Science.gov

Sample records for air sampling campaign

  1. Overview of aerosol properties associated with air masses sampled by the ATR-42 during the EUCAARI campaign (2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crumeyrolle, S.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Roger, J. C.; Sellegri, K.; Burkhart, J. F.; Stohl, A.; Gomes, L.; Quennehen, B.; Roberts, G.; Weigel, R.; Villani, P.; Pichon, J. M.; Bourrianne, T.; Laj, P.

    2013-05-01

    Within the frame of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI) project, the Météo-France aircraft ATR-42 performed 22 research flights over central Europe and the North Sea during the intensive observation period in May 2008. For the campaign, the ATR-42 was equipped to study the aerosol physical, chemical, hygroscopic and optical properties, as well as cloud microphysics. For the 22 research flights, retroplume analyses along the flight tracks were performed with FLEXPART in order to classify air masses into five sectors of origin, allowing for a qualitative evaluation of emission influence on the respective air parcel. This study shows that the extensive aerosol parameters (aerosol mass and number concentrations) show vertical decreasing gradients and in some air masses maximum mass concentrations (mainly organics) in an intermediate layer (1-3 km). The observed mass concentrations (in the boundary layer (BL): between 10 and 30 μg m-3; lower free troposphere (LFT): 0.8 and 14 μg m-3) are high especially in comparison with the 2015 European norms for PM2.5 (25 μg m-3) and with previous airborne studies performed over England (Morgan et al., 2009; McMeeking et al., 2012). Particle number size distributions show a larger fraction of particles in the accumulation size range in the LFT compared to BL. The chemical composition of submicron aerosol particles is dominated by organics in the BL, while ammonium sulphate dominates the submicron aerosols in the LFT, especially in the aerosol particles originated from north-eastern Europe (~ 80%), also experiencing nucleation events along the transport. As a consequence, first the particle CCN acting ability, shown by the CCN/CN ratio, and second the average values of the scattering cross sections of optically active particles (i.e. scattering coefficient divided by the optical active particle concentration) are increased in the LFT compared to BL.

  2. Direct measurements of HONO and NO2 by tunable infrared differential absorption spectroscopy; Results from two field campaigns sampling aircraft exhaust and ambient urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. H.; Santoni, G.; Herndon, S. C.; Wood, E. C.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Munger, J. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Zahniser, M. S.; McManus, J. B.; Nelson, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important source of hydroxyl radicals (OH), the main oxidizing agent in the atmosphere. However, gaseous HONO has historically proven difficult to measure accurately and to date there is no standard technique. We describe a new instrument capable of high-frequency measurements of HONO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) mixing ratios by tunable infrared differential absorption spectrometry. Mid-infrared light from two continuous-wave mode quantum cascade lasers traverse a 210 m path through a multi-pass astigmatic cell at reduced pressures for the direct detection of HONO (1660 cm-1) and NO2 (1604 cm-1). We achieve an absorbance precision less than 3×10-6 Hz-1 in one second, which translates to detection limits (S/N=3) of 300 and 30 ppt for HONO and NO2, respectively, in one second. Both lasers and the detector are thermoelectrically cooled, facilitating long-term unattended measurements. We also report preliminary results from two field campaigns; the Alternative Aviation Fuels Experiment (AAFEX) and the Study of Houston Air Radical Precursors (SHARP). At AAFEX, HONO emission ratios relative to CO2 and NOy observed in commercial aircraft exhaust are larger than in most other combustion sources and likely to play a significant role in regional HOx chemistry. Preliminary analysis from the SHARP campaign shows good agreement in HONO and NO2 levels between various measurement techniques.

  3. Revised sampling campaigns to provide sludge for treatment process testing

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN, C.A.

    1999-02-18

    The purpose of this document is to review the impact to the sludge sampling campaigns planned for FY 1999 given the recent decision to delete any further sludge sampling in the K West Basin. Requirements for Sludge sample material for Sludge treatment process testing are reviewed. Options are discussed for obtaining the volume sample material required and an optimized plan for obtaining this sludge is summarized.

  4. Driving Less for Better Air: Impacts of a Public Information Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gary T.; Gordon, Craig S.

    2003-01-01

    In the wake of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act, localities across the United States initiated public information campaigns both to raise awareness of threats to air quality and to change behavior related to air pollution by recommending specific behavioral changes in the campaign messages. These campaigns are designed to reduce the health…

  5. Data quality objectives for gas and liquid samples from sealed K West basin canisters (second campaign)

    SciTech Connect

    Makenas, B.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) for gas and liquid sampling from the sealed canisters in K West Basin have been developed and are presented in this document. This sampling campaign supports the selection of canisters to provide fuel for hot cell examinations and provides an assessment of gas/liquid chemistry for comparison to the results of fuel element hot cell examinations. It also provides information applicable to water cleanup and air permits for the fuel handling associated with moving fuel to dry storage.

  6. Air Quality Campaign Results from the Langley Mobile Ozone Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Young, R.; Carrion, W.; Pliutau, D.; Gano, R.

    2014-12-01

    A compact differential absorption ozone lidar (DIAL) system has been developed called the Langley Mobile Ozone Lidar (L-MOL) which can provide ozone, aerosol and cloud atmospheric profiles from a mobile trailer for ground-based atmospheric air quality campaigns. This lidar is integrated into the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) currently made up of four other ozone lidars, three of which are mobile, across the country. The laser transmitter consist of a Coherent Evolution 30 TEM00 1-kHz diode pumped Q-switched Nd:YLF inter-cavity doubled laser pumping a Ce:LiCAF tunable UV laser. The transmitter transmits ~60 mW at two wavelengths between 280 and 293-nm for ozone and 2.5-W at 527-nm for aerosol profiling. The lidar operates at 1-kHz with 500-Hz at each 0f two UV wavelength. A fiber coupled 40-cm diameter parabolic telescope collets the backscattered return and records analog and photon counting signals. A separate 30-cm diameter telescope collects very near field returns for ozone profiles close to the surface. The lidar is capable of recording ozone profiles from 100-500-m with the very near field telescope and from 800-m to approximately 6000-m with the far field channel depending on sky background conditions. The system has been configured to enable mobile operation from a trailer which is environmentally controlled, and is towed with a truck with the objective to make the system mobile such that it can be setup at remote sites to support air quality field campaigns such as the July-August 2014 Denver, CO DISCOVER_AQ campaign. Before the lidar was deployed in the DISCOVER-AQ campaign the lidar operated for 15 hours at NASA Langley in Hampton, VA to test the ability of the system to accurately record ozone profiles. The figure below shows the results of that test. Six ozonesondes were launched during this period and show reasonable agreement with the ozone (ppbv) curtain plot. Ozone of stratospheric origin at 4-14 UTC was noted as well as local ozone

  7. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, Katharine H.

    1990-01-01

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  8. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1990-05-22

    An inertial impactor is designed which is to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air. The device may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  9. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1987-12-10

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  10. Air Sampling System Evaluation Template

    2000-05-09

    The ASSET1.0 software provides a template with which a user can evaluate an Air Sampling System against the latest version of ANSI N13.1 "Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities". The software uses the ANSI N13.1 PIC levels to establish basic design criteria for the existing or proposed sampling system. The software looks at such criteria as PIC level, type of radionuclide emissions, physical state ofmore » the radionuclide, nozzle entrance effects, particulate transmission effects, system and component accuracy and precision evaluations, and basic system operations to provide a detailed look at the subsystems of a monitoring and sampling system/program. A GAP evaluation can then be completed which leads to identification of design and operational flaws in the proposed systems. Corrective measures can then be limited to the GAPs.« less

  11. Air sampling in the workplace. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, E.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Strom, D.J.; Cicotte, G.R.; Wiblin, C.M.; McGuire, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides technical information on air sampling that will be useful for facilities following the recommendations in the NRC`s Regulatory Guide 8.25, Revision 1, ``Air sampling in the Workplace.`` That guide addresses air sampling to meet the requirements in NRC`s regulations on radiation protection, 10 CFR Part 20. This report describes how to determine the need for air sampling based on the amount of material in process modified by the type of material, release potential, and confinement of the material. The purposes of air sampling and how the purposes affect the types of air sampling provided are discussed. The report discusses how to locate air samplers to accurately determine the concentrations of airborne radioactive materials that workers will be exposed to. The need for and the methods of performing airflow pattern studies to improve the accuracy of air sampling results are included. The report presents and gives examples of several techniques that can be used to evaluate whether the airborne concentrations of material are representative of the air inhaled by workers. Methods to adjust derived air concentrations for particle size are described. Methods to calibrate for volume of air sampled and estimate the uncertainty in the volume of air sampled are described. Statistical tests for determining minimum detectable concentrations are presented. How to perform an annual evaluation of the adequacy of the air sampling is also discussed.

  12. Full-Column Greenhouse Gas Sampling 2012-2014 Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, M. L.; Sweeney, C.

    2016-01-01

    The vertical distributions of CO2, CH4, and other gases provide important constraints when determining terrestrial and ocean sources and sinks of carbon and other biogeochemical processes in the Earth system. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Earth System Research Laboratory to quantify the vertically resolved distribution of atmospheric carbon-cycle gases(CO2, CH4 ) within approximately 99% of the atmospheric column at the DOE ’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma . During the 2012 to 2014 campaign period, 12 successful Air C ore flights were conducted from the SGP site . In addition to providing critical data for evaluating remote sensing and earth system models, valuable lessons were learned that motivate improvements to the sampling and recovery systems and campaign logistics . With the launch of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory - 2 (OCO - 2) and Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite ( GOSAT ) satellites, we look forward to proposing additional sampling and analysis efforts at the SGP site and at other sites to characterize the vertical distribution of CO2, CH4 over time and space.

  13. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air sampling. 61.34 Section 61.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34...

  14. Impact of aerosol direct effect on East Asian air quality during the EAST-AIRE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Allen, Dale J.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Li, Zhanqing; He, Hao

    2016-06-01

    WRF-Chem simulations were performed for the March 2005 East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE) Intensive Observation Campaign (IOC) to investigate the direct effects of aerosols on surface radiation and air quality. Domain-wide, WRF-Chem showed a decrease of 20 W/m2 in surface shortwave (SW) radiation due to the aerosol direct effect (ADE), consistent with observational studies. The ADE caused 24 h surface PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm) concentrations to increase in eastern China (4.4%), southern China (10%), western China (2.3%), and the Sichuan Basin (9.6%), due to different aerosol compositions in these four regions. Conversely, surface 1 h maximum ozone was reduced by 2.3% domain-wide and up to 12% in eastern China because less radiation reached the surface. We also investigated the impact of reducing SO2 and black carbon (BC) emissions by 80% on aerosol amounts via two sensitivity simulations. Reducing SO2 decreased surface PM2.5 concentrations in the Sichuan Basin and southern China by 5.4% and decreased ozone by up to 6 ppbv in the Sichuan Basin and Southern China. Reducing BC emissions decreased PM2.5 by 3% in eastern China and the Sichuan Basin but increased surface ozone by up to 3.6 ppbv in eastern China and the Sichuan Basin. This study indicates that the benefits of reducing PM2.5 associated with reducing absorbing aerosols may be partially offset by increases in ozone at least for a scenario when NOx and VOC emissions are unchanged.

  15. Impact of Aerosol Direct Effect on East Asian Air Quality During the EAST-AIRE Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Allen, D. J.; Pickering, K. E.; Li, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three WRF-Chem simulations were conducted for East Asia region during March 2005 East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE) Intensive Observation Campaign (IOC) period to investigate the direct effects of aerosols on surface radiation and air quality. WRF-Chem captured the temporal and spatial variations of meteorological fields, trace gases, and aerosol loadings. Surface shortwave radiation changes due to the aerosol direct effect (ADE) were calculated and compared with data from six World Radiation Data Center (WRDC) stations. The comparison indicated that WRF-Chem can simulate the surface short wave radiation moderately well, with temporal correlations between 0.4 and 0.7, and high biases between 9 to 120 W/m2. Domain-wide, WRF-Chem showed a decrease of 22 W/m2 in surface SW radiation due to the aerosol direct effect, consistent with observational studies. The ADE demonstrates diverse influences on air quality in East Asian. For example, the surface concentration of PM2.5 increases in eastern China (~11.1%) due to ADE, but decreases in central China (-7.3%), western China (-8.8%), and Sichuan Basin (-4%). Surface 1-hour maximum ozone is reduced by 2.3%, owing to less radiation reaching the surface due to the ADE. Since PM2.5 pollution raises serious public concern in China, regulations that control the emissions of PM2.5 and its precursors have been implemented. We investigate the impact of reducing two different types of aerosols, sulfate (scattering) and black carbon (absorbing), by cutting 80% of SO2 and black carbon (BC) emissions in two sensitivity simulations. We found that reducing SO2 emissions results in the decline of PM2.5 as much as 16mg/m3 in eastern China, and 20mg/m3 in the Sichuan Basin. Reducing the BC emissions by the same percentage causes the PM2.5 to decrease as much as 40mg/m3 in eastern China, and 25mg/m3 in the Sichuan Basin. The monthly averaged surface 1-hour maximum ozone increases 3

  16. Air sampling with solid phase microextraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martos, Perry Anthony

    There is an increasing need for simple yet accurate air sampling methods. The acceptance of new air sampling methods requires compatibility with conventional chromatographic equipment, and the new methods have to be environmentally friendly, simple to use, yet with equal, or better, detection limits, accuracy and precision than standard methods. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) satisfies the conditions for new air sampling methods. Analyte detection limits, accuracy and precision of analysis with SPME are typically better than with any conventional air sampling methods. Yet, air sampling with SPME requires no pumps, solvents, is re-usable, extremely simple to use, is completely compatible with current chromatographic equipment, and requires a small capital investment. The first SPME fiber coating used in this study was poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a hydrophobic liquid film, to sample a large range of airborne hydrocarbons such as benzene and octane. Quantification without an external calibration procedure is possible with this coating. Well understood are the physical and chemical properties of this coating, which are quite similar to those of the siloxane stationary phase used in capillary columns. The log of analyte distribution coefficients for PDMS are linearly related to chromatographic retention indices and to the inverse of temperature. Therefore, the actual chromatogram from the analysis of the PDMS air sampler will yield the calibration parameters which are used to quantify unknown airborne analyte concentrations (ppb v to ppm v range). The second fiber coating used in this study was PDMS/divinyl benzene (PDMS/DVB) onto which o-(2,3,4,5,6- pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBHA) was adsorbed for the on-fiber derivatization of gaseous formaldehyde (ppb v range), with and without external calibration. The oxime formed from the reaction can be detected with conventional gas chromatographic detectors. Typical grab sampling times were as small as 5 seconds

  17. East Mountain Area 1995 air sampling results

    SciTech Connect

    Deola, R.A.

    1996-09-01

    Ambient air samples were taken at two locations in the East Mountain Area in conjunction with thermal testing at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS). The samples were taken to provide measurements of particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM{sub 10}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report summarizes the results of the sampling performed in 1995. The results from small-scale testing performed to determine the potentially produced air pollutants in the thermal tests are included in this report. Analytical results indicate few samples produced measurable concentrations of pollutants believed to be produced by thermal testing. Recommendations for future air sampling in the East Mountain Area are also noted.

  18. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

    2012-09-20

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected

  19. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 – 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and

  20. Quantifying the effect of vegetation on near-road air quality using brief campaigns.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zheming; Whitlow, Thomas H; MacRae, Patrick F; Landers, Andrew J; Harada, Yoshiki

    2015-06-01

    Many reports of trees' impacts on urban air quality neglect pattern and process at the landscape scale. Here, we describe brief campaigns to quantify the effect of trees on the dispersion of airborne particulates using high time resolution measurements along short transects away from roads. Campaigns near major highways in Queens, NY showed frequent, stochastic spikes in PM2.5. The polydisperse PM2.5 class poorly represented the behavior of discrete classes. A transect across a lawn with trees had fewer spikes in PM2.5 concentration but decreased more gradually than a transect crossing a treeless lawn. This coincided with decreased Turbulence Kinetic Energy downwind of trees, indicating recirculation, longer residence times and decreased dispersion. Simply planting trees can increase local pollution concentrations, which is a special concern if the intent is to protect vulnerable populations. Emphasizing deposition to leaf surfaces obscures the dominant impact of aerodynamics on local concentration.

  1. Quantifying the effect of vegetation on near-road air quality using brief campaigns.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zheming; Whitlow, Thomas H; MacRae, Patrick F; Landers, Andrew J; Harada, Yoshiki

    2015-06-01

    Many reports of trees' impacts on urban air quality neglect pattern and process at the landscape scale. Here, we describe brief campaigns to quantify the effect of trees on the dispersion of airborne particulates using high time resolution measurements along short transects away from roads. Campaigns near major highways in Queens, NY showed frequent, stochastic spikes in PM2.5. The polydisperse PM2.5 class poorly represented the behavior of discrete classes. A transect across a lawn with trees had fewer spikes in PM2.5 concentration but decreased more gradually than a transect crossing a treeless lawn. This coincided with decreased Turbulence Kinetic Energy downwind of trees, indicating recirculation, longer residence times and decreased dispersion. Simply planting trees can increase local pollution concentrations, which is a special concern if the intent is to protect vulnerable populations. Emphasizing deposition to leaf surfaces obscures the dominant impact of aerodynamics on local concentration. PMID:25797683

  2. Emissions and transport of air pollutants from China to the Pacific: Major findings from the EAST-AIRE air campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Li, Z.; Dickerson, R. R.; Chen, H.

    2007-12-01

    Accompanying economic boom over the past few decades, pollutant emissions from China have increased dramatically and raised growing concerns regarding their large-scale impact. Observations over the Pacific Ocean and numerical simulations generally identify mid-latitude cyclones as the major mechanism driving the long-range transport of pollutants off the Chinese coast to downwind areas. Here we present results from the first aircraft campaign of EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment), carried out over an industrialized region in Northeast China in spring 2005. Prefrontal and postfrontal flights provide vertical distribution of pollutants within different sectors of two mid-latitude cyclones traveling through the area. In consistence with previous studies, both cyclones feature abundant anthropogenic pollutants ahead of cold fronts, and much lower pollutant levels (but with dust) behind cold fronts. Pollutant levels above the planetary boundary layer (PBL) were found substantial in one prefrontal flight (April 5) but low in the other (April 11), showing different potentials for long-range transport. Backward trajectories suggest that in both cases, isentropic upward motions associated with the SW flows in the warm sector were weak and largely constrained within PBL. Synoptic analysis and satellite observations further indicate that upwind dry (non- precipitating) convection may explain the pollutants observed above PBL on the 5th. With the assistance of forward trajectory analysis and chemical transport models, two satellite sensors (OMI and MODIS) successfully tracked the pollution plume associated with the April 5 cyclone, as it propagated into the North Pacific on the next few days. Satellite observed changes in SO2 and aerosol content within the plume are used to qualitatively estimate the conversion from aerosol precursor gases to secondary aerosols, in a semi-Lagrangian way.

  3. Radon discrimination for work place air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Bratvold, T.

    1994-09-27

    Gross alpha/beta measurement systems are designed solely to identify an incident particle as either an alpha or a beta and register a count accordingly. The tool of choice for radon identification, via decay daughters, is an instrument capable of identifying the energy of incident alpha particles and storing that information separately from detected alpha emissions of different energy. In simpler terms, the desired instrument is an alpha spectroscopy system. K Basins Radiological Control (KBRC) procured an EG&G ORTEC OCTETE PC alpha spectroscopy system to facilitate radon identification on work place air samples. The alpha spectrometer allows for the identification of any alpha emitting isotope based on characteristic alpha emission energies. With this new capability, KBRC will explicitly know whether or not there exists a true airborne concern. Based on historical air quality data, this new information venue will reduce the use of respirators substantially. Situations where an area remains ``on mask`` due solely to the presence of radon daughters on the grab air filter will finally be eliminated. This document serves to introduce a new method for radon daughter detection at the 183KE Health Physics Analytical Laboratory (HPAL). A new work place air sampling analysis program will be described throughout this paper. There is no new technology being introduced, nor any unproven analytical process. The program defined over the expanse of this document simply explains how K Basins Radiological Control will employ their alpha spectrometer.

  4. Moon-Mars simulation campaign in volcanic Eifel: Remote science support and sample analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offringa, Marloes; Foing, Bernard H.; Kamps, Oscar

    2016-07-01

    Moon-Mars analogue missions using a mock-up lander that is part of the ESA/ILEWG ExoGeoLab project were conducted during Eifel field campaigns in 2009, 2015 and 2016 (Foing et al., 2010). In the last EuroMoonMars2016 campaign the lander was used to conduct reconnaissance experiments and in situ geological scientific analysis of samples, with a payload that mainly consisted of a telescope and a UV-VIS reflectance spectrometer. The aim of the campaign was to exhibit possibilities for the ExoGeoLab lander to perform remotely controlled experiments and test its applicability in the field by simulating the interaction with astronauts. The Eifel region in Germany where the experiments with the ExoGeoLab lander were conducted is a Moon-Mars analogue due to its geological setting and volcanic rock composition. The research conducted by analysis equipment on the lander could function in support of Moon-Mars sample return missions, by providing preliminary insight into characteristics of the analyzed samples. The set-up of the prototype lander was that of a telescope with camera and solar power equipment deployed on the top, the UV-VIS reflectance spectrometer together with computers and a sample webcam were situated in the middle compartment and to the side a sample analysis test bench was attached, attainable by astronauts from outside the lander. An alternative light source that illuminated the samples in case of insufficient daylight was placed on top of the lander and functioned on solar power. The telescope, teleoperated from a nearby stationed pressurized transport vehicle that functioned as a base control center, attained an overview of the sampling area and assisted the astronauts in their initial scouting pursuits. Locations of suitable sampling sites based on these obtained images were communicated to the astronauts, before being acquired during a simulated EVA. Sampled rocks and soils were remotely analyzed by the base control center, while the astronauts

  5. Air Sampling Instruments for Evaluation of Atmospheric Contaminants. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH.

    This text, a revision and extension of the first three editions, consists of papers discussing the basic considerations in sampling air for specific purposes, sampler calibration, systems components, sample collectors, and descriptions of air-sampling instruments. (BT)

  6. TECNAIRE winter field campaign: turbulent characteristics and their influence on air quality conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagüe, Carlos; Román Cascón, Carlos; Maqueda, Gregorio; Sastre, Mariano; Arrillaga, Jon A.; Artíñano, Begoña; Diaz-Ramiro, Elías; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Borge, Rafael; Narros, Adolfo; Pérez, Javier

    2016-04-01

    An urban field campaign was conducted at an air pollution hot spot in Madrid city (Spain) during winter 2015 (from 16th February to 2nd March). The zone selected for the study is a square (Plaza Fernández Ladreda) located in the southern part of the city. This area is an important intersection of several principal routes, and therefore a significant impact in the air quality of the area is found due to the high traffic density. Meteorological data (wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation and global solar radiation) were daily recorded as well as micrometeorological measurements obtained from two sonic anemometers. To characterize this urban atmospheric boundary layer (uABL), micrometeorological parameters (turbulent kinetic energy -TKE-, friction velocity -u∗- and sensible heat flux -H-) are calculated, considering 5-minute average for variance and covariance evaluations. Furthermore, synoptic atmospheric features were analyzed. As a whole, a predominant influence of high pressure systems was found over the Atlantic Ocean and western Spain, affecting Madrid, but during a couple of days (17th and 21st February) some atmospheric instability played a role. The influence of the synoptic situation and specially the evolution of the micrometeorological conditions along the day on air quality characteristics (Particulate Matter concentrations: PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, and NOx concentrations) are analyzed and shown in detail. This work has been financed by Madrid Regional Research Plan through TECNAIRE (P2013/MAE-2972).

  7. Air sampling of nickel in a refinery.

    PubMed

    Harmse, Johannes L; Engelbrecht, Jacobus C

    2007-08-01

    Air monitoring was conducted in a nickel base metal refinery to determine compliance with occupational exposure limits. The hypothesis stated that levels of airborne dust may pose a risk to worker health if compared to the relevant exposure limits. Exposure limits for nickel species are set for the inhalable nickel dust fraction. Personal air samples, representative of three selected areas were collected in the workers' breathing zones, using the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) samplers. Real-time personal samples were collected randomly over a two-month period in three nickel production areas. Filter papers were treated gravimetrically and were analysed for soluble and insoluble nickel through inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Measured concentrations were expressed as time weighted average exposure concentrations. Results were compared to South African occupational exposure limits (OELs) and to the threshold limit values (TLVs) set by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) to determine compliance. Statistical compliance was also determined using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health procedure as prescribed by South Africa's Hazardous Chemical Substances Regulations in 1995. In two of the areas it was found that exposure concentrations complied with the OELs. Some exposures exceeded the OEL values and most exposures exceeded the TLV values in the other area concerned. A comprehensive health risk assessment needs to be conducted to determine the cause of non-compliance. PMID:17613095

  8. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34 Air... detect maximum concentrations of beryllium in the ambient air. (b) All monitoring sites shall be...

  9. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34 Air... detect maximum concentrations of beryllium in the ambient air. (b) All monitoring sites shall be...

  10. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34 Air... detect maximum concentrations of beryllium in the ambient air. (b) All monitoring sites shall be...

  11. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34 Air... detect maximum concentrations of beryllium in the ambient air. (b) All monitoring sites shall be...

  12. Diagnosing AIRS Sampling with CloudSat Cloud Classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric; Yue, Qing; Guillaume, Alexandre; Kahn, Brian

    2011-01-01

    AIRS yield and sampling vary with cloud state. Careful utilization of collocated multiple satellite sensors is necessary. Profile differences between AIRS and ECMWF model analyses indicate that AIRS has high sampling and excellent accuracy for certain meteorological conditions. Cloud-dependent sampling biases may have large impact on AIRS L2 and L3 data in climate research. MBL clouds / lower tropospheric stability relationship is one example. AIRS and CloudSat reveal a reasonable climatology in the MBL cloud regime despite limited sampling in stratocumulus. Thermodynamic parameters such as EIS derived from AIRS data map these cloud conditions successfully. We are working on characterizing AIRS scenes with mixed cloud types.

  13. Minanre Gas Concentrators For Air Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Seung Ho Hong

    2001-03-01

    The goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of a compact, lightweight, gas-sampling device with rapid-cycle-time characteristics. The highlights of our Phase I work include: (1) Demonstration of a compact gas sampler with integrated heater. This device has an order of magnitude greater adsorption capacity and much faster heating/cooling times than commercial sorbent tubes. (2) Completion of computational fluid dynamics modeling of the gas sampler to determine airflow characteristics for various design options. These modeling efforts guided the development and testing of the Mesochannel Gas Sampler prototype. (3) Testing of the Mesochannel Gas Sampler in parallel with tests of two packed-bed samplers. These tests showed the Mesochannel Gas Sampler represents a substantial improvement compared with the packed-bed approach. Our mesochannel heat-exchanger/adsorber architecture allows very efficient use of adsorbent mass, high adsorbent loadings, and very low pressure drop, which makes possible very high air-sampling rates using a simple, low-power fan. This device is well-suited for collecting samples of trace-level contaminants. The integrated heater, which forms the adsorbent-coated mesochannel walls, allows direct heating of the adsorbent and results in very rapid desorption of the adsorbed species. We believe the Mesochannel Gas Sampler represents a promising technology for the improvement of trace-contaminant detection limits. In our Phase II proposal, we outline several improvements to the gas sampler that will further improve its performance.

  14. REPORT ON ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION TESTING FOR TANK 241-AN-106 USING 2009 SAMPLING CAMPAIGN GRAB SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    WYRWAS RB

    2010-05-11

    Based on an ENRAF waste surface measurement taken February 1, 2009, double-shell tank (DST) 24l-AN-l06 (AN-106) contained approximately 278.98 inches (793 kgal) of waste. A zip cord measurement from the tank on February 1, 2009, indicated a settled solids layer of 9l.7 inches in height (280 kgal). The supernatant layer in February 2009, by difference, was approximately 187 inches deep (514 kgal). Laboratory results from AN-l06 February 1, 2009 (see Table 2) grab samples indicated the supernatant was below the chemistry limit that applied at the time as identified in HNF-SD-WM-TSR-006, 'Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements', Administrative Control (AC) 5.16, 'Corrosion Mitigation Controls.' The limits have since been removed from the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) and are captured in OSD-T-15l-00007, 'Operating Specifications for the Double-Shell Storage Tanks.' Problem evaluation request WRPS-PER-2009-0218 was submitted February 9,2009, to document the finding that the supernatant chemistry for grab samples taken from the middle and upper regions of the supernatant was noncompliant with the chemistry control limits. The lab results for the samples taken from the bottom region of the supernatant met AC 5.16 limits.

  15. Evaluation of CMAQ and CAMx Ensemble Air Quality Forecasts during the 2015 MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E.; Kim, S.; Bae, C.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, B. U.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of Air quality forecasts during the 2015 MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign was evaluated. An forecast system has been operated to support the campaign's daily aircraft route decisions for airborne measurements to observe long-range transporting plume. We utilized two real-time ensemble systems based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE)-Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) modeling framework and WRF-SMOKE- Community Multi_scale Air Quality (CMAQ) framework over northeastern Asia to simulate PM10 concentrations. Global Forecast System (GFS) from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) was used to provide meteorological inputs for the forecasts. For an additional set of retrospective simulations, ERA Interim Reanalysis from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) was also utilized to access forecast uncertainties from the meteorological data used. Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) and National Institute of Environment Research (NIER) Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS) emission inventories are used for foreign and domestic emissions, respectively. In the study, we evaluate the CMAQ and CAMx model performance during the campaign by comparing the results to the airborne and surface measurements. Contributions of foreign and domestic emissions are estimated using a brute force method. Analyses on model performance and emissions will be utilized to improve air quality forecasts for the upcoming KORUS-AQ field campaign planned in 2016.

  16. Organic composition of size segregated atmospheric particulate matter, during summer and winter sampling campaigns at representative sites in Madrid, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirante, Fátima; Alves, Célia; Pio, Casimiro; Pindado, Oscar; Perez, Rosa; Revuelta, M.a. Aranzazu; Artiñano, Begoña

    2013-10-01

    Madrid, the largest city of Spain, has some and unique air pollution problems, such as emissions from residential coal burning, a huge vehicle fleet and frequent African dust outbreaks, along with the lack of industrial emissions. The chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) was studied during summer and winter sampling campaigns, conducted in order to obtain size-segregated information at two different urban sites (roadside and urban background). PM was sampled with high volume cascade impactors, with 4 stages: 10-2.5, 2.5-1, 1-0.5 and < 0.5 μm. Samples were solvent extracted and organic compounds were identified and quantified by GC-MS. Alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alcohols and fatty acids were chromatographically resolved. The PM1-2.5 was the fraction with the highest mass percentage of organics. Acids were the organic compounds that dominated all particle size fractions. Different organic compounds presented apparently different seasonal characteristics, reflecting distinct emission sources, such as vehicle exhausts and biogenic sources. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations were lower than 1 ng m- 3. The estimated carcinogenic risk is low.

  17. A Multiplatform Observations of Air Quality in Korea as the Pre-campaign of Korea and US Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Hong, J.; Hong, Y.; Song, C. K.; Kim, S. K.; Chang, L. S.; Lim, J.; Ahn, J.; Kim, J. Y.; Han, Y. J.; Kim, J.; Park, R.; Lee, G.; Park, J.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the Korea government's efforts to regulate air pollutant emission for attaining the national air quality standard, current serious dust events and high ozone episodes in summer time remain important societal issues in Korea. In order to make effective policy for air quality attainment, it is contingent upon a thorough understanding of chemical production/loss mechanism of air pollutants and their precursors which drive air quality such as nitrogen oxides (NOX), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and oxidants (e.g. OH, HO2, RO, RO2, etc.). At present, policy development is constrained by a lack of data for broad suite of chemical species which significantly affect on air quality.During 4 weeks between May and June 2013, the pre-campaign for the Korea and U.S. Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) study took place in multiplatform including fifteen ground sites, one mobile laboratory, and one small air crafts. An integrated research activity covering field observations, chemical transport models, and remote sensing has been intensively conducted. This study was focused on studying photochemistry and nighttime chemistry in urban area and transboundary transport of air pollutants from upwind. Scientific overview and outcomes from the campaign will be presented.

  18. Sampling Interplanetary Dust Particles from Antarctic Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S.; Lever, J. H.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Brownlee, D. E.; Messenger, S.; Littler, L. R.; Stroud, R. M.; Wozniakiewicz, P.; Clement, S.

    2016-08-01

    We are undertaking a NASA and NSF supported project to filter large volumes of clean Antarctic air to collect a broad range of cosmic dust, including CP-IDPs, rare ultra-carbonaceous particles and particles derived from specific meteor streams.

  19. A continuous sampling air-ICP for metals emission monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.P.; Zamzow, D.S.; Eckels, D.E.; Miller, G.P.

    1999-09-19

    An air-inductively coupled plasma (air-ICP) system has been developed for continuous sampling and monitoring of metals as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). The plasma is contained in a metal enclosure to allow reduced-pressure operation. The enclosure and plasma are operated at a pressure slightly less than atmospheric using a Roots blower, so that sample gas is continuously drawn into the plasma. A Teflon sampling chamber, equipped with a sampling pump, is connected to the stack that is to be monitored to isokinetically sample gas from the exhaust line and introduce the sample into the air-ICP. Optical emission from metals in the sampled gas stream is detected and monitored using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)--echelle spectrometer system. A description of the continuous sampling air-ICP system is given, along with some preliminary laboratory data for continuous monitoring of metals.

  20. Insights into biodiversity sampling strategies for freshwater microinvertebrate faunas through bioblitz campaigns and DNA barcoding

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biodiversity surveys have long depended on traditional methods of taxonomy to inform sampling protocols and to determine when a representative sample of a given species pool of interest has been obtained. Questions remain as to how to design appropriate sampling efforts to accurately estimate total biodiversity. Here we consider the biodiversity of freshwater ostracods (crustacean class Ostracoda) from the region of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. Through an analysis of observed species richness and complementarity, accumulation curves, and richness estimators, we conduct an a posteriori analysis of five bioblitz-style collection strategies that differed in terms of total duration, number of sites, protocol flexibility to heterogeneous habitats, sorting of specimens for analysis, and primary purpose of collection. We used DNA barcoding to group specimens into molecular operational taxonomic units for comparison. Results Forty-eight provisional species were identified through genetic divergences, up from the 30 species previously known and documented in literature from the Churchill region. We found differential sampling efficiency among the five strategies, with liberal sorting of specimens for molecular analysis, protocol flexibility (and particularly a focus on covering diverse microhabitats), and a taxon-specific focus to collection having strong influences on garnering more accurate species richness estimates. Conclusions Our findings have implications for the successful design of future biodiversity surveys and citizen-science collection projects, which are becoming increasingly popular and have been shown to produce reliable results for a variety of taxa despite relying on largely untrained collectors. We propose that efficiency of biodiversity surveys can be increased by non-experts deliberately selecting diverse microhabitats; by conducting two rounds of molecular analysis, with the numbers of samples processed during round two informed by the

  1. Venturi Air-Jet Vacuum Ejector For Sampling Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald F.; Sachse, Glen W.; Burney, L. Garland; Wade, Larry O.

    1990-01-01

    Venturi air-jet vacuum ejector pump light in weight, requires no electrical power, does not contribute heat to aircraft, and provides high pumping speeds at moderate suctions. High-pressure motive gas required for this type of pump bled from compressor of aircraft engine with negligible effect on performance of engine. Used as source of vacuum for differential-absorption CO-measurement (DACOM), modified to achieve in situ measurements of CO at frequency response of 10 Hz. Provides improvement in spatial resolution and potentially leads to capability to measure turbulent flux of CO by use of eddy-correlation technique.

  2. Air-pollution transport characteristics at Mount Tai during two atmospheric campaigns in spring and summer 2007: A meteorological overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, A.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.

    2009-12-01

    As part of China’s 973 research program on acid rain, two measurement campaigns of trace gases, aerosols and cloud/rain water were conducted at Mt Tai in the spring and summer of 2007. This study presents a meteorological overview for the measurement campaign. Main synoptic processes and air masses transport pathways are identified with the aid of surface meteorological observations, global reanalysis data, and back trajectories analysis. A global 3-D chemical transport model (MOZART) are used to simulate and understand the major large-scale air pollution transport mechanisms associated with different synoptic conditions. High-resolution mesoscale meteorological simulation (using WRF-ARW) and Lagrangian Particle release simulations (with WRF/FELEXPART) are conducted to identify the key processes and mechanisms of mesoscale-scale air pollution transport related to mountain-valley breezes and boundary layer - free troposphere exchange under different synoptic conditions in the most polluted North China Plain. The results show that synoptic processes, especially the mid-latitude cyclones, and PBL dynamics play important roles in shaping the variation of trace gases and aerosols at the site. The summit of Mt. Tai, as a receptor of air masses from the entire North China Plain with an air-mass age of 2-3 days, serves as a perfect platform to study atmospheric photochemistry, gas-particle-cloud interaction, and PBL-free troposphere exchange in North China.

  3. In-mask aerosol sampling for powered air purifying respirators

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B.Y.U.; Sega, K.; Rubow, K.L.; Lenhart, S.W.; Myers, W.R.

    1984-04-01

    A system for sampling aerosols in the facepiece of a powered air purifying respirator has been described. The system consists of a sampling inlet mounted on the respiratory facepiece, a filter cassette and a personal sampling pump. The theoretical and practical considerations leading to the design of the sampling inlet have been discussed and experimental data presented showing the efficiency of the inlet as a function of particle size and sampling flow rate. The in-mask sampling system has been designed for powered air purifying respirators.

  4. Contextual Influences and Campaign Awareness Among Young Adults: Evidence from the National truth® Campaign.

    PubMed

    Vallone, Donna M; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Xiao, Haijun; Cantrell, Jennifer; Rath, Jessica; Hair, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Mass media campaigns have been found to shape the public's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior around tobacco. This study examines the influence of contextual factors with respect to awareness of the national truth® campaign, a mass media, branded tobacco use prevention campaign, among a sample of young adults (n = 2,804) aged 24-34 years old; these respondents were within the age range for both the primary and secondary targets of the campaign during the period (2000-2007) when the campaign was airing television advertising at consistently high levels. Mulitvariable models reveal lower educational attainment and Hispanic ethnicity as significant contextual factors predictive of lower campaign awareness, controlling for media use. In contrast, gender, state tobacco control policy, sensation-seeking, current smoking status, and community-level SES variables were not significantly associated with campaign awareness. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms through which public education campaigns operate, particularly among disadvantaged communities. PMID:26332933

  5. Workplace air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Swinth, K.L.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.; Burphy, B.L.

    1986-03-01

    Current air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities were surveyed as a part of an air monitoring upgrade task. A comprehensive questionnaire was developed and distributed to DOE contractors through the DOE field offices. Twenty-six facilities returned a completed questionnaire. Questionnaire replies indicate diversity in air sampling and monitoring practices among DOE facilities. The difference among the facilities exist in monitoring and sampling instrumentation, procedures, calibration, analytical methods, detection levels, and action levels. Many of these differences could be attributed to different operational needs.

  6. Stratospheric air sampling platform/sensor tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, R. D.; Page, W.

    1976-01-01

    Results of a study are described in which in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation are considered for accommodation on airborne platforms capable of reaching stratospheric altitudes. The instrumentation measures trace species of importance to present concerns regarding stratospheric pollution and possible ozone depletion. The platforms examined were the U-2, modified U-2, balloon, rocket, F-15 flown in a zoom-climb maneuver, YF-12, and remotely piloted vehicle (RPV). The sensors and performance characteristics of the platforms are described and special problems of sensor-platform integration are discussed. A typical latitudinal sampling mission is utilized to describe platform logistics problems and how the platforms might perform such missions.

  7. EML Surface Air Sampling Program, 1990--1993 data

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.J.; Sanderson, C.G.; Kada, J.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of specific atmospheric radionuclides in air filter samples collected for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s Surface Air Sampling Program (SASP) during 1990--1993, with the exception of April 1993, indicate that anthropogenic radionuclides, in both hemispheres, were at or below the lower limits of detection for the sampling and analytical techniques that were used to collect and measure them. The occasional detection of {sup 137}Cs in some air filter samples may have resulted from resuspension of previously deposited debris. Following the April 6, 1993 accident and release of radionuclides into the atmosphere at a reprocessing plant in the Tomsk-7 military nuclear complex located 16 km north of the Siberian city of Tomsk, Russia, weekly air filter samples from Barrow, Alaska; Thule, Greenland and Moosonee, Canada were selected for special analyses. The naturally occurring radioisotopes that the authors measure, {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb, continue to be detected in most air filter samples. Variations in the annual mean concentrations of {sup 7}Be at many of the sites appear to result primarily from changes in the atmospheric production rate of this cosmogenic radionuclide. Short-term variations in the concentrations of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb continued to be observed at many sites at which weekly air filter samples were analyzed. The monthly gross gamma-ray activity and the monthly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb measured at sampling sites in SASP during 1990--1993 are presented. The weekly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb for samples collected during 1990--1993 are given for 17 sites.

  8. Let's talk sex on the air: ReachOut launches radio campaign.

    PubMed

    This article reports on the launching of the National Radio and Public Relations Campaign to Promote Modern Methods of Contraception by the ReachOut AIDS Foundation Incorporated in the Philippines. ReachOut has tapped radio veteran Tiya Dely Magpayo as the official campaign spokesperson, thus, putting a mother's touch to a serious promotional drive to reach the far-flung areas of the country. It is noted that the project promotes the wider use of modern methods of contraception as its contribution to the Philippines Population Program goals of controlling the population rate. Since radio is the most patronized media in the country, ReachOut hopes that the radio soap opera format will attract the listeners to use contraceptives. The campaign encourages men and women of reproductive age to seek information and services regarding modern methods of contraception from health service providers in their respective areas. The Department of Health will provide the technical support to ensure that the campaign is keeping with the government's programs. PMID:12322659

  9. Efficiency of dust sampling inlets in calm air.

    PubMed

    Breslin, J A; Stein, R L

    1975-08-01

    Measurement of airborne dust concentrations usually involves drawing a sample of the dust-laden air into the measuring instrument through an inlet. Even if the surrounding air is calm, theoretical calculations predict that large particles may not be sampled accurately due to the combined effects of gravity and inertia on the particles near the sampling inlet. Tests were conducted to determine the conditions of particle size, inlet radius, and flow rare necessary for accurate dust sampling. A coal-dust aerosol was sampled simultaneously through inlets of different diameters at the same volume flow-rate and collected on filters. The dust was removed from the filters and the particles were counted and sized with a Coulter counter. Results showed that published criteria for inlet conditions for correct sampling are overly restrictive and that respirable-size particles are sampled correctly in the normal range or operation of most dust sampling instruments. PMID:1227283

  10. Concepts for Environmental Radioactive Air Sampling and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-11-04

    Environmental radioactive air sampling and monitoring is becoming increasingly important as regulatory agencies promulgate requirements for the measurement and quantification of radioactive contaminants. While researchers add to the growing body of knowledge in this area, events such as earthquakes and tsunamis demonstrate how nuclear systems can be compromised. The result is the need for adequate environmental monitoring to assure the public of their safety and to assist emergency workers in their response. Two forms of radioactive air monitoring include direct effluent measurements and environmental surveillance. This chapter presents basic concepts for direct effluent sampling and environmental surveillance of radioactive air emissions, including information on establishing the basis for sampling and/or monitoring, criteria for sampling media and sample analysis, reporting and compliance, and continual improvement.

  11. Sediment Grain-Size and Loss-on-Ignition Analyses from 2002 Englebright Lake Coring and Sampling Campaigns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Noah P.; Allen, James R.; Dare, Carlin; Hampton, Margaret A.; Schneider, Gary; Wooley, Ryan J.; Alpers, Charles N.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents sedimentologic data from three 2002 sampling campaigns conducted in Englebright Lake on the Yuba River in northern California. This work was done to assess the properties of the material deposited in the reservoir between completion of Englebright Dam in 1940 and 2002, as part of the Upper Yuba River Studies Program. Included are the results of grain-size-distribution and loss-on-ignition analyses for 561 samples, as well as an error analysis based on replicate pairs of subsamples.

  12. Presence of organophosphorus pesticide oxygen analogs in air samples

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Jenna L.; Fenske, Richard A.; Yost, Michael G.; Galvin, Kit; Tchong-French, Maria; Yu, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    A number of recent toxicity studies have highlighted the increased potency of oxygen analogs (oxons) of several organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. These findings were a major concern after environmental oxons were identified in environmental samples from air and surfaces following agricultural spray applications in California and Washington State. This paper reports on the validity of oxygen analog measurements in air samples for the OP pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Controlled environmental and laboratory experiments were used to examine artificial formation of chlorpyrifos-oxon using OSHA Versatile Sampling (OVS) tubes as recommended by NIOSH method 5600. Additionally, we compared expected chlorpyrifos-oxon attributable to artificial transformation to observed chlorpyrifos-oxon in field samples from a 2008 Washington State Department of Health air monitoring study using non-parametric statistical methods. The amount of artificially transformed oxon was then modeled to determine the amount of oxon present in the environment. Toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) for chlorpyrifos-oxon were used to calculate chlorpyrifos-equivalent air concentrations. The results demonstrate that the NIOSH-recommended sampling matrix (OVS tubes with XAD-2 resin) was found to artificially transform up to 30% of chlorpyrifos to chlorpyrifos-oxon, with higher percentages at lower concentrations (< 30 ng/m3) typical of ambient or residential levels. Overall, the 2008 study data had significantly greater oxon than expected by artificial transformation, but the exact amount of environmental oxon in air remains difficult to quantify with the current sampling method. Failure to conduct laboratory analysis for chlorpyrifos-oxon may result in underestimation of total pesticide concentration when using XAD-2 resin matrices for occupational or residential sampling. Alternative methods that can accurately measure both OP pesticides and their oxygen analogs should be used for air sampling, and a toxicity

  13. Presence of organophosphorus pesticide oxygen analogs in air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Jenna L.; Fenske, Richard A.; Yost, Michael G.; Galvin, Kit; Tchong-French, Maria; Yu, Jianbo

    2013-02-01

    A number of recent toxicity studies have highlighted the increased potency of oxygen analogs (oxons) of several organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. These findings were a major concern after environmental oxons were identified in environmental samples from air and surfaces following agricultural spray applications in California and Washington State. This paper reports on the validity of oxygen analog measurements in air samples for the OP pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Controlled environmental and laboratory experiments were used to examine artificial formation of chlorpyrifos-oxon using OSHA Versatile Sampling (OVS) tubes as recommended by NIOSH method 5600. Additionally, we compared expected chlorpyrifos-oxon attributable to artificial transformation to observed chlorpyrifos-oxon in field samples from a 2008 Washington State Department of Health air monitoring study using non-parametric statistical methods. The amount of artificially transformed oxon was then modeled to determine the amount of oxon present in the environment. Toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) for chlorpyrifos-oxon were used to calculate chlorpyrifos-equivalent air concentrations. The results demonstrate that the NIOSH-recommended sampling matrix (OVS tubes with XAD-2 resin) was found to artificially transform up to 30% of chlorpyrifos to chlorpyrifos-oxon, with higher percentages at lower concentrations (<30 ng m-3) typical of ambient or residential levels. Overall, the 2008 study data had significantly greater oxon than expected by artificial transformation, but the exact amount of environmental oxon in air remains difficult to quantify with the current sampling method. Failure to conduct laboratory analysis for chlorpyrifos-oxon may result in underestimation of total pesticide concentration when using XAD-2 resin matrices for occupational or residential sampling. Alternative methods that can accurately measure both OP pesticides and their oxygen analogs should be used for air sampling, and a toxicity

  14. A simple novel device for air sampling by electrokinetic capture

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Julian; Gandhi, Prasanthi; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Frazier, Angel; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2015-12-27

    A variety of different sampling devices are currently available to acquire air samples for the study of the microbiome of the air. All have a degree of technical complexity that limits deployment. Here, we evaluate the use of a novel device, which has no technical complexity and is easily deployable. An air-cleaning device powered by electrokinetic propulsion has been adapted to provide a universal method for collecting samples of the aerobiome. Plasma-induced charge in aerosol particles causes propulsion to and capture on a counter-electrode. The flow of ions creates net bulk airflow, with no moving parts. A device and electrode assembly have been re-designed from air-cleaning technology to provide an average air flow of 120 lpm. This compares favorably with current air sampling devices based on physical air pumping. Capture efficiency was determined by comparison with a 0.4 μm polycarbonate reference filter, using fluorescent latex particles in a controlled environment chamber. Performance was compared with the same reference filter method in field studies in three different environments. For 23 common fungal species by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), there was 100 % sensitivity and apparent specificity of 87%, with the reference filter taken as “gold standard.” Further, bacterial analysis of 16S RNA by amplicon sequencing showed equivalent community structure captured by the electrokinetic device and the reference filter. Unlike other current air sampling methods, capture of particles is determined by charge and so is not controlled by particle mass. We analyzed particle sizes captured from air, without regard to specific analyte by atomic force microscopy: particles at least as low as 100 nM could be captured from ambient air. This work introduces a very simple plug-and-play device that can sample air at a high-volume flow rate with no moving parts and collect particles down to the sub-micron range. In conclusion, the performance of the

  15. A simple novel device for air sampling by electrokinetic capture

    DOE PAGES

    Gordon, Julian; Gandhi, Prasanthi; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Frazier, Angel; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2015-12-27

    A variety of different sampling devices are currently available to acquire air samples for the study of the microbiome of the air. All have a degree of technical complexity that limits deployment. Here, we evaluate the use of a novel device, which has no technical complexity and is easily deployable. An air-cleaning device powered by electrokinetic propulsion has been adapted to provide a universal method for collecting samples of the aerobiome. Plasma-induced charge in aerosol particles causes propulsion to and capture on a counter-electrode. The flow of ions creates net bulk airflow, with no moving parts. A device and electrodemore » assembly have been re-designed from air-cleaning technology to provide an average air flow of 120 lpm. This compares favorably with current air sampling devices based on physical air pumping. Capture efficiency was determined by comparison with a 0.4 μm polycarbonate reference filter, using fluorescent latex particles in a controlled environment chamber. Performance was compared with the same reference filter method in field studies in three different environments. For 23 common fungal species by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), there was 100 % sensitivity and apparent specificity of 87%, with the reference filter taken as “gold standard.” Further, bacterial analysis of 16S RNA by amplicon sequencing showed equivalent community structure captured by the electrokinetic device and the reference filter. Unlike other current air sampling methods, capture of particles is determined by charge and so is not controlled by particle mass. We analyzed particle sizes captured from air, without regard to specific analyte by atomic force microscopy: particles at least as low as 100 nM could be captured from ambient air. This work introduces a very simple plug-and-play device that can sample air at a high-volume flow rate with no moving parts and collect particles down to the sub-micron range. In conclusion, the performance of

  16. Innovations in air sampling to detect plant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    West, JS; Kimber, RBE

    2015-01-01

    Many innovations in the development and use of air sampling devices have occurred in plant pathology since the first description of the Hirst spore trap. These include improvements in capture efficiency at relatively high air-volume collection rates, methods to enhance the ease of sample processing with downstream diagnostic methods and even full automation of sampling, diagnosis and wireless reporting of results. Other innovations have been to mount air samplers on mobile platforms such as UAVs and ground vehicles to allow sampling at different altitudes and locations in a short space of time to identify potential sources and population structure. Geographical Information Systems and the application to a network of samplers can allow a greater prediction of airborne inoculum and dispersal dynamics. This field of technology is now developing quickly as novel diagnostic methods allow increasingly rapid and accurate quantifications of airborne species and genetic traits. Sampling and interpretation of results, particularly action-thresholds, is improved by understanding components of air dispersal and dilution processes and can add greater precision in the application of crop protection products as part of integrated pest and disease management decisions. The applications of air samplers are likely to increase, with much greater adoption by growers or industry support workers to aid in crop protection decisions. The same devices are likely to improve information available for detection of allergens causing hay fever and asthma or provide valuable metadata for regional plant disease dynamics. PMID:25745191

  17. Direct analysis of air filter samples for alpha emitting isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Mohagheghi, A.H.; Ghanbari, F.; Ebara, S.B.; Enghauser, M.E.; Bakhtiar, S.N.

    1997-04-01

    The traditional method for determination of alpha emitting isotopes on air filters has been to process the samples by radiochemical methods. However, this method is too slow for cases of incidents involving radioactive materials where the determination of personnel received dose is urgent. A method is developed to directly analyze the air filters taken from personal and area air monitors. The site knowledge is used in combination with alpha spectral information to identify isotopes. A mathematical function is developed to estimate the activity for each isotope. The strengths and weaknesses of the method are discussed.

  18. Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation2011-2014 Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tom, M. S.; Fischer, M. L.; Biraud, S. C.; Billesbach, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this field campaign, we used eddy covariance towers to quantify carbon, water, and energy fluxes from a pasture and a wheat field that were converted to switchgrass. The U.S. Department of Energy is investing in switchgrass as a cellulosic bioenergy crop, but there is little data available that could be used to develop or test land surface model representations of the crop. This campaign was a collaboration between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Unfortunately, in 2011, Oklahoma had one of the most severe droughts on record, and the crop in one of the switchgrass fields experienced almost complete die-off. The crop was replanted, but subsequent drought conditions prevented its establishment. Then, in April 2012, a large tornado demolished the instruments at our site in Woodward, Oklahoma. These two events meant that we have some interesting data on land response to extreme weather; however, we were not able to collect continuous data for annual sums as originally intended. We did observe that, because of the drought, the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 was much lower in 2011 than in 2010. Concomitantly, sensible heat fluxes increased and latent heat fluxes decreased. These conditions would have large consequences for land surface forcing of convection. Data from all years were submitted to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Data Archive, and the sites were registered in AmeriFlux.

  19. Communicating with local elected officials: lessons learned from clean indoor air ordinance campaigns.

    PubMed

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Forster, Jean; Widome, Rachel

    2010-03-01

    This article describes a study of the effectiveness of communication strategies used to influence policy makers to support local smoke-free laws in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan region. Twenty-seven of 41 members of three city councils and two county boards of commissioners were individually interviewed as were seven advocates who campaigned for the bans. Officials valued public health and economic data, public opinion polls, personally written e-mails, and dialogue with constituents. Phone banking messages indicated public support but were a nuisance. Officials felt that media ads were a waste of money and leafleting and other personal targeting were unacceptable. Advocates tended not to critically examine their own efforts for strengths and weaknesses and seemed unconcerned by public officials' negative reception to some strategies. This case study suggests the need for reflection on the pros and cons of well-funded, highly orchestrated campaigns for public health policy, as these strategies may clash with the political process of building relationships. PMID:19011117

  20. Air sampling and analysis in a rubber vulcanization area.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, S M; Fraser, D A

    1977-05-01

    Results of sampling and analysis of air in a rubber vulcanization area are described. Organic compounds were collected on activated charcoal, desorbed with carbon disulfide and analyzed by gas chromatography. Several previously identified substances were quantitated, including styrene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and several oligomers of 1,3-butadiene. Concentrations ranged from 0.007 to 1.1 ppm.

