntraoperative sac pressure was measured during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) to evaluate the clinical significance of sac pressure measurement.MethodsA microcatheter was placed in an aneurysm sac from the contralateral femoral artery, and sac pressure was measured during EVAR procedures in 47 patients. Aortic blood pressure was measured as a control by a catheter from the left brachial artery.ResultsThe systolic sac pressure index (SPI) was 0.87 {+-} 0.10 after main-body deployment, 0.63 {+-} 0.12 after leg deployment (P < 0.01), and 0.56 {+-} 0.12 after completion of the procedure (P < 0.01). Pulse pressure was 55 {+-} 21 mmHg, 23 {+-} 15 mmHg (P < 0.01), and 16 {+-} 12 mmHg (P < 0.01), respectively. SPI showed no significant differences between the Zenith and Excluder stent grafts (0.56 {+-} 0.13 vs. 0.54 {+-} 0.10, NS). Type I endoleak was found in seven patients (15%), and the SPI decreased from 0.62 {+-} 0.10 to 0.55 {+-} 0.10 (P = 0.10) after fixing procedures. Type II endoleak was found in 12 patients (26%) by completion angiography. The SPI showed no difference between type II endoleak positive and negative (0.58 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.55 {+-} 0.12, NS). There were no significant differences between the final SPI of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter decreased in the follow-up and that of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter did not change (0.53 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.57 {+-} 0.12, NS).ConclusionsSac pressure measurement was useful for instant hemodynamic evaluation of the EVAR procedure, especially in type I endoleaks. However, on the basis of this small study, the SPI cannot be used to reliably predict sac growth or regression.

  5. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling

    PubMed Central

    Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

  6. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling.

    PubMed

    Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

  7. Fast frequency hopping codes applied to SAC optical CDMA network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Shin-Pin

    2015-06-01

    This study designed a fast frequency hopping (FFH) code family suitable for application in spectral-amplitude-coding (SAC) optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. The FFH code family can effectively suppress the effects of multiuser interference and had its origin in the frequency hopping code family. Additional codes were developed as secure codewords for enhancing the security of the network. In considering the system cost and flexibility, simple optical encoders/decoders using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a set of optical securers using two arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexers (DeMUXs) were also constructed. Based on a Gaussian approximation, expressions for evaluating the bit error rate (BER) and spectral efficiency (SE) of SAC optical CDMA networks are presented. The results indicated that the proposed SAC optical CDMA network exhibited favorable performance.

  8. SAC-C mission, an example of international cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomb, F. R.; Alonso, C.; Hofmann, C.; Nollmann, I.

    2004-01-01

    The SAC-C is an international Earth observing satellite mission developed as a partnership between CONAE and NASA, with additional support in instrumentation and satellite development from the Danish DSRI, the Italian ASI, the French CNES and the Brazilian INPE. The SAC-C satellite was successfully launched by a Delta II rocket on November 21, 2000, from Vandenberg AFB, California, USA. The purpose of this mission is to carry out observations which bear interest both for the USA and Argentina, thus contributing effectively to NASA's Earth Science Program and to CONAE's National Space Program. The inclusion of SAC-C in the "morning constellation", jointly with NASA satellites Landsat 7, EO 1 and Terra, is another example of an important international cooperation which strengthens the output of any single mission.

  9. Aquarius and the Aquarius/SAC-D Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Torrusio, S.

    2010-01-01

    Aquarius is a combination L-band radiometer and scatterometer designed to map the salinity field at the ocean surface from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA space agency (NASA) and Argentine space agency (CONAE). The mission is composed of two parts: (a) The Aquarius instrument being developed as part of NASA.s Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program; and (b) SAC-D the fourth spacecraft service platform in the CONAE Satellite de Aplicaciones Cientificas (SAC) program. The primary focus of the mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variations of the salinity field in the open ocean. The mission also meets the needs of the Argentine space program for monitoring the environment and for hazard detection and includes several instruments related to these goals.

  10. Prognosis of hepatoid yolk sac tumor in women: what's up, Doc?

    PubMed

    Rittiluechai, Kristsanamon; Wilcox, Rebecca; Lisle, Jennifer; Everett, Elise; Wallace, H James; Verschraegen, Claire F

    2014-04-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors are highly malignant germ cell tumors that commonly occur in young women. The hepatoid yolk sac tumor is a variant form of yolk sac tumor in which there has been extensive tumor differentiation to early liver tissue. Hepatoid differentiation is traditionally considered to signify a poor prognosis. This review focuses on diagnostic criteria and establishes the optimal treatment for patients with hepatoid yolk sac tumor. Immunohistochemical stains are useful for distinguishing hepatoid yolk sac tumor from the other hepatoid-appearing tumors. With a multidisciplinary treatment approach using platinum-based regimens, the outcome is similar to those of any yolk sac tumor. PMID:24462393

  11. Unusual presentation of Enterobius vermicularis in conjunctival sac.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Sanjay Kumar; Sengupta, Ranadeep; Banerjee, Arup Kumar

    2015-10-01

    We report an unusual case of extraintestinal infection with adult Enterobius vermicularis worms in the conjunctival sac of a two-and-a-half year old boy from Alipurduar, West Bengal, India. Only two other similar cases have been reported in the English literature, one from Assam, India in 1976, and the other from Illinois and California in 2011. PMID:25540166

  12. The annular hematoma of the shrew yolk-sac placenta.

    PubMed

    King, B F; Enders, A C; Wimsatt, W A

    1978-05-01

    The annular hematoma of the shrew, Blarina brevicauda, is a specialized portion of the yolk-sac wall. In this study, we have examined the fine structure of the different cellular components of the anular hematoma. Small pieces of the gestation sacs from seven pregnant shrews were fixed in glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide and processed for transmission electron microscopy. In the area of the trophoblastic curtain, the maternal capillary endothelial cells were hypertrophied and syncytial trophoblast surrounded the capillaries. Cellular trophoblast covered part of the luminal surface of the curtain region, whereas masses of apparently degenerating syncytium were present on other areas of the surface. Maternal erythrocytes, released into the uterine lumen from the curtain region, were phagocytized and degraded by the columnar cells of the trophoblastic annulus. No evidence of iron or pigment accumulation was evident in the parietal endodermal cells underlying the annular trophoblast. Parietal endodermal cells were characterized by cuboidal shape, widely dilated intercellular spaces, and cytoplasm containing granular endoplasmic reticulum. Endodermal cells of the visceral yolk-sac accumulated large numbers of electron-dense granules as well as glycogen in their cytoplasm. Hemopoietic areas and vitelline capillaries were found subjacent to the visceral endoderm. The various portions of the yolk-sac wall of Blarina appear to perform complementary functions which are probably important in maternal-fetal iron transfer. PMID:677046

  13. Placentation in mammals: Definitive placenta, yolk sac, and paraplacenta.

    PubMed

    Carter, A M; Enders, A C

    2016-07-01

    An overview is given of variations in placentation with particular focus on yolk sac, paraplacenta, and other structures important to histotrophic nutrition. The placenta proper varies in general shape, internal structure, and the number of tissues in the interhemal barrier. Yolk sac membranes persist to term in insectivores, colugos, rodents, and lagomorphs. In the latter two orders, they are of known importance for maternal-fetal transfer of antibodies, vitamins, lipids, and proteins. The detached yolk sac of bats is also active throughout gestation. A vascular paraplacenta, or smooth chorioallantois, has known functions in ruminants and carnivores and is found in several other orders of mammal where its function has yet to be explored. In human gestation, the chorion (avascular chorioallantois) is important for hormone synthesis. The true chorion of squirrels and hedgehogs is avascular but may nevertheless allow transfer from mother to fetus through the exocelom. Hemophagous areas with columnar trophoblast are paraplacental structures in carnivores and elephants but occur also within the placenta as in hyenas and moles. In shrews, it is the yolk sac that ingests and processes red cells. Areolas and chorionic vesicles are other structures important for absorption of uterine secretions and ingestion of cellular debris. In conclusion, we find that paraplacental structures, while showing less variation than the placenta proper, contribute not just to the integrity of overall placentation, but in various ways to maternal-fetal interrelationships. PMID:27155730

  14. Acoustic communication in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) an examination into vocal sacs, sound propagation, and signal directionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dantzker, Marc Steven

    The thesis is an inquiry into the acoustic communication of a very unusual avian species, the Greater Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus. One of the most outstanding features of this animal's dynamic mating display is its use of paired air sacs that emerge explosively from an esophageal pouch. My first line of inquiry into this system is a review of the form and function of similar vocal apparatuses, collectively called vocal sacs, in birds. Next, with a combination of mathematical models and field measurements, My collaborator and I investigate the acoustic environment where the Greater Sage-Grouse display. The complexities of this acoustic environment are relevant both to the birds and to the subsequent examinations of the display's properties. Finally, my collaborators and I examine a cryptic component of the acoustic display --- directionality --- which we measured simultaneously from multiple locations around free moving grouse on their mating grounds.

  15. Nonfatal air embolism during shoulder arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vivek; Varghese, Elsa; Rao, Madhu; Srinivasan, Nataraj M; Mathew, Neethu; Acharya, Kiran K V; Rao, P Sripathi

    2013-06-01

    An air embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of shoulder arthroscopy. In this article, we report the case of a patient who developed a nonfatal air embolism during shoulder arthroscopy for an acute bony Bankart lesion and a greater tuberosity avulsion fracture. The venous air embolism occurred immediately after the joint was insufflated with air for diagnostic air arthroscopy. The diagnosis was based on a drop in end-tidal carbon dioxide and blood pressure and presence of mill wheel (waterwheel) murmur over the right heart. Supportive treatment was initiated immediately. The patient recovered fully and had no further complications of air embolism. This patient's case emphasizes the importance of being aware that air embolisms can occur during shoulder arthroscopy performed for acute intra-articular fractures of the shoulder. Monitoring end tidal carbon dioxide can be very useful in early detection of air embolisms. PMID:23805421

  16. 38 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) A Appendix A to Part 41 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS.... Appendix A to Part 41—Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) Note: Data Collection Form SF-SAC and...

  17. Teratogenic effects of amniotic sac puncture: a mouse model.

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, D J; Chang, H H; Kaufman, M H

    1995-01-01

    The possibility of an association between chorionic villus sampling (cvs) and limb abnormalities has prompted a review of the relevant experimental data. Although a vascular aetiology is favoured by many at present, the possibility exists that a proportion of cases may be caused by oligohydramnios secondary to inadvertent amniotic sac puncture. A mouse model of amniotic puncture syndrome has been developed to study the craniofacial and limb abnormalities produced by this procedure. Pregnant mice were anaesthetised and a laparotomy performed. One uterine horn was exteriorised, and the amniotic sacs punctured through the wall of the uterus with either a 21 gauge or a 25 gauge needle. The conceptuses in the contralateral uterine horn acted as controls. The mice were all killed on d 19 of pregnancy (day of finding a vaginal plug = d 1 of pregnancy) by cervical dislocation, and the morphological features of the embryos examined in detail. In a preliminary study, amniotic sac puncture was carried out on d 12, 13, 14, 15 or 16 of pregnancy, with either a 21 or a 25 gauge needle. Since the highest rates of palatal defects and limb deformities were observed following amniotic sac puncture using a 21 gauge needle, when this procedure was carried out on either d 13 or 14 of pregnancy, the main study was undertaken using a 21 gauge needle on these two days of pregnancy. Of 102 embryos in which amniotic sac puncture was carried out on d 13, 53% survived to d 19. Of the latter, 35% had a cleft palate, 61% had one or more morphologically abnormal limbs, and 43% had an abnormal tail. When amniotic sac puncture was carried out on d 14 of pregnancy, of 83 embryos subjected to this procedure, 81% survived to d 19. Of the latter, 27% had a cleft palate, 39% had one or more morphologically abnormal limbs, and 19% had an abnormal tail. In the controls, of 86 and 61 embryos isolated respectively from the d 13 and 14 mice, the survival rates were 97 and 90%, respectively. Palatal, limb

  18. Efficacy of Several Pesticide Products on Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) Egg Sacs and Their Penetration Through the Egg Sac Silk.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Richard S; Tarango, Jacob; Campbell, Kathleen A; Tham, Christine; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Information on pesticide effects on spiders is less common than for insects; similar information for spider egg sacs is scarcer in the open literature. Spider egg sacs are typically covered with a protective silk layer. When pesticides are directly applied to egg sacs, the silk might prevent active ingredients from reaching the eggs, blocking their insecticidal effect. We investigated the impact of six water-based pesticide sprays and four oil-based aerosol products against egg sacs of brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch. All water-based spray products except one failed to provide significant mortality to egg sacs, resulting in successful spiderling emergence from treated egg sacs at a similar rate to untreated egg sacs. In contrast to water-based sprays, oil-based aerosols provided almost complete control, with 94-100% prevention of spiderling emergence. Penetration studies using colored pesticide products indicated that oil-based aerosols were significantly more effective in penetrating egg sac silk than were the water-based sprays, delivering the active ingredients on most (>99%) of the eggs inside the sac. The ability of pesticides to penetrate spider egg sac silk and deliver lethal doses of active ingredients to the eggs is discussed in relation to the chemical nature of egg sac silk proteins. Our study suggests that pest management procedures primarily relying on perimeter application of water-based sprays might not provide satisfactory control of brown widow spider eggs. Determination of the most effective active ingredients and carrier characteristics warrant further research to provide more effective control options for spider egg sacs. PMID:26530954

  19. Investigation of sulfonated aromatic compound (SAC) modification to nylon film. 2. Study of SAC sorption isotherm and atomic force microscopic characterization of nylon surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Watson, B.A.; Keown, R.W.; Malone, C.P.; Barteau, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    Nylon 6 and nylon 66 films have been treated with aqueous sulfonated aromatic compound (SAC) solutions at concentrations ranging from 0.005 to 1.0 wt%. SAC uptakes at different treatment concentrations were measured and found to follow a BET isotherm. The surface morphologies of nylon film samples, including the original and SAC-treated films, have been characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). For untreated nylon 6 and nylon 66 films, AFM images show a randomly distributed fibrillar surface structure. Characteristic widths of fibrils in the nylon 66 and 6 films were 150-225 and 75-150 nm, respectively. For SAC-treated nylon films, the AFM images revealed that the surfaces of the films became covered with nodule-like features having a diameter range of 25-60 nm. AFM analysis provides evidence that SAC treatment deposited a surface coating on nylon films. AFM images of SAC-treated nylon films suggest a mechanism for stain resistance in which the SAC first forms a thin coating on the nylon via bondings between attractive groups in the SAC and nylon polymers. After treatment at increased SAC concentration, the surface is covered with nodule-like deposits which likely serve as a physical barrier to dye permeation. 20 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Inclusion of a nitric oxide congener in the insufflation gas repletes S-nitrosohemoglobin and stabilizes physiologic status during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Shimazutsu, Kazufumi; Uemura, Kenichiro; Auten, Kathryn M; Baldwin, Matthew F; Belknap, Samuel W; La Banca, Francisco; Jones, Maximilian C; McClaine, Deborah J; McClaine, Rebecca J; Eubanks, W Steve; Stamler, Jonathan S; Reynolds, James D

    2009-12-01

    A method to maintain organ blood flow during laparoscopic surgery has not been developed. Here we determined if ethyl nitrite, an S-nitrosylating agent that would maintain nitric oxide bioactivity (the major regulator of tissue perfusion), might be an effective intervention to preserve physiologic status during prolonged pneumoperitoneum. The study was conducted on appropriately anesthetized adult swine; the period of pneumoperitoneum was 240 minutes. Cohorts consisted of an anesthesia control group and groups insufflated with CO2 alone or CO2 containing fixed amounts of ethyl nitrite (1-300 ppm). Insufflation with CO2 alone produced declines in splanchnic organ blood flows and it reduced circulating levels of S-nitrosohemoglobin (i.e., nitric oxide bioactivity); these reductions were obviated by ethyl nitrite. In a specific example, preservation of kidney blood flow with ethyl nitrite kept serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen concentrations constant whereas in the CO2 alone group both increased as kidney blood flow declined. The data indicate ethyl nitrite can effectively attenuate insufflation-induced decreases in organ blood flow and nitric oxide bioactivity leading to reductions in markers of acute tissue injury. This simple intervention provides a method for controlling a major source of laparoscopic-related morbidity and mortality: tissue ischemia and altered postoperative organ function. PMID:20443932

  1. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a dry powder endotracheal insufflator device for use in dose-dependent preclinical studies in mice.

    PubMed

    Duret, Christophe; Wauthoz, Nathalie; Merlos, Romain; Goole, Jonathan; Maris, Calliope; Roland, Isabelle; Sebti, Thami; Vanderbist, Francis; Amighi, Karim

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the Penn-Century Dry Powder Insufflator for mice (DP-4M) to reproducibly, uniformly, and deeply deliver dry powders for inhalation in the mouse lung. Itraconazole-based dry powder formulations produced by spray-drying were different in terms of composition (different ratios of drug and mannitol, with or without phospholipids), but relatively similar in terms of particle size and mass median aerodynamic diameter. The ability of the dry powder insufflator to disaggregate each formulation was the same, indicated by the absence of a statistically significant difference between the particle size distribution parameters, as measured by laser scattering. The emitted fraction varied in vivo compared to the in vitro condition. Fluorescent particle distribution in the lungs was uniform and reached the alveolar spaces, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. In terms of drug recovery in lung tissue, a minimum administered powder mass (in this case ∼1 mg) was necessary to recover at least 30% of the emitted dose in the lung and to obtain reproducible pulmonary concentrations. To reduce the dose administered in the lung, it was preferable to dilute the active ingredient within the carrier instead of reducing the dry powder mass inserted in the sampling chamber. Dry powder insufflators are devices usable in dose-dependent preclinical trials but have critical parameters to efficiently deliver reproducible doses depending on the type of formulation. PMID:22538097

  2. SAC-C Mission and the Morning Constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomb, F. R.; Alonso, C.; Hofmann, C.; Frulla, L.; Nollmann, I.; Milovich, J.; Kuba, J.; Ares, F.; Kalemkarian, M.

    2002-01-01

    SAC-C is an international Earth observing satellite mission conceived as a partnership between CONAE and NASA, but with additional support in instrumentation and satellite development from the Danish DSRI, the Italian ASI, the French CNES and the Brazilian INPE. A Delta II rocket successfully launched it on November 21st, 2000, from Vandenberg AFB, California, USA. SAC-C has been designed primarily to fulfill the requirements of countries with large extension of territory or scarcely populated like Argentina. Its design is a good compromise between resolution and swath width that makes SAC-C an appropriate tool for global and high dynamic phenomena studies. There are ten instruments on board of SAC-C that will perform different studies, the Multispectral Medium Resolution Scanner (MMRS), provided by CONAE, Argentina, will help in the studies about desertification processes evaluation and their evolution in time (i.e., Patagonia, Argentina), to identify and predict agriculture production, to monitor flood areas and to make studies in coastal and fluvial areas. The MMRS will be associated with a High Resolution Technological Camera (HRTC), also provided by CONAE that will permit improvement in the MMRS resolution in the areas where it will be required. A High Sensitivity Technological Camera (HSTC) is also included in the mission. SAC-C also carries instruments to monitor the condition and dynamics of the terrestrial and marine biosphere and environment (GPS OccuLtation and Passive reflection Experiment (GOLPE)) from NASA/JPL. The Magnetic Mapping Payload, (MMP) developed by the Danish Space Research Institute helps to better understand the Earth's magnetic field and related Sun -Earth interactions .Italian Star Tracker (IST) and Italian Navigation Experiment (INES) developed by the Italian Space Agency, constitute a technological payload that will permit testing a fully autonomous system for attitude and orbit determination. Influence of space radiation on advanced

  3. Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC)-OCDMA Network with 8DPSK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldhaibani, A. O.; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal A.; Anuar, M. S.

    2013-09-01

    Optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) technique is required to meet the increased demand for high speed, large capacity communications in optical networks. In this paper, the transmission performance of a spectral amplitude coding (SAC)-OCDMA network is investigated when a conventional single-mode fiber (SMF) is used as the transmission link using 8DPSK modulation. The DW has a fixed weight of two. Simulation results reveal that the transmission distance is limited mainly by the fiber dispersion when high coding chip rate is used. For a two-user SAC-OCDMA network operating with 2 Gbit/s data rate and two wavelengths for each user, the maximum allowable transmission distance is about 15 km.

  4. Hydrocele of Femoral Hernial Sac-an Extremely Rare Case.

    PubMed

    Madhivanan, S; Jain, Ravindra Kumar

    2016-06-01

    A previously healthy 40-year-old woman presented with a right groin swelling for the last 2 years. Diagnosed preoperatively as uncomplicated, irreducible epiplocele of right femoral hernia, later per-operatively was diagnosed as hydrocele of femoral hernial sac also known as "femorocele"; ultrasound abdomen and groin demonstrated as a cystic mass right groin with no precise origin. All other basic line investigations within normal limits, except anemia 7 gm %, corrected to 10 gm %, by preoperative transfusions of 2 units of complete fresh blood. After low approach incision, excision of hydrocele sac, and feormal hernia repair were done with approximation of iliopectineal ligament to inguinal ligament, patient was discharged on 5th postoperative day with satisfactory wound healing and uneventful hospitalization. PMID:27358521

  5. Positional cloning of the mouse saccharin preference (Sac) locus

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Li, Xia; Reed, Danielle R.; Ohmen, Jeffery D.; Li, Shanru; Chen, Zhenyu; Tordoff, Michael G.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Wu, Chenyan; West, David B.; Chatterjee, Alu; Ross, David A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2013-01-01

    Differences in sweetener intake among inbred strains of mice are partially determined by allelic variation of the saccharin preference (Sac) locus. Genetic and physical mapping limited a critical genomic interval containing Sac to a 194-kb DNA fragment. Sequencing and annotation of this region identified a gene (Tas1r3) encoding the third member of the T1R family of putative taste receptors, T1R3. Introgression by serial backcrossing of the 194-kb chromosomal fragment containing the Tas1r3 allele from the high-sweetener preferring C57BL/6ByJ strain onto the genetic background of the low-sweetener preferring 129P3/J strain rescued its low sweetener preference phenotype. Polymorphisms of Tas1r3 that are likely to have functional significance were identified using analysis of genomic sequences and sweetener preference phenotypes of genealogically distant mouse strains. Tas1r3 has two common haplotypes, consisting of six single nucleotide polymorphisms: one haplotype was found in mouse strains with elevated sweetener preference and the other in strains relatively indifferent to sweeteners. This study provides compelling evidence that Tas1r3 is equivalent to the Sac locus and that the T1R3 receptor responds to sweeteners. PMID:11555487

  6. Oblique sectional planes of block plastinates eased by Sac Plastination.

    PubMed

    Kürtül, Ibrahim; Hammer, Niels; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Böhme, Jörg; Steinke, Hanno

    2012-07-01

    To find an oblique cutting plane of a plastinate, e.g. to cut gamma-nails in the femur, the Block Plastination technique was modified. After CT and MRI examination, the specimens were plastinated with the standard resin mixture E6/E12/E600. Instead of using a box to form a block during the casting and curing stage, we embedded the specimen in a sac made of polyester foil. A polymerized wooden block was attached to the specimen. The sac was wrapped with tape to the embedded specimen with the block. This approach limited the amount of required resin to the inner volume of the plastinate. Then, the plastination sac was put in the incubator for further polymerization and curing. When the foil was removed from the plastinated specimen, the wooden block served as a socket for the grip when sawing. The outer shape of the specimen remained visible. Doing so, the adequate cutting plane could be determined easily. PMID:22209028

  7. Educational report: A case of lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis.

    PubMed

    Jamison, Aaron; Crofts, Kevin; Roberts, Fiona; Gregory, Maria Elena

    2016-10-01

    This article reports a presentation of lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis and informs the reader of this uncommon but important diagnosis. A 36-year-old man from Pakistan presented with a 3-month history of swelling at the nasal aspect of the left lower lid. This was associated with occasional crepitus and slight localised discomfort, but no epiphora. There was a palpable fullness near the left medial canthus associated with telecanthus but a normal sac washout and normal eye examination otherwise. Previous medical history included an ipsilateral nasal polypectomy and inferior meatal antrostomy around 10 years previously, whilst living in Pakistan. Various imaging modalities were useful in identifying a soft tissue mass within the left nasolacrimal duct. Following excision biopsy, histological examination confirmed the presence of rhinosporidiosis, likely caused by the organism Rhinosporidium seeberi. Rhinosporidiosis should be considered as a potential cause in any case of lacrimal sac pathology. Imaging studies may be helpful in measuring the extent of disease, although histological examination is required to confirm the diagnosis. Although rare, the complications of rhinosporidiosis can be potentially blinding or fatal. As discussed in this case, the presence of telecanthus may represent a lacrimal system tumour, either malignant or benign, and should always prompt further investigation. PMID:27541939

  8. Endometriosis in a spigelian hernia sac: an unexpected finding.

    PubMed

    Moris, Demetrios; Michalinos, Adamantios; Vernadakis, Spiridon

    2015-01-01

    Describes the existence of endometrioma in a spigelian hernia sac. Spigelian Hernia is a rare ventral hernia, presenting difficulties in diagnosis and carrying a high incarceration and obstruction risk. Endometriomas occur due to implantation of endometrial cells into a surgical wound, most often after a cesarean delivery. A 37-year-old woman presented to our department with persistent abdominal pain, exacerbating during menses, and vomiting for 2 days. Physical examination revealed a mass-like lesion in the border between the left-upper and left-lower quadrant. Ultrasound examination was inconclusive and a computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed an abdominal wall mass. During surgery, a spigelian hernia was found 5 to 7 cm above a previous cesarean incision. Tissue like "chocolate cysts" was present at the hernia sac. Hernia was repaired while tissue was excised and sent for histological examination that confirmed the diagnosis. Spigelian hernia is a hernia presenting difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. Endometrioma in a spigelian hernia sac is a rare diagnosis, confirmed only histologically. Clinical suspicion can be posed only through symptoms and thorough investigation. PMID:25594648

  9. Endometriosis in a Spigelian Hernia Sac: An Unexpected Finding

    PubMed Central

    Moris, Demetrios; Michalinos, Adamantios; Vernadakis, Spiridon

    2015-01-01

    Describes the existence of endometrioma in a spigelian hernia sac. Spigelian Hernia is a rare ventral hernia, presenting difficulties in diagnosis and carrying a high incarceration and obstruction risk. Endometriomas occur due to implantation of endometrial cells into a surgical wound, most often after a cesarean delivery. A 37-year-old woman presented to our department with persistent abdominal pain, exacerbating during menses, and vomiting for 2 days. Physical examination revealed a mass-like lesion in the border between the left-upper and left-lower quadrant. Ultrasound examination was inconclusive and a computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed an abdominal wall mass. During surgery, a spigelian hernia was found 5 to 7 cm above a previous cesarean incision. Tissue like “chocolate cysts” was present at the hernia sac. Hernia was repaired while tissue was excised and sent for histological examination that confirmed the diagnosis. Spigelian hernia is a hernia presenting difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. Endometrioma in a spigelian hernia sac is a rare diagnosis, confirmed only histologically. Clinical suspicion can be posed only through symptoms and thorough investigation. PMID:25594648

  10. Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS): an online service for near-real-time satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenot, H.; Theys, N.; Clarisse, L.; van Geffen, J.; van Gent, J.; Van Roozendael, M.; van der A, R.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P.-F.; Clerbaux, C.; Valks, P.; Hedelt, P.; Prata, F.; Rasson, O.; Sievers, K.; Zehner, C.

    2014-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions emit plumes of ash and gases into the atmosphere, potentially at very high altitudes. Ash-rich plumes are hazardous for airplanes as ash is very abrasive and easily melts inside their engines. With more than 50 active volcanoes per year and the ever-increasing number of commercial flights, the safety of airplanes is a real concern. Satellite measurements are ideal for monitoring global volcanic activity and, in combination with atmospheric dispersion models, to track and forecast volcanic plumes. Here we present the Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS, sacs.aeronomie.be/ecosystem"_target="blank">http://sacs.aeronomie.be/ecosystem), which is a free online service initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA) for the near-real-time (NRT) satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes of SO2 and ash. It combines data from three ultraviolet (UV)-visible and three infrared (IR) spectrometers. The UV-vis sensors are the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) on-board the two polar orbiting meteorological satellites (MetOp-A & MetOp-B) operated by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT). The IR sensors are the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on-board MetOp-A & MetOp-B. This new multi-sensor warning system of volcanic emissions is based on the selective detection of SO2 and ash. This system is optimised to avoid false alerts while at the same time limiting the number of notifications in case of large plumes. A successful rate with more than 95% of notifications corresponding to true volcanic activity is obtained by the SACS system.

  11. Sac Angiography and Glue Embolization in Emergency Endovascular Aneurysm Repair for Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Yuya Nishimura, Jun-ichi Hase, Soichiro Yamasaki, Motoshige

    2015-04-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to demonstrate a sac angiography technique and evaluate the feasibility of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of the ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac in emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in hemodynamically unstable patients.MethodsA retrospective case series of three patients in whom sac angiography was performed during emergency EVAR for ruptured AAA was reviewed. After stent graft deployment, angiography within the sac of aneurysm (sac angiography) was performed by manually injecting 10 ml of contrast material through a catheter to identify the presence and site of active bleeding. In two patients, sac angiography revealed active extravasation of the contrast material, and NBCA embolization with a coaxial catheter system was performed to achieve prompt sealing.ResultsSac angiography was successful in all three patients. In the two patients who underwent NBCA embolization for aneurysm sac bleeding, follow-up computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated the accumulation of NBCA consistent with the bleeding site in preprocedural CT images.ConclusionsEVAR is associated with a potential risk of ongoing bleeding from type II or IV endoleaks into the disrupted aneurysm sac in patients with severe coagulopathy. Therefore, sac angiography and NBCA embolization during emergency EVAR may represent a possible technical improvement in the treatment of ruptured AAA in hemodynamically unstable patients.

  12. Rhinosporidiosis of lacrimal sac: An interesting case of orbital swelling

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sandip Kanti; Bain, Jayanta; Maity, Kuntal; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Baitalik, Debasis; Majumdar, Bijay Kumar; Gupta, Vivek; Kumar, Ashwini; Dalal, Bibhas Saha; Malik, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic localized granulomatous disease caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi, an aquatic protistan parasite belonging to a clade, Mesomycetozoea. Infestation of Rhinosporidiosis to the eye and adnexa is termed oculosporidiosis, in such cases, conjunctival mucosa is mostly involved; however in our case, it involved only the lacrimal sac and deeper periorbital tissue and presented as a case of orbital swelling. Surgical excision of the lesion was done, postoperatively dapsone therapy was given for 6 months, and the patient responded very well with no recurrence till date. PMID:27003980

  13. SacPox from the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is a proficient lactonase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background SacPox, an enzyme from the extremophilic crenarchaeal Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (Sac), was isolated by virtue of its phosphotriesterase (or paraoxonase; Pox) activity, i.e. its ability to hydrolyze the neurotoxic organophosphorus insecticides. Later on, SacPox was shown to belong to the Phosphotriesterase-Like Lactonase family that comprises natural lactonases, possibly involved in quorum sensing, and endowed with promiscuous, phosphotriesterase activity. Results Here, we present a comprehensive and broad enzymatic characterization of the natural lactonase and promiscuous organophosphorus hydrolase activities of SacPox, as well as a structural analysis using a model. Conclusion Kinetic experiments show that SacPox is a proficient lactonase, including at room temperature. Moreover, we discuss the observed differences in substrate specificity between SacPox and its closest homologues SsoPox and SisLac together with the possible structural causes for these observations. PMID:24894602

  14. The SAC51 Family Plays a Central Role in Thermospermine Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qingqing; Fukushima, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Mai; Ishii, Nami; Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Kurata, Tetsuya; Motose, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Taku

    2016-08-01

    The acaulis5 (acl5) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is defective in the biosynthesis of thermospermine and shows a dwarf phenotype associated with excess xylem differentiation. SAC51 was identified from a dominant suppressor of acl5, sac51-d, and encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein. The sac51-d mutant has a premature termination codon in an upstream open reading frame (uORF) that is conserved among all four members of the SAC51 family, SAC51 and SACL1-SACL3 This suggests that thermospermine cancels the inhibitory effect of the uORF in main ORF translation. Another suppressor, sac57-d, has a mutation in the conserved uORF of SACL3 To define further the function of the SAC51 family in the thermospermine response, we analyzed T-DNA insertion mutants of each gene. Although sacl1-1 may not be a null allele, the quadruple mutant showed a semi-dwarf phenotype but with an increased level of thermospermine and decreased sensitivity to exogenous thermospermine that normally represses xylem differentiation. The sac51-1 sacl3-1 double mutant was also insensitive to thermospermine. These results suggest that SAC51 and SACL3 play a key role in thermospermine-dependent negative control of thermospermine biosynthesis and xylem differentiation. Using 5' leader-GUS (β-glucuronidase) fusion constructs, however, we detected a significant enhancement of the GUS activity by thermospermine only in SAC51 and SACL1 constructs. Furthermore, while acl5-1 sac51-1 showed the acl5 dwarf phenotype, acl5-1 sacl3-1 exhibited an extremely tiny-plant phenotype. These results suggest a complex regulatory network for the thermospermine response in which SAC51 and SACL3 function in parallel pathways. PMID:27388339

  15. Characterization of the sacQ genes from Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Amory, A; Kunst, F; Aubert, E; Klier, A; Rapoport, G

    1987-01-01

    The sacQ gene from Bacillus licheniformis was cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis. Deletion analysis shows that it encodes a 46-amino-acid polypeptide homologous to the B. subtilis sacQ gene product. The polypeptide, when it is overexpressed, activates the expression of a number of target genes in B. subtilis, all encoding secreted enzymes: alkaline protease, levansucrase, beta-glucanase(s), xylanase, and alpha-amylase. The maximum stimulations measured for alkaline protease and levansucrase were by a factor of 70 and 50, respectively, when the sacQ gene from B. licheniformis was present on a multicopy plasmid in B. subtilis. The sacQ genes from B. subtilis and B. licheniformis, cloned in the same multicopy plasmid, were compared under the same conditions. The sacQ gene from B. licheniformis was more efficient than the sacQ gene from B. subtilis in producing the hypersecretion phenotype. The sacQ structural genes from B. subtilis and B. licheniformis were placed under the control of the same inducible promoter. Hypersecretion was specifically obtained under conditions of full induction of the promoter. The target site of levansucrase regulation by sacQ was identified as a 440-base-pair fragment located in the 5' noncoding region of sacB, suggesting transcriptional control. Images PMID:3098732

  16. Potentiodynamic polarization effect on phase and microstructure of SAC305 solder in hydrochloric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaini, Nurwahida Binti Mohd; Nazeri, Muhammad Firdaus Bin Mohd

    2016-07-01

    The corrosion analysis of SAC305 lead free solder was investigated in Hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. Potentiodynamic polarization was used to polarize the SAC305. The effect of polarization on the phase and microstructure were compared to as-prepared SAC305 solder. Potentiodynamic polarization introduces mixed corrosion products on the surface of SAC305 solder. The XRD analysis confirms that the mixed corrosion products emerged on the surface after polarization by formation of SnO and SnO2 of which confirmed that dissolution of Sn was dominant during polarization. Microstructure analysis reveal the presence of gap and porosities produced limits the protection offered by the passivation film.

  17. Spatiotemporal control of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate by Sac2 regulates endocytic recycling

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, FoSheng; Hu, Fenghua

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the spatial- and temporal-restricted generation and turnover of phosphoinositides (PIs) by a cascade of PI-metabolizing enzymes is a key regulatory mechanism in the endocytic pathway. Here, we demonstrate that the Sac1 domain–containing protein Sac2 is a PI 4-phosphatase that specifically hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate in vitro. We further show that Sac2 colocalizes with early endosomal markers and is recruited to transferrin (Tfn)-containing vesicles during endocytic recycling. Exogenous expression of the catalytically inactive mutant Sac2C458S resulted in altered cellular distribution of Tfn receptors and delayed Tfn recycling. Furthermore, genomic ablation of Sac2 caused a similar perturbation on Tfn and integrin recycling as well as defects in cell migration. Structural characterization of Sac2 revealed a unique pleckstrin-like homology Sac2 domain conserved in all Sac2 orthologues. Collectively, our findings provide evidence for the tight regulation of PIs by Sac2 in the endocytic recycling pathway. PMID:25869669

  18. The PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 triad in human breast cancer: Functional link between elevated Sac3 phosphatase and enhanced proliferation of triple negative cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ikonomov, Ognian C. Filios, Catherine Sbrissa, Diego Chen, Xuequn Shisheva, Assia

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •We assess PAS complex proteins and phosphoinositide levels in breast cancer cells. •Sac3 and ArPIKfyve are markedly elevated in triple-negative breast cancer cells. •Sac3 silencing inhibits proliferation in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. •Phosphoinositide profiles are altered in breast cancer cells. •This is the first evidence linking high Sac3 with breast cancer cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve and 5-phosphatase Sac3 are scaffolded by ArPIKfyve in the PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 (PAS) regulatory complex to trigger a unique loop of PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} synthesis and turnover. Whereas the metabolizing enzymes of the other 3-phosphoinositides have already been implicated in breast cancer, the role of the PAS proteins and the PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} conversion is unknown. To begin elucidating their roles, in this study we monitored the endogenous levels of the PAS complex proteins in cell lines derived from hormone-receptor positive (MCF7 and T47D) or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (BT20, BT549 and MDA-MB-231) as well as in MCF10A cells derived from non-tumorigenic mastectomy. We report profound upregulation of Sac3 and ArPIKfyve in the triple negative vs. hormone-sensitive breast cancer or non-tumorigenic cells, with BT cell lines showing the highest levels. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Sac3, but not that of PIKfyve, significantly inhibited proliferation of BT20 and BT549 cells. In these cells, knockdown of ArPIKfyve had only a minor effect, consistent with a primary role for Sac3 in TNBC cell proliferation. Intriguingly, steady-state levels of PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} in BT20 and T47D cells were similar despite the 6-fold difference in Sac3 levels between these cell lines. However, steady-state levels of PtdIns3P and PtdIns5P, both regulated by the PAS complex, were significantly reduced in BT20 vs. T47D or MCF10A cell lines, consistent with elevated Sac3 affecting directly or

  19. Transnasal Humidified Rapid-Insufflation Ventilatory Exchange (THRIVE): a physiological method of increasing apnoea time in patients with difficult airways.

    PubMed

    Patel, A; Nouraei, S A R

    2015-03-01

    Emergency and difficult tracheal intubations are hazardous undertakings where successive laryngoscopy-hypoxaemia-re-oxygenation cycles can escalate to airway loss and the 'can't intubate, can't ventilate' scenario. Between 2013 and 2014, we extended the apnoea times of 25 patients with difficult airways who were undergoing general anaesthesia for hypopharyngeal or laryngotracheal surgery. This was achieved through continuous delivery of transnasal high-flow humidified oxygen, initially to provide pre-oxygenation, and continuing as post-oxygenation during intravenous induction of anaesthesia and neuromuscular blockade until a definitive airway was secured. Apnoea time commenced at administration of neuromuscular blockade and ended with commencement of jet ventilation, positive-pressure ventilation or recommencement of spontaneous ventilation. During this time, upper airway patency was maintained with jaw-thrust. Transnasal Humidified Rapid-Insufflation Ventilatory Exchange (THRIVE) was used in 15 males and 10 females. Mean (SD [range]) age at treatment was 49 (15 [25-81]) years. The median (IQR [range]) Mallampati grade was 3 (2-3 [2-4]) and direct laryngoscopy grade was 3 (3-3 [2-4]). There were 12 obese patients and nine patients were stridulous. The median (IQR [range]) apnoea time was 14 (9-19 [5-65]) min. No patient experienced arterial desaturation < 90%. Mean (SD [range]) post-apnoea end-tidal (and in four patients, arterial) carbon dioxide level was 7.8 (2.4 [4.9-15.3]) kPa. The rate of increase in end-tidal carbon dioxide was 0.15 kPa.min(-1) . We conclude that THRIVE combines the benefits of 'classical' apnoeic oxygenation with continuous positive airway pressure and gaseous exchange through flow-dependent deadspace flushing. It has the potential to transform the practice of anaesthesia by changing the nature of securing a definitive airway in emergency and difficult intubations from a pressured stop-start process to a smooth and unhurried undertaking

  20. Intraperitoneal pre-insufflation of 0.125% bupivaciane with tramadol for postoperative pain relief following laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Aslam; Usmani, Hammad; Khan, Mohd Mozaffar; Rizvi, Amjad Ali; Siddiqi, Mohd Masood Hussain; Aslam, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with a fairly high incidence of postoperative discomfort which is more of visceral origin than somatic. Studies have concluded that the instillation of local anesthetic with opioid around gall bladder bed provides more effective analgesia than either local anesthetic or opioid alone. Material and Methods: The study included 90 American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II patients of age 16-65 years scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. The patients received the study drugs at the initiation of insufflation of CO2 in the intraperitoneal space by the operating surgeon under laparoscopic camera guidance over the gallbladder bed. Patients in Group T received tramadol 2 mg/kg in 30 ml normal saline, in Group B received bupivacaine 30 ml of 0.125% and in Group BT received tramadol 2 mg/kg in 30 ml of 0.125% bupivacaine intraperitoneally. Postoperative pain assessment was done at different time intervals in the first 24 h using Visual Analog Scale of 0-10 (0 = No pain, 10 = Worst pain imagined). Time to first dose of rescue analgesic and total analgesics required in the first 24 h postoperatively were also recorded. The incidence of side effects during the postoperative period was recorded. Results: Reduction in postoperative pain was elicited, at 4 and 8 h postoperatively when Group BT (bupivacaine-tramadol group) was compared with Group T (tramadol group) or Group B (bupivacaine group) (P < 0.01). There was a significantly lower requirement of analgesics during first 24 h postoperatively in Group BT compared to Group B or T but no significant difference in the intake of analgesics was noted between Groups B Group T. Time to first dose of rescue analgesic was also significantly prolonged in Group BT compared to Group B or T. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was comparable in all the study groups. Conclusions: Intraperitoneal application of bupivacaine with tramadol was a more

  1. Vienna SAC-SOS: Analysis of the European VLBI Sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, C. T.; Pavetich, P.; Nilsson, T.; Böhm, J.; Schuh, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics (IGG) of the Vienna University of Technology as an IVS Special Analysis Center for Specific Observing Sessions (SAC-SOS) has analyzed the European VLBI sessions using the software VieVS. Between 1990 and 2011, 115 sessions have been carried out. The analyzed baselines have lengths ranging from approximately 445 to 4580 km, and they show good repeatabilities, apart from the ones containing station Simeiz. The station velocities have also been investigated. The stations situated in the stable part of Europe have not shown significant relative movements w.r.t. Wettzell, whereas the stations located in the northern areas have the largest vertical motions as a result of the post glacial isostatic rebound of the zone. The stations placed in Italy, around the Black Sea, in Siberia, and near the Arctic Circle show the largest relative horizontal motions because they belong to different geodynamical units.

  2. Clearance of chlamydial elementary bodies from the conjunctival sac

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, H.R.; Velez, V.L.

    1987-07-01

    The rate of disappearance of inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis elementary body (EB) preparations from the conjunctival sac was studied in monkeys. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) cytology showed that the majority of EB had been cleared from the eye within 24 hr of the inoculation of 1 X 10(6) inactivated EB, although small numbers of EB could be detected for up to 144 hr. The rate of clearance in normal and ocular immune animals did not differ, and formalin-killed and UV-inactivated EBs disappeared at a comparable rate. These studies suggest that chlamydial EB are cleared relatively quickly from the eye and support the notion that EBs detected by DFA cytology indicate the presence of current infection.

  3. Finite element analysis of stresses developed in the blood sac of a left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Haut Donahue, T L; Dehlin, W; Gillespie, J; Weiss, W J; Rosenberg, G

    2009-05-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a 3D finite element (FE) model of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) to predict stresses in the blood sac. The hyperelastic stress-strain curves for the segmented poly(ether polyurethane urea) (SPEUU) blood sac were determined in both tension and compression using a servo-hydraulic testing system at various strain rates. Over the range of strain rates studied, the sac was not strain rate sensitive, however the material response was different for tension versus compression. The experimental tension and compression properties were used in a FE model that consisted of the pusher plate, blood sac and pump case. A quasi-static analysis was used to allow for nonlinearities due to contact and material deformation. The 3D FE model showed that blood sac stresses are not adversely affected by the location of the inlet and outlet ports of the device and that over the systolic ejection phase of the simulation the prediction of blood sac stresses from the full 3D model and an axisymmetric model are the same. Minimizing stresses in the blood sac will increase the longevity of the blood sac in vivo. PMID:19131267

  4. IN VITRO/IN VIVO COMPARISON OF YOLK SAC FUNCTION AND EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yolk sac function and development of rat embryos grown in vitro for 24 hrs starting on day 10.5 were compared to those of embryos grown in utero. he embryos grown in vitro had significantly fewer somites, shorter crown-rump length and smaller yolk sac diameter when compared to th...

  5. ZBTB16: a novel sensitive and specific biomarker for yolk sac tumor.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Guang-Qian; Li, Faqian; Unger, Pamela D; Katerji, Hani; Yang, Qi; McMahon, Loralee; Burstein, David E

    2016-06-01

    Although the function of zinc finger and BTB domain containing 16 (ZBTB16) in spermatogenesis is well documented, expression of ZBTB16 in germ cell tumors has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression and diagnostic utility of ZBTB16 in germ cell tumors. A total of 67 adult germ cell tumors were studied (62 testicular germ cell tumors, 2 ovarian yolk sac tumors, 1 mediastinal yolk sac tumor, and 2 retroperitoneal metastatic yolk sac tumors). The 62 testicular primary germ cell tumors are as follows: 34 pure germ cell tumors (20 seminomas, 8 embryonal carcinomas, 2 teratomas, 1 choriocarcinoma, 1 carcinoid, and 2 spermatocytic tumors) and 28 mixed germ cell tumors (composed of 13 embryonal carcinomas, 15 yolk sac tumors, 15 teratomas, 7 seminomas, and 3 choriocarcinomas in various combinations). Thirty-five cases contained germ cell neoplasia in situ. Yolk sac tumor was consistently reactive for ZBTB16. Among the 15 testicular yolk sac tumors in mixed germ cell tumors, all displayed moderate to diffuse ZBTB16 staining. ZBTB16 reactivity was present regardless of the histologic patterns of yolk sac tumor and ZBTB16 was able to pick up small foci of yolk sac tumor intermixed/embedded in other germ cell tumor subtype elements. Diffuse ZBTB16 immunoreactivity was also observed in 2/2 metastatic yolk sac tumors, 1/1 mediastinal yolk sac tumor, 2/2 ovarian yolk sac tumors, 2/2 spermatocytic tumors, 1/1 carcinoid, and the spermatogonial cells. All the other non-yolk sac germ cell tumors were nonreactive, including seminoma (n=27), embryonal carcinoma (n=21), teratoma (n=17), choriocarcinoma (n=4), and germ cell neoplasia in situ (n=35). The sensitivity and specificity of ZBTB16 in detecting yolk sac tumor among the germ cell tumors was 100% (20/20) and 96% (66/69), respectively. In conclusion, ZBTB16 is a highly sensitive and specific marker for yolk sac tumor. PMID:26916077

  6. Development of the endolymphatic sac in chick embryos, with reference to the degradation of otoconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshihara, T.; Kaname, H.; Narita, N.; Ishii, T.; Igarashi, M.; Fermin, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac of chick embryos (from embryonic day 7 to 1-day-old chicks) was studied light- and electron-microscopically. At stage 30-31 (embryonic day 7-7.5), the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac were cuboidal to columnar in shape. Microvilli were relatively well developed. The intercellular space was wide. In the endolymphatic space of the endolymphatic sac, varying shapes and sizes of otoconia-like bodies were often observed. Intracytoplasmic phagosomes containing these bodies were rarely found. After stage 37 (embryonic day 11), otoconia-like bodies in the endolymphatic sac decreased in number and size. They were almost the same as the otoconia in the macular organs, ultrastructurally. These findings indicate that the endolymphatic sac of the chick embryos may possess the function of otoconial degradation and removal of calcium from otoconia.