  1. Air sampling of mold spores by slit impactors: yield comparison.

    PubMed

    Pityn, Peter J; Anderson, James

    2013-01-01

    The performance of simple slit impactors for air sampling of mold contamination was compared under field conditions. Samples were collected side-by-side, outdoors in quadruplicates with Burkhard (ambient sampler) and Allergenco MK3 spore traps and with two identical Allergenco slit cassettes operated at diverse flow rates of 5 and 15 L/min, respectively. The number and types of mold spores in each sample were quantified by microscopy. Results showed all four single-stage slit impactors produced similar spore yields. Moreover, paired slit cassettes produced similar outcomes despite a three-fold difference in their sampling rate. No measurable difference in the amount or mix of mold spores per m(3)of air was detected. The implications for assessment of human exposures and interpretation of indoor/outdoor fungal burden are discussed. These findings demonstrate that slit cassettes capture most small spores, effectively and without bias, when operated at a range of flow rates including the lower flow rates used for personal sampling. Our findings indicate sampling data for mold spores correlate for different single stage impactor collection methodologies and that data quality is not deteriorated by operating conditions deviating from manufacturers' norms allowing such sampling results to be used for scientific, legal, investigative, or property insurance purposes. The same conclusion may not be applied to other particle sampling instruments and mulit-stage impactors used for ambient particulate sampling, which represent an entirely different scenario. This knowledge may help facilitate comparison between scientific studies where methodological differences exist.

  2. Miscellaneous data for the 1996--1997 sampling and analysis campaigns of the MVST, BVEST, and OHF tank complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Giaquinto, J.M.; Keller, J.M.; Mills, T.P.

    1997-07-01

    Starting in 1996 and continuing into 1997, there were several major sampling and analysis campaigns undertaken to characterize the contents of the Active Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) tanks located at ORNL and the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) tanks located in Melton Valley within Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5. The active LLLW tanks include the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST). The characterization data obtained for these campaigns are summarized in three earlier ORNL technical reports. Included in these reports are data which addresses waste processing options, performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), criticality concerns, and DOT requirements for transporting the waste. Also, included is an evaluation of the waste`s characteristics with respect to the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for WIPP and Nevada Test Site (NTS). As part of these campaigns there were also other miscellaneous tests performed and data collected to address important engineering and remediation issues that were not included in the previous reports. These miscellaneous tests are summarized in this report and include (1) fusion preparations for total anion analysis on selected MVST, BVEST, and OHF sludges, (2) settling tests performed on the BVEST and OHF sludges, (3) dried density data for the MVST sludges, (4) particle size analysis on selected BVEST and OHF sludges, and (5) the analysis of hydroxylamine in the BVEST supernates and sludges. Also, the viscosity and flow curves for BVEST waste are restated in this report using apparent viscosity with further detail included about the flow characteristics that were observed.

  3. Chemical composition of tropospheric air masses encountered during high altitude flights (>11.5 km) during the 2009 fall Operation Ice Bridge field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mei Ying Melissa; Vay, Stephanie A.; Stohl, Andreas; Choi, Yonghoon; Diskin, Glenn S.; Sachse, Glen W.; Blake, Donald R.

    2012-09-01

    As part of the 2009 Operation Ice Bridge campaign, the NASA DC-8 aircraft was used to fill the data-time gap in laser observation of the changes in ice sheets, glaciers and sea ice between ICESat-I (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) and ICESat-II. Complementing the cryospheric instrument payload were four in situ atmospheric sampling instruments integrated onboard to measure trace gas concentrations of CO2, CO, N2O, CH4, water vapor and various VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds). This paper examines two plumes encountered at high altitude (12 km) during the campaign; one during a southbound transit flight (13°S) and the other at 86°S over Antarctica. The data presented are especially significant as the Southern Hemisphere is heavily under-sampled during the austral spring, with few if any high-resolution airborne observations of atmospheric gases made over Antarctica. Strong enhancements of CO, CH4, N2O, CHCl3, OCS, C2H6, C2H2 and C3H8 were observed in the two intercepted air masses that exhibited variations in VOC composition suggesting different sources. The transport model FLEXPART showed that the 13°S plume contained predominately biomass burning emissions originating from Southeast Asia and South Africa, while both anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions were observed at 86°S with South America and South Africa as indicated source regions. The data presented here show evidence that boundary layer pollution is transported from lower latitudes toward the upper troposphere above the South Pole, which may not have been observed in the past.

  4. Atmospheric concentrations and deposition of trichloroacetic acid in Scotland: results from a 2-year sampling campaign.

    PubMed

    Heal, M R; Reeves, N M; Cape, J N

    2003-06-15

    The first long-term concurrent measurements of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in rainwater, in cloudwater, and in air (both gas and particle phase) are reported. Measurements were made weekly between June 1998 and April 2000 at a rural forested upland site in SE Scotland. Rainwater TCA concentration did not differ significantly between two elevations (602 and 275 m asl), with precipitation-weighted mean values of 0.77 and 0.70 microg L(-1), respectively (n > 75). The precipitation-weighted mean concentration of TCA in cloudwater at the highest elevation was 0.92 microg L(-1), yielding an average cloudwater enrichment factor of 1.2, considerably lower than for other inorganic ions measured. Rainwater and cloudwater TCA concentrations did not vary systematically with season. Since wet precipitation depth also did not vary systematically with season, the wet deposition fluxes of TCA were likewise invariant (annual fluxes at the highest elevation of 880 and 130 microg m(-2), respectively, for rain and cloud interception to spruce forest). Weekly integrated concentrations of TCA in air (gas and particle) were very low (median 25 pg m(-3), range < LOD-110 pg m(-3)). The estimated upper limit for annual dry deposition of TCA at this site was approximately 20 microg m(-2), assuming a deposition velocity of 2 cm s(-1). Concentrations of TCA in air correlated reasonably strongly with concentrations in rainwater, with a partition ratio approximately equal to the Henry's law coefficient. On average, only about 23% of TCA measured in Edinburgh air was associated with the particle phase. These measurements are consistent with the observed high scavenging ratio of TCA (ratio of concentration in air to concentration in rainwater). Overall, these data confirm that the atmosphere is an important source of TCA to the environment and that precipitation is the dominant transfer mechanism. In line with previous work, the atmospheric deposition flux is greater than expected from the current

  5. Atmospheric oxidation and air pollution in Houston: Lessons from the SHARP 2009 field campaign (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, W. H.; van Duin, D.; Cazorla, M.; Chen, S.; Ren, X.; Mao, J.

    2010-12-01

    Predictive skill for urban ozone pollution is thought to be limited primarily by uncertainties in the emissions of pollution precursor gases such as nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds and in the meteorology, particularly the boundary layer height and advection. However, point measurements of the hydroxyl radical (OH) and the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) have shown that uncertainties in the chemical mechanisms are also important. Other measurements, including those of the OH reactivity (i.e., the inverse of the OH lifetime), help constrain the uncertainties. Two new measurements were made for the first time during SHARP. The first was a direct measurement of the ozone production rate. The second was the laser induced fluorescence measurement of OH using two methods - the usual method of alternating the laser wavelength on and off the OH absorption and a second method of periodically adding an OH reactant, akin to the method used by the chemical ionization / mass spectrometry technique. These two new measurements further constrain the uncertainties. We combine these measurements with others and use simple analyses and photochemical box models to examine the oxidation observed during SHARP 2009 and to put it into context of other field campaigns.

  6. Report on Electrochemcial Corrosion Testing of 241-SY-102 Grab Samples from the 2012 Grab Sampling Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrwas, Richard B.; Lamothe, Margaret E.

    2013-05-30

    This report describes the results of the electrochemical testing performed on tank 241-SY-102 (SY-102) grab samples that were collected in support of corrosion mitigation. The objective of the work presented here was to determine corrosion resistance of tank SY-102 to the grab samples collected using electrochemical methods up to 50°C as well as to satisfy data quality objectives. Grab samples were collected at multiple elevations from Riser 003. The electrochemical corrosion testing was planned to consist of linear polarization resistance testing (LPR) and cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) testing at 50°C. The temperature would be lowered to 40 °C and the test repeated if the CPP curve indicated pitting corrosion at 50°C. Ifno pitting was indicated by the CPP curve, then a duplicate scan would be repeated at 50°C to confirm the first result. The testing would be complete if the duplicate CPP scan was consistent with the first. This report contains the CPP results of the testing of grab sample 2SY-12-03 and 2SY-12-03DUP composite sample tested under these conditions. There was no indication of pitting at 50°C, and the duplicate scan was in agreement with the first scan. Since no further testing was required, a third scan with a shorter rest time was performed and is present in this report.

  7. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR ACTINIDES IN EMERGENCY AIR FILTER SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Noyes, G.; Culligan, B.

    2010-02-03

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides and strontium in air filter samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations. The actinides and strontium in air filter method utilizes a rapid acid digestion method and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and Sr Resin cartridges. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha emitters are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The purified {sup 90}Sr fractions are mounted directly on planchets and counted by gas flow proportional counting. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency air filter samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinide and {sup 90}Sr in air filter results were reported in {approx}4 hours with excellent quality.

  8. Extreme 13C depletion of CCl2F2 in firn air samples from NEEM, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuiderweg, A.; Holzinger, R.; Martinerie, P.; Schneider, R.; Kaiser, J.; Witrant, E.; Etheridge, D.; Rubino, M.; Petrenko, V.; Blunier, T.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-07-01

    A series of 12 high volume air samples collected from the S2 firn core during the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) 2009 campaign have been measured for mixing ratio and stable carbon isotope composition of the chlorofluorocarbon CFC-12 (CCl2F2). While the mixing ratio measurements compare favorably to other firn air studies, the isotope results show extreme 13C depletion at the deepest measurable depth (65 m), to values lower than δ13C = -80‰ vs. VPDB (the international stable carbon isotope scale), compared to present day surface tropospheric measurements near -40‰. Firn air modeling was used to interpret these measurements. Reconstructed atmospheric time series indicate even larger depletions (to -120‰) near 1950 AD, with subsequent rapid enrichment of the atmospheric reservoir of the compound to the present day value. Mass-balance calculations show that this change must have been caused by a large change in the isotopic composition of anthropogenic CFC-12 emissions, probably due to technological changes in the CFC production process over the last 80 yr. Propagating the mass-balance calculations into the future demonstrates that as emissions decrease to zero, isotopic fractionation by the stratospheric sinks will lead to continued 13C enrichment in atmospheric CFC-12.

  9. Extreme 13C depletion of CCl2F2 in firn air samples from NEEM, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuiderweg, A.; Holzinger, R.; Martinerie, P.; Schneider, R.; Kaiser, J.; Witrant, E.; Etheridge, D.; Petrenko, V.; Blunier, T.; Röckmann, T.

    2013-01-01

    A series of 12 high volume air samples collected from the S2 firn core during the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) 2009 campaign have been measured for mixing ratio and stable carbon isotope composition of the chlorofluorocarbon CFC-12 (CCl2F2). While the mixing ratio measurements compare favorably to other firn air studies, the isotope results show extreme 13C depletion at the deepest measurable depth (65 m), to values lower than δ13C = -80‰ vs. VPDB (the international stable carbon isotope scale), compared to present day surface tropospheric measurements near -40‰. Firn air modeling was used to interpret these measurements. Reconstructed atmospheric time series indicate even larger depletions (to -120‰) near 1950 AD, with subsequent rapid enrichment of the atmospheric reservoir of the compound to the present day value. Mass-balance calculations show that this change is likely to have been caused by a large change in the isotopic composition of anthropogenic CFC-12 emissions, probably due to technological advances in the CFC production process over the last 80 yr, though direct evidence is lacking.

  10. Comparisons of cirrus cloud properties between polluted and pristine air based on in-situ observations from the NSF HIPPO, EU INCA and NASA ATTREX campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, M.; Schumann, U.; Jensen, J. B.; Minikin, A.

    2015-12-01

    The radiative forcing of cirrus clouds is influenced by microphysical (e.g., ice crystal number concentration and size distribution) and macroscopic properties. Currently it is still unclear how the formation of cirrus clouds and their microphysical properties are influenced by anthropogenic emissions. In this work, we use airborne in-situ observations to compare cirrus cloud properties between polluted and pristine regions. Our dataset includes: the NSF HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) Global campaign (2009-2011), the EU Interhemispheric Differences In Cirrus Properties from Anthropogenic Emissions (INCA) campaign (2000) and the NASA Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) campaign (2014). The combined dataset include observations of both extratropical (HIPPO and INCA) and tropical (ATTREX) cirrus, over the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. We use the in-situ measured carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratio as a pollution indicator, and compare ice microphysical properties (i.e., ice crystal number concentration (Nc) and number-weighted mean diameter (Dc)) between air masses with higher and lower CO. All analyses are restricted to T ≤ -40°C. By analyzing ice crystals (Fast-2DC, 87.5-1600 µm) in HIPPO, we found that Dc decreases with increasing CO concentration at multiple constant pressure levels. In addition, analysis of INCA data shows that Nc and extinction of small ice particles (FSSP 3-20 µm) increases with increasing CO. Particles < 87.5 µm in Fast-2DC data are not considered due to uncertainty in sample volume, and the FSSP measurements are subject to possible shattering. We further analyze the ice crystals (SPEC FCDP, 1-50 µm) in the tropical tropopause layer in ATTREX. At -70°C to -90°C, we found that the average Nc (Dc) increases (decreases) at higher CO. Overall, our results suggest that extratropical and tropical cirrus are likely to have more numerous small ice particles, when sampled in the more polluted background. Back

  11. Quantifying wildfire impacts on air quality during the ARCTAS-CARB campaign: Contribution of fire emissions to NAAQS exceedances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Odman, M. T.; Russell, A.; Zhang, X.; Kondragunta, S.; Yu, H.; Bian, H.; Munchak, L. A.; Mattoo, S.; Remer, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Increasingly frequent wildfires in the US have led to imposed adverse impacts on rural and urban air quality. During severe wildfire episodes, exceedances of NAAQS for ozone and PM2.5 have occurred. The US EPA allows these "exceptional events" to be exempted from being used in the designation of an area exceeding NAAQS. However, how much the wildfires contribute to elevated ozone and PM2.5 observations are poorly understood and not readily quantified. For example, the northern California wildfires of summer 2008 are suspected of causing severe air pollution in the urban areas in California. Here we employed a state of art air quality model - CMAQ equipped with the sensitivity analysis tool DDM-3D - to quantify the wildfire emissions' contribution to the exceedances of NAAQS during the 2008 summer northern California wildfires period. We simulated the air quality impacts of the 2008 northern California wildfires using CMAQ, equipped with a new SOA module including the multi-generational oxidation process. The simulation covers the period of June 15 through July 14, 2008. Three nesting grids are used with the 36-km grid covering the CONUS, the 12-km grid covering California and the 4-km grid covering most metro areas in California. All the three grids have 34 vertical layers extending to ~16km above the ground with the first layer ~18m thick. We evaluate model performance by examining ozone and PM2.5 as well as other gaseous and PM components against observations from multiple platforms: surface, airborne and space. The June-July 2008 ARCTAS-CARB campaign, which was conducted in the same period, has additional airborne data collected in flights chasing the wildfire plumes, along with the regular surface network measurements and satellite observations, providing an extensive database to evaluate model deficiencies and improve model performance in capturing the wildfire impacts on air quality. Further, having these various data allows inter-comparison of the relative

  12. Monitoring air sampling in operating theatres: can particle counting replace microbiological sampling?

    PubMed

    Landrin, A; Bissery, A; Kac, G

    2005-09-01

    Microbiological contamination of air in the operating room is generally considered to be a risk factor for surgical site infections in clean surgery. Evaluation of the quality of air in operating theatres can be performed routinely by microbiological sampling and particle counting, but the relationship between these two methods has rarely been evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine whether particle counting could be predictive of microbiological contamination of air in operating rooms. Over a three-month period, air microbiological sampling and particle counting were performed simultaneously in four empty operating rooms belonging to two surgical theatres equipped with conventional ventilation via high-efficiency particulate air filters. Correlation between the two methods was measured with Spearman's correlation coefficient. The ability of particle counting to discriminate between microbiological counting values higher and lower than 5 colony-forming units (CFU)/m3 was evaluated using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Microbiological counting ranged from 0 to 38CFU/m3, while the particle counts ranged from 0 to 46 262/m3. Methods of microbiological and particle counting did not correlate (Spearman correlation coefficient=0.06, P=0.6). Using the ROC curve, no particle count value could be predictive of a microbiological count higher than 5CFU/m3. The results of the current study suggest that there is no reason to replace microbiological sampling with particle counting for routine evaluation of microbiological contamination in conventionally ventilated operating theatres.

  13. Ambient Air Sampling During Quantum-dot Spray Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Jankovic, John Timothy; Hollenbeck, Scott M

    2010-01-01

    Ambient air sampling for nano-size particle emissions was performed during spot spray coating operations with a Sono-Tek Exactacoat Benchtop system (ECB). The ECB consisted of the application equipment contained within an exhaust enclosure. The enclosure contained numerous small access openings, including an exhaust hook-up. Door access comprised most of the width and height of the front. The door itself was of the swing-out type. Two types of nanomaterials, Cadmium selenide (Cd-Se) quantum-dots (QDs) and Gold (Au) QDs, nominally 3.3 and 5 nm in diameter respectively, were applied during the evaluation. Median spray drop size was in the 20 to 60 micrometer size range.1 Surface coating tests were of short duration, on the order of one-half second per spray and ten spray applications between door openings. The enclosure was ventilated by connection to a high efficiency particulate aerosol (HEPA) filtered house exhaust system. The exhaust rate was nominally 80 ft3 per minute producing about 5 air changes per minute. Real time air monitoring with a scanning mobility particle size analyzer (SMPS ) with a size detection limit of 7 nm indicated a significant increase in the ambient air concentration upon early door opening. A handheld condensation particle counter (CPC) with a lower size limit of 10 nm did not record changes in the ambient background. This increase in the ambient was not observed when door opening was delayed for 2 minutes (~10 air changes). The ventilated enclosure controlled emissions except for cases of rapid door opening before the overspray could be removed by the exhaust. A time delay sufficient to provide 10 enclosure air changes (a concentration reduction of more than 99.99 %) before door opening prevented the release of aerosol particles in any size.2 Scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) demonstrated the presence of agglomerates in the surfaces of the spray applied deposition. A filtered air sample of

  14. Passive air sampling of gaseous elemental mercury: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLagan, David S.; Mazur, Maxwell E. E.; Mitchell, Carl P. J.; Wania, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Because gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is distributed globally through the atmosphere, reliable means of measuring its concentrations in air are important. Passive air samplers (PASs), designed to be cheap, simple to operate, and to work without electricity, could provide an alternative to established active sampling techniques in applications such as (1) long-term monitoring of atmospheric GEM levels in remote regions and in developing countries, (2) atmospheric mercury source identification and characterization through finely resolved spatial mapping, and (3) the recording of personal exposure to GEM. An effective GEM PAS requires a tightly constrained sampling rate, a large and stable uptake capacity, and a sensitive analytical technique. None of the GEM PASs developed to date achieve levels of accuracy and precision sufficient for the reliable determination of background concentrations over extended deployments. This is due to (1) sampling rates that vary due to meteorological factors and manufacturing inconsistencies, and/or (2) an often low, irreproducible and/or unstable uptake capacity of the employed sorbents. While we identify shortcomings of existing GEM PAS, we also reveal potential routes to overcome those difficulties. Activated carbon and nanostructured metal surfaces hold promise as effective sorbents. Sampler designs incorporating diffusive barriers should be able to notably reduce the influence of wind on sampling rates.

  15. Sampling and analysis of terpenes in air. An interlaboratory comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Bo; Bomboi-Mingarro, Teresa; Brancaleoni, Enzo; Calogirou, Aggelos; Cecinato, Angelo; Coeur, Cecile; Chatzinestis, Ioannis; Duane, Matthew; Frattoni, Massimiliano; Fugit, Jean-Luc; Hansen, Ute; Jacob, Veronique; Mimikos, Nikolaos; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Owen, Susan; Perez-Pastor, Rosa; Reichmann, Andreas; Seufert, Gunther; Staudt, Michael; Steinbrecher, Rainer

    An interlaboratory comparison on the sampling and analysis of terpenes in air was held within the framework of the BEMA (Biogenic Emissions in the Mediterranean Area) project in May 1995. Samples were drawn and analysed by 10 European laboratories from a dynamic artificial air generator in which five terpenes were present at low ng ℓ -1 levels and ozone varied between 8 and 125 ppbv. Significant improvements over previous inter-comparison exercises in the quality of results were observed. At the ozone mixing ratio of 8 ppbv a good agreement among laboratories was obtained for all test compounds with mean values close to the target concentration. At higher mixing ratios, ozone reduced terpene recoveries and decreased the precision of the measurements due to ozonolysis during sampling. For β-pinene this effect was negligible but for the more reactive compounds significant losses were observed in some laboratories ( cis-β-ocimene = trans-β-ocimene > linalool > d-limonene). The detrimental effect of ozone was significantly lower for the laboratories which removed ozone prior to sampling by scrubbers. Parallel sampling was carried out with a standardised sampler and each individual laboratory's own device. A good agreement between the two sets of results was obtained, clearly showing that the majority of laboratories used efficient sampling systems. Two different standard solutions were analysed by each laboratory. Only in a few cases did interference in the GC separation cause problems for the quantification of the terpenes (nonanal/linalool). However, making up of standards for the calibration of the analytical equipment (GC-MS or GC-FID) was pointed out as a source of error in some laboratories.

  16. Relative Humidity and its Effect on Sampling and Analysis of Agricultural Odorants in Air

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Source and ambient air sampling techniques used in agricultural air quality studies are seldom validated for the variability in the air matrix (temperature, dust levels, and relative humidity). In particular, relative humidity (RH) affects both field sampling and analysis of air samples. The objec...

  17. Evaluation of Urban Air Quality By Passive Sampling Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, T. V.; Miranda, A. I.; Duarte, S.; Lima, M. J.

    Aveiro is a flat small city in the centre of Portugal, close to the Atlantic coast. In the last two decades an intensive development of demographic, traffic and industry growth in the region was observed which was reflected on the air quality degrada- tion. In order to evaluate the urban air quality in Aveiro, a field-monitoring network by passive sampling with high space resolution was implemented. Twenty-four field places were distributed in a area of 3x3 Km2 and ozone and NO2 concentrations were measured. The site distribution density was higher in the centre, 250x250 m2 than in periphery where a 500x500 m2 grid was used. The selection of field places took into consideration the choice criteria recommendation by United Kingdom environmental authorities, and three tubes and a blank tube for each pollutant were used at each site. The sampling system was mounted at 3m from the ground usually profiting the street lampposts. Concerning NO2 acrylic tubes were used with 85 mm of length and an in- ternal diameter of 12mm, where in one of the extremities three steel grids impregnated with a solution of TEA were placed and fixed with a polyethylene end cup (Heal et al., 1999); PFA Teflon tube with 53 mm of length and 9 mm of internal diameter and three impregnated glass filters impregnated with DPE solution fixed by a teflon end cup was used for ozone sampling (Monn and Hargartner, 1990). The passive sampling method for ozone and nitrogen dioxide was compared with continuous measurements, but the amount of measurements wasnSt enough for an accurate calibration and validation of the method. Although this constraint the field observations (June to August 2001) for these two pollutants assign interesting information about the air quality in the urban area. A krigger method of interpolation (Surfer- Golden Software-2000) was applied to field data to obtain isolines distribution of NO2 and ozone concentration for the studied area. Even the used passive sampling method has many

  18. Analysis of Upper Air, Ground and Remote Sensing Data for the Atlas Field Campaign in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Cruz, Jorge E.

    2005-01-01

    The general climate of the island of Puerto Rico is dominated by the easterly trade winds from the Atlantic Ocean, and during synoptically calm days by the topographic and local land surface characteristics [1]. The urban canopy of the metropolitan area of San Juan, capital city of the Island, may introduce a new microclimate that changes the characteristics of the low atmosphere and interacts with the other microclimates already present in the island. The primitive land cover and land use (LCLU) of the metropolitan area of San Juan was composed by broadleaf trees, moist soils, and very dense vegetation in general. The urban LCLU changes the balance for the mass, momentum and energy between the bottom boundary and the lower atmosphere, creating different climate conditions over urban and rural regions. Some of these differences are low relative humidity and high temperatures observed in urban areas when compared to rural areas. These in turn produces a convective circulation over the urban areas, a phenomenon compared to the sea and land breezes, commonly known as heat islands (UHI). Factors that contribute to the formation of the UHI are anthropogenic heat sources, aerosols from pollutants, fast water canalization due to the presence of buildings and streets, among others. The comparison between urban and rural climates is the most common approach to analyze the UHI. These contrasts are larger in clear and calm conditions and tend to disappear in cloudy and windy weather. The UHI was recognized in the early 1950 s as closed isotherms that separates the city from the general temperature field [2]. The impact of the urban LCLU in San Juan, Puerto Rico, was quantified calculating the difference between historical data sets for the air temperature over an identified urban area and a rural area dT(U-R). The analysis of the climatological data revealed that a UHI exists in the metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The data reveals a permanent urban heat island

  19. Clustered lot quality assurance sampling: a tool to monitor immunization coverage rapidly during a national yellow fever and polio vaccination campaign in Cameroon, May 2009.

    PubMed

    Pezzoli, L; Tchio, R; Dzossa, A D; Ndjomo, S; Takeu, A; Anya, B; Ticha, J; Ronveaux, O; Lewis, R F

    2012-01-01

    We used the clustered lot quality assurance sampling (clustered-LQAS) technique to identify districts with low immunization coverage and guide mop-up actions during the last 4 days of a combined oral polio vaccine (OPV) and yellow fever (YF) vaccination campaign conducted in Cameroon in May 2009. We monitored 17 pre-selected districts at risk for low coverage. We designed LQAS plans to reject districts with YF vaccination coverage <90% and with OPV coverage <95%. In each lot the sample size was 50 (five clusters of 10) with decision values of 3 for assessing OPV and 7 for YF coverage. We 'rejected' 10 districts for low YF coverage and 14 for low OPV coverage. Hence we recommended a 2-day extension of the campaign. Clustered-LQAS proved to be useful in guiding the campaign vaccination strategy before the completion of the operations.

  20. Evaluation of sampling methods for toxicological testing of indoor air particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Tirkkonen, Jenni; Täubel, Martin; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Leppänen, Hanna; Lindsley, William G; Chen, Bean T; Hyvärinen, Anne; Huttunen, Kati

    2016-09-01

    There is a need for toxicity tests capable of recognizing indoor environments with compromised air quality, especially in the context of moisture damage. One of the key issues is sampling, which should both provide meaningful material for analyses and fulfill requirements imposed by practitioners using toxicity tests for health risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate different existing methods of sampling indoor particulate matter (PM) to develop a suitable sampling strategy for a toxicological assay. During three sampling campaigns in moisture-damaged and non-damaged school buildings, we evaluated one passive and three active sampling methods: the Settled Dust Box (SDB), the Button Aerosol Sampler, the Harvard Impactor and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to particle suspensions and cell metabolic activity (CMA), production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were determined after 24 h of exposure. The repeatability of the toxicological analyses was very good for all tested sampler types. Variability within the schools was found to be high especially between different classrooms in the moisture-damaged school. Passively collected settled dust and PM collected actively with the NIOSH Sampler (Stage 1) caused a clear response in exposed cells. The results suggested the higher relative immunotoxicological activity of dust from the moisture-damaged school. The NIOSH Sampler is a promising candidate for the collection of size-fractionated PM to be used in toxicity testing. The applicability of such sampling strategy in grading moisture damage severity in buildings needs to be developed further in a larger cohort of buildings. PMID:27569522

  1. Evaluation of sampling methods for toxicological testing of indoor air particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Tirkkonen, Jenni; Täubel, Martin; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Leppänen, Hanna; Lindsley, William G; Chen, Bean T; Hyvärinen, Anne; Huttunen, Kati

    2016-09-01

    There is a need for toxicity tests capable of recognizing indoor environments with compromised air quality, especially in the context of moisture damage. One of the key issues is sampling, which should both provide meaningful material for analyses and fulfill requirements imposed by practitioners using toxicity tests for health risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate different existing methods of sampling indoor particulate matter (PM) to develop a suitable sampling strategy for a toxicological assay. During three sampling campaigns in moisture-damaged and non-damaged school buildings, we evaluated one passive and three active sampling methods: the Settled Dust Box (SDB), the Button Aerosol Sampler, the Harvard Impactor and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to particle suspensions and cell metabolic activity (CMA), production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were determined after 24 h of exposure. The repeatability of the toxicological analyses was very good for all tested sampler types. Variability within the schools was found to be high especially between different classrooms in the moisture-damaged school. Passively collected settled dust and PM collected actively with the NIOSH Sampler (Stage 1) caused a clear response in exposed cells. The results suggested the higher relative immunotoxicological activity of dust from the moisture-damaged school. The NIOSH Sampler is a promising candidate for the collection of size-fractionated PM to be used in toxicity testing. The applicability of such sampling strategy in grading moisture damage severity in buildings needs to be developed further in a larger cohort of buildings.

  2. Physical and chemical processes of air masses in the Aegean Sea during Etesians: Aegean-GAME airborne campaign.

    PubMed

    Tombrou, M; Bossioli, E; Kalogiros, J; Allan, J D; Bacak, A; Biskos, G; Coe, H; Dandou, A; Kouvarakis, G; Mihalopoulos, N; Percival, C J; Protonotariou, A P; Szabó-Takács, B

    2015-02-15

    High-resolution measurements of gas and aerosols' chemical composition along with meteorological and turbulence parameters were performed over the Aegean Sea (AS) during an Etesian outbreak in the framework of the Aegean-GAME airborne campaign. This study focuses on two distinct Etesian patterns, with similarities inside the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL) and differences at higher levels. Under long-range transport and subsidence the pollution load is enhanced (by 17% for CO, 11% for O3, 28% for sulfate, 62% for organic mass, 47% for elemental carbon), compared to the pattern with a weaker synoptic system. Sea surface temperature (SST) was a critical parameter for the MABL structure, turbulent fluxes and pollutants' distribution at lower levels. The MABL height was below 500 m asl over the eastern AS (favoring higher accumulation), and deeper over the western AS. The most abundant components of total PM1 were sulfate (40-50%) and organics (30-45%). Higher average concentrations measured over the eastern AS (131 ± 76 ppbv for CO, 62.5 ± 4.1 ppbv for O3, 5.0 ± 1.1 μg m(-3) for sulfate, 4.7 ± 0.9 μg m(-3) for organic mass and 0.5 ± 0.2 μg m(-3) for elemental carbon). Under the weaker synoptic system, cleaner but more acidic air masses prevailed over the eastern part, while distinct aerosol layers of different signature were observed over the western part. The Aitken and accumulation modes contributed equally during the long-range transport, while the Aitken modes dominated during local or medium range transport. PMID:25460953

  3. Bias in air sampling techniques used to measure inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Cohen, B S; Harley, N H; Lippmann, M

    1984-03-01

    Factors have been evaluated which contribute to the lack of agreement between inhalation exposure estimates obtained by time-weighted averaging of samples taken with mini hi-volume samplers, and those measured by time integrating, low-volume, lapel mounted, personal monitors. Measurements made with real-time aerosol monitors on workers at a Be-Cu production furnace show that part of the discrepancy results from variability of the aerosol concentration within the breathing zone. Field studies of sampler inlet bias, the influences of the electrostatic fields around polystyrene filter holders, and resuspension of dust from work clothing, were done in three areas of a Be plant. No significant differences were found in Be air concentrations measured simultaneously by open and closed face cassettes, and "mini hi-volume" samplers mounted on a test stand. No significant influence on Be collection was detected between either positively or negatively charged monitors and charge neutralized control monitors. The effect of contaminated work clothing on dust collection by lapel mounted monitors is most important. Beryllium release from the fabrics affected air concentrations measured by fabric mounted monitors more than it affected concentrations measured by monitors positioned above the fabrics. The latter were placed 16 cm from the vertically mounted fabrics, to simulate the position of the nose or mouth. We conclude that dust resuspended from work clothing is the major source of the observed discrepancy between exposures estimated from lapel mounted samplers and time-weighted averages.

  4. Bias in air sampling techniques used to measure inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.S.; Harley, N.H.; Lippmann, M.

    1984-03-01

    Factors have been evaluated which contribute to the lack of agreement between inhalation exposure estimates obtained by time-weighted averaging of samples taken with mini hi-volume samplers, and those measured by time integrating, low-volume, lapel mounted, personal monitors. Measurements made with real-time aerosol monitors on workers at a Be-Cu production furnace show that part of the discrepancy results from variability of the aerosol concentration within the breathing zone. Field studies of sampler inlet bias, the influences of the electrostatic fields around polystyrene filter holders, and resuspension of dust from work clothing, were done in three areas of a Be plant. No significant differences were found in Be air concentrations measured simultaneously by open and closed face cassettes, and mini hi-volume samplers mounted on a test stand. No significant influence on Be collection was detected between either positively or negatively charged monitors and charge neutralized control monitors. The effect of contaminated work clothing on dust collection by lapel mounted monitors is most important. Beryllium release from the fabrics affected air concentrations measured by fabric mounted monitors more than it affected concentrations measured by monitors positioned above the fabrics. The latter were placed 16 cm from the vertically mounted fabrics, to simulate the position of the nose or mouth. The authors conclude that dust resuspended from work clothing is the major source of the observed discrepancy between exposures estimated from lapel mounted samplers and time-weighted averages.

  5. Field evaluation of endotoxin air sampling assay methods.

    PubMed

    Thorne, P S; Reynolds, S J; Milton, D K; Bloebaum, P D; Zhang, X; Whitten, P; Burmeister, L F

    1997-11-01

    This study tested the importance of filter media, extraction and assay protocol, and bioaerosol source on the determination of endotoxin under field conditions in swine and poultry confinement buildings. Multiple simultaneous air samples were collected using glass fiber (GF) and polycarbonate (PC) filters, and these were assayed using two methods in two separate laboratories: an endpoint chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay (QCL) performed in water and a kinetic chromogenic LAL assay (KQCL) performed in buffer with resistant-parallel line estimation analysis (KLARE). In addition, two aqueous filter extraction methods were compared in the QCL assay: 120 min extraction at 22 degrees C with vigorous shaking and 30 min extraction at 68 degrees C with gentle rocking. These extraction methods yielded endotoxin activities that were not significantly different and were very highly correlated. Reproducibility of endotoxin determinations from duplicate air sampling filters was very high (Cronbach alpha all > 0.94). When analyzed by the QCL method GF filters yielded significantly higher endotoxin activity than PC filters. QCL and KLARE methods gave similar estimates for endotoxin activity from PC filters; however, GF filters analyzed by the QCL method yielded significantly higher endotoxin activity estimates, suggesting enhancement of the QCL assay or inhibition of the KLARE asay with GF filters. Correlation between QCL-GF and QCL-PC was high (r = 0.98) while that between KLARE-GF and KLARE-PC was moderate (r = 0.68). Analysis of variance demonstrated that assay methodology, filter-type, barn-type, and interactions between assay and filter-type and between assay and barn-type were important factors influencing endotoxin exposure assessment.

  6. Analysis of Upper Air, Ground and Remote Sensing Data for the ATLAS Field Campaign in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeff; Rickman, Douglas; Comarazamy, Daniel; Picon, Ana J.

    2005-01-01

    The Atlas San Juan Mission was conducted in February 2004 with the main objectives of observing the Urban Heat Island of San Juan, providing high resolution data of the land use for El Yunque Rain Forest and for calibrating remote sensors. The mission was coordinated with NASA staff members at Marsha& Stennis, Goddard, and Glenn. The Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS) from NASA/Stennis, that operates in the visual and IR bands, was used as the main sensor and was flown over Puerto Rico in a Lear 23 jet plane. To support the data gathering effort by the ATLAS sensor, remote sensing observations and upper air soundings were conducted along with the deployment of a number of ground based weather stations and temperature sensors. This presentation focuses in the analysis of this complementary data for the Atlas San Juan Mission. Upper air data show that during the days of the mission the Caribbean mid and high atmospheres were relatively dry and highly stable reflecting positive surface lifted index, a necessary condition to conduct this suborbital campaign. Surface wind patterns at levels below 850mb were dominated by the easterly trades, while the jet stream at the edge of the troposphere dominated the westerly wind at levels above 500mb. The jet stream remained at high latitudes reducing the possibility of fronts. In consequence, only 8.4 mm of precipitation were reported during the entire mission. Observation of soundings located about 150 km apart reflected minimum variations of the boundary layer across the Island for levels below 850 meters and a uniform atmosphere for higher levels. The weather stations and the temperature sensors were placed at strategic locations to observe variations across the urban and rural landscapes. Time series plot of the stations' data show that heavily urbanized commercial areas have higher air temperatures than urban and suburban residential areas, and much higher temperatures than rural areas. Temperature

  7. Analysis of Upper Air, Ground and Remote Sensing Data For the ATLAS Field Campaign in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, J. E.; Luvall, J. C.; Rickman, D.; Comarazamy, D. E.; Picon, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Atlas San Juan Mission was conducted in February 2004 with the main objectives of observing the Urban Heat Island of San Juan, providing high resolution data of the land use for El Yunque Rain Forest and for calibrating remote sensors. The mission was coordinated with NASA staff members at Marshall, Stennis, Goddard, and Glenn. The Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS) from NASA/Stennis, that operates in the visual and IR bands, was used as the main sensor and was flown over Puerto Rico in a Lear 23 jet plane. To support the data gathering effort by the ATLAS sensor, remote sensing observations and upper air soundings were conducted along with the deployment of a number of ground based weather stations and temperature sensors. This presentation focuses in the analysis of this complementary data for the Atlas San Juan Mission. Upper air data show that during the days of the mission the Caribbean mid and high atmospheres were relatively dry and highly stable reflecting positive surface lifted index, a necessary condition to conduct this suborbital campaign. Surface wind patterns at levels below 850mb were dominated by the easterly trades, while the jet stream at the edge of the troposphere dominated the westerly wind at levels above 500mb. The jet stream remained at high latitudes reducing the possibility of fronts. In consequence, only 8.4 mm of precipitation were reported during the entire mission. Observation of soundings located about 150 km apart reflected minimum variations of the boundary layer across the island for levels below 850 meters and a uniform atmosphere for higher levels. The weather stations and the temperature sensors were placed at strategic locations to observe variations across the urban and rural landscapes. Time series plot of the stations' data show that heavily urbanized commercial areas have higher air temperatures than urban and suburban residential areas, and much higher temperatures than rural areas. Temperature

  8. Sampling of air streams and incorporation of samples in the Microtox{trademark} toxicity testing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinheinz, G.T.; St. John, W.P.

    1997-10-01

    A study was conducted to develop a rapid and reliable method for the collection and incorporation of biofiltration air samples containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the Microtox toxicity testing system. To date, no method exists for this type of assay. A constant stream of VOCs was generated by air stripping compounds from a complex mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). Samples were collected on coconut charcoal ORBO tubes and the VOCs extracted with methylene chloride. The compounds extracted were then solvent exchanged into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) under gaseous nitrogen. The resulting DMSO extract was directly incorporated into the Microtox toxicity testing system. In order to determine the efficiency of the solvent exchange, the VOCs in the DMSO extract were then extracted into hexane and subsequently analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) with a flame ionization detector (FID). It was determined that all but the most volatile VOCs could be effectively transferred from the ORBO tubes to DMSO for Microtox testing. Potential trace amounts of residual methylene chloride in the DMSO extracts showed no adverse effects in the Microtox system when compared to control samples.

  9. Passive Samplers for Investigations of Air Quality: Method Description, Implementation, and Comparison to Alternative Sampling Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Paper covers the basics of passive sampler design, compares passive samplers to conventional methods of air sampling, and discusses considerations when implementing a passive sampling program. The Paper also discusses field sampling and sample analysis considerations to ensu...

  10. An Autosampler and Field Sample Carrier for Maximizing Throughput Using an Open-Air, Surface Sampling Ion Source for MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recently developed, commercially available, open-air, surface sampling ion source for mass spectrometers provides individual analyses in several seconds. To realize its full throughput potential, an autosampler and field sample carrier were designed and built. The autosampler ...

  11. Continuous air monitor correlation to fixed air sample data at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, J.J.

    1993-05-01

    Continuous air monitoring instruments (CAMS) deployed in laboratories in the TA-55 plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) alarmed less than 33 percent of the time when fixed air sample measurements in the same laboratory showed integrated concentrations exceeding 500 DAC-hrs. The purpose of this study was to explore effects of non-instrument variables on alarm sensitivities for properly working CAMS. Non-instrument variables include air flow patterns, particle size of released material, and the energy of the release. Dilution Factors (DFs) for 21 airborne releases in various rooms and of different magnitudes were calculated and compared. The median DF for releases where the CAM alarmed was 13.1 while the median DF for releases where the CAM did not alarm was 179. Particle sizes ranged considerably with many particles larger than 10 {mu}m. The cause of the release was found to be important in predicting if a CAM would alarm with releases from bagouts resulting in the greatest percentage of CAM alarms. The results of this study suggest that a two-component strategy for CAM placement at LANL be utilized. The first component would require CAMs at exhaust points in the rooms to provide for reliable detection for random release locations. The second component would require placing CAMs at locations where releases have historically been seen. Finally, improvements in CAM instrumentation is needed.

  12. Cellulomonas aerilata sp. nov., isolated from an air sample.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Muk; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Hong, Seung-Beom; Jeon, Young-Ah; Schumann, Peter; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2008-12-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, motile, coccoid or short rod-shaped bacterium, 5420S-23(T), was isolated from an air sample collected in the Republic of Korea. According to phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain 5420S-23(T) revealed 97.5, 97.3, 97.3 and 97.2 % similarity, respectively, to Cellulomonas biazotea DSM 20112(T), Cellulomonas cellasea DSM 20118(T), Cellulomonas fimi DSM 20113(T) and Cellulomonas chitinilytica X.bu-b(T). The peptidoglycan type of strain 5420S-23(T) was A4beta, containing l-ornithine-d-glutamic acid. The cell-wall sugars were galactose, glucose and xylose. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0) (49.7 %) and C(16 : 0) (20.0 %). The major menaquinone was MK-9(H(4)) and major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content was 74 mol%. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization with strains of closely related Cellulomonas species, in combination with chemotaxonomic and physiological data, demonstrated that isolate 5420S-23(T) represents a novel Cellulomonas species, for which the name Cellulomonas aerilata sp. nov. is proposed, with strain 5420S-23(T) (=KACC 20692(T) =DSM 18649(T)) as the type strain.

  13. Collection and analysis of NASA clean room air samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, L. S.; Keever, J.

    1985-01-01

    The environment of the HALOE assembly clean room at NASA Langley Research Center is analyzed to determine the background levels of airborne organic compounds. Sampling is accomplished by pumping the clean room air through absorbing cartridges. For volatile organics, cartridges are thermally desorbed and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, compounds are identified by searching the EPA/NIH data base using an interactive operator INCOS computer search algorithm. For semivolatile organics, cartridges are solvent entracted and concentrated extracts are analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection, compound identification is made by matching gas chromatogram retention times with known standards. The detection limits for the semivolatile organics are; 0.89 ng cu m for dioctylphlhalate (DOP) and 1.6 ng cu m for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The detection limit for volatile organics ranges from 1 to 50 parts per trillion. Only trace quantities of organics are detected, the DOP levels do not exceed 2.5 ng cu m and the PCB levels do not exceed 454 ng cu m.

  14. Air sampling filtration media: Collection efficiency for respirable size-selective sampling

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Monaghan, Keenan; Lee, Taekhee; Kashon, Mike; Harper, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The collection efficiencies of commonly used membrane air sampling filters in the ultrafine particle size range were investigated. Mixed cellulose ester (MCE; 0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polycarbonate (0.4, 0.8, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; 0.45, 1, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polyvinyl chloride (PVC; 0.8 and 5 μm pore sizes), and silver membrane (0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes) filters were exposed to polydisperse sodium chloride (NaCl) particles in the size range of 10–400 nm. Test aerosols were nebulized and introduced into a calm air chamber through a diffusion dryer and aerosol neutralizer. The testing filters (37 mm diameter) were mounted in a conductive polypropylene filter-holder (cassette) within a metal testing tube. The experiments were conducted at flow rates between 1.7 and 11.2 l min−1. The particle size distributions of NaCl challenge aerosol were measured upstream and downstream of the test filters by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Three different filters of each type with at least three repetitions for each pore size were tested. In general, the collection efficiency varied with airflow, pore size, and sampling duration. In addition, both collection efficiency and pressure drop increased with decreased pore size and increased sampling flow rate, but they differed among filter types and manufacturer. The present study confirmed that the MCE, PTFE, and PVC filters have a relatively high collection efficiency for challenge particles much smaller than their nominal pore size and are considerably more efficient than polycarbonate and silver membrane filters, especially at larger nominal pore sizes. PMID:26834310

  15. Breakthrough of 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin from 600 mg XAD-4 air sampling tubes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurately measuring air concentrations of agricultural fumigants is important for the regulation of air quality. Understanding the conditions under which sorbent tubes can effectively retain such fumigants during sampling is critical in mitigating chemical breakthrough from the tubes and facilitati...

  16. Spirosoma aerophilum sp. nov., isolated from an air sample.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Hong, Seung-Beom; Seok, Soon-Ja; Kim, Jeong-Seon; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2016-06-01

    A rod-shaped, yellow, Gram-stain-negative, non-flagellated, aerobic bacterium, designated 5516J-17T, was isolated from an air sample collected from Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. It grew in the temperature range of 10-37 °C (optimum 28-30 °C), pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and 0-1 % NaCl (w/v). Phylogenetic trees generated using 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain 5516J-17T belongs to the genus Spirosoma, showing 96.9 % sequence similarity to the most closely related species, Spirosoma linguale DSM 74T. The cellular fatty acids comprised large amounts (>10 % of total fatty acids) of summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c) and C16:1ω5c, and moderate amounts (5-10 % of total fatty acids) of iso-C17:0 3-OH, iso-C15:0 and C16:0. The DNA G+C content was 55.7 mol % and MK-7 was the predominant isoprenoid quinone. Polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown aminophospholipids, one unknown aminolipid and one unknown lipid. On the basis of this phenotypic and polyphasic taxonomy study, it is suggested that strain 5516J-17T represents a novel species within the genus Spirosoma, with the proposed name Spirosoma aerophilum. The type strain is 5516J-17T (= KACC 17323T = DSM 28388T = JCM 19950T). PMID:27031168

  17. Terrabacter aeriphilus sp. nov., isolated from an air sample.

    PubMed

    Weon, Hang-Yeon; Son, Jung-A; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Kim, Byung-Yong; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Schumann, Peter; Kroppenstedt, Reiner; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2010-05-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain 5414T-18(T), was isolated from an air sample collected from the Taean region, Korea. The strain contained oxidase and grew in the presence of 7 % NaCl. A neighbour-joining tree constructed on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain 5414T-18(T) is a member of the genus Terrabacter, sharing 97.8-98.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to type strains of species of the genus Terrabacter (98.3 % sequence similarity with Terrabacter lapilli LR-26(T)). It contained peptidoglycan containing ll-diaminopimelic acid of A3gamma type, with three glycine residues as the interpeptide bridge. Whole-cell sugars were glucose, mannose and ribose. Mycolic acids were absent. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H(4)). The major fatty acids (>7 % of total fatty acids) were iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0), C(17 : 1)omega8c and iso-C(14 : 0). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and an unidentified phosphoglycolipid. The DNA G+C content of the type strain was 73 mol%. Strain 5414T-18(T) exhibited DNA-DNA relatedness levels of 44, 43, 39, 34 and 34 % to the type strains of Terrabacter lapilli, Terrabacter aerolatus, Terrabacter terrae, Terrabacter tumescens and Terracoccus luteus, respectively. These findings suggest that strain 5414T-18(T) represents a novel species within the genus Terrabacter. The name Terrabacter aeriphilus sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with the type strain 5414T-18(T) (=KACC 20693(T)=DSM 18563(T)).

  18. Fresh Air and Good Food: Children and the Anti-Tuberculosis Campaign in the Netherlands c.1900-1940

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Nelleke

    2010-01-01

    As elsewhere in the Western world, between 1900 and 1940 the anti-tuberculosis campaign in the Netherlands produced a wide range of initiatives to promote child health. In each of these the social and the medical were linked, as the hygienic "mood" was encouraged by a child-saving ethos that focused upon the poor. In this article the author…

  19. Aircraft Observations of Aerosol Composition and Ageing in New England and Mid-Atlantic States during the Summer 2002 New England Air Quality Study Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Daum, Peter H.; Lee, Y.- N.; Senum, Gunar; Springston, Stephen R.; Wang, Jian; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Hubbe, John M.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Brechtel, Fred J.; Jayne, J. T.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2007-05-11

    Aerosol chemical composition, size distributions, and optical properties were measured during 17 aircraft flights in New England and Middle Atlantic States as part of the summer 2002 NEAQS field campaign. An Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was operated with a measurement cycle of 30 s, about an order of magnitude faster than used for ground-based measurements. Noise levels within a single measurement period were sub μg m-3. Volume data derived from the AMS were compared with volume measurements from a PCASP optical particle detector and an Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS); calculated light scattering was compared with measured values from an integrating nephelometer. The median ratio for AMS/SMPS volume was 1.25; the median ratio for AMS/nephelometer scattering was 1.18. Size spectra were compared for subsets of samples with different effective diameters (Deff). There is good agreement between the AMS, PCASP, and SMPS spectra for larger values of Deff but an unexplained over-prediction in the AMS for small values. A dependence of the AMS collection efficiency on aerosol acidity was quantified by a comparison between AMS and PCASP volumes in 2 high sulfate plumes. Average aerosol concentrations were 11 μg m-3. The organic content was high in comparison to monitoring data from the IMPROVE network, varying from 70% in clean air to 40% in high concentration sulfate plumes. The ratio of organic aerosol to CO and light absorption acting were examined as a function of photochemical age. CO is a conservative tracer for urban emissions and light absorption is a surrogate for black carbon which is also conservative. Comparisons were made to surface ratios measured under conditions where there is little secondary organic aerosol (SOA). An increase in these ratios relative to surface values indicates that 70 - 80% of the organic aerosol in polluted air masses was secondary. Most of this SOA is rapidly formed within a few hours. At longer time scales

  20. Salt in the Air during the Nitrogen, Aerosol Composition, and Halogens on a Tall Tower (NACHTT) Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pszenny, A.; Keene, W. C.; Sander, R.; Bearekman, R.; Deegan, B.; Maben, J. R.; Warrick-Wriston, C.; Young, A.

    2011-12-01

    Bulk and size-segregated aerosol samples were collected 22 m AGL at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (40°N, 105°W, 1563 m ASL) from 18 February to 13 March 2011. Total concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Br and I in bulk samples were determined by neutron activation analysis. Ionic composition of all size-segregated and a subset of bulk samples was determined by ion chromatography of aqueous extracts. Mg, Al, V and Mn mass concentrations were highly correlated and present in ratios similar to those in Denver area surface soils. Na and Cl were less well correlated with these soil elements but, after correction for soil contributions, highly correlated with each other. Linear regression of non-soil Cl vs. non-soil Na yielded a slope of 1.69 ± 0.09 (95% C.I.; n = 173), a value between the mass ratios of sea salt (1.80) and halite (1.54). The median Na and Cl concentrations (6.8 and 6.6 nmol m-3 STP, respectively) were factors of 25 to 35 less than those typically measured in the marine boundary layer. Br and I were somewhat correlated and appeared to represent a third aerosol component. The average bulk Cl-:total Cl ratio was 0.99 ± 0.03 (n = 44) suggesting that essentially all aerosol chlorine was water-soluble. Na+ and Cl- mass distributions were bimodal with most of the masses (medians 75% and 78%, respectively, n = 45) in supermicrometer particles. Possible origins of the "salt" component will be discussed based on consideration of 5-day HYSPLIT back trajectories and other information on sampled air mass characteristics.

  1. Aqueous photooxidation of ambient Po Valley Italy air samples: Insights into secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkland, J. R.; Lim, Y. B.; Sullivan, A. P.; Decesari, S.; Facchini, C.; Collett, J. L.; Keutsch, F. N.; Turpin, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we conducted aqueous photooxidation experiments with ambient samples in order to develop insights concerning the formation of secondary organic aerosol through gas followed by aqueous chemistry (SOAaq). Water-soluble organics (e.g., glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, acetone) are formed through gas phase oxidation of alkene and aromatic emissions of anthropogenic and biogenic origin. Their further oxidation in clouds, fogs and wet aerosols can form lower volatility products (e.g., oligomers, organic acids) that remain in the particle phase after water evaporation, thus producing SOA. The aqueous OH radical oxidation of several individual potentially important precursors has been studied in the laboratory. In this work, we used a mist-chamber apparatus to collect atmospheric mixtures of water-soluble gases from the ambient air at San Pietro Capofiume, Italy during the PEGASOS field campaign. We measured the concentration dynamics after addition of OH radicals, in order to develop new insights regarding formation of SOA through aqueous chemistry. Specifically, batch aqueous reactions were conducted with 33 ml mist-chamber samples (TOC ~ 50-100μM) and OH radicals (~10-12M) in a new low-volume aqueous reaction vessel. OH radicals were formed in-situ, continuously by H2O2 photolysis. Products were analyzed by ion chromatography (IC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS +/-), and ESI-MS with IC pre-separation (IC/ESI-MS-). Reproducible formation of pyruvate and oxalate were observed both by IC and ESI-MS. These compounds are known to form from aldehyde oxidation in the aqueous phase. New insights regarding the aqueous chemistry of these "more atmospherically-realistic" experiments will be discussed.

  2. Assessment of microscale spatio-temporal variation of air pollution at an urban hotspot in Madrid (Spain) through an extensive field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borge, Rafael; Narros, Adolfo; Artíñano, Begoña; Yagüe, Carlos; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco Javier; de la Paz, David; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Díaz, Elías; Maqueda, Gregorio; Sastre, Mariano; Quaassdorff, Christina; Dimitroulopoulou, Chrysanthi; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2016-09-01

    Poor urban air quality is one of the main environmental concerns worldwide due to its implications for population exposure and health-related issues. However, the development of effective abatement strategies in cities requires a consistent and holistic assessment of air pollution processes, taking into account all the relevant scales within a city. This contribution presents the methodology and main results of an intensive experimental campaign carried out in a complex pollution hotspot in Madrid (Spain) under the TECNAIRE-CM research project, which aimed at understanding the microscale spatio-temporal variation of ambient concentration levels in areas where high pollution values are recorded. A variety of instruments were deployed during a three-week field campaign to provide detailed information on meteorological and micrometeorological parameters and spatio-temporal variations of the most relevant pollutants (NO2 and PM) along with relevant information needed to simulate pedestrian fluxes. The results show the strong dependence of ambient concentrations on local emissions and meteorology that turns out in strong spatial and temporal variations, with gradients up to 2 μg m-3 m-1 for NO2 and 55 μg m-3 min-1 for PM10. Pedestrian exposure to these pollutants also presents strong variations temporally and spatially but it concentrates on pedestrian crossings and bus stops. The analysis of the results show that the high concentration levels found in urban hotspots depend on extremely complex dynamic processes that cannot be captured by routinely measurements made by air quality monitoring stations used for regulatory compliance assessment. The large influence from local traffic in the concentration fields highlights the need for a detailed description of specific variables that determine emissions and dispersion at microscale level. This also indicates that city-scale interventions may be complemented with local control measures and exposure management, to improve

  3. Microbial air-sampling equipment, part 1: meeting United States pharmacopeia chapter 797 standards.

    PubMed

    Kastango, Eric S

    2008-01-01

    The most recent changes to Chapter 797 of the United States Pharmcopeia-National Formulary initiated an intense controversy about the frequency of cleanroom air sampling that is required to prevent the contamination of sterile preparations. For compounders who must purchase an air sampler to use in the cleanroom, choices abound. Included in this article are a review of United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary requirements that pertain to air sampling, a discussion of how recent revision to Chapter 797 affect air sampling and patient safety, and, for easy reference, a table that features specifications for various models of microbial air samplers.

  4. Aerosol optical extinction during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) 2014 summertime field campaign, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingle, Justin H.; Vu, Kennedy; Bahreini, Roya; Apel, Eric C.; Campos, Teresa L.; Flocke, Frank; Fried, Alan; Herndon, Scott; Hills, Alan J.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Huey, Greg; Kaser, Lisa; Montzka, Denise D.; Nowak, John B.; Reeves, Mike; Richter, Dirk; Roscioli, Joseph R.; Shertz, Stephen; Stell, Meghan; Tanner, David; Tyndall, Geoff; Walega, James; Weibring, Petter; Weinheimer, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Summertime aerosol optical extinction (βext) was measured in the Colorado Front Range and Denver metropolitan area as part of the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) campaign during July-August 2014. An Aerodyne cavity attenuated phase shift particle light extinction monitor (CAPS-PMex) was deployed to measure βext (at average relative humidity of 20 ± 7 %) of submicron aerosols at λ = 632 nm at 1 Hz. Data from a suite of gas-phase instrumentation were used to interpret βext behavior in various categories of air masses and sources. Extinction enhancement ratios relative to CO (Δβext / ΔCO) were higher in aged urban air masses compared to fresh air masses by ˜ 50 %. The resulting increase in Δβext / ΔCO for highly aged air masses was accompanied by formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). In addition, the impacts of aerosol composition on βext in air masses under the influence of urban, natural oil and gas operations (O&G), and agriculture and livestock operations were evaluated. Estimated non-refractory mass extinction efficiency (MEE) values for different air mass types ranged from 1.51 to 2.27 m2 g-1, with the minimum and maximum values observed in urban and agriculture-influenced air masses, respectively. The mass distribution for organic, nitrate, and sulfate aerosols presented distinct profiles in different air mass types. During 11-12 August, regional influence of a biomass burning event was observed, increasing the background βext and estimated MEE values in the Front Range.

  5. Review of Various Air Sampling Methods for Solvent Vapors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maykoski, R. T.

    Vapors of trichloroethylene, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, and butyl cellosolve in air were collected using Scotchpac and Tedlar bags, glass prescription bottles, and charcoal adsorption tubes. Efficiencies of collection are reported. (Author/RH)

  6. Investigation of the impact of volatile organic compounds on air chemistry measured in Maryland, California and Texas during NASA's DISCOVER-AQ campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, H.; Kollonige, D. E.; Martins, D. K.; Thompson, A. M.; Fuentes, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured during the multiyear Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) campaign in Baltimore MD, Porterville CA and Houston TX. These sites were selected as representative of different pollution regimes, including a range of VOC sources and species. The measurements were collected in evacuated electropolished canisters to prevent loss of sensitive species and analyzed with GC-MS for a suite of VOC species. The data were used to characterize the composition and variability of VOCs over the collection sites, and analysis with accompanying meteorological and chemical measurements was conducted to assess the impact of the local chemistry on measured air quality.

  7. Analysis of Air Toxics From NOAA WP-3 Aircraft Measurements During the TexAQS 2006 Campaign: Comparison With Emission Inventories and Additive Inhalation Risk Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Negro, L. A.; Warneke, C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Atlas, E.; Lueb, R.; Zhu, X.; Pope, L.; Schauffler, S.; Hendershot, R.; Washenfelder, R.; Fried, A.; Richter, D.; Walega, J. G.; Weibring, P.

    2007-12-01

    Benzene and nine other air toxics classified as human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) were measured from the NOAA WP-3 aircraft during the TexAQS 2006 campaign. In-situ measurements of benzene, measured with a PTR-MS instrument, are used to estimate emission fluxes for comparison with point source emission inventories developed by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Mean and median mixing ratios for benzene, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, dibromoethane, dichloromethane, and vinyl chloride, encountered over the city of Houston during the campaign, are combined with inhalation unit risk factor values developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency and the United States Environmental Protection Agency to estimate the additive inhalation risk factor. This additive risk factor represents the risk associated with lifetime (70 year) exposure at the levels measured and should not be used as an absolute indicator of risk to individuals. However, the results are useful for assessments of changing relative risk over time, and for identifying dominant contributions to the overall air toxic risk.

  8. Field evaluation of sampling and analysis for organic pollutants in indoor air. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.C.; Mack, G.A.; Stockrahm, J.W.; Hannan, S.W.; Bridges, C.

    1988-09-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the feasibility of the use of newly developed indoor air samplers in residential indoor air sampling and to evaluate methodology for characterization of the concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), PAH derivatives, and nicotine in residential air.

  9. Rapid on-site air sampling with a needle extraction device for evaluating the indoor air environment in school facilities.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mitsuru; Mizuguchi, Ayako; Ueta, Ikuo; Takahashi, Kazuya; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    A rapid on-site air sampling technique was developed with a miniaturized needle-type sample preparation device for a systematic evaluation of the indoor air environments in school facilities. With the in-needle extraction device packed with a polymer particle of divinylbenzene and activated carbon particles, various types of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were successfully extracted. For evaluating the indoor air qualities in school facilities, air samples in renovated rooms using organic solvent as a thinner of the paint were analyzed along with measurements of several VOCs in indoor air samples taken in newly built primary schools mainly using low-VOCs materials. After periodical renovation/maintenance, the time-variation profile of typical VOCs found in the school facilities has also been monitored. From the results, it could be observed that the VOCs in most of the rooms in these primary schools were at a quite low level; however, a relatively higher concentration of VOCs was found in some specially designed rooms, such as music rooms. In addition, some non-regulated compounds, including benzyl alcohol and branched alkanes, were detected in these primary schools. The results showed a good applicability of the needle device to indoor air analysis in schools, suggesting a wide range of future employment of the needle device, especially for indoor air analysis in other types of facilities and rooms including hospitals and hotels. PMID:23665624

  10. Qualification Tests for the Air Sampling System at the 296-Z-7 Stack

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A; Maughan, A David

    2001-10-15

    This report documents tests performed to verify that the monitoring system for the 296-Z-7 ventilation stack meets the applicable regulatory criteria regarding the placement of the air sampling probe, sample transport, and stack flow measurement accuracy.

  11. Climate factors influencing bacterial count in background air samples.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Roy M; Jones, Alan M; Biggins, Peter D E; Pomeroy, Nigel; Cox, Christopher S; Kidd, Stephen P; Hobman, Jon L; Brown, Nigel L; Beswick, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Total (as opposed to culturable) bacterial number counts are reported for four sites in the United Kingdom measured during campaigns over four separate seasons. These are interpreted in relation to simple climatic factors, i.e. temperature, wind speed and wind direction. Temperature has a marked effect at all four sites with data for a rural coastal site conforming best to a simple exponential model. Data for the other rural and urban locations show a baseline similar to that determined at the coastal rural location, but with some very significant positive excursions. The temperature dependence of bacterial number is found to conform to that typical of bacterial growth rates. At the coastal rural location, bacterial numbers normalised for temperature show no dependence on wind speed whilst at the inland sites there is a decrease with increasing wind speed of the form expected for a large area source. Only one site appeared to show a systematic relationship of bacterial concentrations to wind direction that being a site in the suburbs of Birmingham with highest number concentrations observed on a wind sector approaching from the city centre. PCR techniques have been used to identify predominant types of bacteria and results are presented which show that Bacillus was the dominant genus observed at the three inland sites during the winter and summer seasons. Pseudomonas appeared with comparable frequency at certain sites and seasons. There was in general a greater diversity of bacteria at the coastal site than at the inland sites.

  12. Stationary source sampling report: Volatile organic compounds testing, 300-M area air stripper exhaust stack

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-11-25

    An air stripping column was used in the 300-M area to remove volatile organic compounds from contaminated groundwater. Tests were performed October 29, 1985, at the air stripper exhaust stack to measure the emissions of tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane for compliance purposes. Three absorbent sampling train (AST) runs (yielding duplicate samples for each run) and three velocity traverses were performed at the air stripper exhaust stack. Ambient air sampling was not performed as scheduled because of inclement weather conditions.

  13. A method for sampling halothane and enflurane present in trace amounts in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Burm, A G; Spierdijk, J

    1979-03-01

    A method for the sampling of small amounts of halothane and enflurane in ambient air is described. Sampling is performed by drawing air through a sampling tube packed with Porapak Q, which absorbs the anesthetic agent. The amount absorbed is determined by gas chromatography after thermal desorption. This method can be used for "spot" or personal sampling or for determining mean whole-room concentrations over relatively long periods (several hours).

  14. Microbial air-sampling equipment, part 2: experiences of compounding pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Mixon, Bill; Cabaleiro, Joe; Latta, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01

    The most recent changes to Chapter 797 of the United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary initiated an intense controversy about the frequency of cleanroom air sampling that is required to prevent the contamination of sterile preparations. For compounders who must purchase an air sampler to use in the cleanroom, choices abound. This article summarizes discussions from compounding pharmacists and their experiences with air sampling devices.

  15. Campaign graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    We define a class of geometrical constructions in the plane in which each (unextended) line lies on (precisely) k points, and every point is an endpoint of (precisely) one line. We will refer to any construction satisfying these conditions as a campaign graph, or as a k-campaign graph if the value of k isn't clear from the context. A k-campaign graph, G, is said to be critical if no subgraph of G is also a k-campaign graph. 11 figs.

  16. Toxicological Assessment of ISS Air Quality: Contingency Sampling - February 2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Two grab sample containers (GSCs) were collected by crew members onboard ISS in response to a vinegar-like odor in the US Lab. On February 5, the first sample was collected approximately 1 hour after the odor was noted by the crew in the forward portion of the Lab. The second sample was collected on February 22 when a similar odor was noted and localized to the end ports of the microgravity science glovebox (MSG). The crewmember removed a glove from the MSG and collected the GSC inside the glovebox volume. Both samples were returned on SpaceX-2 for ground analysis.

  17. Using NLDAS-2 for initializing integrated watershed models: Model spin-up for the AirMOSS Campaign

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS) investigation has been developed for high-resolution in time and space root-zone soil moisture and carbon estimation. AirMOSS will build an ultra-high frequency (UHF) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has the capability to penetr...

  18. Low-cost monitoring of Campylobacter in poultry houses by air sampling and quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, M S R; Josefsen, M H; Löfström, C; Christensen, L S; Wieczorek, K; Osek, J; Hoorfar, J

    2014-02-01

    The present study describes the evaluation of a method for the quantification of Campylobacter by air sampling in poultry houses. Sampling was carried out in conventional chicken houses in Poland, in addition to a preliminary sampling in Denmark. Each measurement consisted of three air samples, two standard boot swab fecal samples, and one airborne particle count. Sampling was conducted over an 8-week period in three flocks, assessing the presence and levels of Campylobacter in boot swabs and air samples using quantitative real-time PCR. The detection limit for air sampling was approximately 100 Campylobacter cell equivalents (CCE)/m3. Airborne particle counts were used to analyze the size distribution of airborne particles (0.3 to 10 μm) in the chicken houses in relation to the level of airborne Campylobacter. No correlation was found. Using air sampling, Campylobacter was detected in the flocks right away, while boot swab samples were positive after 2 weeks. All samples collected were positive for Campylobacter from week 2 through the rest of the rearing period for both sampling techniques, although levels 1- to 2-log CCE higher were found with air sampling. At week 8, the levels were approximately 10(4) and 10(5) CCE per sample for boot swabs and air, respectively. In conclusion, using air samples combined with quantitative real-time PCR, Campylobacter contamination could be detected earlier than by boot swabs and was found to be a more convenient technique for monitoring and/or to obtain enumeration data useful for quantitative risk assessment of Campylobacter.

  19. Transport of Antarctic stratospheric strongly dehydrated air into the troposphere observed during the HALO-ESMVal campaign 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolf, C.; Afchine, A.; Bozem, H.; Buchholz, B.; Ebert, V.; Guggenmoser, T.; Hoor, P.; Konopka, P.; Kretschmer, E.; Müller, S.; Schlager, H.; Spelten, N.; Sumińska-Ebersoldt, O.; Ungermann, J.; Zahn, A.; Krämer, M.

    2015-08-01

    Dehydration in the Antarctic winter stratosphere is a well-known phenomenon that is annually observed by satellites and occasionally observed by balloon-borne measurements. However, in situ measurements of dehydrated air masses in the Antarctic vortex are very rare. Here, we present detailed observations with the in situ and GLORIA remote sensing instrument payload aboard the German aircraft HALO. Strongly dehydrated air masses down to 1.6 ppmv of water vapor were observed as far north as 47° S in an altitude between 12 and 13 km in the lowermost stratosphere. The dehydration can be traced back to individual ice formation events above the Antarctic Peninsula and Plateau, where ice crystals sedimented out and water vapor was irreversibly removed. Within these dehydrated stratospheric air masses, filaments of moister air reaching down to the tropopause are detected with the high-resolution limb sounder, GLORIA. Furthermore, dehydrated air masses are observed with GLORIA in the Antarctic lowermost stratosphere down to 7 km. With the help of a backward trajectory analysis, a midlatitude origin of the moist filaments in the vortex can be identified, while the dry air masses down to 7 km have stratospheric origins. Antarctic stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) and transport of dehydrated air masses into the troposphere are investigated. Further, it is shown that the exchange process can be attributed to several successive Rossby wave events in combination with an isentropic exchange of air masses across the thermal tropopause. The transport into the troposphere is caused by air masses that are detached from the potential vorticity (PV) structure by Rossby wave breaking events and subsequently transported diabatically across the dynamical tropopause. Once transported to the troposphere, air masses with stratospheric origin can reach near-surface levels within several days.

  20. Meteorological and air quality forecasting using the WRF-STEM model during the 2008 ARCTAS field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Allura, Alessio; Kulkarni, Sarika; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Finardi, Sandro; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Wei, Chao; Streets, David; Zhang, Qiang; Pierce, Robert B.; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Diskin, Glenn; Wennberg, Paul

    2011-12-01

    In this study, the University of Iowa's Chemical Weather Forecasting System comprising meteorological predictions using the WRF model, and off-line chemical weather predictions using tracer and full chemistry versions of the STEM model, designed to support the flight planning during the ARCTAS 2008 mission is described and evaluated. The system includes tracers representing biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions from different geographical emissions source regions, as well as air mass age indicators. We demonstrate how this forecasting system was used in flight planning and in the interpretation of the experimental data obtained through the case study of the summer mission ARCTAS DC-8 flight executed on July 9 2008 that sampled near the North Pole. The comparison of predicted meteorological variables including temperature, pressure, wind speed and wind direction against the flight observations shows that the WRF model is able to correctly describe the synoptic circulation and cloud coverage in the Arctic region The absolute values of predicted CO match the measured CO closely suggesting that the STEM model is able to capture the variability in observations within the Arctic region. The time-altitude cross sections of source region tagged CO tracers along the flight track helped in identifying biomass burning (from North Asia) and anthropogenic (largely China) as major sources contributing to the observed CO along this flight. The difference between forecast and post analysis biomass burning emissions can lead to significant changes (˜10-50%) in primary CO predictions reflecting the large uncertainty associated with biomass burning estimates and the need to reduce this uncertainty for effective flight planning.

  1. Capital Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalessandro, David; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight articles focus on capital campaigns including setting goals (D. Dalessandro), the lead gift (D. A. Campbell), motivating trustees (J. J. Ianolli, Jr.), alumni associations (W. B. Adams), role of public relations officers (R. L. Williams), special events( H.R. Gilbert), the campaign document (R. King), and case statements (D. R. Treadwell,…

  2. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children's ambient exposure to manganese.

    PubMed

    Fulk, Florence; Haynes, Erin N; Hilbert, Timothy J; Brown, David; Petersen, Dan; Reponen, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to assess exposure for children enrolled in the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study in Marietta, OH. Ambient air Mn concentration values were modeled using US Environmental Protection Agency's Air Dispersion Model AERMOD based on emissions from the ferromanganese refinery located in Marietta. Modeled Mn concentrations were compared with Mn concentrations from a nearby stationary air monitor. The Index of Agreement for modeled versus monitored data was 0.34 (48 h levels) and 0.79 (monthly levels). Fractional bias was 0.026 for 48 h levels and -0.019 for monthly levels. The ratio of modeled ambient air Mn to measured ambient air Mn at the annual time scale was 0.94. Modeled values were also time matched to personal air samples for 19 children. The modeled values explained a greater degree of variability in personal exposures compared with time-weighted distance from the emission source. Based on these results modeled Mn concentrations provided a suitable approach for assessing airborne Mn exposure in this cohort. PMID:27168393

  3. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children's ambient exposure to manganese.

    PubMed

    Fulk, Florence; Haynes, Erin N; Hilbert, Timothy J; Brown, David; Petersen, Dan; Reponen, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to assess exposure for children enrolled in the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study in Marietta, OH. Ambient air Mn concentration values were modeled using US Environmental Protection Agency's Air Dispersion Model AERMOD based on emissions from the ferromanganese refinery located in Marietta. Modeled Mn concentrations were compared with Mn concentrations from a nearby stationary air monitor. The Index of Agreement for modeled versus monitored data was 0.34 (48 h levels) and 0.79 (monthly levels). Fractional bias was 0.026 for 48 h levels and -0.019 for monthly levels. The ratio of modeled ambient air Mn to measured ambient air Mn at the annual time scale was 0.94. Modeled values were also time matched to personal air samples for 19 children. The modeled values explained a greater degree of variability in personal exposures compared with time-weighted distance from the emission source. Based on these results modeled Mn concentrations provided a suitable approach for assessing airborne Mn exposure in this cohort.

  4. Air sampling to recover variola virus in the environment of a smallpox hospital.

    PubMed

    MEIKLEJOHN, G; KEMPE, C H; DOWNIE, A W; BERGE, T O; ST VINCENT, L; RAO, A R

    1961-01-01

    The view is widely held that variola is highly infectious, and it was therefore thought of interest to obtain precise information on the amount of virus disseminated in the air by smallpox patients at various stages of their illness. To this end, measured samples of air in and around the smallpox wards of the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Madras, were tested for the presence of variola virus. Surprisingly, virus was recovered on one occasion only by the air sampling device used. All other tests were negative although large volumes of air were sampled in close proximity to patients at various stages of the disease. The authors consider that further observations should be made with more sensitive air sampling methods.

  5. Air-sampled Filter Analysis for Endotoxins and DNA Content.

    PubMed

    Lang-Yona, Naama; Mazar, Yinon; Pardo, Michal; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor aerosol research commonly uses particulate matter sampled on filters. This procedure enables various characterizations of the collected particles to be performed in parallel. The purpose of the method presented here is to obtain a highly accurate and reliable analysis of the endotoxin and DNA content of bio-aerosols extracted from filters. The extraction of high molecular weight organic molecules, such as lipopolysaccharides, from sampled filters involves shaking the sample in a pyrogen-free water-based medium. The subsequent analysis is based on an enzymatic reaction that can be detected using a turbidimetric measurement. As a result of the high organic content on the sampled filters, the extraction of DNA from the samples is performed using a commercial DNA extraction kit that was originally designed for soils and modified to improve the DNA yield. The detection and quantification of specific microbial species using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) analysis are described and compared with other available methods. PMID:27023725

  6. Review of the Physical Science Facility Stack Air Sampling Probe Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2007-09-30

    This letter report reviews compliance of the current design of the Physical Science Facility (PSF) stack air sampling locations with the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard. The review was based on performance criteria used for locating air sampling probes, the design documents provided and available information on systems previously tested for compliance with the criteria. Recommendations are presented for ways to bring the design into compliance with the requirements for the sampling probe placement.

  7. Identification of ambient air sampling and analysis methods for the 189 Title III air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Mukund, R.; Kelly, T.J.; Gordon, S.M.; Hays, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    The state of development of ambient air measurement methods for the 189 Hazardous Air Pollution (HAPs) in Title 3 of the Clean Air Act Amendments was surveyed. Measurement methods for the HAPs were identified by reviews of established methods, and by literature searches for pertinent research techniques. Methods were segregated by their degree of development into Applicable, Likely, and Potential methods. This survey identified a total of 183 methods, applicable at varying degrees to ambient air measurements of one or more HAPs. As a basis for classifying the HAPs and evaluating the applicability of measurement methods, a survey of a variety of chemical and physical properties of the HAPs was also conducted. The results of both the methods and properties surveys were tabulated for each of the 189 HAP. The current state of development of ambient measurement methods for the 189 HAPs was then assessed from the results of the survey, and recommendations for method development initiatives were developed.

  8. Transport of Antarctic stratospheric strongly dehydrated air into the troposphere observed during the HALO-ESMVal campaign 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolf, C.; Afchine, A.; Bozem, H.; Buchholz, B.; Ebert, V.; Guggenmoser, T.; Hoor, P.; Konopka, P.; Kretschmer, E.; Müller, S.; Schlager, H.; Spelten, N.; Sumińska-Ebersoldt, O.; Ungermann, J.; Zahn, A.; Krämer, M.

    2015-03-01

    Dehydration in the Antarctic winter stratosphere is a well-known phenomenon that is occasionally observed by balloon-borne and satellite measurements. However, in-situ measurements of dehydration in the Antarctic vortex are very rare. Here, we present detailed observations with the in-situ and GLORIA remote sensing instrument payload aboard the new German aircraft HALO. Strongly dehydrated air masses down to 1.6 ppmv of water vapor were observed as far north as 47° S and between 12 and 13 km in altitude, which has never been observed by satellites. The dehydration can be traced back to individual ice formation events, where ice crystals sedimented out and water vapor was irreversibly removed. Within these dehydrated stratospheric air masses, filaments of moister air reaching down to the tropopause are detected with the high resolution limb sounder, GLORIA. Furthermore, dehydrated air masses are observed with GLORIA in the Antarctic troposphere down to 7 km. With the help of a backward trajectory analysis, a tropospheric origin of the moist filaments in the vortex can be identified, while the dry air masses in the troposphere have stratospheric origins. The transport pathways of Antarctic stratosphere/troposphere exchange are investigated and the irrelevant role of the Antarctic thermal tropopause as a transport barrier is confirmed. Further, it is shown that the exchange process can be attributed to several successive Rossby wave events in combination with an isentropic interchange of air masses across the weak tropopause and subsequent subsidence due to radiative cooling. Once transported to the troposphere, air masses with stratospheric origin are able to reach near-surface levels within 1-2 months.

  9. Intervene before leaving: clustered lot quality assurance sampling to monitor vaccination coverage at health district level before the end of a yellow fever and measles vaccination campaign in Sierra Leone in 2009

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In November 2009, Sierra Leone conducted a preventive yellow fever (YF) vaccination campaign targeting individuals aged nine months and older in six health districts. The campaign was integrated with a measles follow-up campaign throughout the country targeting children aged 9–59 months. For both campaigns, the operational objective was to reach 95% of the target population. During the campaign, we used clustered lot quality assurance sampling (C-LQAS) to identify areas of low coverage to recommend timely mop-up actions. Methods We divided the country in 20 non-overlapping lots. Twelve lots were targeted by both vaccinations, while eight only by measles. In each lot, five clusters of ten eligible individuals were selected for each vaccine. The upper threshold (UT) was set at 90% and the lower threshold (LT) at 75%. A lot was rejected for low vaccination coverage if more than 7 unvaccinated individuals (not presenting vaccination card) were found. After the campaign, we plotted the C-LQAS results against the post-campaign coverage estimations to assess if early interventions were successful enough to increase coverage in the lots that were at the level of rejection before the end of the campaign. Results During the last two days of campaign, based on card-confirmed vaccination status, five lots out of 20 (25.0%) failed for having low measles vaccination coverage and three lots out of 12 (25.0%) for low YF coverage. In one district, estimated post-campaign vaccination coverage for both vaccines was still not significantly above the minimum acceptable level (LT = 75%) even after vaccination mop-up activities. Conclusion C-LQAS during the vaccination campaign was informative to identify areas requiring mop-up activities to reach the coverage target prior to leaving the region. The only district where mop-up activities seemed to be unsuccessful might have had logistical difficulties that should be further investigated and resolved. PMID:22676225

  10. Summary of gamma spectrometry on local air samples from 1985--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1997-04-02

    This report summarizes the 1985--1995 results of low-level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis of high-volume air samples collected at the Aiken Airport, which is about 25 miles north of SRS. The author began analyzing these samples with new calibrations using the newly developed GRABGAM code in 1985. The air sample collections were terminated in 1995, as the facilities at the Aiken Airport were no longer available. Air sample measurements prior to 1985 were conducted with a different analysis system (and by others prior to 1984), and the data were not readily available. The report serves to closeout this phase of local NTS air sample studies, while documenting the capabilities and accomplishments. Hopefully, the information will guide other applications for this technology, both locally and elsewhere.

  11. A method to optimize sampling locations for measuring indoor air distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yan; Shen, Xiong; Li, Jianmin; Li, Bingye; Duan, Ran; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Liu, Junjie; Chen, Qingyan

    2015-02-01

    Indoor air distributions, such as the distributions of air temperature, air velocity, and contaminant concentrations, are very important to occupants' health and comfort in enclosed spaces. When point data is collected for interpolation to form field distributions, the sampling locations (the locations of the point sensors) have a significant effect on time invested, labor costs and measuring accuracy on field interpolation. This investigation compared two different sampling methods: the grid method and the gradient-based method, for determining sampling locations. The two methods were applied to obtain point air parameter data in an office room and in a section of an economy-class aircraft cabin. The point data obtained was then interpolated to form field distributions by the ordinary Kriging method. Our error analysis shows that the gradient-based sampling method has 32.6% smaller error of interpolation than the grid sampling method. We acquired the function between the interpolation errors and the sampling size (the number of sampling points). According to the function, the sampling size has an optimal value and the maximum sampling size can be determined by the sensor and system errors. This study recommends the gradient-based sampling method for measuring indoor air distributions.

  12. Mixed species radioiodine air sampling readout and dose assessment system

    DOEpatents

    Distenfeld, Carl H.; Klemish, Jr., Joseph R.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a simple, reliable, inexpensive and portable means and method for determining the thyroid dose rate of mixed airborne species of solid and gaseous radioiodine without requiring highly skilled personnel, such as health physicists or electronics technicians. To this end, this invention provides a means and method for sampling a gas from a source of a mixed species of solid and gaseous radioiodine for collection of the mixed species and readout and assessment of the emissions therefrom by cylindrically, concentrically and annularly molding the respective species around a cylindrical passage for receiving a conventional probe-type Geiger-Mueller radiation detector.

  13. Dispersion modeling of selected PAHs in urban air: A new approach combining dispersion model with GIS and passive air sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáňka, Ondřej; Melymuk, Lisa; Čupr, Pavel; Dvorská, Alice; Klánová, Jana

    2014-10-01

    This study introduces a new combined air concentration measurement and modeling approach that we propose can be useful in medium and long term air quality assessment. A dispersion study was carried out for four high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban area with industrial, traffic and domestic heating sources. A geographic information system (GIS) was used both for processing of input data as well as visualization of the modeling results. The outcomes of the dispersion model were compared to the results of passive air sampling (PAS). Despite discrepancies between measured and modeled concentrations, an approach combining the two techniques is promising for future air quality assessment. Differences between measured and modeled concentrations, in particular when measured values exceed the modeled concentrations, are indicative of undocumented, sporadic pollutant sources. Thus, these differences can also be useful for assessing and refining emission inventories.

  14. A STRINGENT COMPARISON OF SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS FOR VOCS IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A carefully designed study was conducted during the summer of 1998 to simultaneously collect samples of ambient air by canisters and compare the analysis results to direct sorbent preconcentration results taken at the time of sample collection. A total of 32 1-h sample sets we...

  15. Automated syringe sampler. [remote sampling of air and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purgold, G. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A number of sampling services are disposed in a rack which slides into a housing. In response to a signal from an antenna, the circutry elements are activated which provide power individually, collectively, or selectively to a servomechanism thereby moving an actuator arm and the attached jawed bracket supporting an evaculated tube towards a stationary needle. One open end of the needle extends through the side wall of a conduit to the interior and the other open end is maintained within the protective sleeve, supported by a bifurcated bracket. A septum in punctured by the end of the needle within the sleeve and a sample of the fluid medium in the conduit flows through the needle and is transferred to a tube. The signal to the servo is then reversed and the actuator arm moves the tube back to its original position permitting the septum to expand and seal the hole made by the needle. The jawed bracket is attached by pivot to the actuator to facilitate tube replacement.

  16. Sampling and Analyzing Air Pollution: An Apparatus Suitable for Use in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Dean M.; Hansen, Tony

    1994-01-01

    Describes two variations of an air sampler and analyzer that are inexpensive to construct, easy to operate, and designed to be used in an educational program. Variations use vacuum cleaners and aquarium pumps, and white facial tissues serve as filters. Samples of air pollution obtained by this method may be used from early grade school to advanced…

  17. Variables Related to Pre-Service Cannabis Use in a Sample of Air Force Enlistees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Cecil J.; And Others

    This report is an attempt to add to the existing information about cannabis use, its correlates, and its effects. The sample population consisted of self-admitted abusers of various drugs, identified shortly after entering the Air Force. The subjects (N=4688) were located through the Drug Control Office at Lackland Air Force Base. Variables…

  18. Salmonella recovery following air chilling for matched neck-skin and whole carcass sampling methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence and serogroups of Salmonella recovered following air chilling were determined for both enriched neck skin and matching enriched whole carcass samples. Commercially processed and eviscerated carcasses were air chilled to 4C before removing the neck skin (8.3 g) and stomaching in 83 mL...

  19. Aerosol Optical Extinction during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) 2014 Summertime Field Campaign, Colorado U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingle, J. H.; Vu, K. K. T.; Bahreini, R.; Apel, E. C.; Campos, T. L.; Cantrell, C. A.; Cohen, R. C.; Ebben, C. J.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, A.; Herndon, S. C.; Hills, A. J.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Huey, L. G.; Kaser, L.; Mauldin, L.; Montzka, D. D.; Nowak, J. B.; Richter, D.; Roscioli, J. R.; Shertz, S.; Stell, M. H.; Tanner, D.; Tyndall, G. S.; Walega, J.; Weibring, P.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol optical extinction (βext) was measured in the Colorado Front Range Denver Metropolitan Area as part of the summertime air quality airborne field campaign to characterize the influence of sources, photochemical processing, and transport of pollution on local air quality. An Aerodyne Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift particle light extinction monitor (CAPS-PMex) was deployed to measure dry βext at λ=632 nm at 1 Hz. Data from a suite of gas-phase instrumentation were used to interpret the βext under various categories of aged air masses and sources. Extinction enhancement ratios of Δβext/ΔCO were evaluated under 3 differently aged air mass categories (fresh, intermediately aged, and aged) to investigate impacts of photochemistry on βext. Δβext/ΔCO was significantly increased in heavily aged air masses compared to fresh air masses (0.17 Mm-1/ppbv and 0.094 Mm-1/ppbv respectively). The resulting increase in Δβext/ΔCO under heavily aged air masses was represented by secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formation. Aerosol composition and sources from urban, natural oil and gas wells (OG), and agriculture and livestock operations were also evaluated for their impacts on βext. Linear regression fits to βext vs. organic aerosol mass showed higher correlation coefficients under the urban and OG plumes (r=0.55 and r=0.71 respectively) and weakest under agricultural and livestock plumes (r=0.28). The correlation between βext and nitrate aerosol mass however was best under the agriculture and livestock plumes (r=0.81), followed by OG plumes (r=0.74), suggesting co-location of aerosol nitrate precursor sources with OG emissions. Finally, non-refractory mass extinction efficiency (MEE) was analyzed. MEE was observed to be 1.37 g/m2 and 1.30 g/m2 in OG and urban+OG plumes, respectively.

  20. GC×GC measurements of C7-C11 aromatic and n-alkane hydrocarbons on Crete, in air from Eastern Europe during the MINOS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Williams, J.; Plass-Dülmer, C.; Berresheim, H.; Salisbury, G.; Lange, L.; Lelieveld, J.

    2003-03-01

    During the Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study (MINOS) campaign in August 2001 gas-phase organic compounds were measured using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) at the Finokalia ground station, Crete. In this paper, C7-C11 aromatic and n-alkane measurements are presented and interpreted. The mean mixing ratios of the hydrocarbons varied from 1+/-1 pptv (i-propylbenzene) to 43+/-36 pptv (toluene). The observed mixing ratios showed strong day-to-day variations and generally higher levels during the first half of the campaign. Mean diel profiles showed maxima at local midnight and late morning, and minima in the early morning and evening. Results from analysis using a simplified box model suggest that both the chemical sink (i.e. reaction with OH) and the variability of source strengths were the causes of the observed variations in hydrocarbon mixing ratios. The logarithms of hydrocarbon concentrations were negatively correlated with the OH concentrations integral over a day prior to the hydrocarbon measurements. Slopes of the regression lines derived from these correlations for different compounds are compared with literature rate constants for their reactions with OH. The slopes for most compounds agree reasonably well with the literature rate constants. A sequential reaction model has been applied to the interpretation of the relationship between ethylbenzene and two of its potential products, i.e. acetophenone and benzeneacetaldehyde. The model can explain the good correlation observed between [acetophenone]/[ethylbenzene] and [benzeneacetaldehyde]/[ethylbenzene]. The model results and field measurements suggest that the reactivity of benzeneacetaldehyde may lie between those of acetophenone and ethylbenzene and that the ratio between yields of acetophenone and benzeneacetaldehyde may be up to 28:1. Photochemical ages of trace gases sampled at Finokalia during the campaign are estimated using the sequential reaction model and related data

  1. GC×GC measurements of C7-C11 aromatic and n-alkane hydrocarbons on Crete, in air from Eastern Europe during the MINOS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Williams, C.; Plass-Dülmer, H.; Berresheim, H.; Salisbury, G.; Lange, L.; Lelieveld, J.

    2003-09-01

    During the Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study (MINOS) campaign in August 2001 gas-phase organic compounds were measured using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) at the Finokalia ground station, Crete. In this paper, C7-C11 aromatic and n-alkane measurements are presented and interpreted. The mean mixing ratios of the hydrocarbons varied from 1±1 pptv (i-propylbenzene) to 43±36 pptv (toluene). The observed mixing ratios showed strong day-to-day variations and generally higher levels during the first half of the campaign. Mean diel profiles showed maxima at local midnight and late morning, and minima in the early morning and evening. Results from analysis using a simplified box model suggest that both the chemical sink (i.e. reaction with OH) and the variability of source strengths were the causes of the observed variations in hydrocarbon mixing ratios. The logarithms of hydrocarbon concentrations were negatively correlated with the OH concentrations integral over a day prior to the hydrocarbon measurements. Slopes of the regression lines derived from these correlations for different compounds are compared with literature rate constants for their reactions with OH. The slopes for most compounds agree reasonably well with the literature rate constants. A sequential reaction model has been applied to the interpretation of the relationship between ethylbenzene and two of its potential products, i.e. acetophenone and benzeneacetaldehyde. The model can explain the good correlation observed between [acetophenone]/[ethylbenzene] and [benzeneacetaldehyde]/[ethylbenzene]. The model results and field measurements suggest that the reactivity of benzeneacetaldehyde may lie between those of acetophenone and ethylbenzene and that the ratio between yields of acetophenone and benzeneacetaldehyde may be up to 28:1. Photochemical ages of trace gases sampled at Finokalia during the campaign are estimated using the sequential reaction model and related data

  2. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT CEREX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES UV HOUND POINT SAMPLE AIR MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Technology Testing and Evaluation Program (TTEP) is carrying out performance tests on homeland security technologies. Under TTEP, Battelle evaluated the performance of the Cerex UV Hound point sample air monitor in de...

  3. NEW APPLICATION OF PASSIVE SAMPLING DEVICES FOR ASSESSMENT OF RESPIRATORY EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has long maintained an interest in potential applications of passive sampling devices (PSDs) for estimating the concentrations of various pollutants in air. Typically PSDs were designed for the workplace monitoring of vola...

  4. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children’s ambient exposure to manganese

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to asse...

  5. The NYC native air sampling pilot project: using HVAC filter data for urban biological incident characterization.

    PubMed

    Ackelsberg, Joel; Leykam, Frederic M; Hazi, Yair; Madsen, Larry C; West, Todd H; Faltesek, Anthony; Henderson, Gavin D; Henderson, Christopher L; Leighton, Terrance

    2011-09-01

    Native air sampling (NAS) is distinguished from dedicated air sampling (DAS) devices (eg, BioWatch) that are deployed to detect aerosol disseminations of biological threat agents. NAS uses filter samples from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial properties for environmental sampling after DAS detection of biological threat agent incidents. It represents an untapped, scientifically sound, efficient, widely distributed, and comparably inexpensive resource for postevent environmental sampling. Calculations predict that postevent NAS would be more efficient than environmental surface sampling by orders of magnitude. HVAC filter samples could be collected from pre-identified surrounding NAS facilities to corroborate the DAS alarm and delineate the path taken by the bioaerosol plume. The New York City (NYC) Native Air Sampling Pilot Project explored whether native air sampling would be acceptable to private sector stakeholders and could be implemented successfully in NYC. Building trade associations facilitated outreach to and discussions with property owners and managers, who expedited contact with building managers of candidate NAS properties that they managed or owned. Nominal NAS building requirements were determined; procedures to identify and evaluate candidate NAS facilities were developed; data collection tools and other resources were designed and used to expedite candidate NAS building selection and evaluation in Manhattan; and exemplar environmental sampling playbooks for emergency responders were completed. In this sample, modern buildings with single or few corporate tenants were the best NAS candidate facilities. The Pilot Project successfully demonstrated that in one urban setting a native air sampling strategy could be implemented with effective public-private collaboration. PMID:21793731

  6. The NYC native air sampling pilot project: using HVAC filter data for urban biological incident characterization.

    PubMed

    Ackelsberg, Joel; Leykam, Frederic M; Hazi, Yair; Madsen, Larry C; West, Todd H; Faltesek, Anthony; Henderson, Gavin D; Henderson, Christopher L; Leighton, Terrance

    2011-09-01

    Native air sampling (NAS) is distinguished from dedicated air sampling (DAS) devices (eg, BioWatch) that are deployed to detect aerosol disseminations of biological threat agents. NAS uses filter samples from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial properties for environmental sampling after DAS detection of biological threat agent incidents. It represents an untapped, scientifically sound, efficient, widely distributed, and comparably inexpensive resource for postevent environmental sampling. Calculations predict that postevent NAS would be more efficient than environmental surface sampling by orders of magnitude. HVAC filter samples could be collected from pre-identified surrounding NAS facilities to corroborate the DAS alarm and delineate the path taken by the bioaerosol plume. The New York City (NYC) Native Air Sampling Pilot Project explored whether native air sampling would be acceptable to private sector stakeholders and could be implemented successfully in NYC. Building trade associations facilitated outreach to and discussions with property owners and managers, who expedited contact with building managers of candidate NAS properties that they managed or owned. Nominal NAS building requirements were determined; procedures to identify and evaluate candidate NAS facilities were developed; data collection tools and other resources were designed and used to expedite candidate NAS building selection and evaluation in Manhattan; and exemplar environmental sampling playbooks for emergency responders were completed. In this sample, modern buildings with single or few corporate tenants were the best NAS candidate facilities. The Pilot Project successfully demonstrated that in one urban setting a native air sampling strategy could be implemented with effective public-private collaboration.

  7. Aircraft observations of aerosol composition and ageing in New England and Mid-Atlantic States during the summer 2002 New England Air Quality Study field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Daum, Peter H.; Lee, Yin-Nan; Senum, Gunnar I.; Springston, Stephen R.; Wang, Jian; Berkowitz, Carl; Hubbe, John; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Brechtel, Fred J.; Jayne, John; Onasch, Timothy B.; Worsnop, Douglas

    2007-05-01

    Aerosol chemical composition, size distribution, and optical properties were measured during 17 aircraft flights in New England and Middle Atlantic States as part of the summer 2002 New England Air Quality Study field campaign. An Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) was operated with a measurement cycle of 30 s, about an order of magnitude faster than used for ground-based measurements. Noise levels within a single measurement period were sub μg m-3. Volume data derived from the AMS were compared with volume measurements from a Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer (PCASP) optical particle detector and a Twin Scanning Electrical Mobility Spectrometer (TSEMS); calculated light scattering was compared with measured values from an integrating nephelometer. The median ratio for AMS/TSEMS volume was 1.25 (1.33 with an estimated refractory component); the median ratio for AMS/nephelometer scattering was 1.18. A dependence of the AMS collection efficiency on aerosol acidity was quantified by a comparison between AMS and PCASP volumes in two high sulfate plumes. For the entire field campaign, the average aerosol concentration was 11 μg m-3. Compared with monitoring data from the IMPROVE network, the organic component made up a large fraction of total mass, varying from 70% in clean air to 40% in high concentration sulfate plumes. In combination with other optical and chemical measurements, the AMS gave information on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production and the time evolution of aerosol light absorption. CO is taken as a conservative tracer of urban emissions and the ratios of organic aerosol and aerosol light absorption to CO examined as a function of photochemical age. Comparisons were made to ratios determined from surface measurements under conditions of minimal atmospheric processing. In air masses in which the NOx to NOy ratio has decreased to 10%, the ratio of organic aerosol to CO has quadrupled indicating that 75% of the organic aerosol is secondary

  8. The Proposed Mars Astrobiology Explorer - Cacher [MAX-C] Rover: First Step in a Potential Sample Return Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Beaty, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Sample return from Mars has been advocated by numerous scientific advisory panels for over 30 years, most prominently beginning with the National Research Council s [1] strategy for the exploration of the inner solar system, and most recently by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG s) Next Decade Science Analysis Group [2]. Analysis of samples here on Earth would have enormous advantages over in situ analyses in producing the data quality needed to address many of the complex scientific questions the community has posed about Mars. Instead of a small, predetermined set of analytical techniques, state of the art preparative and instrumental resources of the entire scientific community could be applied to the samples. The analytical emphasis could shift as the meaning of each result becomes better appreciated. These arguments apply both to igneous rocks and to layered sedimentary materials, either of which could contain water and other volatile constituents. In 2009 MEPAG formed the Mid-Range Rover Science Analysis Group (MRR-SAG) to formulate a mission concept that would address two general objectives: (1) conduct high-priority in situ science and (2) make concrete steps towards the potential return of samples to Earth. This analysis resulted in a mission concept named the Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C), which was envisioned for launch in the 2018 opportunity. After extensive discussion, this group concluded that by far the most definitive contribution to sample return by this mission would be to collect and cache, in an accessible location, a suite of compelling samples that could potentially be recovered and returned by a subsequent mission. This would have the effect of separating two of the essential functions of MSR, the acquisition of the sample collection and its delivery to martian orbit, into two missions.

  9. Simulating secondary organic aerosol from missing diesel-related intermediate-volatility organic compound emissions during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ots, Riinu; Young, Dominique E.; Vieno, Massimo; Xu, Lu; Dunmore, Rachel E.; Allan, James D.; Coe, Hugh; Williams, Leah R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Ng, Nga L.; Hamilton, Jacqueline F.; Bergström, Robert; Di Marco, Chiara; Nemitz, Eiko; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Kuenen, Jeroen J. P.; Green, David C.; Reis, Stefan; Heal, Mathew R.

    2016-05-01

    We present high-resolution (5 km × 5 km) atmospheric chemical transport model (ACTM) simulations of the impact of newly estimated traffic-related emissions on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation over the UK for 2012. Our simulations include additional diesel-related intermediate-volatility organic compound (IVOC) emissions derived directly from comprehensive field measurements at an urban background site in London during the 2012 Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign. Our IVOC emissions are added proportionally to VOC emissions, as opposed to proportionally to primary organic aerosol (POA) as has been done by previous ACTM studies seeking to simulate the effects of these missing emissions. Modelled concentrations are evaluated against hourly and daily measurements of organic aerosol (OA) components derived from aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements also made during the ClearfLo campaign at three sites in the London area. According to the model simulations, diesel-related IVOCs can explain on average ˜ 30 % of the annual SOA in and around London. Furthermore, the 90th percentile of modelled daily SOA concentrations for the whole year is 3.8 µg m-3, constituting a notable addition to total particulate matter. More measurements of these precursors (currently not included in official emissions inventories) is recommended. During the period of concurrent measurements, SOA concentrations at the Detling rural background location east of London were greater than at the central London location. The model shows that this was caused by an intense pollution plume with a strong gradient of imported SOA passing over the rural location. This demonstrates the value of modelling for supporting the interpretation of measurements taken at different sites or for short durations.

  10. Model simulation of meteorology and air quality during the summer PUMA intensive measurement campaign in the UK West Midlands conurbation.

    PubMed

    Baggott, Sarah; Cai, Xiaoming; McGregor, Glenn; Harrison, Roy M

    2006-05-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and Urban Airshed Model (UAM IV) have been implemented for prediction of air pollutant concentrations within the West Midlands conurbation of the United Kingdom. The modelling results for wind speed, direction and temperature are in reasonable agreement with observations for two stations, one in a rural area and the other in an urban area. Predictions of surface temperature are generally good for both stations, but the results suggest that the quality of temperature prediction is sensitive to whether cloud cover is reproduced reliably by the model. Wind direction is captured very well by the model, while wind speed is generally overestimated. The air pollution climate of the UK West Midlands is very different to those for which the UAM model was primarily developed, and the methods used to overcome these limitations are described. The model shows a tendency towards under-prediction of primary pollutant (NOx and CO) concentrations, but with suitable attention to boundary conditions and vertical profiles gives fairly good predictions of ozone concentrations. Hourly updating of chemical concentration boundary conditions yields the best results, with input of vertical profiles desirable. The model seriously underpredicts NO2/NO ratios within the urban area and this appears to relate to inadequate production of peroxy radicals. Overall, the chemical reactivity predicted by the model appears to fall well below that occurring in the atmosphere.

  11. Model simulation of meteorology and air quality during the summer PUMA intensive measurement campaign in the UK West Midlands conurbation.

    PubMed

    Baggott, Sarah; Cai, Xiaoming; McGregor, Glenn; Harrison, Roy M

    2006-05-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and Urban Airshed Model (UAM IV) have been implemented for prediction of air pollutant concentrations within the West Midlands conurbation of the United Kingdom. The modelling results for wind speed, direction and temperature are in reasonable agreement with observations for two stations, one in a rural area and the other in an urban area. Predictions of surface temperature are generally good for both stations, but the results suggest that the quality of temperature prediction is sensitive to whether cloud cover is reproduced reliably by the model. Wind direction is captured very well by the model, while wind speed is generally overestimated. The air pollution climate of the UK West Midlands is very different to those for which the UAM model was primarily developed, and the methods used to overcome these limitations are described. The model shows a tendency towards under-prediction of primary pollutant (NOx and CO) concentrations, but with suitable attention to boundary conditions and vertical profiles gives fairly good predictions of ozone concentrations. Hourly updating of chemical concentration boundary conditions yields the best results, with input of vertical profiles desirable. The model seriously underpredicts NO2/NO ratios within the urban area and this appears to relate to inadequate production of peroxy radicals. Overall, the chemical reactivity predicted by the model appears to fall well below that occurring in the atmosphere. PMID:16266739

  12. Novel sample preparation technique with needle-type micro-extraction device for volatile organic compounds in indoor air samples.

    PubMed

    Ueta, Ikuo; Mizuguchi, Ayako; Fujimura, Koji; Kawakubo, Susumu; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2012-10-01

    A novel needle-type sample preparation device was developed for the effective preconcentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air before gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. To develop a device for extracting a wide range of VOCs typically found in indoor air, several types of particulate sorbents were tested as the extraction medium in the needle-type extraction device. To determine the content of these VOCs, air samples were collected for 30min with the packed sorbent(s) in the extraction needle, and the extracted VOCs were thermally desorbed in a GC injection port by the direct insertion of the needle. A double-bed sorbent consisting of a needle packed with divinylbenzene and activated carbon particles exhibited excellent extraction and desorption performance and adequate extraction capacity for all the investigated VOCs. The results also clearly demonstrated that the proposed sample preparation method is a more rapid, simpler extraction/desorption technique than traditional sample preparation methods. PMID:22975183

  13. Microbial counts and particulate matter levels in roadside air samples under skytrain stations, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Kongtip, Pornpimol

    2010-05-01

    In conditions with heavy traffic and crowds of people on roadside areas under skytrain stations in Bangkok, the natural air ventilation may be insufficient and air quality may be poor. A study of 350 air samples collected from the roadside, under skytrain stations in Bangkok, was carried out to assess microbial counts (210 air samples) and particulate matter (PM10) levels (140 samples). The results reveal the mean +/- standard deviation bacterial counts and fungal counts were 406.8 +/- 302.7 cfu/m3 and 128.9 +/- 89.7 cfu/m3, respectively. The PM10 level was 186.1 +/- 188.1 microg/m3. When compared to recommended levels, 4.8% of air samples (10/210 samples) had bacterial counts more than recommended levels (> 1,000 cfu/ m3) and 27.1% (38/140 samples) had PM10 levels more than recommended levels (> 120 microg/m3). These may affect human health, especially of street venders who spend most of their working time in these areas. PMID:20578558

  14. Microbial counts and particulate matter levels in roadside air samples under skytrain stations, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Kongtip, Pornpimol

    2010-05-01

    In conditions with heavy traffic and crowds of people on roadside areas under skytrain stations in Bangkok, the natural air ventilation may be insufficient and air quality may be poor. A study of 350 air samples collected from the roadside, under skytrain stations in Bangkok, was carried out to assess microbial counts (210 air samples) and particulate matter (PM10) levels (140 samples). The results reveal the mean +/- standard deviation bacterial counts and fungal counts were 406.8 +/- 302.7 cfu/m3 and 128.9 +/- 89.7 cfu/m3, respectively. The PM10 level was 186.1 +/- 188.1 microg/m3. When compared to recommended levels, 4.8% of air samples (10/210 samples) had bacterial counts more than recommended levels (> 1,000 cfu/ m3) and 27.1% (38/140 samples) had PM10 levels more than recommended levels (> 120 microg/m3). These may affect human health, especially of street venders who spend most of their working time in these areas.

  15. Joint air pollution sampling program in twin cities on the U.S.-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Dávila, G H

    1976-01-01

    Ciudad Juárez (Chihuahua) and El Paso (Texas), two cities on the U.S.-Mexico border, form a single environmental system in which the same natural resources, especially air and water, are shared. It also constitutes a single metropolitan area which is characterized by high rates of pipulation growth, economic development, and urban expansion, all these factors mitigating against air quality. Early in 1972 the health authorities in El Paso and Ciudad Juárez initiated a joint air pollution sampling program with assistance from the Pan American Health Organization. The nearby city of Las Cruces (New Mexico) was later included in the program as well. Activities are carried out in accordance with a document entitled "Bases of Cooperation." The guiding criteria of the program are: functional simplicity, operational economy, and complementarity with other sampling programs conducted by the participating services. An Air Pollution Control Subcommittee is responsible for execution coordination of the program. Three studies are currently underway to determine levels of dust pollution in the air. A fourth study is aimed at measuring sulfur dioxide levels through the use of sulfation plates. The results collected reveal concentrations of particulates in the ambient air levels higher than the U.S. Federal primary standards. The program should be expanded to include the study of other pollutants and a joint inventory of emissions. In this way criteria on air quality may be established and joint plans of action and strategies drawn up for the control of air pollution in this important area.

  16. Report on sampling and analysis of ambient air at the central waste complex

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, M., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    Over 160 ambient indoor air samples were collected from warehouses at the Central Waste Complex used for the storage of low- level radioactive and mixed wastes. These grab (SUMMA) samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a modified EPA TO-14 procedure. The data from this survey suggest that several buildings had elevated concentrations of volatile organic compounds.

  17. Marine Technician's Handbook, Instructions for Taking Air Samples on Board Ship: Carbon Dioxide Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Charles D.

    This booklet is one of a series intended to provide explicit instructions for the collection of oceanographic data and samples at sea. The methods and procedures described have been used by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and found reliable and up-to-date. Instructions are given for taking air samples on board ship to determine the…

  18. EVALUATION OF THE FILTER PACK FOR LONG-DURATION SAMPLING OF AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 14-week filter pack (FP) sampler evaluation field study was conducted at a site near Bondville, IL to investigate the impact of weekly sampling duration. Simultaneous samples were collected using collocated filter packs (FP) from two independent air quality monitoring networks...