  7. Air tamponade of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Orłowski, Tadeusz; Iwanowicz, Katarzyna; Snarska, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Pneumopericardium is a rare disease defined as the presence of air or gas in the pericardial sac. Among the etiological factors, the following stand out: chest trauma, barotrauma, air-containing fistulas between the pericardium and the surrounding structures, secondary gas production by microorganisms growing in the pericardial sac, and iatrogenic factors. Until now, spontaneous pneumopericardium has been considered a harmless and temporary state, but a review of clinical cases indicates that the presence of air in the pericardium can lead to cardiac tamponade and life-threatening hemodynamic disturbances. We present the case of an 80-year-old patient with a chronic bronchopericardial fistula, who suffered from a cardiac arrest due to air tamponade of the heart. PMID:27516791

  8. Molecular detection and in vitro antioxidant activity of S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) extracted from Allium sativum.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y-E; Wang, W-D

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that Allium sativum has potential applications to clinical treatment of various cancers due to its remarkable ability in eliminating free radicals and increasing metabolism. An allyl-substituted cysteine derivative - S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) was separated and identified from Allium sativum. The extracted SAC was reacted with 1-pyrenemethanol to obtain pyrene-labelled SAC (Py-SAC) to give SAC fluorescence properties. Molecular detection of Py-SAC was conducted by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence method to quantitatively measure concentrations of Py-SAC solutions. The ability of removing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical using Py-SAC was determined through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Results showed the activity of Py-SAC and Vitamin C (VC) with ORAC as index, the concentrations of Py-SAC and VC were 58.43 mg/L and 5.72 mg/L respectively to scavenge DPPH, and 8.16 mg/L and 1.67 mg/L to scavenge •OH respectively. Compared with VC, the clearance rates of Py-SAC to scavenge DPPH were much higher, Py-SAC could inhibit hydroxyl radical. The ability of removing radical showed a dose-dependent relationship within the scope of the drug concentration. PMID:27453278

  9. Conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated prior to cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Suto, Chikako; Morinaga, Masahiro; Yagi, Tomoko; Tsuji, Chieko; Toshida, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the trends of conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated from patients prior to cataract surgery. Subjects and methods The study comprised 579 patients (579 eyes) who underwent cataract surgery. Specimens were collected by lightly rubbing the inferior palpebral conjunctival sac with a sterile cotton swab 2 weeks before surgery, and then cultured for isolation of bacteria and antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The bacterial isolates and percentage of drug-resistant isolates were compared among age groups and according to whether or not patients had diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, dialysis therapy, oral steroid use, dry eye syndrome, or allergic conjunctivitis. Results The bacterial isolation rate was 39.2%. There were 191 strains of Gram-positive cocci, accounting for the majority of all isolates (67.0%), among which methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most frequent (127 strains, 44.5%), followed by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (37 strains, 12.7%). All 76 Gram-positive bacillary isolates (26.7%) were from the genus Corynebacterium. Among the 16 Gram-negative bacillary isolates (5.9%), the most frequent was Escherichia coli (1.0%). The bacterial isolation rate was higher in patients >60 years old, and was lower in patients with dry eye syndrome, patients under topical treatment for other ocular disorders, and patients with hyperlipidemia. There was no significant difference in bacterial isolation rate with respect to the presence/absence of diabetes mellitus, steroid therapy, dialysis, or a history of allergic conjunctivitis. Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci showed a significantly higher detection rate in diabetic patients than nondiabetic patients (20.3% versus 7.0%, P < 0.05). The percentage of all isolates resistant to levofloxacin, cefmenoxime, and tobramycin was 14.0%, 15.2%, and 17.9%, respectively, with no significant differences among these drugs. Conclusion

  10. The First Transmembrane Domain of Lipid Phosphatase SAC1 Promotes Golgi Localization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinzhi; Chen, Juxing; Enns, Caroline A.; Mayinger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The lipid phosphatase Sac1 cycles between endoplasmic reticulum and cisternal Golgi compartments. In proliferating mammalian cells, a canonical dilysine motif at the C-terminus of Sac1 is required for coatomer complex-I (COP-I)-binding and continuous retrieval to the ER. Starvation triggers accumulation of Sac1 at the Golgi. The mechanism responsible for Golgi retention of Sac1 is unknown. Here we show that the first of the two transmembrane regions in human SAC1 (TM1) functions in Golgi localization. A minimal construct containing only TM1 and the adjacent flanking sequences is concentrated at the Golgi. Transplanting TM1 into transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) induces Golgi accumulation of this normally plasma membrane and endosomal protein, indicating that TM1 is sufficient for Golgi localization. In addition, we determined that the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of SAC1 also promotes Golgi localization, even when TM1 is mutated or absent. We conclude that the distribution of SAC1 within the Golgi is controlled via both passive membrane thickness-dependent partitioning of TM1 and a retention mechanism that requires the N-terminal cytoplasmic region. PMID:23936490

  11. Five Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial on Warming and Humidification of Insufflation Gas in Laparoscopic Colonic Surgery—Impact on Small Bowel Obstruction and Oncologic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sammour, Tarik; Hill, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Warming and humidification of insufflation gas has been shown to reduce adhesion formation and tumor implantation in the laboratory setting, but clinical evidence is lacking. We aimed to test the hypothesis that warming and humidification of insufflation CO2 would lead to reduced adhesion formation, and improve oncologic outcomes in laparoscopic colonic surgery. This was a 5-year follow-up of a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial investigating warming and humidification of insufflation gas. The study group received warmed (37°C), humidified (98%) insufflation carbon dioxide, and the control group received standard gas (19°C, 0%). All other aspects of patient care were standardized. Admissions for small bowel obstruction were recorded, as well as whether management was operative or nonoperative. Local and systemic cancer recurrence, 5-year overall survival, and cancer specific survival rates were also recorded. Eighty two patients were randomized, with 41 in each arm. Groups were well matched at baseline. There was no difference between the study and control groups in the rate of clinical small bowel obstruction (5.7% versus 0%, P 0.226); local recurrence (6.5% versus 6.1%, P 1.000); overall survival (85.7% versus 82.1%, P 0.759); or cancer-specific survival (90.3% versus 87.9%, P 1.000). Warming and humidification of insufflation CO2 in laparoscopic colonic surgery does not appear to confer a clinically significant long term benefit in terms of adhesion reduction or oncological outcomes, although a much larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) would be required to confirm this. ClinicalTrials.gov Trial identifier: NCT00642005; US National Library of Medicine, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA. PMID:25875541

  12. The effect of pigeon yolk sac fluid on the growth behavior of calcium carbonate crystals.

    PubMed

    Song, Juan; Cheng, Haixia; Shen, Xinyu; Tong, Hua

    2015-03-01

    Previous experiments have proved that thermodynamically unstable calcium carbonate vaterite can exist for long periods in the yolk sac of a pigeon embryo. The aim of this article was to demonstrate the effect of in vitro mineralization of yolk sac fluid on calcium carbonate by direct precipitation. Experiments were conducted using pigeon yolk sac fluid and using lecithin extracted from pigeon yolk sac fluid as a control to investigate the regulating effects of the organic components in the embryo on the formation of the calcium carbonate precipitate. Multiple characterization methods were employed to study the various morphological patterns, sizes, crystal growth, and crystal phase transformations of the calcium carbonate precipitates as regulated by the yolk sac fluid extracted at different stages of incubation. The experimental results demonstrate that as the incubation proceeds towards the later stages, the composition and environmental features of the yolk sac fluid become more favorable for the formation of relatively unstable calcium carbonate phases with high energies of the vaterite state. The experiments conducted with extracted lecithin as the template for crystal growth yielded similar results. A large amount of organic molecules with polar functional groups carried by the yolk sac fluid have strong effects and can both initially induce the crystallization and regulate the aggregation of calcium carbonate. Furthermore, this regulation process is found to be closely related to the lecithin contained in yolk sac fluid. These observations confirm the changes in yolk sac fluid composition during incubation have significant effects on the production of vaterite, which implicates the calcium transport during embryo growth. PMID:25681477

  13. Primary yolk sac tumor of the gluteus: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Jiang, Qianqian; Zhang, Shitai; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Qing-Fu; OuYang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a common malignant primitive germ cell tumor that often exhibits differentiation into endodermal structures. They most commonly occur in childhood and adolescence and are rare after the age of 40 years. Derived from the yolk sac during the embryonic period, YSTs can occur in the gonads and germ cells because the tumor cells migrate from the yolk sac toward the gonads. Here, we present a rare case of primary gluteus YST in a 3-year-old girl. She received BEP chemotherapy (bleomycin + etoposide + cisplatin) after surgical resection. There was no evidence of recurrence 7 months after primary treatment. PMID:27536133

  14. Primary yolk sac tumor of the gluteus: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Jiang, Qianqian; Zhang, Shitai; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Qing-Fu; OuYang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a common malignant primitive germ cell tumor that often exhibits differentiation into endodermal structures. They most commonly occur in childhood and adolescence and are rare after the age of 40 years. Derived from the yolk sac during the embryonic period, YSTs can occur in the gonads and germ cells because the tumor cells migrate from the yolk sac toward the gonads. Here, we present a rare case of primary gluteus YST in a 3-year-old girl. She received BEP chemotherapy (bleomycin + etoposide + cisplatin) after surgical resection. There was no evidence of recurrence 7 months after primary treatment. PMID:27536133

  15. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS): Software requirements specification (SRS). Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.

    1995-03-08

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) database, an Impact Level 3Q system. SACS stores information on tank temperatures, surface levels, and interstitial liquid levels. This information is retrieved by the customer through a PC-based interface and is then available to a number of other software tools. The software requirements specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SACS Project, and follows the Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Software Practices (WHC-CM-3-10) and Quality Assurance (WHC-CM-4-2, QR 19.0) policies.

  16. Observational Opportunities with the CUBIC Experiment on SAC-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nousek, J. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Moskalenko, E. I.

    1996-12-01

    The CUBIC experiment on the SAC-B satellite is now collecting data on the Diffuse X-Ray Background and bright point sources over an energy range of 0.2 - 10 keV with energy resolution ranging from 40 - 160 eV over this bandpass. CUBIC observations, several of which are discussed in other posters at this session, provide 2 - 4 high quality spectra per week. CUBIC was built as a PI-class instrument, and at present data rights are divided between Penn State (90%) and Leicester University (10%). We present the observing plan for the first six months of CUBIC operations. We are currently collaborating with several astronomers who are not on the CUBIC team but have expressed interest in one or more of these targets. We invite additional collaborations on targets which are not currently assigned to a specific observer. In order to make these data more accessible to the astronomical community, we are proposing to institute a modest Guest Investigator program. If supported by ADP funding, this would permit observing requests from outside astronomers and would place a large fraction of the CUBIC data in a public archive at the HEASARC.

  17. Endolymphatic sac tumor with von Hippel-Lindau disease: report of a case with atypical pathology of endolymphatic sac tumor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang; Liu, Xue-Song; Fang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiu-Hui; Zhang, Yue-Kang

    2014-01-01

    The authors described a case of a patient with co-existing endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) and hemangioblastoma in the posterior cranial fossa, which belonged to a subtype of Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease confirmed by the test of VHL-gene. The signs in this 42-year-old female included intermittent headache and dizziness. Imaging revealed a giant mass in the right cerebellopontine angle (CPA) region and another lesion in the left cerebellar hemisphere. The results of biopsy after two operations confirmed the diagnosis respectively. Both of the tumors were resected totally. Nevertheless, we had to confess the misdiagnosis as vascular tumor instead of ELST at the initial diagnosis because of the rarity of ELST associated with atypical histological characteristics. The purposes we reported this case were to describe the atypical pathological feature of ELST and the mutation of germline VHL not mentioned in previously literature, furthermore, to foster understanding of ELSTs with the avoidance of the similar misdiagnosis as far as possible in future. PMID:24966975

  18. Histological and histochemical analyses of the cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Zhaoping; Wang, Rucai

    2007-10-01

    The secretion function of mantle is closely related to shell formation in some bivalves and gastropods. Up to now, few researches have been reported for cuttlebone formation in the class Cephalopoda. In this study, the structure and secretion function of cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta was analyzed using the histological and histochemical methods. The results showed that high and columnar cells located in sac epithelium, and flat cells existed near the base membrane. A lot of fibroblasts were found in the lateral mantle collective tissue. Some mucus, mucopolysaccharide and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were found in the sac. The ultrastructural characteristics of Quasi-connective-tissue-calcium cells (QCTCC) were observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The relationship between cuttlebone sac secretion function and shell formation was discussed.

  19. Extraovarian pelvic yolk sac tumor: case report and review of published work.

    PubMed

    Pasternack, Tanya; Shaco-Levy, Ruthy; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Piura, Benjamin

    2008-08-01

    Extraovarian pelvic yolk sac tumors are rare, with only nine cases documented previously in the published work. We report a case of extraovarian pelvic yolk sac tumor occurring synchronously with breast carcinoma. The patient underwent resection of the pelvic tumor and hepatic implant, omentectomy and breast lumpectomy with sentinel axillary lymph node biopsy. The uterus and bilateral adnexa were preserved. Postoperative adjuvant therapy for the yolk sac tumor included three cycles of the bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) regimen. This was followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy for the breast carcinoma. It is concluded that in women with extraovarian pelvic yolk sac tumor who wish to preserve childbearing capacity, fertility-saving surgery followed by fertility-preserving cisplatin-based chemotherapy is adequate and appropriate treatment. PMID:18840194

  20. Performance Evaluation of Hybrid SCM/SAC-OCDMA Transmissions System using Dynamic Cyclic Shift Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd, Thanaa Hussein; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan; Radhi, Ibrahim Fadhil; Saad, N. M.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the performance of a hybrid scheme of Subcarrier Multiplexing (SCM) technique in a Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) Optical Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) transmissions system is evaluated. The hybrid system is design using new code family; we call it Dynamic Cyclic Shift (DCS) code. The DCS code design for SAC-OCDMA system to reduce the effect of Multi Access Interference due to it property of low cross-correlation (λC ≤ 1) between code words. In contrast, the SCM scheme shows the ability to increase the data rate of SAC-OCDMA system. Consequently, the hybrid SCM/SAC-OCDMA system could be one promising solution to the high-capacity access network with low cost effective, good flexibility and enhanced security, which makes an attractive candidate for next-generation broadband access network.

  1. Solar assisted heat pump on air collectors: A simulation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiorgas, Michalis; Galatis, Kostas; Tsagouri, Manolis; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Botzios-Valaskakis, Aristotelis

    2010-01-15

    The heating system of the bioclimatic building of the Greek National Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES) comprises two heating plants: the first one includes an air source heat pump, Solar Air Collectors (SACs) and a heat distribution system (comprising a fan coil unit network); the second one is, mainly, a geothermal heat pump unit to cover the ground floor thermal needs. The SAC configuration as well as the fraction of the building heating load covered by the heating plant are assessed in two operation modes; the direct (hot air from the collectors is supplied directly to the heated space) and the indirect mode (warm air from the SAC or its mixture with ambient air is not supplied directly to the heated space but indirectly into the evaporator of the air source heat pump). The technique of the indirect mode of heating aims at maximizing the efficiency of the SAC, saving electrical power consumed by the compressor of the heat pump, and therefore, at optimizing the coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump due to the increased intake of ambient thermal energy by means of the SAC. Results are given for three research objectives: assessment of the heat pump efficiency whether in direct or indirect heating mode; Assessment of the overall heating plant efficiency on a daily or hourly basis; Assessment of the credibility of the suggested simulation model TSAGAIR by comparing its results with the TRNSYS ones. (author)

  2. Transcriptome analysis of biomineralisation-related genes within the pearl sac: host and donor oyster contribution.

    PubMed

    McGinty, E L; Zenger, K R; Jones, D B; Jerry, D R

    2012-03-01

    Cultured pearl production is a complex biological process involving the implantation of a mantle graft from a donor pearl oyster along with a bead nucleus into the gonad of a second recipient host oyster. Therefore, pearl production potentially involves the genetic co-operation of two oyster genomes. Whilst many genes in the mantle tissue have been identified and linked to shell biomineralisation in pearl oysters, few studies have determined which of these biomineralisation genes are expressed in the pearl sac and potentially linked to pearl biomineralisation processes. It is also uncertain whether the host or donor oyster is primarily responsible for the expression of biomineralisation genes governing pearl formation, with only two shell matrix proteins previously identified as being expressed by the donor oyster in the pearl sac. To further our understanding of pearl formation, the pearl sac transcriptome of Pinctada maxima and Pinctada margaritifera was each sequenced to an equivalent 5× genome coverage with putative molluscan biomineralisation-related genes identified. Furthermore, the host and donor contribution of these expressed genes within the pearl sac were quantified using a novel approach whereby two pearl oyster species harbouring unique genomes, P. maxima or P. margaritifera, were used to produce xenografted pearl sacs. A total of 19 putative mollusc biomineralisation genes were identified and found to be expressed in the pearl sacs of P. maxima and P. margaritifera. From this list of expressed genes, species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified within seven of these genes; Linkine, N66, Perline, N44, MSI60, Calreticulin and PfCHS1. Based on the presence/absence of species diagnostic gene transcripts within xenografted pearl sacs, all seven genes were found to be expressed by the species used as the donor oyster. In one individual we also found that the host was expressing Linkine. These results convincingly show for the

  3. Phosphoregulatory protein 14-3-3 facilitates SAC1 transport from the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj Pahuja, Kanika; Wang, Jinzhi; Blagoveshchenskaya, Anastasia; Lim, Lillian; Madhusudhan, M. S.; Mayinger, Peter; Schekman, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Most secretory cargo proteins in eukaryotes are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and actively exported in membrane-bound vesicles that are formed by the cytosolic coat protein complex II (COPII). COPII proteins are assisted by a variety of cargo-specific adaptor proteins required for the concentration and export of secretory proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Adaptor proteins are key regulators of cargo export, and defects in their function may result in disease phenotypes in mammals. Here we report the role of 14-3-3 proteins as a cytosolic adaptor in mediating SAC1 transport in COPII-coated vesicles. Sac1 is a phosphatidyl inositol-4 phosphate (PI4P) lipid phosphatase that undergoes serum dependent translocation between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex and controls cellular PI4P lipid levels. We developed a cell-free COPII vesicle budding reaction to examine SAC1 exit from the ER that requires COPII and at least one additional cytosolic factor, the 14-3-3 protein. Recombinant 14-3-3 protein stimulates the packaging of SAC1 into COPII vesicles and the sorting subunit of COPII, Sec24, interacts with 14-3-3. We identified a minimal sorting motif of SAC1 that is important for 14-3-3 binding and which controls SAC1 export from the ER. This LS motif is part of a 7-aa stretch, RLSNTSP, which is similar to the consensus 14-3-3 binding sequence. Homology models, based on the SAC1 structure from yeast, predict this region to be in the exposed exterior of the protein. Our data suggest a model in which the 14-3-3 protein mediates SAC1 traffic from the ER through direct interaction with a sorting signal and COPII. PMID:26056309

  4. Deposition of anal-sac secretions by captive wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asa, C.S.; Peterson, E.K.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Deposition of anal-sac secretions by captive wolves was investigated by a labelling technique using protein-bound iodine125 and food dye. Wolves deposited secretions on some but not all scats. Adult males, especially the alpha male, deposited anal-sac secretions more frequently while defecating than did females or juveniles. Secretions sometimes also were deposited independently of defecation, suggesting a dual role in communication by these substances.

  5. Sac2/INPP5F is an inositol 4-phosphatase that functions in the endocytic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsu, Fubito; Messa, Mirko; Nández, Ramiro; Czapla, Heather; Zou, Yixiao; Strittmatter, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of inositol phosphatases to endocytic membranes mediates dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2, a phosphoinositide concentrated in the plasma membrane, and prevents its accumulation on endosomes. The importance of the conversion of PI(4,5)P2 to PtdIns during endocytosis is demonstrated by the presence of both a 5-phosphatase and a 4-phosphatase (Sac domain) module in the synaptojanins, endocytic PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases conserved from yeast to humans and the only PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases in yeast. OCRL, another 5-phosphatase that couples endocytosis to PI(4,5)P2 dephosphorylation, lacks a Sac domain. Here we show that Sac2/INPP5F is a PI4P phosphatase that colocalizes with OCRL on endocytic membranes, including vesicles formed by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, macropinosomes, and Rab5 endosomes. An OCRL–Sac2/INPP5F interaction could be demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation and was potentiated by Rab5, whose activity is required to recruit Sac2/INPP5F to endosomes. Sac2/INPP5F and OCRL may cooperate in the sequential dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2 at the 5 and 4 position of inositol in a partnership that mimics that of the two phosphatase modules of synaptojanin. PMID:25869668

  6. Sac1--Vps74 structure reveals a mechanism to terminate phosphoinositide signaling in the Golgi apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yiying; Deng, Yongqiang; Horenkamp, Florian; Reinisch, Karin M.; Burd, Christopher G.

    2014-08-25

    Sac1 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus that controls organelle membrane composition principally via regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate signaling. We present a characterization of the structure of the N-terminal portion of yeast Sac1, containing the conserved Sac1 homology domain, in complex with Vps74, a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase effector and the orthologue of human GOLPH3. The interface involves the N-terminal subdomain of the Sac1 homology domain, within which mutations in the related Sac3/Fig4 phosphatase have been linked to Charcot–Marie–Tooth disorder CMT4J and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Disruption of the Sac1–Vps74 interface results in a broader distribution of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate within the Golgi apparatus and failure to maintain residence of a medial Golgi mannosyltransferase. The analysis prompts a revision of the membrane-docking mechanism for GOLPH3 family proteins and reveals how an effector of phosphoinositide signaling serves a dual function in signal termination.

  7. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Tresguerres, Martin; Barott, Katie L; Barron, Megan E; Roa, Jinae N

    2014-03-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3(-), and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3(-) sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sAC can functionally associate with carbonic anhydrases to act as a de facto sensor of pH and CO2. The two catalytic domains of sAC are related to HCO3(-)-regulated adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, suggesting the cAMP pathway is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensing CO2 levels and/or acid/base conditions. Reports of sAC in aquatic animals are still limited but are rapidly accumulating. In shark gills, sAC senses blood alkalosis and triggers compensatory H(+) absorption. In the intestine of bony fishes, sAC modulates NaCl and water absorption. And in sea urchin sperm, sAC may participate in the initiation of flagellar movement and in the acrosome reaction. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR results reveal that sAC orthologs are present in most animal phyla. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the physiological roles of sAC in aquatic animals and suggests additional functions in which sAC may be involved. PMID:24574382

  8. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals

    PubMed Central

    Tresguerres, Martin; Barott, Katie L.; Barron, Megan E.; Roa, Jinae N.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3−, and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3− sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sAC can functionally associate with carbonic anhydrases to act as a de facto sensor of pH and CO2. The two catalytic domains of sAC are related to HCO3−-regulated adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, suggesting the cAMP pathway is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensing CO2 levels and/or acid/base conditions. Reports of sAC in aquatic animals are still limited but are rapidly accumulating. In shark gills, sAC senses blood alkalosis and triggers compensatory H+ absorption. In the intestine of bony fishes, sAC modulates NaCl and water absorption. And in sea urchin sperm, sAC may participate in the initiation of flagellar movement and in the acrosome reaction. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR results reveal that sAC orthologs are present in most animal phyla. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the physiological roles of sAC in aquatic animals and suggests additional functions in which sAC may be involved. PMID:24574382

  9. In Vivo and Cadaver Studies of the Canalicular/Lacrimal Sac Mucosal Folds

    PubMed Central

    You, Yongsheng; Cao, Jing; Zhang, Xiaogang; Wu, Wencan; Xiao, Tianlin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The study aimed to investigate canalicular/lacrimal sac mucosal folds (CLS-MFs) in vivo and in cadavers in order to explore their functional roles in the lacrimal drainage system. Method. The observations of CLS-MFs in vivo were performed on 16 patients with chronic dacryocystitis after undergoing an endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EE-DCR). The lacrimal sacs and common canaliculi of 19 adult cadavers were dissected. The opening/closing of an orifice and mucosal fold was recorded. All of the specimens were subjected to a histological examination. Results. The upper and lower lacrimal canaliculi in all of the samples united to form a common canaliculus that opened to the lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs were observed in 10 of the 16 patients (62.5%) and 9 of the 19 cadavers (47.4%). The orifices or mucosal folds could be opened or closed when related muscles contracted or relaxed. Histological sections showed a mucosal fold at one side of an orifice. Conclusion. Common canaliculus is the most common type that the canaliculus opens to lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs exist in a certain ratio that can be opened/closed with the movement of the orifices. They may be involved in the drainage of tears or the pathogenesis of acute dacryocystitis or lacrimal sac mucocele. PMID:27242921

  10. Direct Effects of Microalgae and Protists on Herring (Clupea harengus) Yolk Sac Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Illing, Björn; Moyano, Marta; Niemax, Jan; Peck, Myron A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of microalgae (Rhodomonas baltica) and heterotrophic protists (Oxyrrhis marina) on the daily growth, activity, condition and feeding success of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae from hatch, through the end of the endogenous (yolk sac) period. Yolk sac larvae were reared in the presence and absence of microplankton and, each day, groups of larvae were provided access to copepods. Larvae reared with microalgae and protists exhibited precocious (2 days earlier) and ≥ 60% increased feeding incidence on copepods compared to larvae reared in only seawater (SW). In the absence and presence of microalgae and protists, life span and growth trajectories of yolk sac larvae were similar and digestive enzyme activity (trypsin) and nutritional condition (RNA-DNA ratio) markedly declined in all larvae directly after yolk sac depletion. Thus, microplankton promoted early feeding but was not sufficient to alter life span and growth during the yolk sac phase. Given the importance of early feeding, field programs should place greater emphasis on the protozooplankton-ichthyoplankton link to better understand match-mismatch dynamics and bottom-up drivers of year class success in marine fish. PMID:26035592

  11. Developmental expression of otoconin-22 in the bullfrog endolymphatic sac and inner ear.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Onda, Tomoaki; Hidaka, Yoshie; Yajima, Shinya; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2004-05-01

    In amphibians, calcium carbonate crystals are present in the endolymphatic sac and the inner ear. The formation of these crystals is considered to be facilitated by a protein called otoconin-22. We examined the spatial and temporal expression of otoconin-22 during the development of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) using RT-PCR, in situ hybridization (ISH), and immunofluorescence techniques. By RT-PCR, otoconin-22 mRNA was first detected in embryos at Shumway stage 20, and this expression pattern continues in late stages. The first otoconin-22 mRNA-positive reaction was detected in stage 22 embryos in the placode of the endolymphatic sac. Otoconin-22 protein was observed in the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac at stage 24. On the other hand, a whole-mount ISH technique showed the first expression of otoconin-22 mRNA in the inner ear, in addition to the endolymphatic sac, at the mid-phase of Shumway stage 25. We discuss the role of otoconin-22 in the formation of calcium carbonate crystals in the endolymphatic sac and inner ear. PMID:15100243

  12. Pollen tubes introduce Raspberry bushy dwarf virus into embryo sacs during fertilization processes.

    PubMed

    Isogai, Masamichi; Yoshida, Tetu; Shimura, Takuya; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-10-01

    We developed a fertilization method in which pollen tubes entered into embryo sacs without any need to contact surrounding female sporophytic cells by using Torenia fournieri (Torenia) plants under the condition of hindering movement of the virus from a stigma, which is the first infection site leading to systemic infection. When RBDV-infected Torenia pollen grains were used for the developed fertilization method, the virus was transmitted to the seeds by pollen tubes germinating from them. On the other hand, no seeds were infected with the virus when Torenia plants were pollinated with healthy Torenia pollen grains in combination with RBDV-infected raspberry pollen grains, which caused the virus infection in the stigma by penetration of their pollen tubes arrested in its style. Our results indicate that vertical transmission of RBDV by pollen occurs in the transport of the virus into embryo sacs by pollen tubes reaching the embryo sacs. PMID:26176979

  13. A New Technique for Reduction the Phase Induced Intensity Noise in SAC-OCDMA Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd, Thanaa Hussein; Aljunid, Syed Alwee; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan

    2011-12-01

    A new code for reduction the phase induced intensity noise has been presented. The new code is proposed for Spectral Amplitude-Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Accesses (SAC-OCDMA). This new code family we call it Dynamic Cyclic Shift (DCS) code. The DCS code reduced the effect of Multi Access Interference (MAI) due to it is the property of variable cross correlation. We find that the performance of the DCS code is a batter than other SAC-OCDMA codes such as; Random Diagonal (RD) code, Modified Quadratic Congruence (MQC) code and Modified Frequency Hopping (MFH) code. Through the mathematical calculation and simulation analysis, for the bit-error rate of DCS code is significantly better than other SAC-OCDMA codes, the effect of Phase Induced Intensity Noise is reduced. In addition, proofof-principle simulations of 10 Gb/s for 20 km have been successfully demonstrated and achieved low BER compared to the other codes.

  14. A Rare Case of Primary Anterior Mediastinal Yolk Sac Tumor in an Elderly Adult Male

    PubMed Central

    Nakhla, Sammy G.; Sundararajan, Srinath

    2016-01-01

    Mediastinal germ cell tumors are extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGGCTs) commonly seen in children and young adults. They are more common in men. Clinically they are classified as teratomas, seminomas, and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Primary mediastinal yolk sac neoplasm is an extremely rare tumor. We present here a very rare case of primary yolk sac tumor of the anterior mediastinum in a 73-year-old male. Mediastinal germ cell tumors have a worse prognosis than gonadal germ cell tumors. Chemotherapy followed by adjuvant surgery improves overall response in EGGCTs. However, comorbidities can render treatment with chemotherapy and surgery challenging in elderly patients. PMID:27144043

  15. Experimental demonstration of variable weight SAC-OCDMA system for QoS differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyedzadeh, Saleh; Mahdiraji, Ghafour Amouzad; Sahbudin, Ratna Kalos Zakiah; Abas, Ahmad Fauzi; Anas, Siti Barirah Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    In this paper the experimental and simulation results of variable-weight spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (VW-SAC-OCDMA) system is demonstrated. In the proposed system, three users with weights of 6, 4 and 2 each operating at data rate of 1.25 Gb/s represent video, data and voice services, respectively. Results show that for back-to-back system minimum average power of -20 dBm per chip is required to maintain the acceptable performance. Transmission up to 60 km of fiber is demonstrated. Using mathematical approximation the capacity of VW-SAC-OCDMA system is demonstrated.

  16. 48 CFR 301.603-74 - Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. 301.603-74 Section 301.603-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations..., Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 301.603-74 Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. To maintain FAC-C certification, all warranted Contracting Officers, regardless of series,...

  17. 48 CFR 301.603-74 - Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. 301.603-74 Section 301.603-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations..., Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 301.603-74 Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. To maintain FAC-C certification, all warranted Contracting Officers, regardless of series,...

  18. Modeling the Rate-Dependent Durability of Reduced-Ag SAC Interconnects for Area Array Packages Under Torsion Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Vikram; Menon, Sandeep; Osterman, Michael; Pecht, Michael G.

    2013-08-01

    Solder durability models frequently focus on the applied strain range; however, the rate of applied loading, or strain rate, is also important. In this study, an approach to incorporate strain rate dependency into durability estimation for solder interconnects is examined. Failure data were collected for SAC105 solder ball grid arrays assembled with SAC305 solder that were subjected to displacement-controlled torsion loads. Strain-rate-dependent (Johnson-Cook model) and strain-rate-independent elastic-plastic properties were used to model the solders in finite-element simulation. Test data were then used to extract damage model constants for the reduced-Ag SAC solder. A generalized Coffin-Manson damage model was used to estimate the durability. The mechanical fatigue durability curve for reduced-silver SAC solder was generated and compared with durability curves for SAC305 and Sn-Pb from the literature.

  19. Effects of granulation on organic acid metabolism and its relation to mineral elements in Citrus grandis juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-You; Wang, Ping; Qi, Yi-Ping; Zhou, Chen-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Liao, Xin-Yan; Wang, Liu-Qing; Zhu, Dong-Huang; Chen, Li-Song

    2014-02-15

    We investigated the effects of granulation on organic acid metabolism and its relation to mineral elements in 'Guanximiyou' pummelo (Citrus grandis) juice sacs. Granulated juice sacs had decreased concentrations of citrate and isocitrate, thus lowering juice sac acidity. By contrast, malate concentration was higher in granulated juice sacs than in normal ones. The reduction in citrate concentration might be caused by increased degradation, as indicated by enhanced aconitase activity, whilst the increase in malate concentration might be caused by increased biosynthesis, as indicated by enhanced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). Real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the activities of most acid-metabolizing enzymes were regulated at the transcriptional level, whilst post-translational modifications might influence the PEPC activity. Granulation led to increased accumulation of mineral elements (especially phosphorus, magnesium, sulphur, zinc and copper) in juice sacs, which might be involved in the incidence of granulation in pummelo fruits. PMID:24128573

  20. 2 CFR Appendix X to Part 200 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) X Appendix X to Part 200 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and... PRINCIPLES, AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Pt. 200, App. X Appendix X to Part 200—Data...

  1. Bleomycin-Induced Flagellate Erythema in a Patient Diagnosed with Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Boussios, Stergios; Moschetta, Michele; McLachlan, Jennifer; Banerjee, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Flagellate linear hyperpigmentation can rarely be caused by the chemotherapy agent, bleomycin. Herein, we describe the case of a 20-year-old woman treated with bleomycin for an ovarian yolk sac tumor and review the prominent features of this form of dermatitis. PMID:26798532

  2. Late Sac Behavior after Endovascular Aneurysm Repair for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Masahiro; Onohara, Toshihiro; Okamoto, Minoru; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Shimoe, Yasushi; Yamashita, Masafumi; Takahashi, Toshiki; Kishimoto, Jyunji; Mizuno, Akihiro; Kei, Junichi; Nakai, Mikizou; Sakaki, Masayuki; Suhara, Hitoshi; Kasashima, Fuminori; Endo, Masamitsu; Nishina, Takeshi; Furuyama, Tadashi; Kawasaki, Masakazu; Iwata, Keiji; Marumoto, Akira; Urata, Yasuhisa; Sato, Katsutoshi; Ryugo, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sac behavior after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is considered as a surrogate for the risk of late rupture. The purpose of the study is to assess the sac behavior of AAAs after EVAR. Methods and Results: Late sac enlargement (LSE) (≥5 mm) and late sac shrinkage (LSS) (≥5 mm) were analyzed in 589 consecutive patients who were registered at 14 national centers in Japan. The proportions of patients who had LSE at 1, 3 and 5 years were 2.6% ± 0.7%, 10.0% ± 1.6% and 19.0% ± 2.9%. The proportions of patients who had LSS at 1, 3 and 5 years were 50.1% ± 0.7%, 59.2% ± 2.3% and 61.7% ± 2.7%. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified two variables as a risk factor for LSE; persistent endoleak (Odds ratio 9.56 (4.84–19.49), P <0.001) and low platelet count (Odds ratio 0.92 (0.86–0.99), P = 0.0224). The leading cause of endoleak in patients with LSE was type II. Conclusions: The incidence of LSE is not negligible over 5 year period. Patients with persistent endoleak and/or low platelet count should carefully be observed for LSE. Clinical Trial Registration: UMIN-CTR (UMIN000008345). PMID:27375803

  3. 48 CFR 301.603-72 - FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements. 301.603-72 Section 301.603-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority,...

  4. 48 CFR 301.603-72 - FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements. 301.603-72 Section 301.603-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 301.603-72 FAC-C and HHS...

  5. Bleomycin-Induced Flagellate Erythema in a Patient Diagnosed with Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor.

    PubMed

    Boussios, Stergios; Moschetta, Michele; McLachlan, Jennifer; Banerjee, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Flagellate linear hyperpigmentation can rarely be caused by the chemotherapy agent, bleomycin. Herein, we describe the case of a 20-year-old woman treated with bleomycin for an ovarian yolk sac tumor and review the prominent features of this form of dermatitis. PMID:26798532

  6. Ovarian mixed germ cell tumor with yolk sac and teratomatous components in a dog.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Nicholas A; Manivel, J Carlos; Olson, Erik J

    2013-05-01

    Mixed germ cell tumors of the ovary have rarely been reported in veterinary species. A 3-year-old intact female Labrador Retriever dog was presented for lethargy, abdominal distention, and a midabdominal mass. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (23 cm in diameter) left ovarian tumor and multiple small (2-3 cm in diameter) pale tan masses on the peritoneum and abdominal surface of the diaphragm. Histological examination of the left ovary revealed a mixed germ cell tumor with a yolk sac component with rare Schiller-Duval bodies and a teratomatous component comprised primarily of neural differentiation. The abdominal metastases were solely comprised of the yolk sac component. The yolk sac component was diffusely immunopositive for cytokeratin with scattered cells reactive for α-fetoprotein and placental alkaline phosphatase. Within the teratomatous component, the neuropil was diffusely immunopositive for S100, neuron-specific enolase, and neurofilaments with a few glial fibrillary acidic protein immunopositive cells. Ovarian germ cell tumors may be pure and consist of only 1 germ cell element or may be mixed and include more than 1 germ cell element, such as teratoma and yolk sac tumor. PMID:23604259

  7. 48 CFR 301.603-72 - FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to employees for the first time at a department or agency.) (c) The FAC-C certification is based on... Training and Certification Handbook. (d) HHS SAC certification is based on three sets of requirements... the HHS Contracting Workforce Training and Certification Handbook....

  8. 48 CFR 301.603-72 - FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to employees for the first time at a department or agency.) (c) The FAC-C certification is based on... Training and Certification Handbook. (d) HHS SAC certification is based on three sets of requirements... the HHS Contracting Workforce Training and Certification Handbook....

  9. 48 CFR 301.603-72 - FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to employees for the first time at a department or agency.) (c) The FAC-C certification is based on... Training and Certification Handbook. (d) HHS SAC certification is based on three sets of requirements... the HHS Contracting Workforce Training and Certification Handbook....

  10. An observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) for the aquarius/SAC-D soil moisture product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Observing System Simulation Experiment for the Aquarius/SAC-D mission has been developed for assessing the accuracy of soil moisture retrievals from passive L-band remote sensing. The implementation of the OSSE is based on: a 1-km land surface model over the Red-Arkansas River Basin, a forward mi...

  11. Tissue-resident macrophages originate from yolk-sac-derived erythro-myeloid progenitors.

    PubMed

    Gomez Perdiguero, Elisa; Klapproth, Kay; Schulz, Christian; Busch, Katrin; Azzoni, Emanuele; Crozet, Lucile; Garner, Hannah; Trouillet, Celine; de Bruijn, Marella F; Geissmann, Frederic; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2015-02-26

    Most haematopoietic cells renew from adult haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), however, macrophages in adult tissues can self-maintain independently of HSCs. Progenitors with macrophage potential in vitro have been described in the yolk sac before emergence of HSCs, and fetal macrophages can develop independently of Myb, a transcription factor required for HSC, and can persist in adult tissues. Nevertheless, the origin of adult macrophages and the qualitative and quantitative contributions of HSC and putative non-HSC-derived progenitors are still unclear. Here we show in mice that the vast majority of adult tissue-resident macrophages in liver (Kupffer cells), brain (microglia), epidermis (Langerhans cells) and lung (alveolar macrophages) originate from a Tie2(+) (also known as Tek) cellular pathway generating Csf1r(+) erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs) distinct from HSCs. EMPs develop in the yolk sac at embryonic day (E) 8.5, migrate and colonize the nascent fetal liver before E10.5, and give rise to fetal erythrocytes, macrophages, granulocytes and monocytes until at least E16.5. Subsequently, HSC-derived cells replace erythrocytes, granulocytes and monocytes. Kupffer cells, microglia and Langerhans cells are only marginally replaced in one-year-old mice, whereas alveolar macrophages may be progressively replaced in ageing mice. Our fate-mapping experiments identify, in the fetal liver, a sequence of yolk sac EMP-derived and HSC-derived haematopoiesis, and identify yolk sac EMPs as a common origin for tissue macrophages. PMID:25470051

  12. Regulation of ascorbic acid metabolism by blue LED light irradiation in citrus juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, the effects of red and blue LED lights on the accumulation of ascorbic acid (AsA) were investigated in the juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin, Valencia orange, and Lisbon lemon. The results showed that the blue LED light treatment effectively increased the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties, whereas the red LED light treatment did not. By increasing the blue LED light intensity, the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties accumulated more AsA. Moreover, continuous irradiation with blue LED light was more effective than pulsed irradiation for increasing the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties. Gene expression results showed that the modulation of AsA accumulation by blue LED light was highly regulated at the transcription level. The up-regulation of AsA biosynthetic genes (CitVTC1, CitVTC2, CitVTC4, and CitGLDH), AsA regeneration genes (CitMDAR1, CitMDAR2, and CitDHAR) and two GSH-producing genes (CitGR and CitchGR) contributed to these increases in the AsA content in the three citrus varieties. PMID:25711821

  13. Cells of the connective tissue differentiate and migrate into pollen sacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. C. M.; Wijesekara, Kolitha B.

    2002-01-01

    In angiosperms, archesporial cells in the anther primordium undergo meiosis to form haploid pollen, the sole occupants of anther sacs. Anther sacs are held together by a matrix of parenchyma cells, the connective tissue. Cells of the connective tissue are not known to differentiate. We report the differentiation of parenchyma cells in the connective tissue of two Gordonia species into pollen-like structures (described as pseudopollen), which migrate into the anther sacs before dehiscence. Pollen and pseudopollen were distinguishable by morphology and staining. Pollen were tricolpate to spherical while pseudopollen were less rigid and transparent with a ribbed surface. Both types were different in size, shape, staining and surface architecture. The ratio of the number of pseudopollen to pollen was 1:3. During ontogeny in the connective tissue, neither cell division nor tetrad formation was observed and hence pseudopollen were presumed to be diploid. Only normal pollen germinated on a germination medium. Fixed preparations in time seemed to indicate that pseudopollen migrate from the connective tissue into the anther sac.

  14. Entire lacrimal sac within the ethmoid sinus: outcomes of powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad Javed; Singh, Swati; Naik, Milind N

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to report the outcomes of powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (PEnDCR) in patients with lacrimal sac within the sinus. Materials and methods Retrospective analysis was performed on all patients who underwent PEnDCR and were intraoperatively documented to have complete lacrimal sac in sinus. Data collected included demographics, clinical presentations, associated lacrimal and nasal anomalies, intraoperative findings, intraoperative guidance, complications, postoperative ostium behavior, and anatomical and functional success. A minimum follow-up of 6 months postsurgery was considered for final analysis. Results A total of 17 eyes of 15 patients underwent PEnDCR using standard protocols, but with additional intraoperative guidance where required and careful maneuvering in the ethmoid sinus. The mean age of the patients was 37.2 (range 17–60) years. Of the unilateral cases, 69% (nine of 13) showed left-side predisposition; 80% of patients showed regurgitation on pressure over the lacrimal sac area. Associated lacrimal and nasal anomalies were observed in 13.3% (two of 15) and 40% (six of 15), respectively. At a mean follow-up of 6.6 months, anatomical and functional success were observed in 93.3% (14 of 15). One patient showed failure secondary to cicatricial closure of the ostium. Conclusion An entire sac within an ethmoid sinus poses a surgical challenge. Good sinus-surgery training, thorough knowledge of endoscopic anatomy, careful maneuvering, and use of intraoperative navigation guidance result in good outcomes with PEnDCR. PMID:27462137

  15. Experiences with a sac-type artificial heart

    PubMed Central

    Morris, David T.; Couves, Cecil M.

    1971-01-01

    A total replacement artificial heart is described having in vitro performance satisfying human requirements up to and including moderate work. The in vitro design has been modified to make its implantation into the chests of experimental animals technically feasible. The heart has been tested in vivo for up to six hours, and has been found to provide the experimental animals with adequate blood flow and pressures. Preliminary tests have shown major problems of air embolism and red blood cell hemolysis. The heart design and technique of implantation are undergoing further improvement. Performance will be more comprehensively examined with the use of larger experimental animals in order more accurately to evaluate the heart's potential. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:5112120

  16. FSI Simulations of Pulse Wave Propagation in Human Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: The Effects of Sac Geometry and Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Li, Han; Lin, Kexin; Shahmirzadi, Danial

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the effects of geometry and stiffness of aneurysms on the pulse wave velocity (PWV) and propagation in fluid–solid interaction (FSI) simulations of arterial pulsatile flow. Spatiotemporal maps of both the wall displacement and fluid velocity were generated in order to obtain the pulse wave propagation through fluid and solid media, and to examine the interactions between the two waves. The results indicate that the presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac and variations in the sac modulus affect the propagation of the pulse waves both qualitatively (eg, patterns of change of forward and reflective waves) and quantitatively (eg, decreasing of PWV within the sac and its increase beyond the sac as the sac stiffness increases). The sac region is particularly identified on the spatiotemporal maps with a region of disruption in the wave propagation with multiple short-traveling forward/reflected waves, which is caused by the change in boundary conditions within the saccular region. The change in sac stiffness, however, is more pronounced on the wall displacement spatiotemporal maps compared to those of fluid velocity. We conclude that the existence of the sac can be identified based on the solid and fluid pulse waves, while the sac properties can also be estimated. This study demonstrates the initial findings in numerical simulations of FSI dynamics during arterial pulsations that can be used as reference for experimental and in vivo studies. Future studies are needed to demonstrate the feasibility of the method in identifying very mild sacs, which cannot be detected from medical imaging, where the material property degradation exists under early disease initiation. PMID:27478394

  17. FSI Simulations of Pulse Wave Propagation in Human Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: The Effects of Sac Geometry and Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Lin, Kexin; Shahmirzadi, Danial

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the effects of geometry and stiffness of aneurysms on the pulse wave velocity (PWV) and propagation in fluid-solid interaction (FSI) simulations of arterial pulsatile flow. Spatiotemporal maps of both the wall displacement and fluid velocity were generated in order to obtain the pulse wave propagation through fluid and solid media, and to examine the interactions between the two waves. The results indicate that the presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac and variations in the sac modulus affect the propagation of the pulse waves both qualitatively (eg, patterns of change of forward and reflective waves) and quantitatively (eg, decreasing of PWV within the sac and its increase beyond the sac as the sac stiffness increases). The sac region is particularly identified on the spatiotemporal maps with a region of disruption in the wave propagation with multiple short-traveling forward/reflected waves, which is caused by the change in boundary conditions within the saccular region. The change in sac stiffness, however, is more pronounced on the wall displacement spatiotemporal maps compared to those of fluid velocity. We conclude that the existence of the sac can be identified based on the solid and fluid pulse waves, while the sac properties can also be estimated. This study demonstrates the initial findings in numerical simulations of FSI dynamics during arterial pulsations that can be used as reference for experimental and in vivo studies. Future studies are needed to demonstrate the feasibility of the method in identifying very mild sacs, which cannot be detected from medical imaging, where the material property degradation exists under early disease initiation. PMID:27478394

  18. Primitive Fitting Based on the Efficient multiBaySAC Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Zhizhong; Li, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Although RANSAC is proven to be robust, the original RANSAC algorithm selects hypothesis sets at random, generating numerous iterations and high computational costs because many hypothesis sets are contaminated with outliers. This paper presents a conditional sampling method, multiBaySAC (Bayes SAmple Consensus), that fuses the BaySAC algorithm with candidate model parameters statistical testing for unorganized 3D point clouds to fit multiple primitives. This paper first presents a statistical testing algorithm for a candidate model parameter histogram to detect potential primitives. As the detected initial primitives were optimized using a parallel strategy rather than a sequential one, every data point in the multiBaySAC algorithm was assigned to multiple prior inlier probabilities for initial multiple primitives. Each prior inlier probability determined the probability that a point belongs to the corresponding primitive. We then implemented in parallel a conditional sampling method: BaySAC. With each iteration of the hypothesis testing process, hypothesis sets with the highest inlier probabilities were selected and verified for the existence of multiple primitives, revealing the fitting for multiple primitives. Moreover, the updated version of the initial probability was implemented based on a memorable form of Bayes’ Theorem, which describes the relationship between prior and posterior probabilities of a data point by determining whether the hypothesis set to which a data point belongs is correct. The proposed approach was tested using real and synthetic point clouds. The results show that the proposed multiBaySAC algorithm can achieve a high computational efficiency (averaging 34% higher than the efficiency of the sequential RANSAC method) and fitting accuracy (exhibiting good performance in the intersection of two primitives), whereas the sequential RANSAC framework clearly suffers from over- and under-segmentation problems. Future work will aim at further

  19. Gonadoblastoma and hepatoid and endometrioid-like yolk sac tumor: an update.

    PubMed

    Ulbright, Thomas M

    2014-07-01

    Dr Robert E. Scully greatly advanced our understanding of germ cell neoplasia to the extent that it is difficult to narrow the discussion of his contributions to this topic so that it can be covered in a brief article. This article accordingly focuses on some of the recent developments concerning 2 of his major contributions in this area-the gonadoblastoma (GB) and variant morphologies of yolk sac tumor. GB was defined by Dr Scully in 1953 and its features elaborated in detail by him in 1970. This neoplasm occurred in young patients who often displayed phenotypic sex ambiguities and frequently presented with primary amenorrhea. It was bilateral in 40%, and consisted of circumscribed nests of small sex cord cells and germinoma-like cells admixed with round deposits of eosinophilic, hyaline, often calcified material. These nests were set in a spindle cell gonadal stroma with Leydig-like or lutein-like cells. Because of his work we now understand that this precursor to invasive germ cell tumors occurs in patients with a specific form of disorder of sex development, namely gonadal dysgenesis, and only in those who have a particular portion of the Y chromosome, the GB locus/TSPY gene, within the gonadal tissue. An essential element to the development of GB appears to be a defect in the genetic pathway that leads to the development of Sertoli cells. Improperly formed Sertoli cells predispose to "delayed maturation" of the gonocytes of the gonad and predispose them to undergo malignant transformation. "Undifferentiated gonadal tissue" has been proposed as the precursor to the development of GB and consists of an unorganized mixture of apparently non-neoplastic germ cells, germ cells with delayed maturation, and neoplastic germ cells with sex cord cells and gonadal stroma. Two variant morphologies of yolk sac tumor were also recognized by Dr Scully. In the hepatoid variant features similar to hepatocellular carcinoma occurred, although primitive glandular foci and lack of

  20. New development of the yolk sac theory in diabetic embryopathy: molecular mechanism and link to structural birth defects.