  19. Development of a multicopter-carried whole air sampling apparatus and its applications in environmental studies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Jia-Lin; Chang, Chih-Yuan; Liang, Mao-Chang; Lin, Ming-Ren

    2016-02-01

    To advance the capabilities of probing chemical composition aloft, we designed a lightweight remote-controlled whole air sampling component (WASC) and integrated it into a multicopter drone with agile maneuverability to perform aerial whole air sampling. A field mission hovering over an exhaust shaft of a roadway tunnel to collect air samples was performed to demonstrate the applicability of the multicopter-carried WASC apparatus. Ten aerial air samples surrounding the shaft vent were collected by the multicopter-carried WASC. Additional five samples were collected manually inside the shaft for comparison. These samples were then analyzed in the laboratory for the chemical composition of 109 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CH4, CO, CO2, or CO2 isotopologues. Most of the VOCs in the upwind samples (the least affected by shaft exhaust) were low in concentrations (5.9 ppbv for total 109 VOCs), posting a strong contrast to those in the shaft exhaust (235.8 ppbv for total 109 VOCs). By comparing the aerial samples with the in-shaft samples for chemical compositions, the influence of the shaft exhaust on the surrounding natural air was estimated. Through the aerial measurements, three major advantages of the multicopter-carried WASC were demonstrated: 1. The highly maneuverable multicopter-carried WASC can be readily deployed for three-dimensional environmental studies at a local scale (0-1.5 km); 2. Aerial sampling with superior sample integrity and preservation conditions can now be performed with ease; and 3. Data with spatial resolution for a large array of gaseous species with high precision can be easily obtained. PMID:26386435

  20. Development of a multicopter-carried whole air sampling apparatus and its applications in environmental studies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Jia-Lin; Chang, Chih-Yuan; Liang, Mao-Chang; Lin, Ming-Ren

    2016-02-01

    To advance the capabilities of probing chemical composition aloft, we designed a lightweight remote-controlled whole air sampling component (WASC) and integrated it into a multicopter drone with agile maneuverability to perform aerial whole air sampling. A field mission hovering over an exhaust shaft of a roadway tunnel to collect air samples was performed to demonstrate the applicability of the multicopter-carried WASC apparatus. Ten aerial air samples surrounding the shaft vent were collected by the multicopter-carried WASC. Additional five samples were collected manually inside the shaft for comparison. These samples were then analyzed in the laboratory for the chemical composition of 109 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CH4, CO, CO2, or CO2 isotopologues. Most of the VOCs in the upwind samples (the least affected by shaft exhaust) were low in concentrations (5.9 ppbv for total 109 VOCs), posting a strong contrast to those in the shaft exhaust (235.8 ppbv for total 109 VOCs). By comparing the aerial samples with the in-shaft samples for chemical compositions, the influence of the shaft exhaust on the surrounding natural air was estimated. Through the aerial measurements, three major advantages of the multicopter-carried WASC were demonstrated: 1. The highly maneuverable multicopter-carried WASC can be readily deployed for three-dimensional environmental studies at a local scale (0-1.5 km); 2. Aerial sampling with superior sample integrity and preservation conditions can now be performed with ease; and 3. Data with spatial resolution for a large array of gaseous species with high precision can be easily obtained.

  1. Radiocarbon analysis of stratospheric CO2 retrieved from AirCore sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Dipayan; Chen, Huilin; Been, Henk A.; Kivi, Rigel; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2016-10-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) is an important atmospheric tracer and one of the many used in the understanding of the global carbon budget, which includes the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4. Measurement of radiocarbon in atmospheric CO2 generally requires the collection of large air samples (a few liters) from which CO2 is extracted and then the concentration of radiocarbon is determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). However, the regular collection of air samples from the stratosphere, for example using aircraft and balloons, is prohibitively expensive. Here we describe radiocarbon measurements in stratospheric CO2 collected by the AirCore sampling method. AirCore is an innovative atmospheric sampling system, which comprises a long tube descending from a high altitude with one end open and the other closed, and it has been demonstrated to be a reliable, cost-effective sampling system for high-altitude profile (up to ≈ 30 km) measurements of CH4 and CO2. In Europe, AirCore measurements have been being performed on a regular basis near Sodankylä (northern Finland) since September 2013. Here we describe the analysis of samples from two such AirCore flights made there in July 2014, for determining the radiocarbon concentration in stratospheric CO2. The two AirCore profiles were collected on consecutive days. The stratospheric part of the AirCore was divided into six sections, each containing ≈ 35 µg CO2 ( ≈ 9.6 µgC), and stored in a stratospheric air subsampler constructed from 1/4 in. coiled stainless steel tubing ( ≈ 3 m). A small-volume extraction system was constructed that enabled > 99.5 % CO2 extraction from the stratospheric air samples. Additionally, a new small-volume high-efficiency graphitization system was constructed for graphitization of these extracted CO2 samples, which were measured at the Groningen AMS facility. Since the stratospheric samples were very similar in mass, reference samples were also prepared in the same mass range for

  2. Survey of volatile organic compounds found in indoor and outdoor air samples from Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Matsushima, Erika; Sasaki, Akira; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Yagi, Masahiro; Tsuno, Masahiko; Arao, Masa; Ikemoto, Kazumi; Yamasaki, Makoto; Nakashima, Ayako; Shimizu, Yuri; Otsubo, Yasufumi; Ando, Masanori; Jinno, Hideto; Tokunaga, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Indoor air quality is currently a growing concern, mainly due to the incidence of sick building syndrome and building related illness. To better understand indoor air quality in Japan, both indoor and outdoor air samples were collected from 50 residences in Iwate, Yamanashi, Shiga, Hyogo, Kochi and Fukuoka Prefectures. More than 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method. The most abundant class of compounds present in the indoor air samples were identified (i.e. alkanes, alkylbenzenes and terpenes). For 30% of the indoor air samples, the sum of each VOC exceeded the current provisional guideline value for total VOC (TVOC, 400 microg/m3). The major component of these samples included linear and branched-chain alkanes (possibly derived from fossil fuels), 1,4-dichlorobenzene (a moth repellent), alpha-pinene (emission from woody building materials) and limonene (probably derived from aroma products). As an unexpected result, one residence was polluted with an extremely high concentration of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (720 microg/m3), suggesting accidental leakage from a household appliance such as a refrigerator. The results presented in this paper are important in establishing the Japanese target compound list for TVOC analysis, as well as defining the current status of indoor air quality in Japan.

  3. Determination of radiocarbon in stratospheric CO2, obtained through AirCore sampling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Dipayan; Chen, Huilin; Been, Henk A.; Kivi, Rigel; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2016-04-01

    The concentration of Greenhouse Gases (GHG), with carbon dioxide as the most prominent example, has been and still is increasing, predominantly due to emissions from fossil fuel combustion. CO2 is also the most important component of the global carbon cycle. Among other tracers, radiocarbon (Carbon-14) is a unique and an important atmospheric tracer used in the understanding of the global carbon cycle. Radiocarbon is a naturally occurring isotope (radioactive, t 1/2 = 5730 ± 40 years) of carbon produced through the interaction of thermalized neutrons and nitrogen in the upper atmosphere. Generally, for performing atmospheric radiocarbon measurements in the higher atmosphere, large samples (few liters of air) were collected using aircrafts and balloons. However, collecting stratospheric samples on a regular basis for radiocarbon analysis is extremely expensive. Here we describe the determination of radiocarbon concentrations in stratospheric CO2, collected using AirCore sampling. AirCore is an innovative sampling technique for obtaining vertical atmospheric profiles and, in Europe, is done on a regular basis at Sodankylä, Finland for CO2, CH4 and CO. The stratospheric parts of two such AirCore profiles were used in this study as a proof-of-principle. CO2 from the stratospheric air samples were extracted and converted to elemental carbon, which were then measured at the Accelerator Mass Spectrometric (AMS) facility of the Centre for Isotope Research (CIO) at the University of Groningen. The stratospheric part of the AirCore profile was divided into six sections, each contained approximately 10 μg C. A detailed description of the extraction, graphitization, AMS analysis and the derivation of the stratospheric radiocarbon profile will be the main focus. Through our results, we will show that AirCore is a viable sampling method for performing high-precision radiocarbon measurements of stratospheric CO2 with reasonably good spatial resolution on a regular basis

  4. Comparison of mold concentrations quantified by MSQPCR in indoor and outdoor air sampled simultaneously

    SciTech Connect

    Meklin, Teija; Reponen, Tina; McKinstry, Craig A.; Cho, Seung H.; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Nevalainen, Aino; Vepsalainen, Asko; Haugland, Richard A.; Lemasters, Grace; Vesper, Sephen J.

    2007-08-15

    Mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) was used to measure the concentrations of 36 mold species in dust and in indoor and in outdoor air samples that were taken simultaneously in 17 homes in Cincinnati with no-known water damage. The total spore concentrations in the indoor (I) and outdoor (O) air samples were statistically significantly different and the concentrations in the three sample types of many of the individual species were significantly different (p < 0.05 based on the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test). The I/O ratios of the averages or geometric means of the individual species were generally less than 1; but these I/O ratios were quite variable ranging from 0.03 for A. sydowii to 1.2 for Acremonium strictum. There were no significant correlations for the 36 specific mold concentrations between the dust samples and the indoor or outdoor air samples (based on the Spearman’s Rho test). The indoor and outdoor air concentrations of 32 of the species were not correlated. Only Aspergillus penicillioides, C. cladosporioides types 1 and 2 and C. herbarum had sufficient data to estimate a correlation at rho > 0.5 with signicance (p < 0.05) In six of these homes, a previous dust sample had been collected and analyzed 2 years earlier. The ERMI© values for the dust samples taken in the same home two years apart were not significantly different (p=0.22) based on Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test.

  5. Air Sample Conditioner Helps the Waste Treatment Plant Meet Emissions Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Pekour, Mikhail S.

    2014-12-02

    The air in three of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melter off-gas discharge stacks will be hot and humid after passing through the train of emission abatement equipment. The off-gas temperature and humidity levels will be incompatible with the airborne emissions monitoring equipment required for this type of stack. To facilitate sampling from these facilities, an air sample conditioner system will be installed to introduce cool, dry air into the sample stream to reduce the temperature and dew point. This will avoid thermal damage to the instrumentation and problematic condensation. The complete sample transport system must also deliver at least 50% of the particles in the sample airstream to the sample collection and on-line analysis equipment. The primary components of the sample conditioning system were tested in a laboratory setting. The sample conditioner itself is based on a commercially-available porous tube filter design. It consists of a porous sintered metal tube inside a coaxial metal jacket. The hot gas sample stream passes axially through the porous tube, and the dry, cool air is injected into the jacket and through the porous wall of the inner tube, creating an effective sample diluter. The dilution and sample air mix along the entire length of the porous tube, thereby simultaneously reducing the dew point and temperature of the mixed sample stream. Furthermore, because the dilution air enters through the porous tube wall, the sample stream does not come in contact with the porous wall and particle deposition is reduced in this part of the sampling system. Tests were performed with an environmental chamber to supply air with the temperature and humidity needed to simulate the off-gas conditions. Air from the chamber was passed through the conditioning system to test its ability to reduce the temperature and dew point of the sample stream. To measure particle deposition, oil droplets in the range of 9 to 11 micrometer

  6. Comparison of sampling methods for radiocarbon dating of carbonyls in air samples via accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Matthias; Kretschmer, Wolfgang; Scharf, Andreas; Tschekalinskij, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Three new methods to sample and prepare various carbonyl compounds for radiocarbon measurements were developed and tested. Two of these procedures utilized the Strecker synthetic method to form amino acids from carbonyl compounds with either sodium cyanide or trimethylsilyl cyanide. The third procedure used semicarbazide to form crystalline carbazones with the carbonyl compounds. The resulting amino acids and semicarbazones were then separated and purified using thin layer chromatography. The separated compounds were then combusted to CO2 and reduced to graphite to determine 14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). All of these methods were also compared with the standard carbonyl compound sampling method wherein a compound is derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and then separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  7. Merger campaign.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Through using the Web, TV, radio, and print advertisements, The Hospital of Central Connecticut announced in October 2006 its new name and the merger of two hospitals: New Britain General Hospital and Bradley Memorial Hospital. A campaign consisting of TV and radio ads was created to promote the merger. The ads are also featured on the hospital's Web site. PMID:17450950

  8. Air sampling for hepatitis B surface antigen in a dental operatory.

    PubMed

    Petersen, N J; Bond, W W; Favero, M S

    1979-09-01

    Forty samples of air with a mean sample volume of 104 liters were collected during the treatment of patients whose blood was positive for HBsAG: no samples contained HBsAG and occult blood. These findings suggest that, if environmentally mediated transmission of hepatitis B occurs in the dental operatory, it is more likely to occur through contact with contaminated surfaces than through the airborne route.

  9. Composition and major sources of organic compounds of aerosol particulate matter sampled during the ACE-Asia campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneit, Bernd R. T.; Kobayashi, Minoru; Mochida, Michihiro; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Lee, Meehye; Lim, Ho-Jin; Turpin, Barbara J.; Komazaki, Yuichi

    2004-10-01

    The organic compound tracers of atmospheric particulate matter, as well as organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), have been characterized for samples acquired during the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) from Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea, from Sapporo, Japan, and from Chichi-jima Island in the western North Pacific, as well as on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration R/V Ronald H. Brown. Total extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine both polar and aliphatic compounds. Total particles, organic matter, and lipid and saccharide compounds were high during the Asian dust episode (early April 2001) compared to levels at other times. The organic matter can be apportioned to seven emission sources and to significant oxidation-producing secondary products during long-range transport. Terrestrial natural background compounds are vascular plant wax lipids derived from direct emission and as part of desert sand dust. Fossil fuel utilization is obvious and derives from petroleum product and coal combustion emissions. Saccharides are a major polar (water-soluble) carbonaceous fraction derived from soil resuspension (agricultural activities). Biomass-burning smoke is evident in all samples and seasons. It contributes up to 13% of the total compound mass as water-soluble constituents. Burning of refuse is another source of organic particles. Varying levels of marine-derived lipids are superimposed during aerosol transport over the ocean. Secondary oxidation products increase with increasing transport distance and time. The ACE-Asia aerosols are composed not only of desert dust but also of soil dust, smoke from biomass and refuse burning, and emissions from fossil fuel use in urban areas.

  10. Problems Found Using a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective Assessment of Air Filter Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hayes

    2008-04-01

    An evaluation of a large number of air sample filters was undertaken using a commercial alpha and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. Samples were only measured after air flow through the filters had ceased. Use of a commercial radon stripping algorithm was implemented to discriminate anthropogenic alpha activity on the filters from the radon progeny. When uncontaminated air filters were evaluated, the results showed that there was a time-dependent bias in both average estimates and measurement dispersion of anthropogenic activity estimates with the relative bias being small compared to the dispersion, indicating that the system would not give false positive indications for an appropriately set decision level. By also measuring environmental air sample filters simultaneously with electroplated alpha filters, use of the radon stripping algorithm demonstrated a number of substantial unexpected deviations from calibrated values indicating that the system would give false negative indications. Use of the current algorithm is, therefore, not recommended for general assay applications. Use of the PIPS detector should only be utilized for gross counting without appropriate modifications to the curve-fitting algorithm. As a screening method, the radon stripping algorithm might be expected to see elevated alpha activities on air sample filters (not due to radon progeny) around the 200 disintegrations per minute level.

  11. Use of a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective Assessment of Air Filter Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hayes

    2009-01-23

    An evaluation of a large number of air sample filters was undertaken using a commercial alpha and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. Samples were only measured after air flow through the filters had ceased. Use of a commercial radon stripping algorithm was implemented to discriminate anthropogenic alpha and beta activity on the filters from the radon progeny. When uncontaminated air filters were evaluated, the results showed that there was a time-dependent bias in both average estimates and measurement dispersion with the relative bias being small compared to the dispersion. By also measuring environmental air sample filters simultaneously with electroplated alpha and beta sources, use of the radon stripping algorithm demonstrated a number of substantial unexpected deviations. Use of the current algorithm is therefore not recommended for assay applications and so use of the PIPS detector should only be utilized for gross counting without appropriate modifications to the curve fitting algorithm. As a screening method, the radon stripping algorithm might be expected to see elevated alpha and beta activities on air sample filters (not due to radon progeny) around the 200 dpm level.

  12. Use of Whatman-41 filters in air quality sampling networks (with applications to elemental analysis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.; King, R. B.; Fordyce, J. S.; Burr, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    The operation of a 16-site parallel high volume air sampling network with glass fiber filters on one unit and Whatman-41 filters on the other is reported. The network data and data from several other experiments indicate that (1) Sampler-to-sampler and filter-to-filter variabilities are small; (2) hygroscopic affinity of Whatman-41 filters need not introduce errors; and (3) suspended particulate samples from glass fiber filters averaged slightly, but not statistically significantly, higher than from Whatman-41-filters. The results obtained demonstrate the practicability of Whatman-41 filters for air quality monitoring and elemental analysis.

  13. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae by Air Sampling with a Nested PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Stärk, Katharina D. C.; Nicolet, Jacques; Frey, Joachim

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the first successful detection of airborne Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae under experimental and field conditions with a new nested PCR assay. Air was sampled with polyethersulfone membranes (pore size, 0.2 μm) mounted in filter holders. Filters were processed by dissolution and direct extraction of DNA for PCR analysis. For the PCR, two nested pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed by using an M. hyopneumoniae-specific DNA sequence of a repeated gene segment. A nested PCR assay was developed and used to analyze samples collected in eight pig houses where respiratory problems had been common. Air was also sampled from a mycoplasma-free herd. The nested PCR was highly specific and 104 times as sensitive as a one-step PCR. Under field conditions, the sampling system was able to detect airborne M. hyopneumoniae on 80% of farms where acute respiratory disease was present. No airborne M. hyopneumoniae was detected on infected farms without acute cases. The chance of successful detection was increased if air was sampled at several locations within a room and at a lower air humidity. PMID:9464391

  14. Air-sampling inlet contamination by aircraft emissions on the NASA CV-990 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, E. P.; Vedder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation of the contamination of air sampling inlets by aircraft emissions from the NASA CV-990 research aircraft are presented. This four-engine jet aircraft is a NASA facility used for many different atmospheric and meteorological experiments, as well as for developing spacecraft instrumentation for remote measurements. Our investigations were performed to provide information on which to base the selection of sampling locations for a series of multi-instrument missions for measuring tropospheric trace gases. The major source of contamination is the exhaust from the jet engines, which generate many of the same gases that are of interest in atmospheric chemistry, as well as other gases that may interfere with sampling measurements. The engine exhaust contains these gases in mixing ratios many orders of magnitude greater than those that occur in the clean atmosphere which the missions seek to quantify. Pressurized samples of air were collected simultaneously from a scoop located forward of the engines to represent clean air and from other multiport scoops at various aft positions on the aircraft. The air samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for carbon monoxide, an abundant combustion by-product. Data are presented for various scoop locations under various flight conditions.

  15. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L.

    1996-02-01

    A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS{reg_sign}) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Profiles developed for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills.

  16. Evidence for microorganisms in stratosphere air samples collected at a height of 41km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Milton; Wickramasinghe, Nalin C.; Narlikar, J. V.; Rajaratnam, P.

    2003-02-01

    Samples of air removed from the stratosphere, at an altitude of 41km, were previously found to contain viable, but non-cultureable bacteria (cocci and rods). Here, we describe experiments aimed at growing these organisms, together with any others, present in the samples. Two bacteria (Bacillus simplex and Staphylococcus pasteuri) and a single fungus, Engyodontium albus (limber)de Hoog were isolated from the samples. Contamination can never be ruled out when space-derived samples are studied on earth, however, we are confident that the organisms isolated here originated from the stratosphere.

  17. Professional judgment and the interpretation of viable mold air sampling data.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David; Thompson, David; Clinkenbeard, Rodney; Redus, Jason

    2008-10-01

    Although mold air sampling is technically straightforward, interpreting the results to decide if there is an indoor source is not. Applying formal statistical tests to mold sampling data is an error-prone practice due to the extreme data variability. With neither established exposure limits nor useful statistical techniques, indoor air quality investigators often must rely on their professional judgment, but the lack of a consensus "decision strategy" incorporating explicit decision criteria requires professionals to establish their own personal set of criteria when interpreting air sampling data. This study examined the level of agreement among indoor air quality practitioners in their evaluation of airborne mold sampling data and explored differences in inter-evaluator assessments. Eighteen investigators independently judged 30 sets of viable mold air sampling results to indicate: "definite indoor mold source," "likely indoor mold source," "not enough information to decide," "likely no indoor mold source," or "definitely no indoor mold source." Kappa coefficient analysis indicated weak inter-observer reliability, and comparison of evaluator mean scores showed clear inter-evaluator differences in their overall scoring patterns. The responses were modeled on indicator "traits" of the data sets using a generalized, linear mixed model approach and showed several traits to be associated with respondents' ratings, but they also demonstrated distinct and divergent inter-evaluator response patterns. Conclusions were that there was only weak overall agreement in evaluation of the mold sampling data, that particular traits of the data were associated with the conclusions reached, and that there were substantial inter-evaluator differences that were likely due to differences in the personal decision criteria employed by the individual evaluators. The overall conclusion was that there is a need for additional work to rigorously explore the constellation of decision criteria

  18. Detection of virulent Rhodococcus equi in exhaled air samples from naturally infected foals.

    PubMed

    Muscatello, G; Gilkerson, J R; Browning, G F

    2009-03-01

    Virulent Rhodococcus equi causes pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia in foals. The route of infection of foals has been considered to be inhalation of aerosolized bacteria from soil that is contaminated with equine feces. Thus, disease caused by R. equi has been regarded as an opportunistic infection of environmental origin and not a contagious disease. In this study, we report the exhalation of virulent R. equi from the respiratory tract of naturally infected foals. A handheld air-monitoring system was used to recover virulent R. equi from the exhaled breath of foals, and the concentration of virulent R. equi organisms in exhaled air was compared to the concentration in environmental air samples taken from the holding pens and lane areas on farms. R. equi strains carrying the vapA gene of the virulence plasmid were detected by using colony blotting and DNA hybridization techniques in cultures of exhaled air from 67% (37/55) of foals tested. The concentration of virulent R. equi organisms in exhaled air from foals was significantly higher than that in environmental air (P<0.001). There were no significant differences in the median concentrations of virulent R. equi bacteria exhaled by clinically healthy or diseased foals. The high concentrations of virulent R. equi bacteria in exhaled air suggested that aerosol transmission between foals is possible and may have a significant impact on the prevalence of R. equi pneumonia on farms. The air sampling technique described is potentially useful as a noninvasive method for the detection and quantification of virulent R. equi in the respiratory tract of foals.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING USING LOCATION SPECIFIC AIR MONITORING IN BULK HANDLING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, L.; Hanks, D.; Degange, J.; Brant, H.; Hall, G.; Cable-Dunlap, P.; Anderson, B.

    2011-06-07

    Since the introduction of safeguards strengthening measures approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors (1992-1997), international nuclear safeguards inspectors have been able to utilize environmental sampling (ES) (e.g. deposited particulates, air, water, vegetation, sediments, soil and biota) in their safeguarding approaches at bulk uranium/plutonium handling facilities. Enhancements of environmental sampling techniques used by the IAEA in drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear materials or activities will soon be able to take advantage of a recent step change improvement in the gathering and analysis of air samples at these facilities. Location specific air monitoring feasibility tests have been performed with excellent results in determining attribute and isotopic composition of chemical elements present in an actual test-bed sample. Isotopic analysis of collected particles from an Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) collection, was performed with the standard bulk sampling protocol used throughout the IAEA network of analytical laboratories (NWAL). The results yielded bulk isotopic values expected for the operations. Advanced designs of air monitoring instruments such as the ACE may be used in gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEP) to detect the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) or enrichments not declared by a State. Researchers at Savannah River National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing the next generation of ES equipment for air grab and constant samples that could become an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. Location specific air monitoring to be used to establish a baseline environmental signature of a particular facility employed for comparison of consistencies in declared operations will be described in this paper. Implementation of air monitoring will be contrasted against the use of smear ES

  20. Development and calibration of real-time PCR for quantification of airborne microorganisms in air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hey Reoun; Mainelis, Gediminas; White, Lori

    This manuscript describes the coupling of bioaerosol collection and the use of real-time PCR (RT-PCR) to quantify the airborne bacteria. The quantity of collected bacteria determined by RT-PCR is compared with conventional quantification techniques, such as culturing, microscopy and airborne microorganism counting by using optical particle counter (OPC). Our data show that an experimental approach used to develop standard curves for use with RT-PCR is critical for accurate sample quantification. Using universal primers we generated 12 different standard curves which were used to quantify model organism Escherichia coli (Migula) Catellani from air samples. Standard curves prepared using a traditional approach, where serially diluted genomic DNA extracted from pure cultured bacteria were used in PCR reaction as a template DNA yielded significant underestimation of sample quantities compared to airborne microorganism concentration as measured by an OPC. The underestimation was especially pronounced when standard curves were built using colony forming units (CFUs). In contrast, the estimate of cell concentration in an air sample by RT-PCR was more accurate (˜60% compared to the airborne microorganism concentration) when the standard curve was built using aerosolized E. coli. The accuracy improved even further (˜100%) when air samples used to build the standard curves were diluted first, then the DNA extracted from each dilution was amplified by the RT-PCR—to mimic the handling of air samples with unknown and possibly low concentration. Therefore, our data show that standard curves used for quantification by RT-PCR needs to be prepared using the same environmental matrix and procedures as handling of the environmental sample in question. Reliance on the standard curves generated with cultured bacterial suspension (a traditional approach) may lead to substantial underestimation of microorganism quantities in environmental samples.

  1. Permeation of atmospheric gases through polymer O-rings used in flasks for air sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, P.; Leuenberger, M.; Sirignano, C.; Neubert, R. E. M.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Langenfelds, R.; Brand, W. A.; Tohjima, Y.

    2004-02-01

    Permeation of various gases through elastomeric O-ring seals can have important effects on the integrity of atmospheric air samples collected in flasks and measured some time later. Depending on the materials and geometry of flasks and valves and on partial pressure differences between sample and surrounding air, the concentrations of different components of air can be significantly altered during storage. The influence of permeation is discussed for O2/N2, Ar/N2, CO2, δ13C in CO2, and water vapor. Results of sample storage tests for various flask and valve types and different storage conditions are presented and are compared with theoretical calculations. Effects of permeation can be reduced by maintaining short storage times and small partial pressure differences and by using a new valve design that buffers exchange of gases with surrounding air or by using less permeable materials (such as Kel-F) as sealing material. General awareness of possible permeation effects helps to achieve more reliable measurements of atmospheric composition with flask sampling techniques.

  2. Air and smear sample calculational tool for Fluor Hanford Radiological control

    SciTech Connect

    BAUMANN, B.L.

    2003-09-24

    A spreadsheet calculation tool was developed to automate the calculations performed for determining the concentration of airborne radioactivity and smear counting as outlined in HNF-13536, Section 5.2.7, Analyzing Air and smear Samples. This document reports on the design and testing of the calculation tool.

  3. COMPARISON OF FAST GC/TOFMS WITH METHOD TO-14 FOR ANALYSIS OF AMBIENT AIR SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies using portable gas chromatographs (PGC) to analyze volatile organic compounds in ambient air usually include, as reference standard method, the analysis of concurrent, collocated canister samples by EPA Method TO-14. Each laboratory analysis takes about an hour a...

  4. Development of a wireless air pollution sensor package for aerial-sampling of emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new sensor system for mobile and aerial emission sampling was developed for open area pollutant sources, such as prescribed forest burns. The sensor system, termed “Kolibri”, consists of multiple low-cost air quality sensors measuring CO2, CO, samplers for particulate matter wi...

  5. Modeling and Qualification of a Modified Emission Unit for Radioactive Air Emissions Stack Sampling Compliance.

    PubMed

    Barnett, J Matthew; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Recknagle, Kurtis P; Glissmeyer, John A

    2016-11-01

    A planned laboratory space and exhaust system modification to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Material Science and Technology Building indicated that a new evaluation of the mixing at the air sampling system location would be required for compliance to ANSI/HPS N13.1-2011. The modified exhaust system would add a third fan, thereby increasing the overall exhaust rate out the stack, thus voiding the previous mixing study. Prior to modifying the radioactive air emissions exhaust system, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics computer model was used to evaluate the mixing at the sampling system location. Modeling of the original three-fan system indicated that not all mixing criteria could be met. A second modeling effort was conducted with the addition of an air blender downstream of the confluence of the three fans, which then showed satisfactory mixing results. The final installation included an air blender, and the exhaust system underwent full-scale tests to verify velocity, cyclonic flow, gas, and particulate uniformity. The modeling results and those of the full-scale tests show agreement between each of the evaluated criteria. The use of a computational fluid dynamics code was an effective aid in the design process and allowed the sampling system to remain in its original location while still meeting the requirements for sampling at a well mixed location. PMID:27682902

  6. COMPARISON OF MOLD CONCENTRATIONS IN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR SAMPLED SIMULTANEOUSLY AND THEN QUANTIFIED BY MSQPCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) was used to measure the concentrations of the 36 mold species in indoor and outdoor air samples that were taken simultaneously for 48 hours in and around 17 homes in Cincinnati, Ohio. The total spore concentrations of 353 per m3...

  7. Analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in concurrently sampled Chinese air and surface soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi; Liu, Liyan; Li, Yi-Fan; Wang, Degao; Jia, Hongliang; Harner, Tom; Sverko, Ed; Wan, Xinnan; Xu, Diandou; Ren, Nanqi; Ma, Jianmin; Pozo, Karla

    2008-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in a concurrent air and surface soil sampling program across China. Passive air samples were collected for approximately 3 months from mid-July to mid-October, 2005 using polyurethane foam (PUF) disk type samplers at 97 sites and surface soil samples were collected in a subset of 51 sites in the same year. As expected, the air concentrations (pg m(-3)) were highest at urban sites (mean of 350 +/- 218) followed by rural (230 +/- 180) and background sites (77 +/- 50). The PCB homologue composition was similar across China, with no distinction among site types, and reflected the profile of Chinese transformer oil with a greater proportion of lower molecular weight (LMW) congeners, particularly the tri-PCBs. This differs from the profile in Chinese soil that was shifted toward the higher molecular weight (HMW) congeners and likely attributed to numerous years of deposition and accumulation in this reservoir. The PCB profile in surface soil also reflects an "urban fractionation effect" with preferential deposition of HMW congeners near sources. The profile of PCBs in Chinese air was shown to be different than reported for Europe and for the Great Lakes Area (GLA) in North America. European and GLA air samples show a distinction between urban and rural/V background sites, with urban sites dominated by tetra- and penta-PCBs, whereas rural and background sites are shifted toward LMW congeners. European and GLA samples also exhibit much higher PCB concentrations at urban sites. This may be attributed to the use of PCBs in building materials in European and North American cities. In China, the difference between urban and rural/background sites is less pronounced. Strong soil-air correlations were found for the LMW PCBs at the background and rural sites, and for the HMW PCBs at the urban sites, a strong evidence of the urban fractionation effect. To our knowledge, this is the first national-scale study in China

  8. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants.

  9. High-throughput liquid-absorption air-sampling apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, Solomon

    2000-01-01

    A portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler [PHTLAAS] has an asymmetric air inlet through which air is drawn upward by a small and light-weight centrifugal fan driven by a direct current motor that can be powered by a battery. The air inlet is so configured as to impart both rotational and downward components of motion to the sampled air near said inlet. The PHTLAAS comprises a glass tube of relatively small size through which air passes at a high rate in a swirling, highly turbulent motion, which facilitates rapid transfer of vapors and particulates to a liquid film covering the inner walls of the tube. The pressure drop through the glass tube is <10 cm of water, usually <5 cm of water. The sampler's collection efficiency is usually >20% for vapors or airborne particulates in the 2-3.mu. range and >50% for particles larger than 4.mu.. In conjunction with various analyzers, the PHTLAAS can serve to monitor a variety of hazardous or illicit airborne substances, such as lead-containing particulates, tritiated water vapor, biological aerosols, or traces of concealed drugs or explosives.

  10. Chemical reactivities of ambient air samples in three Southern California communities

    PubMed Central

    Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantza; Di Stefano, Emma; Schmitz, Debra A.; Guarieiro, Aline Lefol Nani; Salinas, Erika M.; Nasser, Elina; Froines, John R.; Cho, Arthur K.

    2015-01-01

    The potential adverse health effects of PM2.5 and vapor samples from three communities that neighbor railyards, Commerce (CM), Long Beach (LB), and San Bernardino (SB), were assessed by determination of chemical reactivities attributed to the induction of oxidative stress by air pollutants. The assays used were dithiothreitol (DTT) and dihydrobenzoic acid (DHBA) based procedures for prooxidant content and a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) assay for electrophiles. Prooxidants and electrophiles have been proposed as the reactive chemical species responsible for the induction of oxidative stress by air pollution mixtures. The PM2.5 samples from CM and LB sites showed seasonal differences in reactivities with higher levels in the winter whereas the SB sample differences were reversed. The reactivities in the vapor samples were all very similar, except for the summer SB samples, which contained higher levels of both prooxidants and electrophiles. The results suggest the observed reactivities reflect general geographical differences rather than direct effects of the railyards. Distributional differences in reactivities were also observed with PM2.5 fractions containing most of the prooxidants (74–81%) and the vapor phase most of the electrophiles (82–96%). The high levels of the vapor phase electrophiles and their potential for adverse biological effects point out the importance of the vapor phase in assessing the potential health effects of ambient air. PMID:25947123

  11. Whole Air Sampling During NASA's March-April 1999 Pacific Exploratory Expedition (PEM-Tropics B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Donald R.

    2001-01-01

    University of California, Irvine (UCI) collected more than 4500 samples whole air samples collected over the remote Pacific Ocean during NASA's Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) Pacific Exploratory Mission-Tropics B (PEM-Tropics B) in March and early April 1999. Approximately 140 samples during a typical 8-hour DC-8 flight, and 120 canisters for each 8-hour flight aboard the P-3B. These samples were obtained roughly every 3-7 min during horizontal flight legs and 1-3 min during vertical legs. The filled canisters were analyzed in the laboratory at UCI within ten days of collection. The mixing ratios of 58 trace gases comprising hydrocarbons, halocarbons, alkyl nitrates and DMS were reported (and archived) for each sample. Two identical analytical systems sharing the same standards were operated simultaneously around the clock to improve canister turn-around time and to keep our measurement precision optimal. This report presents a summary of the results for sample collected.

  12. Semiautomatic nondispersive infrared analyzer apparatus for CO/sub 2/ air sample analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Komhyr, W.D.; Waterman, L.S.; Taylor, W.R.

    1983-02-20

    A semiautomatic nondispersive infrared analyzer apparatus has been developed for analysis of up to 50 CO/sub 2/ air samples per day. The samples are collected in 500-ml glass flasks and are transferred to the analyzer with a novel, free-floating piston pump. Sample and calibration gas transfer operations are controlled by a microprocessor, and data are recorded, analyzed, and output by a Hewlett-Packard 9845A/S desktop computer. The apparatus is described, including operating and test modes, and performance characteristics determined from 2 years of operation are given. 7 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  13. Report on sampling and analysis of exhaust air at the 221-T and 2706-T buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, M.

    1997-09-22

    This report presents analytical results from exhaust air samples collected at stacks 221-T and 2706-T of the T-Plant. The samples were collected with SUMMA canisters over a 24 hour interval and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a modified EPA TO-14 procedure. The data suggest that the buildings had generally low concentrations of volatile organic compounds (< 40 ppbv). However, samples from building 2706-T did have significant amounts of non-target higher-boiling hydrocarbons, probably from a petroleum destination fraction.

  14. Volatile organic components of air samples collected from Vertical Launch Missile capsules. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Tappan, D.V.; Knight, D.R.; Heyder, E.; Weathersby, P.K.

    1988-09-27

    Gas chromatographic/mass spectroscopic analyses are presented for the volatile organic components found in air samples collected from the inboard vents from Vertical Launch System (VLS) missile capsules aboard a 688 class submarine. Similar analyses were also conducted for a sample of the ship's high pressure air used to fill the missile tubes. A wide variety of organics was detected in the air from the missile capsules; and while no unique components have yet been identified, a significant contribution has been shown to be made by pressure-ventilation of the VLS capsules into the submarine atmosphere which is already heavily laden with volatile organic compounds. The most apparent conclusion from these preliminary analyses is that the mixtures of organic components in the air within VLS missile capsules vary greatly from capsule to capsule (and probably from time to time). Many such samples need to be investigated to provide sufficient information to judge the seriousness of the possibility of venting toxic components into the submarine atmosphere during the maintenance or firing of VLS missiles.

  15. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  16. Diffusive sampling and measurement of microbial volatile organic compounds in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Araki, A; Eitaki, Y; Kawai, T; Kanazawa, A; Takeda, M; Kishi, R

    2009-10-01

    Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC), chemicals emitted from various microorganisms, in indoor air have been of concern in recent years. For large field studies, diffusive samplers are widely used to measure indoor environments. Since the sampling rate of a sampler is a fundamental parameter to calculate concentration, the sampling rates of eight MVOC with diffusive samplers were determined experimentally using a newly developed water-bubbling method: air was supplied to the MVOC-solutions and the vapor collected in an exposure bag, where diffusive and active samplers were placed in parallel for comparison. Correlations between the diffusive and active samplings gave good linear regressions. The sampling rates were 30-35 ml/min and the detection limits were 0.044-0.178 microg/m(3), as determined by GC/MS analysis. Application of the sampling rates in indoor air was validated by parallel sampling of the diffusive and active sampling method. 5% Propan-2-ol/CS(2) was the best solvent to desorb the compounds from absorbents. The procedure was applied to a field study in 41 dwellings. The most frequently detected compounds were hexan-2-one and heptan-2-one, with 97.5% detection rates and geometric mean values of 0.470 and 0.302 microg/m(3), respectively. This study shows that diffusive samplers are applicable to measure indoor MVOC levels. Practical Implications At present, there are still limited reports on indoor Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds (MVOC) levels in general dwellings and occupants' health. Compared with active sampling methods, air sampling using a diffusive sampler is particularly advantageous for use in large field studies due to its smallness, light-size, easy-handling, and cost-effectiveness. In this study, sampling rates of selected MVOC of the diffusive sampler were determined using the water-bubbling method: generating gases by water-bubbling and exposing the diffusive and active samplers at the same time. The obtained sampling rates

  17. Monitoring airborne fungal spores in an experimental indoor environment to evaluate sampling methods and the effects of human activity on air sampling.

    PubMed Central

    Buttner, M P; Stetzenbach, L D

    1993-01-01

    Aerobiological monitoring was conducted in an experimental room to aid in the development of standardized sampling protocols for airborne microorganisms in the indoor environment. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the relative efficiencies of selected sampling methods for the retrieval of airborne fungal spores and to determine the effect of human activity on air sampling. Dry aerosols containing known concentrations of Penicillium chrysogenum spores were generated, and air samples were taken by using Andersen six-stage, Surface Air System, Burkard, and depositional samplers. The Andersen and Burkard samplers retrieved the highest numbers of spores compared with the measurement standard, an aerodynamic particle sizer located inside the room. Data from paired samplers demonstrated that the Andersen sampler had the highest levels of sensitivity and repeatability. With a carpet as the source of P. chrysogenum spores, the effects of human activity (walking or vacuuming near the sampling site) on air sampling were also examined. Air samples were taken under undisturbed conditions and after human activity in the room. Human activity resulted in retrieval of significantly higher concentrations of airborne spores. Surface sampling of the carpet revealed moderate to heavy contamination despite relatively low airborne counts. Therefore, in certain situations, air sampling without concomitant surface sampling may not adequately reflect the level of microbial contamination in indoor environments. PMID:8439150

  18. Performances and application of a passive sampling method for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Plaisance, H; Sagnier, I; Saison, J Y; Galloo, J C; Guillermo, R

    2002-11-01

    The performances and applicability of a diffusion tube sampler for the simultaneous measurements of NO2 and SO2 in ambient air were evaluated. SO2 and NO2 are collected by the passive sampler using triethanolamine as trapping agent and are determined as sulphate and nitrite with ion chromatography. The detection limit (2.3 microg m(-3) of NO2 and 4.2 microg m(-3) of SO2 for two weeks sampling) is adequate for the determination of concentrations in urban and industrial areas. Precision of the method as RSD is in mean 5% for NO2 and 12% for SO2 at the concentration levels in urban areas. Calibration of the method was performed in the field conditions by comparison between the responses of sampler and the concentrations measured by the continuous monitors. High degree of linearity (correlation coefficients > 0.8) is found between the passive sampler tube and the continuous monitor data for both NO2 and SO2. To reduce the wind velocity influence on passive sampling of diffusion tubes, a protective shelter was tested in this study. The overall uncertainty of one measure for the optimised method is estimated at 5 microg m(-3) for NO2 and 6 microg m(-3) for SO2. Suitability of this passive sampling method for air pollution monitoring in urban areas was demonstrated by the results shown in this paper on a campaign carried out in the French agglomeration.

  19. Air flow assisted ionization for remote sampling of ambient mass spectrometry and its application.

    PubMed

    He, Jiuming; Tang, Fei; Luo, Zhigang; Chen, Yi; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Ruiping; Wang, Xiaohao; Abliz, Zeper

    2011-04-15

    Ambient ionization methods are an important research area in mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Under ambient conditions, the gas flow and atmospheric pressure significantly affect the transfer and focusing of ions. The design and implementation of air flow assisted ionization (AFAI) as a novel and effective, remote sampling method for ambient mass spectrometry are described herein. AFAI benefits from a high extracting air flow rate. A systematic investigation of the extracting air flow in the AFAI system has been carried out, and it has been demonstrated not only that it plays a role in the effective capture and remote transport of charged droplets, but also that it promotes desolvation and ion formation, and even prevents ion fragmentation during the ionization process. Moreover, the sensitivity of remote sampling ambient MS analysis was improved significantly by the AFAI method. Highly polar and nonpolar molecules, including dyes, pharmaceutical samples, explosives, drugs of abuse, protein and volatile compounds, have been successfully analyzed using AFAI-MS. The successful application of the technique to residue detection on fingers, large object analysis and remote monitoring in real time indicates its potential for the analysis of a variety of samples, especially large objects. The ability to couple this technique with most commercially available MS instruments with an API interface further enhances its broad applicability.

  20. [Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Li, Yuqing; Zhang, Sukun; Han, Jinglei; Xu, Zhencheng; Fang, Jiande

    2014-09-01

    A method of gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has been optimized for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air samples. In the analysis step, isotope dilution was introduced to the quantification of PAHs. The GC-MS/MS method was applied to the analysis of the real air samples around a big petrochemical power plant in South China. The results were compared with those obtained by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that better selectivity and sensitivity were obtained by GC-MS/MS. It was found that the external standard of deuterated-PAHs and internal standard of hexamethyl benzene were disturbed seriously with GC-MS, and the problems were both solved effectively by GC-MS/MS. Therefore more accurate quantification results of PAHs were obtained with GC-MS/MS. For the analysis of real samples, the RSDs of relative response factors ranged from 2.60% to 15.6% in standard curves; the recoveries of deuterated-PAHs ranged from 55.2% to 82.3%; the recoveries of spiked samples ranged from 98.9% to 111%; the RSDs of parallel specimens ranged from 6.50% to 18.4%; the concentrations of field blank samples ranged from not detected to 44.3 pg/m3; and the concentrations of library blank samples ranged from not detected to 36.5 pg/m3. The study indicated that the application of GC-MS/MS on the analysis of PAHs in air samples was recommended. PMID:25752088

  1. Analysis of a workplace air particulate sample by synchronous luminescence and room-temperature phosphorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Vo-Dinh, T.; Gammage, R.B.; Martinez, P.R.

    1981-02-01

    An analysis of a XAD-2 resin extract of a particulate air sample collected at an industrial environment was conducted by use of two simple spectroscopic methods performed at ambient temperature, the synchronous luminescence and room-temperature phosphorescence techniques. Results of the analysis of 13 polynuclear aromatic compounds including anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, 2,3-benzofluorene, chrysene, 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene, dibenzthiophene, fluoranthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, perylene, pyrene, and tetracene were reported.

  2. STS-65 Commander Cabana and PLC Hieb take air sample at IML-2 Rack 7 NIZEMI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Commander Robert D. Cabana (right) and Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb take an air sample inside the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) spacelab science module. The two crewmembers are in front of Rack 7 which contains the large isothermal furnace (LIF) and slow rotating centrifuge microscope (NIZEMI). The photo was among the first group released by NASA following the two-week IML-2 mission aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102.

  3. Organic toxicants in air and precipitation samples from the Lake Michigan area

    SciTech Connect

    Harlin, K.S.; Sweet, C.W.; Gatz, D.F.

    1995-12-31

    Measurements of PCBs, organochlorine insecticides, PAHs, and atrazine were made in air and precipitation samples collected at regionally-representative locations near Lake Michigan from 1992-1995. The purpose of these measurements was to provide information needed to estimate the atmospheric deposition of organic toxicants to Lake Michigan. Twenty-four hour samples of airborne particles and vapor were collected at 12-day intervals on quartz fiber filters and XAD-2 resin vapor traps using modified high volume sampleers. Twenty-eight day precipitation samples were collected using wet-only samplers with stainless steel sampling surfaces and heated enclosure containing an XAD-2 resin adsorption column. Samples were Soxhlet extracted for 24 hours with hexane:acetone (1:1), and concentrated by rotary evaporation. Interferences were removed and the samples separated into analyte groups by silica gel chromatography. Four fractions were collected for GC-ECD and GC-Ion Trap MS analyses. Ten pesticides, 101 PCB congeners, 18 PAHs, and atrazine were measured in all samples. Quality assurance was maintained by including field duplicate samples, field blanks, alboratory matrix spikes, laboratory matrix blanks, and laboratory surrogate spikes in the sampling/analytical protocols. Preliminary results from urban and remote sites show geographical variations in the concentrations of some toxicants due to contributions from local sources. For all sites the total PCB levels are higher in the vapor phase than the particulate phase and show strong seasonal variations. Seasonal variations were also observed for several pesticides.

  4. Technical assessment of TRUSAF for compliance with work place air sampling. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.D.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this Technical Work Document is to satisfy WHC-CM-1-6, the ``WHC Radiological Control Manual.`` This first revision of the original Supporting Document covers the period from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1994. WHC-CM-1-6 is the primary guidance for radiological control at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). As such, it complies with Title 10, Part 835 of the Code of Federal Regulations. In addition to WHC-CM-1-6, there is HSRCM-1, the ``Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual`` and several Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, national consensus standards, and reports that provide criteria, standards, and requirements for workplace air sampling programs. This document provides a summary of these, as they apply to WHC facility workplace air sampling programs. this document also provides an evaluation of the compliance of the TRUSAF workplace air sampling program to the criteria, standards, and requirements and documents. Where necessary, it also indicates changes needed to bring specific locations into compliance.

  5. Determination of methyl bromide in air samples by headspace gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Woodrow, J.E.; McChesney, M.M.; Seiber, J.N.

    1988-03-01

    Methyl bromide is extensively used in agriculture (4 x 10/sup 6/ kg for 1985 in California alone as a fumigant to control nematodes, weeds, and fungi in soil and insect pests in harvested grains and nuts. Given its low boiling point (3.8/sup 0/C) and high vapor pressure (approx. 1400 Torr at 20/sup 0/C), methyl bromide will readily diffuse if not rigorously contained. Methods for determining methyl bromide and other halocarbons in air vary widely. A common practice is to trap the material from air on an adsorbent, such as polymeric resins, followed by thermal desorption either directly into the analytical instrumentation or after intermediary cryofocusing. While in some cases analytical detection limits were reasonable (parts per million range), many of the published methods were labor intensive and required special handling techniques that precluded high sample throughput. They describe here a method for the sampling and analysis of airborne methyl bromide that was designed to handle large numbers of samples through automating some critical steps of the analysis. The result was a method that allowed around-the-clock operation with a minimum of operator attention. Furthermore, the method was not specific to methyl bromide and could be used to determine other halocarbons in air.

  6. Polyurethane foam (PUF) disks passive air samplers: wind effect on sampling rates.

    PubMed

    Tuduri, Ludovic; Harner, Tom; Hung, Hayley

    2006-11-01

    Different passive sampler housings were evaluated for their wind dampening ability and how this might translate to variability in sampler uptake rates. Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk samplers were used as the sampling medium and were exposed to a PCB-contaminated atmosphere in a wind tunnel. The effect of outside wind speed on PUF disk sampling rates was evaluated by exposing polyurethane foam (PUF) disks to a PCB-contaminated air stream in a wind tunnel over air velocities in the range 0 to 1.75 m s-1. PUF disk sampling rates increased gradually over the range 0-0.9 m s-1 at approximately 4.5-14.6 m3 d-1 and then increased sharply to approximately 42 m3 d-1 at approximately 1.75 m s-1 (sum of PCBs). The results indicate that for most field deployments the conventional 'flying saucer' housing adequately dampens the wind effect and will yield approximately time-weighted air concentrations.

  7. Microbial Air and Surface Monitoring Results from International Space Station Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Novikova, Natalia D.; Pierson, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Over the course of long-duration spaceflight, spacecraft develop a microbial ecology that directly interacts with the crew of the vehicle. While most microorganisms are harmless or beneficial to the inhabitants of the vehicle, the presence of medically significant organisms appearing in this semi-closed environment could adversely affect crew health and performance. The risk of exposure of the crew to medically significant organisms during a mission is estimated using information gathered during nominal and contingency environmental monitoring. Analysis of the air and surface microbiota in the habitable compartments of the International Space Station (ISS) over the last four years indicate a high presence of Staphylococcus species reflecting the human inhabitants of the vehicle. Generally, air and surface microbial concentrations are below system design specifications, suggesting a lower risk of contact infection or biodegradation. An evaluation of sample frequency indicates a decrease in the identification of new species, suggesting a lower potential for unknown microorganisms to be identified. However, the opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, has been identified in 3 of the last 5 air samples and 5 of the last 9 surface samples. In addition, 47% of the coagulase negative Staphylococcus species that were isolated from the crew, ISS, and its hardware were found to be methicillin resistance. In combination, these observations suggest the potential of methicillin resistant infectious agents over time.

  8. Technical assessment of workplace air sampling requirements at tank farm facilities. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, P.A.

    1994-09-21

    WHC-CM-1-6 is the primary guidance for radiological control at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). It was written to implement DOE N 5480.6 ``US Department of Energy Radiological Control Manual`` as it applies to programs at Hanford which are now overseen by WHC. As such, it complies with Title 10, Part 835 of the Code of Federal Regulations. In addition to WHC-CM-1-6, there is HSRCM-1, the ``Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual`` and several Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, national consensus standards, and reports that provide criteria, standards, and requirements for workplace air sampling programs. This document provides a summary of these, as they apply to WHC facility workplace air sampling programs. This document also provides an evaluation of the compliance of Tank Farms` workplace air sampling program to the criteria, standards, and requirements and documents compliance with the requirements where appropriate. Where necessary, it also indicates changes needed to bring specific locations into compliance.

  9. Measurement of the Tracer Gradient and Sampling System Bias of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility Stack Air Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2011-07-20

    This report describes tracer gas uniformity and bias measurements made in the exhaust air discharge of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility at Idaho National Laboratory. The measurements were a follow-up on earlier measurements which indicated a lack of mixing of the two ventilation streams being discharged via a common stack. The lack of mixing is detrimental to the accuracy of air emission measurements. The lack of mixing was confirmed in these new measurements. The air sampling probe was found to be out of alignment and that was corrected. The suspected sampling bias in the air sample stream was disproved.

  10. A new analysis system for whole air sampling: description and results from 2013 SENEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, B. M.; Gilman, J.; Dumas, M.; Hughes, D.; Jaksich, A.; Hatch, C. D.; Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Holloway, J. S.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the troposphere is critical for the understanding of emissions and physical and chemical processes that can impact both air quality and climate. Airborne VOC measurements have proven especially challenging due to the requirement of both high sensitivity (pptv) and short sample collection times (≤15 s) to maximize spatial resolution and sampling frequency for targeted plume analysis. The use of stainless steel canisters to collect whole air samples (WAS) for post-flight analysis has been pioneered by the groups of D. Blake and E. Atlas [Blake et al., 1992; Atlas et al., 1993]. For the 2013 Southeast Nexus Study (SENEX), the NOAA ESRL CSD laboratory undertook WAS measurements for the first time. This required the construction of three new, highly-automated, and field-portable instruments designed to sample, analyze, and clean the canisters for re-use. Analysis was performed with a new custom-built gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system. The instrument pre-concentrates analyte cryostatically into two parallel traps by means of a Stirling engine, a novel technique which obviates the need for liquid nitrogen to reach trapping temperatures of -175C. Here we present an evaluation of the retrieval of target VOC species from WAS canisters. We discuss the effects of humidity and sample age on the analyte, particularly upon C8+ alkane and aromatic species and biogenic species. Finally, we present results from several research flights during SENEX that targeted emissions from oil/natural gas production.

  11. An approach to area sampling and analysis for total isocyanates in workplace air.

    PubMed

    Key-Schwartz, R J; Tucker, S P

    1999-01-01

    An approach to sampling and analysis for total isocyanates (monomer plus any associated oligomers of a given isocyanate) in workplace air has been developed and evaluated. Based on a method developed by the Occupational Health Laboratory, Ontario Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, isocyanates present in air are derivatized with a fluorescent reagent, tryptamine, in an impinger and subsequently analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Excitation and emission wavelengths are set at 275 and 320 nm, respectively. A modification to the Ontario method was made in the replacement of the recommended impinger solvents (acetonitrile and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane) with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). DMSO has the advantages of being compatible with reversedphase HPLC and not evaporating during sampling, as do the more volatile solvents used in the Ontario method. DMSO also may dissolve aerosol particles more efficiently during sampling than relatively nonpolar solvents. Several formulations containing diisocyanate prepolymers have been tested with this method in the laboratory. This method has been issued as National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 5522 in the first supplement to the fourth edition of the NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. This method is recommended for area sampling only due to possible hazards from contact with DMSO solutions containing isocyanate derivatives. The limits of detection are 0.1 microgram/sample for 2,4-toluene diisocyanate, 0.2 microgram/sample for 2,6-toluene diisocyanate, 0.3 microgram/sample for methylene bisphenyl diisocyanate, and 0.2 microgram/sample for 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate.

  12. Passive sampling of glycol ethers and their acetates in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Plaisance, H; Desmettres, P; Leonardis, T; Pennequin-Cardinal, A; Locoge, N; Galloo, J-C

    2008-04-01

    This study examined the performances of a thermal desorbable radial diffusive sampler for the weekly measurement of eight glycol ethers in indoor air and described the results of an application of this method carried out as part of HABIT'AIR Nord - Pas de Calais program for the air monitoring of these compounds in sixty homes located in northern France. The target compounds were the four glycol ethers banned from sale to the public in France since the 1990s (i.e. 2-methoxy ethanol, 2-ethoxy ethanol and their acetates) and four other glycol ethers derivatives of which the use have increased considerably (i.e. 1-methoxy-2-propanol, 2-butoxy ethanol and their acetates).A test program was carried out with the aim of validating the passive sampling method. It allowed the estimation of all the parameters of a method for each compound (calibration, analytical precision, desorption efficiency, sampling rate in standard conditions, detection limit and stability of sample before and after exposure), the examination of the influence of environmental factors on the sampling rate by some exposure chamber experiments and the assessment of the uncertainty of the measurements. The results of this evaluation demonstrated that the method has turned out to be suitable for six out of eight glycol ethers tested. The effect of the environmental factors on the sampling rates was the main source of measurement uncertainty. The measurements done in sixty homes revealed a relative abundance of 1-methoxy-2-propanol that was found in more than two thirds of homes at concentration levels of 4.5 microg m(-3) on average (a maximum value of 28 microg m(-3)). 1-methoxy-2-propanol acetate and 2-butoxy ethanol were also detected, but less frequently (in 19% of homes) and with the concentrations below 12 microg m(-3). The highest levels of these glycol ethers appear to be in relation to the emissions occurring at the time of cleaning tasks.