    PubMed

    Dong, Daoyin; Reece, E Albert; Lin, Xue; Wu, Yanqing; AriasVillela, Natalia; Yang, Peixin

    2016-02-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus is a significant risk factor for structural birth defects, including congenital heart defects and neural tube defects. With the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in women of childbearing age, diabetes mellitus-induced birth defects have become an increasingly significant public health problem. Maternal diabetes mellitus in vivo and high glucose in vitro induce yolk sac injuries by damaging the morphologic condition of cells and altering the dynamics of organelles. The yolk sac vascular system is the first system to develop during embryogenesis; therefore, it is the most sensitive to hyperglycemia. The consequences of yolk sac injuries include impairment of nutrient transportation because of vasculopathy. Although the functional relationship between yolk sac vasculopathy and structural birth defects has not yet been established, a recent study reveals that the quality of yolk sac vasculature is related inversely to embryonic malformation rates. Studies in animal models have uncovered key molecular intermediates of diabetic yolk sac vasculopathy, which include hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, and its inhibitor thioredoxin-1, c-Jun-N-terminal kinases, nitric oxide, and nitric oxide synthase. Yolk sac vasculopathy is also associated with abnormalities in arachidonic acid and myo-inositol. Dietary supplementation with fatty acids that restore lipid levels in the yolk sac lead to a reduction in diabetes mellitus-induced malformations. Although the role of the human yolk in embryogenesis is less extensive than in rodents, nevertheless, human embryonic vasculogenesis is affected negatively by maternal diabetes mellitus. Mechanistic studies have identified potential therapeutic targets for future intervention against yolk sac vasculopathy, birth defects, and other complications associated with diabetic pregnancies. PMID:26432466

  1. Plant-derived SAC domain of PAR-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) exhibits growth inhibitory effects in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Shayan; Jain, Sumeet; Rai, Vineeta; Sahoo, Dipak K.; Raha, Sumita; Suklabaidya, Sujit; Senapati, Shantibhusan; Rangnekar, Vivek M.; Maiti, Indu B.; Dey, Nrisingha

    2015-01-01

    The gene Par-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) was originally identified in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis and its product Par-4 showed cancer specific pro-apoptotic activity. Particularly, the SAC domain of Par-4 (SAC-Par-4) selectively kills cancer cells leaving normal cells unaffected. The therapeutic significance of bioactive SAC-Par-4 is enormous in cancer biology; however, its large scale production is still a matter of concern. Here we report the production of SAC-Par-4-GFP fusion protein coupled to translational enhancer sequence (5′ AMV) and apoplast signal peptide (aTP) in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN plants under the control of a unique recombinant promoter M24. Transgene integration was confirmed by genomic DNA PCR, Southern and Northern blotting, Real-time PCR, and Nuclear run-on assays. Results of Western blot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP protein and it was as high as 0.15% of total soluble protein. In addition, we found that targeting of plant recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP to the apoplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was essential for the stability of plant recombinant protein in comparison to the bacterial derived SAC-Par-4. Deglycosylation analysis demonstrated that ER-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP-SEKDEL undergoes O-linked glycosylation unlike apoplast-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP. Furthermore, various in vitro studies like mammalian cells proliferation assay (MTT), apoptosis induction assays, and NF-κB suppression suggested the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of plant-derived SAC-Par-4-GFP against multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Additionally, pre-treatment of MAT-LyLu prostate cancer cells with purified SAC-Par-4-GFP significantly delayed the onset of tumor in a syngeneic rat prostate cancer model. Taken altogether, we proclaim that plant made SAC-Par-4 may become a useful alternate therapy for effectively alleviating cancer in the new era. PMID:26500666

  2. Bilateral ovarian mixed epithelial adenocarcinoma in a postmenopausal woman with unilateral ovarian yolk sac tumor component.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qin; Chen, Xiaoduan

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) usually occur in the young women and have been rarely documented in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The different age distribution supposes their complex nomenclature and histogenesis. We report a case of bilateral ovarian epithelial carcinoma with right ovarian YST component in a postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated by surgery and adjuvant combination chemotherapy of taxol and carboplatin for 6 courses and has been clinically free of tumor for 6 months. The correlation between the YST and the epithelial components always confuse us. Ovarian yolk sac tumors are not a discrete entity and represent a multifaceted group of neoplasms. The conjunction of multi antibodies help in differential diagnoses. In addition to a thorough case description, the literature concerning this entity is reviewed and discussed. PMID:25550883

  3. Gallbladder herniation into the lesser sac through the foramen of Winslow: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Numata, Koji; Kunishi, Yosuke; Kurakami, Yuichi; Tsuchida, Kazuhito; Yoshida, Tatsuya; Osaragi, Tomohiko; Yoneyama, Katsuya; Kasahara, Akio; Yamamoto, Yuuji; Yukawa, Norio; Rino, Yasushi; Masuda, Munetaka

    2013-10-01

    We report a case of gallbladder hernia into the lesser sac through the foramen of Winslow. The patient was a 90-year-old woman, admitted to hospital with obstructive jaundice. Computed tomography (CT) showed a left-deviated and remarkably enlarged gallbladder dragging the liver, and a dilated intrahepatic bile duct. The deviated gallbladder was thought to compress the common bile duct, causing the obstruction. Laparoscopic examination revealed gallbladder herniation into the lesser sac without a floating gallbladder; thus, we performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Herniation of the gallbladder is the rarest of all internal hernias and most reported cases have involved a floating gallbladder. The case we report here is therefore considered especially unusual. PMID:23338597

  4. Development of SAC-OCDMA in FSO with multi-wavelength laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddasi, Majid; Mamdoohi, Ghazaleh; Muhammad Noor, Ahmad Shukri; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Ahmad Anas, Siti Barirah

    2015-12-01

    We propose and demonstrate a free space optical network, based on spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA) with a multi-wavelength laser source. A detailed theoretical analysis that represents the characteristics of SAC-OCDMA system was developed. In addition to the impact of turbulence, influences of several system noises such as optical beat interference (OBI), relative intensity noise, and receiver noises, have been studied. From the numerical results, it was found that the influence of OBI is more dominant, especially at higher received power. Two different codes, namely, modified quadratic congruence and modified double weight, are then compared with the latter which provides better performance. A transmission distance of 2.6 km with 10 users and an 8 cm aperture diameter is advisable whenever the turbulence is moderate. These results can be improved when a beam divergence smaller than 1 mrad is utilized.

  5. Lacrimal sac compression by an anterior ethmoidal mucocele presenting as a late complication of dacryocystorhinostomy

    PubMed Central

    Olaleye, Oladejo; Salleh, Shizalia; David, Don; Bickerton, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This was an unusual case of lacrimal sac compression by an anterior ethmoidal mucocele presenting as a late complication of a dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) that was jointly managed by ophthalmic and ENT surgeons via an endoscopic approach. A 22-year-old lady presented with a 12-month history of a painless lump in her left medial canthus area and a 6-month history of left intermittent epiphora. She had a DCR when she was 15 years old with initial symptom control until recent recurrence. There were no nasal or other eye symptoms. The rest of the eye and nasendoscopic examinations were unremarkable. An MRI scan suggested a dacryocystocele; however, a further CT scan revealed a 1.6 cm cystic lesion consistent with an anterior ethmoidal mucocele compressing the lacrimal sac. An endoscopic left anterior ethmoidectomy with marsupialisation of the mucocele was performed in combination with an endoscopic DCR. She made good post-operative recovery. PMID:24964413

  6. A Rare Case of Endolymphatic Sac Tumour: Clinicopathologic Study and Surgical Management

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Emanuele; Amadori, Maurizio; Armato, Enrico; Pavon, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a rare neoplasm arising from the intrapetrous portion of the endolymphatic sac, either isolated or in association with the von Hippel-Lindau disease. We report a sporadic case of ELST with an overview of the literature and a discussion of clinic-radiological, histopathologic, and surgical findings. Case Report. A young woman presented with a progressive hearing loss in the left ear. Otoscopy showed a reddish, bleeding hypotympanic mass. CT demonstrated an expansile lytic mastoid lesion extending to the middle ear, with bone erosion. MRI confirmed a lesion of increased signal on T1-weighted sequences. The patient underwent a canal wall-down tympanoplasty with complete removal of the tumor. Histopathology was consistent with a papillary ELST. Immunohistochemistry was positive for cytokeratin and chromogranin A. Conclusion. This paper highlights the rarity of ELST, the need for an accurate neuroradiological and immunohistochemical study at the early stages, and the timeliness of surgical treatment. PMID:24991442

  7. Low-grade adenocarcinoma of endolymphatic sac mimicking jugular paraganglioma at clinical and neuroradiological examination.

    PubMed

    Roncaroli, F; Giangaspero, F; Piana, S; Andreoli, A; Ricci, R

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of low-grade adenocarcinoma of endolymphatic sac origin mimicking jugular paraganglioma at clinical and neuroradiological examination. The lesion occurred in a 72-year-old male who presented with a long-standing history of right-sided hearing loss and a few-week history of progressive facial nerve palsy and right aural pain. At histology, the tumor was composed of pseudoglandular spaces with papillary infoldings. Lumina contained colloid-like material. The lesion was surgically removed with suboccipital approach following endoarterial embolization. This study emphasizes that low-grade adenocarcinomas of endolymphatic sac origin extending to posterior cranial fossa and jugular paraganglioma may be indistinguishable preoperatively at clinical and radiological levels. PMID:9323449

  8. Intrinsic Levanase Activity of Bacillus subtilis 168 Levansucrase (SacB).

    PubMed

    Méndez-Lorenzo, Luz; Porras-Domínguez, Jaime R; Raga-Carbajal, Enrique; Olvera, Clarita; Rodríguez-Alegría, Maria Elena; Carrillo-Nava, Ernesto; Costas, Miguel; López Munguía, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Levansucrase catalyzes the synthesis of fructose polymers through the transfer of fructosyl units from sucrose to a growing fructan chain. Levanase activity of Bacillus subtilis levansucrase has been described since the very first publications dealing with the mechanism of levan synthesis. However, there is a lack of qualitative and quantitative evidence regarding the importance of the intrinsic levan hydrolysis of B. subtilis levansucrase and its role in the levan synthesis process. Particularly, little attention has been paid to the long-term hydrolysis products, including its participation in the final levan molecules distribution. Here, we explored the hydrolytic and transferase activity of the B. subtilis levansucrase (SacB) when levans produced by the same enzyme are used as substrate. We found that levan is hydrolyzed through a first order exo-type mechanism, which is limited to a conversion extent of around 30% when all polymer molecules reach a structure no longer suitable to SacB hydrolysis. To characterize the reaction, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) was employed and the evolution of the hydrolysis products profile followed by HPLC, GPC and HPAEC-PAD. The ITC measurements revealed a second step, taking place at the end of the reaction, most probably resulting from disproportionation of accumulated fructo-oligosaccharides. As levanase, levansucrase may use levan as substrate and, through a fructosyl-enzyme complex, behave as a hydrolytic enzyme or as a transferase, as demonstrated when glucose and fructose are added as acceptors. These reactions result in a wide variety of oligosaccharides that are also suitable acceptors for fructo-oligosaccharide synthesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that SacB in the presence of levan and glucose, through blastose and sucrose synthesis, results in the same fructooligosaccharides profile as that observed in sucrose reactions. We conclude that SacB has an intrinsic levanase activity that contributes to the final

  9. Intrinsic Levanase Activity of Bacillus subtilis 168 Levansucrase (SacB)

    PubMed Central

    Raga-Carbajal, Enrique; Olvera, Clarita; Rodríguez-Alegría, Maria Elena; Carrillo-Nava, Ernesto; Costas, Miguel; López Munguía, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Levansucrase catalyzes the synthesis of fructose polymers through the transfer of fructosyl units from sucrose to a growing fructan chain. Levanase activity of Bacillus subtilis levansucrase has been described since the very first publications dealing with the mechanism of levan synthesis. However, there is a lack of qualitative and quantitative evidence regarding the importance of the intrinsic levan hydrolysis of B. subtilis levansucrase and its role in the levan synthesis process. Particularly, little attention has been paid to the long-term hydrolysis products, including its participation in the final levan molecules distribution. Here, we explored the hydrolytic and transferase activity of the B. subtilis levansucrase (SacB) when levans produced by the same enzyme are used as substrate. We found that levan is hydrolyzed through a first order exo-type mechanism, which is limited to a conversion extent of around 30% when all polymer molecules reach a structure no longer suitable to SacB hydrolysis. To characterize the reaction, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) was employed and the evolution of the hydrolysis products profile followed by HPLC, GPC and HPAEC-PAD. The ITC measurements revealed a second step, taking place at the end of the reaction, most probably resulting from disproportionation of accumulated fructo-oligosaccharides. As levanase, levansucrase may use levan as substrate and, through a fructosyl-enzyme complex, behave as a hydrolytic enzyme or as a transferase, as demonstrated when glucose and fructose are added as acceptors. These reactions result in a wide variety of oligosaccharides that are also suitable acceptors for fructo-oligosaccharide synthesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that SacB in the presence of levan and glucose, through blastose and sucrose synthesis, results in the same fructooligosaccharides profile as that observed in sucrose reactions. We conclude that SacB has an intrinsic levanase activity that contributes to the final

  10. ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF COXIELLA BURNETII IN THE CHICK YOLK SAC1

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, R. L.; Fukushi, K.; Pickens, E. G.; Lackman, D. B.

    1964-01-01

    Anacker, R. L. (Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Mont.), K. Fukushi, E. G. Pickens, and D. B. Lackman. Electron microscopic observations of the development of Coxiella burnetii in the chick yolk sac. J. Bacteriol. 88:1130–1138. 1964.—Yolk sac material, obtained daily over a period of 1 week from embryos inoculated with seed of phase I Coxiella burnetii strain Ohio 314 containing 250 units of penicillin, was examined by electron microscopy and other techniques for the presence of rickettsiae. The concentration of rickettsiae in the yolk sac, as determined by electron microscopy, light microscopy, the complement-fixation test, recovery of organisms, and mouse infectivity, was low for the first 3 days, increased rapidly 3 to 5 days after infection, and then remained relatively constant. Rickettsiae in 3- to 7-day cultures, when observed by electron microscopy, had dense fibrillar centers surrounded by less-dense cytoplasmic material containing granules approximately 15 mμ in diameter. The whole was enclosed by multiple external layers. Many appeared to be in various stages of binary fission, and one form which contained a cross-wall was observed. These forms readily combined with ferritin-labeled specific antibody. In rare instances, several kinds of ”atypical” forms which did not combine with ferritin-labeled antibody were found in the cytoplasm of yolk-sac cells 4 to 5 days after inoculation; it is not certain whether these forms are artifacts or normal stages in the maturation of C. burnetii. These atypical forms were not observed in subsequent experiments in which embryonated eggs were inoculated with doses of penicillin varying from 0 to 4,000 units per egg. Images PMID:14219028

  11. Macrofauna community inside and outside of the Darwin Mounds SAC, NE Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpetti, N.; Gontikaki, E.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Witte, U.

    2012-11-01

    Over the past two decades, growing concerns have been raised regarding the effects of towed fishing gears, such as trawls and dredges, on deep-sea biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Trawling disturbs the benthic communities both physically and biologically, and can eliminate the most vulnerable organisms and modify habitat structure; chronically disturbed communities are often dominated by opportunistic species. The European Union is under obligation to designate a network of offshore Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) and Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) by the end of 2012 based on the perceived expectation that these networks will help protect marine biodiversity and that within these areas, faunal abundance and diversity will be higher than the surrounding fished areas. The Darwin Mounds, only discovered in 1998, are located in the Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic at a depth of ~ 1000 m. Deep-water trawling regularly took place in the region of the Darwin Mounds; however in 2004 the mounds were designated as the first offshore SAC in UK and the area is now closed to bottom trawling. As part of the HERMIONE programme the influence of human impact on the Oceans was one of the key themes and in June 2011, an investigation of the macrofaunal community structure at comparable sites both inside and outside of the Darwin Mound SAC was undertaken. Macrofaunal communities were found to differ significantly, with the difference mostly driven by changes in the abundance of polychaetes, crustaceans and nematodes whilst no significant differences were seen for the other phyla. Whereas overall macrofaunal abundance was higher outside the SAC compared to within, this pattern varies considerably between phyla. Diversity indices showed no significant differences between protected and unprotected sites. This could indicate that a few years of preservation are not enough time to determine a recovery by the macrofaunal community of cold-water ecosystems and that a continued

  12. Intestinal handling of bisacodyl and picosulphate by everted sacs of the rat jejunum and stripped colon.

    PubMed

    Hillestad, B; Sund, R B; Buajordet, M

    1982-10-01

    Bisacodyl (BIS) is the acetic acid di-ester of the laxative diphenol 2-(4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl)methyl-pyridine. A HPLC-method which permits the simultaneous determination of BIS and its monodesacetylated (MONO) as well as totally desacetylated (DES) form, has been used to study the intestinal handling of BIS (20 nmol/ml), when the compound was incubated for 60 min. at the mucosal side of the preparations specified. In the jejunal mucosal fluid, BIS disappeared completely in short time, and there was a nearly equivalent rise in DES. MONO was transitory present. Hydrolysis was also rapid in mucosal fluid which had been in contact with jejunal sacs for 30 sec., but BIS was stable in blank incubations. Hydrolysis of BIS was slower by colonic than by jejunal sacs, and all three molecular forms were present during incubation. It seemed still slower in mucosal fluid which had been in contact with colonic sacs for 5 min. BIS just as DES accumulated in the jejunal and colonic serosal fluid mainly as conjugates (greater than 95%), and DES was in all cases the only unconjugated metabolite present. Drug accumulation in jejunal serosal fluid was the same whether BIS or DES was added. However, more drug seemed to accumulate on the serosal side of colonic sacs when incubated with BIS instead of DES. In similar experiments with picosulphate, which is the sulphuric acid di-ester analogue of BIS, free DES was not detected in the mucosal fluid during incubation. The amounts of laxative accumulating in the serosal fluid were less than 1/10 of those observed with BIS. PMID:7180502

  13. Computed tomographic epidurography: an aid to understanding deformation of the lumbar dural sac by epidural injections.

    PubMed

    Fukushige, T; Kano, T; Sano, T; Irie, M

    1999-09-01

    Local anaesthetics injected into the epidural space may deform the dural sac to a variable degree, thereby contributing to variability in the extent of the block. We investigated deformation of the lumbar dural sac after injection into the lumbar epidural space. The subjects were 26 patients with low-back pain who underwent lumbar epidurography and computed tomographic (CT) epidurography, of whom seven also underwent myelography and computed tomographic myelography. The epidural space was entered via the sacral hiatus in 24 patients and through the L5/S1 interspace in two patients. Ten millilitres of local anaesthetic was then injected into the epidural space followed by 20 mL of contrast medium. Computed tomographic epidurography was undertaken approximately 30-min after the epidural injection at the mid-vertebral and mid-discal levels from the first lumbar through to the first sacral vertebrae. The dural sac usually showed an oval or hexagonal shape on the transverse views at the first and second lumbar vertebral levels, and the shape of an inverted triangle below the level of the third lumbar vertebra. A median line of translucency was also observed on the posteroanterior epidurographic view in 25 of the 26 patients. This line was though to be a manifestation of the dural deformation to the inverted triangle. Dural sac deformation usually shows a specific pattern, although there are individual variations. Dural deformability is an important consideration in any analysis of the spread of epidural block or of the changes of epidural pressure after epidural injection of local anaesthetics. PMID:10549463

  14. The sac mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reveal transcriptional and posttranscriptional control of cysteine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ravina, Cristina G; Chang, Chwenn-In; Tsakraklides, George P; McDermott, Jeffery P; Vega, Jose M; Leustek, Thomas; Gotor, Cecilia; Davies, John P

    2002-12-01

    Algae and vascular plants are cysteine (Cys) prototrophs. They are able to import, reduce, and assimilate sulfate into Cys, methionine, and other organic sulfur-containing compounds. Characterization of genes encoding the enzymes required for Cys biosynthesis from the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reveals that transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms regulate the pathway. The derived amino acid sequences of the C. reinhardtii genes encoding 5'-adenylylsulfate (APS) reductase and serine (Ser) acetyltransferase are orthologous to sequences from vascular plants. The Cys biosynthetic pathway of C. reinhardtii is regulated by sulfate availability. The steady-state level of transcripts and activity of ATP sulfurylase, APS reductase, Ser acetyltransferase, and O-acetyl-Ser (thiol) lyase increase when cells are deprived of sulfate. The sac1 mutation, which impairs C. reinhardtii ability to acclimate to sulfur-deficient conditions, prevents the increase in accumulation of the transcripts encoding these enzymes and also prevents the increase in activity of all the enzymes except APS reductase. The sac2 mutation, which does not affect accumulation of APS reductase transcripts, blocks the increase in APS reductase activity. These results suggest that APS reductase activity is regulated posttranscriptionally in a SAC2-dependent process. PMID:12481091

  15. Evaluation of Refractivity Profiles from CHAMP and SAC-C GPS Radio Occultation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poli, Paul; Ao, Chi On; Joiner, Joanna; delaTorreJuarez, Manuel; Hoff, Raymond

    2002-01-01

    The GeoForschungsZentrum's Challenging Minisatellite Payload for Geophysical Research and Application (CHAMP, Germany-US) and the Comision Nacional de Actividades Especiales' Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C (SAC-C, Argentina-US) missions are the first missions to carry a second-generation Blackjack Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. One of the new features of this receiver is its ability to sense the lower troposphere closer to the surface than the proof-of-concept GPS Meteorology experiment (GPS/MET). Since their launch, CHAMP and SAC-C have collected thousands of GPS radio occultations, representing a wealth of measurements available for data assimilation and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). In order to evaluate the refractivity data derived by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) from raw radio occultation measurements, we use Data Assimilation Office (DAO) 6-hour forecasts as an independent state of the atmosphere. We compare CHAMP and SAC-C refractivity (processed by JPL) with refractivity calculated from the DAO global fields of temperature, water vapor content and humidity. We show statistics of the differences as well as histograms of the differences.

  16. Sac3, an Snf1-like serine/threonine kinase that positively and negatively regulates the responses of Chlamydomonas to sulfur limitation.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, J P; Yildiz, F H; Grossman, A R

    1999-01-01

    The Sac3 gene product of Chlamydomonas positively and negatively regulates the responses of the cell to sulfur limitation. In wild-type cells, arylsulfatase activity is detected only during sulfur limitation. The sac3 mutant expresses arylsulfatase activity even when grown in nutrient-replete medium, which suggests that the Sac3 protein has a negative effect on the induction of arylsulfatase activity. In contrast to its effect on arylsulfatase activity, Sac3 positively regulates the high-affinity sulfate transport system-the sac3 mutant is unable to fully induce high-affinity sulfate transport during sulfur limitation. We have complemented the sac3 mutant and cloned a cDNA copy of the Sac3 gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Sac3 gene product is similar to the catalytic domain of the yeast Snf1 family of serine/threonine kinases and is therefore classified as a Snf1-related kinase (SnRK). Specifically, Sac3 falls within the SnRK2 subfamily of kinases from vascular plants. In addition to the 11 subdomains common to Snf1-like serine/threonine kinases, Sac3 and the plant kinases have two additional subdomains and a highly acidic C-terminal region. The role of Sac3 in the signal transduction system that regulates the responses of Chlamydomonas to sulfur limitation is discussed. PMID:10368187

  17. A preliminary randomized trial of the mechanical insufflator-exsufflator versus breath-stacking technique in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Muhammad K; Bradburn, Michael; Proctor, Alison R; Billings, Catherine G; Bianchi, Stephen; McDermott, Christopher J; Shaw, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    A major problem faced by patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in respiratory failure is the inability to cough effectively. Forty eligible ALS patients were randomized to the breath-stacking technique using a lung volume recruitment bag (n = 21) or mechanical insufflator-exsufflator MI-E (n = 19) and followed up at three-monthly intervals for at least 12 months or until death. Results showed that there were 13 episodes of chest infection in the breath-stacking group and 19 episodes in the MI-E group (p = 0.92), requiring 90 and 95 days of antibiotics, respectively (p = 0.34). The mean duration of symptoms per chest infection was 6.9 days in the breath-stacking group and 3.9 days in MI-E group (p = 0.16). There were six episodes of hospitalization in each group (p = 0.64). The chance of hospitalization, in the event of a chest infection, was 0.46 in the breath-stacking group and 0.31 in MI-E group (p = 0.47). Median survival in the breath-stacking group was 535 days and 266 days in the MI-E group (p = 0.34). The QoL was maintained above 75% of baseline for a median of 329 days in the breath-stacking group and 205 days in the MI-E group (p = 0.41). In conclusion, lack of statistically significant differences due to sub-optimal power and confounders precludes a definitive conclusion with respect to the relative efficacy of one cough augmentation technique over the other. This study however, provides useful lessons and informative data, needed to strengthen the power calculation, inclusion criteria and randomization factors for a large scale definitive trial. Until such a definitive trial can be undertaken, we recommend the breath-stacking technique as a low-cost, first-line intervention for volume recruitment and cough augmentation in patients with ALS who meet the criteria for intervention with non-invasive ventilation. PMID:26140500

  18. A novel hemizygous SACS mutation identified by whole exome sequencing and SNP array analysis in a Chinese ARSACS patient.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Li, X B; Zi, X H; Shen, L; Hu, Zh M; Huang, Sh X; Yu, D L; Li, H B; Xia, K; Tang, B S; Zhang, R X

    2016-03-15

    The array of autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) has expanded worldwide after the first description in the Charlevoix-Saguenay region of Québec. Here, we report a Chinese ARSACS patient presenting progressive peripheral neuropathy (CMTNS2=15) with horizontal gaze nystagmus and mild spastic gait. Genetic studies including whole exome sequencing (WES), Sanger sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis revealed a novel hemizygous nonsense mutation (c.11803C>T, p.Gln3935X) of SACS and a 1.33Mb deletion involved in SACS on chromosome 13q12.12 in the patient. Our findings highlight the necessity of SACS mutation screening in the gene panel of inherited peripheral neuropathies, and stress the need of testing copy number variation (CNV) in SACS mutation screening. PMID:26944128

  19. Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor With High-Grade Serous Carcinoma in a 62-Year-Old Woman.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Whitney A; Masand, Ramya P

    2016-06-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors are germ cell tumors that usually present in children and young women. Rarely, these tumors can arise in older women, usually in conjunction with surface epithelial tumors, suggesting divergent differentiation from the latter. The combination of mixed ovarian yolk sac tumor and high-grade serous carcinoma is rare, with only one case documented in the literature. We present a case of mixed ovarian yolk sac tumor and high-grade serous carcinoma in a postmenopausal woman, including a brief discussion of the immunohistochemical findings and differential diagnosis. Despite the rarity of mixed ovarian yolk sac tumor and surface epithelial tumors, it is important to recognize the biphasic nature of the tumor, which should prompt a thorough immunohistochemical evaluation. The therapeutic and prognostic implications of proper diagnosis cannot be overemphasized. PMID:26782153

  20. Immunohistochemical expression of SALL4 in hepatocellular carcinoma, a potential pitfall in the differential diagnosis of yolk sac tumors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Katz, Betina; Chaux, Alcides; Sharma, Rajni; Munari, Enrico; Faraj, Sheila F; Illei, Peter B; Torbenson, Michael; Netto, George J

    2013-07-01

    SALL4 is a transcription factor that serves as a marker of yolk sac tumor. Yolk sac tumor and hepatocellular carcinoma share histologic, serologic, and immunohistochemical features. Previous studies have shown lack of SALL4 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting utility in this differential diagnosis. Sixty-nine samples of hepatocellular carcinoma were retrieved from surgical pathology archives and used to construct 9 tissue microarrays. A germ cell tumor tissue microarray containing 10 yolk sac tumors was used for comparison. Extent, intensity, and pattern of nuclear SALL4 expression were assessed in each spot. Mean percentage of expression was calculated for each tumor and used during analysis. Optimal discriminatory extent of expression cutoff was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Other potential discriminatory markers including Hep Par1 were also evaluated. Forty-six percent (32/69) of hepatocellular carcinoma and all yolk sac tumors revealed at least focal expression of SALL4. A unique punctuate/clumped pattern of nuclear staining was present in 94% (30/32) of hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas all yolk sac tumors displayed a diffuse finely granular nuclear staining pattern. A 25% extent of SALL4 expression cutoff was found to be optimal for the distinction of yolk sac tumor from hepatocellular carcinoma yielding a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 92.8%, and a positive predictive value of 66.6% for yolk sac tumor diagnosis. The addition of Hep Par1 increased the specificity (99%) and positive predictive value (90%). This is the first report of SALL4 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Our finding should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and yolk sac tumor. The unique punctuate/clumped pattern seen in hepatocellular carcinoma cases could be of further discriminatory value. PMID:23347651

  1. Air stacking: effects on pulmonary function in patients with spinal muscular atrophy and in patients with congenital muscular dystrophy*,**

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Tanyse Bahia Carvalho; Neves, Juliana de Carvalho; Portes, Leslie Andrews; Salge, João Marcos; Zanoteli, Edmar; Reed, Umbertina Conti

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Respiratory complications are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with neuromuscular disease (NMD). The objectives of this study were to determine the effects that routine daily home air-stacking maneuvers have on pulmonary function in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and in patients with congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD), as well as to identify associations between spinal deformities and the effects of the maneuvers. METHODS: Eighteen NMD patients (ten with CMD and eight with SMA) were submitted to routine daily air-stacking maneuvers at home with manual resuscitators for four to six months, undergoing pulmonary function tests before and after that period. The pulmonary function tests included measurements of FVC; PEF; maximum insufflation capacity (MIC); and assisted and unassisted peak cough flow (APCF and UPCF, respectively) with insufflations. RESULTS: After the use of home air-stacking maneuvers, there were improvements in the APCF and UPCF. In the patients without scoliosis, there was also a significant increase in FVC. When comparing patients with and without scoliosis, the increases in APCF and UPCF were more pronounced in those without scoliosis. CONCLUSIONS: Routine daily air-stacking maneuvers with a manual resuscitator appear to increase UPCF and APCF in patients with NMD, especially in those without scoliosis. PMID:25410841

  2. Ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac in the larva of the japanese red-bellied newt Cynops pyrrhogaster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, W.; Wiederhold, M.; Hejl, R.

    1998-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac (ES) of the late stage larva of the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster (stage 57), was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The two endolymphatic sacs are located at the dorsal-medial side of the otic vesicle on the dorsal-lateral side of the midbrain in the cranial cavity. The wall of the sac is composed of a layer of cubical epithelial cells with loose, interposed intercellular spaces. The sac contains a large luminal cavity, in which endolymph and numerous otoconia are present. The epithelial cells of different portions of the sac have a similar structure. These cells contain an abundance of cytoplasmic organelles, including ribosomes, Golgi complexes, and numerous vesicles. Two types of vesicles are found in the epithelial cells: the "floccular" vesicle and the "granular" vesicle. The floccular vesicles are located in the supra- and lateral-nuclear cytoplasm and contain floccular material. The granular vesicles have a fine granular substance and are usually situated apposed to the apical cell membrane. The granular vesicles are suggested to be secreted into the lumen, while the floccular vesicles are thought to be absorbed from the lumen and conveyed to the intercellular spaces by the epithelial cells. The apical surfaces of the epithelial cells bear numerous microvilli. Apparently floating cells, which bear long microvilli on the free surfaces, are observed in the lumen of the ES. Based on the fine structure, the function of the endolymphatic sac of the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster is discussed.

  3. Influencing Factors for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Sac Shrinkage and Enlargement after EVAR: Clinical Reviews before Introduction of Preoperative Coil Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Arudo; Totsugawa, Toshinori; Tamura, Kentaro; Ishida, Atsuhisa; Sakaguchi, Taichi; Yoshitaka, Hidenori

    2014-01-01

    Background: We previously reported effectiveness of coil embolization (CE) to aortic branched vessels before endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) because of significant shrinkage of aneurysmal sac. In this study, we investigated EVAR cases to clarify influential factors of aneurysmal shrinkage and enlargement. Methods: 148 consecutive cases before the introduction of CE were retrospectively reviewed based on the presence of PT2EL (persistent type 2 endoleak) and change in sac diameter after EVAR by multivariate analysis. Results: (A) PT2EL risk factors were patent inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) and thinner mural thrombus inside aneurysmal sac. (B) Sac enlargement risk factors were antiplatelet intake, PT2EL, and female gender. (C) Sac shrinkage predictive factors were the absences of thoracic aortic aneurysm, antiplatelet intake, PT2EL, and coronary artery disease. Conclusion: CE to IMA was considered to be effective because patent IMA and antiplatelet intake were significant risk factors for sac enlargement. So, more meticulous therapeutic strategy, including treatment priority (AAA first or CAD first) and choice of treatment (EVAR vs. AAA) based on anatomical features of AAA was required to improve late outcomes. PMID:25298830

  4. Transcript profiles of maize embryo sacs and preliminary identification of genes involved in the embryo sac–pollen tube interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai Shuai; Wang, Fang; Tan, Su Jian; Wang, Ming Xiu; Sui, Na; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The embryo sac, the female gametophyte of flowering plants, plays important roles in the pollination and fertilization process. Maize (Zea mays L.) is a model monocot, but little is known about the interactions between its embryo sac and the pollen tube. In this study, we compared the transcript profiles of mature embryo sacs, mature embryo sacs 14–16 h after pollination, and mature nucelli. Comparing the transcript profiles of the embryo sacs before and after the entry of the pollen tube, we identified 3467 differentially expressed transcripts (3382 differentially expressed genes; DEGs). The DEGs were grouped into 22 functional categories. Among the DEGs, 221 genes were induced upon the entry of the pollen tube, and many of them encoded proteins involved in RNA binding, processing, and transcription, signaling, miscellaneous enzyme family processes, and lipid metabolism processes. Genes in the DEG dataset were grouped into 17 classes in a gene ontology enrichment analysis. The DEGs included many genes encoding proteins involved in protein amino acid phosphorylation and protein ubiquitination, implying that these processes might play important roles in the embryo sac–pollen tube interaction. Additionally, our analyses indicate that the expression of 112 genes encoding cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) is induced during pollination and fertilization. The CRPs likely regulate pollen tube guidance and embryo sac development. These results provide important information on the genes involved in the embryo sac–pollen tube interaction in maize. PMID:25566277

  5. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrow, Lyle W.; Suchyna, Thomas M.; Sachs, Frederick

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca{sup 2+} permeant SACs. {yields} The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. {yields} SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch (<20%) of a rubber substrate increased ET-1 secretion, and 4 {mu}M GsMTx-4 (a specific inhibitor of SACs) inhibited secretion by 30%. GsMTx-4 did not alter basal ET-1 levels in the absence of stretch. Decreasing the calcium influx by lowering extracellular calcium also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion without effecting ET-1 secretion in unstretched controls. Furthermore, inhibiting SACs with the less specific inhibitor streptomycin also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion. The data can be explained with a simple model in which ET-1 secretion depends on an internal Ca{sup 2+} threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  6. Mixed ovarian germ cell tumor composed of immature teratoma, yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Zhou, Feng; Qian, Zhida; Qing, Jiale; Zhao, Mengdam; Huang, Lili

    2014-11-01

    We report the case of a 19-year-old woman experiencing lower abdominal distension and pain. Laboratory tests indicated elevated serum levels of Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) and human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG). A large mass was detected in the abdomen by physical examination and by transvaginal ultrasonography. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, and a smooth-surfaced, spherical, solid tumor was found on the left ovary, measuring 11.5 x 9.9 x 6.9 cm. Histological evaluation revealed that the tumor consisted of a combination of immature teratoma, Yolk Sac Tumor, and embryonal carcinoma; this is a very rare combination in mixed germ cell tumors. PMID:25518772

  7. [Sigmoidoperianal fistula associated with diverticulitis and Cul de Sac situation--diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Weyand, G; Rinast, E; Englert, A; Houf, M

    2002-07-01

    We report on the case of a 64-year-old female patient who presented herself in our outpatient clinic because of a perianal fistula with recurrent abscesses. We describe the step diagnostics and the surgical treatment of the causal sigmoido-perianal fistula with diverticulitis and Cul de sac situation. Clinical examination, fistulography, colonoscopy and MRT were part of the precise representation and preparation for the high anterior rectosigmoidal resection with simultaneous rectopexy according to Sudeck which were performed without complications. The sigmoidoperianal fistula must be taken into account as a differential diagnosis of a recalcitrant high perianal fistula. PMID:12122593

  8. Early sac shrinkage predicts a low risk of late complications after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Bastos Gonçalves, F; Baderkhan, H; Verhagen, H J M; Wanhainen, A; Björck, M; Stolker, R J; Hoeks, S E; Mani, K

    2014-01-01

    Background Aneurysm shrinkage has been proposed as a marker of successful endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Patients with early postoperative shrinkage may experience fewer subsequent complications, and consequently require less intensive surveillance. Methods Patients undergoing EVAR from 2000 to 2011 at three vascular centres (in 2 countries), who had two imaging examinations (postoperative and after 6–18 months), were included. Maximum diameter, complications and secondary interventions during follow-up were registered. Patients were categorized according to early sac dynamics. The primary endpoint was freedom from late complications. Secondary endpoints were freedom from secondary intervention, postimplant rupture and direct (type I/III) endoleaks. Results Some 597 EVARs (71·1 per cent of all EVARs) were included. No shrinkage was observed in 284 patients (47·6 per cent), moderate shrinkage (5–9 mm) in 142 (23·8 per cent) and major shrinkage (at least 10 mm) in 171 patients (28·6 per cent). Four years after the index imaging, the rate of freedom from complications was 84·3 (95 per cent confidence interval 78·7 to 89·8), 88·1 (80·6 to 95·5) and 94·4 (90·1 to 98·7) per cent respectively. No shrinkage was an independent risk factor for late complications compared with major shrinkage (hazard ratio (HR) 3·11; P < 0·001). Moderate compared with major shrinkage (HR 2·10; P = 0·022), early postoperative complications (HR 3·34; P < 0·001) and increasing abdominal aortic aneurysm baseline diameter (HR 1·02; P = 0·001) were also risk factors for late complications. Freedom from secondary interventions and direct endoleaks was greater for patients with major sac shrinkage. Conclusion Early change in aneurysm sac diameter is a strong predictor of late complications after EVAR. Patients with major sac shrinkage have a very low risk of complications for up to 5 years. This parameter may be used to tailor postoperative surveillance. PMID:24752772

  9. Primary orbital yolk sac tumor: report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Saurabh; Kaliki, Swathi; Sreedhar, Ani; Mishra, Dilip K

    2016-06-01

    Germ cell tumor can affect extragonadal sites. Teratoma is a well-recognized extragonadal tumor in the orbit. Primary yolk sac tumor (YST) or endodermal sinus tumor of orbit is rare and only few cases have been reported in the literature. Its clinical presentation may mimic many common pediatric orbital conditions, and delay in diagnosis affects ocular morbidity and mortality. In the past orbital YST has been treated with multimodal therapy including surgery, systemic chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Herein we describe a case of primary orbital YST and reviewed the literature for similar cases. The review aims to describe the clinical presentation, imaging features, histopathological characteristics, and management of orbital YST. PMID:26481249

  10. Loss of PiT-1 Results in Abnormal Endocytosis in the Yolk Sac Visceral Endoderm

    PubMed Central

    Wallingford, Mary C.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

    2014-01-01

    PiT-1 protein is a transmembrane sodium-dependent phosphate (Pi) transporter. PiT-1 knock out (KO) embryos die from largely unknown causes by embryonic day (E) 12.5. We tested the hypothesis that PiT-1 is required for endocytosis in the embryonic yolk sac (YS) visceral endoderm (VE). Here we present data supporting that PiT-1 KO results in a YS remodeling defect and decreased endocytosis in the YS VE. The remodeling defect is not due to an upstream cardiomyocyte requirement for PiT-1, as SM22αCre-specific KO of PiT-1 in the developing heart and the YS mesodermal layer (ME) does not recapitulate the PiT-1 global KO phenotype. Furthermore, we find that high levels of PiT-1 protein localize to the YS VE apical membrane. Together these data support that PiT-1 is likely required in YS VE. During normal development maternal immunoglobulin (IgG) is endocytosed into YS VE and accumulates in the apical side of the VE in a specialized lysosome termed the apical vacuole (AV). We have identified a reduction in PiT-1 KO VE cell height and a striking loss of IgG accumulation in the PiT-1 KO VE. The endocytosis genes Tfeb, Lamtor2 and Snx2 are increased at the RNA level. Lysotracker Red staining reveals a loss of distinct AVs, and yolk sacs incubated ex vivo with phRODO Green Dextran for Endocytosis demonstrate a functional loss of endocytosis. As yolk sac endocytosis is controlled in part by microautophagy, but expression of LC3 had not been examined, we investigated LC3 expression during yolk sac development and found stage-specific LC3 RNA expression that is predominantly from the YS VE layer at E9.5. Normalized LC3-II protein levels are decreased in the PiT-1 KO YS, supporting a requirement for PiT-1 in autophagy in the YS. Therefore, we propose the novel idea that PiT-1 is central to the regulation of endocytosis and autophagy in the YS VE. PMID:25138534

  11. Enhancement of Processability and Electrical Resistance by Use of Ag-Based Composite Inks Containing Ultrafine SAC305 Alloy Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong Moo; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Jang, Seok Pil; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2014-09-01

    We propose use of Ag/Sn-3.0 (wt.%) Ag-0.5 Cu (SAC305) composite ink to reduce sintering temperature, sintering time, and material costs. The SAC305 nanoparticle (NP) surfaces were not capped by any stabilizers, which are detrimental to the resistivity of the sintered tracks. Compared with commercial pure Ag ink, use of Ag/3.2 (vol.%) SAC305 composite ink containing ultrafine SAC305 NPs resulted in outstandingly enhanced processability, enabling faster sintering at low temperatures. The average sheet resistance of composite ink samples sintered for 25 min at 170°C was as low as 0.011 Ω/□, comparable with that of a pure Ag sample sintered for over 30 min at 220°C. The morphology and the differential scanning calorimetry curves enabled explanation of the changes in the sintering behavior and sheet resistance. The Ag/SAC305 clusters in the composite ink sintered at 170°C grew, on average, to ~201.1-226.1 nm as a result of faster local liquid-phase sintering, and most of the Ag particles were mutually linked, dramatically changing the microstructure.

  12. The Candida albicans fimbrin Sac6 regulates oxidative stress response (OSR) and morphogenesis at the transcriptional level.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Yu, Qilin; Wang, Yuzhou; Xiao, Chenpeng; Li, Jianrong; Huo, Da; Zhang, Dan; Jia, Chang; Li, Mingchun

    2016-09-01

    The actin cytoskeleton coordinates numerous fundamental cellular processes. Fimbrins are a class of evolutionally conserved ABPs that mediate actin bundling and regulate actin dynamics and functions. In this study, we identified the fimbrin Sac6 from the important fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. Interestingly, deletion of SAC6 led to increased tolerance to oxidative stress, while its overexpression caused hyper-susceptibility to this stress. Further investigations revealed that Sac6, by interaction with actin, negatively regulated the cytosol-to-nucleus transport of the key OSR (oxidative stress response) transcription factor Cap1 and consequent expression of OSR genes. Moreover, loss of Sac6 enhanced hyphal maintenance, and its overexpression caused a defect in hyphal development, which was attributed to abnormal expression of morphogenesis-related genes. In addition, Sac6 was involved in regulation of secretion of lytic enzymes and virulence of C. albicans. This study reveals a novel mechanism by which fimbrin transcriptionally regulates OSR and morphogenesis, and sheds a novel light on the functions of actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27275845

  13. Maternal-fetal immunoglobulin transport: Studies on the binding, internalization, and release of IgG by chick yolk sac tissue and cultured cells

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is transported from the yolk across the endodermal cells of the yolk sac and into the fetal circulation during chick embryonic development, thus providing the chick with passive immunity until it becomes immunocompetent. Saturable, Fc-specific receptors are present on the endodermal cells and are believed to mediate this transfer. In this study, IgG receptors were shown to be present on the yolk sac endodermal cells throughout the 21 days of development, although most of the transport occurs during the last 3 days prior to hatching. Fluorescently conjugated IgG was internalized by a receptor mechanism into small apical vesicles in yolk sac endoderm throughout, but cells from 19 day yolk sacs internalized more conjugate than those from 14 day yolk sacs. This was confirmed and quantitated by assaying the internalization of {sup 125}I-IgG into yolk sac tissue. IgG was internalized by a receptor mediated mechanism, reaching a steady state level after 1 to 2 hours. Although both ages of yolk sac tissue possessed the same number of surface IgG receptors, as measured by equilibrium binding assays at 4{degree}C, 19 day yolk sac had the capacity to internalize six times as much IgG by a receptor mechanism as 14 day yolk sac.

  14. Giant pandas are not an evolutionary cul-de-sac: evidence from multidisciplinary research.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fuwen; Hu, Yibo; Yan, Li; Nie, Yonggang; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Zejun

    2015-01-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the world's most endangered mammals and remains threatened by environmental and anthropogenic pressure. It is commonly argued that giant pandas are an evolutionary cul-de-sac because of their specialized bamboo diet, phylogenetic changes in body size, small population, low genetic diversity, and low reproductive rate. This notion is incorrect, arose from a poor understanding or appreciation of giant panda biology, and is in need of correction. In this review, we summarize research across morphology, ecology, and genetics to dispel the idea, once and for all, that giant pandas are evolutionary dead-end. The latest and most advanced research shows that giant pandas are successful animals highly adapted to a specialized bamboo diet via morphological, ecological, and genetic adaptations and coadaptation of gut microbiota. We also debunk misconceptions around population size, population growth rate, and genetic variation. During their evolutionary history spanning 8 My, giant pandas have survived diet specialization, massive bamboo flowering and die off, and rapid climate oscillations. Now, they are suffering from enormous human interference. Fortunately, continued conservation effort is greatly reducing impacts from anthropogenic interference and allowing giant panda populations and habitat to recover. Previous ideas of a giant panda evolutionary cul-de-sac resulted from an unsystematic and unsophisticated understanding of their biology and it is time to shed this baggage and focus on the survival and maintenance of this high-profile species. PMID:25274274

  15. Automatic registration of terrestrial point clouds based on panoramic reflectance images and efficient BaySAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhizhong

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a new approach to automatic registration of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) point clouds utilizing a novel robust estimation method by an efficient BaySAC (BAYes SAmpling Consensus). The proposed method directly generates reflectance images from 3D point clouds, and then using SIFT algorithm extracts keypoints to identify corresponding image points. The 3D corresponding points, from which transformation parameters between point clouds are computed, are acquired by mapping the 2D ones onto the point cloud. To remove false accepted correspondences, we implement a conditional sampling method to select the n data points with the highest inlier probabilities as a hypothesis set and update the inlier probabilities of each data point using simplified Bayes' rule for the purpose of improving the computation efficiency. The prior probability is estimated by the verification of the distance invariance between correspondences. The proposed approach is tested on four data sets acquired by three different scanners. The results show that, comparing with the performance of RANSAC, BaySAC leads to less iterations and cheaper computation cost when the hypothesis set is contaminated with more outliers. The registration results also indicate that, the proposed algorithm can achieve high registration accuracy on all experimental datasets.

  16. A novel approach for noninvasive drug delivery and sensing through the amniotic sac.

    PubMed

    Azagury, Aharon; Amar-Lewis, Eliz; Mann, Ella; Goldbart, Riki; Traitel, Tamar; Jelinek, Raz; Hallak, Mordechai; Kost, Joseph

    2014-06-10

    Current invasive prenatal tests (amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling) are known for their risk to the fetus. In the last decade, the use and awareness of these prenatal tests have increased, resulting in growing demand for a safe, non-invasive, and accurate prenatal test. Chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) have long been used to increase transport phenomena across skin and other membranes (e.g., tympanic membrane). The amniotic sac membrane is called the chorioamnion (CA) membrane and serves as the physical barrier between the fetus and the mother. In this research, the effect of CPEs on human CA mass transport was evaluated both in vitro and ex vivo. The results show that the tested CPEs exhibit an enhancing effect on CA mass transport. Based on the permeability results, two mechanisms of action were suggested: "extractors" and "fluidizers". Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and rapid colorimetric screening measurements supported the mechanisms, based on which, more potent compounds were designed and tested for their enhancing effect. The enhancing mass transport effect of CPEs on CA membrane may be used both for sampling of cell-free DNA and for noninvasively administering drugs and other biological agents to the amniotic sac. PMID:24685707

  17. Performance Analysis of SAC Optical PPM-CDMA System-Based Interference Rejection Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsowaidi, N.; Eltaif, Tawfig; Mokhtar, M. R.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we aim to theoretically analyse optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system that based on successive interference cancellation (SIC) using pulse position modulation (PPM), considering the interference between the users, imperfection cancellation occurred during the cancellation process and receiver noises. Spectral amplitude coding (SAC) scheme is used to suppress the overlapping between the users and reduce the receiver noises effect. The theoretical analysis of the multiple access interference (MAI)-limited performance of this approach indicates the influence of the size of M-ary PPM on OCDMA system. The OCDMA system performance improves with increasing M-ary PPM. Therefore, it was found that the SIC/SAC-OCDMA system using PPM technique along with modified prime (MPR) codes used as signature sequence code offers significant improvement over the one without cancellation and it can support up to 103 users at the benchmarking value of bit error rate (BER) = 10-9 with prime number p = 11 while the system without cancellation scheme can support only up to 52 users.

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac in a spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta).

    PubMed

    Goodnight, Andrea L; Traslavina, Ryan P; Emanuelson, Karen; Affolter, Verena K; Gaffney, Patricia M; Vernau, William; Williams, Colette; Wu, Connie I-kuan; Sturges, Beverly K; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2013-12-01

    A 25-yr-old spayed female spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) developed intermittent right pelvic limb lameness that persisted following conservative medical therapy. No obvious musculoskeletal lesions were noted on initial physical exam; however, spinal radiography was suspicious for possible intervertebral degenerative joint disease or discospondylitis. Despite prolonged medical therapy, the lameness progressed to minimal weight bearing and marked muscle atrophy of the right pelvic limb. Electromyography showed spontaneous activity in the muscles of right sciatic nerve distribution. Sensory and motor nerve conduction velocities in the right tibial and peroneal nerves were undetectable and markedly reduced, respectively. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed a large, space-occupying mass on the right side of the sacrum and pelvis. Antemortem fine-needle aspiration of the mass and postmortem histopathology resulted in diagnosis of a high-grade squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac is very rare in domestic dogs and previously unreported in spotted hyenas. PMID:24450071

  19. Yolk sac tumor of the external auditory canal: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huijuan; Tang, Qionglan; Zhen, Tiantian; Li, Hui; Zhang, Fenfen; Han, Anjia

    2015-01-01

    We report one case of yolk sac tumor of the ear and review the literature. The patient was a 9-month boy who scratched his right ear repeatedly one month ago. Computed tomography scan showed an irregular elongated mass image measuring 42×16 mm was found in the right external auditory canal. The tumor was located underneath of the epidermis with ulceration. Mild or moderate atypical round or oval tumor cells were arranged in nest and reticular pattern around vesicular or cystic spaces. Tumor cells had abundant eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm and marked nucleoli. Mitotic figures were about 7/10 HPF. Poorly formed Schiller-Duvall body was occasionally present. The stroma was loose and rich in capillaries. Hyaline globules could be found in the stroma. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, SALL4, glypican-3, focal positive for EMA, vimentin, CD10, and CD34, but negative for a-fetoprotein, HCG, PLAP. The serum α-fetoprotein was 664.60 ng/mL (normal, ≤ 25 ng/mL). Yolk sac tumor of the ear is extremely rare, especially α-fetoprotein negative expression in our case. The differential diagnosis includes embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, paraganglioma, myoepithelioma, carcinoma of skin appendages, and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26823835

  20. Induction of protective serum meningococcal bactericidal and diphtheria-neutralizing antibodies and mucosal immunoglobulin A in volunteers by nasal insufflations of the Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C polysaccharide-CRM197 conjugate vaccine mixed with chitosan.

    PubMed

    Huo, Zhiming; Sinha, Ruchi; McNeela, Edel A; Borrow, Ray; Giemza, Rafaela; Cosgrove, Catherine; Heath, Paul T; Mills, Kingston H G; Rappuoli, Rino; Griffin, George E; Lewis, David J M

    2005-12-01

    Thirty-six healthy volunteers received either a single intramuscular injection of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C polysaccharide (MCP)-CRM197 conjugate vaccine in alum or two nasal insufflations 28 days apart of the same vaccine powder, without alum, mixed with chitosan. Nasal immunization was well tolerated, with fewer symptoms reported than after intramuscular injection. The geometric mean concentrations of MCP-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) after one nasal immunization were 3.25 microg/ml in naïve subjects and 14.4 microg/ml in subjects previously immunized parenterally, compared with 4.30 microg/ml in naïve subjects immunized intramuscularly. The geometric mean titer of serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) rose 24-fold after two nasal immunizations in naïve subjects and was comparable to parenteral immunization (1,080 versus 1,625). All subjects achieved SBA titers associated with protection after two nasal immunizations: even those with titers of <8 at entry. A single nasal immunization boosted the SBA titer to > or =128 in 96% of previously immunized subjects, and two immunizations achieved this level in 92% of naive subjects. MCP-specific IgG levels were approximately 70% IgG2 and approximately 20% IgG1 after nasal or intramuscular immunization. Increases in CRM197-specific IgG and diphtheria toxin-neutralizing activity were observed after nasal or intramuscular immunization, with balanced IgG1/IgG2 and higher IgG4. Significant MCP-specific secretory IgA was detected in nasal wash only after nasal immunization and predominantly on the immunized side. Simple nasal insufflation of existing MCP-CRM197 conjugate vaccines in chitosan offers an inexpensive but effective needle-free prime and boost against serogroup C N. meningitidis and diphtheria. PMID:16299322

  1. Les rivières et les sources de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac: extrait du rapport sur les eaux souterraines de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C., Jr.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1949-01-01

    Les principales rivières de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac, la Rivière Grise ou Grande Rivière du Cul-de-Sac et la Rivière Blanche, prennent naissance sur le flanc Nord du Massif de la Selle à des altitudes de 1,300 à 1,800 mètres au dessus du niveau de la mer. Elles coulent à l’amont à travers des gorges profondes et sont éloignées de 9 Kms. dans la partie central de la bordure Sud de la plaine.

  2. SALL4 and SF-1 are sensitive and specific markers for distinguishing granulosa cell tumors from yolk sac tumors.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shuting; Wei, Shi; Ziober, Amy; Yao, Yuan; Bing, Zhanyong

    2013-04-01

    Granulosa cell tumors are classified as juvenile and adult types. They may be misinterpreted as a yolk sac tumor when they exhibit a "reticular" growth pattern and contain prominent mitotic activity. In this study, the authors performed immunohistochemical stains for SALL4 and steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) on 27 cases of yolk sac tumors and 24 granulosa cell tumors. Nuclear stains for both antibodies were considered as positive and the intensity of staining was graded as negative, weak, moderate, and strong. All the yolk sac tumors were positive for SALL4 (100%) with moderate to strong grade staining and negative for SF-1 (100%). In contrast, all the granulosa cell tumors were positive for SF-1 (85% moderate to strong grade staining and 15% weak staining) and negative for SALL4 (100%). The difference was significant (P < .01, Student's t test). This result indicates that these 2 markers could be used to distinguish these 2 tumors in a difficult situation. PMID:22832114

  3. Prevascular femoral hernia and its relation with inferior epigastric vessels: a rare presentation of the femoral hernia sac.

    PubMed

    Boshnaq, Mohamed; Phan, Yih Chyn; Akhtar, Mansoor; Hamade, Ayman

    2016-01-01

    A 61-year-old man presented to the emergency department, with a 2-week history of a painful lump on his right groin. A diagnosis of an irreducible right femoral hernia was made. As such, an urgent operation was carried out on the same day, and the patient was found to have a rare prevascular femoral hernia in which the sac was lying over the femoral vessels and split by the inferior epigastric vessels into 2 components resembling 2 trouser limbs. The hernia sac presented in a different and challenging way that necessitated meticulous dissection and full orientation of the anatomy of the femoral triangle. Complete dissection and control of the inferior epigastric vessels, and complete reduction of the sac followed by repair with a prosthetic mesh plug were performed successfully. The patient was discharged home the next day. PMID:27090547

  4. Altered callose deposition during embryo sac formation of multi-pistil mutant (mp1) in Medicago sativa.

    PubMed

    Zhou, H C; Jin, L; Li, J; Wang, X J

    2016-01-01

    Whether callose deposition is the cause or result of ovule sterility in Medicago sativa remains controversial, because it is unclear when and where changes in callose deposition and dissolution occur during fertile and sterile embryo sac formation. Here, alfalfa spontaneous multi-pistil mutant (mp1) and wild-type plants were used to compare the dynamics of callose deposition during embryo sac formation using microscopy. The results showed that both mutant and wild-type plants experienced megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis, and there was no significant difference during megasporogenesis. In contrast to the wild-type plants, in which the mature embryo sac was observed after three continuous cycles of mitosis, functional megaspores of mutant plants developed abnormally after the second round of mitosis, leading to degeneration of synergid, central, and antipodal cells. Callose deposition in both mutant and wild-type plants was first observed in the walls of megasporocytes, and then in the megaspore tetrad walls. After meiosis, the callose wall began to degrade as the functional megaspore underwent mitosis, and almost no callose was observed in the mature embryo sac in wild-type plants. However, callose deposition was observed in mp1 plants around the synergid, and increased with the development of the embryo sac, and was mainly deposited at the micropylar end. Our results indicate that synergid, central, and antipodal cells, which are surrounded by callose, may degrade owing to lack of nutrition. Callose accumulation around the synergid and at the micropylar end may hinder signals required for the pollen tube to enter the embryo sac, leading to abortion. PMID:27323128

  5. Enlarging cells initiating apomixis in Hieracium praealtum transition to an embryo sac program prior to entering mitosis.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Hu, Yingkao; Tucker, Matthew R; Taylor, Jennifer M; Johnson, Susan D; Spriggs, Andrew; Tsuchiya, Tohru; Oelkers, Karsten; Rodrigues, Julio C M; Koltunow, Anna M G

    2013-09-01

    Hieracium praealtum forms seeds asexually by apomixis. During ovule development, sexual reproduction initiates with megaspore mother cell entry into meiosis and formation of a tetrad of haploid megaspores. The sexual pathway ceases when a diploid aposporous initial (AI) cell differentiates, enlarges, and undergoes mitosis, forming an aposporous embryo sac that displaces sexual structures. Embryo and endosperm development in aposporous embryo sacs is fertilization independent. Transcriptional data relating to apomixis initiation in Hieracium spp. ovules is scarce and the functional identity of the AI cell relative to other ovule cell types is unclear. Enlarging AI cells with undivided nuclei, early aposporous embryo sacs containing two to four nuclei, and random groups of sporophytic ovule cells not undergoing these events were collected by laser capture microdissection. Isolated amplified messenger RNA samples were sequenced using the 454 pyrosequencing platform and comparatively analyzed to establish indicative roles of the captured cell types. Transcriptome and protein motif analyses showed that approximately one-half of the assembled contigs identified homologous sequences in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), of which the vast majority were expressed during early Arabidopsis ovule development. The sporophytic ovule cells were enriched in signaling functions. Gene expression indicative of meiosis was notably absent in enlarging AI cells, consistent with subsequent aposporous embryo sac formation without meiosis. The AI cell transcriptome was most similar to the early aposporous embryo sac transcriptome when comparing known functional annotations and both shared expressed genes involved in gametophyte development, suggesting that the enlarging AI cell is already transitioning to an embryo sac program prior to mitotic division. PMID:23864557

  6. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Reducing Light Pollution in U.S. Coastal Regions Using the High Sensitivity Cameras on the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Jane C.; Knowlton, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    Light pollution has significant adverse biological effects on humans, animals, and plants and has resulted in the loss of our ability to view the stars and planets of the universe. Over half of the U.S. population resides in coastal regions where it is no longer possible to see the stars and planets in the night sky. Forty percent of the entire U.S. population is never exposed to conditions dark enough for their eyes to convert to night vision capabilities. In coastal regions, urban lights shine far out to sea where they are augmented by the output from fishing boat, cruise ship and oil platform floodlights. The proposed candidate solution suggests using HSCs (high sensitivity cameras) onboard the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D satellites to quantitatively evaluate light pollution at high spatial resolution. New products modeled after pre-existing, radiance-calibrated, global nighttime lights products would be integrated into a modified Garstang model where elevation, mountain screening, Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering by aerosols, and atmospheric extinction along light paths and curvature of the Earth would be taken into account. Because the spatial resolution of the HSCs on SAC-C and the future Aquarius/SAC-D missions is greater than that provided by the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) OLS (Operational Linescan System) or VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite), it may be possible to obtain more precise light intensity data for analytical DSSs and the subsequent reduction in coastal light pollution.

  7. Activity in the Shuttle Action Center (SAC) of the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Launched on June 20, 1996, the STS-78 mission's primary payload was the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS), which was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). During the 17 day space flight, the crew conducted a diverse slate of experiments divided into a mix of life science and microgravity investigations. In a manner very similar to future International Space Station operations, LMS researchers from the United States and their European counterparts shared resources such as crew time and equipment. Five space agencies (NASA/USA, European Space Agency/Europe (ESA), French Space Agency/France, Canadian Space Agency /Canada, and Italian Space Agency/Italy) along with research scientists from 10 countries worked together on the design, development and construction of the LMS. This photo was taken in the Shuttle Action Center (SAC) of the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at MSFC during the mission.

  8. Amniotic Sac Herniation Through a Prior Cornual Scar in The Third Trimester

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Antonio F.; Costantine, Maged M.; Saade, George; Makhlouf, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Uterine rupture occurs in less than 0.1% of pregnancies. This complication can be detrimental to mother and fetus if not detected and managed in a timely manner. We report an unusual presentation of uterine scar rupture that was diagnosed on ultrasound in a completely stable patient with reassuring fetal status. Case Report A 24-year-old Gravida 5, Para 3 with history of cornual resection for ectopic pregnancy and two previous uterine ruptures presented at 30 weeks' gestation with worsening abdominal pain. Ultrasound identified herniation of the amniotic sac with fetal parts. The patient underwent cesarean delivery and cornual defect repair. Conclusion Close observation and early delivery remain vital to the patient's management. PMID:26495171

  9. Yolk sac tumor in postmenopausal patients: pure or associated with adenocarcinoma, a rare phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Roma, Andres A; Przybycin, Christopher G

    2014-09-01

    Yolk sac tumors (YSTs) of the ovary usually present in young women and have been rarely reported in postmenopausal patients. Most of the cases in young patients are pure or associated with other germ cell components; however, in older patients there is an unusual association with Müllerian epithelial elements, for the most part malignant. We report two cases, both in older patients. One of the YSTs was associated with high-grade serous and endometrioid carcinoma, while the other case showed pure YST. The YST component showed positivity for SALL4, AFP and Glypican-3 and negative staining for PAX8 supporting a germ cell tumor differentiation; SALL4 and PAX8 markers have not been previously analyzed in this setting. Both tumors recurred within 7 months despite systemic chemotherapy. PMID:25083963

  10. Automatic measurement of early gestational sac diameters from one scan session

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Chen, Siping; Li, Shengli; Wang, Tianfu

    2011-03-01

    Gestational sac (GS) diameters are commonly measured by routine ultrasound in early pregnancy. However, manually searching for the standardized plane of GS (SPGS) and measuring the diameters are time-consuming. In this paper, we develop a three-stage automatic solution for this procedure. In order to precisely and efficiently locate the position of GS in each frame, a coarse to fine GS detection scheme based on AdaBoost algorithm is explored. Then, an efficient method based on local context information is introduced to reduce the false positives (FP) generated by the above detection process. Finally, a database (DB) guided spectral segmentation is proposed to separate GS region from the background for further diameters measurement. Experiments carried out on 31 videos show that by using the proposed methods, the number of SPGS searching error is only one, and the average measurement error is 0.059 for the length diameters and 0.083 for the depth diameters.

  11. Hysteroscopic Removal of Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy Following Failed Intramuscular/Intra-Sac Methotrexate: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Purisch, Stephanie E.; Brandt, Justin S.; Montes, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cervical pregnancy is a diagnosis associated with significant morbidity, specifically life-threatening hemorrhage that potentially requires hysterectomy to prevent maternal death. Conservative and fertility-sparing management strategies are poorly described in the literature, and there is no clear standard of care. Case: The patient was a 34-year-old gravida 1, para 0 who had conceived spontaneously after laparoscopic treatment of endometriosis, and was found to have cervical pregnancy. She received both intramuscular and intra-sac methotrexate, with no resolution of the ectopic pregnancy. The pregnancy was removed hysteroscopically. Results: Subsequently, the patient was able to achieve a normal clinical pregnancy with ovulation induction/intrauterine insemination. This pregnancy was carried to term. Conclusions: Although cervical pregnancy is particularly hazardous and potentially fatal, conservative/fertility-sparing management of these pregnancies can be successful. (J GYNECOL SURG 28:369) PMID:24761129

  12. Five new species of the Afrotropical dark sac spider genus Messapus Simon, 1898 (Araneae: Corinnidae).

    PubMed

    Haddad, Charles R; Mbo, Zingisile

    2015-01-01

    The Afrotropical dark sac spider genus Messapus Simon, 1898 (Corinnidae: Corinninae) currently only comprises two described species, the type species M. martini Simon, 1898 and M. natalis (Pocock, 1898), which have both recently been redescribed. The leg and setal morphology of Messapus is studied using scanning electron microscopy for the first time, for M. martini and M. tigris sp. n., and additional characters are provided to supplement a recent generic description. Five new species are described in the current paper: M. megae sp. n. (♂ ♀, from Zimbabwe), M. meridionalis sp. n. (♀, from South Africa), M. seiugatus sp. n. (♀, from Guinea), M. tigris sp. n. (♀, from Botswana and Namibia), and M. tropicus sp. n. (♂ ♀, from Democratic Republic of the Congo). All five species are arboreal spiders occurring on bark, lower foliage strata and the canopies of forest and savannah trees. An identification key to the seven species of the genus is provided. PMID:26701488

  13. Mediastinal Yolk Sac Tumor Producing Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence or Antagonist-II.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Noriyuki; Adachi, Yasushi; Isosaka, Mai; Mita, Hiroaki; Takagi, Hideyasu; Sasaki, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Yoshifumi; Masumori, Naoya; Endo, Takao; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Extragonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare. We herein report the case of a 66-year-old man with mediastinal, lung and liver tumors. The largest mass was located in the liver and contained a high concentration of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) and alpha-fetoprotein. Therefore, the lesion was difficult to distinguish from hepatocellular carcinoma. Finally, YST was diagnosed based on the results of a liver biopsy. Although chemotherapy was effective, the patient died of respiratory failure. The autopsy revealed primary mediastinal YST. In the current report, we describe this case of PIVKA-II-producing YST and review previous cases of PIVKA-II-producing tumors other than hepatoma. PMID:26073245

  14. A new approach for selective rat endolymphatic sac epithelium collection to obtain pure specific RNA.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Kosuke; Miyashita, Takenori; Matsubara, Ai; Mori, Terushige; Inamoto, Ryuhei; Nishiyama, Akira; Mori, Nozomu

    2008-11-21

    The endolymphatic sac (ES) is an organ that is located in the temporal bone. Its anatomical location makes ES tissue collection without any contamination very difficult, and sometimes accurate molecular analyses of the ES are prevented due to this matter. In the present study, a new selective ES epithelial tissue collection method was attempted using laser capture microdissection to obtain pure ES RNA without any contamination. The validity of this method was demonstrated by RT-PCR with three specific primer pairs against osteocalcin, calponin H1, and NKCC2, which are specific proteins in bone, smooth muscle, and kidney/ES cells, respectively. From the RT-PCR results, the high specificity and sufficient sensitivity of the new method was indicated. It is considered that the new method is optimal for ES collection without contamination and it will be able to contribute to future analyses of the ES. PMID:18809376

  15. PolySac3DB: an annotated data base of 3 dimensional structures of polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Polysaccharides are ubiquitously present in the living world. Their structural versatility makes them important and interesting components in numerous biological and technological processes ranging from structural stabilization to a variety of immunologically important molecular recognition events. The knowledge of polysaccharide three-dimensional (3D) structure is important in studying carbohydrate-mediated host-pathogen interactions, interactions with other bio-macromolecules, drug design and vaccine development as well as material science applications or production of bio-ethanol. Description PolySac3DB is an annotated database that contains the 3D structural information of 157 polysaccharide entries that have been collected from an extensive screening of scientific literature. They have been systematically organized using standard names in the field of carbohydrate research into 18 categories representing polysaccharide families. Structure-related information includes the saccharides making up the repeat unit(s) and their glycosidic linkages, the expanded 3D representation of the repeat unit, unit cell dimensions and space group, helix type, diffraction diagram(s) (when applicable), experimental and/or simulation methods used for structure description, link to the abstract of the publication, reference and the atomic coordinate files for visualization and download. The database is accompanied by a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). It features interactive displays of polysaccharide structures and customized search options for beginners and experts, respectively. The site also serves as an information portal for polysaccharide structure determination techniques. The web-interface also references external links where other carbohydrate-related resources are available. Conclusion PolySac3DB is established to maintain information on the detailed 3D structures of polysaccharides. All the data and features are available via the web

  16. Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from the yolk sacs of bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Mançanares, C A F; Oliveira, V C; Oliveira, L J; Carvalho, A F; Sampaio, R V; Mançanares, A C F; Souza, A F; Perecin, F; Meirelles, F V; Miglino, M A; Ambrósio, C E

    2015-10-01

    The yolk sac (YS) represents a promising source of stem cells for research because of the hematopoietic and mesenchymal cell niches that are present in this structure during the development of the embryo. In this study, we report on the isolation and characterization of YS tissue and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bovine YSs. Our results show that the YS is macroscopically located in the exocoelomic cavity in the ventral portion of the embryo and consists of a transparent membrane formed by a central sac-like portion and two ventrally elongated projections. Immunohistochemistry analyses were positive for OCT4, CD90, CD105, and CD44 markers in the YS of both gestational age groups. The MSCs of bovine YS were isolated using enzymatic digestion and were grown in vitro for at least 11 passages to verify their capacity to proliferate. These cells were also subjected to immunophenotypic characterization that revealed the presence of CD90, CD105, and CD79 and the absence of CD45, CD44, and CD79, which are positive and negative markers of MSCs, respectively. To prove their multipotency, the cells were induced to differentiate into three cell types, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes, which were stained with tissue-specific dyes (chondrogenic: Alcian Blue, osteogenic: Alizarin Red, and adipogenic: Oil Red O) to confirm differentiation. Gene expression analyses showed no differences in the patterns of gene expression between the groups or passages tested, with the exception of the expression of SOX2, which was slightly different in the G1P3 group compared to the other groups. Our results suggest that YS tissue from bovines can be used as a source of MSCs, which makes YS tissue-derived cells an interesting option for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. PMID:26143361

  17. 48 CFR 301.603-74 - Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. 301.603-74 Section 301.603-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  18. 48 CFR 301.603-74 - Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. 301.603-74 Section 301.603-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  19. The endolymphatic sac in patients with Ménière's disease: correlation between the MRI and the surgical findings.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Fukaya, T; Noda, M

    2000-10-01

    The endolymphatic sac (ES) is thought to have close relations to pathogenesis of endolymphatic hydrops. Here is reported a retrospective study of 41 patients (42 ears) with Meniere's disease who underwent MRI prior to endolymphatic sac surgery. Based on proton-density weighted image (PDI) and T2-weighted image (T2), the ES including an endolymphatic duct (ED) were estimated whether it was detectable or not. Fourteen ESs were detected on both images (Group A), 14 ESs were detected only on PDI (Group B), and the remaining 14 ESs were not detected on either image (Group D). The actual shape of the sac, obtained from surgical findings, was classified into three (normoplastic, atrophic, invisible). Seventeen ears showed normoplastic ESs and 14 showed atrophic ESs. ES was not detected in 11 ears during surgery, and these findings were compared with image classification. From the study data, normoplastic ESs tend to be observed on both images whereas atrophic or invisible sacs were hardly observed on T2. This classification of ES on MRI was thought to correlate with surgical findings and this correlation was statistically significant (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. r(s) = 0.58, p < 0.01). PMID:11200591

  20. Low flow venous malformation lesion presented with medial canthal swelling simulating swelling of the lacrimal sac origin: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ALSwaina, Nayef F.; ALSuhaibani, Adel H.

    2015-01-01

    Low flow venous malformation lesions (e.g. cavernous venous malformations) are commonly seen in the orbit and peri-orbital area. Common conditions may present with unexpected presentation. Here we report a 50 years old male patient with low flow venous malformation lesion presented with medial canthal swelling similar to the swelling typically seen in lacrimal sac related pathologies. PMID:26309438

  1. The effect of the renin—angiotensin system on mucosal water and sodium transfer in everted sacs of rat jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Ann D.; Munday, Kenneth A.

    1970-01-01

    1. Mucosal water and sodium transfer were measured in everted sacs of rat jejunum. 2. Rats maintained on a high sodium diet did not show consistently reduced mucosal water transfer and aldosterone also failed to stimulate transfer unless the control untreated values were low. 3. Adrenalectomy produced little reduction in mucosal water transfer and aldosterone was without effect on water transfer in sacs from adrenalectomized rats. 4. Vasopressin had no effect on mucosal transfer. 5. Levels of water transfer were not reduced after hypophysectomy nor did aldosterone injection increase transfer. 6. Mucosal water transfer in sacs from adrenalectomized—nephrectomized rats was low and was significantly increased by aldosterone injection or by injection of crude kidney extract. 7. A significant increased mucosal water and sodium transfer was observed when sacs from adrenalectomized—nephrectomized rats were incubated with angiotensin at a concentration of 10-10g/ml. 8. It is suggested that the renin—angiotensin system may be involved in the maintenance of sodium homoeostasis by a direct action on sodium transporting mechanisms. PMID:4322443

  2. 48 CFR 301.603-74 - Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. 301.603-74 Section 301.603-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  3. Combined anti-solvent and cooling method of manufacturing indomethacin-saccharin (IMC-SAC) co-crystal powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Nan-Hee; Lee, Min-Jeong; Song, Geon-Hyung; Chang, Kwan-Young; Kim, Chang-Sam; Choi, Guang J.

    2014-12-01

    The anti-solvent approach has been demonstrated as one potential industrial method to produce pharmaceutical co-crystal powders with high purity. In this study, we combined the anti-solvent method with cooling to maximize the yield of the solution-based co-crystallization between indomethacin (IMC) and saccharin (SAC). The cooling start time was the key process parameter; other parameters were fixed based on results of preliminary work. Highly pure IMC-SAC co-crystal powders were produced via the combined method, regardless of the cooling start time, and the yield was substantially enhanced. However, some material properties, such as crystallinity and particle size, were affected by the cooling start time; i.e., whether cooling was started before nucleation (pre-nucleation cooling) or after nucleation (post-nucleation cooling). When pre-nucleation cooling was applied, a greater degree of supersaturation led to nucleation of α-IMC and IMC-SAC together. The metastable α-IMC eventually transitioned to stable IMC-SAC co-crystal particles, followed by crystal growth. When post-nucleation cooling was applied, the transient α-IMC was not detected during the entire process.

  4. Distal regeneration involves the age dependent activity of branchial sac stem cells in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tunicates have high capacities for regeneration but the underlying mechanisms and their relationship to life cycle progression are not well understood. Here we investigate the regeneration of distal structures in the ascidian tunicate Ciona intestinalis. Analysis of regenerative potential along the proximal−distal body axis indicated that distal organs, such as the siphons, their pigmented sensory organs, and the neural complex, could only be replaced from body fragments containing the branchial sac. Distal regeneration involves the formation of a blastema composed of cells that undergo cell proliferation prior to differentiation and cells that differentiate without cell proliferation. Both cell types originate in the branchial sac and appear in the blastema at different times after distal injury. Whereas the branchial sac stem cells are present in young animals, they are depleted in old animals that have lost their regeneration capacity. Thus Ciona adults contain a population of age‐related stem cells located in the branchial sac that are a source of precursors for distal body regeneration. PMID:25893097

  5. Effects of breeder age on mineral contents and weight of yolk sac, embryo development, and hatchability in Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Onbasilar, E E; Erdem, E; Hacan, O; Yalçin, S

    2014-02-01

    The current study was carried out to investigate the effects of breeder age on egg composition, changes of embryo, yolk sac, and yolk minerals during incubation and hatchability in Pekin ducks. A total of 495 freshly laid eggs were obtained from the same flock of Pekin ducks, aged 28, 34, and 40 wk, and were reared in accordance with the management guide of the duck breeders (Star 53-Grimaud Freres). At each breeder age, egg measurements were made on a random subsample of unincubated eggs. Embryo and yolk sac measurements were made on embryonic day (E) 12, E16, E20, and E25. On d 28 of incubation, the healthy ducklings were removed and sex of chicks was determined. All chicks were weighed and hatching results were determined. Egg weight and yolk percentages increased; however, albumen percentages, shell thickness, and yolk index decreased as the flock aged. Shell percentages, shell breaking strength, albumen index, and haugh units were not affected by breeder age. Also, breeder age affected the Mg, P, K, Ca, Cu, and Zn levels in the yolk, except for Na level on day of setting, and breeder age affected the mineral consumed by embryo during incubation. However, on E25, the levels of examined minerals, except for P level in the yolk sac, were not statistically different in duck breeder age groups. Relative yolk sac and embryo weights of eggs obtained from different breeder ages varied from E16 to E25; however, embryo length was different in breeder age groups from E12 to E20. Hatching weight was affected by breeder age and sex. Hatching results were not different among breeder age groups. This study indicates that breeder age is important for some egg characteristics, relative yolk sac weight, some contents of minerals in the yolk, embryonic growth during incubation, and duckling weight. PMID:24570471

  6. Evaluation of an anal sac adenocarcinoma tumor in a Spitz dog

    PubMed Central

    Javanbakht, Javad; Tavassoli, Abbas; Sabbagh, Atefeh; Hassan, Mehdy Aghamohammmad; Samakkhah, Shohreh Alian; Shafiee, Radmehr; Lakzian, Ali; Ghalee, Vahideh Rahmani; Gharebagh, Sonia Shoja

    2013-01-01

    A 9-year-old emasculated male Spitz with tenesmus and constipation had a subcutaneous mass at the left ventral aspect of the anus with history of polyuria and polydipsia. A complete blood cell count, serum biochemistry panel, and urinalysis (cystocentesis sample) were evaluated. Abnormalities in the serum biochemistry panel included a mildly elevated serum cholesterol concentration (7.28 mmol/L; reference interval, 2.70–5.94 mmol/L), increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity (184 U/L; reference interval, 9–90 U/L), alanine transaminase (122 U/L; reference interval, 5–60 U/L) activity and aspartate aminotransferase (80 U/L; reference interval, 5–55 U/L) activity, severe increased total calcium concentration (16.3 mg/dL; reference interval, 8.2–12.4 mg/dL or 9.3–11.4 mg/dL), and decreased total calcium concentration (3.4 mg/dL, reference interval, 2.5–5.6mg/dL). Furthermore, testing revealed an increased intact parathyroid hormone concentration (38.6 pmol/L; reference interval, 3–17 pmol/L). On cytologic and histopathologic examinations, various types of cells were observed. Most of the cells were oval to polygonal and had elliptical or elongate nuclei and a moderate amount of pale to basophilic cytoplasm. The remaining cells had round to oval nuclei and pale to basophilic cytoplasm. Cells of both types were loosely adhered to each other and were arranged in rosette-like structures. Both neoplastic cell types had fine homogenous chromatin and either a small indistinct nucleolus or no visible nucleolus. Mild anisokaryosis and anisocytosis were observed. Histologically, the mass consists of glandular structures formed by cuboidal cells admixed with bundles of spindle cells. Based on location and histologic features, the final diagnosis was adenocarcinoma of the apocrine gland of the anal sac, which should be included as a cytologic differential diagnosis when spindle cells and typical epithelial cells are observed in masses in the region of the anal

  7. Results and validation of marine surface wind speed obtained from SAC-D/Aquarius MWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauro, C. B.; Etala, P.; Echevarría, P.; Hejazin, Y.; Jacob, M. M.; Jones, L.

    2012-12-01

    MWR (MicroWave Radiometer) is a radiometer on board SAC-D/Aquarius satellite, launched in June 2011. The SAC-D/Aquarius science mission was developed jointly by the Nacional Space Agency of Argentina (CONAE, Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of USA (NASA), that focuses on understanding the interaction between the global water cycle, ocean circulation and climate by measuring sea surface salinity. MWR is a three channel push broom, Dicke radiometer, that has 16 beams, 8 forward-looking at 36.5 GHz (in vertical and horizontal polarization) and 8 aft-looking at 23.8 GHz (in horizontal polarization), with a swath of approximately 380 Km. The beams are arranged to have two incidence angles, one of 52° (odd beams) and one of 58° (even beams) for both forward and aft-looks. Since recently, CONAE with collaboration of CFRSL (Central Florida Remote Sensing Laboratory), are generating geophysical parameters, all over the sea surface, using brightness temperature measurements from MWR. These parameters include columnar water vapor, wind speed, sea ice concentration and rain rate, which are ancillary data for the Aquarius salinity measurements. We present in this paper the first results of wind speed over the sea, obtained using the MWR data. The wind speed retrieval algorithm is based on the microwave radiative transfer theory by Wentz [1]. The algorithm developed uses MWR brigthness temperature at 36.5 GHz in both polarizations and sea surface temperature obtained from GDAS. As a result, the neutral stability ocean surface wind speed at 10 m height and the atmospheric trasnmissivity at 36.5 GHz are retrieved. In addition, a validation process in collaboration with the Naval Hydrographic Service of Argentina (SHN) has started. The final goal of this on-going work is to assess the quality of MWR wind data in conjunction with surface wind observations from other sources in a data assimilation system. At this

  8. Relative investment in egg load and poison sac in fig wasps: Implications for physiological mechanisms underlying seed and wasp production in figs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinson, Ellen O.; Jandér, K. Charlotte; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Chen, Huan-Huan; Machado, Carlos A.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Herre, Edward Allen

    2014-05-01

    Fig pollinating wasps and most non-pollinator wasps apply secretions from their poison sacs into oviposited flowers that appear necessary to the formation of the galls that their developing offspring consume. Thus, both eggs and poison sac secretions appear to be essential for wasp reproduction, but the relative investment in each is unknown. We measured relative investment in poison sac and egg production in pollinating and non-pollinating wasps associated with seven species of monoecious Panamanian figs representing both active and passive pollination syndromes. We then collected similar data for four fig hosts in China, where some wasp species in the genus Eupristina have lost the ability to pollinate ("cheaters"). All wasps examined possessed large poison sacs, and we found a strong positive correlation between poison sac size and absolute egg production. In the Panamanian species, the relative poison sac to egg investment was highest in the externally ovipositing non-pollinator wasps, followed by active pollinators, then by passive pollinators. Further, pollinator wasps of fig species with demonstrated host sanctions against "cheating" wasps showed higher investment in the poison sac than wasps of species without sanctions. In the Chinese samples, relative investment in the poison sac was indistinguishable between pollinators and "cheaters" associated with the same fig species. We suggest that higher relative investment in poison sac across fig wasp species reflects higher relative difficulty in initiating formation of galls and subsequently obtaining resources from the fig. We discuss the implications for the stability of the fig-wasp mutualism, and for the ability of non-pollinators to exploit this mutualism.

  9. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS--USE OF RADIOGRAPHY AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF A MINERALIZED YOLK SAC IN A BROWN KIWI (APTERYX MANTELLI).

    PubMed

    Wightman, Paul; Cohen, Eli B; Hunter, Stuart; Gartrell, Brett

    2015-01-01

    A 12-day-old Brown Kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) was presented with anorexia, torticollis, head-tilt, and coelomic distension. Radiographs showed an ill-defined, fat-opaque, coelomic mass displacing viscera craniodorsally. Curvilinear mineral opacities were superimposed over the ventral aspect of the mass. Computed tomography demonstrated the presence of mineral within the periphery of a fat attenuating mass consistent with a retained yolk sac. A deutectomy (yolk sac excision) was performed. Histopathology of the excised tissue confirmed the diagnosis of a retained yolk sac with multifocal mineralization. PMID:25199884

  10. Detection of a metastatic lesion and tiny yolk sac tumors in two teenage patients by FDG-PET: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masataka; Kanamori, Yutaka; Takahashi, Miwako; Momose, Toshimitsu; Iwanaka, Tadashi

    2014-10-01

    We herein report the efficacy of FDG-PET for detecting yolk sac tumors in two teenage patients. One patient had a rare bone metastasis and the other had tiny recurrent lesions at the mediastinum. Both lesions were difficult to detect by conventional diagnostic modalities. In contrast, FDG-PET was very effective for detecting these lesions. Furthermore, the SUVmax of the lesion reflected the tumor activity, which was also suggested by the fluctuating values of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), an established marker of yolk sac tumors. FDG-PET may be a useful procedure to detect tiny and metastatic, pediatric yolk sac tumors. PMID:23801057

  11. Modeling and simulation of blood flow in a sac-type left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Najarian, Siamak; Firouzi, Faramarz; Fatouraee, Nasser; Dargahi, Javad

    2007-01-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are among the most important mechanical artificial hearts in medical equipment industry. Since the need for heart transplantation is on the rise, there is a requirement for implantable LVADs, which can be safely used for long-term purposes. One of the most promising kinds of these devices is the sac-type LVAD (ST-LVAD) that has the ability to generate pulsatile flow. In this study and for the first time, three different models of ST-LVAD are analyzed numerically. In the first model, the motion of the elastic membrane wall is simplified, while in the second model, the motion is assumed to be wavy. The pressure boundary conditions are added to the second model to allocate for the effect of pressure on the flow pattern, and hence, form the third model. The simulation results of the analyzed models show that in this particular type of LVAD, the viscous term of the applied stress from the fluid on the moving wall is negligible, compared with the pressure term. Additionally, it can be concluded that the motion pattern of the moving wall does not affect the blood flow pattern in a great deal. Furthermore, the inclusion of the fluid pressure in the boundary conditions does not have a major influence on the blood flow pattern. PMID:17611298

  12. Electrogenic transport and K+ ion channel expression by the human endolymphatic sac epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Huhn; Kim, Bo Gyung; Kim, Jin Young; Roh, Kyung Jin; Suh, Michelle J.; Jung, JinSei; Moon, In Seok; Moon, Sung K.; Choi, Jae Young

    2015-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac (ES) is a cystic organ that is a part of the inner ear and is connected to the cochlea and vestibule. The ES is thought to be involved in inner ear ion homeostasis and fluid volume regulation for the maintenance of hearing and balance function. Many ion channels, transporters, and exchangers have been identified in the ES luminal epithelium, mainly in animal studies, but there has been no functional study investigating ion transport using human ES tissue. We designed the first functional experiments on electrogenic transport in human ES and investigated the contribution of K+ channels in the electrogenic transport, which has been rarely identified, even in animal studies, using electrophysiological/pharmacological and molecular biological methods. As a result, we identified functional and molecular evidence for the essential participation of K+ channels in the electrogenic transport of human ES epithelium. The identified K+ channels involved in the electrogenic transport were KCNN2, KCNJ14, KCNK2, and KCNK6, and the K+ transports via those channels are thought to play an important role in the maintenance of the unique ionic milieu of the inner ear fluid. PMID:26655723

  13. Yolk sac tumor with a prominent polyvesicular vitelline pattern: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert H; Ulbright, Thomas M; Policarpio-Nicolas, Maria Luisa C

    2013-03-01

    We report 3 cases of the rare polyvesicular vitelline variant of ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST). The patients were 23, 29, and 43 years old, and all presented with large unilateral adnexal masses confined to the ovary. One tumor was predominantly cystic, and the other 2 had prominent cystic components; all 3 also had solid components. Microscopic examination of the cystic regions showed dilated cysts that largely effaced the stroma resulting in a honeycomb-like appearance. The solid foci were characterized predominantly by small tubules in a fibrous stroma; the tubules exhibited variably conspicuous cystic dilatation to merge with the microcystic appearance. The tumor cells varied from large and primitive-appearing to flattened and deceptively innocuous when lining large cysts. They were immunoreactive for α-fetoprotein and glypican-3. Non-polyvesicular vitelline components of YST were present focally in 2 cases (hepatoid in one, reticular and endometrioid like in the second). Two patients are disease free after 20 and 26 years, respectively; disease-free follow-up is of short duration in the third case (2 years). The good long-term outcome in 2 cases supports prior evidence that suggests that the natural history of this form of YST may be more indolent than conventional forms of the tumor. PMID:23348213

  14. CT imaging of ovarian yolk sac tumor with emphasis on differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang-Kang; Zheng, Yu; Lin, Jian-Bang; Xu, Gui-Xiao; Cai, Ai-Qun; Zhou, Xiu-Guo; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare neoplasms. No radiological study has been done to compare the imaging findings between this type of tumor and other ovarian tumors. Here we analyzed the CT findings of 11 pathologically proven ovarian YSTs and compared their imaging findings with 18 other types of ovarian tumors in the same age range. Patient age, tumor size, tumor shape, ascites and metastasis of two groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). A mixed solid-cystic nature, intratumoral hemorrhage, marked enhancement and dilated intratumoral vessel of two groups differed significantly (P < 0.05). The area under the ROC curve of four significant CT features was 0.679, 0.707, 0.705, and 1.000, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified two independent signs of YST: intratumoral hemorrhage and marked enhancement. Our results show that certain suggestive CT signs that may be valuable for improving the accuracy of imaging diagnosis of YST and may be helpful in distinguishing YST from other ovarian tumors. PMID:26074455

  15. alpha 1-Fetoprotein mRNA of rat yolk sac and hepatoma.

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, J F; Decha-Umphai, W; Commer, P

    1979-01-01

    Rat alpha 1-fetoprotein mRNA was isolated and purified to apparent homogeneity by means of immunoadsorption and oligo (dT) cellulose affinity chromatography. Purified AFP mRNA migrated as a 21S peak in 2.5% SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The translation product of this mRNA in micrococcal nuclease treated reticulocyte lysate was identified as AFP by specific immunoprecipitation, SDS-gel electrophoresis and tryptic digestion analysis. DNA complimentary to AFP mRNA was synthesized with avian meyloblastosis virus RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. This AFP cDNA was used as a probe to quantitate AFP mRNA in the developing rat liver and to compare the complexity and diversity of AFP mRNA derived from the normal rat liver and Morris hepatoma 7777. We found that the amount of functional AFP mRNA is decreasing during liver development. There is very little, if any, AFP mRNA in the adult rat liver. A high degree of homology between the AFP mRNA sequences of yolk sac and hepatoma was also found. PMID:91159

  16. Investigating the Physical Basis of Aquarius/SAC-D Salinity Retrievals' Regional SST Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, J. P.; Meissner, T.; Wentz, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sea-surface temperature (SST) plays an important, and yet to be fully understood, role in sea-surface sailinty (SSS) retrievals. The Version-3 release of Aquarius/SAC-D salinity retrievals applied an empirically derived adjustment to SSS that is a function of SST. This adjustment was derived after noticing regional salinity biases relative to modeled and in situ salinity observations. These SSS biases correlate well with climatological SST maps. While the ΔSSS(SST) adjustment has already been implemented in the ADPS standard processing, there is great value in determining the physical basis of this bias adjustment. Understanding the root causes of this adjustment will enable improved Aquarius's salinity retrievals, as well as ensure that no true SSS-SST correlations or variability are being removed by the adjustment. There are several factors contributing to the ΔSSS(SST) adjustment, which may be classified into direct, correlated, and indirect effects. Direct effects include the dependence of the sea-water dielectric constant on SST and the dependence of the roughness model on SST. Correlated effects include a small mis-modeling of the atmospheric oxygen absorption, which correlates with SST. Indirect effects include other errors sources such as reflected galactic radiation and RFI that produce ocean-basin-wide anomalies that are being misinterpreted as an SST effect. This presentation will demonstrate how the ΔSSS(SST) adjustment was derived, as well as present our findings regarding the physical basis of this adjustment.

  17. Primary Endometrial Yolk Sac Tumor With Endodermal-Intestinal Differentiation Masquerading as Metastatic Colorectal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Damato, Stephen; Haldar, Krishnayan; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2016-07-01

    Yolk sac tumors (YSTs) with a somatic glandular pattern can be difficult to recognize histologically because they reproduce developing intestinal, hepatic, or lung tissue and can express markers such as CDX2 and TTF1. We report an unusual case of a primary endometrial YST showing florid endodermal-intestinal differentiation in a 63-yr-old woman with a history of colorectal adenocarcinoma. Histologically, the tumor exhibited a glandular and papillary architecture and showed widespread immunoreactivity for CDX2 and focal staining for CK20 and CEA, mimicking metastatic colorectal carcinoma on biopsy. The presence of subnuclear cytoplasmic clearing and positive staining for germ cell markers, however, pointed toward a diagnosis of primary endometrial YST, and this was supported by the radiologic and the subsequent pathologic finding of a primary endometrial-based lesion. YSTs in this age group usually arise in association with somatic tumors and in this case a small focus of coexistent endometrioid adenocarcinoma was identified within the uterus. Despite surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient showed disease progression with liver and lung metastases 6 mo postoperatively. PMID:26598980

  18. Mass-marking of otoliths of lake trout sac fry by temperature manipulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Bowen, Charles; Seelye, James G.; Locke, Jeffrey C.

    1990-01-01

    The otoliths of 676,000 sac fry of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in 1986, and of 1,100,000 in 1987, were marked by daily manipulation of water temperature. The fish were stocked into Lake Huron in the spring. Otolith marks consisted of groups of daily growth rings accentuated into recognizable patterns by steadily raising and lowering the temperature about 10 degrees C (from a base of 1-4 degrees C) over 14 h. In 1987, groups of marked and control fish were held for 6 months. The otoliths were removed from samples of the fish, embedded in epoxy, thin sectioned by grinding in the sagittal plane, etched, and viewed by using a combination of a compound microscope (400-1000x) and a video enhancement system. One or more readable otolith sections were obtained from 39 of a sample of 40 fish. Three independent readers examined 41 otoliths for marks and correctly classified the otoliths, with accuracies of 85, 98, and 100%, as being from marked or unmarked fish. The exact number of rings in a recognizable pattern sometimes differed from the number of temperature cycles to which the fish were exposed. Counts of daily rings within groups of six rings varied less than counts within groups of rings.

  19. Mass-marking of otoliths of lake trout sac fry by temperature manipulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, R.A.; Eshenroder, R.L.; Bowen, C. II; Seelye, J.G.; Locke, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The otoliths of 676,000 sac fry of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in 1986, and of 1,100,000 in 1987, were marked by daily manipulation of water temperature. The fish were stocked into Lake Huron in the spring. Otolith marks consisted of groups of daily growth rings accentuated into recognizable patterns by steadily raising and lowering the temperature about IOA?C (from a base of 1-4A?C) over 14h. In 1987, groups of marked and control fish were held for 6 months. The otoliths were removed from samples of the fish, embedded in epoxy, thin-sectioned by grinding in the sagittal plane, etched, and viewed by using a combination of a compound microscope (400-1000x) and a video enhancement system. One or more readable otolith sections were obtained from 39 of a sample of 40 fish. Three independent readers examined 41 otoliths for marks and correctly classified the otoliths, with accuracies of 85, 98,and 100%, as being from marked or unmarked fish. The exact number of rings in a recognizable pattern sometimes differed from the number of temperature cycles to which the fish were exposed. Counts of daily rings within groups of six rings varied less than counts within groups of three rings.

  20. Unique stereocontrol in carborane chemistry: skeletal alkylcarbonation (SAC) versus exoskeletal alkylmethylation (EAM) reactions.

    PubMed

    Bakardjiev, Mario; Holub, Josef; Macháček, Jan; Hnyk, Drahomír; Štíbr, Bohumil; Růžičková, Zdeňka; Růžička, Aleš

    2015-04-13

    Reactions between the arachno-6,9-C2B8H14 (1) dicarbaborane and acyl chlorides, RCOCl (2), are subject to stereocontrol that completely changes the nature of the reaction products. While most chlorides produce the 8-R-nido-7,8,9-C3B8H11 (3) tricarbollides (by skeletal alkylcarbonation=SAC), bulky RCOCls (2; where R=1-adamantyl, 2 a; 1-mesityl, 2 b; 9-anthranyl, 2 c; 1-naphthyl, 2 d) in 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) in the presence of triethylamine at 40-60 °C gave a series of entirely different 1-R-2-CH3-closo-1,6-C2B8H8 (4) dicarbaboranes upon acidification with conc. H2SO4 (by exosleletal alkylmehylation=EAM). Both types of reactions seem to proceed via a common [8-R-nido-7,8,9-C3B8H10](-) (3(-)) anion which in the EAM case is unstable because of steric crowd and undergoes rearrangement via the isomeric [R-nido-7,8,10-C3B8H10](-) tricarbollide structures which, on protonation, undergo reductive extraction of one CH vertex to generate the 2-CH3 substituent in structure 4. PMID:25708127

  1. Modeling and simulating aircraft stability and control—The SimSAC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, Arthur

    2011-11-01

    This paper overviews the SimSAC Project, Simulating Aircraft Stability And Control Characteristics for Use in Conceptual Design. It reports on the three major tasks: development of design software, validating the software on benchmark tests and applying the software to design exercises. CEASIOM, the Computerized Environment for Aircraft Synthesis and Integrated Optimization Methods, is a framework tool that integrates discipline-specific tools for conceptual design. At this early stage of the design it is very useful to be able to predict the flying and handling qualities of this design. In order to do this, the aerodynamic database needs to be computed for the configuration being studied, which then has to be coupled to the stability and control tools to carry out the analysis. The benchmarks for validation are the F12 windtunnel model of a generic long-range airliner and the TCR windtunnel model of a sonic-cruise passenger transport concept. The design, simulate and evaluate (DSE) exercise demonstrates how the software works as a design tool. The exercise begins with a design specification and uses conventional design methods to prescribe a baseline configuration. Then CEASIOM improves upon this baseline by analyzing its flying and handling qualities. Six such exercises are presented.