  13. Airborne detection and quantification of swine influenza a virus in air samples collected inside, outside and downwind from swine barns.

    PubMed

    Corzo, Cesar A; Culhane, Marie; Dee, Scott; Morrison, Robert B; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Airborne transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in swine is speculated to be an important route of virus dissemination, but data are scarce. This study attempted to detect and quantify airborne IAV by virus isolation and RRT-PCR in air samples collected under field conditions. This was accomplished by collecting air samples from four acutely infected pig farms and locating air samplers inside the barns, at the external exhaust fans and downwind from the farms at distances up to 2.1 km. IAV was detected in air samples collected in 3 out of 4 farms included in the study. Isolation of IAV was possible from air samples collected inside the barn at two of the farms and in one farm from the exhausted air. Between 13% and 100% of samples collected inside the barns tested RRT-PCR positive with an average viral load of 3.20E+05 IAV RNA copies/m³ of air. Percentage of exhaust positive air samples also ranged between 13% and 100% with an average viral load of 1.79E+04 RNA copies/m³ of air. Influenza virus RNA was detected in air samples collected between 1.5 and 2.1 Km away from the farms with viral levels significantly lower at 4.65E+03 RNA copies/m³. H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes were detected in the air samples and the hemagglutinin gene sequences identified in the swine samples matched those in aerosols providing evidence that the viruses detected in the aerosols originated from the pigs in the farms under study. Overall our results indicate that pigs can be a source of IAV infectious aerosols and that these aerosols can be exhausted from pig barns and be transported downwind. The results from this study provide evidence of the risk of aerosol transmission in pigs under field conditions.

  14. Airborne Detection and Quantification of Swine Influenza A Virus in Air Samples Collected Inside, Outside and Downwind from Swine Barns

    PubMed Central

    Corzo, Cesar A.; Culhane, Marie; Dee, Scott; Morrison, Robert B.; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Airborne transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in swine is speculated to be an important route of virus dissemination, but data are scarce. This study attempted to detect and quantify airborne IAV by virus isolation and RRT-PCR in air samples collected under field conditions. This was accomplished by collecting air samples from four acutely infected pig farms and locating air samplers inside the barns, at the external exhaust fans and downwind from the farms at distances up to 2.1 km. IAV was detected in air samples collected in 3 out of 4 farms included in the study. Isolation of IAV was possible from air samples collected inside the barn at two of the farms and in one farm from the exhausted air. Between 13% and 100% of samples collected inside the barns tested RRT-PCR positive with an average viral load of 3.20E+05 IAV RNA copies/m3 of air. Percentage of exhaust positive air samples also ranged between 13% and 100% with an average viral load of 1.79E+04 RNA copies/m3 of air. Influenza virus RNA was detected in air samples collected between 1.5 and 2.1 Km away from the farms with viral levels significantly lower at 4.65E+03 RNA copies/m3. H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes were detected in the air samples and the hemagglutinin gene sequences identified in the swine samples matched those in aerosols providing evidence that the viruses detected in the aerosols originated from the pigs in the farms under study. Overall our results indicate that pigs can be a source of IAV infectious aerosols and that these aerosols can be exhausted from pig barns and be transported downwind. The results from this study provide evidence of the risk of aerosol transmission in pigs under field conditions. PMID:23951164

  15. Sorbent-based sampling methods for volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in air Part 1: Sorbent-based air monitoring options.

    PubMed

    Woolfenden, Elizabeth

    2010-04-16

    Sorbent tubes/traps are widely used in combination with gas chromatographic (GC) analytical methods to monitor the vapour-phase fraction of organic compounds in air. Target compounds range in volatility from acetylene and freons to phthalates and PCBs and include apolar, polar and reactive species. Airborne vapour concentrations will vary depending on the nature of the location, nearby pollution sources, weather conditions, etc. Levels can range from low percent concentrations in stack and vent emissions to low part per trillion (ppt) levels in ultra-clean outdoor locations. Hundreds, even thousands of different compounds may be present in any given atmosphere. GC is commonly used in combination with mass spectrometry (MS) detection especially for environmental monitoring or for screening uncharacterised workplace atmospheres. Given the complexity and variability of organic vapours in air, no one sampling approach suits every monitoring scenario. A variety of different sampling strategies and sorbent media have been developed to address specific applications. Key sorbent-based examples include: active (pumped) sampling onto tubes packed with one or more sorbents held at ambient temperature; diffusive (passive) sampling onto sorbent tubes/cartridges; on-line sampling of air/gas streams into cooled sorbent traps; and transfer of air samples from containers (canisters, Tedlar) bags, etc.) into cooled sorbent focusing traps. Whichever sampling approach is selected, subsequent analysis almost always involves either solvent extraction or thermal desorption (TD) prior to GC(/MS) analysis. The overall performance of the air monitoring method will depend heavily on appropriate selection of key sampling and analytical parameters. This comprehensive review of air monitoring using sorbent tubes/traps is divided into 2 parts. (1) Sorbent-based air sampling option. (2) Sorbent selection and other aspects of optimizing sorbent-based air monitoring methods. The paper presents

  16. Biomimetic air sampling for detection of low concentrations of molecules and bioagents : LDRD 52744 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Robert Clark

    2003-12-01

    Present methods of air sampling for low concentrations of chemicals like explosives and bioagents involve noisy and power hungry collectors with mechanical parts for moving large volumes of air. However there are biological systems that are capable of detecting very low concentrations of molecules with no mechanical moving parts. An example is the silkworm moth antenna which is a highly branched structure where each of 100 branches contains about 200 sensory 'hairs' which have dimensions of 2 microns wide by 100 microns long. The hairs contain about 3000 pores which is where the gas phase molecules enter the aqueous (lymph) phase for detection. Simulations of diffusion of molecules indicate that this 'forest' of hairs is 'designed' to maximize the extraction of the vapor phase molecules. Since typical molecules lose about 4 decades in diffusion constant upon entering the liquid phase, it is important to allow air diffusion to bring the molecule as close to the 'sensor' as possible. The moth acts on concentrations as low as 1000 molecules per cubic cm. (one part in 1e16). A 3-D collection system of these dimensions could be fabricated by micromachining techniques available at Sandia. This LDRD addresses the issues involved with extracting molecules from air onto micromachined structures and then delivering those molecules to microsensors for detection.

  17. Urban air quality assessment using monitoring data of fractionized aerosol samples, chemometrics and meteorological conditions.

    PubMed

    Yotova, Galina I; Tsitouridou, Roxani; Tsakovski, Stefan L; Simeonov, Vasil D

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with assessment of urban air by using monitoring data for 10 different aerosol fractions (0.015-16 μm) collected at a typical urban site in City of Thessaloniki, Greece. The data set was subject to multivariate statistical analysis (cluster analysis and principal components analysis) and, additionally, to HYSPLIT back trajectory modeling in order to assess in a better way the impact of the weather conditions on the pollution sources identified. A specific element of the study is the effort to clarify the role of outliers in the data set. The reason for the appearance of outliers is strongly related to the atmospheric condition on the particular sampling days leading to enhanced concentration of pollutants (secondary emissions, sea sprays, road and soil dust, combustion processes) especially for ultra fine and coarse particles. It is also shown that three major sources affect the urban air quality of the location studied-sea sprays, mineral dust and anthropogenic influences (agricultural activity, combustion processes, and industrial sources). The level of impact is related to certain extent to the aerosol fraction size. The assessment of the meteorological conditions leads to defining of four downwind patterns affecting the air quality (Pelagic, Western and Central Europe, Eastern and Northeastern Europe and Africa and Southern Europe). Thus, the present study offers a complete urban air assessment taking into account the weather conditions, pollution sources and aerosol fractioning.

  18. Sampling artifacts in active air sampling of semivolatile organic contaminants: Comparing theoretical and measured artifacts and evaluating implications for monitoring networks.

    PubMed

    Melymuk, Lisa; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Prokeš, Roman; Kukučka, Petr; Klánová, Jana

    2016-10-01

    The effects of sampling artifacts are often not fully considered in the design of air monitoring with active air samplers. Semivolatile organic contaminants (SVOCs) are particularly vulnerable to a range of sampling artifacts because of their wide range of gas-particle partitioning and degradation rates, and these can lead to erroneous measurements of air concentrations and a lack of comparability between sites with different environmental and sampling conditions. This study used specially adapted filter-sorbent sampling trains in three types of active air samplers to investigate breakthrough of SVOCs, and the possibility of other sampling artifacts. Breakthrough volumes were experimentally determined for a range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sampling volumes from 300 to 10,000 m(3), and sampling durations of 1-7 days. In parallel, breakthrough was estimated based on theoretical sorbent-vapor pressure relationships. The comparison of measured and theoretical determinations of breakthrough demonstrated good agreement between experimental and estimated breakthrough volumes, and showed that theoretical breakthrough estimates should be used when developing air monitoring protocols. Significant breakthrough in active air samplers occurred for compounds with vapor pressure >0.5 Pa at volumes <700 m(3). Sample volumes between 700 and 10,000 m(3) may lead to breakthrough for compounds with vapor pressures between 0.005 and 0.5 Pa. Breakthrough is largely driven by sample volume and compound volatility (therefore indirectly by temperature) and is independent of sampler type. The presence of significant breakthrough at "typical" sampling conditions is relevant for air monitoring networks, and may lead to under-reporting of more volatile SVOCs.

  19. Radiological air monitoring and sample analysis research and development progress report. Calendar year, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Sponsored by a Department Of Energy (DOE) research and development grant, the State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program (OP) personnel designed an independent air monitoring system that provides detection of the presence of priority airborne contaminants potentially migrating beyond INEL boundaries. Initial locations for off-site ambient air monitoring stations were chosen in consultation with: DOE and NOAA reports; Mesodif modeling; review of the relevant literature; and communication with private contractors and experts in pertinent fields. Idaho State University (ISU) has initiated an Environmental Monitoring Program (EMP). The EMP provides an independent monitoring function as well as a training ground for students. Students learn research techniques dedicated to environmental studies and learn analytical skills and rules of compliance related to monitoring. ISU-EMP assisted OP in specific aspects of identifying optimum permanent monitoring station locations, and in selecting appropriate sample collection equipment for each station. The authorization to establish, prepare and install sampling devices on selected sites was obtained by OP personnel in conjunction with ISU-EMP personnel. All samples described in this program are collected by OP or ISU-EMP personnel and returned to the ISU for analysis. This report represents the summary of results of those samples collected and analyzed for radioactivity during the year of 1992.

  20. Summary of stationary and personal air sampling measurements made during a plutonium glovebox decommissioning project.

    SciTech Connect

    Munyon, W. J.; Lee, M. B.

    2002-02-01

    Workplace air sampling was performed during the decommissioning of a previously active plutonium glovebox facility located at Argonne National Laboratory. Personal air samplers (PAS) were used to measure breathing zone activity concentrations of workers engaged in size-reducing contaminated gloveboxes. Stationary air samplers (SAS) were used to measure the work area activity concentrations and test their application in providing representative sampling of breathing zone activity concentrations. The relative response of these samplers (PAS:SAS) was tracked during the course of the decommissioning work, with results yielding favorable agreement to within a factor of {+-}5. A cascade impactor was used to determine the particle size distribution of workplace aerosols. The average activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) was estimated to be 3.0 {mu}m, with a corresponding geometric standard deviation of 2.4. A gas-flow proportional counter was utilized to measure the gross alpha activity collected on both the SAS glass fiber and the PAS cellulose fiber filters. A subset of this filter group was subsequently analyzed using an alpha spectrometer post radiochemical processing and isotopic separation. The quantity of alpha activity measured on the SAS filters was generally within {+-}30% of the alpha spectrometry measurements. However, measurements made of the activity present on the PAS cellulose fiber filters were consistently underestimated using a gas-flow proportional counter, suggesting a small correction factor of 15-20% to account for the absorption of alpha particle emissions.

  1. Mass spectrometry of solid samples in open air using combined laser ionization and ambient metastable ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X. N.; Xie, Z. Q.; Gao, Y.; Hu, W.; Guo, L. B.; Jiang, L.; Lu, Y. F.

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry of solid samples in open air was carried out using combined laser ionization and metastable ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LI-MI-TOFMS) in ambient environment for qualitative and semiquantitative (relative analyte information, not absolute information) analysis. Ambient metastable ionization using a direct analysis in realtime (DART) ion source was combined with laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LI-TOFMS) to study the effects of combining metastable and laser ionization. A series of metallic samples from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST 494, 495, 498, 499, and 500) and a pure carbon target were characterized using LI-TOFMS in open air. LI-MI-TOFMS was found to be superior to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Laser pulse energies between 10 and 200 mJ at the second harmonic (532 nm) of an Nd:YAG laser were applied in the experiment to obtain a high degree of ionization in plasmas. Higher laser pulse energy improves signal intensities of trace elements (such as Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, Ca, Al, and Ag). Data were analyzed by numerically calculating relative sensitivity coefficients (RSCs) and limit of detections (LODs) from mass spectrometry (MS) and LIBS spectra. Different parameters, such as boiling point, ionization potential, RSC, LOD, and atomic weight, were shown to analyze the ionization and MS detection processes in open air.

  2. Summary of stationary and personal air sampling measurements made during a plutonium glovebox decommissioning project.

    PubMed

    Munyon, W J; Lee, M B

    2002-02-01

    Workplace air sampling was performed during the decommissioning of a previously active plutonium glovebox facility located at Argonne National Laboratory. Personal air samplers (PAS) were used to measure breathing zone activity concentrations of workers engaged in size-reducing contaminated gloveboxes. Stationary air samplers (SAS) were used to measure the work area activity concentrations and test their application in providing representative sampling of breathing zone activity concentrations. The relative response of these samplers (PAS:SAS) was tracked during the course of the decommissioning work, with results yielding favorable agreement to within a factor of +/-5. A cascade impactor was used to determine the particle size distribution of workplace aerosols. The average activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) was estimated to be 3.0 microm, with a corresponding geometric standard deviation of 2.4. A gas-flow proportional counter was utilized to measure the gross alpha activity collected on both the SAS glass fiber and the PAS cellulose fiber filters. A subset of this filter group was subsequently analyzed using an alpha spectrometer post radiochemical processing and isotopic separation. The quantity of alpha activity measured on the SAS filters was generally within +/-30% of the alpha spectrometry measurements. However, measurements made of the activity present on the PAS cellulose fiber filters were consistently underestimated using a gas-flow proportional counter, suggesting a small correction factor of 15-20% to account for the absorption of alpha particle emissions.

  3. Identification of monochloro-nonabromodiphenyl ethers in the air and soil samples from south China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Kewen; Ren, Guofa; Wang, Decheng; Ma, Shengtao; Peng, Pingan; Wu, Minghong; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2011-04-01

    Several studies have indicated that mixed brominated/chlorinated organic compounds could be formed during the thermal process such as the incineration of municipal solid waste and open burning of unregulated e-waste at recycling areas. In this study, air particles and soils from e-waste recycling areas, as well as outdoor and indoor air particles from urban Guangzhou, were collected and pooled for the identification of mixed chlorinated/brominated diphenyl ethers (PXDEs). Three monochloro-nonabromo diphenyl ethers (Cl-nonaBDEs), including 6'-Cl-BDE-206, 5'-Cl-BDE-207, and/or 4'-Cl-BDE-208, were first structurally identified in these air and soil samples. The identification was done by comparison of retention times in chromatograms of pure reference compounds and environmental samples, as well as by comparison with full-scan mass spectra data in electron capture negative ionization mode. Because of their similar physical-chemical properties, 4'-Cl-BDE-208 and 5'-Cl-BDE-207 absolutely coeluted, even on a nonpolar DB-5 column. Further investigation is still needed to clarify these findings. Nevertheless, the results indicated that Cl-nonaBDEs would occur in various environmental matrices. Because the replacement of Br by Cl will change the physical-chemical properties of PBDE analogues, environmental occurrence, fate, and transport, the potential toxicity of PXDEs should be investigated.

  4. Glyphosate-rich air samples induce IL-33, TSLP and generate IL-13 dependent airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Khodoun, Marat; Kettleson, Eric M; McKnight, Christopher; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Adhikari, Atin

    2014-11-01

    Several low weight molecules have often been implicated in the induction of occupational asthma. Glyphosate, a small molecule herbicide, is widely used in the world. There is a controversy regarding a role of glyphosate in developing asthma and rhinitis among farmers, the mechanism of which is unexplored. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of glyphosate induced pulmonary pathology by utilizing murine models and real environmental samples. C57BL/6, TLR4-/-, and IL-13-/- mice inhaled extracts of glyphosate-rich air samples collected on farms during spraying of herbicides or inhaled different doses of glyphosate and ovalbumin. The cellular response, humoral response, and lung function of exposed mice were evaluated. Exposure to glyphosate-rich air samples as well as glyphosate alone to the lungs increased: eosinophil and neutrophil counts, mast cell degranulation, and production of IL-33, TSLP, IL-13, and IL-5. In contrast, in vivo systemic IL-4 production was not increased. Co-administration of ovalbumin with glyphosate did not substantially change the inflammatory immune response. However, IL-13-deficiency resulted in diminished inflammatory response but did not have a significant effect on airway resistance upon methacholine challenge after 7 or 21 days of glyphosate exposure. Glyphosate-rich farm air samples as well as glyphosate alone were found to induce pulmonary IL-13-dependent inflammation and promote Th2 type cytokines, but not IL-4 for glyphosate alone. This study, for the first time, provides evidence for the mechanism of glyphosate-induced occupational lung disease. PMID:25172162

  5. Glyphosate–rich air samples induce IL–33, TSLP and generate IL–13 dependent airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sudhir; Khodoun, Marat; Kettleson, Eric M.; McKnight, Christopher; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Adhikari, Atin

    2014-01-01

    Several low weight molecules have often been implicated in the induction of occupational asthma. Glyphosate, a small molecule herbicide, is widely used in the world. There is a controversy regarding a role of glyphosate in developing asthma and rhinitis among farmers, the mechanism of which is unexplored. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of glyphosate induced pulmonary pathology by utilizing murine models and real environmental samples. C57BL/6, TLR4−/−, and IL-13−/− mice inhaled extracts of glyphosate-rich air samples collected on farms during spraying of herbicides or inhaled different doses of glyphosate and ovalbumin. The cellular response, humoral response, and lung function of exposed mice were evaluated. Exposure to glyphosate-rich air samples as well as glyphosate alone to the lungs increased: eosinophil and neutrophil counts, mast cell degranulation, and production of IL-33, TSLP, IL-13, and IL-5. In contrast, in vivo systemic IL-4 production was not increased. Co-administration of ovalbumin with glyphosate did not substantially change the inflammatory immune response. However, IL-13-deficiency resulted in diminished inflammatory response but did not have a significant effect on airway resistance upon methacholine challenge after 7 or 21 days of glyphosate exposure. Glyphosate-rich farm air samples as well as glyphosate alone were found to induce pulmonary IL-13-dependent inflammation and promote Th2 type cytokines, but not IL-4 for glyphosate alone. This study, for the first time, provides evidence for the mechanism of glyphosate-induced occupational lung disease. PMID:25172162

  6. Glyphosate-rich air samples induce IL-33, TSLP and generate IL-13 dependent airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Khodoun, Marat; Kettleson, Eric M; McKnight, Christopher; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Adhikari, Atin

    2014-11-01

    Several low weight molecules have often been implicated in the induction of occupational asthma. Glyphosate, a small molecule herbicide, is widely used in the world. There is a controversy regarding a role of glyphosate in developing asthma and rhinitis among farmers, the mechanism of which is unexplored. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of glyphosate induced pulmonary pathology by utilizing murine models and real environmental samples. C57BL/6, TLR4-/-, and IL-13-/- mice inhaled extracts of glyphosate-rich air samples collected on farms during spraying of herbicides or inhaled different doses of glyphosate and ovalbumin. The cellular response, humoral response, and lung function of exposed mice were evaluated. Exposure to glyphosate-rich air samples as well as glyphosate alone to the lungs increased: eosinophil and neutrophil counts, mast cell degranulation, and production of IL-33, TSLP, IL-13, and IL-5. In contrast, in vivo systemic IL-4 production was not increased. Co-administration of ovalbumin with glyphosate did not substantially change the inflammatory immune response. However, IL-13-deficiency resulted in diminished inflammatory response but did not have a significant effect on airway resistance upon methacholine challenge after 7 or 21 days of glyphosate exposure. Glyphosate-rich farm air samples as well as glyphosate alone were found to induce pulmonary IL-13-dependent inflammation and promote Th2 type cytokines, but not IL-4 for glyphosate alone. This study, for the first time, provides evidence for the mechanism of glyphosate-induced occupational lung disease.

  7. Sampling size in the verification of manufactured-supplied air kerma strengths

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, Luis Isaac; Martinez Monge, Rafael

    2005-11-15

    Quality control mandate that the air kerma strengths (S{sub K}) of permanent seeds be verified, this is usually done by statistics inferred from 10% of the seeds. The goal of this paper is to proposed a new sampling method in which the number of seeds to be measured will be set beforehand according to an a priori statistical level of uncertainty. The results are based on the assumption that the S{sub K} has a normal distribution. To demonstrate this, the S{sub K} of each of the seeds measured was corrected to ensure that the average S{sub K} of its sample remained the same. In this process 2030 results were collected and analyzed using a normal plot. In our opinion, the number of seeds sampled should be determined beforehand according to an a priori level of statistical uncertainty.

  8. Size selective isocyanate aerosols personal air sampling using porous plastic foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanh Huynh, Cong; Duc, Trinh Vu

    2009-02-01

    As part of a European project (SMT4-CT96-2137), various European institutions specialized in occupational hygiene (BGIA, HSL, IOM, INRS, IST, Ambiente e Lavoro) have established a program of scientific collaboration to develop one or more prototypes of European personal samplers for the collection of simultaneous three dust fractions: inhalable, thoracic and respirable. These samplers based on existing sampling heads (IOM, GSP and cassettes) use Polyurethane Plastic Foam (PUF) according to their porosity to support sampling and separator size of the particles. In this study, the authors present an original application of size selective personal air sampling using chemical impregnated PUF to perform isocyanate aerosols capturing and derivatizing in industrial spray-painting shops.

  9. Soyuz 23 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Six mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 23 because of concerns that new air pollutants had been present in the air and these were getting into the water recovery system. The Total Organic Carbon Analyzer had been giving increasing readings of total organic carbon (TOC) in the potable water, and it was postulated that an increased load into the system was responsible. The TOC began to decline in late October, 2010. The toxicological assessment of 6 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown in Table 1. The recoveries of 13C-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene from the GSCs averaged 73, 82, and 59%, respectively. We are working to understand the sub-optimal recovery of chlorobenzene.

  10. Relationship of air sampling rates of semipermeable membrane devices with the properties of organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiuhua; Ding, Guanghui; Levy, Walkiria; Jakobi, Gert; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2011-06-01

    The organochlorine pesticides (OCP) in Eastern-Barvaria at Haidel 1160 m a.s.l. were monitored with a low volume active air sampler and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD). The air sampling rates (Rair) of SPMD for OCP were calculated. Quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models of Rair of SPMD were developed for OCP with partial least square (PLS) regression. Quantum chemical descriptors computed by semi-empirical PM6 method were used as predictor variables. The cumulative variance of the dependent variable explained by the PLS components and determined by cross-validation (Q(2)cum), for the optimal models, is 0.637, indicating that the model has good predictive ability and robustness, and could be used to estimate Rair values of OCP. The main factors governing Rair of OCP are intermolecular interactions and the energy required for cave-forming in dissolution of OCP into triolein of SPMD.

  11. Evaluation of passive air sampler calibrations: Selection of sampling rates and implications for the measurement of persistent organic pollutants in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melymuk, Lisa; Robson, Matthew; Helm, Paul A.; Diamond, Miriam L.

    2011-04-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air samplers (PAS) are a common and highly useful method of sampling persistent organic pollutants (POP) concentrations in air. PAS calibration is necessary to obtain reasonable and comparable semi-quantitative measures of air concentrations. Various methods are found in the literature concerning PAS calibration. 35 studies on PAS use and calibration are examined here, in conjunction with a study involving 10 PAS deployed concurrently in outdoor air with a low-volume air sampler in order to measure the sampling rates of PUF-PAS for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic musks (PCMs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Based on this analysis it is recommended that (1) PAS should be assumed to represent bulk rather than gas-phase compound concentrations due to the sampling of particle-bound compounds, (2) calibration of PAS sampling rates is more accurately achieved using an active low-volume air sampler rather than depuration compounds since the former measures gas- and particle-phase compounds and does so continuously over the deployment period of the PAS, and (3) homolog-specific sampling rates based on KOA groupings be used in preference to compound/congener-specific or single sampling rates.

  12. Release of Free DNA by Membrane-Impaired Bacterial Aerosols Due to Aerosolization and Air Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Huajun; Han, Taewon; Fennell, Donna E.

    2013-01-01

    We report here that stress experienced by bacteria due to aerosolization and air sampling can result in severe membrane impairment, leading to the release of DNA as free molecules. Escherichia coli and Bacillus atrophaeus bacteria were aerosolized and then either collected directly into liquid or collected using other collection media and then transferred into liquid. The amount of DNA released was quantified as the cell membrane damage index (ID), i.e., the number of 16S rRNA gene copies in the supernatant liquid relative to the total number in the bioaerosol sample. During aerosolization by a Collison nebulizer, the ID of E. coli and B. atrophaeus in the nebulizer suspension gradually increased during 60 min of continuous aerosolization. We found that the ID of bacteria during aerosolization was statistically significantly affected by the material of the Collison jar (glass > polycarbonate; P < 0.001) and by the bacterial species (E. coli > B. atrophaeus; P < 0.001). When E. coli was collected for 5 min by filtration, impaction, and impingement, its ID values were within the following ranges: 0.051 to 0.085, 0.16 to 0.37, and 0.068 to 0.23, respectively; when it was collected by electrostatic precipitation, the ID values (0.011 to 0.034) were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those with other sampling methods. Air samples collected inside an equine facility for 2 h by filtration and impingement exhibited ID values in the range of 0.30 to 0.54. The data indicate that the amount of cell damage during bioaerosol sampling and the resulting release of DNA can be substantial and that this should be taken into account when analyzing bioaerosol samples. PMID:24096426

  13. Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Barnett, Debra S.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Bliss, Mary; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-02-17

    Since the mid-1980s, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as the correction factor for self absorption of activity for particulate radioactive air samples collected from building exhaust for environmental monitoring. This value accounts for activity that cannot be detected by direct counting of alpha and beta particles. Emissions can be degraded or blocked by filter fibers for particles buried in the filter material or by inactive dust particles collected with the radioactive particles. These filters are used for monitoring air emissions from PNNL stacks for radioactive particles. This paper describes an effort to re-evaluate self-absorption effects in particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor® 3000, 47 mm diameter) used at PNNL. There were two methods used to characterize the samples. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion to compare the radioactivity measured by direct gas-flow proportional counting of filters to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection. Thirty different sample filters were selected for visible light microscopy to evaluate filter loading and particulate characteristics. Mass-loading effects were also considered. Filter ratios were calculated by dividing the initial counts by the post-digestion counts with the expectation that post-digestion counts would be higher because digestion would expose radioactivity embedded in the filter in addition to that on top of the filter. Contrary to expectations, the post digestion readings were almost always lower than initial readings and averaged approximately half the initial readings for both alpha and beta activity. Before and after digestion readings appeared to be related to each other, but with a low coefficient of determination (R^2) value. The ratios had a wide range of values indicating that this method did not provide sufficient precision to quantify self

  14. Residues of 2, 4-D in air samples from Saskatchewan: 1966-1975.

    PubMed

    Grover, R; Kerr, L A; Wallace, K; Yoshida, K; Maybank, J

    1976-01-01

    Residues of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) in air samples from several sampling sites in central and southern Saskatchewan during the spraying seasons in the 1966-68 and 1970-75 periods were determined by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques. Initially, individual esters of 2,4-D were characterized by retention times and confirmed further by co-injection and dual column procedures. Since 1973, however, only total 2,4-D acid levels in air samples have been determined after esterification to the methyl ester and confirmed by gc/ms techniques whenever possible. Up to 50% of the daily samples collected during the spraying season at any of the locations and during any given year contained 2,4-D, with butyl esters being found most frequently. The daily 24-hr mean atmospheric concentrations of 2,4-D ranged from 0.01 to 1.22 mug/m3, 0.01 to 13.50 mug/m3, and 0.05 to 0.59 mug/m3 for the iso-propyl, mixed butyl and iso-octyl esters, respectively. Even when the samples were analysed for the total 2,4-D content, i.e. from 1973 onwards, the maximum level of the total acid reached only 23.14 mug/m3. In any given year and at any of the sampling sites, about 30% of the samples contained less than 0.01 mug/m3 of 2,4-D. In another 40% of the samples, the levels of 2,4-D ranged from 0.01 to 0.099 mug/m3. Only about 30% of the samples contained 2,4-D concentrations higher than 0.1 mug/m3, with only 10% or less exceeding 1 mug/m3. None of the samples, obtained with the high volume particulate sampler, showed any detectable levels of 2,4-D, indicating little or no transport of 2,4-D adsorbed on dust particles or as crystals of amine salts. PMID:1002953

  15. A survey of recent results in passive sampling of water and air by semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prest, Harry F.; Huckins, James N.; Petty, Jimmie D.; Herve, Sirpa; Paasivirta, Jaakko; Heinonen, Pertti

    1995-01-01

    A survey is presented of some recent results for passive sampling of water and air for trace organic contaminants using lipid-filled semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). Results of water sampling for trace organochlorine compounds using simultaneously exposed SPMDs and the most universally applied biomonitor (bivalves) are discussed. In general, the total amounts of accumulated analytes available for analysis in bivalves and SPMDs were comparable. However, SPMD controls typically had negligible levels of contamination, which was not always the case for transplanted bivalves, even after prolonged depuration prior to exposure. In surveys of the spatial trends of organochlorines at a series of sites, data from bivalves and SPMDs provided the same picture of contaminant distribution and severity. An exception was ionizable contaminants such as the chlorinated phenolic compounds and their transformation products found in pulp mill effluents. In these cases the two monitoring approaches compliment each other, i.e. what is not found in bivalves appears in SPMDs and vice versa. SPMDs have also been applied in environments where biomonitoring is not feasible. SPMDs have shown their utility in studies of trace levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by locating and characterizing point sources. An example is given of their application to the calculation of contaminant half-lives from aqueous SPMD residues, a direct measurement of the persistence of contaminants in an environmental compartment. Similarly, results of air sampling with SPMDs in a relatively pristine coastal location are cited which reveal a tremendous enhancement in p,p′-DDE relative to open ocean values.

  16. Solvent-free sampling with di-n-butylamine for monitoring of isocyanates in air.

    PubMed

    Marand, Asa; Karlsson, Daniel; Dalene, Marianne; Skarping, Gunnar

    2005-04-01

    The solvent-free sampler for airborne isocyanates consisted of a polypropylene tube with an inner wall coated with a glass fibre filter, coupled in series with a 13 mm glass fibre filter. The filters were impregnated with reagent solution containing equimolar amounts of di-n-butylamine (DBA) and acetic acid. Air sampling was performed with an air flow of 0.2 l min(-1). The formed isocyanate-DBA derivatives were determined using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The sampler was investigated in regard to collection principle and extraction of the formed derivatives with good results. The possibility to store the sampler before sampling and to perform long-term sampling was demonstrated. Field extraction of the sampler was not necessary, as there was no difference between immediately extracted samples and stored ones (2 days). In comparative studies, the sampler was evaluated against a reference method, impinger-filter sampling with DBA as reagent. The ratios between the results obtained with the sampler and the reference in a test chamber at a relative humidity (RH) of 45% was in the range of 83-109% for isocyanates formed during thermal decomposition of PUR. At RH 95%, the range was 72-101% with the exception of isocyanic acid. In two field evaluations, the ratios for fast curing 2,4'- and 4,4'-methylene bisphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was in the range 81-113% and for the 3-ring MDI the range was 54-70%. For the slower curing 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and HDI isocyanurate, the ratios were in the range 78-145%. In conclusion, the solvent-free sampler is a convenient alternative in most applications to the more cumbersome impinger-filter sampler.

  17. Contemporary-use pesticides in personal air samples during pregnancy and blood samples at delivery among urban minority mothers and newborns.

    PubMed Central

    Whyatt, Robin M; Barr, Dana B; Camann, David E; Kinney, Patrick L; Barr, John R; Andrews, Howard F; Hoepner, Lori A; Garfinkel, Robin; Hazi, Yair; Reyes, Andria; Ramirez, Judyth; Cosme, Yesenia; Perera, Frederica P

    2003-01-01

    We have measured 29 pesticides in plasma samples collected at birth between 1998 and 2001 from 230 mother and newborn pairs enrolled in the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health prospective cohort study. Our prior research has shown widespread pesticide use during pregnancy among this urban minority cohort from New York City. We also measured eight pesticides in 48-hr personal air samples collected from the mothers during pregnancy. The following seven pesticides were detected in 48-83% of plasma samples (range, 1-270 pg/g): the organophosphates chlorpyrifos and diazinon, the carbamates bendiocarb and 2-isopropoxyphenol (metabolite of propoxur), and the fungicides dicloran, phthalimide (metabolite of folpet and captan), and tetrahydrophthalimide (metabolite of captan and captafol). Maternal and cord plasma levels were similar and, except for phthalimide, were highly correlated (p < 0.001). Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and propoxur were detected in 100% of personal air samples (range, 0.7-6,010 ng/m(3)). Diazinon and propoxur levels were significantly higher in the personal air of women reporting use of an exterminator, can sprays, and/or pest bombs during pregnancy compared with women reporting no pesticide use or use of lower toxicity methods only. A significant correlation was seen between personal air level of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and propoxur and levels of these insecticides or their metabolites in plasma samples (maternal and/or cord, p < 0.05). The fungicide ortho-phenylphenol was also detected in 100% of air samples but was not measured in plasma. The remaining 22 pesticides were detected in 0-45% of air or plasma samples. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, propoxur, and bendiocarb levels in air and/or plasma decreased significantly between 1998 and 2001. Findings indicate that pesticide exposures are frequent but decreasing and that the pesticides are readily transferred to the developing fetus during pregnancy. PMID:12727605

  18. Sampling and measurement issues in establishing a climate reference upper air network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, T.; Madonna, F.; Wang, J.; Whiteman, D. N.; Dykema, J.; Fassò, A.; Thorne, P. W.; Bodeker, G.

    2013-09-01

    The GCOS Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN) is an international reference observing network, designed to meet climate requirements and to fill a major void in the current global observing system. Upper air observations within the GRUAN network will provide long-term high-quality climate records, will be used to constrain and validate data from space based remote sensors, and will provide accurate data for the study of atmospheric processes. The network covers measurements of a range of key climate variables including temperature. Implementation of the network has started, and as part of this process a number of scientific questions need to be addressed in order to establish a viable climate reference upper air network, in addition to meeting the other objectives for the network measurements. These include quantifying collocation issues for different measurement techniques including the impact on the overall uncertainty of combined measurements; change management requirements when switching between sensors; assessing the benefit of complementary measurements of the same variable using different measurement techniques; and establishing the appropriate sampling strategy to determine long-term trends. This paper reviews the work that is currently underway to address these issues.

  19. Estimation of sampling error uncertainties in observed surface air temperature change in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Wei; Shen, Samuel S. P.; Weithmann, Alexander; Wang, Huijun

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the sampling error uncertainties in the monthly surface air temperature (SAT) change in China over recent decades, focusing on the uncertainties of gridded data, national averages, and linear trends. Results indicate that large sampling error variances appear at the station-sparse area of northern and western China with the maximum value exceeding 2.0 K2 while small sampling error variances are found at the station-dense area of southern and eastern China with most grid values being less than 0.05 K2. In general, the negative temperature existed in each month prior to the 1980s, and a warming in temperature began thereafter, which accelerated in the early and mid-1990s. The increasing trend in the SAT series was observed for each month of the year with the largest temperature increase and highest uncertainty of 0.51 ± 0.29 K (10 year)-1 occurring in February and the weakest trend and smallest uncertainty of 0.13 ± 0.07 K (10 year)-1 in August. The sampling error uncertainties in the national average annual mean SAT series are not sufficiently large to alter the conclusion of the persistent warming in China. In addition, the sampling error uncertainties in the SAT series show a clear variation compared with other uncertainty estimation methods, which is a plausible reason for the inconsistent variations between our estimate and other studies during this period.

  20. [Problems in sampling the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and air-dispersed particles].

    PubMed

    Pozzoli, L; Cottica, D

    1984-01-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are difficult to monitor and quantify. This study has been worked-out to evaluate various sampling methods for monitoring PAH in the work environment: the sampling devices were tested on the field in a carbon electrodes factory. During the field surveys we used the following sampling procedures that actually are the most adopted: Glass fiber filter, Silver membrane (Teflon, cellulosic esters), The over mentioned membrane filters followed by solid substrate (Amberlite XAD-2). For the analytical quantification we followed this procedure: PAH s extraction from membranes and resins by solvent in ultrasonic bath; quantification by GS-MS (single ion monitor, capillary column, on column injection). Results of field testing show that for completely retain PAHs during air sampling in work environment it is necessary to use a membrane filter followed by a back-up tube of Amberlite-XAD-2 resin: the use of this sampling device is particularly recommended during monitoring of work operations with temperature greater than or equal to 150 degrees C involving coke oven procedure, charcoal production, asphalt production, petroleum coking operations.

  1. Cast Stone Oxidation Front Evaluation: Preliminary Results For Samples Exposed To Moist Air

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C. A.; Almond, P. M.

    2013-11-26

    The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup -}, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report. The

  2. Venturi air-jet vacuum ejectors for high-volume atmospheric sampling on aircraft platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald F.; Sachse, Glen W.; Young, Douglas C.; Wade, Larry O.; Burney, Lewis G.

    1992-01-01

    Documentation of the installation and use of venturi air-jet vacuum ejectors for high-volume atmospheric sampling on aircraft platforms is presented. Information on the types of venturis that are useful for meeting the pumping requirements of atmospheric-sampling experiments is also presented. A description of the configuration and installation of the venturi system vacuum line is included with details on the modifications that were made to adapt a venturi to the NASA Electra aircraft at GSFC, Wallops Flight Facility. Flight test results are given for several venturis with emphasis on applications to the Differential Absorption Carbon Monoxide Measurement (DACOM) system at LaRC. This is a source document for atmospheric scientists interested in using the venturi systems installed on the NASA Electra or adapting the technology to other aircraft.

  3. Ram-air sample collection device for a chemical warfare agent sensor

    DOEpatents

    Megerle, Clifford A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2002-01-01

    In a surface acoustic wave sensor mounted within a body, the sensor having a surface acoustic wave array detector and a micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator exposed on a surface of the body, an apparatus for collecting air for the sensor, comprising a housing operatively arranged to mount atop the body, the housing including a multi-stage channel having an inlet and an outlet, the channel having a first stage having a first height and width proximate the inlet, a second stage having a second lower height and width proximate the micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator, a third stage having a still lower third height and width proximate the surface acoustic wave array detector, and a fourth stage having a fourth height and width proximate the outlet, where the fourth height and width are substantially the same as the first height and width.

  4. BIBLE A whole-air sampling as a window on Asian biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Scott; Blake, Donald R.; Blake, Nicola J.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Rowland, F. Sherwood; Sive, Barkley C.; Smith, Felisa A.

    2003-02-01

    Asian trace gas and aerosol emissions into carbon, nitrogen, and other elemental cycles will figure prominently in near term Earth system evolution. Atmospheric hydrocarbon measurements resolve numerous chemical species and can be used to investigate sourcing for key geocarriers. A recent aircraft study of biomass burning and lightning (BIBLE A) explored the East Asian atmosphere and was unique in centering on the Indonesian archipelago. Samples of volatile organics taken over/between the islands of Japan, Saipan, Java, and Borneo are here examined as a guide to whole-air-based studies of future Asian biogeochemistry. The midlatitude onshore/offshore pulse and tropical convection strongly influence concentration distributions. As species of increasing molecular weight are considered, rural, combustion, and industrial source regimes emerge. Methane-rich inputs such as waste treatment and rice cultivation are evidenced in the geostrophic outflow. The Indonesian atmosphere is rich in biomass burning markers and also those of vehicular activity. Complexity of air chemistry in the archipelago is a direct reflection of diverse topography, land use, and local economies in a rapidly developing nation. Conspicuous in its absence is the fingerprint for liquefied petroleum gas leakage, but it can be expected to appear as demand for clean fossil fuels rises along with per capita incomes. Combustion tracers indicate high nitrogen mobilization rates, linking regional terrestrial geocycles with open marine ecosystems. Sea to air fluxes are superimposed on continental and marine backgrounds for the methyl halides. However, ocean hot spots are not coordinated and suggest an intricate subsurface kinetics. Levels of long-lived anthropogenic halocarbons attest to the success of international environmental treaties while reactive chlorine containing species track industrial air masses. The dozens of hydrocarbons resolvable by gas chromatographic methods will enable monitoring of

  5. Evaluation of physical sampling efficiency for cyclone-based personal bioaerosol samplers in moving air environments.

    PubMed

    Su, Wei-Chung; Tolchinsky, Alexander D; Chen, Bean T; Sigaev, Vladimir I; Cheng, Yung Sung

    2012-09-01

    The need to determine occupational exposure to bioaerosols has notably increased in the past decade, especially for microbiology-related workplaces and laboratories. Recently, two new cyclone-based personal bioaerosol samplers were developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in the USA and the Research Center for Toxicology and Hygienic Regulation of Biopreparations (RCT & HRB) in Russia to monitor bioaerosol exposure in the workplace. Here, a series of wind tunnel experiments were carried out to evaluate the physical sampling performance of these two samplers in moving air conditions, which could provide information for personal biological monitoring in a moving air environment. The experiments were conducted in a small wind tunnel facility using three wind speeds (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 m s(-1)) and three sampling orientations (0°, 90°, and 180°) with respect to the wind direction. Monodispersed particles ranging from 0.5 to 10 μm were employed as the test aerosols. The evaluation of the physical sampling performance was focused on the aspiration efficiency and capture efficiency of the two samplers. The test results showed that the orientation-averaged aspiration efficiencies of the two samplers closely agreed with the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) inhalable convention within the particle sizes used in the evaluation tests, and the effect of the wind speed on the aspiration efficiency was found negligible. The capture efficiencies of these two samplers ranged from 70% to 80%. These data offer important information on the insight into the physical sampling characteristics of the two test samplers.

  6. Solid-phase microextraction fiber development for sampling and analysis of volatile organohalogen compounds in air.

    PubMed

    Attari, Seyed Ghavameddin; Bahrami, Abdolrahman; Shahna, Farshid Ghorbani; Heidari, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    A green, environmental friendly and sensitive method for determination of volatile organohalogen compounds was described in this paper. The method is based on a homemade sol-gel single-walled carbon nanotube/silica composite coated solid-phase microextraction to develop for sampling and analysis of Carbon tetrachloride, Benzotrichloride, Chloromethyl methyl ether and Trichloroethylene in air. Application of this method was investigated under different laboratory conditions. Predetermined concentrations of each analytes were prepared in a home-made standard chamber and the influences of experimental parameters such as temperature, humidity, extraction time, storage time, desorption temperature, desorption time and the sorbent performance were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the use of single-walled carbon nanotube/silica composite fiber showed good performance, high sensitive and fast sampling of volatile organohalogen compounds from air. For linearity test the regression correlation coefficient was more than 98% for analyte of interest and linear dynamic range for the proposed fiber and the applied Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector technique was from 1 to 100 ngmL(-1). Method detection limits ranged between 0.09 to 0.2 ngmL(-1) and method quantification limits were between 0.25 and 0.7 ngmL(-1). Single-walled carbon nanotube/silica composite fiber was highly reproducible, relative standard deviations were between 4.3 to 11.7 percent. PMID:25279223

  7. Field Campaign Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, J. W.; Chapman, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    This document establishes a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking System and are specifically tailored to meet the scope of each field campaign.

  8. Gas-particle partitioning of PCDD/Fs in daily air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Rainer; Lee, Robert G. M.; Green, Nicholas J. L.; Jones, Kevin C.

    Eight short-term (24-48 h) air samples were taken at Lancaster, UK, to study the gas-particle partitioning of PCDD/Fs. Sampling dates in autumn 1997 were selected with a view to minimising temperature fluctuation during the sampling events. ΣCl 4-8DD/Fs ( ΣTEQ) for the first 6 samples were 1.1-3.6 pg m -3 (15-44 fg TEQ m -3), typical of a rural site; two other samples had ΣCl 4-8DD/Fs of 18 and 7.9 pg m -3, with 320 and 100 fg TEQ m -3. The observed gas-particle distributions varied from 0-34% particle-bound for Cl 2/3DD/Fs to >70% for Cl 6-8DD/Fs. Measured particle-bound fractions were compared to theoretical estimates of their distribution based on the Junge-Pankow model using three different reported sets of vapour pressures. The best correlation was obtained using vapour pressures derived from measured GC-retention time indices ( Eitzer and Hites, 1988). Plotting log partition coefficient ( Kp) versus log sub-cooled liquid vapour pressure ( pL) gave excellent correlations with slopes of roughly -1 for all homologue groups. 2, 3, 7, 8-substituted congeners showed slopes of -1 for the first five sampling events. It is proposed that kinetic factors at the low ambient temperatures, coupled with additional emissions during the last sampling events resulted in non-equilibrium partitioning.

  9. DNA sequences identical to Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii and Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis in samples of air spora.

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, A E

    1996-01-01

    Samples of ambient air collected with three different types of spore traps in a rural location were examined for the presence of Pneumocystis carinii by screening for P. carinii-specific DNA sequences by DNA amplification. Eleven spore trap samples were analyzed by nested PCR, using oligonucleotide primers designed for the gene encoding the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA of P. carinii f. sp. carinii and P. carinii f. sp. hominis. The samples were collected over a 3-year period during the months of May to September, with a range of sampling times from 9 to 240 h. One air sample from an animal facility housing P. carinii-infected rats was also examined. P. carinii-specific amplification products were obtained from samples from each of the spore traps. The amplification products from eight air samples were cloned and sequenced. The majority of the recombinants from each of these samples had sequences identical to those of P. carinii f. sp. carinii and P. carinii f. sp. hominis, and a number of clones had single-base differences. These data suggest that sequences identical to those of P. carinii f. sp. carinii and P. carinii f. sp. hominis can be detected in samples of air collected in a rural location and that P. carinii may be a component of the air spora of rural Oxfordshire. PMID:8784583

  10. ANASORB{reg_sign} 747 - A universal sorbent for air sampling?

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, M.

    1997-12-31

    A sorbent to be used for air sampling must meet certain performance criteria including sample background, capacity, stability, and recovery. Anasorb{sup R} 747 is a proprietary 20/40 mesh beaded active carbon prepared from raw materials with a very low ash content in a process which creates a regular pore structure. The background is very low for both inorganic and organic species, and the surface is more inert and less hydrophilic than coconut charcoal, while capacity is similar. The low catalytic activity of the surface means samples of many reactive compounds remain stable for longer periods. The sorbent is compatible with most solvent systems in use (e.g. carbon disulfide, methylene chloride, methanol, dimethyformamide). Anasorb 747 can be coated with chemicals for efficient adsorption of inorganic gases, which can be analyzed at very low levels because of low background interference. A large number of validated sampling methods use Anasorb 747, including methods from OSHA and NIOSH, corporate industrial hygiene laboratories, various branches of the EPA, and international agencies. These methods refer to around fifty different gases and vapors. Although this sorbent is not compatible with some compounds (e.g. low molecular weight aldehydes) it is quite close to being of universal application.

  11. Total Particulate Matter Air Sampling Data (TEOM) from Los Alamos National Laboratory

    DOE Data Explorer

    LANL measures the total particulate mass concentration in the air on a routine basis as well as during incidents that may affect ambient air. The collected data is added to the Air Quality Index (AQI). AQI is an index for reporting daily air quality. It tells you how clean or polluted your air is, and what associated health effects might be a concern for you. The AQI focuses on health effects you may experience within a few hours or days after breathing polluted air. EPA calculates the AQI for five major air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act.

  12. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 1 Sampling And Analysis Revelant To Air-Based Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Force Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environme...

  13. Unmanned platform for long-range remote analysis of volatile compounds in air samples.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Eric T; Neves, Carlos A; Hotta, Guilherme M; Vidal, Denis T R; Barros, Marcelo F; Ayon, Arturo A; Garcia, Carlos D; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes a long-range remotely controlled CE system built on an all-terrain vehicle. A four-stroke engine and a set of 12-V batteries were used to provide power to a series of subsystems that include drivers, communication, computers, and a capillary electrophoresis module. This dedicated instrument allows air sampling using a polypropylene porous tube, coupled to a flow system that transports the sample to the inlet of a fused-silica capillary. A hybrid approach was used for the construction of the analytical subsystem combining a conventional fused-silica capillary (used for separation) and a laser machined microfluidic block, made of PMMA. A solid-state cooling approach was also integrated in the CE module to enable controlling the temperature and therefore increasing the useful range of the robot. Although ultimately intended for detection of chemical warfare agents, the proposed system was used to analyze a series of volatile organic acids. As such, the system allowed the separation and detection of formic, acetic, and propionic acids with signal-to-noise ratios of 414, 150, and 115, respectively, after sampling by only 30 s and performing an electrokinetic injection during 2.0 s at 1.0 kV.

  14. Unmanned platform for long-range remote analysis of volatile compounds in air samples.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Eric T; Neves, Carlos A; Hotta, Guilherme M; Vidal, Denis T R; Barros, Marcelo F; Ayon, Arturo A; Garcia, Carlos D; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes a long-range remotely controlled CE system built on an all-terrain vehicle. A four-stroke engine and a set of 12-V batteries were used to provide power to a series of subsystems that include drivers, communication, computers, and a capillary electrophoresis module. This dedicated instrument allows air sampling using a polypropylene porous tube, coupled to a flow system that transports the sample to the inlet of a fused-silica capillary. A hybrid approach was used for the construction of the analytical subsystem combining a conventional fused-silica capillary (used for separation) and a laser machined microfluidic block, made of PMMA. A solid-state cooling approach was also integrated in the CE module to enable controlling the temperature and therefore increasing the useful range of the robot. Although ultimately intended for detection of chemical warfare agents, the proposed system was used to analyze a series of volatile organic acids. As such, the system allowed the separation and detection of formic, acetic, and propionic acids with signal-to-noise ratios of 414, 150, and 115, respectively, after sampling by only 30 s and performing an electrokinetic injection during 2.0 s at 1.0 kV. PMID:22965708

  15. 24-HOUR DIFFUSIVE SAMPLING OF TOXIC VOCS IN AIR ONTO CARBOPACK X SOLID ADSORBENT FOLLOWED BY THERMAL DESORPTION/GC/MS ANALYSIS - LABORATORY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diffusive sampling of a mixture of 42 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in humidified, purified air onto the solid adsorbent Carbopack X was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. The evaluation included variations in sample air temperature, relative humidity, and ozon...

  16. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FIXED SITE INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.12)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the procedures to set up, calibrate, initiate and terminate air sampling for persistent organic pollutants. This method is used to sample air, indoors and outdoors, at homes and at day care centers over a 48-hr period.

  17. Evaluation of a modified sampling method for molecular analysis of air microflora.

    PubMed

    Lech, T; Ziembinska-Buczynska, A

    2015-04-10

    A serious issue concerning the durability of economically important materials for humans related to cultural heritage is the process of biodeterioration. As a result of this phenomenon, priceless works of art, documents, and old prints have undergone a process of decomposition caused by microorganisms. Therefore, it is important to constantly monitor the presence and diversity of microorganisms in exposition rooms and storage areas of historical objects. In addition, the use of molecular biology tools for conservation studies will enable detailed research as well as reduce the time needed to perform the analyses compared with using conventional methods related to microbiology and conservation. The aim of this study was to adapt the sampling indoor air method for direct DNA extraction from microorganisms, including evaluating the extracted DNA quality and concentration. The obtained DNA was used to study the diversity of mold fungi in indoor air using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in specific archives and museum environments. The research was conducted in 2 storage rooms of the National Archives in Krakow and in 1 exposition room of the Archaeological Museum in Krakow (Poland).

  18. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Topical report for Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-21

    Under contract with the US Department of Energy (DE-AC22-92PCO0367), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Radian Corporation has conducted a test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPS). Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical charactization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions.

  19. Pteam: Monitoring of phthalates and PAHs in indoor and outdoor air samples in Riverside, California. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, L.; Clayton, A.; Keever, J.; Perritt, R.; Whitaker, D.

    1992-12-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to obtain indoor and outdoor air concentration data for benzo(a)pyrene, other polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and phthalates in California residences to be used in making exposure predictions. To meet these objectives, a field monitoring study was performed in 125 homes in Riverside, California in the fall of 1990. In each home, two 12-hour indoor air samples were collected during daytime and overnight periods. In a subset of 65 homes, outdoor air samples were also collected. PAH and phthalate concentrations were measured in collected air samples using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques. Along with field monitoring, information on potential source usage in the home was collected using questionnaires.

  20. Spectral fingerprinting of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high-volume ambient air samples by constant energy synchronous luminescence spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerkhoff, M.J.; Lee, T.M.; Allen, E.R.; Lundgren, D.A.; Winefordner, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A high-volume sampler fitted with a glass-fiber filter and backed by polyurethane foam (PUF) was employed to collect airborne particulate and gas-phase polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air. Samples were collected from four sources representing a range of environmental conditions: gasoline engine exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, air near a heavily traveled interstate site, and air from a moderately polluted urban site. Spectral fingerprints of the unseparated particulate and gas-phase samples were obtained by constant energy synchronous luminescence spectroscopy (CESLS). Five major PAHs in the gas-phase extracts were characterized and estimated. The compatibility of a high-volume sampling method using polyurethane foam coupled with CESLS detection is explored for use as a screening technique for PAHs in ambient air. ?? 1985 American Chemical Society.