  2. Migrating bullet in the thecal sac at the level of the conus medullaris without neurological deficit.

    PubMed

    Koban, Orkun; Çal, Hasan; Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Özcan-Ekşi, Emel Ece; Öğrenci, Ahmet

    2016-07-01

    Bullets can lodge in the organs, blood vessels or thecal sac. To our knowledge, a migrating bullet at the level of the conus medullaris without neurological deficit has never been reported. We present our patient along with a discussion of bullet migration in the spinal canal and its mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment. A 29-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department due to a gunshot wound in the right upper quadrant of his abdomen. He had no neurological deficit. Spinal CT scan and plain radiography showed the bullet had passed through the L2 vertebral body and had migrated downwards until it had lost its energy and come to rest in the spinal canal at the L3 vertebra level. There was a grade 5 injury to the pancreas head concomitant with mesenteric injury of the transverse colon, harboring a 0.5 cm hole. He had an emergent laparotomy to have a Roux-en-Y reconstruction and repair of the transverse colon. After his general status stabilized, he was taken back to the operating room to extract the bullet from the spinal canal. L3 and partial L2 laminectomy were performed. The dura was opened and the bullet was observed intrathecally. No cerebrospinal fluid fistula was observed. The surgeries and post-operative period were uneventful. PMID:26921138

  3. Integrated Phase Array Antenna/Solar Cell System for Flexible Access Communication (IA/SAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, E. B.; Lee, R. Q.; Pal, A. T.; Wilt, D. M.; McElroy, B. D.; Mueller, C. H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes recent efforts to integrate advanced solar cells with printed planar antennas. Several previous attempts have been reported in the literature, but this effort is unique in several ways. It uses Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) multi-junction solar cell technology. The solar cells and antennas will be integrated onto a common GaAs substrate. When fully implemented, IA/SAC will be capable of dynamic beam steering. In addition, this program targets the X-band (8 - 12 GHz) and higher frequencies, as compared to the 2.2 - 2.9 GHz arrays targeted by other organizations. These higher operating frequencies enable a greater bandwidth and thus higher data transfer rates. The first phase of the effort involves the development of 2 x 2 cm GaAs Monolithically Integrated Modules (MIM) with integrated patch antennas on the opposite side of the substrate. Subsequent work will involve the design and development of devices having the GaAs MIMs and the antennas on the same side of the substrate. Results from the phase one efforts will be presented.

  4. Apospory appears to accelerate onset of meiosis and sexual embryo sac formation in sorghum ovules

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genetically unreduced (2n) embryo sacs (ES) form in ovules of gametophytic apomicts, the 2n eggs of which develop into embryos parthenogenetically. In many apomicts, 2n ES form precociously during ovule development. Whether meiosis and sexual ES formation also occur precociously in facultative apomicts (capable of apomictic and sexual reproduction) has not been studied. We determined onset timing of meiosis and sexual ES formation for 569 Sorghum bicolor genotypes, many of which produced 2n ES facultatively. Results Genotype differences for onset timing of meiosis and sexual ES formation, relative to ovule development, were highly significant. A major source of variation in timing of sexual germline development was presence or absence of apomictic ES, which formed from nucellar cells (apospory) in some genotypes. Genotypes that produced these aposporous ES underwent meiosis and sexual ES formation precociously. Aposporous ES formation was most prevalent in subsp. verticilliflorum and in breeding lines of subsp. bicolor. It was uncommon in land races. Conclusions The present study adds meiosis and sexual ES formation to floral induction, apomictic ES formation, and parthenogenesis as processes observed to occur precociously in apomictic plants. The temporally diverse nature of these events suggests that an epigenetic memory of the plants' apomixis status exists throughout its life cycle, which triggers, during multiple life cycle phases, temporally distinct processes that accelerate reproduction. PMID:21223576

  5. Primary Endodermal Epithelial Cell Culture from the Yolk Sac Membrane of Japanese Quail Embryos.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han Jen; Wang, Siou Huei; Pan, Yu Hui; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-01-01

    We established an endodermal epithelial cell culture model (EEC) for studying the function of certain enzymes and proteins in mediating nutrient utilization by avian embryos during development. Fertilized Japanese quail eggs were incubated at 37 °C for 5 days and then yolk sac membranes (YSM) were collected to establish the EEC culture system. We isolated the embryonic endoderm layer from YSM, and sliced the membrane into 2 - 3 mm pieces and partially digested with collagenase before seeding in 24-well culture plates. The EECs proliferate out of the tissue and are ready for cell culture studies. We found that the EECs had typical characteristics of YSM in vivo, for example, accumulation of lipid droplets, expression of sterol O-acyltransferase and lipoprotein lipase. The partial digestion treatment significantly increased the successful rate of EEC culture. Utilizing the EECs, we demonstrated that the expression of SOAT1 was regulated by the cAMP dependent protein kinase A related pathway. This primary Japanese quail EEC culture system is a useful tool to study embryonic lipid transportation and to clarify the role of genes involved in mediating nutrient utilization in YSM during avian embryonic development. PMID:27022687

  6. Development of Multi-Service (MS) for SAC-OCDMA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakaee, Majid H.; Seyedzadeh, Saleh; Adnan Fadhil, Hilal; Barirah Ahmad Anas, Siti; Mokhtar, Makhfudzah

    2014-08-01

    A Multi-Service Optical Code Division Multiple Access (MS-OCDMA) code based on Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) is proposed in this paper. The advantage of proposed code on setting a variable number of users in a basic code matrix with a fixed code weight makes it more flexible in generating codewords. The appropriate quality of service required for various network applications can be provided by choosing a different number of users for the basic code matrix of MS code. The properties of the proposed code is compared with other OCDMA codes in terms of code length and maximum cross-correlation. The performance of the MS code mathematically analysed and probability of error for users is plotted as a function of the number of active users and optical received power. Shot, phase induced intensity and thermal noises are considered in mathematical analysis. Results show that by choosing code weight of 4 and optimizing number of users per sequence, the MS code supports up to 82 users, each operating at a bit-rate of 622 Mbps with reference to the Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-9.

  7. Effect of blue LED light intensity on carotenoid accumulation in citrus juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the effects of blue LED light intensity on carotenoid accumulation and expression of genes related to carotenoid biosynthesis were investigated in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) and Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) in vitro. The results showed that 100 μmol m(-2)s(-1) blue LED light (100B) was effective for increasing carotenoid content, especially β-cryptoxanthin, in Satsuma mandarin after cultured in vitro for four weeks. In Valencia orange, in contrast, 50 μmol m(-2)s(-1) blue LED light (50B) treatment was effective for inducing carotenoid accumulation through increasing the contents of two major carotenoids, all-trans-violaxanthin and 9-cis-violaxanthin. In addition, gene expression results showed that the simultaneous increases in the expression of genes (CitPSY, CitPDS, CitZDS, CitLCYb2, and CitHYb) involved in producing β,β-xanthophylls were well consistent with the accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin in Satsuma mandarin under 100B, and violaxanthin in Valencia orange under 50B. The results presented herein contribute to further elucidating the regulatory mechanism of carotenoid accumulation by blue LED light. PMID:26432407

  8. Fetus in Fetu in the Scrotal Sac: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yi; Song, Bo; Chen, Siyuan; Jiang, Xiaoping; Yang, Gang; Gao, Xia; Xiang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fetus in fetu (FIF) is a rare congenital anomaly. The most common site at which FIF occurs is the retroperitoneum. The mechanisms underlying the development of FIF have not been fully elucidated. The monozygotic twin theory postulates that FIF results from the unequal division of the totipotent cells of the blastocyst. However, the monozygotic twin theory does not explain all cases of FIF. Herein, we describe the clinical characteristics of a 20-day-old infant with scrotal sac swelling. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed the presence of a mass consistent with a FIF rather than a teratoma. Surgical removal and a subsequent pathological evaluation demonstrated that the anencephalic fetus exhibited limb buds adjacent to a palpable vertebral column, supporting the diagnosis of FIF. The infant had an uneventful recovery and was discharged on the fifth postoperative day. In the present report, the pathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis, and management of FIF, as well as new concepts emerging in this area of research, are discussed. Although the majority of cases of FIF may be diagnosed preoperatively, FIF should be distinguished from teratoma because the latter has substantial malignant potential. The recommended treatment for FIF is complete resection. To confirm the diagnosis of FIF, pathological examination, karyotyping, serologic marker assessment, and DNA restriction site mapping should be performed after removing the mass. Although FIF is thought to be a benign disorder, follow-up is necessary as a precaution against malignant recurrence, which has been described once. PMID:26266375

  9. Generalized optical code construction for enhanced and Modified Double Weight like codes without mapping for SAC-OCDMA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumawat, Soma; Ravi Kumar, M.

    2016-07-01

    Double Weight (DW) code family is one of the coding schemes proposed for Spectral Amplitude Coding-Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA) systems. Modified Double Weight (MDW) code for even weights and Enhanced Double Weight (EDW) code for odd weights are two algorithms extending the use of DW code for SAC-OCDMA systems. The above mentioned codes use mapping technique to provide codes for higher number of users. A new generalized algorithm to construct EDW and MDW like codes without mapping for any weight greater than 2 is proposed. A single code construction algorithm gives same length increment, Bit Error Rate (BER) calculation and other properties for all weights greater than 2. Algorithm first constructs a generalized basic matrix which is repeated in a different way to produce the codes for all users (different from mapping). The generalized code is analysed for BER using balanced detection and direct detection techniques.

  10. Sustainable complete remission in recurrence yolk sac tumor patient treated with tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, N A; Wang, P N; Huang, K G; Adlan, A S; Casanova, J

    2013-01-01

    A 21-year-old lady diagnosed with Stage 3 ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST) underwent primary cytoreductive fertility sparing surgery, followed by conventional courses of platinum-based chemotherapy and etoposide. Recurrence at cul-da-sac was noted after a short period of remission and secondary debulking performed followed by four cycles of conventional chemotherapy. The patient's disease progressed despite courses of treatments. A joint team management including a hematologist was commenced following the failure of conventional chemotherapies. Two cycles of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with ifosfamide/cisplatin/etoposide (ICE) regimen, followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) were given. With this salvage treatment, she remained in complete remission and disease-free for more than 30 months, while maintaining her reproductive function. These approaches appear to be effective as a salvage treatment in selected cases of patients with ovarian germ cell tumor, especially those who failed primary conventional chemotherapy. PMID:23781595

  11. Fairy Chemicals, 2-Azahypoxanthine and 2-Aza-8-oxohypoxanthine, Regulate Carotenoid Accumulation in Citrus Juice Sacs in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Ma, Gang; Zhang, Lancui; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Yahata, Masaki; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Kato, Masaya

    2015-08-19

    "Fairy chemicals", 2-azahypoxanthine (AHX) and 2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine (AOH), are two novel plant-growth regulating compounds isolated from a fairy ring forming fungus, Lepista sordida. In the present study, the effects of AHX and AOH on the accumulation of carotenoids and expression of genes related to carotenoid metabolism were investigated in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) in vitro. The results showed that AHX and AOH regulated carotenoid metabolism in the citrus juice sacs. Carotenoid accumulation was induced by AHX in the second week and by AOH in the fourth week. In the meanwhile, the modification of carotenoid accumulation by the AHX and AOH treatments was highly regulated at the transcriptional level. The results presented herein provide new information on the functions of AHX and AOH in plants and contribute to elucidating the mechanisms by which AHX and AOH stimulate plant growth. PMID:26208741

  12. Take time to smell the frogs: vocal sac glands of reed frogs (Anura: Hyperoliidae) contain species-specific chemical cocktails

    PubMed Central

    Starnberger, Iris; Poth, Dennis; Peram, Pardha Saradhi; Schulz, Stefan; Vences, Miguel; Knudsen, Jette; Barej, Michael F; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Walzl, Manfred; Hödl, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Males of all reed frog species (Anura: Hyperoliidae) have a prominent, often colourful, gular patch on their vocal sac, which is particularly conspicuous once the vocal sac is inflated. Although the presence, shape, and form of the gular patch are well-known diagnostic characters for these frogs, its function remains unknown. By integrating biochemical and histological methods, we found strong evidence that the gular patch is a gland producing volatile compounds, which might be emitted while calling. Volatile compounds were confirmed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in the gular glands in 11 species of the hyperoliid genera Afrixalus, Heterixalus, Hyperolius, and Phlyctimantis. Comparing the gular gland contents of 17 specimens of four sympatric Hyperolius species yielded a large variety of 65 compounds in species-specific combinations. We suggest that reed frogs might use a complex combination of at least acoustic and chemical signals in species recognition and mate choice. PMID:24277973

  13. Tumeur du sac vitellin du testicule au stade IIIc métastatique : à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Zizi, Mohamed; Ziouziou, Imad; El Yacoubi, Souhail; Khmou, Mouna; Jahid, Ahmed; Mahassini, Najat; Karmouni, Tariq; El Khader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Iben Attya

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Les tumeurs du sac vitellin du testicule sont rares chez l’adulte. Ces tumeurs se caractérisent par un mauvais pronostic à un stade métastatique avancé. Cependant, nous rapportons, dans le présent article, le cas clinique d’un adulte de 32 ans qui présentait une tumeur du sac vitellin du testicule au stade IIIc métastatique. Ce patient a subi une orchidectomie haute, accompagnée de quatre cycles de chimiothérapie à base de bléomycine, d’étoposide et de cisplatine. Il a répondu complètement au traitement, moyennant un recul de deux ans. PMID:25295144

  14. Percutaneous discal cyst rupture in a professional football player using sublaminar epidural injection for thecal sac displacement.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Michael V; Park, Andrew; Bumpass, David; Jennings, Jack W; Matava, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    A case of percutaneous discal cyst rupture in a 25-year-old professional American football player is reported. The patient presented with a 3-day history of severe left-sided back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a discal cyst effacing the left L4-L5 lateral recess, with interposed thecal sac. A sublaminar epidural injection was performed displacing the thecal sac, exposing the discal cyst, and allowing for percutaneous perforation. The patient had complete resolution of symptoms after discal cyst rupture and was able to compete in a professional football game 3 days later. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous rupture is a therapeutic modality that may be considered for treatment of a symptomatic discal cyst. PMID:25541445

  15. Definitive Hematopoiesis in the Yolk Sac Emerges from Wnt-Responsive Hemogenic Endothelium Independently of Circulation and Arterial Identity.

    PubMed

    Frame, Jenna M; Fegan, Katherine H; Conway, Simon J; McGrath, Kathleen E; Palis, James

    2016-02-01

    Adult-repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge in low numbers in the midgestation mouse embryo from a subset of arterial endothelium, through an endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition. HSC-producing arterial hemogenic endothelium relies on the establishment of embryonic blood flow and arterial identity, and requires β-catenin signaling. Specified prior to and during the formation of these initial HSCs are thousands of yolk sac-derived erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs). EMPs ensure embryonic survival prior to the establishment of a permanent hematopoietic system, and provide subsets of long-lived tissue macrophages. While an endothelial origin for these HSC-independent definitive progenitors is also accepted, the spatial location and temporal output of yolk sac hemogenic endothelium over developmental time remain undefined. We performed a spatiotemporal analysis of EMP emergence, and document the morphological steps of the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition. Emergence of rounded EMPs from polygonal clusters of Kit(+) cells initiates prior to the establishment of arborized arterial and venous vasculature in the yolk sac. Interestingly, Kit(+) polygonal clusters are detected in both arterial and venous vessels after remodeling. To determine whether there are similar mechanisms regulating the specification of EMPs with other angiogenic signals regulating adult-repopulating HSCs, we investigated the role of embryonic blood flow and Wnt/β-catenin signaling during EMP emergence. In embryos lacking a functional circulation, rounded Kit(+) EMPs still fully emerge from unremodeled yolk sac vasculature. In contrast, canonical Wnt signaling appears to be a common mechanism regulating hematopoietic emergence from hemogenic endothelium. These data illustrate the heterogeneity in hematopoietic output and spatiotemporal regulation of primary embryonic hemogenic endothelium. PMID:26418893

  16. Occult Mediastinal Yolk Sac Tumor Producing α-Fetoprotein Detected by 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng; Chen, Guoqian; Fu, Zhanli; Li, Ziao; Li, Qian

    2016-07-01

    Malignant mediastinal yolk sac tumor (YST), especially adult onset, is rare. Herein, we report a case of occult mediastinal YST with α-fetoprotein production revealed by F-FDG PET/CT in a young adult, in which the intense tracer uptake was demonstrated in the anterior mediastinum. This case indicates F-FDG PET/CT may be a useful tool for detecting the occult primaries of YST. PMID:27088388

  17. Human Chorionic Gonadotropine in Cul-de-sac Fluid in Tubal Ectopic Pregnacy; A New Diagnostic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Karahasanoglu, Ayse; Ozdemir, Mucize; Yazicioglu, Fehmi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although new diagnostic abilities are being utilised increasingly yet early detection of tubal pregnancy remains a challenge. The use of highly sensitive hCG kits has facilitated the early diagnosis of a pregnancy. But it takes time to determine the localisation of the pregnancy. Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy may reduce the morbidity of ectopic pregnancy. Aim This study was conducted to analyse the cul-de-sac and serum βhCG ratio in tubal ectopic pregnancy cases which may be a new diagnostic approach for ectopic pregnancy. Materials and Methods Between January 2004 and July 2011, 263 patients with ectopic pregnancy were included in the study. Risk factors of patients and treatment modalities were evaluated. hCG was measured in peripheral serum and peritoneal fluid, obtained by puncture of Douglas pouch in 52 patients with tubal ectopic pregnancy. hCG level was determined in the cul-de-sac fluid and in the maternal serum for comparison. Results Tubectomy (5.3%), history of abortion (9.5%), history of previous surgery (14.8%), previous cesarean section (8%) and pelvic infamatorry disease (15.9 %) were the important risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in our cases. In 51 of 52 patients with tubal pregnancy, the cul-de-sac hCG vaule and the serum hCG value ratio was >1. Conclusion It is concluded that the ratio of hCG in cul-de –sac and serum can be used for the verification of tubal ectopic pregnancy in addition to other diagnostic methods. This may help rapid confirmation of the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:27190895

  18. Embolization for type 2 endoleak with sac expansion after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm: safety and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Kenji; Yamagami, Takuji; Urashima, Masaki; Tomiyoshi, Hideki; Kakizawa, Hideaki; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Ishikawa, Masaki; Awai, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and outcome of embolization as treatment for persistent type 2 endoleak (T2EL) occurring after abdominal aortic stent graft implantation. This retrospective study included seven consecutive patients (one female, six males, mean age 72 years, range 66-88 years) with T2EL between January 2011 and September 2012. In all, T2EL was associated with an increase more than 5 mm in the aneurysm. The endoleak cavity or feeding artery was embolized with coils and/or n-butyl cyanoacrylate. Clinical success was defined as regression or stabilization of the aneurysm sac irrespective of residual endoleaks on follow-up CT studies. At the time of T2EL intervention, mean aneurysm sac diameter was 63 mm (range 52-72 mm), and mean increase size of aneurysm sac diameter was 7 mm (range 5-13). Mean follow-up period was 6.0 ± 6.2 months (range 3-18 months). Our technical success rate was 100 %. Clinical success was obtained in 5 (71.4 %) of the seven patients. One patient was embolized three times due to sac expansion. T2EL was treated by transarterial embolization in eight procedures, and one procedure was performed by direct puncture embolization. There were no major complications; two procedures elicited minor complications: transient back pain and muscle weakness of the left lower leg. We suggest embolization was safe and effective treatment, a less invasive treatment option comparison to open repair, as one choice to address T2EL. PMID:27006871

  19. Efficacy of Percutaneous Epidural Neuroplasty Does Not Correlate with Dural Sac Cross-Sectional Area in Single Level Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Gyu Yeul; Oh, Chang Hyun; Moon, Bongju; Choi, Seung Hyun; Yoon, Young Sul; Kim, Keung Nyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Percutaneous epidural neuroplasty (PEN) is a minimally invasive treatment. The efficacy of PEN has been relatively well investigated; however, the relationship between the clinical effectiveness of PEN and the severity of spinal canal stenosis by disc material has not yet been established. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical outcomes of PEN according to the dural sac cross-sectional area in single level disc disease. Materials and Methods This study included 363 patients with back pain from single level disc disease with and without radiculopathy. Patients were categorized into groups according to spinal canal compromise by disc material: Category 1, less or more than 50%; and Category 2, three subgroups with lesser than a third, between a third and two thirds, and more than two thirds. Clinical outcomes were assessed according to the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score for back pain and leg pain and Odom's criteria at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment. Results The demographic data showed no difference between groups according to spinal canal compromise by disc material except age (older age correlated with more spinal canal compromise). The dural sac cross-sectional area did not correlate with the VAS scores for back and leg pain after PEN in single level disc disease in Groups 1 and 2. Odom's criteria after PEN were also not different according to dural sac cross-sectional area by disc material. Conclusion PEN is an effective procedure in treating single level lumbar disc herniation without affecting dural sac cross-sectional area. PMID:25837174

  20. Target cells for avian myeloblastosis virus in embryonic yolk sac and relationship of cell differentiation to cell transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Boettiger, D; Durban, E

    1984-01-01

    The yolk sac of the 12-day chicken embryo retains the blast stage progenitors to cells of the myeloid lineages with a very low level of contamination by more mature myeloid cells which have begun to express the characteristic myeloid cell markers. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments have supported the hypothesis that target cells for the BAI-A strain of avian myeloblastosis virus are contained within the myeloid lineages. An assay system for avian myeloblastosis virus was developed which utilizes this yolk sac cell system and which appears to be more sensitive than previous published assays. In addition, the kinetics of a liquid culture transformation system is presented in which at least 4% of the yolk sac cell population was transformed in a relatively synchronous fashion at 2 days after infection. The morphological transformation preceded an increased rate of cell proliferation. Cell separation procedures provided a 10- to 20-fold enrichment of target cells and demonstrated that the target cell population copurifies with macrophage colony-forming cells which are the committed progenitors to the macrophage lineage. In combination with earlier work, this work demonstrated that cells committed to the macrophage lineage at all stages of differentiation may serve as target cells for infection by avian myeloblastosis virus. PMID:6699939

  1. SLC26A4 Targeted to the Endolymphatic Sac Rescues Hearing and Balance in Slc26a4 Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangming; Sanneman, Joel D.; Harbidge, Donald G.; Zhou, Fei; Ito, Taku; Nelson, Raoul; Picard, Nicolas; Chambrey, Régine; Eladari, Dominique; Miesner, Tracy; Griffith, Andrew J.; Marcus, Daniel C.; Wangemann, Philine

    2013-01-01

    Mutations of SLC26A4 are a common cause of human hearing loss associated with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct. SLC26A4 encodes pendrin, an anion exchanger expressed in a variety of epithelial cells in the cochlea, the vestibular labyrinth and the endolymphatic sac. Slc26a4 Δ/Δ mice are devoid of pendrin and develop a severe enlargement of the membranous labyrinth, fail to acquire hearing and balance, and thereby provide a model for the human phenotype. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse line that expresses human SLC26A4 controlled by the promoter of ATP6V1B1. Crossing this transgene into the Slc26a4 Δ/Δ line restored protein expression of pendrin in the endolymphatic sac without inducing detectable expression in the cochlea or the vestibular sensory organs. The transgene prevented abnormal enlargement of the membranous labyrinth, restored a normal endocochlear potential, normal pH gradients between endolymph and perilymph in the cochlea, normal otoconia formation in the vestibular labyrinth and normal sensory functions of hearing and balance. Our study demonstrates that restoration of pendrin to the endolymphatic sac is sufficient to restore normal inner ear function. This finding in conjunction with our previous report that pendrin expression is required for embryonic development but not for the maintenance of hearing opens the prospect that a spatially and temporally limited therapy will restore normal hearing in human patients carrying a variety of mutations of SLC26A4. PMID:23874234

  2. Ruptured yolk sacs and visceral fungi in emergent pink salmon alevins: histopathology and relation to marine survival.

    PubMed

    Marty, Gary D; Heintz, Ronald A

    2010-01-25

    Marine survival of anadromous salmon species is highly variable, and causes of this variability are often unknown. In the 1990s, cultured pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha alevins from 2 different regions in Alaska, USA, had years with increased postemergent mortality that could not be attributed to viruses, bacteria, or parasites. In both regions, lifetime marine survival of the most severely affected fish groups was as low as 1.1% in 1 region and 0.13% in the other region. To determine causes of morbidity, alevins from both regions were sampled for detailed histopathology (n = 144 and 36). Microscopic lesions associated with increased postemergent mortality included ruptured yolk sacs or 'coagulated yolk' (up to 38% of abnormal fish affected) and invasive fungi in the stomach or swimbladder (up to 39% of abnormal fish affected). The diagnosis of a ruptured yolk sac was based on the presence of yolk protein in the peritoneal cavity. Putative yolk proteins sometimes also distended peritoneal macrophages, systemic vessels, hepatocyte cytoplasm, splenic macrophages, and renal ducts. The most severe case of visceral fungi had hyphae invading from the stomach into the swimbladder and kidney. In the hatchery with the greatest postemergent mortality, 38% of the abnormal fish sampled had no significant microscopic lesions. We hypothesize that ruptured yolk sacs and visceral fungi occurred in fish that were predisposed to develop these lesions because of poor body condition. High prevalence of these lesions might be a useful marker for predicting poor marine survival. PMID:20225673

  3. Yolk-sac larval development of the substrate-brooding cichlid Archocentrus nigrofasciatus in relation to temperature.

    PubMed

    Vlahos, Nikolaos; Vasilopoulos, Michael; Mente, Eleni; Hotos, George; Katselis, George; Vidalis, Kosmas

    2015-09-01

    In order to conserve and culture the cichlid fish Archocentrus nigrofasciatus, more information about its reproductive biology and its larval behavior and morphogenesis is necessary. Currently, temperatures ranging from 21 to 27 °C are used in ornamental aquaculture hatcheries. Lower temperatures are preferred to reduce the costs of water heating, and 23 °C is usually the selected temperature. However, there is limited information on culturing protocols for ornamental species and most of the information generated on this topic remains scarce. Thus, the present study examines the morphological development of Archocentrus nigrofasciatus during the yolk-sac period up to the age of 100 h post-hatching in relation to 2 temperature regimes used in ornamental aquaculture: a temperature of 27 °C (thermal optimum) and a decreased temperature of 23 °C (thermal tolerance). The results of this study suggest that the 27 °C temperature generates intense morphological changes in yolk-sac development in a shorter period. This has advantages as it reduces the time of yolk-sac larval development, and, thus, minimizes the transition phase to exogenous feeding and maximizes the efficiency at which yolk is converted into body tissues. The present paper provides necessary information to produce freshwater ornamental fish with better practices so as to increase larval survival and capitalize on time for growth. PMID:26201370

  4. A primary pure yolk sac tumor of the lung exhibiting CDX-2 immunoreactivity and increased serum levels of alkaline phosphatase intestinal isoenzyme.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Giuseppe; Petrella, Francesco; Sandri, Maria Teresa; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Galetta, Domenico; Viale, Giuseppe

    2006-07-01

    Malignant extragonadal germ cell tumors primary to the lung are quite uncommon lesions, but pure yolk sac tumor is even more exceptional. This is believed to be the first reported case of yolk sac tumor of the lung in which an intense and diffuse immunoreactivity for CDX2, a marker of intestinal differentiation reportedly expressed also in gonadal yolk sac tumor, was associated with increased serum levels of the alkaline phosphatase intestinal isoform. Nine months after radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient is alive and well without evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease and with serum levels of the alkaline phosphatase intestinal isoform within normal limits. The pathologist should be aware of yolk sac tumor arising in the lung and that alkaline phosphatase intestinal isoform could become an additional serum marker for such a tumor. PMID:16959714

  5. Yolk sac tumor of the ovary in a young girl with tuberous sclerosis: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jones, Riley G; Akande, Manzilat Y; Younes, Houssam K; Jagarpu, Jawahar; Mba, Nkechi; Savell, Van H; Almond, Stephen P

    2014-12-01

    •We reported the first tuberous sclerosis patient with an ovarian yolk sac tumor.•Although angiomyolipoma is a common benign tumor in TS patients, abdominal malignancies must be considered. PMID:26075992

  6. Percutaneous Treatment of an Infected Aneurysmal Sac Secondary to Aortoesophageal Fistula with a History of Stent-Graft Treatment for Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Numan, Furuzan Gulsen, Fatih; Cantasdemir, Murat; Solak, Serdar; Arbatli, Harun

    2012-06-15

    A 68-year-old man who was subjected to stent-grafting of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) 4 months previously was admitted to our hospital with constitutional symptoms, including high fever, sweating, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and backache. An infected aneurysmal sac was suspected based on computed tomography (CT) findings, and an aortoesophageal fistula (AEF) was identified during esophagoscopy. CT-guided aspiration was performed using a 20-G Chiba needle, confirming the presence of infection. For treatment of the infected aneurysmal sac, CT-guided percutaneous catheter drainage in a prone position was performed under general anesthesia with left endobronchial intubation. Drainage catheter insertion was successfully performed using the Seldinger technique, which is not a standard treatment of an infected aneurysmal sac. Improvement in the patient's clinical condition was observed at follow-ups, and CT showed total regression of the collection in the aneurysmal sac.

  7. An unusual cause of acute headache: subarachnoid free air secondary to spontaneous bronchopleurodurosubarachnoid fistula from a Pancoast tumor.

    PubMed

    Kazimirko, Dmitriy N; Parker, Ellen E; Joyner, David A; Berry, Teddi H; Taylor, Charlotte S; Nichols, Todd A; Khan, Majid A

    2016-09-01

    Pneumocephalus and pneumorrhachis are related to transgression of the barriers to the central nervous system. We present a patient with a Pancoast tumor treated with palliative chemoradiation who developed symptomatic spinal and intracranial air caused by spontaneous bronchopleurodurosubarachnoid fistula secondary to direct tumor invasion into the thecal sac. PMID:27594957

  8. SAC-SMA a priori parameter differences and their impact on distributed hydrologic model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ziya; Koren, Victor; Reed, Seann; Smith, Michael; Zhang, Yu; Moreda, Fekadu; Cosgrove, Brian

    2012-02-01

    SummaryDeriving a priori gridded parameters is an important step in the development and deployment of an operational distributed hydrologic model. Accurate a priori parameters can reduce the manual calibration effort and/or speed up the automatic calibration process, reduce calibration uncertainty, and provide valuable information at ungauged locations. Underpinned by reasonable parameter data sets, distributed hydrologic modeling can help improve water resource and flood and flash flood forecasting capabilities. Initial efforts at the National Weather Service Office of Hydrologic Development (NWS OHD) to derive a priori gridded Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) model parameters for the conterminous United States (CONUS) were based on a relatively coarse resolution soils property database, the State Soil Geographic Database (STATSGO) (Soil Survey Staff, 2011) and on the assumption of uniform land use and land cover. In an effort to improve the parameters, subsequent work was performed to fully incorporate spatially variable land cover information into the parameter derivation process. Following that, finer-scale soils data (the county-level Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) ( Soil Survey Staff, 2011a,b), together with the use of variable land cover data, were used to derive a third set of CONUS, a priori gridded parameters. It is anticipated that the second and third parameter sets, which incorporate more physical data, will be more realistic and consistent. Here, we evaluate whether this is actually the case by intercomparing these three sets of a priori parameters along with their associated hydrologic simulations which were generated by applying the National Weather Service Hydrology Laboratory's Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM) ( Koren et al., 2004) in a continuous fashion with an hourly time step. This model adopts a well-tested conceptual water balance model, SAC-SMA, applied on a regular spatial grid, and links to physically

  9. Maternal offloading of organochlorine contaminants in the yolk-sac placental scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini).

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kady; Adams, Douglas H

    2015-04-01

    Elasmobranchs are a group of animals that typically occupy upper trophic levels in food webs and have a propensity to accumulate high contaminant concentrations. To date, few studies have investigated maternal offloading processes in sharks, despite the fact that this process represents a substantial source of exposure for young sharks and is a significant pathway for contaminant redistribution within marine ecosystems. Comparable to mammalian systems, scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) utilize a yolk-sac placental strategy to nourish young in utero, which may allow females to transfer contaminants to young. Organic contaminants (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides) were measured in livers of both females and males from several age classes that were collected from U.S. Atlantic waters, including two near-term pregnant females and their embryos. Adult female hammerheads (n = 3) were found to have lower levels of PCBs compared to the younger, adult male (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 1.0 vs. 22.8 μg g(-1) lw), but had substantially higher concentrations of pesticides (4.1 ± 0.9 vs. 1.9 μg g(-1) lw). Embryos from the two litters (n = 36) had similar levels of summed organic contaminant concentrations (4.6 ± 0.9 μg g(-1) lw) and pregnant females were estimated to offload approximately 0.03-2.3% of their hepatic contaminant load to offspring. While the potential health impacts of these transferred contaminants is unknown, this is the first study to demonstrate that scalloped hammerheads are exposed to a substantial amount of contaminants prior to birth and document maternal offloading of organochlorines in a pseudo-placental shark species. Therefore, future research should continue to investigate the potential adverse effects these contaminants have on elasmobranch physiology. PMID:25527298

  10. Rat visceral yolk sac cells: viability and expression of cell markers during maternal diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Aires, M.B.; Santos, J.R.A.; Souza, K.S.; Farias, P.S.; Santos, A.C.V.; Fioretto, E.T.; Maria, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    The function of the visceral yolk sac (VYS) is critical for embryo organogenesis until final fetal development in rats, and can be affected by conditions such as diabetes. In view of the importance of diabetes during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal health, the objective of this study was to assess fetal weight, VYS cell markers, and viability in female Wistar rats (200-250 g) with induced diabetes (alloxan, 37 mg/kg) on the 8th gestational day (gd 8). At gd 15, rats from control (n=5) and diabetic (n=5) groups were anesthetized and laparotomized to remove the uterine horns for weighing of fetuses and collecting the VYS. Flow cytometry was used for characterizing VYS cells, and for determining mitochondrial activity, cell proliferation, DNA ploidy, cell cycle phases, and caspase-3 activity. Fetal weight was reduced in the diabetic group. Expression of the cell markers CD34, VEGFR1, CD115, CD117, CD14, CCR2, CD90, CD44, STRO-1, OCT3/4, and Nanog was detected in VYS cells in both groups. In the diabetic group, significantly decreased expression of CD34 (P<0.05), CCR2 (P<0.001), and OCT3/4 (P<0.01), and significantly increased expression of CD90 (P<0.05), CD117 (P<0.01), and CD14 (P<0.05) were observed. VYS cells with inactive mitochondria, activated caspase-3, and low proliferation were present in the rats with diabetes. Severe hyperglycemia caused by maternal diabetes had negative effects on pregnancy, VYS cell viability, and the expression of cell markers. PMID:26176314

  11. Maize EMBRYO SAC family peptides interact differentially with pollen tubes and fungal cells

    PubMed Central

    Woriedh, Mayada; Merkl, Rainer; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    EMBRYO SAC1-4 (ES1-4) peptides belong to the defensin subgroup of cysteine-rich peptides known to mediate pollen tube burst in Zea mays (maize). ES1-4 are reported here to also be capable of inhibiting germination and growth of the maize fungal pathogens Fusarium graminearum and Ustilago maydis at higher concentrations. Dividing the peptides into smaller pieces showed that a 15-amino-acid peptide located in a highly variable loop region lacking similarity to other defensins or defensin-like peptides binds to maize pollen tube surfaces, causing swelling prior to burst. This peptide fragment and a second conserved neighbouring fragment showed suppression of fungal germination and growth. The two peptides caused swelling of fungal cells, production of reactive oxygen species, and finally the formation of big vacuoles prior to burst at high peptide concentration. Furthermore, peptide fragments were found to bind differently to fungal cells. In necrotrophic F. graminearum, a peptide fragment named ES-d bound only at cell surfaces whereas the peptide ES-c bound at cell surfaces and also accumulated inside cells. Conversely, in biotrophic U. maydis, both peptide fragments accumulated inside cells, but, if applied at higher concentration, ES-c but not ES-d accumulated mainly in vacuoles. Mapping of peptide interaction sites identified amino acids differing in pollen tube burst and fungal response reactions. In summary, these findings indicate that residues targeting pollen tube burst in maize are specific to the ES family, while residues targeting fungal growth are conserved within defensins and defensin-like peptides. PMID:26071527

  12. Successful radiotherapy in postoperative recurrence of a primary mediastinal yolk sac tumor: A case report.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Masakuni; Maebayashi, Toshiya; Aizawa, Takuya; Ishibashi, Naoya; Fukushima, Shoko; Saito, Tsutomu

    2016-04-26

    A woman in her 60s was evaluated for anterior chest pain. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a 50 mm mass with irregular contrast enhancement in the anterior mediastinum. α-fetoprotein (AFP) level was elevated to 1188 ng/mL. A germ cell tumor was diagnosed, mostly comprising of a yolk sac tumor (YST). Two courses of chemotherapy with cisplatin (CDDP) and etoposide (VP16) were administered and surgical tumor resection was then performed. The final diagnosis was YST. CDDP and VP16 were continued postoperatively; however, because the AFP level increased about six months after surgery, the chemotherapy regimen was altered to bleomycin and CPT-11. As the AFP again increased and a CT scan revealed tumor re-enlargement, recurrent YST was diagnosed and radiotherapy was administered. The patient received a total of 60 Gy (2 Gy per fraction). The tumor started to shrink during radiotherapy and AFP levels decreased. By one month post-radiotherapy, AFP levels had normalized and the tumor had disappeared. As of six years after radiotherapy, the patient remains alive without recurrence. Mediastinal YSTs are rare, and treatment usually includes surgery and preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy with cisplatin-based regimens. Successful treatment with radiotherapy has occasionally been reported. Our patient showed recurrence of a YST after surgery and chemotherapy, but achieved long-term survival after radiotherapy. Few patients with YST have undergone radiotherapy, but this approach was successful in our patient. In cases of postoperative recurrent YST resistant to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, together with salvage surgery, may offer a valuable option. PMID:27148423

  13. Lacrimal Sac Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma with Metastases to the Cavernous Sinus Following Dacryocystorhinostomy Treated with Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Jonathan C.P.; Beigi, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We report a very good outcome in a 44-year-old woman in whom cancer was missed as the cause of nasolacrimal duct obstruction and dacryocystitis and which was deemed inoperable after spreading to the cavernous sinus. Case Report The patient was referred to our unit 12 months following uneventful right dacryocystorhinostomy for nasolacrimal duct obstruction. This had been complicated by the formation of a significant canthal swelling 6 months later, which had been excised at that time. The symptom of nasolacrimal duct obstruction and scar recurrence prompted the referral to our unit. Examination and biopsy confirmed a malignancy. Despite extensive surgery, including concurrent radical neck dissection and parotidectomy, within 6 months, her mucoepidermoid carcinoma was found to have spread to the cavernous sinus, restricting blood flow from the carotid and causing an abducens nerve palsy. Though deemed inoperable at first, Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery was sought as treatment for her disease, resulting in a good outcome 4 years after surgery. Conclusion Experience from this case suggests the importance of considering malignancy as a cause in young patients when presenting with nasolacrimal duct obstruction. In such cases, and perhaps for all patients, biopsy specimens should be submitted as many tumours are found incidentally at the time of dacryocystorhinostomy. Whilst the external approach to dacryocystorhinostomy may identify abnormal anatomy intraoperatively, prompting biopsy, this is less likely with an endonasal approach where osteotomy precedes sac visualisation. The endonasal approach may therefore be less appropriate in such cases where malignancy is suspected as osteotomy may aid in the spread. PMID:27462255

  14. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  15. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  16. Sugar chain of alpha-fetoprotein produced in human yolk sac tumor.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, K; Hitoi, A; Tsuchida, Y; Nishi, S; Kobata, A

    1983-10-01

    The carbohydrate moiety of alpha-fetoprotein purified from human yolk sac tumors grown in nude mice was quantitatively released from the polypeptide chain as oligosaccharides by hydrazinolysis. The oligosaccharides were separated into a neutral and two acidic oligosaccharides by paper electrophoresis. By sequential exoglycosidase digestion in combination with per-O-methylation study and periodate oxidation, their structures were determined to be: Gal beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 2Man alpha 1 leads to 6(GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 4) (Gal beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 2Man alpha 1 leads to 3)Man beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 4(Fuc alpha 1 leads to 6)GlcNAcOT, Gal beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 2Man alpha 1 leads to 6(GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 4) (Sia alpha 2 leads to 6Gal beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 2Man alpha 1 leads to 3)Man beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 4(Fuc alpha 1 leads to 6)GlcNAcOT; and Sia alpha 2 leads to 6Gal beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 2Man alpha 1 leads to 6(GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 4) (Sia alpha 2 leads to 6Gal beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 2Man alpha 1 leads to 3)Man beta 1 leads to 4 GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 4(Fuc alpha 1 leads to 6)GlcNAcOT, in which Gal is galactose, GlcNac is N-acetylglucosamine, Man is mannose, Fuc is fucose, Sia is sialic acid, and Subscript OT is the NaB3H4-reduced oligosaccharide. PMID:6192908

  17. Integrated Antenna/Solar Array Cell (IA/SAC) System for Flexible Access Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ricard Q.; Clark, Eric B.; Pal, Anna Maria T.; Wilt, David M.; Mueller, Carl H.

    2004-01-01

    Present satellite communications systems normally use separate solar cells and antennas. Since solar cells generally account for the largest surface area of the spacecraft, co-locating the antenna and solar cells on the same substrate opens the possibility for a number of data-rate-enhancing communications link architecture that would have minimal impact on spacecraft weight and size. The idea of integrating printed planar antenna and solar array cells on the same surface has been reported in the literature. The early work merely attempted to demonstrate the feasibility by placing commercial solar cells besides a patch antenna. Recently, Integrating multiple antenna elements and solar cell arrays on the same surface was reported for both space and terrestrial applications. The application of photovoltaic solar cell in a planar antenna structure where the radiating patch antenna is replaced by a Si solar cell has been demonstrated in wireless communication systems (C. Bendel, J. Kirchhof and N. Henze, 3rd Would Photovotaic Congress, Osaka, Japan, May 2003). Based on a hybrid approach, a 6x1 slot array with circularly polarized crossdipole elements co-located on the same surface of the solar cells array has been demonstrated (S. Vaccaro, J. R. Mosig and P. de Maagt, IEEE Trans. Ant. and Propag., Vol. 5 1, No. 8, Aug. 2003). Amorphous silicon solar cells with about 5-10% efficiency were used in these demonstrations. This paper describes recent effort to integrate advanced solar cells with printed planar antennas. Compared to prior art, the proposed WSAC concept is unique in the following ways: 1) Active antenna element will be used to achieve dynamic beam steering; 2) High efficiency (30%) GaAs multi-junction solar cells will be used instead of Si, which has an efficiency of about 15%; 3) Antenna and solar cells are integrated on a common GaAs substrate; and 4) Higher data rate capability. The IA/SAC is designed to operate at X-band (8-12 GH) and higher frequencies

  18. Development of the endolymphatic sac and duct in the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, W.; Wiederhold, M. L.; Harrison, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    The development and maturation of the endolymphatic sac (ES) and duct (ED) were studied in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster. The ES first appears as an oval capsule at the dorsal-medial tip of the otic vesicle at stage 39, about 11 days after oviposition. The ES consists of polymorphous epithelial cells with a minimum of cytoplasm. The intercellular space (IS) between the epithelial cells is narrow and has a smooth surface. At stage 44, the size of the ES increases as many vacuoles in the IS become filled. At stage 46, 18 days after oviposition, the ES elongates markedly and a slit-like lumen is found in the ES. The epithelium contains a few cell organelles which are scattered in the cytoplasm. The vacuoles in the IS are fused, which expands the IS. Two days later (stage 48), floccular material (endolymph) is present in the expanded lumen. The IS dilates and has a wide and irregular appearance. At stage 50, approximately 26 days after oviposition, the ES extends and expands significantly and crystals (otoconia) can now be seen in the widened lumen of the ES. The cytoplasm of the cuboidal epithelial cells contains an abundance of vesicles surrounded by ribosomes and Golgi complexes. Intercellular digitations are formed in the expanded IS. At stage 54, the ES forms a large bellow-like pouch. Numerous otoconia accumulate in the lumen. Free floating cells and cell debris can be seen in the lumen at this stage. The epithelial cells contain numerous cytoplasmic organelles which are evenly distributed in the cytoplasm. Granules are found in the apical and lateral cytoplasm. The IS is loose and displays a labyrinthine appearance. The primitive ED first appears as a connection between the ES and the saccule but no lumen is present inside at stage 39. At stage 46, a narrow lumen is formed in the ED, which corresponds to the formation of the ES lumen. At stage 50, as the ED extends, floccular material is seen in the lumen. At stage 54, the ED bears numerous microvilli on its

  19. Evidence of the most stretchable egg sac silk stalk, of the European spider of the year Meta menardi.

    PubMed

    Lepore, Emiliano; Marchioro, Andrea; Isaia, Marco; Buehler, Markus J; Pugno, Nicola M

    2012-01-01

    Spider silks display generally strong mechanical properties, even if differences between species and within the same species can be observed. While many different types of silks have been tested, the mechanical properties of stalks of silk taken from the egg sac of the cave spider Meta menardi have not yet been analyzed. Meta menardi has recently been chosen as the "European spider of the year 2012", from the European Society of Arachnology. Here we report a study where silk stalks were collected directly from several caves in the north-west of Italy. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images showed that stalks are made up of a large number of threads, each of them with diameter of 6.03 ± 0.58 µm. The stalks were strained at the constant rate of 2 mm/min, using a tensile testing machine. The observed maximum stress, strain and toughness modulus, defined as the area under the stress-strain curve, are 0.64 GPa, 751% and 130.7 MJ/m(3), respectively. To the best of our knowledge, such an observed huge elongation has never been reported for egg sac silk stalks and suggests a huge unrolling microscopic mechanism of the macroscopic stalk that, as a continuation of the protective egg sac, is expected to be composed by fibres very densely and randomly packed. The Weibull statistics was used to analyze the results from mechanical testing, and an average value of Weibull modulus (m) is deduced to be in the range of 1.5-1.8 with a Weibull scale parameter (σ(0)) in the range of 0.33-0.41 GPa, showing a high coefficient of correlation (R(2) = 0.97). PMID:22347380

  20. Meckel’s diverticulum mesentery along with its band forming a hernial sac: A rare case of internal herniation

    PubMed Central

    Pandove, Paras K.; Moudgil, Ashish; Pandove, Megha; Chandrashekhar; Sharda, Divya; Sharda, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Meckel’s diverticulum is the most common congenital gastrointestinal anomaly. However, only 2% of cases are symptomatic. It can cause intestinal obstruction by various mechanisms as volvulus, adhesions, Littre’s hernia, intussusception. Case presentation An unusual case of internal herniation of small bowel loops into complete hernia sac formed by unusual mesentery of Meckel’s diverticulum which was present upto the adhesive band, extending from tip of the Meckel’s diverticulum to the adjacent mesentery of small intestine leading to small bowel obstruction (SBO). Diverticulectomy with resection of adjacent ileum with ileo-ileal anastomosis was done. Discussion Internal herniation by MD leading to SBO is an extremely rare complication. In literature, cases of internal hernia through mesentry of Meckel’s diverticulum, through mesodiverticular band, adhesion of inflamed end of MD to corresponding base of mesentry, fibrous cord extending upto umblical wall have been reported but in our case, patient had both adhesion band along with internal herniation into sac formed by unusual mesentry of the meckel’s diverticulum and the adhesion band. Preoperative diagnosis is often difficult with only 6–12% of cases diagnosed correctly. Surgical intervention is indicated for patients with intestinal obstruction or high risk of incarceration. Conclusion Meckel’s diverticulum causing internal hernia is rare event. It’s presentation due to herniation of bowel loops into sac formed by mesentery attached to diverticulum and the adhesion is rarest, with non specific signs and symptoms. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment prevent further complications. PMID:25790912

  1. Regulation of carotenoid accumulation and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in citrus juice sacs in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Kato, Masaya; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Takagi, Toshihiko; Kiriiwa, Yoshikazu; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Nesumi, Hirohisa

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, to investigate the mechanisms regulating carotenoid accumulation in citrus, a culture system was set up in vitro with juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), and Lisbon lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.). The juice sacs of all the three varieties enlarged gradually with carotenoid accumulation. The changing patterns of carotenoid content and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in juice sacs in vitro were similar to those ripening on trees in the three varieties. Using this system, the changes in the carotenoid content and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in response to environmental stimuli were investigated. The results showed that carotenoid accumulation was induced by blue light treatment, but was not affected by red light treatment in the three varieties. Different regulation of CitPSY expression, which was up-regulated by blue light while unaffected by red light, led to different changes in carotenoid content in response to these two treatments in Satsuma mandarin and Valencia orange. In all three varieties, increases in carotenoid content were observed with sucrose and mannitol treatments. However, the accumulation of carotenoid in the two treatments was regulated by distinct mechanisms at the transcriptional level. With abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, the expression of the genes investigated in this study was up-regulated in Satsuma mandarin and Lisbon lemon, indicating that ABA induced its own biosynthesis at the transcriptional level. This feedback regulation of ABA led to decreases in carotenoid content. With gibberellin (GA) treatment, carotenoid content was significantly decreased in the three varieties. Changes in the expression of genes related to carotenoid metabolism varied among the three varieties in response to GA treatment. These results provided insights into improving carotenoid content and composition in citrus during fruit

  2. Evidence of the Most Stretchable Egg Sac Silk Stalk, of the European Spider of the Year Meta menardi

    PubMed Central

    Lepore, Emiliano; Marchioro, Andrea; Isaia, Marco; Buehler, Markus J.; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2012-01-01

    Spider silks display generally strong mechanical properties, even if differences between species and within the same species can be observed. While many different types of silks have been tested, the mechanical properties of stalks of silk taken from the egg sac of the cave spider Meta menardi have not yet been analyzed. Meta menardi has recently been chosen as the “European spider of the year 2012”, from the European Society of Arachnology. Here we report a study where silk stalks were collected directly from several caves in the north-west of Italy. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images showed that stalks are made up of a large number of threads, each of them with diameter of 6.03±0.58 µm. The stalks were strained at the constant rate of 2 mm/min, using a tensile testing machine. The observed maximum stress, strain and toughness modulus, defined as the area under the stress-strain curve, are 0.64 GPa, 751% and 130.7 MJ/m3, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, such an observed huge elongation has never been reported for egg sac silk stalks and suggests a huge unrolling microscopic mechanism of the macroscopic stalk that, as a continuation of the protective egg sac, is expected to be composed by fibres very densely and randomly packed. The Weibull statistics was used to analyze the results from mechanical testing, and an average value of Weibull modulus (m) is deduced to be in the range of 1.5–1.8 with a Weibull scale parameter (σ0) in the range of 0.33–0.41 GPa, showing a high coefficient of correlation (R2 = 0.97). PMID:22347380

  3. Effects of post-reflow cooling rate and thermal aging on growth behavior of interfacial intermetallic compound between SAC305 solder and Cu substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaowu; Xu, Tao; Jiang, Xiongxin; Li, Yulong; Liu, Yi; Min, Zhixian

    2016-04-01

    The interfacial reactions between Cu and Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder reflowed under various cooling rates were investigated. It is found that the cooling rate is an important parameter in solder reflow process because it influences not only microstructure of solder alloy but also the morphology and growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed between solder and Cu substrate. The experimental results indicate that only scallop-like Cu6Sn5 IMC layer is observed between solder and Cu substrate in case of water cooling and air cooling, while bilayer composed of scallop-like Cu6Sn5 and thin layer-like Cu3Sn is detected under furnace cooling due to sufficient reaction time to form Cu3Sn between Cu6Sn5 IMC and Cu substrate which resulted from slow cooling rate. Samples with different reflow cooling rates were further thermal-aged at 423 K. And it is found that the thickness of IMC increases linearly with square root of aging time. The growth constants of interfacial IMC layer during aging were obtained and compared for different cooling rates, indicating that the IMC layer thickness increased faster in samples under low cooling rate than in the high cooling rate under the same aging condition. The long prismatic grains were formed on the existing interfacial Cu6Sn5 grains to extrude deeply into solder matrix with lower cooling rate and long-term aging, and the Cu6Sn5 grains coarsened linearly with cubic root of aging time.

  4. CT Findings of Intrarenal Yolk Sac Tumor with Tumor Thrombus Extending into the Inferior Vena Cava: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lin, ShaoChun; Li, XueHua; Feng, ShiTing; Peng, ZhenPeng; Huang, SiYun; Li, ZiPing

    2014-01-01

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a rare germ cell neoplasm of childhood that usually arises from the testis or ovary. The rare cases of YST in various extragonadal locations have been reported, but the primary intrarenal YST is even more uncommon. Here, we report a case of a primary intrarenal YST with tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava and left renal vein in a 2-year-old boy, with an emphasis on the CT features. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an intrarenal YST with intravascular involvement. PMID:25246826

  5. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Fulbright/Sac River Landfill, Missouri (first remedial action), September 1988. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-30

    The Fulbright and Sac River Landfills are located just north of the City of Springfield, Missouri, in a semirural area. The landfills were operated by the city for the disposal of municipal and industrial solid wastes. The site, however, could endanger human health or the environment in the future through exposure of the industrial wastes through erosion of the landfill cover. The selected remedial action for this site includes: removal of the drum and drum remnants found in the sinkhole and associated trench east of the Fulbright Landfill; sampling the removed contents to determine hazardous characteristics; proper offsite treatment or disposal.

  6. [The orbital implant after exenteration of the orbit with the preservation of the eyelids and the conjunctival sac].

    PubMed

    Krásný, J; Novák, V; Otradovec, J

    2006-04-01

    In ophthalmology, the orbital exenteration presents the most mutilating surgical procedure. The surgical technique presented by authors, preserves the eyelids and conjunctival sac. This surgical procedure was suggested and repeatedly performed in adult patients with extensive benign tumors (mostly meningeomas) by J. Otradovec and J. Safár. The enucleation of the eyeball preceded this type of surgery. The final state made it possible to put the prosthesis into the conjunctival sac. Today we inform about further development of this surgical technique and according to our own experiences we widen its indications to some malignant tumors (rhabdomyosarcoma and metastases of the retinoblastoma, etc.) in children. The initial cutaneous incision starts in the eyebrow area and is directed toward the bone of the orbital rim. The preparation of the tissue underneath the intact conjunctival sac to the lower aspect of the bone orbital rim follows. After folding the conjuctival-cutaneous sac back, the real content of the orbit is exenterated in the classical manner. After the hemostasis in the orbital apex, the flap is returned to its primary position and suturing of the primary incision in anatomical layers terminates the surgery. The authors refer about a boy, now 17 years old, who underwent at the age of three years the exenteration of the orbit in this manner due to a rhabdomyosarcoma. The authors also refer about the development and application of a special type of prosthesis made from silicone rubber--implant grade--filling out the orbital space and forming the anterior segment of the eye. The prosthesis was created from a classical orbital implant, regularly used in enucleation surgery and a conjunctival implant, a convex-concave plate with diameter of 20 mm. Both parts are made from the same type of silicon rubber and were connected together by vulcanization. The orbital implant was eliptically extended according to the measurements of the orbital casting made from

  7. A sperm-specific Na+/H+ exchanger (sNHE) is critical for expression and in vivo bicarbonate regulation of the soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Hu, Jie; Bobulescu, I. Alexandru; Quill, Timothy A.; McLeroy, Paul; Moe, Orson W.; Garbers, David L.

    2007-01-01

    We previously identified a sperm-specific Na+/H+ exchanger (sNHE) principally localized to the flagellum. Disruption of the sNHE gene in mice resulted in absolute male infertility associated with a complete loss of sperm motility. Here, we show that the sNHE-null spermatozoa fail to develop the cAMP-dependent protein tyrosine phosphorylation that coincides with the functional maturation occurring upon incubation in capacitating conditions in vitro. Both the sperm motility defect and the lack of induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation are rescued by the addition of cell-permeable cAMP analogs, suggesting that cAMP metabolism is impaired in spermatozoa lacking sNHE. Our analyses of the bicarbonate-dependent soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) signaling pathway in sNHE-null sperm cells reveal that sNHE is required for the expression of full-length sAC, and that it is important for the bicarbonate stimulation of sAC activity in spermatozoa. Furthermore, both codependent expression and coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicate that sNHE and sAC associate with each other. Thus, these two proteins appear to be components of a signaling complex at the sperm flagellar plasma membrane. We propose that the formation of this complex efficiently modulates intracellular pH and bicarbonate levels through the rapid and effective control of sAC and sNHE activities to facilitate sperm motility regulation. PMID:17517652

  8. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  9. Preliminary algorithm for retrieving Sea Ice Concentration from the Microwave Radiometer on SAC-D/Aquarius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuelli, S.; Tauro, C.; Salgado, H.; Jones, L.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents the first version of the algorithm to estimate Sea Ice Concentration from brightness temperatures measured by the MWR (MicroWave Radiometer) on board of SAC-D/Aquarius satellite, launched in June 2011. The MWR is a three channel microwave radiometer, 23.8GHz (H-pol) and 36.5GHz (V-pol and H-pol), with 8 beams for channel of about 50 km in size. The corresponding 8 horns of each channel are in a pushbroom configuration with two different incident angles: 52° and 58°. The algorithm for ice estimation presented here is based on the Bootstrap and Nasa Team (NT) ones, that use gradient and polarization ratios of the obtained brightness temperatures for their calculations. Usually these algorithms use the band of 19GHz for calculating the polarization ratio (PR), while for the gradient ratio (GR) use 37GHz and 19GHz in V-pol, and additionally other bands such as 23GHz and 85GHz are used as clime filters to improve the accuracy of the estimations obtained. In this way they obtain a distribuition of data for polar areas very similar to a triangle in a PR vs GR plot where it is possible to estimate not only the ice concentration but also classify the ice type. For the MWR we adapted this idea to the characteristics of the sensor. We use the 36.5GHz channel for calculating PR and 36.5GHz and 23.8GHz in H-pol for calculating GR. The combination of those MWR data produces a (PR,GR) distribution very noisy as we could verified using Windsat data and comparing the obtained (PR,GR) plots using NT and our definition of these quantities. As the 23.8GHz and 36.5 GHz bands are very sensitives to water vapor variation and sea roughness respectively, the use combined of these bands is very sensitive to both environmental variables. To reduce this effect we develop our algorithm as auto calibrated one. We summarized the way as the algorithm is applied to each beam: 1) We make a scatter plot in a PR-GR diagram with the data of one day corresponding to higher

  10. [Vestibular symptoms and ENG findings during periods of convalescence after endolymphatic sac drainage and steroid-instillation surgery (EDSS)].

    PubMed

    Kitahara, T; Takeda, N; Mishiro, Y; Kondoh, K; Murata, J; Okumura, S; Kubo, T

    2000-12-01

    Understanding the appearance of vestibular symptoms during periods of convalescence after surgery for the treatment of Meniere's disease is important for determining when a patient can return to work as well as the long-term results of the operation. We have treated 20 cases of intractable Meniere's disease with endolymphatic sac drainage & steroid-instillation surgery (EDSS) [Kitahara T, et al., Ann Otol Rhlnol Laryngol in press, 2000] and observed the subjective symptoms and objective vestibular findings using electronystagmogram (ENG) during the subsequent period of convalescence. The average postoperative durations of subjective static and evoked vestibular symptoms were 1.7 and 6.7 days, respectively. Those of spontaneous, positional and positioning nystagmus observed using ENG were 1.2, 2.0 and 7.9 days, respectively. In cases with a long history of Meniere's disease, postoperative static vestibular sensation and positional nystagmus lasted significantly longer than in cases with short histories. In cases with poorly developed temporal bony pneumatization in the area behind the posterior semicircular canal, postoperative evoked vestibular sensations and positioning nystagmus lasted significantly longer than in cases with well developed temporal bony pneumatization. Vestibular symptoms resulting from direct invasion during EDSS were considered to be slighter than those resulting from vestibular neurectomy or gentamicin treatment and almost the same as those resulting from endolymphatic sac surgery. PMID:11197811

  11. An Unusual Lesser Sac Collection Causing Gastric Outlet Obstruction with Coincidental Occurrence of Leriche’s Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Walia, Darshanjeet Singh; Kaur, Rishabhpreet

    2016-01-01

    Gastric outlet obstruction in adults is usually caused by pyloric stenosis secondary to peptic ulcer disease or malignancy. However, there are few other causes such as a foreign body and external compression due to pseudocyst pancreas. We present a rare aetiology of a large collection of pus in the lesser sac in our patient causing gastric outlet obstruction. A perforated peptic ulcer was suspected in our patient who had symptoms of sudden onset pain in epigastric region which was referred to back. This was followed by pain in upper abdomen, vomiting, constipation and fever for which patient was being managed conservatively before being referred to us. The CECT didn’t show any leakage of contrast to the lesser sac making the possibility of healed perforation likely as all other causes were ruled out at the time of presentation to our hospital. The CECT scan ruled out other causes of gastric outlet obstruction with normal wall thickness of the stomach and duodenum along with normal looking liver, pancreas and no lymphadenopathy. The liver function tests and serum amylase were within normal limits. Along with this, there was another unrelated rare coincidental finding of aortoiliac occlusive disease termed as Leriche’s syndrome. Ultrasound guided percutaneous drainage was done following which the patient’s obstruction was relieved and patient was referred to the department of vascular surgery for the mangement of aortoiliac occlusive disease. PMID:27190892

  12. Endolymphatic sac enlargement in a girl with a novel mutation for distal renal tubular acidosis and severe deafness.

    PubMed

    Nikki, Rink; Martin, Bitzan; Gus, O'Gorman; Mato, Nagel; Elena, Torban; Paul, Goodyer

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is caused by mutations of genes encoding subunits of the H(+)-ATPase (ATP6V0A4 and ATP6V1B1) expressed in α-intercalated cells of the distal renal tubule and in the cochlea. We report on a 2-year-old girl with distal RTA and profound speech delay which was initially misdiagnosed as autism. Genetic analysis showed compound heterozygous mutations with one known and one novel mutation of the ATP6V1B1 gene; cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral enlargement of the endolymphatic sacs of the inner ear. With improved cooperation, audiometric testing showed that hearing loss was most profound on the right, where endolymphatic sac enlargement was greatest, demonstrating a clear link between the degree of deafness and the degree of inner ear abnormality. This case indicates the value of MRI for diagnosis of inner ear involvement in very young children with distal RTA. Although citrate therapy quickly corrects the acidosis and restores growth, early diagnosis of deafness is crucial so that hearing aids can be used to assist acquisition of speech and to provide enough auditory nerve stimulation to assure the affected infants remain candidates for cochlear implantation. PMID:22966473

  13. Aneurysm Sac Pressure Measurement with Minimally Invasive Implantable Pressure Sensors: An Alternative to Current Surveillance Regimes after EVAR?

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, Fabian Guenther, Rolf W.; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas

    2008-05-15

    Current protocols for surveillance after endovascular repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms are mostly based on costly and time-consuming imaging procedures and aim to detect adverse events such as graft migration, endoleaks or aneurysm sac enlargement. These imaging procedures are either associated with radiation exposure to the patients or may be harmful to the patient due to the use of iodine- or gadolinium-containing contrast agents. Furthermore the advantages of EVAR in the short term might be negated by the necessity for endograft surveillance over years. Thus, alternative modalities for follow-up are being investigated. One of these technologies provides pressure information directly from the aneurysm sac. This noninvasive, telemetric pressure sensing was tested in vitro as well as in first clinical trials and was able to identify successful aneurysm exclusion after EVAR. The telemetric pressure sensors showed a promising efficacy and accuracy in detecting type I and type III endoleaks and will help to clarify the clinical relevance of type II endoleaks. This article provides an overview of the in vitro sensors investigated as well as the first clinical trials and the sensors' potential to change the current endograft surveillance regimes.

  14. Transport across the rabbit foetal yolk-sac of fractions of IgG from several mammalian species.

    PubMed Central

    Hemmings, W A; Jones, R E; Faulk, W P

    1975-01-01

    Electrophoretically migrating fast and slow IgG fractions of rabbit, mouse, human, guinea-pig, dog, horse and cow sera were prepared by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, labelled with either 131I or 125I, and tested in passage across yolk-sac splanchnopleur of rabbits. In foetal sera, slow IgG generally reached higher concentrations than fast IgG, but even with mouse Ig, which has a high ratio between the two fractions, the difference was only four-fold. This differential between fast and slow IgG was not sufficient to explain the absorptive selectivity between IgG of different species. The capacity of isotopically labelled rabbit and equine IgG to be transported across the rabbit foetal yolk sac was also studied using fractions prepared by isoelectric focusing. Marked differences in concentration quotient (CQ) values (CQ equals (concentration in foetal serum)/(concentration in injected material)) between individual pI peaks for these species were found. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:1168622

  15. An Unusual Lesser Sac Collection Causing Gastric Outlet Obstruction with Coincidental Occurrence of Leriche's Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Singla, Anand; Walia, Darshanjeet Singh; Kaur, Rishabhpreet

    2016-04-01

    Gastric outlet obstruction in adults is usually caused by pyloric stenosis secondary to peptic ulcer disease or malignancy. However, there are few other causes such as a foreign body and external compression due to pseudocyst pancreas. We present a rare aetiology of a large collection of pus in the lesser sac in our patient causing gastric outlet obstruction. A perforated peptic ulcer was suspected in our patient who had symptoms of sudden onset pain in epigastric region which was referred to back. This was followed by pain in upper abdomen, vomiting, constipation and fever for which patient was being managed conservatively before being referred to us. The CECT didn't show any leakage of contrast to the lesser sac making the possibility of healed perforation likely as all other causes were ruled out at the time of presentation to our hospital. The CECT scan ruled out other causes of gastric outlet obstruction with normal wall thickness of the stomach and duodenum along with normal looking liver, pancreas and no lymphadenopathy. The liver function tests and serum amylase were within normal limits. Along with this, there was another unrelated rare coincidental finding of aortoiliac occlusive disease termed as Leriche's syndrome. Ultrasound guided percutaneous drainage was done following which the patient's obstruction was relieved and patient was referred to the department of vascular surgery for the mangement of aortoiliac occlusive disease. PMID:27190892

  16. Assay and properties of rat yolk sac 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ 1. cap alpha. -hydroxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, S.K.; Phelps, M.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1986-11-04

    An in vitro assay has been developed for the rat yolk sac 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ 1..cap alpha..-hydroxylase (1..cap alpha..-hydroxylase). The subcellular location and some properties of the enzyme are described. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ produced from incubations of yolk sac homogenates was extracted, purified by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and straight- and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and measured by a competitive binding assay using chick intestinal receptor. The reaction is linear with time for up to 45 min at a substrate concentration of 80 ..mu..M and 4-6 mg/mL microsomal protein. The enzyme, located in the microsomes, requires molecular oxygen and NADPH. Metyrapone (1 x 10/sup -3/ M) was found to inhibit 1-hydroxylation, but a 90% carbon monoxide-10% oxygen atmosphere did not, leaving open the question of involvement of cytochrome P-450. Diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine, a lipid peroxidase inhibitor, inhibited 1..cap alpha..-hydroxylation.

  17. Even an old technique is suitable in the molecular world of science: the everted sac preparation turns 60 years old.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kirk L

    2014-04-15

    An old proverb states "necessity is the mother of invention." This certainly holds true in science as one pursues research questions. Experimental techniques have evolved as scientists have asked more specific research questions. Indeed, techniques such as the Ussing chamber, the perfused renal tubule preparation, patch-clamp, polymerase chain reaction, and site-directed mutagenesis have been developed over the past 60 years. However, sometimes, simple techniques may be useful and still very informative, and this certainly applies to intestinal physiology. Indeed, Gerald Wiseman and Thomas Hastings Wilson described the intestinal everted sac preparation some 60 years ago. Since then, this technique has been used for numerous research purposes including determining ion, amino acid, water and solute transport across the intestinal epithelium; and drug metabolism, absorption, and interactions in pharmaceutical/pharmacological research and even in education. This article provides a historical review of the development of the in vitro intestinal preparation that led to the everted sac preparation and its use in science. PMID:24573083

  18. An anomalous portal vein crossing the lesser sac and ending at the upper part of ductus venosus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hee Chul; Murakami, Gen; Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Francisco; Cho, Baik Hwan

    2015-01-01

    In serial sagittal sections of a fetus on week 9 (crown-rump length, 36 mm), we incidentally found absence of the usual portal vein through the hepatoduodenal ligament. Instead, an anomalous portal vein originated behind the pancreatic body, crossed the lesser sac and merged with the upper part of the ductus venosus. During the course across the lesser sac, the vein provided a deep notch of the liver caudate lobe (Spiegel's lobe). The hepatoduodenal ligament contained the hepatic artery, the common bile duct and, at the right posterior margin of the ligament, and a branch of the anomalous portal vein which communicated with the usual right branch of the portal vein at the hepatic hilum. The umbilical portion of the portal vein took a usual morphology and received the umbilical vein and gave off the ductus venosus. Although it seemed not to be described yet, the present anomalous portal vein was likely to be a persistent left vitelline vein. The hepatoduodenal ligament was unlikely to include the left vitelline vein in contrast to the usual concept. PMID:26417483

  19. Compliance testing of Consumat Silver Reclamation Incinerator Number 4, Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, P.T.

    1989-07-01

    At the request of HQ SAC/SGPB compliance testing Consumeat Silver Reclamation Incinerator No. 4 (particulate emissions) was accomplished 26-28 Jan 89. Visible emissions were evaluated by the Nebraska Department of Environmental Control on-site observer. Results indicate the incinerator met the standard for visible emissions. The survey was to determine compliance with the emission standards as defined under Nebraska Air Pollution Control Rules and Regulations. Results indicate the incinerator met particulate standards.

  20. Expression of histamine receptors in the human endolymphatic sac: the molecular rationale for betahistine use in Menieres disease.

    PubMed

    Møller, M Nue; Kirkeby, S; Vikeså, J; Nielsen, F Cilius; Caye-Thomasen, P

    2016-07-01

    The human endolymphatic sac (ES) is situated in a duplicature of the dura in the posterior cranial fossa and constitutes a part of the inner ear. The sac possesses immunological capacities and is responsible for a major part of the trans-epithelial ion transport occurring within the inner ear, via molecular mechanisms similar to that of the kidney collecting duct epithelia. Dysfunction of the trans-epithelial ion transport has been hypothesized as the reason for the endolymphatic hydrops occurring in Menieres diseases. Thus, candidate drug selection for medical treatment of Menieres disease has been based on a potential capability of improving trans-epithelial ion transport. However, recent human studies seems to rule out diuretic therapy and The Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use redrew the recommendation for trimetazidine (Vastarel) treatment in the management of Meniere disease in 2012. This leaves betahistine (Betaserc) as the only drug for potential prevention of the incapacitating attacks of dizziness, tinnitus and hearing loss. However, the histamine receptors targeted by betahistine have never been demonstrated in the human ES. Accordingly, this study aims to investigate the expression of histamine receptors of the human ES epithelium and sub-epithelial stroma. Following sampling of human endolymphatic sac tissue during translabyrinthine surgery, the expression of histamine receptor genes was determined by cDNA microarray analysis. Results were subsequently verified by immuno-histochemistry. The combined results of microarrays and immuno-histochemistry showed expression of the histamine receptor HRH1 in the epithelial lining of the ES, whereas HRH3 was expressed exclusively in the sub-epithelial capillary network. Receptors HRH2 and -4 were not expressed. The present data provide the first direct evidence of a molecular rationale for betahistine treatment in Menieres disease. A potential betahistine effect in Menieres disease may primarily be

  1. Development of a new code family based on SAC-OCDMA system with large cardinality for OCDMA network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd, Thanaa Hussein; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan; Ahmad, R. A.; Saad, N. M.

    2011-07-01

    We have proposed a new Multi-Diagonal (MD) code for Spectral Amplitude - Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA). Although this new MD code has many properties, one of the important properties of this code is that the cross correlation is always zero. Simplicity in code construction and flexibility in cross correlation control has made this code a compelling candidate for future OCDMA applications. The Multiple access interference (MAI) effects have been successfully and completely eliminated. Based on the theoretical analysis MD code is shown here to provide a much better performance compared to Modified Quadratic Congruence (MQC) code and Random Diagonal (RD) code. Proof-of-principle simulations of encoding with 5 and 10 users with 622 Mb/s data transmission at a BER of 10 -12 have been successfully demonstrated together with the DIRECT detection scheme.

  2. On the color-tuning mechanism of Human-Blue visual pigment: SAC-CI and QM/MM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Kazuhiro; Hasegawa, Jun-ya; Hayashi, Shigehiko; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    Color-tuning mechanism of Human-Blue pigment, visual color-receptor in the cone cells of the eye, has been investigated. Based on a previous Homology-modeling structure and experimental evidences, a working model was constructed, and the structure has been optimized by QM(B3LYP)/MM(A MBER) method. SAC-CI calculation was performed to obtain photo-absorption energy. The calculated absorption energy reasonably agrees with the experiment. A decomposition analysis was performed and compared with the case of Bovine rhodopsin. The electrostatic effect from the opsin is primarily important for the color-tuning. The electronic interaction (quantum effect) of the counter-residue is indispensable for quantitative calculation of the absorption energy.

  3. High-performance liquid chromatography combined with intrinsic fluorescence detection to analyse melittin in individual honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom sac.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jiangtao; Ying, Bihua; Huang, Shaokang; Ma, Shuangqin; Long, Peng; Tu, Xijuan; Yang, Wenchao; Wu, Zhenhong; Chen, Wenbin; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2015-10-01

    Melittin is the major toxin peptide in bee venom, which has diverse biological effects. In the present study, melittin was separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and was then detected using intrinsic fluorescence signal of tryptophan residue. The accuracy, linearity, limit of quantitation (LOQ), intra-day and inter-day precision of the method were carefully validated in this study. Results indicate that the intrinsic fluorescence signal of melittin has linear range from 0.04μg/mL to 20μg/mL with LOQ of 0.04μg/mL. The recovery range of spiked samples is between 81.93% and 105.25%. The precision results are expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), which is in the range of 2.1-7.4% for intra-day precision and 6.2-10.8% for inter-day precision. Because of the large linear dynamic range and the high sensitivity, intrinsic fluorescence detection (IFD) can be used for analyzing melittin contents in individual venom sac of honeybee (Apis mellifera). The detected contents of melittin in individual bee venom sac are 0.18±0.25μg for one-day old honeybees (n=30), and 114.98±43.51μg for 25-day old (n=30) honeybees, respectively. Results indicate that there is large bee-to-bee difference in melittin contents. The developed method can be useful for discovering the melittin related honeybee biology information, which might be covered in the complex samples. PMID:26319802

  4. The effect of preparation procedures on the morphology of melanin from the ink sac of Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Simon, John D

    2003-02-01

    The structure of melanin extracted from the ink sac of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis was examined for different methods of isolation and purification of the pigment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of Sepia eumelanin prepared by different procedures establish that multi-microm-sized aggregates reported by previous workers are generated by their sample preparation, and that the dominant constituents of Sepia melanin are approximately 150 nm spherical granules. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements reveal that Sepia eumelanin from Sigma (prepared by spray drying the pigment) has a surface area of 14.3 m2/g. Pigment extracted directly from the fresh ink sac and then freeze-dried has a surface area of 21.5 m2/g, while CO2-supercritically dried has a surface area of 37.5 m2/g. This is consistent with SEM images showing that the process of freeze-drying produces aggregates, but to a lesser extent than spray drying. Supercritical drying of the sample produces suspensions of the individual approximately 150 nm granule, which is more reflective of the natural pigment. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore volume analysis indicate that the surface of the granules is not smooth and the interior of the granules is not porous, but rather the aggregates of granules are porous. Ultra-high resolution SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show the granules are easily deformed and are comprised of smaller constituents. De-aggregation of the granules by sonication and ultra-filtration reveal a range of structures depending on the pore size of the membrane used. The implications of these results on quantifying photochemical properties and kinetic reaction rate constants of melanin are discussed. PMID:12519128

  5. Intestinal transport of thiamin and thiamin monophosphate in rat everted jejunal sacs: a comparative study using some potential inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gastaldi, G; Casirola, D; Patrini, C; Ricci, V; Laforenza, U; Ferrari, G; Rindi, G

    1988-12-01

    Rat everted jejunal sacs were incubated for 15 and 30 min at 37 degrees C in oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer, pH 7.4, containing 0.2 microM [3H]-thiamin (3H-T) or [3H]-thiamin monophosphate (3H-TMP) with and without 10 mM 1-phenylalanine (PAL) or 2.5 mM levamisole (LEV). The concentrations of 3H-T and its phosphoesters in sac wall and serosal fluid were determined by a radiometric method after electrophoretic separation. In separate experiments, thiamin pyrophosphokinase (TPKase) and thiamin pyrophosphatase (TPPase) activities were determined in mucosal scrapings, with and without PAL or LEV, by using a radiometric and a colorimetric method, respectively. 3H-TMP was transported partly unchanged by an active mechanism similarly to 3H-T, but less efficiently. During transport, 3H-TMP was also enzymatically transformed to thiamin (T) and thiamin pyrophosphate, which accumulated in the tissue. In the serosal fluid, the concentration of 3H-TMP exceeded that of 3H-T. Presence of PAL or LEV with 3H-T or 3H-TMP in the incubation medium reduced the serosal transport and the tissue content of T compounds. LEV caused a dose-dependent inhibition of TPKase without affecting TPPase, whereas PAL inhibited both activities to about the same extent. These results indicate that the transport of TMP involves a number of different processes similar to those responsible for T transport. The effects of PAL and LEV underline the importance of phosphorylation-dephosphorylation coupling. PMID:2474283

  6. Whispering to the deaf: communication by a frog without external vocal sac or tympanum in noisy environments.

    PubMed

    Boistel, Renaud; Aubin, Thierry; Cloetens, Peter; Langer, Max; Gillet, Brigitte; Josset, Patrice; Pollet, Nicolas; Herrel, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Atelopus franciscus is a diurnal bufonid frog that lives in South-American tropical rain forests. As in many other frogs, males produce calls to defend their territories and attract females. However, this species is a so-called "earless" frog lacking an external tympanum and is thus anatomically deaf. Moreover, A. franciscus has no external vocal sac and lives in a sound constraining environment along river banks where it competes with other calling frogs. Despite these constraints, male A. franciscus reply acoustically to the calls of conspecifics in the field. To resolve this apparent paradox, we studied the vocal apparatus and middle-ear, analysed signal content of the calls, examined sound and signal content propagation in its natural habitat, and performed playback experiments. We show that A. franciscus males can produce only low intensity calls that propagate a short distance (<8 m) as a result of the lack of an external vocal sac. The species-specific coding of the signal is based on the pulse duration, providing a simple coding that is efficient as it allows discrimination from calls of sympatric frogs. Moreover, the signal is redundant and consequently adapted to noisy environments. As such a coding system can be efficient only at short-range, territory holders established themselves at short distances from each other. Finally, we show that the middle-ear of A. franciscus does not present any particular adaptations to compensate for the lack of an external tympanum, suggesting the existence of extra-tympanic pathways for sound propagation. PMID:21779377

  7. Whispering to the Deaf: Communication by a Frog without External Vocal Sac or Tympanum in Noisy Environments

    PubMed Central

    Boistel, Renaud; Aubin, Thierry; Cloetens, Peter; Langer, Max; Gillet, Brigitte; Josset, Patrice; Pollet, Nicolas; Herrel, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Atelopus franciscus is a diurnal bufonid frog that lives in South-American tropical rain forests. As in many other frogs, males produce calls to defend their territories and attract females. However, this species is a so-called “earless” frog lacking an external tympanum and is thus anatomically deaf. Moreover, A. franciscus has no external vocal sac and lives in a sound constraining environment along river banks where it competes with other calling frogs. Despite these constraints, male A. franciscus reply acoustically to the calls of conspecifics in the field. To resolve this apparent paradox, we studied the vocal apparatus and middle-ear, analysed signal content of the calls, examined sound and signal content propagation in its natural habitat, and performed playback experiments. We show that A. franciscus males can produce only low intensity calls that propagate a short distance (<8 m) as a result of the lack of an external vocal sac. The species-specific coding of the signal is based on the pulse duration, providing a simple coding that is efficient as it allows discrimination from calls of sympatric frogs. Moreover, the signal is redundant and consequently adapted to noisy environments. As such a coding system can be efficient only at short-range, territory holders established themselves at short distances from each other. Finally, we show that the middle-ear of A. franciscus does not present any particular adaptations to compensate for the lack of an external tympanum, suggesting the existence of extra-tympanic pathways for sound propagation. PMID:21779377

  8. GAMMA-GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE (GGT) ACTIVITY AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT VISCERAL YOLK-SAC DURING GESTATION WITH OR WITHOUT TRYPAN BLUE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yolk-sacs from untreated Sprague Dawley rat conceptuses were removed on days 9-18 of gestation and examined for gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) activities. All enzyme activities w...

  9. An observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) for the aquarius/SAC-D soil moisture product: An investigation of forward/retrieval model asymmetries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) for the Aquarius/SAC-D mission is being developed for assessing the accuracy of soil moisture retrieval from passive and active L band remote sensing. This OSSE is able to capture the influence of different error sources: land surface heterogeneity, i...

  10. Truncation of a Protein Disulfide Isomerase, PDIL2-1, Delays Embryo Sac Maturation and Disrupts Pollen Tube Guidance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollen tubes navigate through different female tissues and deliver the sperm to the embryo sac for fertilization. Protein disulfide isomerases play important roles in the maturation of secreted or plasma membrane proteins. Here we show that truncated versions of a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), ...

  11. Comparison of GPS/SAC-C and MIPAS/ENVISAT temperature profiles and its implementation for EOS AURA-MLS observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Jonathan H.; Wang, Ding-Yi; Romans, Larry J.; Ao, Chi O.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Stiller, Gabriele P.; von Clarmann, Thomas; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Funke, Bernd; Gil-Lopez, Sergio; Glatthor, Norbert; Grabowski, Udo; Hopfner, Michael; Kellmann, Sylvia; Kiefer, Michael; Linden, Andrea; Tsidu, Glzaw Mengitsu; Milz, Mathias; Steck, Tilman; Fischer, Herbert

    2003-01-01

    A new generation GPS flight receiver was launched on the Argentinian satellite SAC-C in 2001. It has demonstrated the potential applicability for the continuous monitoring of the earth's atmosphere with radio occultation technology, and providing high vertical resolution profiles of temperature and water vapour data complementary to other sounding techniques.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOCOLS AND DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS FOR ASSESSING WATERSHED SYSTEM ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY (SAC), IN SUPPORT OF RISK-BASED ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT/RESTORATION PRACTICES (TEXOMA PROJECT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Project funded through Ecosystem Restoration internal solicitation within NRMRL. This project will focus on Lake Texoma (located on the Oklahoma/Texas border) and the surrounding watershed to develop methods and protocols for assessing SAC, and to evaluate its potential for use ...

  13. Comparative study of bacterial status from conjunctival sac of the elder Qiang minority and Han people with dry eye in Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Liu, Zhi-Rong; Chen, Hui; Dong, Wan-Jiang; Fan, Ying-Chuan; Yu, Hua; Wang, Guang-Jin; Li, Yu-Chan; Cao, Kui

    2012-01-01

    AIM To compare the status of bacteria in the conjunctival sac from the elder Qiang minority and Han people with dry eyes in Sichuan, China. METHODS Total of 54 elder Qiang people with dry eyes (108 eyes) were examined by cluster sampling. In the similar habitation region of Han people, 80 (160 dry eyes) Han people were analyzed as the control group. The bacteria was separated from the inferior palpebral conjunctiva, then inoculated on blood plate for 48 hours and identified. RESULTS Totally 24 strains of bacteria were cultured in either Qiang minority or Han c populations with 3 strains of them existed in both ethnic groups. The commonest bacteria in conjunctival sac in two ethnic groups were non-pathogenic bacterium. The composition of Corynebacterium in Han people (54.1%) was significantly higher than that in Qiang minority (27.4%) (χ2=11.6721, P=0.0006). The percentage of Sphingomonas Paucimobilis in Qiang people was higher than that in Han people (χ2=18.6442, P=0.0000). However, there was no significant difference between Qiang minority and Han people either in bacterial positive rate in conjunctival sac, or the composition of bacteria species and strains, or the composition of staphylococcus epidemids between two ethnic populations. CONCLUSION There was no significant difference of bacterial positive rate in conjunctival sac from the elder of Qiang minority and Han people with dry eye, but the species of bacteria were different. PMID:22773985

  14. Aneuploidy generates proteotoxic stress and DNA damage concurrently with p53-mediated post-mitotic apoptosis in SAC-impaired cells.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Akihiro; Ohori, Momoko; Iwai, Kenichi; Nakayama, Yusuke; Nambu, Tadahiro; Morishita, Daisuke; Kawamoto, Tomohiro; Miyamoto, Maki; Hirayama, Takaharu; Okaniwa, Masanori; Banno, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Tomoyasu; Kandori, Hitoshi; Iwata, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanism responsible that determines cell fate after mitotic slippage is unclear. Here we investigate the post-mitotic effects of different mitotic aberrations--misaligned chromosomes produced by CENP-E inhibition and monopolar spindles resulting from Eg5 inhibition. Eg5 inhibition in cells with an impaired spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) induces polyploidy through cytokinesis failure without a strong anti-proliferative effect. In contrast, CENP-E inhibition causes p53-mediated post-mitotic apoptosis triggered by chromosome missegregation. Pharmacological studies reveal that aneuploidy caused by the CENP-E inhibitor, Compound-A, in SAC-attenuated cells causes substantial proteotoxic stress and DNA damage. Polyploidy caused by the Eg5 inhibitor does not produce this effect. Furthermore, p53-mediated post-mitotic apoptosis is accompanied by aneuploidy-associated DNA damage response and unfolded protein response activation. Because Compound-A causes p53 accumulation and antitumour activity in an SAC-impaired xenograft model, CENP-E inhibitors could be potential anticancer drugs effective against SAC-impaired tumours. PMID:26144554

  15. Effect of forward/inverse model asymmetries over retrieved soil moisture assessed with an OSSE for the Aquarius/SAC-D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) for the Aquarius/SAC-D mission that includes different models for forward and retrieval processes is presented. This OSSE is implemented to study the errors related to the use of simple retrieval models in passive microwave applications. To this end...

  16. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  17. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  18. Effect of 4'-oxythiamine on thiamin transport and phosphorylation by everted jejunal sacs, and on thiamin uptake by rat isolated enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Gastaldi, G; Casirola, D; Ferrari, G

    1982-06-30

    Two preparations were used for the present investigation. Rat everted jejunal sacs were incubated at 37 degrees C for 1 h in Krebs-Henseleit buffer, pH 7.4, containing 0.2 microM [thiazole-2-14C] -thiamin, with or without 2 microM 4'-oxythiamine. Suspensions of rat isolated enterocytes were incubated at 37 degrees C for 15 min in Ringer-Krebs, pH 7.4, containing 10 mM d-glucose and 0.125 microM [thiazole-2-14C] -thiamin, with or without 1.25 or 12.50 microM 4'-oxythiamine. Radiometric methods were used for the determination of: labeled thiamin net transport, free and phosphorylated thiamin content in the sac walls, total thiamin content in the isolated enterocytes. 4'-oxythiamine, at a molecular ratio with thiamin of 10:1, did not modify labeled thiamin net transport and accumulation by everted jejunal sacs, but caused a slight, statistically insignificant, decrease of labeled phosphorylated thiamin content of the sac walls. 4'-oxythiamine, at a molecular ratio of 10:1 or 100:1, did not inhibit labeled thiamin uptake by isolated enterocytes. Therefore, 4'-oxythiamine, which is known to be unable to inhibit thiamin enzymatic phosphorylation, did not affect thiamin intestinal transport both by everted intestinal sacs and isolated enterocytes. The present results can be interpreted as a further evidence that intracellular thiamin phosphorylation is an important step in thiamin intestinal transport. PMID:7104099

  19. Immunocytochemical and biochemical characterization of the Heymann nephritis antigenic complex in rat L2 yolk sac cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lundstrom, M.; Orlando, R. A.; Saedi, M. S.; Woodward, L.; Kurihara, H.; Farquhar, M. G.

    1993-01-01

    Heymann nephritis in the rat is the most widely used model of human membranous glomerulonephritis. Glycoprotein (gp)330, a large (M(r) > 550,000) membrane-associated glycoprotein, has been identified as the main antigen in this autoimmune disease. Studies of gp330 and receptor-associated protein (RAP), its 44-kd subunit, have been restricted largely to rat kidney, as no stable cultured cell line has been available that expresses gp330. We have recently identified a rat yolk sac carcinoma cell line (L2) that expresses both gp330 and RAP. In this report, we have carried out detailed morphological, immunocytochemical, and biochemical studies characterizing the biosynthesis and localization of gp330 and RAP in the L2 rat yolk sac cell line. At the electron microscope level, the L2 cells are seen to be attached by cell junctions, and their predominant morphological features include extensive networks of rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and numerous clathrin-coated pits found on the cell membrane. By immunocytochemistry, gp330 was localized primarily to clathrin-coated pits at the cell surface, whereas RAP was localized predominantly to the lumen of the rough ER. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that gp330 spends a prolonged time maturing in the ER of L2 cells, as transport of gp330 to the Golgi complex (based on acquisition of endoglycosidase H resistance) is slow (t1/2 = 90 to 120 minutes). Gp330 reached the L2 cell surface beginning at 2 hours after synthesis, where it could be detected by cell surface immunoprecipitation. RAP was found to be an N-linked glycoprotein, and it remained endoglycosidase H-sensitive up to 4 hours after synthesis. Co-precipitation and co-sedimentation experiments demonstrated that gp330 and RAP form a large heterodimer (M(r) approximately 669,000) immediately after biosynthesis and are further assembled into a large hetero-oligomer in the ER. These findings demonstrate that the localization and the kinetics of assembly of gp330 and RAP

  20. Effect of egg weight on composition, embryonic growth, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Chen, M X; Li, X G; Yan, H C; Wang, X Q; Gao, C Q

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of egg weight on the composition of the egg, the growth of the embryo, and the expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia). A total of 240 fertilized eggs were collected and divided into two groups based on the weight of the eggs, light (LE) and heavy (HE). The composition of 20 eggs from each group was measured, and the remaining eggs were weighed and placed in an incubator. On embryonic days (E) 9, 11, 13, and 15 and day of hatch (DOH), 15 embryos/hatchlings from each group were measured for embryonic growth, and samples were collected. The HE had heavier yolk and albumen weights than the LE (P < 0.01). Compared with the LE, the HE had heavier yolk-free embryonic body and yolk sac weights from E13 to DOH (P < 0.05). Additionally, the HE had larger yolk sac membrane weights from E13 to E15 (P < 0.05) and had more residual yolk sac content on DOH than those of the LE (P < 0.01). The yolk absorption was greater for the HE than for the LE from E11 to E13 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the abundance of CAT2 and PepT1 mRNA in the yolk sac membranes was greater in the HE than in the LE on E13 (P < 0.05). Compared with the LE, the gene expression of EAAT2 in the intestine on E13 was greater in the HE, whereas the expression of EAAT3 was lower in the HE (P < 0.05). Taken together, our results suggest that egg weight influenced the composition of the eggs, embryonic development, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of pigeon embryos. PMID:26957627

  1. Intensity Variations of Narrow Bands of Solar UV Radiation during Descending Phases of SACs 21-23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigolashvili, M.; Kapanadze, N.

    2014-12-01

    The study of variations of four narrow bands of solar spectral irradiance (SSI) in the ultraviolet (UV) range for period 1981-2008 is presented. Observational data obtained by space-flight missions SORCE, UARS, SME and daily meanings of international sunspot number (ISN) have been used. The investigated data cover the decreasing phases of the solar activity cycles (SACs) 21, 22 and 23. We have revealed a peculiar behavior of intensity variability of some solar ultraviolet spectral lines originated in the solar chromospheres for period corresponding to the declining phase of the solar cycle 23. It is found that variability of emission of different solar spectral narrow bands (289.5 nm, 300.5 nm) does not agree equally well with ISN variability during decreasing phase of the solar activity cycle 23. The negative correlations between total solar irradiance and the solar spectral narrow bands of UV emission (298.5 nm, 300.5 nm) had been revealed. The existence of the negative correlation can be explained by the sensitivity of SSI of some emission lines to the solar global magnetic field.

  2. Expression of thiazide-sensitive Na{sup +}-Cl{sup -} cotransporter in the rat endolymphatic sac

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Kosuke Miyashita, Takenori; Mori, Terushige; Inamoto, Ryuhei; Mori, Nozomu

    2008-07-11

    The endolymphatic sac (ES) is a part of the membranous labyrinth and is believed to absorb endolymph. It has been well-established that the endolymph absorption is dependent on several ion transporters in a manner similar to that in the kidney, and the ES is regulated by hormones such as aldosterone and vasopressin that also affect on the kidney. The thiazide-sensitive Na{sup +}, Cl{sup -} cotransporter (TSC) is an electroneutral cotransporter specific to the kidney that plays an important role in absorption of NaCl in renal tubules. In the inner ear, TSC expression has never been examined. The expression of TSC in the rat ES was examined by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. These analyses indicated that TSC genes and proteins were expressed in the rat ES. In contrast, it was not observed in the rat cochlea by RT-PCR. This is the first report confirming the expression of TSC in the ES.

  3. Prognostic value of serum α-fetoprotein in ovarian yolk sac tumors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yang-Long; Zhang, Ying-Li; Zhu, Jian-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prognostic value of serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels in patients with ovarian yolk sac tumor (OYST). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the associations between serum AFP level and prognosis in OYST. A total of 12 quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria. Preoperative AFP was not found to be associated with overall survival (OS) [odds ratio (OR)=0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43-1.62] in OYST. However, a high postoperative AFP level was associated with worse OS (OR=0.16, 95% CI: 0.05-0.48) and relapse-free survival (RFS) (OR=0.18, 95% CI: 0.08-0.43) compared to a low postoperative AFP level in patients with OYST. In addition, a postoperative AFP level of >1,000 ng/ml was associated with a decrease in OS (OR=0.16, 95% CI: 0.05-0.50) and RFS (OR=0.21, 95% CI: 0.08-0.57). In conclusion, the postoperative, but not the preoperative, AFP level was found to be a prognostic factor in patients with OYST. In particular, a postoperative AFP level of >1,000 ng/ml was an indicator of poor prognosis in patients with OYST. PMID:25469282

  4. Distribution and Support of Aquarius/SAC-D Data through the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsontos, V. M.; Vazquez, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Center (PO.DAAC) serves as the designated NASA repository and distribution node for all Aquarius/SAC-D data products in close collaboration with the project. Here we report on the status of Aquarius data holdings at PO.DAAC, observed patterns of usage of these datasets, and the range of data services and access tools that we provide in support of this mission. These currently include dataset discovery and access via the PO.DAAC web-portal, an interactive L3-browser tool for online visualization, and user services that span help-desk support, Aquarius user guide documentation, and reader software development. In anticipation of the release of the Aquarius science quality dataset by the end of 2012 and as the project transitions out of the current calibration/evaluation phase, additional PO.DAAC tools and services that will be leveraged for Aquarius are described. These range from OPeNDAP and THREDDS data access services, web-based visualization via PO.DAAC's SOTO tool and LAS, to our advanced L2 subsetting tool called HITIDE.