  1. Evaluation of sampling and analytical methods for the determination of chlorodifluoromethane in air.

    PubMed

    Seymour, M J; Lucas, M F

    1993-05-01

    In January 1989, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) published revised permissible exposure limits (PELs) for 212 compounds and established PELs for 164 additional compounds. In cases where regulated compounds did not have specific sampling and analytical methods, methods were suggested by OSHA. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM) Method 1020, which was developed for 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, was suggested by OSHA for the determination of chlorodifluoromethane in workplace air. Because this method was developed for a liquid and chlorodifluoromethane is a gas, the ability of NMAM Method 1020 to adequately sample and quantitate chlorodifluoromethane was questioned and tested by researchers at NIOSH. The evaluation of NMAM Method 1020 for chlorodifluoromethane showed that the capacity of the 100/50-mg charcoal sorbent bed was limited, the standard preparation procedure was incorrect for a gas analyte, and the analyte had low solubility in carbon disulfide. NMAM Method 1018 for dichlorodifluoromethane uses two coconut-shell charcoal tubes in series, a 400/200-mg tube followed by a 100/50-mg tube, which are desorbed with methylene chloride. This method was evaluated for chlorodifluoromethane. Test atmospheres, with chlorodifluoromethane concentrations from 0.5-2 times the PEL were generated. Modifications of NMAM Method 1018 included changes in the standard preparation procedure, and the gas chromatograph was equipped with a capillary column. These revisions to NMAM 1018 resulted in a 96.5% recovery and a total precision for the method of 7.1% for chlorodifluoromethane. No significant bias in the method was found. Results indicate that the revised NMAM Method 1018 is suitable for the determination of chlorodifluoromethane in workplace air.

  2. Air-spore in Cartagena, Spain: viable and non-viable sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Elvira-Rendueles, Belen; Moreno, Jose; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio; Vergara, Nuria; Martinez-Garcia, Maria Jose; Moreno-Grau, Stella

    2013-01-01

    In the presented study the airborne fungal spores of the semiarid city of Cartagena, Spain, are identified and quantified by means of viable or non-viable sampling methods. Airborne fungal samples were collected simultaneously using a filtration method and a pollen and particle sampler based on the Hirst methodology. This information is very useful for elucidating geographical patterns of hay fever and asthma. The qualitative results showed that when the non-viable methodology was employed, Cladosporium, Ustilago, and Alternaria were the most abundant spores identified in the atmosphere of Cartagena, while the viable methodology showed that the most abundant taxa were: Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria. The quantitative results of airborne fungal spores identified by the Hirst-type air sampler (non-viable method), showed that Deuteromycetes represented 74% of total annual spore counts, Cladosporium being the major component of the fungal spectrum (62.2%), followed by Alternaria (5.3%), and Stemphylium (1.3%). The Basidiomycetes group represented 18.9% of total annual spore counts, Ustilago (7.1%) being the most representative taxon of this group and the second most abundant spore type. Ascomycetes accounted for 6.9%, Nectria (2.3%) being the principal taxon. Oomycetes (0.2%) and Zygomycestes and Myxomycestes (0.06%) were scarce. The prevailing species define our bioaerosol as typical of dry air. The viable methodology was better at identifying small hyaline spores and allowed for the discrimination of the genus of some spore types. However, non-viable methods revealed the richness of fungal types present in the bioaerosol. Thus, the use of both methodologies provides a more comprehensive characterization of the spore profile.

  3. GUIDE TO CALCULATING TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY OF AEROSOLS IN OCCUPATIONAL AIR SAMPLING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.; Hadlock, D.; Thompson, M.; Farfan, E.

    2013-11-12

    This report will present hand calculations for transport efficiency based on aspiration efficiency and particle deposition losses. Because the hand calculations become long and tedious, especially for lognormal distributions of aerosols, an R script (R 2011) will be provided for each element examined. Calculations are provided for the most common elements in a remote air sampling system, including a thin-walled probe in ambient air, straight tubing, bends and a sample housing. One popular alternative approach would be to put such calculations in a spreadsheet, a thorough version of which is shared by Paul Baron via the Aerocalc spreadsheet (Baron 2012). To provide greater transparency and to avoid common spreadsheet vulnerabilities to errors (Burns 2012), this report uses R. The particle size is based on the concept of activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). The AMAD is a particle size in an aerosol where fifty percent of the activity in the aerosol is associated with particles of aerodynamic diameter greater than the AMAD. This concept allows for the simplification of transport efficiency calculations where all particles are treated as spheres with the density of water (1g cm-3). In reality, particle densities depend on the actual material involved. Particle geometries can be very complicated. Dynamic shape factors are provided by Hinds (Hinds 1999). Some example factors are: 1.00 for a sphere, 1.08 for a cube, 1.68 for a long cylinder (10 times as long as it is wide), 1.05 to 1.11 for bituminous coal, 1.57 for sand and 1.88 for talc. Revision 1 is made to correct an error in the original version of this report. The particle distributions are based on activity weighting of particles rather than based on the number of particles of each size. Therefore, the mass correction made in the original version is removed from the text and the calculations. Results affected by the change are updated.

  4. Aircraft trace gas measurements during the London 2012 Olympics: Air quality and emission fluxes derived from sampling upwind and downwind of a megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G.; O'Shea, S.; Muller, J.; Jones, B.; O'Sullivan, D.; Lee, J. D.; Bauguitte, S.; Gallagher, M. W.; Percival, C.; Barratt, B.; McQuaid, J. B.; Illingworth, S.

    2013-12-01

    This study presents airborne in situ and remote sensing measurements recorded during July and August 2012, across the period of the London 2012 Summer Olympics and simultaneous with the Clear air for London (ClearfLo) ground-based measurement and modelling campaign. Through long-term (2-year) and intensive observation periods (Winter 2011 and Summer 2012), the ClearfLo programme aims to better understand emissions, as well as the chemical, dynamical and micro-meteorological processes which modulate air quality in the London urban environment - an important risk factor for both acute and chronic health effects. The work presented here focuses on two contrasting case studies within the summer ClearfLo period: 30 July 2012 and 9 August 2012, representing relatively clean background and polluted background cases, respectively, and characterised by well-mixed Atlantic westerly maritime inflow in the former and stagnant air (high pressure) in the latter. Measurements of CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, HCN, and other gases measured on board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 aircraft will be presented and interpreted, with emphasis on observed concentration gradients and tracer-tracer correlations as well as airmass vertical structure and airmass history upwind and downwind of central London in each case. By applying a simple advective model and making use of vertically resolved thermodynamic and composition data, we are able to derive emission strengths for these gases that are representative of the total enclosed surface area. Example emissions for these two cases range between 6x105 kg(C)/hr and 9x105 kg(C)/hr for CO2, and ~0.6x105 kg(C)/hr for CH4. This airborne sampling methodology highlights the unique utility of aircraft measurements to routinely and climatologically characterise emissions from area sources such as cities, and points to future missions to target localised hotspots and distributed point sources.

  5. Indoor air sampling for fine particulate matter and black carbon in industrial communities in Pittsburgh.

    PubMed

    Tunno, Brett J; Naumoff Shields, Kyra; Cambal, Leah; Tripathy, Sheila; Holguin, Fernando; Lioy, Paul; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-12-01

    Impacts of industrial emissions on outdoor air pollution in nearby communities are well-documented. Fewer studies, however, have explored impacts on indoor air quality in these communities. Because persons in northern climates spend a majority of their time indoors, understanding indoor exposures, and the role of outdoor air pollution in shaping such exposures, is a priority issue. Braddock and Clairton, Pennsylvania, industrial communities near Pittsburgh, are home to an active steel mill and coke works, respectively, and the population experiences elevated rates of childhood asthma. Twenty-one homes were selected for 1-week indoor sampling for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) during summer 2011 and winter 2012. Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine contributions from both outdoor concentrations and indoor sources. In the models, an outdoor infiltration component explained 10 to 39% of variability in indoor air pollution for PM2.5, and 33 to 42% for BC. For both PM2.5 models and the summer BC model, smoking was a stronger predictor than outdoor pollution, as greater pollutant concentration increases were identified. For winter BC, the model was explained by outdoor pollution and an open windows modifier. In both seasons, indoor concentrations for both PM2.5 and BC were consistently higher than residence-specific outdoor concentration estimates. Mean indoor PM2.5 was higher, on average, during summer (25.8±22.7 μg/m3) than winter (18.9±13.2 μg/m3). Contrary to the study's hypothesis, outdoor concentrations accounted for only little to moderate variability (10 to 42%) in indoor concentrations; a much greater proportion of PM2.5 was explained by cigarette smoking. Outdoor infiltration was a stronger predictor for BC compared to PM2.5, especially in winter. Our results suggest that, even in industrial communities of high outdoor pollution concentrations, indoor activities--particularly cigarette smoking--may play a larger

  6. Indoor air sampling for fine particulate matter and black carbon in industrial communities in Pittsburgh.

    PubMed

    Tunno, Brett J; Naumoff Shields, Kyra; Cambal, Leah; Tripathy, Sheila; Holguin, Fernando; Lioy, Paul; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-12-01

    Impacts of industrial emissions on outdoor air pollution in nearby communities are well-documented. Fewer studies, however, have explored impacts on indoor air quality in these communities. Because persons in northern climates spend a majority of their time indoors, understanding indoor exposures, and the role of outdoor air pollution in shaping such exposures, is a priority issue. Braddock and Clairton, Pennsylvania, industrial communities near Pittsburgh, are home to an active steel mill and coke works, respectively, and the population experiences elevated rates of childhood asthma. Twenty-one homes were selected for 1-week indoor sampling for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) during summer 2011 and winter 2012. Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine contributions from both outdoor concentrations and indoor sources. In the models, an outdoor infiltration component explained 10 to 39% of variability in indoor air pollution for PM2.5, and 33 to 42% for BC. For both PM2.5 models and the summer BC model, smoking was a stronger predictor than outdoor pollution, as greater pollutant concentration increases were identified. For winter BC, the model was explained by outdoor pollution and an open windows modifier. In both seasons, indoor concentrations for both PM2.5 and BC were consistently higher than residence-specific outdoor concentration estimates. Mean indoor PM2.5 was higher, on average, during summer (25.8±22.7 μg/m3) than winter (18.9±13.2 μg/m3). Contrary to the study's hypothesis, outdoor concentrations accounted for only little to moderate variability (10 to 42%) in indoor concentrations; a much greater proportion of PM2.5 was explained by cigarette smoking. Outdoor infiltration was a stronger predictor for BC compared to PM2.5, especially in winter. Our results suggest that, even in industrial communities of high outdoor pollution concentrations, indoor activities--particularly cigarette smoking--may play a larger

  7. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Final report for Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    A test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) was conducted . Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical characterization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions. Field testing was conducted in two phases. The Phase I field program was performed over the period of August 24 through September 20, 1992, at the Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8 Power Station, located near Stevenson (Jackson County), Alabama, on the Tennessee River. Sampling activities for Phase II were conducted from September 11 through October 14, 1993. Widows Creek Unit 8 is a 575-megawatt plant that uses bituminous coal averaging 3.7% sulfur and 13% ash. Downstream of the boiler, a venture wet scrubbing system is used for control of both sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions. There is no electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in this system. This system is atypical and represents only about 5% of the US utility industry. However, this site was chosen for this study because of the lack of information available for this particulate emission control system.

  8. Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer-Gas Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Lunden, Melissa M.

    2013-12-01

    The PerFluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) method is a low-cost approach commonly used for measuring air exchange in buildings using tracer gases. It is a specific application of the more general Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling (CILTS) method. The technique is widely used but there has been little work on understanding the uncertainties (both precision and bias) associated with its use, particularly given that it is typically deployed by untrained or lightly trained people to minimize experimental costs. In this article we will conduct a first-principles error analysis to estimate the uncertainties and then compare that analysis to CILTS measurements that were over-sampled, through the use of multiple tracers and emitter and sampler distribution patterns, in three houses. We find that the CILTS method can have an overall uncertainty of 10-15percent in ideal circumstances, but that even in highly controlled field experiments done by trained experimenters expected uncertainties are about 20percent. In addition, there are many field conditions (such as open windows) where CILTS is not likely to provide any quantitative data. Even avoiding the worst situations of assumption violations CILTS should be considered as having a something like a ?factor of two? uncertainty for the broad field trials that it is typically used in. We provide guidance on how to deploy CILTS and design the experiment to minimize uncertainties.

  9. Isolation of airborne oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from culturable air samples of urban residences.

    PubMed

    Perez, Hernando R; Johnson, Rachel; Gurian, Patrick L; Gibbs, Shawn G; Taylor, Jennifer; Burstyn, Igor

    2011-02-01

    Culturable single-stage impactor samples were collected onto nutrient agar in kitchen and bedroom areas of eight urban and four suburban residences in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Staphylococcus aureus colonies were identified by replica plating of the original impactor samples onto Chapman Stone medium followed by isolation of up to eight colonies for coagulase testing. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was utilized to evaluate S. aureus resistance to both oxacillin and cefaclor. The median concentrations of total culturable bacteria observed in bedrooms and trash areas were 300 CFU/m(3) and 253 CFU/m(3), respectively. Median culturable Staphylococcus spp. concentrations in bedrooms and trash areas were 142 CFU/m(3) and 204 CFU/m(3), respectively. A total of 148 individual S. aureus colonies were isolated and tested for antibiotic resistance. Cefaclor resistance was encountered among only 6 of the 148 (4%) colonies. Nearly one-quarter of all S. aureus isolates tested displayed resistance (n = 30) or intermediate resistance (n = 5) to oxacillin. Twenty-six percent (n = 20) of trash area isolates and 21% (n = 15) of bedroom isolates displayed resistance or intermediate resistance to oxacillin. The median difference in percent resistance between trash and bedroom areas was 10% (p = 0.1). Results suggest that there may be a systematic difference in bacterial populations between downtown and suburban residences. Storage of household waste and handling of food may contribute to presence of the organism in the air of residences.

  10. The "Know Stroke" Campaign

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section The "Know Stroke" Campaign Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... campaign for the U.S. Hispanic community. 1 Know Stroke A stroke occurs when the blood supply to ...

  11. Sampling, storage, and analysis of C2-C7 non-methane hydrocarbons from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Cooperative Air Sampling Network glass flasks.

    PubMed

    Pollmann, Jan; Helmig, Detlev; Hueber, Jacques; Plass-Dülmer, Christian; Tans, Pieter

    2008-04-25

    An analytical technique was developed to analyze light non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), including ethane, propane, iso-butane, n-butane, iso-pentane, n-pentane, n-hexane, isoprene, benzene and toluene from whole air samples collected in 2.5l-glass flasks used by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division (NOAA ESRL GMD, Boulder, CO, USA) Cooperative Air Sampling Network. This method relies on utilizing the remaining air in these flasks (which is at below-ambient pressure at this stage) after the completion of all routine greenhouse gas measurements from these samples. NMHC in sample aliquots extracted from the flasks were preconcentrated with a custom-made, cryogen-free inlet system and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID). C2-C7 NMHC, depending on their ambient air mixing ratios, could be measured with accuracy and repeatability errors of generally < or =10-20%. Larger deviations were found for ethene and propene. Hexane was systematically overestimated due to a chromatographic co-elution problem. Saturated NMHC showed less than 5% changes in their mixing ratios in glass flask samples that were stored for up to 1 year. In the same experiment ethene and propene increased at approximately 30% yr(-1). A series of blank experiments showed negligible contamination from the sampling process and from storage (<10 pptv yr(-1)) of samples in these glass flasks. Results from flask NMHC analyses were compared to in-situ NMHC measurements at the Global Atmospheric Watch station in Hohenpeissenberg, Germany. This 9-months side-by-side comparison showed good agreement between both methods. More than 94% of all data comparisons for C2-C5 alkanes, isoprene, benzene and toluene fell within the combined accuracy and precision objectives of the World Meteorological Organization Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO-GAW) for NMHC measurements.

  12. Assessment of respiratory effect of air pollution: study design on general population samples.

    PubMed

    Baldacci, S; Carrozzi, L; Viegi, G; Giuntini, C

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe an epidemiological model to investigate the relationship between respiratory diseases and environmental air pollution. In the Po Delta prospective study, subjects were investigated before and after a large thermoelectric power plant began operating, in 1980 to 1982 and in 1988 to 1991, respectively. The Pisa prospective study was performed in 1986 to 1988 and in 1991 to 1993, before and after the construction of a new expressway that encircles the city from the North to the Southeast. In each survey, subjects completed the interviewer-administered standardized CNR questionnaire on respiratory symptoms/diseases and risk factors, and performed lung function tests. In the second survey of each study, skin prick tests, total serum IgE determination, methacholine challenge test and biomarkers (such as sister chromatide exchanges, micronuclei, chromosomal abnormalities, DNA and hemoglobin adducts) were also performed. Concentrations of total suspended particulate and SO2 in both surveys were higher in urban than in rural areas, as well as symptom/disease prevalences and bronchial reactivity. Subgroups of subjects from the two samples were enrolled to perform a specific study on the acute respiratory effects of indoor pollution; the daily presence of symptoms and measurements of peak expiratory flow (PEF), daily activity pattern, and assessment of the indoor air quality (particulates < 2.5 mu and NO2) were evaluated. Higher symptom prevalences and PEF variability level were observed in subjects with the highest levels of NO2 or particulates, especially asthmatics. In conclusion, these studies represent a basis for further analyses to better define the relationship between respiratory health and indoor/outdoor pollutant levels.

  13. Diversity: A Corporate Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiyama, Diana D.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author calls for a "campaign" because she believes there is a need to build upon the successes of diversity initiatives with renewed commitment, in much the same way as capital campaigns build upon past successes and refocus campuses on their work. Just as a capital campaign invests in financial stability by stimulating…

  14. Political Campaign Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Political/Legal Education, Sewell, NJ.

    Techniques, materials, and coordinating efforts used in a political campaign are outlined for high school students. The objective is to familiarize students with these techniques so that they can become effective campaign volunteers. Topics include the candidate and the press, campaign publicity materials, organization of headquarters, receptions,…

  15. Air sampling of flame retardants based on the use of mixed-bed sorption tubes--a validation study.

    PubMed

    Lazarov, Borislav; Swinnen, Rudi; Spruyt, Maarten; Maes, Frederick; Van Campenhout, Karen; Goelen, Eddy; Covaci, Adrian; Stranger, Marianne

    2015-11-01

    An analytical methodology using automatic thermal desorption and gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis was optimized and validated for simultaneous determination of a set of components from three different flame retardant chemical classes: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (PBDE-28, PBDE-47, PBDE-66, PBDE-85, PBDE-99, PBDE-100), organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) (tributyl phosphate, tripropyl phosphate, tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate-, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate, triphenyl phosphate, tris(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) phosphate and tricresylphosphate), and "novel" brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) (pentabromotoluene, 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromoethylbenzene, (2,3-dibromopropyl) (2,4,6-tribromophenyl) ether, hexabromobenzene, and 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate) in air. The methodology is based on low volume active air sampling of gaseous and particulate air fractions on mixed-bed (polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/Tenax TA) sorption tubes. The optimized method provides recoveries >88%; a limit of detection in the range of 6-25 pg m(-3) for PBDEs, 6-171 pg m(-3) for PFRs, and 7-41 pg m(-3) for NBFRs; a linearity greater than 0.996; and a repeatability of less than 10% for all studied compounds. The optimized method was compared with a standard method using active air sampling on XAD-2 sorbent material, followed by liquid extraction. On the one hand, the PDMS/Tenax TA method shows comparable results at longer sampling time conditions (e.g., indoor air sampling, personal air sampling). On the other hand, at shorter sampling time conditions (e.g., sampling from emission test chambers), the optimized method detects up to three times higher concentrations and identifies more flame retardant compounds compared to the standard method based on XAD-2 loading.

  16. Comparison of air dispersion modeling results with ambient air sampling data: A case study at Tacoma Landfill, a National Priorities List Site

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, L.R. ); Rutherford, T.L. )

    1994-08-01

    Air dispersion modeling, ambient air sampling, and emissions testing of landfill sources have been performed to evaluate the effects of remedial activities on ambient air surrounding the Tacoma Landfill. In 1983, the Tacoma Landfill was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) as part of the Commencement Bay/South Tacoma Channel Superfund site. Remedial activities completed, or near completion, at the 190 acre (768,903 m[sup 2]) Tacoma Landfill include a groundwater extraction system and air stripping units used to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from groundwater, landfill gas extraction and flare system to control gas migration from the landfill, landfill liner and leachate collection system for an active section of the landfill, and a landfill cap that covers the inactive portions of the landfill. Dispersion modeling was performed with measured stack emission data using Industrial Source Complex (ISC) to determine the groundlevel concentrations of VOCs from the air stripper, flares, and active portion of the landfill for comparison with the measured ambient air data collected during 1992. 9 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. The SHARE 2012 data campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannandrea, AnneMarie; Raqueno, Nina; Messinger, David W.; Faulring, Jason; Kerekes, John P.; van Aardt, Jan; Canham, Kelly; Hagstrom, Shea; Ontiveros, Erin; Gerace, Aaron; Kaufman, Jason; Vongsy, Karmon M.; Griffith, Heather; Bartlett, Brent D.; Ientilucci, Emmett; Meola, Joseph; Scarff, Lauwrence; Daniel, Brian

    2013-05-01

    A multi-modal (hyperspectral, multispectral, and LIDAR) imaging data collection campaign was conducted just south of Rochester New York in Avon, NY on September 20, 2012 by the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) in conjunction with SpecTIR, LLC, the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), the Naval Research Lab (NRL), United Technologies Aerospace Systems (UTAS) and MITRE. The campaign was a follow on from the SpecTIR Hyperspectral Airborne Rochester Experiment (SHARE) from 2010. Data was collected in support of the eleven simultaneous experiments described here. The airborne imagery was collected over four different sites with hyperspectral, multispectral, and LIDAR sensors. The sites for data collection included Avon, NY, Conesus Lake, Hemlock Lake and forest, and a nearby quarry. Experiments included topics such as target unmixing, subpixel detection, material identification, impacts of illumination on materials, forest health, and in-water target detection. An extensive ground truthing effort was conducted in addition to collection of the airborne imagery. The ultimate goal of the data collection campaign is to provide the remote sensing community with a shareable resource to support future research. This paper details the experiments conducted and the data that was collected during this campaign.

  18. Day and night variation in chemical composition and toxicological responses of size segregated urban air PM samples in a high air pollution situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalava, P. I.; Wang, Q.; Kuuspalo, K.; Ruusunen, J.; Hao, L.; Fang, D.; Väisänen, O.; Ruuskanen, A.; Sippula, O.; Happo, M. S.; Uski, O.; Kasurinen, S.; Torvela, T.; Koponen, H.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Komppula, M.; Gu, C.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hirvonen, M.-R.

    2015-11-01

    Urban air particulate pollution is a known cause for adverse human health effects worldwide. China has encountered air quality problems in recent years due to rapid industrialization. Toxicological effects induced by particulate air pollution vary with particle sizes and season. However, it is not known how distinctively different photochemical activity and different emission sources during the day and the night affect the chemical composition of the PM size ranges and subsequently how it is reflected to the toxicological properties of the PM exposures. The particulate matter (PM) samples were collected in four different size ranges (PM10-2.5; PM2.5-1; PM1-0.2 and PM0.2) with a high volume cascade impactor. The PM samples were extracted with methanol, dried and thereafter used in the chemical and toxicological analyses. RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to the particulate samples in four different doses for 24 h. Cytotoxicity, inflammatory parameters, cell cycle and genotoxicity were measured after exposure of the cells to particulate samples. Particles were characterized for their chemical composition, including ions, element and PAH compounds, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to take images of the PM samples. Chemical composition and the induced toxicological responses of the size segregated PM samples showed considerable size dependent differences as well as day to night variation. The PM10-2.5 and the PM0.2 samples had the highest inflammatory potency among the size ranges. Instead, almost all the PM samples were equally cytotoxic and only minor differences were seen in genotoxicity and cell cycle effects. Overall, the PM0.2 samples had the highest toxic potential among the different size ranges in many parameters. PAH compounds in the samples and were generally more abundant during the night than the day, indicating possible photo-oxidation of the PAH compounds due to solar radiation. This was reflected to different toxicity in the PM

  19. Potential contamination of shipboard air samples by diffusive emissions of PCBs and other organic pollutants: implications and solutions.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Rainer; Jaward, Foday M; Durham, Louise; Barber, Jonathan L; Ockenden, Wendy; Jones, Kevin C; Bruhn, Regina; Lakaschus, Soenke; Dachs, Jordi; Booij, Kees

    2004-07-15

    Air samples were taken onboard the RRS Bransfield on an Atlantic cruise from the United Kingdom to Halley, Antarctica, from October to December 1998, with the aim of establishing PCB oceanic background air concentrations and assessing their latitudinal distribution. Great care was taken to minimize pre- and post-collection contamination of the samples, which was validated through stringent QA/QC procedures. However, there is evidence that onboard contamination of the air samples occurred,following insidious, diffusive emissions on the ship. Other data (for PCBs and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs)) and examples of shipboard contamination are presented. The implications of these findings for past and future studies of global POPs distribution are discussed. Recommendations are made to help critically appraise and minimize the problems of insidious/diffusive shipboard contamination.

  20. Overview of VOC emissions and chemistry from PTR-TOF-MS measurements during the SusKat-ABC campaign: high acetaldehyde, ketene, isoprene and isocyanic acid in wintertime air of the Kathmandu Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, C.; Sinha, V.; Kumar, V.; Rupakheti, M.; Panday, A. K.; Mahata, K.; Rupakheti, D.; Kathayat, B.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    During SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley-Atmospheric Brown Clouds) field campaign conducted in the winter of 2012-2013, a comprehensive study was carried out to characterize the chemical composition of ambient Kathmandu air for speciated VOCs by deploying a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS), the first time to be deployed in South Asia. Due to its high mass resolution (m/Δm > 4200) and temporal resolution (1 minute), 71 ion peaks were detected in the PTR-TOF-MS mass scan data, highlighting the chemical complexity of ambient air in the Valley. Of the 71, 38 species were found to have campaign average concentrations > 200 ppt and were identified based on their spectral characteristics, ambient diel profiles and correlation with specific emission tracers. Distinct diel profiles were observed for the nominal isobaric compounds isoprene (m/z=69.070) and furan (m/z=69.033). Comparison with several sites elsewhere in the world showed mixing ratios of acetaldehyde (~ 9 ppb), acetonitrile (~1 ppb) and isoprene (~ 1 ppb) to be among the highest measured anywhere in the world. Two "new" ambient compounds namely, methanamide (m/z = 46.029) and acetamide (m/z=60.051) which can photochemically produce isocyanic acid in the atmosphere, are reported in this study alongwith nitromethane (a tracer for diesel exhaust) and ketene (a very reactive compound). Two distinct periods were identified during the campaign based on high daytime biogenic emissions of isoprene even in winter and biomass fired brick kiln emissions of acetonitrile, benzene and isocyanic acid. Biomass burning and biomass fired brick kiln emissions were found to be the dominant source for compounds such as propyne, propene, benzene and propanenitrile which correlated strongly with biomass burning tracer acetonitrile (r2 > 0.7). The calculated total VOC OH reactivity was dominated by acetaldehyde (20.1%), ketene (ethenone) (17.1%), isoprene (16.8 %) and

  1. A novel Whole Air Sample Profiler (WASP) for the quantification of volatile organic compounds in the boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Mak, J. E.; Su, L.; Guenther, Alex B.; Karl, Thomas G.

    2013-10-16

    The emission and fate of reactive VOCs is of inherent interest to those studying chemical biosphere-atmosphere interactions. In-canopy VOC observations are obtainable using tower-based samplers, but the lack of suitable sampling systems for the full boundary 5 layer has limited the data characterizing the vertical structure of such gases above the canopy height and still in the boundary layer. This is the important region where many reactive VOCs are oxidized or otherwise removed. Here we describe an airborne sampling system designed to collect a vertical profile of air into a 3/800 OD tube 150m in length. The inlet ram air pressure is used to flow sampled air through the 10 tube, which results in a varying flow rate based on aircraft speed and altitude. Since aircraft velocity decreases during ascent, it is necessary to account for the variable flow rate into the tube. This is accomplished using a reference gas that is pulsed into the air stream so that the precise altitude of the collected air can be reconstructed post-collection. The pulsed injections are also used to determine any significant effect 15 from diffusion/mixing within the sampling tube, either during collection or subsequent extraction for gas analysis. This system has been successfully deployed, and we show some measured vertical profiles of isoprene and its oxidation products methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone from a mixed canopy near Columbia, Missouri.

  2. Comparison of halocarbon measurements in an atmospheric dry whole air sample

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Bradley D.; Harth, Christina M.; Kim, Jin Seog; Lee, Jeongsoon; Montzka, Stephen A.; Mühle, Jens; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin K.; Weiss, Ray F.

    2015-01-01

    The growing awareness of climate change/global warming, and continuing concerns regarding stratospheric ozone depletion, will require continued measurements and standards for many compounds, in particular halocarbons that are linked to these issues. In order to track atmospheric mole fractions and assess the impact of policy on emission rates, it is necessary to demonstrate measurement equivalence at the highest levels of accuracy for assigned values of standards. Precise measurements of these species aid in determining small changes in their atmospheric abundance. A common source of standards/scales and/or well-documented agreement of different scales used to calibrate the measurement instrumentation are key to understanding many sets of data reported by researchers. This report describes the results of a comparison study among National Metrology Institutes and atmospheric research laboratories for the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), and 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113); the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22) and 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-142b); and the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), all in a dried whole air sample. The objective of this study is to compare calibration standards/scales and the measurement capabilities of the participants for these halocarbons at trace atmospheric levels. The results of this study show agreement among four independent calibration scales to better than 2.5% in almost all cases, with many of the reported agreements being better than 1.0%. PMID:26753167

  3. Ice nucleation active particles in continental air samples over Mainz, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pummer, Bernhard G.; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol particles are of central importance for atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate and public health. Some of these particles possess ice nucleation activity (INA), which is highly relevant for cloud formation and precipitation. In 2010, air filter samples were collected with a high-volume filter sampler separating fine and coarse particles (aerodynamic cut-off diameter 3 μm) in Mainz, Germany. In this study, the INA of the atmospheric particles deposited on these filters was determined. Therefore,they were extracted with ultrapure water, which was then measured in a droplet freezing assay, as described in Fröhlich-Nowoisky et al. (2015). The determined concentration of ice nucleators (INs) was between 0.3 and 2per m³ at 266 K, and between5 and 75 per m³ at 260 K. The INs were further characterized by different treatments, like heating (308 K, 371 K), filtration (0.1 μm, 300 kDa), and digestion with papain (10 mg/ml). We further investigated, which atmospheric conditions (e.g. weather) and distinguished events (e.g. dust storms, volcanic eruptions, and pollen peaks) influenced the number and nature of these INs. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J., Hill, T. C. J., Pummer, B. G., Yordanova, P., Franc, G. D., and Pöschl, U.: Ice nucleation activity in the widespread soil fungus Mortierella alpina, Biogeosci., 12, 1057-1071, doi:10.5194/bg-12-1057-2015, 2015.

  4. Photochemical ozone budget during the BIBLE A and B campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Malcolm; Hu, Wenjie; Rodríguez, José M.; Kondo, Yutaka; Koike, Makoto; Kita, Kazuyuki; Kawakami, Shuji; Blake, Donald; Liu, Shaw; Ogawa, Toshihiro

    2003-02-01

    Using the measured concentrations of NO, O3, H2O, CO, CH4, and NMHCs along the flight tracks, a photochemical box model is used to calculate the concentrations of the Ox radicals, the HOx radicals, and the nitrogen species at the sampling points. The calculations make use of the measurements from radiometers to scale clear sky photolysis rates to account for cloud cover and ground albedo at the sampling time/point. The concentrations of the nitrogen species in each of the sampled air parcels are computed assuming they are in instantaneous equilibrium with the measured NO and O3. The diurnally varying species concentrations are next calculated using the box model and used to estimate the diurnally averaged production and removal rates of ozone for the sampled air parcels. Clear sky photolysis rates are used in the diurnal calculations. The campaign also provided measured concentration of NOy. The observed NO/NOy ratio is usually larger than the model calculated equilibrium value. There are several possible explanations. It could be a result of recent injection of NO into the air parcel, recent removal of HNO3 from the parcel, recent rapid transport of an air parcel from another location, or a combination of all processes. Our analyses suggest that the local production rate of O3 can be used as another indicator of recent NO injection. However, more direct studies using air trajectory analyses and other collaborative evidences are needed to ascertain the roles played by individual process.

  5. Photochemical ozone budget during the BIBLE A and B campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Malcolm; Hu, Wenjie; RodríGuez, José M.; Kondo, Yutaka; Koike, Makoto; Kita, Kazuyuki; Kawakami, Shuji; Blake, Donald; Liu, Shaw; Ogawa, Toshihiro

    2002-02-01

    Using the measured concentrations of NO, O3, H2O, CO, CH4, and NMHCs along the flight tracks, a photochemical box model is used to calculate the concentrations of the Ox radicals, the HOx radicals, and the nitrogen species at the sampling points. The calculations make use of the measurements from radiometers to scale clear sky photolysis rates to account for cloud cover and ground albedo at the sampling time/point. The concentrations of the nitrogen species in each of the sampled air parcels are computed assuming they are in instantaneous equilibrium with the measured NO and O3. The diurnally varying species concentrations are next calculated using the box model and used to estimate the diurnally averaged production and removal rates of ozone for the sampled air parcels. Clear sky photolysis rates are used in the diurnal calculations. The campaign also provided measured concentration of NOy. The observed NO/NOy ratio is usually larger than the model calculated equilibrium value. There are several possible explanations. It could be a result of recent injection of NO into the air parcel, recent removal of HNO3 from the parcel, recent rapid transport of an air parcel from another location, or a combination of all processes. Our analyses suggest that the local production rate of O3 can be used as another indicator of recent NO injection. However, more direct studies using air trajectory analyses and other collaborative evidences are needed to ascertain the roles played by individual process.

  6. Overview of VOC emissions and chemistry from PTR-TOF-MS measurements during the SusKat-ABC campaign: high acetaldehyde, isoprene and isocyanic acid in wintertime air of the Kathmandu Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, C.; Sinha, V.; Kumar, V.; Rupakheti, M.; Panday, A.; Mahata, K. S.; Rupakheti, D.; Kathayat, B.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2015-09-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in Nepal suffers from severe wintertime air pollution. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are key constituents of air pollution, though their specific role in the Valley is poorly understood due to insufficient data. During the SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley-Atmospheric Brown Clouds) field campaign conducted in Nepal in the winter of 2012-2013, a comprehensive study was carried out to characterize the chemical composition of ambient Kathmandu air, including the determination of speciated VOCs by deploying a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS)-the first such deployment in South Asia. 71 ion peaks (for which measured ambient concentrations exceeded the 2 σ detection limit) were detected in the PTR-TOF-MS mass scan data, highlighting the chemical complexity of ambient air in the Valley. Of the 71 species, 37 were found to have campaign average concentrations greater than 200 ppt and were identified based on their spectral characteristics, ambient diel profiles and correlation with specific emission tracers as a result of the high mass resolution (m/Δm > 4200) and temporal resolution (1 min) of the PTR-TOF-MS. The highest average VOC mixing ratios during the measurement period were (in rank order): acetaldehyde (8.8 ppb), methanol (7.4 ppb), acetone (4.2 ppb), benzene (2.7 ppb), toluene (1.5 ppb), isoprene (1.1 ppb), acetonitrile (1.1 ppb), C8-aromatics (~ 1 ppb), furan (~ 0.5 ppb), and C9-aromatics (0.4 ppb). Distinct diel profiles were observed for the nominal isobaric compounds isoprene (m/z = 69.070) and furan (m/z = 69.033). Comparison with wintertime measurements from several locations elsewhere in the world showed mixing ratios of acetaldehyde (~ 9 ppb), acetonitrile (~ 1 ppb) and isoprene (~ 1 ppb) to be among the highest reported till date. Two "new" ambient compounds namely, formamide (m/z = 46.029) and acetamide (m/z = 60.051), which can photochemically produce isocyanic

  7. An Elevated Reservoir of Air Pollutants over the Mid-Atlantic States During the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ Campaign: Airborne Measurements and Numerical Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Hao; Loughner, Christopher P.; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Arkinson, Heather L.; Brent, Lacey C.; Follette-Cook, Melanie B.; Tzortziou, Maria A.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Thompson, Anne M.; Martins, Douglas K.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Crawford, James H.; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Lee, Pius; Hains, Jennifer C.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2013-01-01

    During a classic heat wave with record high temperatures and poor air quality from July 18 to 23, 2011, an elevated reservoir of air pollutants was observed over and downwind of Baltimore, MD, with relatively clean conditions near the surface. Aircraft and ozonesonde measurements detected approximately 120 parts per billion by volume ozone at 800 meters altitude, but approximately 80 parts per billion by volume ozone near the surface. High concentrations of other pollutants were also observed around the ozone peak: approximately 300 parts per billion by volume CO at 1200 meters, approximately 2 parts per billion by volume NO2 at 800 meters, approximately 5 parts per billion by volume SO2 at 600 meters, and strong aerosol optical scattering (2 x 10 (sup 4) per meter) at 600 meters. These results suggest that the elevated reservoir is a mixture of automobile exhaust (high concentrations of O3, CO, and NO2) and power plant emissions (high SO2 and aerosols). Back trajectory calculations show a local stagnation event before the formation of this elevated reservoir. Forward trajectories suggest an influence on downwind air quality, supported by surface ozone observations on the next day over the downwind PA, NJ and NY area. Meteorological observations from aircraft and ozonesondes show a dramatic veering of wind direction from south to north within the lowest 5000 meters, implying that the development of the elevated reservoir was caused in part by the Chesapeake Bay breeze. Based on in situ observations, Community Air Quality Multi-scale Model (CMAQ) forecast simulations with 12 kilometers resolution overestimated surface ozone concentrations and failed to predict this elevated reservoir; however, CMAQ research simulations with 4 kilometers and 1.33 kilometers resolution more successfully reproduced this event. These results show that high resolution is essential for resolving coastal effects and predicting air quality for cities near major bodies of water such as

  8. Total OH reactivity measurements in ambient air in a southern Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine forest during BEACHON-SRM08 summer campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Yoshihiro; Kato, Shungo; Greenberg, Jim; Harley, P.; Karl, Thomas G.; Turnipseed, A.; Apel, Eric; Guenther, Alex B.; Smith, Jim; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    2014-03-01

    Total OH reactivity was measured during the Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen-Southern Rocky Mountain 2008 field campaign (BEACHON-SRM08) held at Manitou Experimental Forest (MEF) in Colorado USA during the summer season in August, 2008. The averaged total OH reactivity was 6.8 s-1, smaller than that measured in urban or suburban areas, while sporadically high OH reactivity was also observed during some evenings. The total OH reactivity measurements were accompanied by observations of traces species such as CO, NO, NOy, O3 and SO2 and VOCs. From the calculation of OH reactivity based on the analysis of these trace species, 35.3-46.3% of OH reactivity for VOCs came from biogenic species that are dominated by 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol (MBO), and monoterpenes. MBO was the most prominent contribution to OH reactivity of any other trace species. A comparison of observed and calculated OH reactivity shows that the calculated OH reactivity is 29.5-34.8% less than the observed value, implying the existence of missing OH sink. One of the candidates of missing OH was thought to be the oxidation products of biogenic species.

  9. An analytical method for trifluoroacetic Acid in water and air samples using headspace gas chromatographic determination of the methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Zehavi, D; Seiber, J N

    1996-10-01

    An analytical method has been developed for the determination of trace levels of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), an atmospheric breakdown product of several of the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) replacements for the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants, in water and air. TFA is derivatized to the volatile methyl trifluoroacetate (MTFA) and determined by automated headspace gas chromatography (HSGC) with electron-capture detection or manual HSGC using GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The method is based on the reaction of an aqueous sample containing TFA with dimethyl sulfate (DMS) in concentrated sulfuric acid in a sealed headspace vial under conditions favoring distribution of MTFA to the vapor phase. Water samples are prepared by evaporative concentration, during which TFA is retained as the anion, followed by extraction with diethyl ether of the acidified sample and then back-extraction of TFA (as the anion) in aqueous bicarbonate solution. The extraction step is required for samples with a relatively high background of other salts and organic materials. Air samples are collected in sodium bicarbonate-glycerin-coated glass denuder tubes and prepared by rinsing the denuder contents with water to form an aqueous sample for derivatization and analysis. Recoveries of TFA from spiked water, with and without evaporative concentration, and from spiked air were quantitative, with estimated detection limits of 10 ng/mL (unconcentrated) and 25 pg/mL (concentrated 250 mL:1 mL) for water and 1 ng/m(3) (72 h at 5 L/min) for air. Several environmental air, fogwater, rainwater, and surface water samples were successfully analyzed; many showed the presence of TFA. PMID:21619278

  10. Comparison of Air Impaction and Electrostatic Dust Collector Sampling Methods to Assess Airborne Fungal Contamination in Public Buildings.

    PubMed

    Normand, Anne-Cécile; Ranque, Stéphane; Cassagne, Carole; Gaudart, Jean; Sallah, Kankoé; Charpin, Denis-André; Piarroux, Renaud

    2016-03-01

    Many ailments can be linked to exposure to indoor airborne fungus. However, obtaining a precise measurement of airborne fungal levels is complicated partly due to indoor air fluctuations and non-standardized techniques. Electrostatic dust collector (EDC) sampling devices have been used to measure a wide range of airborne analytes, including endotoxins, allergens, β-glucans, and microbial DNA in various indoor environments. In contrast, viable mold contamination has only been assessed in highly contaminated environments such as farms and archive buildings. This study aimed to assess the use of EDCs, compared with repeated air-impactor measurements, to assess airborne viable fungal flora in moderately contaminated indoor environments. Indoor airborne fungal flora was cultured from EDCs and daily air-impaction samples collected in an office building and a daycare center. The quantitative fungal measurements obtained using a single EDC significantly correlated with the cumulative measurement of nine daily air impactions. Both methods enabled the assessment of fungal exposure, although a few differences were observed between the detected fungal species and the relative quantity of each species. EDCs were also used over a 32-month period to monitor indoor airborne fungal flora in a hospital office building, which enabled us to assess the impact of outdoor events (e.g. ground excavations) on the fungal flora levels on the indoor environment. In conclusion, EDC-based measurements provided a relatively accurate profile of the viable airborne flora present during a sampling period. In particular, EDCs provided a more representative assessment of fungal levels compared with single air-impactor sampling. The EDC technique is also simpler than performing repetitive air-impaction measures over the course of several consecutive days. EDC is a versatile tool for collecting airborne samples and was efficient for measuring mold levels in indoor environments.

  11. Estimating sampling biases and measurement uncertainties of AIRS/AMSU-A temperature and water vapor observations using MERRA reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearty, Thomas J.; Savtchenko, Andrey; Tian, Baijun; Fetzer, Eric; Yung, Yuk L.; Theobald, Michael; Vollmer, Bruce; Fishbein, Evan; Won, Young-In

    2014-03-01

    We use MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research Applications) temperature and water vapor data to estimate the sampling biases of climatologies derived from the AIRS/AMSU-A (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) suite of instruments. We separate the total sampling bias into temporal and instrumental components. The temporal component is caused by the AIRS/AMSU-A orbit and swath that are not able to sample all of time and space. The instrumental component is caused by scenes that prevent successful retrievals. The temporal sampling biases are generally smaller than the instrumental sampling biases except in regions with large diurnal variations, such as the boundary layer, where the temporal sampling biases of temperature can be ± 2 K and water vapor can be 10% wet. The instrumental sampling biases are the main contributor to the total sampling biases and are mainly caused by clouds. They are up to 2 K cold and > 30% dry over midlatitude storm tracks and tropical deep convective cloudy regions and up to 20% wet over stratus regions. However, other factors such as surface emissivity and temperature can also influence the instrumental sampling bias over deserts where the biases can be up to 1 K cold and 10% wet. Some instrumental sampling biases can vary seasonally and/or diurnally. We also estimate the combined measurement uncertainties of temperature and water vapor from AIRS/AMSU-A and MERRA by comparing similarly sampled climatologies from both data sets. The measurement differences are often larger than the sampling biases and have longitudinal variations.

  12. Estimating Sampling Biases and Measurement Uncertainties of AIRS-AMSU-A Temperature and Water Vapor Observations Using MERRA Reanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearty, Thomas J.; Savtchenko, Andrey K.; Tian, Baijun; Fetzer, Eric; Yung, Yuk L.; Theobald, Michael; Vollmer, Bruce; Fishbein, Evan; Won, Young-In

    2014-01-01

    We use MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research Applications) temperature and water vapor data to estimate the sampling biases of climatologies derived from the AIRS/AMSU-A (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) suite of instruments. We separate the total sampling bias into temporal and instrumental components. The temporal component is caused by the AIRS/AMSU-A orbit and swath that are not able to sample all of time and space. The instrumental component is caused by scenes that prevent successful retrievals. The temporal sampling biases are generally smaller than the instrumental sampling biases except in regions with large diurnal variations, such as the boundary layer, where the temporal sampling biases of temperature can be +/- 2 K and water vapor can be 10% wet. The instrumental sampling biases are the main contributor to the total sampling biases and are mainly caused by clouds. They are up to 2 K cold and greater than 30% dry over mid-latitude storm tracks and tropical deep convective cloudy regions and up to 20% wet over stratus regions. However, other factors such as surface emissivity and temperature can also influence the instrumental sampling bias over deserts where the biases can be up to 1 K cold and 10% wet. Some instrumental sampling biases can vary seasonally and/or diurnally. We also estimate the combined measurement uncertainties of temperature and water vapor from AIRS/AMSU-A and MERRA by comparing similarly sampled climatologies from both data sets. The measurement differences are often larger than the sampling biases and have longitudinal variations.

  13. The Arctic Lower Troposphere Observed Structure (ALTOS) Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Verlinde, J

    2010-10-18

    The ALTOS campaign focuses on operating a tethered observing system for routine in situ sampling of low-level (< 2 km) Arctic clouds. It has been a long-term hope to fly tethered systems at Barrow, Alaska, but it is clear that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will not permit in-cloud tether systems at Barrow, even if unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operations are allowed in the future. We have provided the scientific rationale for long-term, routine in situ measurements of cloud and aerosol properties in the Arctic. The existing restricted air space at Oliktok offers an opportunity to do so.

  14. 3D Air Quality and the Clean Air Interstate Rule: Lagrangian Sampling of CMAQ Model Results to Aid Regional Accountability Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Szykman, Jim; Pierce, Robert B.; Gilliland, A. B.; Engel-Cox, Jill; Weber, Stephanie; Kittaka, Chieko; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Scheffe, Rich; Dimmick, Fred; Tikvart, Joe

    2008-01-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) is expected to reduce transport of air pollutants (e.g. fine sulfate particles) in nonattainment areas in the Eastern United States. CAIR highlights the need for an integrated air quality observational and modeling system to understand sulfate as it moves in multiple dimensions, both spatially and temporally. Here, we demonstrate how results from an air quality model can be combined with a 3d monitoring network to provide decision makers with a tool to help quantify the impact of CAIR reductions in SO2 emissions on regional transport contributions to sulfate concentrations at surface monitors in the Baltimore, MD area, and help improve decision making for strategic implementation plans (SIPs). We sample results from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model using ensemble back trajectories computed with the NASA Langley Research Center trajectory model to provide Lagrangian time series and vertical profile information, that can be compared with NASA satellite (MODIS), EPA surface, and lidar measurements. Results are used to assess the regional transport contribution to surface SO4 measurements in the Baltimore MSA, and to characterize the dominant source regions for low, medium, and high SO4 episodes.

  15. An elevated reservoir of air pollutants over the Mid-Atlantic States during the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ campaign: Airborne measurements and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hao; Loughner, Christopher P.; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Arkinson, Heather L.; Brent, Lacey C.; Follette-Cook, Melanie B.; Tzortziou, Maria A.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Thompson, Anne M.; Martins, Douglas K.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Crawford, James H.; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Lee, Pius; Hains, Jennifer C.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2014-03-01

    During a classic heat wave with record high temperatures and poor air quality from July 18 to 23, 2011, an elevated reservoir of air pollutants was observed over and downwind of Baltimore, MD, with relatively clean conditions near the surface. Aircraft and ozonesonde measurements detected ˜120 ppbv ozone at 800 m altitude, but ˜80 ppbv ozone near the surface. High concentrations of other pollutants were also observed around the ozone peak: ˜300 ppbv CO at 1200 m, ˜2 ppbv NO2 at 800 m, ˜5 ppbv SO2 at 600 m, and strong aerosol optical scattering (2 × 10-4 m-1) at 600 m. These results suggest that the elevated reservoir is a mixture of automobile exhaust (high concentrations of O3, CO, and NO2) and power plant emissions (high SO2 and aerosols). Back trajectory calculations show a local stagnation event before the formation of this elevated reservoir. Forward trajectories suggest an influence on downwind air quality, supported by surface ozone observations on the next day over the downwind PA, NJ and NY area. Meteorological observations from aircraft and ozonesondes show a dramatic veering of wind direction from south to north within the lowest 5000 m, implying that the development of the elevated reservoir was caused in part by the Chesapeake Bay breeze. Based on in situ observations, CMAQ forecast simulations with 12 km resolution overestimated surface ozone concentrations and failed to predict this elevated reservoir; however, CMAQ research simulations with 4 km and 1.33 km resolution more successfully reproduced this event. These results show that high resolution is essential for resolving coastal effects and predicting air quality for cities near major bodies of water such as Baltimore on the Chesapeake Bay and downwind areas in the Northeast.

  16. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... installation; (and/or) Processing this FOIA request will require us to collect and review a substantial number... documents might be responsive to your request. Please give us whatever additional details you may have on the Air Force records you want. Can you tell us when the records were created, and what Air...

  17. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... installation; (and/or) Processing this FOIA request will require us to collect and review a substantial number... documents might be responsive to your request. Please give us whatever additional details you may have on the Air Force records you want. Can you tell us when the records were created, and what Air...

  18. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... installation; (and/or) Processing this FOIA request will require us to collect and review a substantial number... documents might be responsive to your request. Please give us whatever additional details you may have on the Air Force records you want. Can you tell us when the records were created, and what Air...

  19. It's Alive!: Students Observe Air-Water Interface Samples Rich with Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avant, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This article describes an experiment, designed by Cindy Henk, manager of the Socolofsky Microscopy Center at Louisiana State University (LSU), that involved collecting and viewing microorganisms in the air-water interface. The experiment was participated by Leesville High School microbiology students. The students found that the air-water…

  20. Development of a combined air sampling and quantitative real-time PCR method for detection of Legionella spp.

    PubMed

    Sirigul, Chomrach; Wongwit, Waranya; Phanprasit, Wantanee; Paveenkittiporn, Wantana; Blacksell, Stuart D; Ramasoota, Pongrama

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and optimize the combined methods of air sampling and real time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) for quantifying aerosol Legionella spp. Primers and TaqMan hydrolysis probe based on 5S rRNA gene specific for Legionella spp were used to amplify a specific DNA product of 84 bp. The impinger air sampler plus T-100 sampling pump was used to collect aerosol Legionella and as low as 10 fg of Legionella DNA per reaction could detected. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the developed method could detect aerosol Legionella spp 1.5-185 organisms /500 l of air within 5 hours, in contrast to culture method, that required a minimum of 7-10 days. PMID:17120970

  1. Evaluating ammonia (NH3) predictions in the NOAA National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC) using in situ aircraft, ground-level, and satellite measurements from the DISCOVER-AQ Colorado campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battye, William H.; Bray, Casey D.; Aneja, Viney P.; Tong, Daniel; Lee, Pius; Tang, Youhua

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is responsible for forecasting elevated levels of air pollution within the National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC). The current research uses measurements gathered in the DISCOVER-AQ Colorado field campaign and the concurrent Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) to test performance of the NAQFC CMAQ modeling framework for predicting NH3. The DISCOVER-AQ and FRAPPE field campaigns were carried out in July and August 2014 in Northeast Colorado. Model predictions are compared with measurements of NH3 gas concentrations and the NH4+ component of fine particulate matter concentrations measured directly by the aircraft in flight. We also compare CMAQ predictions with NH3 measurements from ground-based monitors within the DISCOVER-AQ Colorado geographic domain, and from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Aura satellite. In situ aircraft measurements carried out in July and August of 2014 suggest that the NAQFC CMAQ model underestimated the NH3 concentration in Northeastern Colorado by a factor of ∼2.7 (NMB = -63%). Ground-level monitors also produced a similar result. Average satellite-retrieved NH3 levels also exceeded model predictions by a factor of 1.5-4.2 (NMB = -33 to -76%). The underestimation of NH3 was not accompanied by an underestimation of particulate NH4+, which is further controlled by factors including acid availability, removal rate, and gas-particle partition. The average measured concentration of NH4+ was close to the average predication (NMB = +18%). Seasonal patterns measured at an AMoN site in the region suggest that the underestimation of NH3 is not due to the seasonal allocation of emissions, but to the overall annual emissions estimate. The underestimation of NH3 varied across the study domain, with the largest differences occurring in a region of intensive agriculture near Greeley, Colorado, and in the vicinity of Denver. The

  2. Overview of VOC emissions and chemistry from PTR-TOF-MS measurements during the SusKat-ABC campaign: high acetaldehyde, isoprene and isocyanic acid in wintertime air of the Kathmandu Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Sinha, Vinayak; Kumar, Vinod; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Panday, Arnico; Mahata, Khadak S.; Rupakheti, Dipesh; Kathayat, Bhogendra; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2016-03-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in Nepal suffers from severe wintertime air pollution. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are key constituents of air pollution, though their specific role in the valley is poorly understood due to insufficient data. During the SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley-Atmospheric Brown Clouds) field campaign conducted in Nepal in the winter of 2012-2013, a comprehensive study was carried out to characterise the chemical composition of ambient Kathmandu air, including the determination of speciated VOCs, by deploying a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) - the first such deployment in South Asia. In the study, 71 ion peaks (for which measured ambient concentrations exceeded the 2σ detection limit) were detected in the PTR-TOF-MS mass scan data, highlighting the chemical complexity of ambient air in the valley. Of the 71 species, 37 were found to have campaign average concentrations greater than 200 ppt and were identified based on their spectral characteristics, ambient diel profiles and correlation with specific emission tracers as a result of the high mass resolution (m / Δm > 4200) and temporal resolution (1 min) of the PTR-TOF-MS. The concentration ranking in the average VOC mixing ratios during our wintertime deployment was acetaldehyde (8.8 ppb) > methanol (7.4 ppb) > acetone + propanal (4.2 ppb) > benzene (2.7 ppb) > toluene (1.5 ppb) > isoprene (1.1 ppb) > acetonitrile (1.1 ppb) > C8-aromatics ( ˜ 1 ppb) > furan ( ˜ 0.5 ppb) > C9-aromatics (0.4 ppb). Distinct diel profiles were observed for the nominal isobaric compounds isoprene (m / z = 69.070) and furan (m / z = 69.033). Comparison with wintertime measurements from several locations elsewhere in the world showed mixing ratios of acetaldehyde ( ˜ 9 ppb), acetonitrile ( ˜ 1 ppb) and isoprene ( ˜ 1 ppb) to be among the highest reported to date. Two "new" ambient compounds, namely formamide (m / z = 46.029) and acetamide (m / z

  3. Deinococcus aerolatus sp. nov. and Deinococcus aerophilus sp. nov., isolated from air samples.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung-Hee; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kim, Soo-Jin; Kim, Yi-Seul; Kim, Byung-Yong; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2010-05-01

    Two strains of pink-coloured bacteria, 5516T-9(T) and 5516T-11(T), were isolated from an air sample collected in Korea. The taxonomic status of these novel strains was investigated by means of a polyphasic approach. The novel strains were Gram-positive, aerobic, non-spore-forming and coccus-shaped bacteria. The DNA G+C contents of strains 5516T-9(T) and 5516T-11(T) were 61.0 and 59.3 mol%, respectively. The major isoprenoid quinone for both strains was MK-8. Strain 5516T-9(T) contained summed feature 3 (iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)omega7c), C(16 : 0) and iso-C(17 : 1)omega9c, and strain 5516T-11(T) contained summed feature 3, iso-C(17 : 1)omega9c, C(17 : 1)omega8c and C(15 : 1)omega6c as the major fatty acids (>10 %). The polar lipid patterns of both strains were similar, comprising one phospholipid and one aminophospholipid as the major components. Phylogenetic analyses using 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that both novel strains were affiliated to the genus Deinococcus. Strain 5516T-9(T) exhibited the highest sequence similarity with Deinococcus marmoris DSM 12784(T) (96.8 %) and strain 5516T-11(T) showed the highest sequence similarity with Deinococcus saxicola DSM 15974(T) (94.5 %). The sequence similarity between strains 5516T-9(T) and 5516T-11(T) was 94.7 %. On the basis of the data presented, it is evident that both strains represent separate novel species of the genus Deinococcus for which the names Deinococcus aerolatus sp. nov. (type strain 5516T-9(T)=KACC 12745(T)=JCM 15442(T)) and Deinococcus aerophilus sp. nov. (type strain 5516T-11(T)=KACC 12746(T)=JCM 15443(T)) are proposed.