  5. Current evidence for endolymphatic sac surgery in the treatment of Meniere’s disease: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ming Yann; Zhang, Margaret; Yuen, Heng Wai; Leong, Jern-Lin

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to identify emerging evidence for endolymphatic sac surgery (ESS) in the treatment of Meniere’s disease since the landmark study by Thomsen et al, published in 1998 (conducted from 1981 to 1989). Using the MEDLINE database (PubMed), a systematic review of the literature published from January 1990 to June 2014 was performed. We included all English-language, peer-reviewed randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled studies. Single-arm cohort studies were included if the sample size was ≥ 90 with a response rate > 60%. Altogether, 11 studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria; one was an RCT, two were controlled trials and eight were single-arm cohort studies. There currently exists a low level of evidence for the use of ESS in the treatment of Meniere’s disease. Further studies, in particular RCTs and/or controlled studies, are required to fully evaluate this modality. However, there are difficulties in designing a valid placebo and achieving adequate blinding of observers and investigators. PMID:26668402

  6. Transcriptome-based profiling of yolk sac-derived macrophages reveals a role for Irf8 in macrophage maturation.

    PubMed

    Hagemeyer, Nora; Kierdorf, Katrin; Frenzel, Kathrin; Xue, Jia; Ringelhan, Marc; Abdullah, Zeinab; Godin, Isabelle; Wieghofer, Peter; Costa Jordão, Marta Joana; Ulas, Thomas; Yorgancioglu, Gülden; Rosenbauer, Frank; Knolle, Percy A; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Schultze, Joachim L; Prinz, Marco

    2016-08-15

    Recent studies have shown that tissue macrophages (MΦ) arise from embryonic progenitors of the yolk sac (YS) and fetal liver and colonize tissues before birth. Further studies have proposed that developmentally distinct tissue MΦ can be identified based on the differential expression of F4/80 and CD11b, but whether a characteristic transcriptional profile exists is largely unknown. Here, we took advantage of an inducible fate-mapping system that facilitated the identification of CD45(+)c-kit(-)CX3CR1(+)F4/80(+) (A2) progenitors of the YS as the source of F4/80(hi) but not CD11b(hi) MΦ. Large-scale transcriptional profiling of MΦ precursors from the YS stage to adulthood allowed for building computational models for F4/80(hi) tissue macrophages being direct descendants of A2 progenitors. We further identified a distinct molecular signature of F4/80(hi) and CD11b(hi) MΦ and found that Irf8 was vital for MΦ maturation. Our data provide new cellular and molecular insights into the origin and developmental pathways of tissue MΦ. PMID:27412700

  7. Toxicity assessment of air-delivered particle-bound polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Sung; Klösener, Johannes; Flor, Susanne; Peters, Thomas M; Ludewig, Gabriele; Thorne, Peter S; Robertson, Larry W; Luthe, Gregor

    2014-03-20

    Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) can occur via ingestion of indoor dust, inhalation of PBDE-contaminated air and dust-bound PBDEs. However, few studies have examined the pulmonary toxicity of particle-bound PBDEs, mainly due to the lack of an appropriate particle-cell exposure system. In this study we developed an in vitro exposure system capable of generating particle-bound PBDEs mimicking dusts containing PBDE congeners (BDEs 35, 47 and 99) and delivering them directly onto lung cells grown at an air-liquid interface (ALI). The silica particles and particles-coated with PBDEs ranged in diameter from 4.3 to 4.5 μm and were delivered to cells with no apparent aggregation. This experimental set up demonstrated high reproducibility and sensitivity for dosing control and distribution of particles. ALI exposure of cells to PBDE-bound particles significantly decreased cell viability and induced reactive oxygen species generation in A549 and NCI-H358 cells. In male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed via intratracheal insufflation (0.6 mg/rat), particle-bound PBDE exposures induced inflammatory responses with increased recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs compared to sham-exposed rats. The present study clearly indicates the potential of our exposure system for studying the toxicity of particle-bound compounds. PMID:24451063

  8. Toxicity Assessment of Air-delivered Particle-bound Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Sung; Klösener, Johannes; Flor, Susanne; Peters, Thomas M.; Ludewig, Gabriele; Thorne, Peter S.; Robertson, Larry W.; Luthe, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) can occur via ingestion of indoor dust, inhalation of PBDE-contaminated air and dust-bound PBDEs. However, few studies have examined the pulmonary toxicity of particle-bound PBDEs, mainly due to the lack of an appropriate particle-cell exposure system. In this study we developed an in vitro exposure system capable of generating particle-bound PBDEs mimicking dusts containing PBDE congeners (BDEs 35, 47, 99) and delivering them directly onto lung cells grown at an air-liquid interface (ALI). The silica particles and particle-coated with PBDEs ranged in diameter from 4.3 to 4.5 μm and were delivered to cells with no apparent aggregation. This experimental set up demonstrated high reproducibility and sensitivity for dosing control and distribution of particles. ALI exposure of cells to PBDE-bound particles significantly decreased cell viability and induced reactive oxygen species generation in A549 and NCI-H358 cells. In male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed via intratracheal insufflation (0.6 mg/rat), particle-bound PBDE exposures induced inflammatory responses with increased recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs compared to sham-exposed rats. The present study clearly indicates the potential of our exposure system for studying the toxicity of particle-bound compounds. PMID:24451063

  9. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  10. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  11. Concomitant ultrasound-guided intra-gestational sac methotrexate-potassium chloride and systemic methotrexate injection in the recurrent cesarean scar pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Hak; Kwon, Dae Hui; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Hong, Soon Cheol; Kim, Tak

    2016-05-01

    Recurrent ectopic pregnancy of cesarean scar is very rare and its therapeutic management is still not established. We reported the first case of recurrent cesarean scar pregnancy that was successfully treated with concomitant intra-gestational sac methotrexate-potassium chloride injection and systemic methotrexate injection. This case study provides physicians with a safe and effective minimally invasive treatment option for recurrent cesarean scar pregnancy. PMID:27200318

  12. The Fourier Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (FIXS) for the Argentinian, Scout-launched satelite de Aplicaciones Cienficas-1 (SAC-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Crannell, Carol JO; Desai, Upendra D.; Orwig, Larry E.; Kiplinger, Alan L.; Schwartz, Richard A.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Emslie, A. Gordon; Machado, Marcos; Wood, Kent

    1988-01-01

    The Fourier Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (FIXS) is one of four instruments on SAC-1, the Argentinian satellite being proposed for launch by NASA on a Scout rocket in 1992/3. The FIXS is designed to provide solar flare images at X-ray energies between 5 and 35 keV. Observations will be made on arcsecond size scales and subsecond time scales of the processes that modify the electron spectrum and the thermal distribution in flaring magnetic structures.

  13. Development and function of pearl-sacs grown from regenerated mantle graft tissue in the black-lip pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Kishore, Pranesh; Southgate, Paul C

    2015-08-01

    Current pearl grafting techniques were developed in the early 1900s and have changed little since. They involve the sacrifice of donor pearl oysters to provide graft tissue (saibo) that is implanted into host oysters. This study assessed the feasibility of using regenerated graft tissue for pearl production in the 'black-lip' pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera. Twelve days after grafting with regenerated graft tissue, there was complete encapsulation of the nucleus by the fully developed pearl-sac and the first layer of organic matrix had been secreted. Sixteen days after grafting, the pearl-sac was completely integrated with host tissue. The epithelial cells in the pearl-sac continued to secrete the organic matrix layer but there were no signs of nacre deposition at this stage. However, after three months of culture, nuclei in oysters grafted with regenerated mantle tissue were completely covered with nacre. The average nacre thickness on pearls produced from regenerated (0.547 ± 0.01 mm, n = 8) and normal (0.532 ± 0.01 mm, n = 8) mantle tissue did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). Nacre secretion rates, over the 80 day period subsequent to pearl-sac formation were 6.84 ± 0.1 μm day(-1) and 6.66 ± 0.1 μm day(-1) for oysters grafted with regenerated and normal mantle tissue, respectively. These means were not significantly different (p = 0.258). Our results clearly show that regenerated mantle tissue can function successfully as saibo for pearl production in P. margaritifera. This finding could provide significant benefits to pearl farmers and a basis for further development of current pearl grafting practices. PMID:25982400

  14. Concomitant ultrasound-guided intra-gestational sac methotrexate-potassium chloride and systemic methotrexate injection in the recurrent cesarean scar pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Hak; Kwon, Dae Hui; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Hong, Soon Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent ectopic pregnancy of cesarean scar is very rare and its therapeutic management is still not established. We reported the first case of recurrent cesarean scar pregnancy that was successfully treated with concomitant intra-gestational sac methotrexate-potassium chloride injection and systemic methotrexate injection. This case study provides physicians with a safe and effective minimally invasive treatment option for recurrent cesarean scar pregnancy. PMID:27200318

  15. The Association between the Cross-Sectional Area of the Dural Sac and Low Back Pain in a Large Population: The Wakayama Spine Study

    PubMed Central

    Iwahashi, Hiroki; Yoshimura, Noriko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Oka, Hiroyuki; Matsudaira, Ko; Shinto, Kazunori; Ishimoto, Yuyu; Nagata, Keiji; Teraguchi, Masatoshi; Kagotani, Ryohei; Muraki, Shigeyuki; Akune, Toru; Tanaka, Sakae; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kozo; Minamide, Akihito; Nakagawa, Yukihiro; Yoshida, Munehito

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between the degree of encroachment, measured as the cross-sectional area of the dural sac, and low back pain in a large population. Methods In this cross-sectional study, data from 802 participants (247 men, 555 women; mean age, 63.5 years) were analyzed. The measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural sac from the level of L1/2 to L4/5 was taken using axial T2-weighted images. The minimum cross-sectional area was defined as the cross-sectional area of the dural sac at the most constricted level in the examined spine. Participants were divided into three groups according to minimum cross-sectional area measurement quartiles (less than the first quartile, between the first and third quartiles, and greater than the third quartile). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between the minimum cross-sectional area and the prevalence of low back pain. Results The mean minimum cross-sectional area was 117.3 mm2 (men: 114.4 mm2; women: 118.6 mm2). A logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and other confounding factors, including disc degeneration, showed that a narrow minimum cross-sectional area (smaller than the first quartile) was significantly associated with low back pain (odds ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.80 compared to the wide minimum cross-sectional area group: minimum cross-sectional area greater than the third quartile measured). Conclusion This study showed that a narrow dural sac cross-sectional area was significantly associated with the presence of low back pain after adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index. Further investigations that include additional radiographic findings and psychological factors will continue to elucidate the causes of low back pain. PMID:27486899

  16. Mitochondria-rich cell activity in the yolk-sac membrane of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) larvae acclimatized to different ambient chloride levels.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Yih; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2004-03-01

    Mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) in the yolk-sac membrane of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) larvae were examined by Na+/K(+)-ATPase immunocytochemistry and vital staining for glycoproteins following acclimation to high (7.5-7.9 mmol l(-1)), normal (0.48-0.52 mmol l(-1)) or low (0.002-0.007 mmol l(-1)) ambient Cl- levels. With a combination of concanavalin-A (Con-A)-Texas-Red conjugate staining (larvae exposed to the dye in vivo in the water) and a monoclonal antibody raised against Na+/K(+)-ATPase, MRCs were easily recognized and presumed to be active when Con-A-positive (i.e. with their apical membrane in contact with the water) or inactive when Con-A-negative. The proportion of active cells gradually increased during a 48-h acclimation to low-Cl- medium but decreased during acclimation to high-Cl- medium. Total densities of MRCs did not change when ambient chloride levels were altered. Furthermore, in live larvae exposed to changes in ambient Cl-, yolk-sac MRCs, vitally stained with DASPEI and subsequently traced in time, did not significantly alter turnover. The polymorphism of the apical membrane compartment of the MRCs represents structural modification of the active MRCs. Yolk-sac pavement cells labeled with the membrane marker FM1-43 (fluorescent lipophilic tracer) were shown to cover active MRCs in larvae transferred from normal to high ambient Cl- levels, thereby inactivating the MRCs. PMID:15010484

  17. Presence of an isoform of H+-pyrophosphatase located in the alveolar sacs of a scuticociliate parasite of turbot: physiological consequences.

    PubMed

    Mallo, Natalia; Lamas, Jesús; Defelipe, Ana-Paula; Decastro, Maria-Eugenia; Sueiro, Rosa-Ana; Leiro, José-Manuel

    2016-04-01

    H+-pyrophosphatases (H+-PPases) are integral membrane proteins that couple pyrophosphate energy to an electrochemical gradient across biological membranes and promote the acidification of cellular compartments. Eukaryotic organisms, essentially plants and protozoan parasites, contain various types of H+-PPases associated with vacuoles, plasma membrane and acidic Ca+2 storage organelles called acidocalcisomes. We used Lysotracker Red DND-99 staining to identify two acidic cellular compartments in trophozoites of the marine scuticociliate parasite Philasterides dicentrarchi: the phagocytic vacuoles and the alveolar sacs. The membranes of these compartments also contain H+-PPase, which may promote acidification of these cell structures. We also demonstrated for the first time that the P. dicentrarchi H+-PPase has two isoforms: H+-PPase 1 and 2. Isoform 2, which is probably generated by splicing, is located in the membranes of the alveolar sacs and has an amino acid motif recognized by the H+-PPase-specific antibody PABHK. The amino acid sequences of different isolates of this ciliate are highly conserved. Gene and protein expression in this isoform are significantly regulated by variations in salinity, indicating a possible physiological role of this enzyme and the alveolar sacs in osmoregulation and salt tolerance in P. dicentrarchi. PMID:26932195

  18. De novo development and progression of endolymphatic sac tumour in von hippel-lindau disease: an observational study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Eze, Nwaneka; Huber, Alexander; Schuknecht, Bernhard

    2013-10-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST) are rare invasive lesions of the temporal bone that are commonly associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease. This report describes serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) findings over a period of 6 years in a 12-year-old patient who developed an ELST after 3.5 years surveillance for a cerebellar hemangioblastoma. A 1.5 × 8 mm tumor was identified on MRI within the endolymphatic duct when the patient presented with audiovestibular symptoms due to intralabyrinthine hemorrhage. The tumor demonstrated subsequent growth over 25 months until the patient agreed to undergo surgical resection by subtotal petrosectomy. De novo development and the natural history have been described only in six previous cases. MRI is regarded to be unreliable with respect to the ability to demonstrate an ELST in the presence of intralabyrinthine hemorrhage, with only two out of four previously reported patients demonstrating positive MRI findings. Little is known about the precise origin (endolymphatic duct versus sac), growth, and symptom correlation. This case highlights that new audiovestibular symptoms are a potential clinical clue and intralabyrinthine hemorrhage is a neuroimaging indicator for the presence of an ELST, which based on high-resolution MRI appears to originate in the endolymphatic duct rather than sac. PMID:24436921

  19. The FRK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) from Solanum chacoense is involved in embryo sac and pollen development

    PubMed Central

    Lafleur, Edith; Kapfer, Christelle; Joly, Valentin; Liu, Yang; Tebbji, Faiza; Daigle, Caroline; Gray-Mitsumune, Madoka; Cappadocia, Mario; Nantel, André; Matton, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    The fertilization-related kinase 1 (ScFRK1), a nuclear-localized mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) from the wild potato species Solanum chacoense, belongs to a small group of pMEKKs that do not possess an extended N- or C-terminal regulatory domain. Initially selected based on its highly specific expression profile following fertilization, in situ expression analyses revealed that the ScFRK1 gene is also expressed early on during female gametophyte development in the integument and megaspore mother cell and, later, in the synergid and egg cells of the embryo sac. ScFRK1 mRNAs are also detected in pollen mother cells. Transgenic plants with lower or barely detectable levels of ScFRK1 mRNAs lead to the production of small fruits with severely reduced seed set, resulting from a concomitant decline in the number of normal embryo sacs produced. Megagametogenesis and microgametogenesis were affected, as megaspores did not progress beyond the functional megaspore (FG1) stage and the microspore collapsed around the first pollen mitosis. As for other mutants that affect embryo sac development, pollen tube guidance was severely affected in the ScFRK1 transgenic lines. Gametophyte to sporophyte communication was also affected, as observed from a marked change in the transcriptomic profiles of the sporophytic tissues of the ovule. The ScFRK1 MAPKKK is thus involved in a signalling cascade that regulates both male and female gamete development. PMID:25576576

  20. [Spermiogenesis and the function of the vaginal sac in Ichthyocephalus anadenoboli. n. sp. (Rhigonematidae; Nematoda), a parasite of Anadenobolus politus (Porat) (Rhinocricidae; Diplopoda) in Guadeloupe].

    PubMed

    van Waerebeke, D; Adamson, M L; Kermarrec, A

    1984-01-01

    Ichthyocephalus anadenoboli n. sp. ( Rhigonematidae ; Nematoda) from Anadenobolus politus ( Porat ) ( Rhinocricidae ; Diplopoda ) from Guadeloupe is described. The new species most closely resembles I. egleri since both sexes are of approximately the same size and the spicules are markedly unequal; it is distinguished in having a much longer right spicule, by the form of the extremity of the left spicule and by the presence of a vaginal sac opening into the vagina at its junction with the uteri. In addition certain aspects of spermiogenesis in the new species are studied. Maturation of spermatids occurs in two phases, one in the testis and seminal receptacle of males, the second in the vaginal sac in females. The second phase involves profound changes in form as well as nuclear transformation. It is suggested that the vaginal sac observed in certain species of Rhigonema as well as the " bourse copulatrice " of certain Tetrameres spp. and Maupasina weissi , like that of Ichthyocephalus anadenoboli , are specialized to accommodate the final stages of spermiogenesis. PMID:6547037

  1. The FRK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) from Solanum chacoense is involved in embryo sac and pollen development.

    PubMed

    Lafleur, Edith; Kapfer, Christelle; Joly, Valentin; Liu, Yang; Tebbji, Faiza; Daigle, Caroline; Gray-Mitsumune, Madoka; Cappadocia, Mario; Nantel, André; Matton, Daniel P

    2015-04-01

    The fertilization-related kinase 1 (ScFRK1), a nuclear-localized mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) from the wild potato species Solanum chacoense, belongs to a small group of pMEKKs that do not possess an extended N- or C-terminal regulatory domain. Initially selected based on its highly specific expression profile following fertilization, in situ expression analyses revealed that the ScFRK1 gene is also expressed early on during female gametophyte development in the integument and megaspore mother cell and, later, in the synergid and egg cells of the embryo sac. ScFRK1 mRNAs are also detected in pollen mother cells. Transgenic plants with lower or barely detectable levels of ScFRK1 mRNAs lead to the production of small fruits with severely reduced seed set, resulting from a concomitant decline in the number of normal embryo sacs produced. Megagametogenesis and microgametogenesis were affected, as megaspores did not progress beyond the functional megaspore (FG1) stage and the microspore collapsed around the first pollen mitosis. As for other mutants that affect embryo sac development, pollen tube guidance was severely affected in the ScFRK1 transgenic lines. Gametophyte to sporophyte communication was also affected, as observed from a marked change in the transcriptomic profiles of the sporophytic tissues of the ovule. The ScFRK1 MAPKKK is thus involved in a signalling cascade that regulates both male and female gamete development. PMID:25576576

  2. Effect of Graphene Nanoplatelets on Wetting, Microstructure, and Tensile Characteristics of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC) Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Sohn, Heung-Rak; Jung, Jae Pil

    2016-01-01

    The effect of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) on the wettability, microstructure, and tensile properties of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC 305) was studied using melting and casting route. The microstructure of the bulk solder is observed with a scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, and the intermetallic compound (IMC) phases are identified by electron probe micro-analyzer. The solderability of the samples is assessed by spreading and wetting tests on a Cu substrate. The experimental results indicate that an addition of 0.05 wt pct GNPs in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder improves the spreading and wettability significantly compared to monolithic SAC. It is also revealed that the thickness of the Ag3Sn IMCs is reduced as compared to the monolithic SAC alloy. Tensile results show that the composite solder exhibits the 13.9 pct elongation and 17 pct increase in the ultimate tensile strength when 0.05 wt pct GNPs in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu alloy are added. This may be due to the refinement of the IMCs in composite solders compared to the same in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu alloy brought about by the uniform dispersion of graphene nanoplatelets. It is suggested in this study that the amount of GNPs in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu alloy should not exceed 0.05 wt pct as it may degrade the desired properties due to the agglomeration of GNPs.

  3. Yolk sac tumor of the ovary: a retrospective multicenter study of 33 Japanese women by Tohoku Gynecologic Cancer Unit (TGCU).

    PubMed

    Kojimahara, Takanobu; Nakahara, Kenji; Takano, Tadao; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Fujimori, Keiya; Sato, Naoki; Terada, Yukihiro; Tase, Toru; Yokoyama, Yoshihito; Mizunuma, Hideki; Shoji, Tadahiro; Sugiyama, Toru; Kurachi, Hirohisa

    2013-01-01

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) of the ovary is a rare germ cell tumor comprising about 1% of all ovarian malignancies. YST usually occurs as a rapidly growing unilateral tumor in young women. With the introduction of cisplatin, YST has been changed from a fatal tumor to a curable tumor. The standard treatment of YST consists of fertility-preserving surgery and 3 or 4 courses of adjuvant combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP). However, the long-term prognosis of BEP-treated YST patients has not been well studied. We therefore conducted a retrospective multicenter study to investigate the prognostic factors of 33 YST patients, including 25 patients treated with BEP. The median age at initial treatment was 20 years (range 10-53). There were 15 patients (at stage I), one (stage II), 16 (stage III), and one (stage IV). Nominal and grouped numerical values were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. All patients had unilateral tumor, with right-side predominance (23 patients; P = 0.02). Eighteen patients had pure YST, 13 had mixed germ cell tumor with YST component, and other 2 patients were not specified. Twenty-eight patients received fertility-preserving surgery. Twenty-seven patients had optimal surgery with less than 1 cm residual tumor diameter. Median number of chemotherapy courses was 5. Median follow-up period was 49 months. The cumulative 5-year survival rate was 87%. Univariate analysis revealed the following significant prognostic factors (P < 0.05): stage, tumor diameter, and residual tumor. Extensive debulking surgery to minimize residual tumor would improve the prognosis. PMID:23912096

  4. Ovarian yolk sac tumors in older women arising from epithelial ovarian tumors or with no detectable epithelial component.

    PubMed

    Roth, Lawrence M; Talerman, Aleksander; Levy, Tally; Sukmanov, Oleg; Czernobilsky, Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) occurs rarely in older women, either in association with a variety of ovarian epithelial tumors or, considerably less often, without an identifiable epithelial precursor. The patients often have elevated serum levels of α-fetoprotein that roughly correlate with the amount of the YST component. In postmenopausal women with an ovarian mass and elevated serum levels of α-fetoprotein, a tumor of this type should be suspected. Endometrioid carcinoma is the most common putative precursor, and the tumor is often associated with an endometriotic cyst; however, malignant Müllerian mixed tumor and mucinous neoplasms have also been reported as precursors. We report 4 cases of YST in postmenopausal women. Of the 3 cases with an identified epithelial component, 1 was serous carcinoma, another was clear cell adenocarcinoma, and the third was an admixture of endometrioid and clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from an endometriotic cyst. Although a precursor epithelial ovarian neoplasm, typically a malignancy (somatic carcinoma), is usually identified, no precursor neoplasm was observed in 1 of our cases and in 5 cases from the literature. We believe that YSTs in older women, whether or not an epithelial component is detected histologically, constitute a single entity that is distinct from YSTs in younger patients and should be treated aggressively. Neoplasms with a YST component in older women are less responsive to the chemotherapy currently used for ovarian germ cell tumors; therefore, adjuvant therapy should include platinum-based chemotherapy designed to treat both epithelial ovarian cancer and germ cell tumors. Of the 24 reported cases, including our own, 17 died of neoplasms within 25 months and another was living with disease at 2 months. However, 2 more recent patients treated aggressively with platinum-based chemotherapy designed to treat both epithelial and germ cell tumor components with stage 1 disease are living and have been disease free >1

  5. Prophylactic Residual Aneurysmal Sac Embolization with Expandable Hydrogel Embolic Devices for Endoleak Prevention: Preliminary Study in Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraki, Takao; Pavcnik, Dusan Uchida, Barry T.; Timmermans, Hans A.; Yin Qiang; Wu Renghong; Niyyati, Mahtab; Keller, Frederick S.; Roesch, Josef

    2005-05-15

    Objective. To explore the feasibility and efficacy of residual aneurysmal sac (RAS) embolization with the expandable hydrogel embolic device (EHED) in prevention of endoleaks in a surgically created and endoluminally treated abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods. In eight dogs, an AAA was created by means of side-to-side anastomosis between the infrarenal abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava (IVC) with ligation of the IVC above and below the anastomotic end, followed by deployment of an endograft with holes. The RAS was then embolized with the EHED. One animal was killed immediately after RAS embolization and one animal died 12 hr after the procedure. Follow-up aortograms were obtained in six animals after 1 day (1 animal), 2 weeks and 6 months (1 animal), and 8 weeks (4 animals). Results. Four animals had no endoleaks on the follow-up aortograms. The remaining two animals with incomplete RAS embolization had moderate type III endoleaks. Type I or II endoleaks were not seen in any animals. Complications included RAS wall penetration by the devices with platinum wires in two animals (nos. 1 and 2), device migration into an aortic circulation through the endograft holes in two animals (nos. 2 and 3) or through distal interstices between the aortic wall and endograft in one animal (no. 8), aortic occlusion in three animals (nos. 3, 7, and 8), and RAS rupture in one animal (no. 7). Histologic examination showed expanded hydrogels occupying the RAS with associated mature or immature organized thrombus, fibrinous thrombus, or degenerate blood cells. Conclusion. RAS embolization was feasible with the EHED, although additional modifications to the device are required to avoid complications. Angiographic and histologic results suggested that RAS embolization with the EHED may help in the prevention of endoleaks.

  6. Comparison of the Association of Sac Growth and Coil Compaction with Recurrence in Coil Embolized Cerebral Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose In recurrent cerebral aneurysms treated by coil embolization, coil compaction is regarded as the presumptive mechanism. We test the hypothesis that aneurysm growth is the primary recurrence mechanism. We also test the hypothesis that the coil mass will translate a measurable extent when recurrence occurs. Methods An objective, quantitative image analysis protocol was developed to determine the volumes of aneurysms and coil masses during initial and follow-up visits from 3D rotational angiograms. The population consisted of 15 recurrence and 12 non-recurrence control aneurysms initially completely coiled at a single center. An investigator sensitivity study was performed to assess the objectivity of the methods. Paired Wilcoxon tests (p<0.05, one-tailed) were performed to assess for aneurysm and coil growth. The translation of the coil mass center at follow-up was computed. A Mann Whitney U-Test (p<0.05, one-tailed) was used to compare translation of coil mass centers between recurrence and control subjects. Results Image analysis protocol was found to be insensitive to the investigator. Aneurysm growth was evident in the recurrence cohort (p=0.003) but not the control (p=0.136). There was no evidence of coil compaction in either the recurrence or control cohorts (recurrence: p=0.339; control: p=0.429). The translation of the coil mass centers was found to be significantly larger in the recurrence cohort than the control cohort (p=0.047). Conclusion Aneurysm sac growth, not coil compaction, was the primary mechanism of recurrence following successful coil embolization. The coil mass likely translates to a measurable extent when recurrence occurs and has the potential to serve as a non-angiographic recurrence marker. PMID:25894532

  7. Cloning and expression of vacuolar proton-pumping ATPase subunits in the follicular epithelium of the bullfrog endolymphatic sac.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Shinya; Kubota, Makoto; Nakakura, Takashi; Hasegawa, Takahiro; Katagiri, Nobuto; Tomura, Hideaki; Sasayama, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2007-02-01

    In an investigation aimed at clarifying the mechanism of crystal dissolution of the calcium carbonate lattice in otoconia (the mineral particles embedded in the otolithic membrane) of the endolymphatic sac (ELS) of the bullfrog, cDNAs encoding the A- and E-subunits of bullfrog vacuolar proton-pumping ATPase (V-ATPase) were cloned and sequenced. The cDNA of the A-subunit consisted of an 11-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 1,854-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein comprising 617 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 68,168 Da, and a 248-bp 3'-UTR followed by a poly(A) tail. The cDNA of the E-subunit consisted of a 72-bp 5'-UTR, a 681-bp ORF encoding a protein of 226 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 26,020 Da, and a 799-bp 3'-UTR followed by a poly(A) tail. Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses using specific anti-peptide antisera against the V-ATPase A- and E-subunits revealed that these subunits were present in the ELS, urinary bladder, skin, testes, and kidneys. In the ELS, positive cells were scattered in the follicular epithelium which, as revealed by electron microscopy, corresponds to the location of mitochondria-rich cells. These findings suggest that V-ATPase, including the A- and E-subunits, exists in mitochondria-rich cells of the ELS, which might be involved in dissolution of the calcium carbonate crystals in the lumen of the ELS. PMID:17409728

  8. Embryonic----Fetal Hb switch in humans: studies on erythroid bursts generated by embryonic progenitors from yolk sac and liver.

    PubMed

    Peschle, C; Migliaccio, A R; Migliaccio, G; Petrini, M; Calandrini, M; Russo, G; Mastroberardino, G; Presta, M; Gianni, A M; Comi, P

    1984-04-01

    The synthesis of embryonic (zeta, epsilon), fetal (alpha, gamma), and adult (beta) globin was evaluated in human yolk sacs (YS) and livers at different ontogenic stages (i.e., from 6 through 10-12 wk of age) by means of analytical isoelectric focusing. Globin production was comparatively evaluated in vivo (i.e., in directly labeled erythroblasts from YS and liver) and in vitro [i.e., in erythroid bursts generated in culture by erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) from the same erythropoietic tissues]. Erythroid bursts generated in vitro by BFU-E from 6-wk livers and YS show essentially a "fetal" globin synthetic pattern: this is in sharp contrast to the "embryonic" pattern in corresponding liver and YS erythroblasts directly labeled in vivo. The invitro phenomenon suggests that (i) 6-wk BFU-E constitute a new generation of progenitors, which have already switched from an embryonic to a fetal program, and/or (ii) expression of their fetal program is induced by unknown in vitro factor(s), which may underlie the in vivo switch at later ontogenic stages. It is emphasized that 6- to 7-wk BFU-E are endowed with the potential for in vitro synthesis of not only epsilon- and gamma-chains but also some beta-globin. In general, we observed an inverse correlation between the levels of epsilon- and beta-chain synthesis. These results, together with previous studies on fetal, perinatal, and adult BFU-E, are compatible with models suggesting that in ontogeny the chromatin configuration is gradually modified at the level of the non-alpha gene cluster, thus leading to a 5'----3' activation of globin genes in a balanced fashion. PMID:6201856

  9. Albumin-Like Protein is the Major Protein Constituent of Luminal Fluid in the Human Endolymphatic Sac

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Huhn; Kim, Un-Kyoung; Lee, Won-Sang; Bok, Jinwoong; Song, Jung-Whan; Seong, Je Kyung; Choi, Jae Young

    2011-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac (ES) is an inner ear organ that is connected to the cochleo-vestibular system through the endolymphatic duct. The luminal fluid of the ES contains a much higher concentration of proteins than any other compartment of the inner ear. This high protein concentration likely contributes to inner ear fluid volume regulation by creating an osmotic gradient between the ES lumen and the interstitial fluid. We characterized the protein profile of the ES luminal fluid of patients (n = 11) with enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVA) by proteomics. In addition, we investigated differences in the protein profiles between patients with recent hearing deterioration and patients without hearing deterioration. The mean total protein concentration of the luminal fluid was 554.7±94.6 mg/dl. A total of 58 out of 517 spots detected by 2-DE were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The protein profile of the luminal fluid was different from the profile of plasma. Proteins identified from 29 of the spots were also present in the MARC-filtered human plasma; however, the proteins identified from the other 25 spots were not detected in the MARC-filtered human plasma. The most abundant protein in the luminal fluid was albumin-like proteins, but most of them were not detected in MARC-filtered human plasma. The concentration of albumin-like proteins was higher in samples from patients without recent hearing deterioration than in patients with recent hearing deterioration. Consequently, the protein of ES luminal fluid is likely to be originated from both the plasma and the inner ear and considering that inner ear fluid volumes increase abnormally in patients with EVA following recent hearing deterioration, it is tempting to speculate that albumin-like proteins may be involved in the regulation of inner ear fluid volume through creation of an osmotic gradient during pathological conditions such as endolymphatic hydrops. PMID:21738753

  10. Trophoblast-decidual cell interactions and establishment of maternal blood circulation in the parietal yolk sac placenta of the rat.

    PubMed

    Welsh, A O; Enders, A C

    1987-02-01

    Implantation sites from rats were studied on days 6, 7, and 8 of pregnancy to determine the sequence of events in the formation of blood spaces in the trophoblast that is part of the parietal wall of the yolk sac placenta and to determine how trophoblast gains access to maternal blood. The maternal blood flowing through these spaces is the source of nutrients that reach the embryo via the visceral endoderm. Tissues were prepared for light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Trophoblast blood spaces are derived from the lateral intercellular spaces of trophoblast cells and are present in a collapsed condition until day 8, when maternal vessels are tapped by trophoblast. These spaces then contain circulating maternal blood, and trophoblast cells reflect adaptations for metabolic exchange including thinning of trophoblast covering Reichert's membrane and the appearance of numerous fenestrations, with and without diaphragms, in the areas where trophoblast is attenuated. Between days 6 and 7 decidual cells appear to form a barrier between the maternal circulation and trophoblast. On day 7, however, decidual cell processes penetrate the residual uterine luminal epithelial basal lamina, and then the decidual cells that are juxtaposed to trophoblast undergo degradative changes that resemble apoptosis. There is condensation of cytoplasmic contents, fragmentation of the cells, and phagocytosis of the fragments by trophoblast. Some decidual cells are interposed between endothelial cells in the walls of maternal vessels as early as day 7. Trophoblast may gain access to the maternal vessels by replacing decidual cells or by direct imposition of trophoblast cell processes between endothelial cells. PMID:3578838

  11. Transcriptome analysis of differentially expressed genes during embryo sac development in apomeiotic non-parthenogenetic interspecific hybrid of Pennisetum glaucum.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Gupta, Sarika; Malaviya, D R; Roy, Ajoy Kumar; Kaushal, Pankaj; Prasad, Manoj

    2012-07-01

    Apomixis results in the production of genetically uniform progeny, derived from the fertilization independent development (parthenogenesis) of an unreduced egg cell (apomeiosis). To identify genes involved in the apomeiosis, a comparative transcriptome analysis of differentially expressed genes during embryo sac (ES) development in a sexual Pennisetum glaucum (genotype 81A1) and its apomeiotic (aposporic) non-parthenogenetic interspecific hybrid (BC1GO) was investigated. BC1GO exhibited the partitioned apomeiosis component, whereby the second apomixis component viz., parthenogenesis was completely lacking. A total of 96 non-redundant transcripts were recovered using suppression subtractive hybridization and classified into 11 different categories according to their putative functions. Amongst the identified transcripts, many of them belonged to unknown function (40%) followed by those involved in protein metabolism, stress response, pollen/ovule/embryo development, and translation/protein modification process. A data search of transcriptional profiling in other apomictic species revealed that 75% of the differentially expressed transcripts have not been reported in previous studies. By macroarray analysis, we identified differential expression pattern of 96 transcripts, 45 (47%) of which showed ≥2-fold induction in apomeiotic BC1GO. Further, the obtained results were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to have a comparative expression profiling of eight selected up-regulated transcripts (≥2.5-fold) between BC1GO and 81A1 at different phases of ovule development. In silico mapping demonstrated that 13 transcripts were located onto rice chromosome 2, region syntenic with the apospory locus as reported in Brachiaria brizantha and Paspalum notatum. The expression patterns of these transcripts showed a significant difference at differentiating megaspore mother cell and gametogenesis stages thereby suggesting their involvement in floral

  12. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  13. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  14. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  15. Molecular cloning of otoconin-22 complementary deoxyribonucleic acid in the bullfrog endolymphatic sac: effect of calcitonin on otoconin-22 messenger ribonucleic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tomura, Hideaki; Sasayama, Yuichi; Kikuyama, Sakae; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2003-08-01

    Anuran amphibians have a special organ called the endolymphatic sac (ELS), containing many calcium carbonate crystals, which is believed to have a calcium storage function. The major protein of aragonitic otoconia, otoconin-22, which is considered to be involved in the formation of calcium carbonate crystals, has been purified from the saccule of the Xenopus inner ear. In this study, we cloned a cDNA encoding otoconin-22 from the cDNA library constructed for the paravertebral lime sac (PVLS) of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, and sequenced it. The bullfrog otoconin-22 encoded a protein consisting of 147 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 20 amino acids. The protein had cysteine residues identical in a number and position to those conserved among the secretory phospholipase A(2) family. The mRNA of bullfrog otoconin-22 was expressed in the ELS, including the PVLS and inner ear. This study also revealed the presence of calcitonin receptor-like protein in the ELS, with the putative seven-transmembrane domains of the G protein-coupled receptors. The ultimobranchialectomy induced a prominent decrease in the otoconin-22 mRNA levels of the bullfrog PVLS. Supplementation of the ultimobranchialectomized bullfrogs with synthetic salmon calcitonin elicited a significant increase in the mRNA levels of the sac. These findings suggest that calcitonin secreted from the ultimobranchial gland, regulates expression of bullfrog otoconin-22 mRNA via calcitonin receptor-like protein on the ELS, thereby stimulating the formation of calcium carbonate crystals in the lumen of the ELS. PMID:12865304

  16. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  17. /Air Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Samar; Sohn, Hong Yong; Kim, Hang Goo

    2014-08-01

    Molten magnesium oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air causing melt loss and handling difficulties. The use of certain additive gases such as SF6, SO2, and CO2 to form a protective MgO layer over a magnesium melt has been proposed. The oxidation behavior of molten magnesium in air containing various concentrations of SF6 was investigated. Measurements of the kinetics of the oxide layer growth at various SF6 concentrations in air and temperatures were made. Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis unit in the temperature range of 943 K to 1043 K (670 °C to 770 °C). Results showed that a thin, coherent, and protective MgF2 layer was formed under SF6/Air mixtures, with a thickness ranging from 300 nm to 3 μm depending on SF6 concentration, temperature, and exposure time. Rate parameters were calculated and a model for the process was developed. The morphology and composition of the surface films were studied using scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscope.

  18. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  19. Air Trafficco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasunic, Kevin

    1970-01-01

    The work of the 14,000 air traffic controllers can be both challenging and nerve-racking. Concentration, steady nerves, and a clear voice are required to remember the routing and identification of the maze of aircraft and to instruct each of them accurately. Controllers must have a high school diploma and three years work experience or a college…

  20. Carboxyl pKa Values, Ion Pairs, Hydrogen Bonding, and the pH Dependence of Folding the Hyperthermophile Proteins Sac7d and Sso7d

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrew T.; Smith, Kelley; Muhandiram, Ranjith; Edmondson, Stephen P.; Shriver, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Sac7d and Sso7d are homologous, hyperthermophile proteins with a high density of charged surface residues and potential ion pairs. To determine the relative importance of specific amino acid side chains in defining the stability and function of these Archaeal chromatin proteins, pKas were measured for all of the acidic residues in both proteins using 13C NMR chemical shifts. The stability of Sso7d enabled titrations to pH 1 under low salt conditions. Two aspartate residues in Sso7d (D16 and D35) and a single glutamate residue (G54) showed significantly perturbed pKa values in low salt, indicating that the observed pH dependence of stability was primarily due to these three residues. The pH dependence of backbone amide NMR resonances demonstrated that perturbation of all three pKas was primarily the result of side chain-backbone amide hydrogen bonds. Titration data at higher salt for both Sso7d and Sac7d were consistent with this interpretation. Few of the significantly perturbed acidic pKas in Sac7d and Sso7d could be attributed to primarily ion pair or electrostatic interactions. A smaller perturbation of E48 (E47 in Sac7d) was ascribed to an ion pair interaction that may be important in defining the DNA binding surface. The small number (3) of significantly altered pKa values was in good agreement with a linkage analysis of the temperature, pH, and salt dependence of folding. The linkage of the ionization of two or more side chains to protein folding leads to apparent cooperativity in the pH dependence of folding, although each group titrates independently with a Hill coefficient near unity. These results demonstrate that the acid pH dependence of protein stability in these hyperthermophile proteins is due to independent titration of acidic residues with pKas perturbed primarily by hydrogen bonding of the side chain to the backbone. This work demonstrates the need for caution in using structural data alone to argue the importance of ion pairs in stabilizing

  1. Utilizing the Signal Interchange Format (SIGIF) standard to interface a Signal Archive and Communications System (SACS) with a Picture Archive and Communications System (PACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyes, John A.; Bretz, James F.

    1995-05-01

    Looking to the medical environment of the 21st Century, this paper describes the use of the signal interchange format (SIGIF) standard to integrate the data collected by biological signal monitoring systems with systems from other parts of a hospital or research facility. This paper covers three parts of this process. The first is the signal archive and communications system (SACS) which collects the data directly from a patient, the second part covers the signal interchange format standard which is used to communicate data from the SACS to a picture archive and communications system (PACS), and the last part covers the changes to a PACS. The concept of a signal archive and communications system was presented at the 1993 IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Conference as part of a paper by Joao Paulo Cunha. This paper attempts to define a specific architecture for a SACS and describe changes to published descriptions of a PACS required to complete the PACS/SACS interface. For over 15 years the use of computerized signal collections systems have been commonly accepted as part of hospital and research environments. Each manufacture has devised a unique, and usually proprietary, method of storing that information. During that time, very little has been done to provide a common standard so this information could be communicated to another computer. This has resulted in millions of miles of hard copy printouts being stored in patient records. The radiology departments have had the same problem; however, they solved the problem with the ACR/NEMA DICOM standard. The SIGIF standard is being presented as an equivalent standard to solve the communications problem for biological signal data. This paper presents a new step in the integration of bio-signal collection systems with other hospital data processing systems. The concept being presented for the first time in this paper is to convent signal information into the DICOM image format. Each pixel of the image will

  2. [Air pollution].

    PubMed

    Bauters, Christophe; Bauters, Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution is associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality. Chronic exposure to PM is also associated with cardiovascular risk. Myocardial infarction and heart failure are the most common cardiovascular events associated with PM pollution. The pathophysiological mechanisms related to PM pollution are inflammation, thrombosis, vasomotion abnormalities, progression of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure, and cardiac remodeling. A decrease in PM exposure may be particularly beneficial in subjects with a high cardiovascular risk. PMID:26547674

  3. Freshwater resources and saline water near the Sac and Fox Nation tribal lands, eastern Lincoln County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Marvin M.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the freshwater resources and possible sources of high-chloride and high-sulfate concentrations in parts of the aquifer near the Sac and Fox Nation tribal land in eastern Lincoln County, Oklahoma. Water-quality sampling and borehole geophysical data indicate the potential for fresh ground water on tribal land generally is greatest in the Vanoss Formation, in the SE1/4 sec. 21, T. 14 N., R. 06 E. and in the NE1/4 sec. 22, T. 14 N., R. 06 E. These locations avoid the flood-prone areas and borehole geophysical resistivity logs indicate the altitude of the base of fresh ground water is below 650 ft. The altitude of the base of fresh ground water is indicated to be generally near the surface under the W1/2 sec. 22, T. 14 N., R. 06 E., the SE1/4 sec. 22, SE1/4 SE1/4 NE1/4 sec. 21, and NE1/4 NW1/4 NW1/4 sec. 27. Conditions are more favorable for placement of fresh ground-water wells in sec. 34, T. 14 N., R. 06 E., where the tribe has leased water rights, than on tribal land in secs. 15, 16, 21, and 22, T. 14 N., R. 06 E. Sandstones overlain by or enclosed in thick clay and shale sequences are likely to be somewhat isolated from the flow system and retain some of the residual brine. Borehole geophysical logs suggest that sandstones near CH1, CM1, and WT1 have more clay and shale content than the sandstones near L2. Greater amounts of clay in the sandstones will retard the flushing of residual brines from the sandstones and could result in a shallow base of fresh water near CH1, CM1, and WT1. For these reasons and because circulation of fresh ground water is limited by discharge to the Deep Fork, general water quality under tribal land would probably be poorer than in the area where the tribe has leased water rights. Samples have chloride or sulfate concentrations greater than 250 milligrams per liter in the W1/2 sec. 22, T. 14 N., R. 06 E. Six cluster well samples from tribal land have chloride or sulfate concentrations above the

  4. CYP1A induction and blue sac disease in early life stages of white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) exposed to oil sands.

    PubMed

    Colavecchia, Maria V; Hodson, Peter V; Parrott, Joanne L

    2006-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of natural oil sands on the early developmental stages of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and to determine whether biochemical responses in this species were similar to native fish caught in the Athabasca Oil Sands area. Early life stage (ELS) sediment toxicity tests were conducted using controls, reference sediments, natural oil sands, and industrially contaminated (wastewater pond) sediments collected from sites along the Athabasca River, Alberta (Canada). Eggs and larvae were observed for mortality, hatching, deformities, growth, and cytochrome P-4501A (CYP1A) activity using immunohistochemistry. E-Nat-, S-Nat-, and wastewater pond sediment-exposed groups showed significant premature hatching, reduced growth, and exposure-dependent increases in ELS mortality and larval malformations relative to controls. The most common larval deformities included edemas (pericardial, yolk sac, and subepidermal), hemorrhages, and spinal defects. Juveniles exposed to oil sands and wastewater pond sediments (96 h) demonstrated significantly increased 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity (30- to 50-fold) as compared to controls. Reference sediment-exposed groups and water controls demonstrated reliable embryo and larval survival, minimal malformations, and negligible CYP1A staining. These observed signs of blue sac disease (ELS mortality, malformations, growth reductions, CYP1A activity induction) may produce deleterious reproductive effects in natural fish populations exposed to oil sands mixtures. PMID:16728374

  5. Variations in epithelial Na(+) transport and epithelial sodium channel localisation in the vaginal cul-de-sac of the brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula, during the oestrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Alsop, T-A; McLeod, B J; Butt, A G

    2016-03-01

    The fluid in the vaginal cul-de-sac of the brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula, is copious at ovulation when it may be involved in sperm transport or maturation, but is rapidly reabsorbed following ovulation. We have used the Ussing short-circuit current (Isc) technique and measurements of transcript and protein expression of the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) to determine if variations in electrogenic Na(+) transport are associated with this fluid absorption. Spontaneous Isc (<20µAcm(-2) during anoestrus, 60-80µAcm(-2) in cycling animals) was inhibited by serosal ouabain. Mucosal amiloride (10µmolL(-1)), an inhibitor of ENaC, had little effect on follicular Isc but reduced luteal Isc by ~35%. This amiloride-sensitive Isc was dependent on mucosal Na(+) and the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50)-amiloride (0.95μmolL(-1)) was consistent with ENaC-mediated Na(+) absorption. Results from polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription (RT-PCR) indicate that αENaC mRNA is expressed in anoestrous, follicular and luteal phases. However, in follicular animals αENaC immunoreactivity in epithelial cells was distributed throughout the cytoplasm, whereas immunoreactivity was restricted to the apical pole of cells from luteal animals. These data suggest that increased Na(+) absorption contributes to fluid absorption during the luteal phase and is regulated by insertion of ENaC into the apical membrane of cul-de-sac epithelial cells. PMID:25056576

  6. Cloning and analysis of gene expression of interleukin-17 homolog in triangle-shell pearl mussel, Hyriopsis cumingii, during pearl sac formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Wang, Meng; Xia, Ni; Yu, Shuang; Chen, Yi; Wang, Ning

    2016-05-01

    Successful allograft of mantle tissues in certain bivalve mollusks can form pearl sacs secreting nacre for pearl production. Little was known, however, about the immune consequences in response to the tissue transplantation. In the present study, interleukin (IL)-17, one of the key regulatory genes of alloimmunity, was cloned from the triangle-shell pearl mussel (HcIL-17) Hyriopsis cumingii by high-throughput sequencing of the mantle transcriptome. The sequence of HcIL-17 contains an open reading frame of 567 bp encoding a putative protein of 188 amino acid residues. Analysis of sequence characteristics, multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated HcIL-17 was a novel member in the mollusk IL-17 family. Expression of the HcIL-17 gene in donor mantle tissues and in hemocytes of recipient mussel was up-regulated dramatically within 7 days in response to the mantle tissue allograft for pearl aquaculture, suggesting remarkable proinflammatory responses during pearl sac formation in triangle-shell pearl mussels. Analysis of the time-course expression of HcIL-17 gene revealed the induction of HcIL-17 was time-dependent, reflecting the different periods of alloimmune events in triangle-shell mussels. The results of this study provide essential background information for further investigation of mollusk alloimmunity. PMID:26994668

  7. Detection of human papillomavirus infection in squamous tumours of the conjunctiva and lacrimal sac by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridisation, and polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Y.; Mashima, Y.; Kameyama, K.; Mukai, M.; Oguchi, Y.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Squamous tumours of the ocular surface, including the lacrimal pathway, range from benign lesions to invasive carcinomas. Some of these tumours are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, with the types of HPV differing among papillomas and dysplastic or malignant lesions.
METHODS—The relation between squamous tumours of the conjunctiva and lacrimal sac and HPV infection was investigated in 17 individuals with such tumours. Nine of the 17 tumours were benign, four were dysplastic lesions, and four were carcinomas.
RESULTS—Eight specimens showed positive immunohistochemical staining with antibodies to HPV; four of these eight were papillomas, three were dysplastic lesions, and one was a carcinoma. Koilocytosis was detected in seven of these eight tumours. Five of the eight specimens positive for immunohistochemical staining were also positive for HPV DNA by in situ hybridisation, and all eight were positive for HPV DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.
CONCLUSION—Approximately 50% of squamous tumours of the ocular surface and lacrimal sac were associated with HPV infection. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of the detection of HPV in the field of ophthalmology by a combination of immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridisation, and PCR.