  4. Massilia jejuensis sp. nov. and Naxibacter suwonensis sp. nov., isolated from air samples.

    PubMed

    Weon, Hang-Yeon; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Kim, Soo-Jin; Kim, Yi-Seul; Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2010-08-01

    Two Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacteria (strains 5317J-18T and 5414S-25T) were isolated from air samples collected in the Jeju Island and Suwon region of Korea, respectively. Phylogenetically, strain 5317J-18T was grouped with the genus Massilia with Massilia brevitalea byr23-80T as the closest relative (98.8% sequence similarity). Strain 5414S-25T was affiliated with the genus Naxibacter with Naxibacter haematophilus CCUG 38318T as the closest relative (98.8% sequence similarity). The mean DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain 5317J-18T and M. brevitalea DSM 18925T and Massilia aurea DSM 18055T were 43 and 36%, respectively. The mean DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain 5414S-25T and N. haematophilus KACC 13771T, M. brevitalea DSM 18925T, Massilia timonae DSM 16850T, Naxibacter varians KACC 13770T, M. aurea DSM 18055T, Massilia lutea DSM 17473T and Massilia albidiflava DSM 17472T ranged from 33 to 42%. Both novel strains had ubiquinone Q-8 as the predominant isoprenoid quinone and summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15:0 2-OH and/or C16:1 omega7c) and C16:0 as the major fatty acids. Both strains also showed similar polar lipid profiles with phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol as the major polar lipids. The DNA G+C contents of strains 5317J-18T and 5414S-25T were 66.1 and 67.8%, respectively. On the basis of their phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics, the new strains represent novel species in the genera Massilia and Naxibacter. Strain 5317J-18T (=KACC 12634T=DSM 21309T) is proposed as the type strain of Massilia jejuensis sp. nov. and strain 5414S-25T (=KACC 12635T=DSM 21311T) is proposed as the type strain of Naxibacter suwonensis sp. nov.

  5. Comparison of lichen, conifer needles, passive air sampling devices, and snowpack as passive sampling media to measure semi-volatile organic compounds in remote atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Schrlau, Jill E; Geiser, Linda; Hageman, Kimberly J; Landers, Dixon H; Simonich, Staci Massey

    2011-12-15

    A wide range of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs), including pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were measured in lichen, conifer needles, snowpack and XAD-based passive air sampling devices (PASDs) collected from 19 different U.S. national parks in order to compare the magnitude and mechanism of SOC accumulation in the different passive sampling media. Lichen accumulated the highest SOC concentrations, in part because of its long (and unknown) exposure period, whereas PASDs accumulated the lowest concentrations. However, only the PASD SOC concentrations can be used to calculate an average atmospheric gas-phase SOC concentration because the sampling rates are known and the media is uniform. Only the lichen and snowpack SOC accumulation profiles were statistically significantly correlated (r = 0.552, p-value <0.0001) because they both accumulate SOCs present in the atmospheric particle-phase. This suggests that needles and PASDs represent a different composition of the atmosphere than lichen and snowpack and that the interpretation of atmospheric SOC composition is dependent on the type of passive sampling media used. All four passive sampling media preferentially accumulated SOCs with relatively low air-water partition coefficients, while snowpack accumulated SOCs with higher log K(OA) values compared to the other media. Lichen accumulated more SOCs with log K(OA) > 10 relative to needles and showed a greater accumulation of particle-phase PAHs.

  6. Use of Whole-Genome Sequencing to Link Burkholderia pseudomallei from Air Sampling to Mediastinal Melioidosis, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Price, Erin P.; Mayo, Mark; Kaestli, Mirjam; Theobald, Vanessa; Harrington, Ian; Harrington, Glenda; Sarovich, Derek S.

    2015-01-01

    The frequency with which melioidosis results from inhalation rather than percutaneous inoculation or ingestion is unknown. We recovered Burkholderia pseudomallei from air samples at the residence of a patient with presumptive inhalational melioidosis and used whole-genome sequencing to link the environmental bacteria to B. pseudomallei recovered from the patient. PMID:26488732

  7. Early detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus from infected cattle using a dry filter air sampling system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious livestock disease of high economic impact. Early detection of FMD virus (FMDV) is fundamental for rapid outbreak control. Air sampling collection has been demonstrated as a useful technique for detection of FMDV RNA in infected animals, related to ...

  8. Inter-laboratory comparison study on measuring semi-volatile organic chemicals in standards and air samples.

    PubMed

    Su, Yushan; Hung, Hayley

    2010-11-01

    Measurements of semi-volatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) were compared among 21 laboratories from 7 countries through the analysis of standards, a blind sample, an air extract, and an atmospheric dust sample. Measurement accuracy strongly depended on analytes, laboratories, and types of standards and samples. Intra-laboratory precision was generally good with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of triplicate injections <10% and with median differences of duplicate samples between 2.1 and 22%. Inter-laboratory variability, measured by RSDs of all measurements, was in the range of 2.8-58% in analyzing standards, and 6.9-190% in analyzing blind sample and air extract. Inter-laboratory precision was poorer when samples were subject to cleanup processes, or when SVOCs were quantified at low concentrations. In general, inter-laboratory differences up to a factor of 2 can be expected to analyze atmospheric SVOCs. When comparing air measurements from different laboratories, caution should be exercised if the data variability is less than the inter-laboratory differences.

  9. A spatial multicriteria model for determining air pollution at sample locations.

    PubMed

    Réquia Júnior, Weeberb João; Roig, Henrique Llacer; Koutrakis, Petros

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric pollution in urban centers has been one of the main causes of human illness related to the respiratory and circulatory system. Efficient monitoring of air quality is a source of information for environmental management and public health. This study investigates the spatial patterns of atmospheric pollution using a spatial multicriteria model that helps target locations for air pollution monitoring sites. The main objective was to identify high-priority areas for measuring human exposures to air pollutants as they relate to emission sources. The method proved to be viable and flexible in its application to various areas.

  10. Detection of airborne bacteria in a duck production facility with two different personal air sampling devices for an exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elena; Dziurowitz, Nico; Jäckel, Udo; Schäfer, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Prevalent airborne microorganisms are not well characterized in industrial animal production buildings with respect to their quantity or quality. To investigate the work-related microbial exposure, personal bioaerosol sampling during the whole working day is recommended. Therefore, bioaerosol sampling in a duck hatchery and a duck house with two personal air sampling devices, a filter-based PGP and a NIOSH particle size separator, was performed. Subsequent, quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out with" culture independent methods. Total cell concentrations (TCC) determined via fluorescence microscopy showed no difference between the two devices. In average, 8 × 10(6) cells/m(3) were determined in the air of the duck hatchery and 5 × 10(7) cells/m(3) in the air of the duck house. A Generated Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) pattern revealed deviant bacterial compositions comparing samples collected with both devices. Clone library analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis from the hatchery's air showed 65% similarity between the two sampling devices. Detailed 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed the occurrence of bacterial species like Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia sp., and Shigella sp.; and a group of Staphylococcus delphini, S. intermedius, and S. pseudintermedius that provided the evidence of potential exposure to risk group 2 bacteria at the hatchery workplace. Size fractionated sampling with the developed by the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA) device revealed that pathogenic bacteria would deposit in the inhalable, the thorax, and possibly alveolar dust fraction according to EN481. TCC analysis showed the deposition of bacterial cells in the third stage (< 1μm) at the NIOSH device which implies that bacteria can reach deep into the lungs and contaminate the alveolus after inhalation. Nevertheless, both personal sampling devices

  11. Evaluation of a sampling and analysis method for determination of polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Harless, R.L.; Lewis, R.G.; McDaniel, D.D.; Gibson, J.F.; Dupuy, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    General Metals Works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were evaluated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polybrominated dibenz-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs) and bromo/chloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (BCDDs/BCDFs) in ambient air. Dilute solutions of these compounds and (13)C-1,2,3,4-TCDD were used to spike the filters of PS-1 air samplers which were then operated 24 hrs to sample 350-400 cubic meter ambient air. After sampling, each quartz-fiber filter and polyurethane foam (PUF) were spiked with (13)C-12-labeled PCDD, PCDF, PBDD, and PBDF internal standards before separate Soxhlet extractions with benzene. The extracts were subjected to an acid/base clean-up procedure followed by clean-up on microcolumns of silica gel, alumina, and carbon and then analyzed by HRGC-HRMS. Results derived from the study indicated the PS-1 ambient air samplers and the analytical procedures were very efficient and that pg/cubic meter and sub-pg/cubic meter levels of total PCDDs/PCDFs, PBDDs/PBDFs, BCDDs/BCDFs, and 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners could be accurately measured.

  12. Evaluation of a method to detect Mycobacterium bovis in air samples from infected Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and their setts.

    PubMed

    Jones, R M; Ashford, R; Cork, J; Palmer, S; Wood, E; Spyvee, P; Parks, S; Bennett, A; Brewer, J; Delahay, R; Chambers, M; Sawyer, J

    2013-05-01

    Environmental air sampling was evaluated as a method to detect the presence of M. bovis in the vicinity of infected badgers and their setts. Airborne particles were collected on gelatine filters using a commercially available air sampling instrument and tested for the presence of M. bovis using bacteriological culture and real-time PCR. The sensitivity of bacteriological culture was broadly similar to that of real-time PCR when testing samples artificially spiked with M. bovis. Sampling was undertaken from directly under the muzzles of badgers which had been experimentally infected with M. bovis (37 samples), within enclosures housing the experimentally infected animals (50 samples), and in the vicinity of setts with resident infected wild badgers (52 samples). The methods employed did not detect M. bovis from either infected badgers or artificial or natural setts known to contain infected animals. However, samples taken at four of the six natural setts were positive for Mycobacterium gordonae.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS - AIR PURATOR CORPORATION HUYGLAS 1405M FILTER SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of th...

  14. Scheduling whole-air samples above the Trade Wind Inversion from SUAS using real-time sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, J. E.; Greatwood, C.; Thomas, R.; Richardson, T.; Brownlow, R.; Lowry, D.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Small Unmanned Air Systems (SUAS) are increasingly being used in science applications for a range of applications. Here we explore their use to schedule the sampling of air masses up to 2.5km above ground using computer controlled bespoked Octocopter platforms. Whole-air sampling is targeted above, within and below the Trade Wind Inversion (TWI). On-board sensors profiled the TWI characteristics in real time on ascent and, hence, guided the altitudes at which samples were taken on descent. The science driver for this research is investigation of the Southern Methane Anomaly and, more broadly, the hemispheric-scale transport of long-lived atmospheric tracers in the remote troposphere. Here we focus on the practical application of SUAS for this purpose. Highlighting the need for mission planning, computer control, onboard sensors and logistics in deploying such technologies for out of line-of-sight applications. We show how such a platform can be deployed successfully, resulting in some 60 sampling flights within a 10 day period. Challenges remain regarding the deployment of such platforms routinely and cost-effectively, particularly regarding training and support. We present some initial results from the methane sampling and its implication for exploring and understanding the Southern Methane Anomaly.

  15. Technique for determination of accurate heat capacities of volatile, powdered, or air-sensitive samples using relaxation calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriott, Robert A.; Stancescu, Maria; Kennedy, Catherine A.; White, Mary Anne

    2006-09-01

    We introduce a four-step technique for the accurate determination of the heat capacity of volatile or air-sensitive samples using relaxation calorimetry. The samples are encapsulated in a hermetically sealed differential scanning calorimetry pan, in which there is an internal layer of Apiezon N grease to assist thermal relaxation. Using the Quantum Design physical property measurement system to investigate benzoic acid and copper standards, we find that this method can lead to heat capacity determinations accurate to ±2% over the temperature range of 1-300K, even for very small samples (e.g., <10mg and contributing ca. 20% to the total heat capacity).

  16. Impact of anthropogenic emission on air quality over a megacity - revealed from an intensive atmospheric campaign during the Chinese Spring Festival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, K.; Zhuang, G.; Lin, Y.; Wang, Q.; Fu, J. S.; Zhang, R.; Li, J.; Deng, C.; Fu, Q.

    2012-12-01

    The Chinese Spring Festival is one of the most important traditional festivals in China. The peak transport in the Spring Festival season (spring travel rush) provides a unique opportunity for investigating the impact of human activity on air quality in the Chinese megacities. Emission sources are varied and fluctuate greatly before, during and after the Festival. Increased vehicular emissions during the "spring travel rush" before the 2009 Festival resulted in high level pollutants of NOx (270 μg m-3), CO (2572 μg m-3), black carbon (BC) (8.5 μg m-3) and extremely low single scattering albedo of 0.76 in Shanghai, indicating strong, fresh combustion. Organics contributed most to PM2.5, followed by NO3-, NH4+, and SO42-. During the Chinese Lunar New Year's Eve and Day, widespread usage of fireworks caused heavy pollution of extremely high aerosol concentration, scattering coefficient, SO2, and NOx. Due to the "spring travel rush" after the festival, anthropogenic emissions gradually climbed and mirrored corresponding increases in the aerosol components and gaseous pollutants. Secondary inorganic aerosol (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+) accounted for a dominant fraction of 74% in PM2.5 due to an increase in human activity. There was a greater demand for energy as vast numbers of people using public transportation or driving their own vehicles returned home after the Festival. Factories and constructions sites were operating again. The potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis illustrated the possible source areas for air pollutants of Shanghai. The effects of regional and long-range transport were both revealed. Five major sources, i.e. natural sources, vehicular emissions, burning of fireworks, industrial and metallurgical emissions, and coal burning were identified using the principle component analysis. The average visibility during the whole study period was less than 6 km. It had been estimated that 50% of the total light extinction was due to the high

  17. Field calibration of rapidly equilibrating thin-film passive air samplers and their potential application for low-volume air sampling studies.

    PubMed

    Farrar, N J; Harner, T J; Sweetman, A J; Jones, K C

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a field calibration and ambient deployment study with rapidly equilibrating thin-film passive air samplers. POlymer-coated Glass (POG) samplers have a coating of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) less than 1 microm thick coated on to glass, which can be dissolved off after exposure and prepared for quantification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that have partitioned into the film during field exposure. In this study, POGs were exposed for up to 18 d, in a study to assess compound uptake rates and their time to approach equilibrium. Results confirmed theoretical predictions, with time to equilibrium varying between a few hours to ca. 20 d for PCB-18 and PCB-138, respectively. Performance reference compounds and contaminated POGs were used to investigate depuration kinetics, confirming that lighter congeners behave extremely dynamically with substantial losses from the films over periods of a few hours. Repeated deployments of the samplers for different3-d periods yielded detectable levels of a range of PCB congeners, which had partitioned from as little as approximately 2 to 10 m3 air. This highlights the potential utility of POGs for extremely sensitive and dynamic passive air sampling in the future to help improve understanding of sources, environmental fate, and behavior of POPs. Recommendations are made for future improvements/refinements in POG sampling and handling procedures.

  18. Whole air canister sampling coupled with preconcentration GC/MS analysis of part-per-trillion levels of trimethylsilanol in semiconductor cleanroom air.

    PubMed

    Herrington, Jason S

    2013-08-20

    The costly damage airborne trimethylsilanol (TMS) exacts on optics in the semiconductor industry has resulted in the demand for accurate and reliable methods for measuring TMS at trace levels (i.e., parts per trillion, volume per volume of air [ppt(v)] [~ng/m(3)]). In this study I developed a whole air canister-based approach for field sampling trimethylsilanol in air, as well as a preconcentration gas chromatography/mass spectrometry laboratory method for analysis. The results demonstrate clean canister blanks (0.06 ppt(v) [0.24 ng/m(3)], which is below the detection limit), excellent linearity (a calibration relative response factor relative standard deviation [RSD] of 9.8%) over a wide dynamic mass range (1-100 ppt(v)), recovery/accuracy of 93%, a low selected ion monitoring method detection limit of 0.12 ppt(v) (0.48 ng/m(3)), replicate precision of 6.8% RSD, and stability (84% recovery) out to four days of storage at room temperature. Samples collected at two silicon wafer fabrication facilities ranged from 10.0 to 9120 ppt(v) TMS and appear to be associated with the use of hexamethyldisilazane priming agent. This method will enable semiconductor cleanroom managers to monitor and control for trace levels of trimethylsilanol.

  19. [Positive Activities Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This packet contains four pamphlets that are part of a campaign to encourage adults to provide and promote positive activities for youth and to serve as role models for young people. "Positive Activities: A Campaign for Youth" includes information on what positive activities are, how to get involved in helping to provide positive activities for…

  20. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    PubMed Central

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; Di Natale, Corrado; D’Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath. PMID:26559776

  1. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  2. Thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to determine phthalate and organophosphate esters from air samples.

    PubMed

    Aragón, M; Borrull, F; Marcé, R M

    2013-08-16

    A method based on thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) has been developed to determine four organophosphate esters, seven phthalate esters, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate in the gas phase from harbour and urban air samples. The method involves the sampling of 1.5L of air in a Tenax TA sorbent tube followed by thermal desorption (using a Tenax TA cryogenic trap) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The repeatability of the method expressed as %RSD (n=3) is less than 15% and the MQLs are between 0.007μgm(-3) (DMP, TBP, BBP, TPP and DnOP) and 6.7μgm(-3) (DEHP). The method was successfully applied in two areas (urban and harbour) testing two and three points in each one, respectively. Some of these compounds were found in both urban and harbour samples. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was the most abundant compound found in both areas at concentration levels between 6.7μgm(-3) and 136.4μgm(-3). This study demonstrates that thermal desorption is an efficient method for the determination of these semi-volatile compounds in the gas phase fraction of air samples.

  3. Detection of Campylobacter Bacteria in Air Samples for Continuous Real-Time Monitoring of Campylobacter Colonization in Broiler Flocks▿

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Katja N.; Lund, Marianne; Skov, Julia; Christensen, Laurids S.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in broiler production. In this study, we compare the sensitivities of detection of Campylobacter by PCR with feces, dust, and air samples during the lifetimes of broilers in two poultry houses and conclude that the sensitivity of detection of Campylobacter in air is comparable to that in other sample materials. Profiling of airborne particles in six poultry houses revealed that the aerodynamic conditions were dependent on the age of the chickens and very comparable among different poultry houses, with low proportions of particles in the 0.5- to 2-μm-diameter range and high proportions in the 2- to 5-μm-diameter range. Campylobacter could also be detected by PCR in air samples collected at the hanging stage during the slaughter process but not at the other stages tested at the slaughterhouse. The exploitation of airborne dust in poultry houses as a sample material for the detection of Campylobacter and other pathogens provides an intriguing possibility, in conjunction with new detection technologies, for allowing continuous or semicontinuous monitoring of colonization status. PMID:19201953

  4. Detection of Campylobacter bacteria in air samples for continuous real-time monitoring of Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Katja N; Lund, Marianne; Skov, Julia; Christensen, Laurids S; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2009-04-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in broiler production. In this study, we compare the sensitivities of detection of Campylobacter by PCR with feces, dust, and air samples during the lifetimes of broilers in two poultry houses and conclude that the sensitivity of detection of Campylobacter in air is comparable to that in other sample materials. Profiling of airborne particles in six poultry houses revealed that the aerodynamic conditions were dependent on the age of the chickens and very comparable among different poultry houses, with low proportions of particles in the 0.5- to 2-microm-diameter range and high proportions in the 2- to 5-microm-diameter range. Campylobacter could also be detected by PCR in air samples collected at the hanging stage during the slaughter process but not at the other stages tested at the slaughterhouse. The exploitation of airborne dust in poultry houses as a sample material for the detection of Campylobacter and other pathogens provides an intriguing possibility, in conjunction with new detection technologies, for allowing continuous or semicontinuous monitoring of colonization status.

  5. Impact of anthropogenic emission on air-quality over a megacity - revealed from an intensive atmospheric campaign during the Chinese Spring Festival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, K.; Zhuang, G.; Lin, Y.; Wang, Q.; Fu, J. S.; Zhang, R.; Li, J.; Deng, C.; Fu, Q.

    2012-07-01

    The Chinese Spring Festival is one of the most important traditional festivals in China. The peak transport in the Spring Festival season (spring travel rush) provides a unique opportunity for investigating the impact of human activities on air quality in the Chinese megacities as emission sources varied and fluctuated greatly prior to, during and after the festival. Enhanced vehicular emission during the spring travel rush before the festival resulted in high level pollutants of NOx (270 μg m-3), CO (2572 μg m-3), BC (8.5 μg m-3) and extremely low single scattering albedo of 0.70, indicating strong fresh combustion. Organics contributed most to PM2.5, followed by NO3-, NH4+, and SO42-. During the Chinese Lunar New Year's Eve and Day, widespread usage of fireworks burning caused heavy pollution of extremely high aerosol mass concentration, scattering coefficient, SO2 and NOx. Due to the spring travel rush after the festival, anthropogenic emission gradually climbed and mirrored corresponding increases in the aerosol components and gaseous pollutants. Secondary inorganic aerosol (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+) accounted for a dominant fraction of 74% in PM2.5 due to the enhanced human activities, e.g. higher demand of energy usage from returned residents and re-open of factories and construction sites, more vehicle mileages due to returned workers and expanded public transportation. The average visibility during whole study period was less than 6 km. It was estimated that about 50% of the total light extinction was due to the high water vapor in the atmosphere. Of the aerosol extinction, organic aerosol had the largest contribution of 47%, followed by sulfate ammonium, nitrate ammonium and EC of 22%, 14%, and 12%, respectively. Our results indicated the dominant role of traffic-related aerosol species (i.e. organic aerosol, nitrate and EC) on the formation of air pollution, and suggested the importance of controlling vehicle numbers and emissions in mega-cities of China

  6. Evaluation of a sampling and analysis method for determination of polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Harless, R.L.; Lewis, R.G.; McDaniel, D.D.; Gibson, J.F.; Dupuy, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    General Metals Works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were evaluated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs) and bromo/chloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (BCDDs/BCDFs) in ambient air. Dilute solutions of these compounds and (13)C12-1,2,3,4-TCDD were used to spike the filters of PS-1 air samplers which were then operated 24 hrs to sample 350-400 cu m ambient air. After sampling, each quartz-fiber filter and polyurethane foam (PUF) were spiked with (13)C12-labeled PCDD, PCDF, PBDD, and PBDF internal standards before separate Soxhlet extractions with benzene. The extracts were subjected to an acid/base clean-up procedure followed by clean-up on microcolumns of silica gel, alumina, and carbon and then analyzed by HRGC-HRMS. Results derived from the study indicated the PS-1 ambient air samplers and the analytical procedures were very efficient and that pg/cu m and sub-pg/cu m levels of total PCDDs/PCDFs, PBDDs/PBDFs, BCDDs/BCDFs, and 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners could be accurately measured. Background levels of these compounds in the ambient air were also determined. Total PCDDs, PCDFs, TBDFs, and PeBDFs were detected in a low concentration range of 0.3 to 3.0 pg/cu m.

  7. Methods for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon determination in air samples using polar-bonded phase HPLC and GC-MS with application to oil refinery samples

    SciTech Connect

    Karlesky, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    Particle samples were collected using high volume air samplers fitted with glass fiber filters or with a cascade impactor containing paper filters. They were then cleaned using either extraction with dimethylsulfoxide and pentane or utilizing a small cartridge containing a diamine polar-bonded phase material, the second method being more effective. Vapor phase PAH were sampled using an apparatus designed in the laboratory. After collection, the resins were desorbed with solvent and the PAH content was determined. The suitability of the resins decrease in the following order: Amberlite XAD-2, Chromosorb 105, Tenax GC, coconut charcoal, and Ambesorb XE-348. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the behavior of PAH in the normal and reversed phase on polar-bonded phases containing amine, diamine, and pyrrolidone substrates. Results support the proposed mechanism in the normal phase and indicate that both a partitioning and liquid-solid adsorption mechanism takes place in the reversed phase depending upon the mobile phase. Occasionally, these polar-bonded phases can be deactivated by the formation of amine-carbonyl complexes from polar aldehydes or ketones in the solvent or sample. Deactivation can be reversed by flushing with water to hydrolyze the Schiff's base imine back to the amine. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used to analyze air samples from oil refineries in Port Arthur, collected over a period of three years. The analytical procedures are applied to the collected samples to determine if they contain detectable amounts of PAH. The GC-MS analysis was adequate for this study but the use of SIM detection is preferred because of the greater sensitivity for PAH.

  8. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides in a northeastern state of India, Manipur.

    PubMed

    Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Qi, Shihua; Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Yadav, Ishwar Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-six polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers (PUF-PAS) were deployed over a year during January to December, 2009 at three locations, i.e., Imphal (urban site), Thoubal (rural site) and Waithou (alpine site) of Manipur, to assess the seasonal local atmospheric emission of selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The average concentration of HCHs monitored at mountain site during hot season (Mar, Apr, and May) and rainy seasons (Jun, Jul, Aug, and Sep) were 403 and 349 pg/m3, respectively. DDTs had a high concentration with 384 pg/m3 at rural site and 379 pg/m3 at urban site during hot seasons. Endosulfans and chlordane were found high in concentration during hot seasons (260 pg/m3) and low during retreating monsoon seasons (44 pg/m3) at rural site. Most of the OCPs concentrations were high during cultivation period. The OCP concentrations of rainy season were highly correlated (p < 0.01) with OCPs of hot seasons. Further, positive correlation (p < 0.05) was also obtained between cold seasons and retreating monsoon. Principal component analysis showed a significant correlation among the four seasons and distribution pattern of OCPs in air. Back trajectory analysis by using HYPSLIT model showed a long range air transport of OCPs to the present study area. Present OCP levels at Manipur is an outcome of both local emission and also movement of air mass by long range atmospheric transport.

  9. An Inexpensive Autosampler to Maximize Throughput for an Ion Source that Samples Surfaces in Open Air

    EPA Science Inventory

    An autosampler was built to pull cotton swab heads mounted into a 3-foot long, square Al rod in ambient air through the He ionizing beam of a Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) ion source interfaced to an orthogonal acceleration, time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The cost of th...

  10. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... documents. (a) This section includes suggested language in paragraph format that tracks Air Force and DoD... section, language in parentheses is for explanatory purposes only. Do not include any of the parenthetical language of this section in your FOIA correspondence. When optional language must be selected, the...

  11. ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION USING INDOOR AND SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this investigation was to develop a method for evaluating vapor intrusion using indoor and sub-slab air measurement and at the same time directly assist EPA’s New England Regional Office in evaluating vapor intrusion in 15 homes and one business near the former R...

  12. Influenza virus survival in aerosols and estimates of viable virus loss resulting from aerosolization and air-sampling.

    PubMed

    Brown, J R; Tang, J W; Pankhurst, L; Klein, N; Gant, V; Lai, K M; McCauley, J; Breuer, J

    2015-11-01

    Using a Collison nebulizer, aerosols of influenza (A/Udorn/307/72 H3N2) were generated within a controlled experimental chamber, from known starting virus concentrations. Air samples collected after variable suspension times were tested quantitatively using both plaque and polymerase chain reaction assays, to compare the proportion of viable virus against the amount of detectable viral RNA. These experiments showed that whereas influenza RNA copies were well preserved, the number of viable viruses decreased by a factor of 10(4)-10(5). This suggests that air-sampling studies for assessing infection control risks that detect only influenza RNA may greatly overestimate the amount of viable virus available to cause infection.

  13. Modeling the weekly cycle of NOx and CO emissions and their impacts on O3 in the Los Angeles-South Coast Air Basin during the CalNex 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.-W.; McDonald, B. C.; Baidar, S.; Brown, S. S.; Dube, B.; Ferrare, R. A.; Frost, G. J.; Harley, R. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Lee, H.-J.; McKeen, S. A.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Oetjen, H.; Ortega, I.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Scarino, A. J.; Senff, C. J.; Thalman, R.; Trainer, M.; Volkamer, R.; Wagner, N.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Waxman, E.; Young, C. J.

    2016-02-01

    We developed a new nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission inventory for the Los Angeles-South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) expanding the Fuel-based Inventory for motor-Vehicle Emissions and applied it in regional chemical transport modeling focused on the California Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) 2010 field campaign. The weekday NOx emission over the SoCAB in 2010 is 620 t d-1, while the weekend emission is 410 t d-1. The NOx emission decrease on weekends is caused by reduced diesel truck activities. Weekday and weekend CO emissions over this region are similar: 2340 and 2180 t d-1, respectively. Previous studies reported large discrepancies between the airborne observations of NOx and CO mixing ratios and the model simulations for CalNex based on the available bottom-up emission inventories. Utilizing the newly developed emission inventory in this study, the simulated NOx and CO mixing ratios agree with the observations from the airborne and the ground-based in situ and remote sensing instruments during the field study. The simulations also reproduce the weekly cycles of these chemical species. Both the observations and the model simulations indicate that decreased NOx on weekends leads to enhanced photochemistry and increase of O3 and Ox (=O3 + NO2) in the basin. The emission inventory developed in this study can be extended to different years and other urban regions in the U.S. to study the long-term trends in O3 and its precursors with regional chemical transport models.

  14. Extent of sample loss on the sampling device and the resulting experimental biases when collecting volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in air using sorbent tubes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2013-08-20

    Not all volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are suitable for sampling from air onto sorbent tubes (ST) with subsequent analysis by thermal desorption (TD) with gas chromatography (GC). Some compounds (such as C2 hydrocarbons) are too volatile for quantitative retention by sorbents at ambient temperature, while others are too reactive - either for storage stability on the tubes (post-sampling) or for thermal desorption/GC analysis. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are one of the compound groups that present a challenge to sorbent tube sampling. In this study, we evaluated sample losses on the inner wall surface of the sorbent tube sampler. The sorptive losses of five VFA (acetic, propionic, n-butyric, i-valeric, and n-valeric acid) were tested using two types of tubes (stainless steel and quartz), each packed with three sorbent beds arranged in order of sorbent strength from the sampling end of the tube (Tenax TA, Carbopack B, and Carbopack X). It showed significantly higher losses of VFAs in both liquid phase and vapor phase when using stainless steel tube samplers. These losses were also seen if vapor-phase fatty acids were passed through empty stainless steel tubing and increased dramatically with increasing molecular weight, e.g., losses of 33.6% (acetic acid) to 97.5% (n-valeric acid). Similar losses of VFAs were also observed from headspace sampling of cheese products. Considering that stainless steel sampling tubes are still used extensively by many researchers, their replacement with quartz tubes is recommended to reduce systematic biases in collecting VFA samples or in their calibration. PMID:23869450

  15. Effect of Sampling Depth on Air-Sea CO2 Flux Estimates in River-Stratified Arctic Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L. A.; Papakyriakou, T. N.

    2015-12-01

    In summer-time Arctic coastal waters that are strongly influenced by river run-off, extreme stratification severely limits wind mixing, making it difficult to effectively sample the surface 'mixed layer', which can be as shallow as 1 m, from a ship. During two expeditions in southwestern Hudson Bay, off the Nelson, Hayes, and Churchill River estuaries, we confirmed that sampling depth has a strong impact on estimates of 'surface' pCO2 and calculated air-sea CO2 fluxes. We determined pCO2 in samples collected from 5 m, using a typical underway system on the ship's seawater supply; from the 'surface' rosette bottle, which was generally between 1 and 3 m; and using a niskin bottle deployed at 1 m and just below the surface from a small boat away from the ship. Our samples confirmed that the error in pCO2 derived from typical ship-board versus small-boat sampling at a single station could be nearly 90 μatm, leading to errors in the calculated air-sea CO2 flux of more than 0.1 mmol/(m2s). Attempting to extrapolate such fluxes over the 6,000,000 km2 area of the Arctic shelves would generate an error approaching a gigamol CO2/s. Averaging the station data over a cruise still resulted in an error of nearly 50% in the total flux estimate. Our results have implications not only for the design and execution of expedition-based sampling, but also for placement of in-situ sensors. Particularly in polar waters, sensors are usually deployed on moorings, well below the surface, to avoid damage and destruction from drifting ice. However, to obtain accurate information on air-sea fluxes in these areas, it is necessary to deploy sensors on ice-capable buoys that can position the sensors in true 'surface' waters.

  16. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING AIR SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF POLAR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.13)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The method for extracting and preparing indoor and outdoor air samples for analysis of polar persistent organic pollutants is summarized in this SOP. It covers the preparation of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  17. Assessment of Air Quality in the Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Based on Samples Returned by STS-104 at the Conclusion of 7A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicological assessment of air samples returned at the end of the STS-l04 (7 A) flight to the ISS is reported. ISS air samples were taken in June and July 2001 from the Service Module, FGB, and U.S. Laboratory using grab sample canisters (GSCs) and/or formaldehyde badges. Preflight and end-of-mission samples were obtained from Atlantis using GSCs. Solid sorbent air sampler (SSAS) samples were obtained from the ISS in April, June, and July. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports, and all quality control measures were met.

  18. Ultimate detectability of volatile organic compounds: how much further can we reduce their ambient air sample volumes for analysis?

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    To understand the ultimately lowest detection range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air, application of a high sensitivity analytical system was investigated by coupling thermal desorption (TD) technique with gas chromatography (GC) and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The performance of the TD-GC/TOF MS system was evaluated using liquid standards of 19 target VOCs prepared in the range of 35 pg to 2.79 ng per μL. Studies were carried out using both total ion chromatogram (TIC) and extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) mode. EIC mode was used for calibration to reduce background and to improve signal-to-noise. The detectability of 19 target VOCs, if assessed in terms of method detection limit (MDL, per US EPA definition) and limit of detection (LOD), averaged 5.90 pg and 0.122 pg, respectively, with the mean coefficient of correlation (R(2)) of 0.9975. The minimum quantifiable mass of target analytes, when determined using real air samples by the TD-GC/TOF MS, is highly comparable to the detection limits determined experimentally by standard. In fact, volumes for the actual detection of the major aromatic VOCs like benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) in ambient air samples were as low as 1.0 mL in the 0.11-2.25 ppb range. It was thus possible to demonstrate that most target compounds including those in low abundance could be reliably quantified at concentrations down to 0.1 ppb at sample volumes of less than 10 mL. The unique sensitivity of this advanced analytical system can ultimately lead to a shift in field sampling strategy with smaller air sample volumes facilitating faster, simpler air sampling (e.g., use of gas syringes rather than the relative complexity of pumps or bags/canisters), with greatly reduced risk of analyte breakthrough and minimal interference, e.g., from atmospheric humidity. The improved detection limits offered by this system can also enhance accuracy and measurement precision. PMID:22934885

  19. Ambient air levels and health risk assessment of benzo(a)pyrene in atmospheric particulate matter samples from low-polluted areas: application of an optimized microwave extraction and HPLC-FL methodology.

    PubMed

    de la Gala Morales, María; Holgado, Fernando Rueda; Marín, Ma Rosario Palomo; Blázquez, Lorenzo Calvo; Gil, Eduardo Pinilla

    2015-04-01

    A new methodology involving a simple and fast pretreatment of the samples by microwave-assisted extraction and concentration by N2 stream, followed by HPLC with fluorescence detection, was used for determining the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in atmospheric particulate matter (PM10 fraction). Obtained LOD, 1.0 × 10(-3) ng/m(3), was adequate for the analysis of benzo(a)pyrene in the samples, and BaP recovery from PAH in Fine Dust (PM10-like) certified reference material was nearly quantitative (86%). The validated procedure was applied for analyzing 115 PM10 samples collected at different sampling locations in the low-polluted area of Extremadura (Southwest Spain) during a monitoring campaign carried out in 2011-2012. BaP spatial variations and seasonal variability were investigated as well as the influence of meteorological conditions and different air pollutants concentrations. A normalized protocol for health risk assessment was applied to estimate lifetime cancer risk due to BaP inhalation in the sampling areas, finding that around eight inhabitants per million people may develop lung cancer due to the exposition to BaP in atmospheric particulates emitted by the investigated sources.

  20. Final work plan : indoor air and ambient air sampling near the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Everest, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2010-05-24

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at the western edge of Everest, Kansas, from the early 1950s to the early 1970s. Sampling by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) in 1997 resulted in the detection of carbon tetrachloride in one domestic well (the Nigh well) northwest of the former facility. On behalf of the CCC/USDA, Argonne National Laboratory subsequently conducted a series of investigations to characterize the contamination (Argonne 2003, 2006a,b,c). Automatic, continuous monitoring of groundwater levels began in 2002 and is ongoing at six locations. The results have consistently indicated groundwater flow toward the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA property to the Nigh property, then west-southwest from the Nigh property to the intermittent creek. Sitewide periodic groundwater and surface water sampling with analysis for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) began in 2008. Argonne's combined data indicate no significant downgradient extension of contamination since 2000. At present, the sampling is annual, as approved by the KDHE (2009) in response to a plan developed for the CCC/USDA (Argonne 2009). This document presents a plan for collecting indoor air samples in homes located along and adjacent to the defined extent of the carbon tetrachloride contamination. The plan was requested by the KDHE. Ambient air samples to represent the conditions along this pathway will also be taken. The purpose of the proposed work is to satisfy KDHE requirements and to collect additional data for assessing the risk to human health due to the potential upward migration of carbon tetrachloride and its primary degradation product (chloroform) into homes located in close proximity to the former grain storage facility, as well as along and within 100 ft laterally from the currently defined plume emanating from the former Everest facility. Investigation of the indoor air

  1. Annular diffusion denuder for simultaneous removal of gaseous organic compounds and air oxidants during sampling of carbonaceous aerosols.

    PubMed

    Mikuška, Pavel; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Bartošíková, Anna; Maenhaut, Willy

    2012-02-10

    A specially designed annular diffusion denuder for simultaneous removal of organic gaseous compounds and atmospheric oxidants in carbonaceous aerosol sampling is presented. Various kinds of denuder coatings were compared with respect to the collection efficiency of both organic gaseous compounds and NO(2) and ozone. The optimum sorbent is a mixture of activated charcoal and sulfite on molecular sieve. To ensure high collection efficiency over long-term field operation, two annular diffusion denuders are combined in series. The first half of the first denuder is filled with Na(2)SO(3) on molecular sieve (23 cm long layer) while the second half of the first denuder and the whole second denuder are filled with activated charcoal (the total length of the charcoal section is 67 cm). At a flow rate of 16.6 L min(-1), the collection efficiency of organic gaseous compounds and atmospheric oxidants in the annular diffusion denuder is better than 95%. Only small losses of aerosol particles (<3.6% in number concentration) were observed in the size range 0.12-2.26 μm. The annular diffusion denuder is compatible with the collection of aerosols on 47-mm diameter quartz fiber filters at a flow rate of 16.6 L min(-1). The use of this denuder enables one to sample carbonaceous aerosols on filters without positive sampling artefacts from volatile organic compounds and interferences from atmospheric oxidants. The annular diffusion denuder has been applied successfully for the sampling of carbonaceous aerosols during field campaigns of typically 1 month each at urban and forested sites in Europe.

  2. On the construction, comparison, and variability of airsheds for interpreting semivolatile organic compounds in passively sampled air.

    PubMed

    Westgate, John N; Wania, Frank

    2011-10-15

    Air mass origin as determined by back trajectories often aids in explaining some of the short-term variability in the atmospheric concentrations of semivolatile organic contaminants. Airsheds, constructed by amalgamating large numbers of back trajectories, capture average air mass origins over longer time periods and thus have found use in interpreting air concentrations obtained by passive air samplers. To explore some of their key characteristics, airsheds for 54 locations on Earth were constructed and compared for roundness, seasonality, and interannual variability. To avoid the so-called "pole problem" and to simplify the calculation of roundness, a "geodesic grid" was used to bin the back-trajectory end points. Departures from roundness were seen to occur at all latitudes and to correlate significantly with local slope but no strong relationship between latitude and roundness was revealed. Seasonality and interannual variability vary widely enough to imply that static models of transport are not sufficient to describe the proximity of an area to potential sources of contaminants. For interpreting an air measurement an airshed should be generated specifically for the deployment time of the sampler, especially when investigating long-term trends. Samples taken in a single season may not represent the average annual atmosphere, and samples taken in linear, as opposed to round, airsheds may not represent the average atmosphere in the area. Simple methods are proposed to ascertain the significance of an airshed or individual cell. It is recommended that when establishing potential contaminant source regions only end points with departure heights of less than ∼700 m be considered.

  3. Results of a Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 47-mm Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Stack Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Barnett, Debra S.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Bliss, Mary; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-11-01

    Since the mid-1980s the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as a correction factor for the self absorption of activity for particulate radioactive air samples collected from building exhaust for environmental monitoring. More recently, an effort was made to evaluate the current particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor® 3000, 47-mm diameter) used at PNNL for self absorption effects. There were two methods used to characterize the samples. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion to compare the radioactivity measured by direct gas-flow proportional counting of filters to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection. Thirty different sample filters were selected for visible light microscopy to evaluate filter loading and particulate characteristics. Mass-loading effects were also considered. Large error is associated with the sample filter analysis comparison and subsequently with the estimation of the absorption factor resulting in an inadequate method to estimate losses from self-absorption in the sample filter. The mass loading on the sample filter as determined after digestion and drying was ~0.08 mg cm-2; however, this value may not represent the total filter mass loading given that there may be undetermined losses associated with the digestion process. While it is difficult to determine how much material is imbedded in the filter, observations from the microscopy analysis indicate that the vast majority of the particles remain on the top of the filter. In comparing the results obtained, the continued use of 0.85 as a conservative correction factor is recommended.

  4. The Reproducibility of Indoor Air Pollution (IAP) Measurement: A Test Case for the Measurement of Key Air Pollutants from the Pan Frying of Fish Samples

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bo-Won; Ahn, Jeong-Hyeon; Bae, Min-Suk; Brown, Richard J. C.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the robustness of various indoor air quality (IAQ) indices, we explored the possible role of reproducibility-induced variability in the measurements of different pollutants under similar sampling and emissions conditions. Polluted indoor conditions were generated by pan frying fish samples in a closed room. A total of 11 experiments were carried out to measure a list of key variables commonly used to represent indoor air pollution (IAP) indicators such as particulate matter (PM: PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP) and a set of individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with some odor markers. The cooking activity conducted as part of our experiments was successful to consistently generate significant pollution levels (mean PM10: 7110 μg m−3 and mean total VOC (TVOC): 1400 μg m−3, resp.). Then, relative standard error (RSE) was computed to assess the reproducibility between different IAP paramters measured across the repeated experiments. If the results were evaluated by an arbitrary criterion of 10%, the patterns were divided into two data groups (e.g., <10% for benzene and some aldehydes and >10% for the remainders). Most noticeably, TVOC had the most repeatable results with a reproducibility (RSE) value of 3.2% (n = 11). PMID:25054167

  5. Development of a local continuous sampling probe for the equivalence air-fuel ratio measurement. Application to spark ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guibert, P.; Dicocco, E.

    This paper is a contribution to the development of an original technique for measuring the in-cylinder equivalence air-fuel ratio. The main objective was to construct an instrument able to furnish instantaneous values of hydrocarbon concentration for many consecutive cycles at a definite location, especially at the spark plug location. The probe is based on a hot-wire-like apparatus, but involves catalytic oxidation on the wire surface in order to be sensitive to the hydrocarbon concentration. In this paper, we present the different steps needed to develop and validate the probe. The first step focuses on the geometric configuration to simplify as much as possible the mass transfer phenomena on the wire. The second step is a parametric study to evaluate the sensitivity, confidence and lifetime of the wire. By physical analysis, we propose a relationship between the electrical signal and the air-fuel equivalence ratio of the sampled gases. The third step is the application of the probe to in-cylinder motored engine measurements, which confirms the ability of the technique to characterise, quantitatively, the homogeneity of the air-fuel mixture, especially during the compression stroke. This work points out that the global sensitivity is estimated at 4V per unit of equivalence air-fuel ratio and the response time is estimated at about 400μs. The equivalence air-fuel ratio range is from pure air to 1.2. Experiments show that it is necessary to calibrate the system before use because of the existence of multiple catalysis states. The probe presents advantages associated with its simplicity, its low cost and its direct engine application without any modifications.

  6. On eddy accumulation with limited conditional sampling to measure air-surface exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Wesely, M.L.; Hart, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis of turbulence data collected at a height of 12.3 m above grasslands was carried out to illustrate some of the limitations and possible improvements in methods to compute vertical fluxes of trace substances by the eddy accumulation technique with conditional sampling. The empirical coefficient used in the technique has a slight dependence on atmospheric stability, which can be minimized by using a threshold vertical velocity equal to approximately 0.75{sigma}{sub w}, below which chemical sampling is suspended. This protocol results in a smaller chemical sample but increases the differences in concentrations by approximately 70%. For effective conditional sampling when mass is being accumulated in a trap or reservoir, the time of sampling during updrafts versus downdrafts should be measured and used to adjust estimates of the mean concentrations.

  7. Evaluation of a portable X-ray fluorescence instrument for the determination of lead in workplace air samples.

    PubMed

    Morley, J C; Clark, C S; Deddens, J A; Ashley, K; Roda, S

    1999-05-01

    Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations for worker exposure to lead specify worker protection levels based upon airborne concentrations of lead dust. The rapid, on-site determination of lead in air filter samples using a portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument with an attachment to hold the filter would expedite the exposure assessment process and facilitate compliance with the OSHA standards. A total of 65 lead in air filter samples were collected at bridge blasting lead-abatement projects using closed-faced, 37-mm cassettes with pre-loaded 0.8 micron pore size mixed cellulose ester membrane filters. The lead loading range of the data set was 0.1-1514.6 micrograms (micrograms) of lead/sample. Samples were initially analyzed with a field portable XRF (NITON 700) using an experimental non-destructive XRF method. Samples were subsequently analyzed using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7105 (Graphite Furnace AA) as a reference analytical method. The paired data were not normally distributed; therefore, the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for statistical analysis. There was no statistically significant difference between data from the field portable XRF method and the NIOSH method (p-value = 0.72). Linear regression of the data resulted in a slope of 0.959, a y-intercept of 5.20 micrograms, and an r2 of 0.985. The XRF limit of detection and limit of quantitation were determined to be 6.2 and 17 micrograms of lead/sample, respectively. The XRF method accuracy was +/- 16.4% (7.1%-27%, 90% confidence interval). The data presented in this study indicate that field-portable XRF can be used for the analysis of lead air filter samples over the range of 17 to 1500 micrograms of lead/sample. The practicing industrial hygienist can use field-portable XRF to produce a rapid, on-site determination of lead exposure that can immediately be communicated to workers and help identify appropriate levels

  8. MISR Field Campaign Imagery

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-23

      MISR Support of Field Campaigns Aerosol Arctic Research of the Composition of the ... Daily ARCTAS Aerosol Polar Imagery ​Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study ( GoMACCS ) ​July - ...

  9. Automated campaign system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondran, Gary; Chao, Hui; Lin, Xiaofan; Beyer, Dirk; Joshi, Parag; Atkins, Brian; Obrador, Pere

    2006-02-01

    To run a targeted campaign involves coordination and management across numerous organizations and complex process flows. Everything from market analytics on customer databases, acquiring content and images, composing the materials, meeting the sponsoring enterprise brand standards, driving through production and fulfillment, and evaluating results; all processes are currently performed by experienced highly trained staff. Presented is a developed solution that not only brings together technologies that automate each process, but also automates the entire flow so that a novice user could easily run a successful campaign from their desktop. This paper presents the technologies, structure, and process flows used to bring this system together. Highlighted will be how the complexity of running a targeted campaign is hidden from the user through technologies, all while providing the benefits of a professionally managed campaign.

  10. Pride Campaign Overcomes Vandalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Donald W.

    1984-01-01

    A San Jose high school's campaign to develop student pride in the school and its appearance includes publicity measures, painting garbage cans in school colors, and cafeteria supervision. Results in diminishing acts of vandalism have been encouraging. (MJL)

  11. Monitoring Iodine-129 in Air and Milk Samples Collected Near the Hanford Site: An Investigation of Historical Iodine Monitoring Data

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2006-01-01

    While other research has reported on the concentrations of 129I in the environment surrounding active nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, there is a shortage of information regarding how the concentrations change once facilities close. At the Hanford Site, the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) chemical separation plant was operational between 1983 and 1990, during which time 129I concentrations in air and milk were measured. After the cessation of operations in 1990, plant emissions decreased 2.5 orders of magnitude over an 8 year period, and monitoring of environmental levels continued. An evaluation of air and milk 129I concentration data spanning the PUREX operation and post closure period was conducted to compare the changes in environmental levels of 129I measured. Measured concentrations over the monitoring period were below levels that could result in a potential human dose greater than 10 uSv. There was a significant and measurable difference in the measured air concentrations of 129I at different distances from the source, indicating a distinct Hanford fingerprint. Correlations between stack emissions of 129I and concentrations in air and milk indicate that atmospheric emissions were responsible for the 129I concentrations measured in environmental samples. The measured concentrations during PUREX operation were similar to observations made around a fuel reprocessing plant in Germany.

  12. STS 134, 135 and 26S Return Samples: Air Quality aboard Shuttle (STS-134) and International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    This is a very limited set of samples on which to perform an air quality assessment. However, based on these samples, we have no reason to believe that nominal ISS air is unsafe to breathe. We must continue to be vigilant when dealing with nominal atmospheres in ISS. New, unmanned modules require special attention when the crew first enters. Carbon Monoxide Accumulation aboard ISS: Beginning in late 2008 the nominal concentrations of CO began increasing gradually (Figure 1). The results from samples returned on this flight indicate that the CO concentrations, after dropping in late 2009, have cycled upward and then settled back to concentrations near 2 mg/m3. In any case, these changes are well below the 180-day SMAC for CO, which is17 mg/m3. There is no threat to crew health. Carbon Dioxide: This anthropogenic compound has drawn much attention recently because of the possibility that it could contribute to the effects of intracranial hypertension experienced because of spaceflight-induced fluid shifts. From now on we will maintain a plot (Figure 2) of carbon dioxide concentrations ( SD) by averaging the values found in the 3-5 mini-GSC samples taken each month in diverse locations of the ISS. This will enable us to estimate the average exposure of crewmembers to carbon dioxide during their stay aboard the ISS. In general, concentrations are being maintained below 3.5 mmHg. Figure 1

  13. Evaluation of an ambient air sampling system for tritium (as tritiated water vapor) using silica gel adsorbent columns

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.; Tinker, M.R.

    1995-08-01

    Ambient air samples for tritium analysis (as the tritiated water vapor [HTO] content of atmospheric moisture) are collected for the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) using the solid adsorbent silica gel. The silica gel has a moisture sensitive indicator which allows for visual observation of moisture movement through a column. Despite using an established method, some silica gel columns showed a complete change in the color indicator for summertime samples suggesting that breakthrough had occurred; thus a series of tests was conducted on the sampling system in an environmental chamber. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum practical sampling volume and overall collection efficiency for water vapor collected on silica gel columns. Another purpose was to demonstrate the use of an impinger-based system to load water vapor onto silica gel columns to provide realistic analytical spikes and blanks for the Hanford Site SESP. Breakthrough volumes (V{sub b}) were measured and the chromatographic efficiency (expressed as the number of theoretical plates [N]) was calculated for a range of environmental conditions. Tests involved visual observations of the change in the silica gel`s color indicator as a moist air stream was drawn through the column, measurement of the amount of a tritium tracer retained and then recovered from the silica gel, and gravimetric analysis for silica gel columns exposed in the environmental chamber.

  14. The National Diabetes, Influenza, and Pneumococcal Campaign: an evaluation of campaign relevancy, partnerships, and media relations.

    PubMed

    Jack, Leonard; Sokler, Lynn A; Squiers, Linda; Mitchell, Patricia

    2003-11-01

    The Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, collaborated with its 59 Diabetes Prevention and Control Programs (DPCPs) to implement in 1998-1999 the National Diabetes Influenza and Pneumococcal Campaign. Postcampaign evaluation examined DPCPs' perceptions of the relevancy of the campaign in reaching the target population (adults aged 25-64 years with diabetes), establishing successful partnerships, and engaging the media. Most DPCPs stated the campaign reached their target population. DPCPs most commonly partnered with existing networks such as public health organizations or government agencies and direct health care providers. A majority of DPCPs did not find partnerships with direct health care providers to be effective in this campaign, but public health organizations, peer review organizations, and coalitions were described as successful partners. States in which DPCPs conducted follow-up calls to television stations regarding the airing of public service announcements generally had more announcements aired than states in which such calls were not made. Postcampaign evaluation findings also indicate that DPCPs who attempted to engage nontraditional partners (e.g., media outlets) achieved greater campaign success than those who did not. Future campaign efforts will likely benefit from relationships established with nontraditional partners, such as retailers, media outlets, local pharmacies, and faith-based organizations. PMID:14677333

  15. Fukushima radionuclides at air filter and rain water samples collected from Istanbul and their atmospheric removal time.