 PMID:9215061

  8. The Sac1 domain of SYNJ1 identified mutated in a family with early-onset progressive parkinsonism with generalized seizures

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Catharine E.; Karkheiran, Siamak; Powell, James C.; Cao, Mian; Makarov, Vladimir; Darvish, Hossein; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Walker, Ruth H.; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; De Camilli, Pietro; Yue, Zhenyu; Paisán-Ruiz, Coro

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the genetic causes underlying early-onset parkinsonism (EOP) in a consanguineous Iranian family. To attain this, homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing were performed. As a result, a homozygous mutation (c.773G>A; p.Arg258Gln) lying within the NH2-terminal Sac1-like inositol phosphatase domain of polyphosphoinositide phosphatase synaptojanin 1 (SYNJ1), which has been implicated in the regulation of endocytic traffic at synapses, was identified as the disease-segregating mutation. This mutation impaired the phosphatase activity SYNJ1 against its Sac1 domain substrates in vitro. We concluded that the SYNJ1 mutation identified here is responsible for the EOP phenotype seen in our patients probably due to deficiencies in its phosphatase activity and consequent impairment of its synaptic functions. Our finding not only opens new avenues of investigation in the synaptic dysfunction mechanisms associated with parkinsonism, but also suggests phosphoinositide metabolism as a novel therapeutic target for parkinsonism. PMID:23804563

  9. Air filtering device

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, A.L.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes a room air cleaning device. It comprises: a box housing having an air inlet and an air outlet provided therein; a vertical baffle coupled to the box housing opposite the air outlet and spaced form the box housing such that an air egress outlet is formed between the vertical baffle and the box housing; air cleansing means substantially disposed within the box housing and cleansing air passing into the inlet and out of the air egress outlet; a fan disposed within the box housing, the fan providing air movement through the air inlet and the air egress outlet; wherein air exits the room air cleaning device through the air egress outlet as a vertical plane of moving air; and wherein formation of the vertical plane of moving air contributes to the formation of a low pressure area drawing impure air toward the air inlet.

  10. Gene-Silencing Screen for Mammalian Axon Regeneration Identifies Inpp5f (Sac2) as an Endogenous Suppressor of Repair after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yixiao; Stagi, Massimiliano; Wang, Xingxing; Yigitkanli, Kazim; Siegel, Chad S.; Nakatsu, Fubito; Cafferty, William B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Axonal growth and neuronal rewiring facilitate functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Known interventions that promote neural repair remain limited in their functional efficacy. To understand genetic determinants of mammalian CNS axon regeneration, we completed an unbiased RNAi gene-silencing screen across most phosphatases in the genome. We identified one known and 17 previously unknown phosphatase suppressors of injury-induced CNS axon growth. Silencing Inpp5f (Sac2) leads to robust enhancement of axon regeneration and growth cone reformation. Results from cultured Inpp5f−/− neurons confirm lentiviral shRNA results from the screen. Consistent with the nonoverlapping substrate specificity between Inpp5f and PTEN, rapamycin does not block enhanced regeneration in Inpp5f−/− neurons, implicating mechanisms independent of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Inpp5f−/− mice develop normally, but show enhanced anatomical and functional recovery after mid-thoracic dorsal hemisection injury. More serotonergic axons sprout and/or regenerate caudal to the lesion level, and greater numbers of corticospinal tract axons sprout rostral to the lesion. Functionally, Inpp5f-null mice exhibit enhanced recovery of motor functions in both open-field and rotarod tests. This study demonstrates the potential of an unbiased high-throughput functional screen to identify endogenous suppressors of CNS axon growth after injury, and reveals Inpp5f (Sac2) as a novel suppressor of CNS axon repair after spinal cord injury. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The extent of axon regeneration is a critical determinant of neurological recovery from injury, and is extremely limited in the adult mammalian CNS. We describe an unbiased gene-silencing screen that uncovered novel molecules suppressing axonal regeneration. Inpp5f (Sac2) gene deletion promoted recovery from spinal cord injury with no side effects. The mechanism of action is distinct from another lipid phosphatase implicated in regeneration

  11. In vitro potential modulation of baicalin and baicalein on P-glycoprotein activity and expression in Caco-2 cells and rat gut sacs.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qing; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Miao, Peipei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yujie; Ma, Shuangcheng

    2016-09-01

    Context Previous studies have shown that Scutellariae Radix, the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Labiatae), has a certain inhibitory effect on P-glycoprotein (P-gp), but the effects of its main active constituents on P-gp are still ambiguous. Objectives In vitro studies were performed to investigate the effects of its main active constituents (baicalin and its aglycone, baicalein) on the activity and expression of P-gp in intestine using Caco-2 cells and rat gut sacs. Materials and methods In Caco-2 cell experiments, the effects of baicalin and baicalein on P-gp activity were investigated using a P-gp substrate, rhodamine 123 and non-substrate fluorescein Na, by determining their intracellular fluorescence accumulation, and their effects on P-gp expression were determined using flow cytometry. In addition, rat gut sac model was selected to investigate the effects of baicalin and baicalein on the transport of verapamil, a classical P-gp substrate. The gut sacs of male Sprague-Dawley rats were filled with 0.4 mL the test solution contained verapamil (0.2575 mg/mL) and the drugs [baicalin and baicalein, at concentrations of 1/8 IC50 (59.875, 41.5 μg/mL), 1/4 IC50 (119.75, 83 μg/mL) and 1/2 IC50 (239.5, 166 μg/mL)], and then incubated in Tyrode's solution for a period of time. After termination of the incubation, the incubated solution was processed for the subsequent detection. Results According to the results of MTT assay, the IC50 values of verapamil, baicalin and baicalein were 104, 479, 332 μg/mL, respectively. The obtained results from the two models were confirmed mutually. As a result, baicalin exhibited no obvious effect on intracellular accumulation of Rh-123, and almost had no effect on P-gp expression and verapamil transportation, while baicalein significantly increased intracellular accumulation of Rh-123 (p < 0.01), down-regulated P-gp expression (p < 0.01) and increased the transport of verapamil (p < 0

  12. AIR CLEANING FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses air cleaning for acceptable indoor air quality. ir cleaning has performed an important role in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems for many years. raditionally, general ventilation air-filtration equipment has been used to protect cooling coils ...

  13. Quantification of topotecan by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Application to intestinal transport using rat everted gut sacs.

    PubMed

    Arellano, Cécile; Gandia, Peggy; Bettuing, Laure; Woodley, John; Chatelut, Etienne

    2010-03-01

    Topetecan is an important anti-cancer drug that has recently become available as an oral formulation. In order to study its intestinal absorption in vitro and a potential drug-drug interaction with the anti-emetic ondansetron, a sensitive and accurate method for the analysis of topotecan in biological media was required. We developed a liquid-liquid extraction method at pH 7.0-7.5 with a recovery of 85% and which took into account the complex chemical behaviour of topotecan related to the lactone opening and the keto-enol tautomerism. This enabled us to validate a new specific and sensitive LC-MS method of analysis, with satisfactory inter- and intra-day repeatability and accuracy. The method was applied to a study of topotecan uptake in rat everted gut sacs that showed that, despite being a P-glycoprotein substrate like topotecan, ondansetron did not interfere with topotecan uptake. PMID:20138015

  14. Cloning, expression, purification and physical and kinetic characterization of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from orange (Citrus sinensis osbeck var. Valencia) fruit juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Perotti, Valeria E; Figueroa, Carlos M; Andreo, Carlos S; Iglesias, Alberto A; Podestá, Florencio E

    2010-11-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase (PEPCase) from orange fruit juice sacs has been cloned and heterogously expressed in high yield. The purified recombinant enzyme displays properties typical of plant PEPCase, including activation by sugar phosphates and inhibition by malate and citrate. Malate inhibition is weak in the physiological pH range, and the enzyme is also poorly affected by Glu and Asp, known inhibitors of C(3) plants PEPCases. However, it is strongly inhibited by citrate. Orange fruit PEPCase phosphorylation by mammalian protein kinase A decreased inhibition by malate. The enzyme presents an unusual high molecular mass in the absence of PEP, while in its presence it displays a more common tetrameric arrangement. The overall properties of the enzyme suggest that it is suited for organic acid synthesis and NADH reoxidation in the mature fruit. The present study provides the first analysis of a recombinant fruit PEPCase. PMID:21802611

  15. Pattern of phenolic content, antioxidant activity and senescence-related enzymes in granulated vs non-granulated juice-sacs of 'Kinnow' mandarin (Citrus nobilis x C. deliciosa).

    PubMed

    Sharma, R R; Awasthi, O P; Kumar, Kuldeep

    2016-03-01

    'Kinnow' is a hybrid mandarin, developed at California (USA) but could not become successful there. However, it revolutionized citrus industry in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Recent reports indicate that like other citrus fruits, it also suffers from juice-sac granulation but exact cause of this malady is not known. Fully-mature 'Kinnow' fruits were harvested and observations on some physical and biochemical attributes were recorded and their relationship was established with occurrence of granulation. About 12.8 % 'Kinnow' fruits were affected by juice-sac granulation. Granulated fruits had higher average weight (178 ± 2.26 g), peel thickness (3.72 ± 0.23 mm), and less soluble solids concentrates (7.4 ± 0.21 %) than non-granulated fruits. Granulated fruits exhibited lower concentrations of total phenolics compounds (4.3 ± 0.56 mg 100(-1) g gallic acid equivalent fresh weigh) and antioxidants activity (1.78 ± 0.29 μmol Trolox g(-1) FW) but produced higher rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene, and exhibited higher activities of senescent-related enzymes such as lipoxygenase (LOX) (1.3 ± 0.31 μmoles min(-1) g(-1) FW) and pectin methylesterase (PME) (0.52 ± 0.12 μmol of NaOH g(-1) FW min(-1)) and had strong relationships with the occurrence of granulation. From this study, it can be concluded that total phenolics compounds, antioxidants and PAL enzyme activity have strongly negative co-relation; whereas, senescent-related enzymes such as LOX, and PME and rates of respiration or ethylene evolution have strongly positive relationships with the occurrence of granulation in 'Kinnow' mandarin. PMID:27570277

  16. The chicken yolk sac IgY receptor, a mammalian mannose receptor family member, transcytoses IgY across polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tesar, Devin B; Cheung, Evelyn J; Bjorkman, Pamela J

    2008-04-01

    In mammals the transfer of passive immunity from mother to young is mediated by the MHC-related receptor FcRn, which transports maternal IgG across epithelial cell barriers. In birds, maternal IgY in egg yolk is transferred across the yolk sac to passively immunize chicks during gestation and early independent life. The chicken yolk sac IgY receptor (FcRY) is the ortholog of the mammalian phospholipase A2 receptor, a mannose receptor family member, rather than an FcRn or MHC homolog. FcRn and FcRY both exhibit ligand binding at the acidic pH of endosomes and ligand release at the slightly basic pH of blood. Here we show that FcRY expressed in polarized mammalian epithelial cells functioned in endocytosis, bidirectional transcytosis, and recycling of chicken FcY/IgY. Confocal immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that IgY binding and endocytosis occurred at acidic but not basic pH, mimicking pH-dependent uptake of IgG by FcRn. Colocalization studies showed FcRY-mediated internalization via clathrin-coated pits and transport involving early and recycling endosomes. Disruption of microtubules partially inhibited apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical transcytosis, but not recycling, suggesting the use of different trafficking machinery. Our results represent the first cell biological evidence of functional equivalence between FcRY and FcRn and provide an intriguing example of how evolution can give rise to systems in which similar biological requirements in different species are satisfied utilizing distinct protein folds. PMID:18256279

  17. Quantitative Assessment of the Influence of Rhizoma Zingiberis on the Level of Aconitine in Rat Gut Sacs and Qualitative Analysis of the Major Influencing Components of Rhizoma Zingiberis on Aconitine Using UPLC/MS

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Yang; Liu, Shuying

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to clarify the material basis for the detoxification of Rhizoma Zingiberis (RZ) on aconitine, an analgesic drug, by quantitatively assessing the influence of RZ on the in vitro intestinal concentration of aconitine using an everted gut sac model and by qualitatively identifying the components in the RZ extract. To quantify aconitine in rat everted gut sacs, both an accurate processing method and a sensitive detection method were required. We developed a three-step sample processing method to protect the components from decomposition and applied ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC/TQMS) to quantify aconitine, glucose and digoxin. In addition, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UPLC/ITMS) was applied to detect the potential antidotal components in the RZ extract. Finally, the RZ extract reduced the level of aconitine in everted gut sacs, and eleven gingerols were successfully identified, which could be considered potential antidotal components for aconitine. This study demonstrated the application of two UPLC/MS methods for analyzing the material basis for the reciprocity between Chinese medicine components in everted gut sacs. PMID:25978042

  18. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  19. Transformation of a Ruptured Giant Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm into an Air Cavity After Transcatheter Embolization in a Behcet's Patient

    SciTech Connect

    Cil, Barbaros E. Turkbey, Baris; Canyigit, Murat; Kumbasar, Ozlem O.; Celik, Gokhan; Demirkazik, Figen B.

    2006-02-15

    Pulmonary artery aneurysms due to Behcet's disease are mainly seen in young males and very rarely in females. To our knowledge there are only 10 cases reported in the related literature. Emergent transcatheter embolization was performed in a female patient with a known history of Behcet's disease in whom massive hemoptysis developed because of rupture of a giant pulmonary artery aneurysm. At 6-month follow-up, transformation of the aneurysm sac into an air cavity was detected. To our knowledge, such a transformation has never been reported in the literature before. Embolization of the pulmonary artery aneurysm and the mechanism of cavity transformation are reviewed and discussed.

  20. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to establish national ambient air quality standards and to regulate as necessary, hazardous air pollutants. EPA uses ambient air monitoring to determine current air quality conditions, and to assess progress toward meeting these standards and relat...

  1. Air gun injury with deadly aftermath--case report.

    PubMed

    Stankov, Aleksandar; Jakovski, Zlatko; Pavlovski, Goran; Muric, Nedzat; Dwork, Andrew J; Cakar, Zdravko

    2013-01-01

    In Republic of Macedonia the use of air guns is quite widespread. They are used mainly for target practice. They are regulated by the Law of Arms, where they are defined as pneumatic weapons. There is no legal limit on type or quantity of ammunition that one may possess. Our Institute performs at least 90% of the forensic autopsies in Macedonia. In this report we describe the only fatality by pneumatic weapon to come to our attention over the past 10 years. A 6-year-old girl was accidentally wounded by her brother when he and his father were trying a new air gun, a 4.5mm single shot, break barrel, spring piston air rifle manufactured in China under the brand "Westlake". She died within minutes. Autopsy showed cardiac tamponade due to penetration of the aorta. A 0.5g metal projectile, 4.5mm in diameter, with a pointed, conical shape, was recovered from the pericardial sac. PMID:23017978

  2. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  3. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... clean up the air are enforced. Learn more Climate Change Climate change threatens the health of millions of people, with ... What Makes Air Unhealthy Fighting for Healthy Air Climate Change Emergencies & Natural Disasters Tobacco Education and Training Ask ...

  4. HEPA air filter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  5. Needed: Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on air pollution for young readers. Discusses damage to substances and sickness from air pollution, air quality, and what to do in a pollution alert. Includes questions with answers, illustrations, and activities for the learner. (MA)

  6. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  7. Influence of chloride and metals on silver bioavailability to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) yolk-sac fry.

    PubMed

    Bury, Nicolas R; Hogstrand, Christer

    2002-07-01

    The effects of differing water chloride concentrations (0-10 mM) or competing metals [Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Pb(II), Co(II) (1-10,000 nM)] on Ag(I) uptake in yolk-sac fry of two salmonid species, the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were studied. None of the metals tested were strong competitors of Atlantic salmon yolk-sac fry whole body Ag(I) influx. Inhibition of Ag(I) influx was only seen with a 100-fold excess of Cu(II) or Cd(II) or a 1000-fold excess of Pb(II) or Co(II). At these concentrations, the degree of competition appears to be directly proportional to the conditional stability constant of the competing metal to the gill (metal-gill log K). The range of [Cl-] allowed an assessment of Ag+, AgCl(aq), and AgCl2- bioavailability. The pattern of Ag(I) uptake was similar for each fish species. At <1 mM Cl-, where the [Ag+] dominates, the Ag(I) accumulation rate was constant. Above 1 mM Cl-, where the [AgCl(aq)] is dominant and the [AgCl2-] increases, there was a decline in Ag(I) uptake rate. However, even when very little Ag+ was present (i.e., at 10 mM Cl-) Ag(I) accumulated, albeit at a lower rate. This was suggestive of passive influx by AgCl(aq) and indicated little or no entry of negatively charged silver chloride complexes. The decline in Ag(I) uptake above 1 mM Cl- demonstrated that, if Ag(I) was present as both Ag+ and AgCl(aq), salmonid Ag(I) accumulation was dominated by Ag+ uptake. Therefore, the order of bioavailability of the Ag(I) species was determined as Ag+ > AgCl(aq) > AgCl2-. PMID:12144263

  8. Utilization of a ts-sacB selection system for the generation of a Mycobacterium avium serovar-8 specific glycopeptidolipid allelic exchange mutant

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Vida R; Lee, Sun-Hwa; Eckstein, Torsten M; Inamine, Julia M; Belisle, John T; Maslow, Joel N

    2004-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium avium are ubiquitous environmental organisms and a cause of disseminated infection in patients with end-stage AIDS. The glycopeptidolipids (GPL) of M. avium are proposed to participate in the pathogenesis of this organism, however, establishment of a clear role for GPL in disease production has been limited by the inability to genetically manipulate M. avium. Methods To be able to study the role of the GPL in M. avium pathogenesis, a ts-sacB selection system, not previously used in M. avium, was employed as a means to achieve homologous recombination for the rhamnosyltransferase (rtfA) gene of a pathogenic serovar 8 strain of M. avium to prevent addition of serovar-specific sugars to rhamnose of the fatty acyl-peptide backbone of GPL. The genotype of the resultant rtfA mutant was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and southern hybridization. Disruption in the proximal sugar of the haptenic oligosaccharide resulted in the loss of serovar specific GPL with no change in the pattern of non-serovar specific GPL moieties as shown by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Complementation of wild type (wt) rtfA in trans through an integrative plasmid restored serovar-8 specific GPL expression identical to wt serovar 8 parent strain. Results In this study, we affirm our results that rtfA encodes an enzyme responsible for the transfer of Rha to 6d-Tal and provide evidence of a second allelic exchange mutagenesis system suitable for M. avium. Conclusion We report the second allelic exchange system for M. avium utilizing ts-sacB as double-negative and xylE as positive counter-selection markers, respectively. This system of allelic exchange would be especially useful for M. avium strains that demonstrate significant isoniazid (INH) resistance despite transformation with katG. Through the construction of mutants in GPL or other mycobacterial components, their roles in M. avium pathogenesis, biosynthesis, or drug

  9. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  10. Building Air Monitoring Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The different components of air monitoring networks, the status of air monitoring in the United States, and the services and activities of the three major American network builders are detailed. International air monitoring networks and alert systems are identified, with emphasis on the Dutch air monitoring network. (BT)

  11. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  12. Ultrafine-Grain and Isotropic Cu/SAC305/Cu Solder Interconnects Fabricated by High-Intensity Ultrasound-Assisted Solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Hongjun; Wang, Qiang; Li, Mingyu; Wang, Chunqing

    2014-07-01

    With the miniaturization of portable electronic devices, the size of solder joint interconnects is decreasing to micrometer levels. These joints possess only several or even one or two grains, resulting in anisotropy and failure issues. Direct ultrasound-assisted solidification of Cu/SAC305/Cu interconnects for grain refinement and fabrication of isotropic solder joints is presented herein. These joints consist of many β-Sn grains. The average cross-sectional area of the Sn-rich phase is significantly reduced by up to 99% when compared with conventional as-reflowed samples. The ultrasonic power density exhibits a threshold value for affecting the microstructures. Below 200 W cm-2, the β-Sn grains were refined and had circular shape. The Ag3Sn phase grew in a manner similar to branched coral to sizes reaching 30 μm, or as rods aggregated together with Cu6Sn5 tube fragments. Above 200 W cm-2, the microstructures were coarsened and Ag3Sn had plate-like shape. The thickness of Cu6Sn5 intermetallic layers at the Cu/solder interfaces was reduced by more than 26%. The relationships among the ultrasonic power, nucleation rate, local temperature drop, and pressure were identified. At the highest power density of 267 W cm-2, the nucleation rate was about 4.05 × 1014 m-3 s-1, the local temperature drop was 248 K, and the local pressure was on the order of several GPa.

  13. Production of otoconia in the endolymphatic sac in the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster: light and transmission electron microscopic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, W.; Wiederhold, M. L.; Hejl, R.

    1998-01-01

    The formation of otoconia in the endolymphatic sac (ES) of the larval newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, has been studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. Some of the epithelial cells of the ES contain an abundance of swollen vesicles, Golgi complexes, rough endoplasmic reticula and ribosomes at the late larval stages 50 and 51, approximately 26-30 days after eggs are laid. Five days later, at stage 52, crystals are present in the vacuoles between the epithelial cells. Serial sections indicate that these vacuoles actually form small canals which lie in the wall and join the lumen of the ES. Reconstruction of the ES shows that several canals are contained in the ES wall. At stage 56, about 72 days after eggs are laid, a large number of otoconia are present in the ES lumen, while the otoconia disappear from the canals. It appears that the otoconia are first produced in the canals and then released to the lumen. Some epithelial cells of the ES are thought to expel the organic and inorganic material to the canals to form the otoconia in situ. The process of formation of the otoconia in the ES is discussed.

  14. Yolk Sac Macrophages, Fetal Liver, and Adult Monocytes Can Colonize an Empty Niche and Develop into Functional Tissue-Resident Macrophages.

    PubMed

    van de Laar, Lianne; Saelens, Wouter; De Prijck, Sofie; Martens, Liesbet; Scott, Charlotte L; Van Isterdael, Gert; Hoffmann, Eik; Beyaert, Rudi; Saeys, Yvan; Lambrecht, Bart N; Guilliams, Martin

    2016-04-19

    Tissue-resident macrophages can derive from yolk sac macrophages (YS-Macs), fetal liver monocytes (FL-MOs), or adult bone-marrow monocytes (BM-MOs). The relative capacity of these precursors to colonize a niche, self-maintain, and perform tissue-specific functions is unknown. We simultaneously transferred traceable YS-Macs, FL-MOs, and BM-MOs into the empty alveolar macrophage (AM) niche of neonatal Csf2rb(-/-) mice. All subsets produced AMs, but in competition preferential outgrowth of FL-MOs was observed, correlating with their superior granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) reactivity and proliferation capacity. When transferred separately, however, all precursors efficiently colonized the alveolar niche and generated AMs that were transcriptionally almost identical, self-maintained, and durably prevented alveolar proteinosis. Mature liver, peritoneal, or colon macrophages could not efficiently colonize the empty AM niche, whereas mature AMs could. Thus, precursor origin does not affect the development of functional self-maintaining tissue-resident macrophages and the plasticity of the mononuclear phagocyte system is largest at the precursor stage. PMID:26992565

  15. Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis after tumor lysis syndrome in a case of advanced yolk sac tumor treated with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Doi, Mihoko; Okamoto, Yohei; Yamauchi, Masami; Naitou, Hiroyuki; Shinozaki, Katsunori

    2012-10-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST) is a highly aggressive malignancy arising in young women. Chemotherapy has dramatically improved the prognosis, and bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) combination chemotherapy appears to be the most effective combination regimen. A 23-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with worsening abdominal distention and a lower abdominal mass. She was diagnosed with a stage IIIc pure YST of the right ovary, and right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed; there were numerous disseminated peritoneal tumors within the abdominal cavity. A few days postoperatively, massive ascites developed, and right hydronephrosis occurred. Chemotherapy with BEP was started, and after 24 h of administration, oliguria and tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) developed. Continuous hemodiafiltration was started, and hemodialysis was initiated following full-dose standard cisplatin and etoposide on days 2-5 of the 1st cycle. After the electrolyte abnormalities and the elevation of creatinine became normal, the patient received an additional three cycles of BEP and achieved complete remission. However, she also suffered from severe non-hematological toxicities, including grade 3 left ventricular dysfunction and grade 4 pulmonary fibrosis. In the case of rapidly progressing and high-volume YST treated with BEP chemotherapy, special attention should be paid to bleomycin-induced pulmonary toxicity following TLS. Further study is required to optimize drug exposure to ensure efficacy and reduce the risk of side effects in this population. PMID:22127348

  16. Establishment of the Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) and Infestation of its Egg Sacs by a Parasitoid, Philolema latrodecti (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), in French Polynesia and the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Marie, Jérôme; Vetter, Richard S

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents two newly established species for French Polynesia: the invasive brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, and its potential biocontrol agent, the parasitoid wasp, Philolema latrodecti (Fullaway). The brown widow spider was recorded from the island of Moorea in 2006 and, since that discovery, the occurrence of this species has expanded to two of the five archipelagos of French Polynesia including the main island of Tahiti and four of the Cook Islands. Although the tropical climate contributes to the establishment of L. geometricus, a biotic factor, P. latrodecti, may restrain population from demographic explosion. This eurytomid wasp is present in French Polynesia and is a parasitoid that has been used in biological control of the southern black widow Latrodectus mactans (F.) in Hawaii. This wasp could become a significant limiting factor for L. geometricus distribution on these islands, as it was found in 31% of the Tahitian brown widow spider egg sacs that were dissected. However, thus far, the wasp was only found on Tahiti in association with the brown widow spider. Although the brown widow is generally considered to be less toxic than its black widow relatives, it remains of medical concern in French Polynesia because reactions to its bites can, at times, be severe. The spider remains of public concern because it is a novel species; it has the word widow in its name and dark morphs are mistaken as black widows. PMID:26336266

  17. The Role of Elastic and Plastic Anisotropy of Sn in Recrystallization and Damage Evolution During Thermal Cycling in SAC305 Solder Joints

    SciTech Connect

    Bieler, Thomas R.; Zhou, Bite; Blair, Lauren; Zamiri, Amir; Darbandi, Payam; Pourboghrat, Farhang; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Liu, Kuo-Chuan

    2013-04-08

    Because failures in lead-free solder joints occur at locations other than the most highly shear-strained regions, reliability prediction is challenging. To gain physical understanding of this phenomenon, physically based understanding of how elastic and plastic deformation anisotropy affect microstructural evolution during thermomechanical cycling is necessary. Upon solidification, SAC305 (Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu) solder joints are usually single or tricrystals. The evolution of microstructures and properties is characterized statistically using optical and orientation imaging microscopy. In situ synchrotron x-ray measurements during thermal cycling are used to examine how crystal orientation and thermal cycling history change strain history. Extensive characterization of a low-stress plastic ball grid array (PBGA) package design at different stages of cycling history is compared with preliminary experiments using higher-stress package designs. With time and thermal history, microstructural evolution occurs mostly from continuous recrystallization and particle coarsening that is unique to each joint, because of the specific interaction between local thermal and displacement boundary conditions and the strong anisotropic elastic, plastic, expansion, and diffusional properties of Sn crystals. The rate of development of recrystallized microstructures is a strong function of strain and aging. Cracks form at recrystallized (random) boundaries, and then percolate through recrystallized regions. Complications arising from electromigration and corrosion are also considered.

  18. Expressed sequence-tag analysis of ovaries of Brachiaria brizantha reveals genes associated with the early steps of embryo sac differentiation of apomictic plants.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Erica Duarte; Guimarães, Larissa Arrais; de Alencar Dusi, Diva Maria; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Martins, Natália Florencio; do Carmo Costa, Marcos Mota; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; de Campos Carneiro, Vera Tavares

    2012-02-01

    In apomixis, asexual mode of plant reproduction through seeds, an unreduced megagametophyte is formed due to circumvented or altered meiosis. The embryo develops autonomously from the unreduced egg cell, independently of fertilization. Brachiaria is a genus of tropical forage grasses that reproduces sexually or by apomixis. A limited number of studies have reported the sequencing of apomixis-related genes and a few Brachiaria sequences have been deposited at genebank databases. This work shows sequencing and expression analyses of expressed sequence-tags (ESTs) of Brachiaria genus and points to transcripts from ovaries with preferential expression at megasporogenesis in apomictic plants. From the 11 differentially expressed sequences from immature ovaries of sexual and apomictic Brachiaria brizantha obtained from macroarray analysis, 9 were preferentially detected in ovaries of apomicts, as confirmed by RT-qPCR. A putative involvement in early steps of Panicum-type embryo sac differentiation of four sequences from B. brizantha ovaries: BbrizHelic, BbrizRan, BbrizSec13 and BbrizSti1 is suggested. Two of these, BbrizSti1 and BbrizHelic, with similarity to a gene coding to stress induced protein and a helicase, respectively, are preferentially expressed in the early stages of apomictic ovaries development, especially in the nucellus, in a stage previous to the differentiation of aposporous initials, as verified by in situ hybridization. PMID:22068439

  19. CM5, a Pre-Swarm Comprehensive Geomagnetic Field Model Derived from Over 12 Yr of CHAMP, Orsted, SAC-C and Observatory Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Olsen, Nils; Tyler, Robert H.; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive magnetic field model named CM5 has been derived from CHAMP, Ørsted and SAC-C satellite and observatory hourly-means data from 2000 August to 2013 January using the Swarm Level-2 Comprehensive Inversion (CI) algorithm. Swarm is a recently launched constellation of three satellites to map the Earth's magnetic field. The CI technique includes several interesting features such as the bias mitigation scheme known as Selective Infinite Variance Weighting (SIVW), a new treatment for attitude error in satellite vector measurements, and the inclusion of 3-D conductivity for ionospheric induction. SIVW has allowed for a much improved lithospheric field recovery over CM4 by exploiting CHAMP along-track difference data yielding resolution levels up to spherical harmonic degree 107, and has allowed for the successful extraction of the oceanic M2 tidal magnetic field from quiet, nightside data. The 3-D induction now captures anomalous Solar-quiet features in coastal observatory daily records. CM5 provides a satisfactory, continuous description of the major magnetic fields in the near-Earth region over this time span, and its lithospheric, ionospheric and oceanic M2 tidal constituents may be used as validation tools for future Swarm Level-2 products coming from the CI algorithm and other dedicated product algorithms.

  20. The Use of OMPS Near Real Time Products in Volcanic Cloud Risk Mitigation and Smoke/Dust Air Quality Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seftor, C. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; McPeters, R. D.; Li, J. Y.; Durbin, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Near real time (NRT) SO2 and aerosol index (AI) imagery from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has proven invaluable in mitigating the risk posed to air traffic by SO2 and ash clouds from volcanic eruptions. The OMI products, generated as part of NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) NRT system and available through LANCE and both NOAA's NESDIS and ESA's Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS) portals, are used to monitor the current location of volcanic clouds and to provide input into Volcanic Ash (VA) advisory forecasts. NRT products have recently been developed using data from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite onboard the Suomi NPP platform; they are currently being made available through the SACS portal and will shortly be incorporated into the LANCE NRT system. We will show examples of the use of OMPS NRT SO2 and AI imagery to monitor recent volcanic eruption events. We will also demonstrate the usefulness of OMPS AI imagery to detect and track dust storms and smoke from fires, and how this information can be used to forecast their impact on air quality in areas far removed from their source. Finally, we will show SO2 and AI imagery generated from our OMPS Direct Broadcast data to highlight the capability of our real time system.

  1. Isokinetic air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Sehmel, George A.

    1979-01-01

    An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

  2. Fatal venous air embolism during anesthesia in an apparently healthy adult chihuahua.

    PubMed

    Mouser, Pamela J; Wilson, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    An apparently healthy adult female Chihuahua was presented for elective ovariohysterectomy. After induction of general anesthesia, but prior to the start of the surgery, air was inadvertently administered to the patient via the IV fluid line. The patient convulsed, became apneic, arrested, and died despite attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation. At necropsy, the pericardial sac was incised and filled with water to entirely submerge the intact heart. The right ventricular free wall was punctured, releasing several air bubbles from the right ventricle. Death was attributed to venous air embolism based on the clinical history, gross findings, and paucity of underlying gross and microscopic pathology that might have predisposed the dog to an anesthetic-related death. The discussion of this case includes a review of previously reported veterinary cases of fatal venous air embolism, including the varied mechanisms of embolus formation, the potential impact of pre-existing cardiopulmonary disease, and the methods used to detect emboli. This report outlines the events of fatal iatrogenic venous air embolization and emphasizes the importance of considering this entity in the case of sudden death of a patient with an indwelling catheter in order to pursue either appropriate diagnostic tests or necropsy techniques to aid in the diagnosis. PMID:25955143

  3. Urea-based osmoregulation in the developing embryo of oviparous cartilaginous fish (Callorhinchus milii): contribution of the extraembryonic yolk sac during the early developmental period.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Wataru; Kajimura, Makiko; Tanaka, Hironori; Hasegawa, Kumi; Bell, Justin D; Toop, Tes; Donald, John A; Hyodo, Susumu

    2014-04-15

    Marine cartilaginous fish retain a high concentration of urea to maintain the plasma slightly hyperosmotic to the surrounding seawater. In adult fish, urea is produced by hepatic and extrahepatic ornithine urea cycles (OUCs). However, little is known about the urea retention mechanism in developing cartilaginous fish embryos. In order to address the question as to the mechanism of urea-based osmoregulation in developing embryos, the present study examined the gene expression profiles of OUC enzymes in oviparous holocephalan elephant fish (Callorhinchus milii) embryos. We found that the yolk sac membrane (YSM) makes an important contribution to the ureosmotic strategy of the early embryonic period. The expression of OUC enzyme genes was detectable in the embryonic body from at least stage 28, and increased markedly during development to hatching, which is most probably due to growth of the liver. During the early developmental period, however, the expression of OUC enzyme genes was not prominent in the embryonic body. Meanwhile, we found that the mRNA expression of OUC enzymes was detected in the extra-embryonic YSM; the mRNA expression of cmcpsIII in the YSM was much higher than that in the embryonic body during stages 28-31. Significant levels of enzyme activity and the existence of mitochondrial-type cmgs1 transcripts in the YSM supported the mRNA findings. We also found that the cmcpsIII transcript is localized in the vascularized inner layer of the YSM. Taken together, our findings demonstrate for the first time that the YSM is involved in urea-based osmoregulation during the early to mid phase of development in oviparous cartilaginous fish. PMID:24363418

  4. Assessing the In Vitro Drug Release from Lipid-Core Nanocapsules: a New Strategy Combining Dialysis Sac and a Continuous-Flow System.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Diego Fontana; Zuglianello, Carine; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver

    2015-12-01

    The in vitro assessment of drug release from polymeric nanocapsules suspensions is one of the most studied parameters in the development of drug-loaded nanoparticles. Nevertheless, official methods for the evaluation of drug release from submicrometric carriers are not available. In this work, a new approach to assess the in vitro drug release profile from drug-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC) was proposed. A continuous-flow system (open system) was designed to evaluate the in vitro drug release profiles from different LNC formulations containing prednisolone or clobetasol propionate (LNC-CP) as drug model (LNC-PD) using a homemade apparatus. The release medium was constantly renewed throughout the experiment. A dialysis bag containing 5 mL of formulation (0.5 mg mL(-1)) was maintained inside the apparatus, under magnetic stirring and controlled temperature (37°C). In parallel, studies based on the conventional dialysis sac technique (closed system) were performed. It was possible to discriminate the in vitro drug release profile of different formulations using the open system. The proposed strategy improved the sink condition, by constantly renewing the release medium, thus maintaining the drug concentration farther from the saturated concentration in the release medium. Moreover, problems due to sampling errors can be easily overcome using this semi-automated system, since the collection is done automatically without interference from the analyst. The system proposed in this paper brings important methodological and analytical advantages, becoming a promising prototype semi-automated apparatus for performing in vitro drug release studies from drug-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules and other related nanoparticle drug delivery systems. PMID:25986595

  5. Crustal structure and tectonic development of Gulf of Guinea Cul-deSac from integrated interpretation of new aeromagnetic and existing geophysical data

    SciTech Connect

    Babalola, O.O.

    1985-02-01

    Data-acquisition difficulties and propriety restrictions on industry data have necessitated liberal extrapolations and generalizations in previous tectono-structural studies of the Gulf of Guinea cul-de-sac. This region is the locus of a postulated Late Cretaceous triple junction whose arms were the transform-dominated Equatorial Atlantic, the northward-propagating South Atlantic, and the Benue Trough aulacogen. Oceanic crust has been inferred to underlie most of the thick sedimentary wedge of the oil-prolific Niger Delta basin. Integrated interpretation of new aeromagnetic data of the Geological Survey of Nigeria and existing geophysical data corroborates previous work on the general structure of the marginal basins. New aeromagnetic data, however, reveal a detail structure more complex than previously known. Low-frequency magnetic anomalies over the Niger delta indicate that oceanic crust extends northward to about Onitsha. From Onitsha, the edge of oceanic crust extends northward to about Onitsha. From Onitsha, the edge of oceanic crust trends southwestward along the Benin hinge line (an apparent continental continuation of either the Chain fracture zone or a new Okitipupa fracture zone) and also wiggles southeastward (adjoined by a wide margin of transitional crust) toward the shelf break off Cameroon. Linear magnetic anomalies trending northeast indicate about 7 fracture zones beneath the Niger Delta basin. The region of high-frequency magnetic anomalies west of the Niger delta represent the Okitipupa basement ridge complex, which separates the Niger Delta basin from the Dahomey embayment. In this embayment, 2 wide bands of intervening high- and low-frequency aeromagnetic anomalies are interpreted to represent a basement high or ridge and a fault-bonded trough, respectively.

  6. Energy and economic assessment of desiccant cooling systems coupled with single glazed air and hybrid PV/thermal solar collectors for applications in hot and humid climate

    SciTech Connect

    Beccali, Marco; Finocchiaro, Pietro; Nocke, Bettina

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the energy and economic performance of desiccant cooling systems (DEC) equipped with both single glazed standard air and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/t) collectors for applications in hot and humid climates. The use of 'solar cogeneration' by means of PV/t hybrid collectors enables the simultaneous production of electricity and heat, which can be directly used by desiccant air handling units, thereby making it possible to achieve very energy savings. The present work shows the results of detailed simulations conducted for a set of desiccant cooling systems operating without any heat storage. System performance was investigated through hourly simulations for different systems and load combinations. Three configurations of DEC systems were considered: standard DEC, DEC with an integrated heat pump and DEC with an enthalpy wheel. Two kinds of building occupations were considered: office and lecture room. Moreover, three configurations of solar-assisted air handling units (AHU) equipped with desiccant wheels were considered and compared with standard AHUs, focusing on achievable primary energy savings. The relationship between the solar collector's area and the specific primary energy consumption for different system configurations and building occupation patterns is described. For both occupation patterns, sensitivity analysis on system performance was performed for different solar collector areas. Also, this work presents an economic assessment of the systems. The cost of conserved energy and the payback time were calculated, with and without public incentives for solar cooling systems. It is worth noting that the use of photovoltaics, and thus the exploitation of related available incentives in many European countries, could positively influence the spread of solar air cooling technologies (SAC). An outcome of this work is that SAC systems equipped with PV/t collectors are shown to have better performance in terms of

  7. The yolk sac tumor: reflections on a remarkable neoplasm and two of the many intrigued by it-Gunnar Teilum and Aleksander Talerman-and the bond it formed between them.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert H

    2014-12-01

    One of the most remarkable of human neoplasms, the yolk sac tumor, is reviewed, emphasizing its histologic diversity and differential diagnosis, occurrence at many sites, and the shared passion for this unique neoplasm of Dr Gunnar Teilum (who deserves almost all credit for delineation of the nature of the tumor and its features) and Dr Aleksander Talerman (who made his own contribution to our knowledge of it) and the friendship it helped forge between these 2 distinguished pathologists. In a unique series of articles, beginning in the early 1940s, Teilum delineated the distinctive features of the neoplasm and recognized that it was 1 of 2 initially included as "mesonephroma ovarii" by Dr Walter Schiller in 1939 (the second we now know as clear cell carcinoma). Teilum named the tumor "endodermal sinus tumor" because it came to his attention that papillary formations common in the yolk sac tumor resembled the endodermal sinuses of the rat placenta. He focused on the histogenesis of the tumor and its morphologic features culminating in a classic paper in Cancer in 1959. Although Teilum and others recognized that yolk sac tumor could be a component of mixed germ cell tumors, Talerman was one of the first to emphasize that, particularly in the testis, it was common to see yolk sac tumor as a component of a mixed germ cell tumor. Teilum, working in Copenhagen, and Talerman, when the former was alive, working in Rotterdam, developed a warm friendship in part due to their great interest in the yolk sac tumor, although it also extended to other areas of gonadal neoplasia and indeed beyond the boundaries of medicine when they shared time together. The typical histologic features of the yolk sac tumor are the reticular-microcystic patterns Teilum described, but various other patterns, including solid and even rarer ones such as glandular and hepatoid, are now well known. There are some interesting variations in the age distribution of this tumor at various sites: for example

  8. Airing It Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzemeyer, Ted

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how proper maintenance can help schools eliminate sources contributing to poor air quality. Maintaining heating and air conditioning units, investigating bacterial breeding grounds, fixing leaking boilers, and adhering to ventilation codes and standards are discussed. (GR)

  9. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  10. Bad Air Day

    MedlinePlus

    ... children living near busy roadways—surrounded by particulate air pollution—are more likely to develop asthma and other ... found that genes may affect your response to air pollution. At least one gene seems to protect against ...

  11. Transforming air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Janet McCabe

    2005-04-01

    Earlier this year, the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee submitted to EPA 38 recommendations intended to improve air quality management in the United States. This article summarizes the evaluation process leading up to the Committee's recommendations. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  13. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  14. Nuclear air cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters.

  15. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  16. Into Thin Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Shows how schools are working to avoid the types of equipment, supplies, and maintenance practices that harm indoor air quality. Simple steps to maintaining a cleaner indoor air environment are highlighted as are steps to reducing the problem air quality and the occurrence of asthma. (GR)

  17. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel ...

  18. Air Travel Health Tips

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Air Travel Health Tips Air Travel Health Tips How can I improve plane travel? Most people don't have any problems when ... and dosages of all of your medicines. The air in airplanes is dry, so drink nonalcoholic, decaffeinated ...

  19. Air Sensor Guidebook

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Air Sensor Guidebook has been developed by the U.S. EPA to assist those interested in potentially using lower cost air quality sensor technologies for air quality measurements. Its development was in direct response to a request for such a document following a recent scienti...

  20. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  1. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  2. Interstitial lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease; Alveolitis; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis (IPP) ... The lungs contain tiny air sacs (alveoli), which is where oxygen is absorbed. These air sacs expand with each ...

  3. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  4. Air Sparging Decision Tool

    1996-06-10

    The Air Sparging Decision Tool is a computer decision aid to help environmental managers and field practitioners in evaluating the applicability of air sparging to a wide range of sites and for refining the operation of air sparging systems. The program provides tools for the practitioner to develop the conceptual design for an air sparging system suitable for the identified site. The Tool provides a model of the decision making process, not a detailed designmore » of air sparging systems. The Tool will quickly and cost effectively assist the practitioner in screening for applicability of the technology at a proposed site.« less

  5. Mt. SAC Research Briefs, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mt. SAC Research Briefs, 2000

    2000-01-01

    These Research Briefs examine Mt. San Antonio College District's (MSAC's) (California) enrollment trends. Over the last few years, the district has drawn a large number of students from surrounding areas; however, there are concerns as to whether this fact will remain the same as new forms of educational techniques such as distance education and…

  6. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonská, Jana; Kozubková, Milada

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ɛ model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  7. Hepa room air purifier

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.B.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes a portable air purification apparatus comprising a housing including a base portion and cover means, the base portion including an air deflection means and a plate means mounted in spaced relationship to the air deflection means so as to create a substantially continuous air exhaust opening therebetween. A centrifugal fan means is disposed between the plate means and the air deflection means and is mounted so as to direct air radially outwardly therefrom through the air exhaust opening, at least one opening through the plate means to permit air flow therethrough to the centrifugal fan means. The motor means carried by the base portion and extends upwardly with respect to the opening in the plate means, the motor means having drive shaft means for driving the centrifugal fan means. An air filter means is mounted between the base portion and the cover means so that air is drawn therethrough toward the centrifugal fan means, and a means for secures the cover means relative to the base means to thereby retain the air filter means therebetween.

  8. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  9. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  10. Distribution and accumulation of 10 nm silver nanoparticles in maternal tissues and visceral yolk sac of pregnant mice, and a potential effect on embryo growth.

    PubMed

    Austin, Carlye A; Hinkley, Georgia K; Mishra, Anurag R; Zhang, Qin; Umbreit, Thomas H; Betz, Martha W; E Wildt, Bridget; Casey, Brendan J; Francke-Carroll, Sabine; Hussain, Saber M; Roberts, Stephen M; Brown, Ken M; Goering, Peter L

    2016-08-01

    We examined the distribution of silver in pregnant mice and embryos/fetuses following intravenous injections of 10 nm silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) or soluble silver nitrate (AgNO3) at dose levels of 0 (citrate buffer control) or 66 µg Ag/mouse to pregnant mice on gestation days (GDs) 7, 8 and 9. Selected maternal tissues and all embryos/fetuses from control, AgNP- and AgNO3-treated groups on GD10 and control and AgNP-treated groups on GD16 were processed for the measurement of silver concentrations, intracellular AgNP localization, histopathology and gross examination of tissue morphology. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry revealed silver in all examined tissues following either AgNP or AgNO3 treatment, with highest concentrations of silver in maternal liver, spleen and visceral yolk sac (VYS), and lowest concentrations in embryos/fetuses. For VYS, mean silver concentration following AgNO3 treatment (4.87 ng Ag/mg tissue) was approximately two-fold that following AgNP treatment (2.31 ng Ag/mg tissue); for all other tissues examined, mean silver concentrations following either AgNP or AgNO3 treatment were not significantly different from each other (e.g. 2.57 or 2.84 ng Ag/mg tissue in maternal liver and 1.61 or 2.50 ng Ag/mg tissue in maternal spleen following AgNP or AgNO3 treatment, respectively). Hyperspectral imaging revealed AgNP aggregates in maternal liver, kidney, spleen and VYS from AgNP-treated mice, but not AgNO3-treated mice. Additionally, one or more embryos collected on GD10 from eight of ten AgNP-treated mice appeared small for their age (i.e. Theiler stage 13 [GD8.5] or younger). In the control group (N = 11), this effect was seen in embryos from only one mouse. In conclusion, intravenous injection of 10 nm AgNPs to pregnant mice resulted in notable silver accumulation in maternal liver, spleen and VYS, and may have affected embryonic growth. Silver accumulation in embryos/fetuses was negligible. PMID:26593872

  11. Hyperspectral air-to-air seeker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gat, Nahum; Barhen, Jacob; Gulati, Sandeep; Steiner, Todd D.

    1994-07-01

    Synthetic hyperspectral signatures representing an airborne target engine radiation, a decoy flare, and the engine plume radiation are used to demonstrate computational techniques for the discrimination between such objects. Excellent discrimination is achieved for a `single look' at SNR of -10 dB. Since the atmospheric transmittance perturbs the signature of all objects in an identical fashion, the transmittance is equivalent to a modulation of the target radiance (in the spectral domain). The proper spectral signal decomposition may, therefore, recover the original unperturbed signature accurately enough to allow discrimination. The algorithms described here, and in two accompanying papers, have been tested over the spectral range that includes the VNIR and MWIR and are most appropriate for an intelligent, autonomous, air-to-air or surface-to-air guided munitions. With additional enhancements, the techniques apply to ground targets and other dual-use applications.

  12. Hospital air is sick.

    PubMed

    Brownson, K

    2000-11-01

    Indoor air quality has deteriorated so much since the 1970s oil shortage and subsequent energy-efficient construction of buildings that people are becoming seriously ill by just breathing the indoor air. This is a problem with all industrial buildings and hospital staff are at particular risk. There are various things that hospital managers from different departments can do to make the air safe for staff and patients to breathe. PMID:11185833

  13. Solar Air Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Nation's first solar-cell-powered air monitoring station was installed at Liberty State Park, New Jersey. Jointly sponsored by state agencies and the Department of Energy, system includes display which describes its operation to park visitors. Unit samples air every sixth day for a period of 24 hours. Air is forced through a glass filter, then is removed each week for examination by the New Jersey Bureau of Air Pollution. During the day, solar cells provide total power for the sampling equipment. Excess energy is stored in a bank of lead-acid batteries for use when needed.

  14. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Ronald G.; Salazar, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  15. Applications Using AIRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  16. Air emissions testing

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    The article presents a brief overview of air emission sampling methods and analysis procedures related to stationary sources such as incinerators, power plants, and industrial boilers. It is intended primarily for the laboratory chemist or manager who is familiar with samples and methods associated with water or waste sources, but not with those associated with air and stack gas emissions.

  17. Air-Conditioning Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by air conditioning mechanics. Addressed in the four chapters, or lessons, of the manual are the following topics: principles of air conditioning, refrigeration components as…

  18. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  19. Air Pollution Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  20. Bad Air For Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    1976-01-01

    Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)