    PubMed

    Güngör, E; Güngör, N; Yüksel, A; Bağ, G; Orhan, N

    2014-01-01

    Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) is one of the most serious accident in the world after Chernobyl accident. Following the continuing release of radionuclides in air after FDNPP, traces of fission products ((131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs) were recorded in the air filter and rain water samples collected from the ÇNAEM area at İstanbul on 4 April 2011. Airborne particle samples were collected daily in air filters and radio assayed with a high purity germanium detector. The fission products (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were measured with the maximum activity concentrations of 1.03±0.08, 0.25±0.03 and 0.23±0.03 mBq m(-3), respectively. For determination of the origin of the releases the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio was calculated between 1.09 and 0.85. The authors find removal times for (137)Cs of 8.13 d, (134)Cs of 7.25 d and (131)I of 6.82 d.

  16. Sorption of a diverse set of organic chemical vapors onto XAD-2 resin: Measurement, prediction and implications for air sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, Stephen J.; Lei, Ying D.; Wania, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The wide-spread use of styrene-divinylbenzene-copolymeric resin (XAD-2) in air sampling necessitates a quantitative understanding of its sorption characteristics for organic chemicals. Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC) was used to measure the sorption of a diverse set of 52 organic chemicals to XAD-2 at temperatures between 40 °C and 100 °C and at relative humidities between 0 and 87%. Even though relative humidity has been shown to influence sorption to other sorbents, it did not significantly influence most chemicals' sorption to XAD-2, indicating that water does not form a strong physical barrier to sorption on XAD-2 at high relative humidity. The resin-air partition coefficients ( KXAD) determined by IGC and the enthalpies of sorption derived from them were regressed against solute descriptors to derive poly-parameter Linear Free Energy Relationships (ppLFERs) which allow the estimation of KXAD for chemicals which are not sufficiently volatile to be amenable to IGC and for temperatures outside the experimental range. KXAD values at 20 °C estimated for a set of 296 chemicals for which solute descriptors are available, including polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and pesticides, indicate that for many of the substances commonly found in the atmosphere sorption is higher to XAD-2 than to poly-urethane foam, another popular air sampling sorbent.

  17. Field use of semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) for passive air sampling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Opportunities and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardo, M. T.; Stella, A.; Pala, M.; Balducci, D.; Valerio, F.

    2010-05-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used for measurements in air of twelve polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two Genoa locations, both on building roofs, distant 300 m from each other. The first, site A, was in front a dismissing steel complex and the second, site B, was in an urban area overlooking a busy thoroughfare. SPMDs were deployed contemporary at the two sites, in nine monthly samplings, from April 2007 to May 2008. The amount of sequestered PAHs, in sites A and B, ranged between 61-267 ng SPMD -1 d -1 and 50-535 ng SPMD -1 d -1, respectively. PAHs profiles highlighted seasonal differences and suggested the possible role of different PAHs sources in the two areas. In particular, the contribution of remediation works of the steel complex was observed in site A. Moreover, a naphthalene leak from a tank, into the former industrial area, and a fire broke out near site A, were registered by time-integrated measurements of SPMDs. However, the strong dependence between amount of sequestered PAHs and air temperature needs further studies to distinguish between uptake rate variability and seasonal contribution of different sources. Finally, to measure air concentrations with reasonable accuracy, it should be very important to have certified sampling rates for all individual PAHs.

  18. Technical assessment of compliance with workplace air sampling requirements at WRAP

    SciTech Connect

    HACKWORTH, M.F.

    1999-06-02

    The purpose of this Technical Assessment is to satisfy HSRCM-1, ''Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual'' Article 551.4 for a documented study of facility Workplace Air Monitoring (WAM) programs. HSRCM-1 is the primary guidance for radiological control at Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. (WMH). The HSRCM-1 complies with Title 10. Part 835 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR835). This document provides an evaluation of the compliance of the Waste Receiving and Processing facility (WRAP) WAM program to the criteria standards, requirements, and documents compliance with the requirements where appropriate. Where necessary, it also indicates changes needed to bring specific locations into compliance.

  19. Ecotoxicological studies of environmental samples from Buenos Aires area using a standardized amphibian embryo toxicity test (AMPHITOX).

    PubMed

    Herkovits, Jorge; Perez-Coll, Cristina; Herkovits, Francisco D

    2002-01-01

    The toxicity of 34 environmental samples from potentially polluted and reference stations were evaluated by means of the AMPHITOX test from acute to chronic exposure according to the toxicity found in each sample. The samples were obtained from surface and ground water, leaches, industrial effluents and soils. The data, expressed in acute, short-term chronic and chronic Toxicity Units (TUa, TUstc and TUc) resulted in a maximal value of 1000 TUc, found in a leach, while the lower toxicity value was 1.4 TUa corresponding to two surface water samples. In five samples (four providing from reference places) no toxicity was detected. The results point out the possibility of evaluating the toxicity of a wide diversity of samples by means of AMPHITOX as a customized toxicity test. The fact that almost all samples with suspected toxicity in rivers and streams from the Metropolitan area of Buenos Aires city resulted toxic, indicates the need of enhanced stewardship of chemical substances for environmental and human health protection purposes. PMID:11808551

  20. Soyuz 27 Return Samples: Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station: Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The toxicological assessment of 6 GSCs from the ISS is shown. The average recoveries of the 3 surrogate standards from the grab sample containers were as follows: C-13-acetone, 115%; fluorobenzene, 108%; and chlorobenzene, 93%.

  1. Procedures manual for the recommended ARB (Air Resources Board) sized chemical sample method (cascade cyclones)

    SciTech Connect

    McCain, J.D.; Dawes, S.S.; Farthing, W.E.

    1986-05-01

    The report is Attachment No. 2 to the Final Report of ARB Contract A3-092-32 and provides a tutorial on the use of Cascade (Series) Cyclones to obtain size-fractionated particulate samples from industrial flue gases at stationary sources. The instrumentation and procedures described are designed to protect the purity of the collected samples so that post-test chemical analysis may be performed for organic and inorganic compounds, including instrumental analysis for trace elements. The instrumentation described collects bulk quantities for each of six size fractions over the range 10 to 0.4 micrometer diameter. The report describes the operating principles, calibration, and empirical modeling of small cyclone performance. It also discusses the preliminary calculations, operation, sample retrieval, and data analysis associated with the use of cyclones to obtain size-segregated samples and to measure particle-size distributions.

  2. Soyuz 24 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz. This is the first time all samples were acquired with the mini-grab samplers. The toxicological assessment of 15 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown. The recoveries of the 3 internal standards, C(13)-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene, from the GSCs averaged 75, 97 and 79%, respectively. Formaldehyde badges were not returned on Soyuz 24

  3. Recent developments in the analysis of air samples by luminescence techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1981-01-01

    A report is presented on recent developments in luminescence analysis of atmospheric samples using two simple luminescence methods, the synchronous excitation and the room temperature phosphorescence (RPT) techniques. Samples extracted from high-volume samplers can be analyzed for their content of certain polynuclear aromatic (PNA) compounds using these two spectroscopic methods. The RPT technique also provides a novel approach for direct detection of PNA vapors collected on filter paper.

  4. HFC-152a and HFC-134a emission estimates and characterization of CFCs, CFC replacements, and other halogenated solvents measured during the 2008 ARCTAS campaign (CARB phase) over the South Coast Air Basin of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, B.; Nissenson, P.; Meinardi, S.; Dabdub, D.; Sherwood Rowland, F.; Vancuren, R. A.; Pederson, J.; Diskin, G. S.; Blake, D. R.

    2011-03-01

    This work presents results from the NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) study. Whole air samples were obtained on board research flights that flew over California during June 2008 and analyzed for selected volatile organic compounds, including several halogenated species. Samples collected over the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB), which includes much of Los Angeles (LA) County, were compared with samples from inflow air masses over the Pacific Ocean. The levels of many halocarbon species were enhanced significantly over the SoCAB, including compounds regulated by the Montreal Protocol and subsequent amendments. Emissions estimates of HFC-152a (1,1-difluoroethane, CH3CHF2; 0.82 ± 0.11 Gg) and HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, CH2FCF3; 1.16 ± 0.22 Gg) in LA County for 2008 were obtained using the observed HFC:carbon monoxide (CO) enhancement ratio. Emission rates also were calculated for the SoCAB (1.60 ± 0.22 Gg yr-1 for HFC-152a and 2.12 ± 0.28 Gg yr-1 for HFC-134a) and then extrapolated to the United States (32 ± 4 Gg yr-1 for HFC-152a and 43 ± 6 Gg yr-1 for HFC-134a) using population data. In addition, emission rates of the two HFCs in LA County and SoCAB were calculated by a second method that utilizes air quality modeling. Emissions estimates obtained using both methods differ by less than 25% for the LA County and less than 45% for the SoCAB.

  5. HFC-152a and HFC-134a emission estimates and characterization of CFCs, CFC replacements, and other halogenated solvents measured during the 2008 ARCTAS campaign (CARB phase) over the South Coast Air Basin of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, B.; Nissenson, P.; Meinardi, S.; Dabdub, D.; Rowland, F.; Vancuren, R. A.; Pederson, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2010-11-01

    This work presents results from the NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) study. Whole air samples were obtained on board research flights that flew over California during June 2008 and analyzed for selected volatile organic compounds, including several halogenated species. Samples collected over the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB), which includes much of Los Angeles (LA) County, were compared with samples from inflow air masses over the Pacific Ocean. The levels of many halocarbon species were enhanced significantly over the SoCAB, including compounds regulated by the Montreal Protocol and subsequent amendments (e.g., enhancements of 13 pptv and 11 pptv for CFC-11 and CFC-12, respectively). Emissions estimates of HFC-152a (0.98±0.05 Gg) and HFC-134a (1.40±0.11 Gg) in LA County for 2008 were obtained using the observed HFC:CO enhancement ratio. The emission rates were extrapolated to the SoCAB (1.48±0.07 Gg for HFC-152a and 2.12±0.17 Gg for HFC-134a) and US (30.1±1.5 Gg for HFC-152a and 43.0±3.4 Gg for HFC-134a) using population data. In addition, emission rates of the two HFCs in LA County and SoCAB also were calculated by a second method that utilizes air quality modeling. Estimates obtained using both methods agree well.

  6. Development of a method to detect and quantify Aspergillus fumigatus conidia by quantitative PCR for environmental air samples.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, James J; Lees, Peter S J; Merz, William G; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2004-10-01

    Exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus is linked with respiratory diseases such as asthma, invasive aspergillosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Molecular methods using quantitative PCR (qPCR) offer advantages over culture and optical methods for estimating human exposures to microbiological agents such as fungi. We describe an assay that uses lyticase to digest A. fumigatus conidia followed by TaqMan qPCR to quantify released DNA. This method will allow analysis of airborne A. fumigatus samples collected over extended time periods and provide a more representative assessment of chronic exposure. The method was optimized for environmental samples and incorporates: single tube sample preparation to reduce sample loss, maintain simplicity, and avoid contamination; hot start amplification to reduce non-specific primer/probe annealing; and uracil-N-glycosylase to prevent carryover contamination. An A. fumigatus internal standard was developed and used to detect PCR inhibitors potentially found in air samples. The assay detected fewer than 10 A. fumigatus conidia per qPCR reaction and quantified conidia over a 4-log10 range with high linearity (R2 >0.99) and low variability among replicate standards (CV=2.0%) in less than 4 h. The sensitivity and linearity of qPCR for conidia deposited on filters was equivalent to conidia calibration standards. A. fumigatus DNA from 8 isolates was consistently quantified using this method, while non-specific DNA from 14 common environmental fungi, including 6 other Aspergillus species, was not detected. This method provides a means of analyzing long term air samples collected on filters which may enable investigators to correlate airborne environmental A. fumigatus conidia concentrations with adverse health effects.

  7. Occupational dimethylformamide exposure. 1. Diffusive sampling of dimethylformamide vapor for determination of time-weighted average concentration in air.

    PubMed

    Yasugi, T; Kawai, T; Mizunuma, K; Horiguchi, S; Iguchi, H; Ikeda, M

    1992-01-01

    A diffusive sampling method with water as absorbent was examined in comparison with 3 conventional methods of diffusive sampling with carbon cloth as absorbent, pumping through National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) charcoal tubes, and pumping through NIOSH silica gel tubes to measure time-weighted average concentration of dimethylformamide (DMF). DMF vapors of constant concentrations at 3-110 ppm were generated by bubbling air at constant velocities through liquid DMF followed by dilution with fresh air. Both types of diffusive samplers could either absorb or adsorb DMF in proportion to time (0.25-8 h) and concentration (3-58 ppm), except that the DMF adsorbed was below the measurable amount when carbon cloth samplers were exposed at 3 ppm for less than 1 h. When both diffusive samplers were loaded with DMF and kept in fresh air, the DMF in water samplers stayed unchanged for at least for 12 h. The DMF in carbon cloth samplers showed a decay with a half-time of 14.3 h. When the carbon cloth was taken out immediately after termination of DMF exposure, wrapped in aluminum foil, and kept refrigerated, however, there was no measurable decrease in DMF for at least 3 weeks. When the air was drawn at 0.2 l/min, a breakthrough of the silica gel tube took place at about 4,000 ppm.min (as the lower 95% confidence limit), whereas charcoal tubes could tolerate even heavier exposures, suggesting that both tubes are fit to measure the 8-h time-weighted average of DMF at 10 ppm. PMID:1577523

  8. Use of Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) Generates a Very Diverse Sample of Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Balan, Ivan; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Dolezal, Curtis; Barreda, Victoria; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Ávila, María Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Background Prior research focusing on men who have sex with men (MSM) conducted in Buenos Aires, Argentina, used convenience samples that included mainly gay identified men. To increase MSM sample representativeness, we used Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) for the first time in Argentina. Using RDS, under certain specified conditions, the observed estimates for the percentage of the population with a specific trait are asymptotically unbiased. We describe, the diversity of the recruited sample, from the point of view of sexual orientation, and contrast the different subgroups in terms of their HIV sexual risk behavior. Methodology 500 MSM were recruited using RDS. Behavioral data were collected through face-to-face interviews and Web-based CASI. Conclusion In contrast with prior studies, RDS generated a very diverse sample of MSM from a sexual identity perspective. Only 24.5% of participants identified as gay; 36.2% identified as bisexual, 21.9% as heterosexual, and 17.4% were grouped as “other.” Gay and non-gay identified MSM differed significantly in their sexual behavior, the former having higher numbers of partners, more frequent sexual contacts and less frequency of condom use. One third of the men (gay, 3%; bisexual, 34%, heterosexual, 51%; other, 49%) reported having had sex with men, women and transvestites in the two months prior to the interview. This population requires further study and, potentially, HIV prevention strategies tailored to such diversity of partnerships. Our results highlight the potential effectiveness of using RDS to reach non-gay identified MSM. They also present lessons learned in the implementation of RDS to recruit MSM concerning both the importance and limitations of formative work, the need to tailor incentives to circumstances of the less affluent potential participants, the need to prevent masking, and the challenge of assessing network size. PMID:22102896

  9. Exploring prenatal outdoor air pollution, birth outcomes and neonatal health care utilization in a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Trasande, Leonardo; Wong, Kendrew; Roy, Angkana; Savitz, David A; Thurston, George

    2013-01-01

    The impact of air pollution on fetal growth remains controversial, in part, because studies have been limited to sub-regions of the United States with limited variability. No study has examined air pollution impacts on neonatal health care utilization. We performed descriptive, univariate and multivariable analyses on administrative hospital record data from 222,359 births in the 2000, 2003 and 2006 Kids Inpatient Database linked to air pollution data drawn from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Aerometric Information Retrieval System. In this study, air pollution exposure during the birth month was estimated based on birth hospital address. Although air pollutants were not individually associated with mean birth weight, a three-pollutant model controlling for hospital characteristics, demographics, and birth month identified 9.3% and 7.2% increases in odds of low birth weight and very low birth weight for each μg/m(3) increase in PM(2.5) (both P<0.0001). PM(2.5) and NO(2) were associated with -3.0% odds/p.p.m. and +2.5% odds/p.p.b. of preterm birth, respectively (both P<0.0001). A four-pollutant multivariable model indicated a 0.05 days/p.p.m. NO(2) decrease in length of the birth hospitalization (P=0.0061) and a 0.13 days increase/p.p.m. CO (P=0.0416). A $1166 increase in per child costs was estimated for the birth hospitalization per p.p.m. CO (P=0.0002) and $964 per unit increase in O(3) (P=0.0448). A reduction from the 75th to the 25th percentile in the highest CO quartile for births predicts annual savings of $134.7 million in direct health care costs. In a national, predominantly urban, sample, air pollutant exposures during the month of birth are associated with increased low birth weight and neonatal health care utilization. Further study of this database, with enhanced control for confounding, improved exposure assessment, examination of exposures across multiple time windows in pregnancy, and in the entire national sample, is supported by these

  10. Field comparison of air sampling methods for monomeric and polymeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate.

    PubMed

    Thomasen, Jennifer M; Fent, Kenneth W; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Whittaker, Stephen G; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2011-03-01

    This study was to critically compared 13 different air samplers for their ability to monitor air exposures to monomeric and polymeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) in the automotive refinishing industry. Using both fast- and slow-drying clearcoat, we tested the following types of samplers: single- and dual-stage 37-mm polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS) samplers (open- and closed-face), IOM (with plastic and stainless steel inserts), OSHA42, IsoChek, and WA-DOSH samplers. Midget impingers with frit were used as reference samplers. We observed the PP, PS, and IOM samplers to measure greater levels of HDI monomer and biuret when a fast-drying clearcoat was applied compared with a slow-drying clearcoat. When a slow-drying clearcoat was applied, the open-face PP and PS samplers measured significantly more monomeric and polymeric HDI (2-fold; p < 0.003) than the closed-face PP and PS samplers. We determined that significantly more monomeric and polymeric HDI were measured by impingers (1.3-1.9-fold) compared with single-stage PP/PS (N = 59), dual-stage PP/PS (N = 59), or IOM (N = 24) samplers. However, when stratified by cassette characteristics, the open-face single-stage PP and PS samplers performed equally to the impingers for HDI monomer when a fast-drying clearcoat was applied, and for all analytes when a slow-drying clearcoat was applied. Significantly higher HDI monomer concentrations (1.2-3.1-fold; p = 0.001) were measured with OSHA42 compared with the impinger. The IsoChek did not detect HDI monomer, and of the three samplers analyzed by laboratories other than UNC (i.e., OSHA42, IsoChek, and WA-DOSH), the WA-DOSH was in the best agreement with the impingers. The influence of clearcoat drying time on the sampler's ability to measure monomeric and polymeric HDI emphasizes the importance of the speciation of diisocyanates in chemical analysis and the careful consideration for the selection of the air sampler to be used when measuring exposures during

  11. Exposure to MTV's Global HIV Prevention Campaign in Kathmandu, Nepal; Sao Paulo, Brazil; and Dakar, Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke, Holly McClain; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane, Shailes; Sall, Yacine Ba; Wong, Emily

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 MTV aired a global media campaign, "Staying Alive," to promote HIV prevention among 16- to 25-year-olds. Skeptics believed that a global MTV campaign would reach only a small group of elite young people. MTV increased access to its campaign, however, by making all materials "rights free" to third-party (non-MTV) broadcasters. Over 789…

  12. Auditing of sampling methods for air toxics at coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Agbede, R.O.; Clements, J.L.; Grunebach, M.G.

    1995-11-01

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) with subcontract assistance from international Technology Corporation (IT) has provided external audit activities for Phase II of the Department of Energy-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center`s air emission test program. The objective of the audits is to help ensure that the data obtained from the emission tests are precise, accurate, representative, scientifically sound and legally defensible. This paper presents the criteria that were used to perform the external audits of the emission test program. It also describes the approach used by ATS and It in performing their audits. Examples of findings of the audits along with the actions take to correct problems and the subsequent effect of those actions on the test data are presented. The results of audit spikes performed at the Plant 1 test site are also discussed.

  13. Air modelling as an alternative to sampling for low-level radioactive airborne releases

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenstern, M.Y.; Hueske, K.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes our efforts to assess the effect of airborne releases at one DOE laboratory using air modelling based on historical data. Among the facilities affected by these developments is Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in New Mexico. RCRA, as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) in 1984, requires all facilities which involve the treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste obtain a RCRA/HSWA waste facility permit. LANL complied with CEARP by initiating a process of identifying potential release sites associated with LANL operations prior to filing a RCRA/HSWA permit application. In the process of preparing the RCRA/HSWA waste facility permit application to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a total of 603 Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) were identified as part of the requirements of the HSWA Module VIH permit requirements. The HSWA Module VIII permit requires LANL to determine whether there have been any releases of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents from SWMUs at the facility dating from the 1940`s by performing a RCRA Facility Investigation to address known or suspected releases from specified SWMUs to affected media (i.e. soil, groundwater, surface water, and air). Among the most troublesome of the potential releases sites are those associated with airborne radioactive releases. In order to assess health risks associated with radioactive contaminants in a manner consistent with exposure standards currently in place, the DOE and LANL have established Screening Action Levels (SALs) for radioactive soil contamination. The SALs for each radionuclide in soil are derived from calculations based on a residential scenario in which individuals are exposed to contaminated soil via inhalation and ingestion as well as external exposure to gamma emitters in the soil. The applicable SALs are shown.

  14. Campaigning for change.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, Larry

    2002-07-01

    Most organizations must change if they're to stay alive. Change is tough to accomplish, but it's not impossible and can be systematized. The author, who has been involved in change initiatives at scores of companies, believes that the success of such programs has more to do with execution than with conceptualization. The successful change programs he observed had one thing in common: They employed three distinct but linked campaigns--political, marketing, and military. The author cites examples from such companies as Hewlett-Packard, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Saturn to illustrate how effective such campaigns can be. A political campaign creates a coalition strong enough to support and guide the initiative. Sometimes, coalitions arise from changes to a company's formal structure. But they may come out of the informal structure, or they could stem from a temporary counterstructure. A marketing campaign must go beyond simply publicizing the initiative's benefits. It focuses on listening to ideas that bubble up from the field as well as on working with lead customers to design the initiative. A clearly articulated theme for the transformation program must also be developed. A military campaign deploys executives' scarce resources of attention and time. Successful executives secure their supply lines by, for instance, piggybacking onto initiatives that have already captured people's interests or already exist as bootleg projects. These managers also set up pilot projects that turn into beachheads because the projects expose them to the difficult dynamics they will ultimately face. Successful executives launch all three campaigns simultaneously. The three always feed on one another, and if any one campaign is not properly implemented, the change initiative is bound to fail.

  15. 6S Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality in the International Space Station (ISS) Based on Solid Sorbent Air Sampler (SSAS) and Formaldehyde Monitoring Kit (FMK) Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2004-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of SSAS and FMK analytical results are reported. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports. Surrogate standard recoveries from the SSAS tubes were 66-76% for 13C-acetone, 85-96% for fluorobenzene, and 73-89% for chlorobenzene. Post-flight flows were far below pre-flight flows and an investigation of the problem revealed that the reduced flow was caused by a leak at the interface of the pump inlet tube and the pump head. This resulted in degradation of pump efficiency. Further investigation showed that the problem occurred before the SSAS was operated on orbit and that use of the post-flight flows yielded consistent and useful results. Recoveries from formaldehyde control badges were 86 to 104%. The two general criteria used to assess air quality are the total-non-methane-volatile organic hydrocarbons (NMVOCs) and the total T-value (minus the CO2 and formaldehyde contributions). The T values will not be reported for these data due to the flow anomaly. Control of atmospheric alcohols is important to the water recovery system engineers, hence total alcohols (including acetone) are also shown for each sample. Octafluoropropane (OFP) is not efficiently trapped by the sorbents used in the SSAS. Because formaldehyde is quantified from sorbent badges, its concentration is also listed separately. These five indices of air quality are summarized.

  16. Proportional counter device for detecting electronegative species in an air sample

    DOEpatents

    Allman, S.L.; Chen, F.C.; Chen, C.H.

    1994-03-08

    Apparatus for detecting an electronegative species comprises an analysis chamber, an inlet communicating with the analysis chamber for admitting a sample containing the electronegative species and an ionizable component, a radioactive source within the analysis chamber for emitting radioactive energy for ionizing a component of the sample, a proportional electron detector within the analysis chamber for detecting electrons emitted from the ionized component, and a circuit for measuring the electrons and determining the presence of the electronegative species by detecting a reduction in the number of available electrons due to capture of electrons by the electronegative species. 2 figures.

  17. Proportional counter device for detecting electronegative species in an air sample

    DOEpatents

    Allman, Steve L.; Chen, Fang C.; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting an electronegative species comprises an analysis chamber, an inlet communicating with the analysis chamber for admitting a sample containing the electronegative species and an ionizable component, a radioactive source within the analysis chamber for emitting radioactive energy for ionizing a component of the sample, a proportional electron detector within the analysis chamber for detecting electrons emitted from the ionized component, and a circuit for measuring the electrons and determining the presence of the electronegative species by detecting a reduction in the number of available electrons due to capture of electrons by the electronegative species.

  18. Population-based evaluation of the ‘LiveLighter’ healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign

    PubMed Central

    Morley, B.; Niven, P.; Dixon, H.; Swanson, M.; Szybiak, M.; Shilton, T.; Pratt, I. S.; Slevin, T.; Hill, D.; Wakefield, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Western Australian (WA) ‘LiveLighter’ (LL) mass media campaign ran during June–August and September–October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual (‘why’ change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier (‘how’ to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25–49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N = 2012) and following the two media waves (N = 2005 and N = 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The ‘why’ message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than ‘how’ messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P < 0.05) and physical activity intentions (P < 0.05). Endorsement of stereotypes of overweight individuals did not increase after LL aired. LL was associated with some population-level improvements in proximal and intermediate markers of campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour. PMID:26956039

  19. Soyuz 25 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Six mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 25. The toxicological assessment of 6 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown. The recoveries of the 3 internal standards, C-13-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene, from the GSCs averaged 76, 108 and 88%, respectively. Formaldehyde badges were not returned aboard Soyuz 25.

  20. Biochemical and cellular effects of electrophiles present in ambient air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Noriko; Nishiyama, Akira; Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantzazu; Hinds, William; Kumagai, Yoshito; Froines, John R.; Cho, Arthur K.; Shinyashiki, Masaru

    2010-04-01

    Ambient vapor-phase samples collected in Riverside, California had shown that both redox and electrophilic activity were present, with the vapor phase containing higher levels of electrophiles than the particle phase. In this study, the biochemical effects of the vapor-phase electrophiles were examined using the purified thiol proteins, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and KELCH-1 like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1). The results demonstrated that the thiol proteins were inactivated by the vapor-phase samples through covalent modifications. Next, two cellular responses, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), to the ambient vapor-phase samples were assessed in A549 and RAW 264.7 cell lines, respectively. The vapor-phase samples, at non-oxidative concentrations, increased phosphorylation of EGFR, which is negatively regulated by PTP1B, and its downstream MAP kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. Activation of Nrf2, which requires Keap1 alkylation, and expression of its downstream proteins were also observed. The electrophilic compounds present in ambient vapor-phase were shown to modify cellular proteins through covalent modification and to activate diverse cellular responses that can lead to inflammatory and adaptive responses.

  1. In situ detection of lung cancer volatile fingerprints using bronchoscopic air-sampling.

    PubMed

    Santonico, M; Lucantoni, G; Pennazza, G; Capuano, R; Galluccio, G; Roscioni, C; La Delfa, G; Consoli, D; Martinelli, E; Paolesse, R; Di Natale, C; D'Amico, A

    2012-07-01

    Lung cancer diagnosis via breath analysis has to overcome some issues that can be summarized by two crucial points: (1) further developments for more performant breath sampling technologies; (2) discovering more differentiated volatile fingerprints to be ascribed to specific altered biological mechanisms. The present work merges these two aspects in a pilot study, where a breath volume, sampled via endoscopic probe, is analyzed by an array of non-selective gas sensors. Even if the original non-invasive methods of breath analysis has been laid in favour of the endoscopic means, the innovative technique here proposed allows the analysis of the volatile mixtures directly sampled near the tumor mass. This strategy could open the way for a better understanding of the already obtained discrimination among positive and negative cancer cases. The results obtained so far confirm the established discrimination capacity. This allows to discriminate the different subtypes of lung cancer with 75% of correct classification between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. This result suggests that a 'zoom-in' on the cancer settled inside the human body can increase the resolution power of key-volatiles detection, allowing the discrimination among different cancer fingerprints. We report this novel technique as a robust support for a better comprehension of the promising results obtained so far and present in literature; it is not to be intended as a replacement for non-invasive breath sampling procedure with the endoscope.

  2. The classification of the patients with pulmonary diseases using breath air samples spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yury V.; Borisov, Alexey V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Bulanova, Anna A.

    2016-08-01

    Technique of exhaled breath sampling is discussed. The procedure of wavelength auto-calibration is proposed and tested. Comparison of the experimental data with the model absorption spectra of 5% CO2 is conducted. The classification results of three study groups obtained by using support vector machine and principal component analysis methods are presented.

  3. STS 133 Return Samples: Air Quality Aboard Shuttle (STS-133) and International Space Station (ULFS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of 2 canisters (mini-GSC or GSCs) from the Shuttle are reported. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports. The percent recoveries of the 3 surrogates (C-13-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene) from the 2 Shuttle GSCs averaged 86, 100, and 87, respectively. Based on the end-of-mission sample, the Shuttle atmosphere was acceptable for human respiration.

  4. Monitoring of ozone precursors in ambient air using pumped and diffusive sampling on the sorbent Carbopack X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quincey, Paul; Butterfield, David; D'Souza, Hansa; Henderson, Malcolm

    EU legislation for ambient ozone concentrations puts a requirement on Member States to monitor a large set of ozone precursor species, mostly hydrocarbons. We describe an investigation into how much of this information is readily available from manual methods used routinely for benzene monitoring in the United Kingdom, using pumped or diffusive sampling of ambient air onto the sorbent Carbopack X, followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography with a flame ionisation detector. Identifiable peaks were assessed for reliability by comparison with independent automated measurements and emissions inventories. We conclude that 21 of the 29 specified hydrocarbons can be usefully monitored without any change to the methods used.

  5. STS 129 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality aboard the Shuttle (STS-129) and International Space Station (ULF3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Reports on the air quality aboard the Space Shuttle (STS-129), and the International Space station (ULF3). NASA analyzed the grab sample canisters (GSCs) and the formaldehyde badges aboard both locations for carbon monoxide levels. The three surrogates: (sup 13)C-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene registered 109, 101, and 109% in the space shuttle and 81, 87, and 55% in the International Space Station (ISS). From these results the atmosphere in both the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS) was found to be breathable.

  6. Monitoring organic nitrogen species in the UT/LS - a new system for analysis of CARIBIC whole air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvage, Carina; Thorenz, Ute; Baker, Angela; Brenninkmeijer, Carl; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    The CARIBIC project is a unique program for long term and global scale monitoring of the atmosphere (http://www.caribic-atmospheric.com). An instrument container is installed monthly into a civil aircraft operated by Lufthansa (Airbus A 340-600) and makes atmospheric observations en route from Frankfurt, Germany to various destinations around the globe. In four to six long distance flights at a cruising altitude of 10 to 12 km online measurements of various atmospheric tracers are performed during the flight as well as whole air samples are taken with two different sampling units (116 samples in both glass and stainless steel canisters). These samples are routinely analyzed for greenhouse gases, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and halogenated compounds. Nitrogen containing compounds play various important roles in the atmosphere. Alkyl nitrates (RONO2) are products of the reaction of NMHC with OH and other oxidants in the presence of NO. They can provide information on the oxidative history of an air mass. Moreover they influence photolchemical ozone formation and act as a transport mechanism for reactive nitrogen. Less reactive nitrogen containing species such as HCN and acetonitrile are important markers for biomass burning, while organic amines are involved in gas to particle partitioning. Finally N2O is a long lived nitrogen containing gas important for the Earth's radiative budget. Regular measurements of such nitrogen compounds would therefore be a significant contribution to the CARIBIC data set. Especially for high altitude samples, in which the mixing ratios of many species are expected to be in the low ppt range, a highly sensitive method for analysis is required. Therefore a new system for measurement of nitrogen compounds has been built up, comprising a gas chromatograph (GC) using a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (NCD). An important advantage of the NCD is that it is selective for nitrogen and equimolar. The nitrogen compounds are sequentially pre

  7. Lessons from UNSCOM and IAEA regarding remote monitoring and air sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, at the direction of the United Nations Security Council, UNSCOM and IAEA developed plans for On-going Monitoring and Verification (OMV) in Iraq. The plans were accepted by the Security Council and remote monitoring and atmospheric sampling equipment has been installed at selected sites in Iraq. The remote monitoring equipment consists of video cameras and sensors positioned to observe equipment or activities at sites that could be used to support the development or manufacture of weapons of mass destruction, or long-range missiles. The atmospheric sampling equipment provides unattended collection of chemical samples from sites that could be used to support the development or manufacture of chemical weapon agents. To support OMV in Iraq, UNSCOM has established the Baghdad Monitoring and Verification Centre. Imagery from the remote monitoring cameras can be accessed in near-real time from the Centre through RIF communication links with the monitored sites. The OMV program in Iraq has implications for international cooperative monitoring in both global and regional contexts. However, monitoring systems such as those used in Iraq are not sufficient, in and of themselves, to guarantee the absence of prohibited activities. Such systems cannot replace on-site inspections by competent, trained inspectors. However, monitoring similar to that used in Iraq can contribute to openness and confidence building, to the development of mutual trust, and to the improvement of regional stability.

  8. Development of automated preparation system for isotopocule analysis of N2O in various air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Sakae; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), an increasingly abundant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, is the most important stratospheric ozone-depleting gas of this century. Natural abundance ratios of isotopocules of N2O, NNO molecules substituted with stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen, are a promising index of various sources or production pathways of N2O and of its sink or decomposition pathways. Several automated methods have been reported to improve the analytical precision for the isotopocule ratio of atmospheric N2O and to reduce the labor necessary for complicated sample preparation procedures related to mass spectrometric analysis. However, no method accommodates flask samples with limited volume or pressure. Here we present an automated preconcentration system which offers flexibility with respect to the available gas volume, pressure, and N2O concentration. The shortest processing time for a single analysis of typical atmospheric sample is 40 min. Precision values of isotopocule ratio analysis are < 0.1 ‰ for δ15Nbulk (average abundances of 14N15N16O and 15N14N16O relative to 14N14N16O), < 0.2 ‰ for δ18O (relative abundance of 14N14N18O), and < 0.5 ‰ for site preference (SP; difference between relative abundance of 14N15N16O and 15N14N16O). This precision is comparable to that of other automated systems, but better than that of our previously reported manual measurement system.

  9. Sampling biases in datasets of historical mean air temperature over land.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaicun

    2014-01-01

    Global mean surface air temperature (Ta) has been reported to have risen by 0.74°C over the last 100 years. However, the definition of mean Ta is still a subject of debate. The most defensible definition might be the integral of the continuous temperature measurements over a day (Td0). However, for technological and historical reasons, mean Ta over land have been taken to be the average of the daily maximum and minimum temperature measurements (Td1). All existing principal global temperature analyses over land rely heavily on Td1. Here, I make a first quantitative assessment of the bias in the use of Td1 to estimate trends of mean Ta using hourly Ta observations at 5600 globally distributed weather stations from the 1970s to 2013. I find that the use of Td1 has a negligible impact on the global mean warming rate. However, the trend of Td1 has a substantial bias at regional and local scales, with a root mean square error of over 25% at 5° × 5° grids. Therefore, caution should be taken when using mean Ta datasets based on Td1 to examine high resolution details of warming trends.

  10. Sampling biases in datasets of historical mean air temperature over land.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaicun

    2014-01-01

    Global mean surface air temperature (Ta) has been reported to have risen by 0.74°C over the last 100 years. However, the definition of mean Ta is still a subject of debate. The most defensible definition might be the integral of the continuous temperature measurements over a day (Td0). However, for technological and historical reasons, mean Ta over land have been taken to be the average of the daily maximum and minimum temperature measurements (Td1). All existing principal global temperature analyses over land rely heavily on Td1. Here, I make a first quantitative assessment of the bias in the use of Td1 to estimate trends of mean Ta using hourly Ta observations at 5600 globally distributed weather stations from the 1970s to 2013. I find that the use of Td1 has a negligible impact on the global mean warming rate. However, the trend of Td1 has a substantial bias at regional and local scales, with a root mean square error of over 25% at 5° × 5° grids. Therefore, caution should be taken when using mean Ta datasets based on Td1 to examine high resolution details of warming trends. PMID:24717688

  11. The effect of a national campaign on attitudes toward AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ross, M W; Rigby, K; Rosser, B R; Anagnostou, P; Brown, M

    1990-01-01

    Following a national campaign in Australia which had shown no change in level of knowledge about AIDS (using random samples of the population over 16 years, before and 5 months after the campaign), we assessed the change of attitudes towards, and beliefs about AIDS in the same samples. Results indicated that there were changes in beliefs about how much is known about the transmission of HIV, and that people were less concerned about casual transmission. Those respondents reportedly influenced most by the campaign were those with greater fear of diseases and death. We conclude that media campaigns may have a significant effect on attitudes and beliefs toward AIDS even where there is no effect on level of knowledge, and that the attitudinal changes which may be promoted by such campaigns should also be considered as objectives in campaign design.

  12. Increasing concentrations of dichloromethane, CH2Cl2, inferred from CARIBIC air samples collected 1998-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leedham Elvidge, E. C.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Baker, A. K.; Montzka, S. A.; Humphrey, S.; O'Sullivan, D. A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2014-08-01

    Dichloromethane, CH2Cl2, is a short-lived chlorocarbon of predominantly anthropogenic origin. Increasing industrial usage and associated emissions resulted in an increasing atmospheric burden throughout the 1900s. Atmospheric abundance peaked around 1990 and was followed by a decline in the early part of the 21st century. Despite the importance of ongoing monitoring and reporting of atmospheric CH2Cl2 (it is a regulated toxic air pollutant and a contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion) no time series has been discussed in detail since 2006. The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) has analysed the halocarbon content of whole air samples collected at altitudes of between ~10-12 km via a custom-built container installed on commercial passenger aircraft since 1998, providing a long-term record of CH2Cl2 observations. In this paper we present this unique CH2Cl2 time series, discussing key flight routes which have been traversed at various times over the past 15 years. Between 1998 and 2012 increases were seen in all northern hemispheric regions and at different altitudes, ranging from ~7-9 ppt in background air to ~12-15 ppt in regions with stronger emissions (equating to a 38-69% increase). Of particular interest is the rising importance of India as a source of atmospheric CH2Cl2: based on CARIBIC data we provide regional emission estimates for the Indian subcontinent and show that regional emissions have increased from 3-15 Gg yr-1 (1998-2000) to 16-25 Gg yr-1 (2008). Potential causes of the increasing atmospheric burden of CH2Cl2 are discussed. One possible source is the increased use of CH2Cl2 as a feedstock for the production of HFC-32, a chemical used predominantly as a replacement for ozone-depleting substances in a variety of applications including air conditioners and refrigeration.

  13. Increasing concentrations of dichloromethane, CH2Cl2, inferred from CARIBIC air samples collected 1998-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leedham Elvidge, E. C.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Baker, A. K.; Montzka, S. A.; Humphrey, S.; O'Sullivan, D. A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of dichloromethane, CH2Cl2, a regulated toxic air pollutant and minor contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion, were reported to have peaked around 1990 and to be declining in the early part of the 21st century. Recent observations suggest this trend has reversed and that CH2Cl2 is once again increasing in the atmosphere. Despite the importance of ongoing monitoring and reporting of atmospheric CH2Cl2, no time series has been discussed in detail since 2006. The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) has analysed the halocarbon content of whole-air samples collected at altitudes of between ~ 10-12 km via a custom-built container installed on commercial passenger aircraft since 1998, providing a long-term record of CH2Cl2 observations. In this paper we present this unique CH2Cl2 time series, discussing key flight routes which have been used at various times over the past 15 years. Between 1998 and 2012 increases were seen in all northern hemispheric regions and at different altitudes, ranging from ~ 7-10 ppt in background air to ~ 13-15 ppt in regions with stronger emissions (equating to a 38-69% increase). Of particular interest is the rising importance of India as a source of atmospheric CH2Cl2: based on CARIBIC data we provide regional emission estimates for the Indian subcontinent and show that regional emissions have increased from 3-14 Gg yr-1 (1998-2000) to 16-25 Gg yr-1 (2008). Potential causes of the increasing atmospheric burden of CH2Cl2 are discussed. One possible source is the increased use of CH2Cl2 as a feedstock for the production of HFC-32, a chemical used predominantly as a replacement for ozone-depleting substances in a variety of applications including air conditioners and refrigeration.

  14. Japanese respond to campaign.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    A unique campaign launched by JOICFP in August 1993 had by the end of June 1994 netted US $41,200 to support activities of the integrated Project (IP) in developing countries. Under the campaign, the public, institutions, organizations, and businesses have been sending in used prepaid cards for sale to collectors in Japan and abroad. Prepaid cards are widely used throughout Japan for phones, subways, railways and highways. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) alone issues 20 million cards annually. The campaign, which has been widely featured in the media, has proved effective for drawing attention to JOICFP and to population and family planning issues. Gaining the understanding of the Japanese public about population issues has grown in importance since the government's announcement of the new Global Issues Initiative (GII). Word about the campaign was carried by radio, television, newspapers, and magazines nationwide. The number of cards sent in escalated with the attention. By the end of June, JOICFP had received around 700,000 cards, of which 550,000 have been exchanged for cash. The funds generated by the card sales have been allocated to support grassroots IP activities and encourage the self-reliance of projects in China, Ghana, Guatemala, Nepal, Tanzania, and Zambia. Responses to the campaign have come from individuals as well as local governments, hospitals, enterprises, and educational institutions. Many of these have initiated their own card-collection system and information-dissemination activities to support JOICFP. Over 5000 different organizations are now collaborating with JOICFP for the campaign, including Tenmaya Department Store in Okayama City.

  15. A Model Using Local Weather Data to Determine the Effective Sampling Volume for PCB Congeners Collected on Passive Air Samplers.

    PubMed

    Herkert, Nicholas J; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2016-07-01

    We have developed and evaluated a mathematical model to determine the effective sampling volumes (Veff) of PCBs and similar compounds captured using polyurethane foam passive air samplers (PUF-PAS). We account for the variability in wind speed, air temperature, and equilibrium partitioning over the course of the deployment of the samplers. The model, provided as an annotated Matlab script, predicts the Veff as a function of physical-chemical properties of each compound and meteorology from the closest Integrated Surface Database (ISD) data set obtained through NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). The model was developed to be user-friendly, only requiring basic Matlab knowledge. To illustrate the effectiveness of the model, we evaluated three independent data sets of airborne PCBs simultaneously collected using passive and active samplers: at sites in Chicago, Lancaster, UK, and Toronto, Canada. The model provides Veff values comparable to those using depuration compounds and calibration against active samplers, yielding an average congener specific concentration method ratio (active/passive) of 1.1 ± 1.2. We applied the model to PUF-PAS samples collected in Chicago and show that previous methods can underestimate concentrations of PCBs by up to 40%, especially for long deployments, deployments conducted under warming conditions, and compounds with log Koa values less than 8.

  16. A Model Using Local Weather Data to Determine the Effective Sampling Volume for PCB Congeners Collected on Passive Air Samplers.

    PubMed

    Herkert, Nicholas J; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2016-07-01

    We have developed and evaluated a mathematical model to determine the effective sampling volumes (Veff) of PCBs and similar compounds captured using polyurethane foam passive air samplers (PUF-PAS). We account for the variability in wind speed, air temperature, and equilibrium partitioning over the course of the deployment of the samplers. The model, provided as an annotated Matlab script, predicts the Veff as a function of physical-chemical properties of each compound and meteorology from the closest Integrated Surface Database (ISD) data set obtained through NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). The model was developed to be user-friendly, only requiring basic Matlab knowledge. To illustrate the effectiveness of the model, we evaluated three independent data sets of airborne PCBs simultaneously collected using passive and active samplers: at sites in Chicago, Lancaster, UK, and Toronto, Canada. The model provides Veff values comparable to those using depuration compounds and calibration against active samplers, yielding an average congener specific concentration method ratio (active/passive) of 1.1 ± 1.2. We applied the model to PUF-PAS samples collected in Chicago and show that previous methods can underestimate concentrations of PCBs by up to 40%, especially for long deployments, deployments conducted under warming conditions, and compounds with log Koa values less than 8. PMID:26963482

  17. Vortex and air assisted liquid-liquid microextraction as a sample preparation method for high-performed liquid chromatography determinations.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mohammad; Heydari, Rouhollah; Alimoradi, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    A novel, simple and sensitive method based on vortex and air assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VAALLME) technique coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed for quantitative analysis of β-naphthol, naphthalene and anthracene as model analytes. Unlike the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), dispersive solvent and centrifuging step were eliminated in proposed technique. In this technique, extraction solvent was dispersed into the aqueous sample solution by using vortex. Phase separation was achieved via motion of air bubbles from the bottom to top of the extraction tube, which promoted the analytes transfer into the supernatant organic phase. Influential parameters on the extraction efficiency such as type and volume of extraction solvent, salt type and its concentration, vortex and aeration times, and sample pH were evaluated and optimized. The calibration curves showed good linearity (r(2)>0.9947) and precision (RSD<5.0%) in the working concentration ranges. The limit of detection (LOD) for β-naphthol, naphthalene and anthracene were 10, 5.0 and 0.5 ng mL(-1), respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 97.0-102.0% with RSD values ranging from 2.2 to 5.2%.

  18. A Model Using Local Weather Data to Determine the Effective Sampling Volume for PCB Congeners Collected on Passive Air Samplers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We have developed and evaluated a mathematical model to determine the effective sampling volumes (Veff) of PCBs and similar compounds captured using polyurethane foam passive air samplers (PUF–PAS). We account for the variability in wind speed, air temperature, and equilibrium partitioning over the course of the deployment of the samplers. The model, provided as an annotated Matlab script, predicts the Veff as a function of physical-chemical properties of each compound and meteorology from the closest Integrated Surface Database (ISD) data set obtained through NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). The model was developed to be user-friendly, only requiring basic Matlab knowledge. To illustrate the effectiveness of the model, we evaluated three independent data sets of airborne PCBs simultaneously collected using passive and active samplers: at sites in Chicago, Lancaster, UK, and Toronto, Canada. The model provides Veff values comparable to those using depuration compounds and calibration against active samplers, yielding an average congener specific concentration method ratio (active/passive) of 1.1 ± 1.2. We applied the model to PUF–PAS samples collected in Chicago and show that previous methods can underestimate concentrations of PCBs by up to 40%, especially for long deployments, deployments conducted under warming conditions, and compounds with log Koa values less than 8. PMID:26963482

  19. Emission of atmospheric pollutants out of Africa - Analysis of CARIBIC aircraft air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorenz, Ute R.; Baker, Angela K.; Schuck, Tanja; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.; Ziereis, Helmut; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.

    2014-05-01

    Africa is the single largest continental source of biomass burning (BB) emissions. The burning African savannas and tropical forests are a source for a wide range of chemical species, which are important for global atmospheric chemistry, especially for the pristine Southern Hemisphere. Emitted compounds include carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons and particles. Deep convection over Central Africa transports boundary layer emissions to the free troposphere making aircraft-based observations useful for investigation of surface emissions and examination of transport and chemistry processes over Africa The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmosphere.com part of IAGOS www.iagos.org) is a long term atmospheric measurement program using an instrument container deployed aboard a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 for a monthly sequence of long-distance passenger flights. Besides the online measurements mixing ratios of greenhouse gases and a suite of C2-C8 non methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are measured from flask samples collected at cruise altitude. During northern hemispheric winter 2010/2011 CARIBIC flights took place from Frankfurt to Cape Town and Johannesburg in South Africa. Several BB tracers like methane, CO and various NMHCs were found to be elevated over tropical Africa. Using tracer-CO- and tracer-NOy-correlations emissions were characterized. The NMHC-CO correlations show monthly changing slopes, indicating a change in burned biomass, major fire stage, source region and/or other factors influencing NMHC emissions. To expand our analysis of emission sources a source region data filter was used, based on backward trajectories calculated along the flight tracks. Taking all CARIBIC samples into account having backward trajectories to the African boundary layer the dataset was enlarged from 77 to 168 samples. For both datasets tracer

  20. Detection of Bacillus anthracis DNA in complex soil and air samples using next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Be, Nicholas A; Thissen, James B; Gardner, Shea N; McLoughlin, Kevin S; Fofanov, Viacheslav Y; Koshinsky, Heather; Ellingson, Sally R; Brettin, Thomas S; Jackson, Paul J; Jaing, Crystal J

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the potentially lethal etiologic agent of anthrax disease, and is a significant concern in the realm of biodefense. One of the cornerstones of an effective biodefense strategy is the ability to detect infectious agents with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in the context of a complex sample background. The nature of the B. anthracis genome, however, renders specific detection difficult, due to close homology with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. We therefore elected to determine the efficacy of next-generation sequencing analysis and microarrays for detection of B. anthracis in an environmental background. We applied next-generation sequencing to titrated genome copy numbers of B. anthracis in the presence of background nucleic acid extracted from aerosol and soil samples. We found next-generation sequencing to be capable of detecting as few as 10 genomic equivalents of B. anthracis DNA per nanogram of background nucleic acid. Detection was accomplished by mapping reads to either a defined subset of reference genomes or to the full GenBank database. Moreover, sequence data obtained from B. anthracis could be reliably distinguished from sequence data mapping to either B. cereus or B. thuringiensis. We also demonstrated the efficacy of a microbial census microarray in detecting B. anthracis in the same samples, representing a cost-effective and high-throughput approach, complementary to next-generation sequencing. Our results, in combination with the capacity of sequencing for providing insights into the genomic characteristics of complex and novel organisms, suggest that these platforms should be considered important components of a biosurveillance strategy.

  1. Surveillance of a Ventilated Rack System for Corynebacterium bovis by Sampling Exhaust-Air Manifolds

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Christopher A; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Leszczynski, Jori K

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium bovis causes an opportunistic infection of nude (Foxn1, nu/nu) mice, leading to nude mouse hyperkeratotic dermatitis (scaly skin disease). Enzootic in many nude mouse colonies, C. bovis spreads rapidly to naive nude mice, despite modern husbandry practices, and is very difficult to eradicate. To facilitate rapid detection in support of eradication efforts, we investigated a surveillance method based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) evaluation of swabs collected from the horizontal exhaust manifold (HEM) of an IVC rack system. We first evaluated the efficacy of rack sanitation methods for removing C. bovis DNA from the HEM of racks housing endemic colonies of infected nude mice. Pressurized water used to flush the racks’ air exhaust system followed by a standard rack-washer cycle was ineffective in eliminating C. bovis DNA. Only after autoclaving did all sanitized racks test negative for C. bovis DNA. We then measured the effects of stage of infection (early or established), cage density, and cage location on the rack on time-to-detection at the HEM. Stage of infection significantly affected time-to-detection, independent of cage location. Early infections required 7.3 ± 1.2 d whereas established infections required 1 ± 0 d for detection of C. bovis at the HEM. Cage density influenced the quantity of C. bovis DNA detected but not time-to-detection. The location of the cage on the rack affected the time-to-detection only during early C. bovis infections. We suggest that qPCR swabs of HEM are useful during the routine surveillance of nude mouse colonies for C. bovis infection. PMID:26817981

  2. Soyuz 7 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2004-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of one grab sample canister (GSC), 6 dual sorbent tubes (DSTs), and 20 formaldehyde badges returned aboard Soyuz 7 are reported. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports. Surrogate standard recoveries from the GSC were 84-89%. The recoveries of the less volatile surrogates from the DSTs were 87 to 112%; however, 13C-acetone was only recovered at 53-59%. Formaldehyde recoveries from 2 lab controls were 87 and 95%; trip controls were not returned to ground.

  3. COMPARISON OF 24H AVERAGE VOC MONITORING RESULTS FOR RESIDENTIAL INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR USING CARBOPACK X-FILLED DIFFUSIVE SAMPLERS AND ACTIVE SAMPLING - A PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical results obtained by thermal desorption GC/MS for 24h diffusive sampling of 11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are compared with results of time-averaged active sampling at a known constant flow rate. Air samples were collected with co-located duplicate diffusive samp...

  4. RAZOR EX Anthrax Air Detection System for detection of Bacillus anthracis spores from aerosol collection samples: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Hadfield, Ted; Ryan, Valorie; Spaulding, Usha K; Clemens, Kristine M; Ota, Irene M; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2013-01-01

    The RAZOR EX Anthrax Air Detection System was validated in a collaborative study for the detection of Bacillus anthracis in aerosol collection buffer. Phosphate-buffered saline was charged with 1 mg/mL standardized dust to simulate an authentic aerosol collection sample. The dust-charged buffer was spiked with either B. anthracis Ames at 2000 spores/mL or Bacillus cereus at 20 000 spores/mL. Twelve collaborators participated in the study, with four collaborators at each of three sites. Each collaborator tested 12 replicates of B. anthracis in dust-charged buffer and 12 replicates of B. cereus in dust-charged buffer. All samples sets were randomized and blind-coded. All collaborators produced valid data sets (no collaborators displayed systematic errors) and there was only one invalid data point. After unblinding, the analysis revealed a cross-collaborator probability of detection (CPOD) of 1.00 (144 positive results from 144 replicates, 95% confidence interval 0.975-1.00) for the B. anthracis samples and a CPOD of 0.00 (0 positive results from 143 replicates, 95% confidence interval 0.00-0.0262) for the B. cereus samples. These data meet the requirements of AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement 2010.003, developed by the Stakeholder Panel on Agent Detection Assays. PMID:23767365

  5. Development of a unique multi-contaminant air sampling device for a childhood asthma cohort in an agricultural environment†

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Cole F.; Loftus, Christine T.; Yost, Michael G.; Tchong-French, Maria; Karr, Catherine J.

    2016-01-01

    This research describes the design, deployment, performance, and acceptability of a novel outdoor active air sampler to provide simultaneous measurements of multiple contaminants at timed intervals for the Aggravating Factors of Asthma in Rural Environment (AFARE) study—a longitudinal cohort of 50 children in Yakima Valley, Washington. The sampler was constructed of multiple sampling media connected to individual critical orifices and a rotary vane vacuum pump. It was connected to a timed control valve system to collect 24 hours samples every six days over 18 months. We describe a spatially representative approach with both quantitative and qualitative location criteria to deploy a network of 14 devices at participant residences in a rural region (20 × 60 km). Overall the sampler performed well, as the concurrent mean sample flow rates were within or above the ranges of recommended sampling rates for each exposure metric of interest. Acceptability was high among the study population of Hispanic farmworker participant households. The sampler design may prove useful for future urban and rural community-based studies with aims at collecting multiple contaminant data during specific time periods. PMID:23896655

  6. Use of constant wavelength synchronous spectrofluorimetry for identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air particulate samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Homdutt; Jain, V. K.; Khan, Zahid H.

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a simple, rapid, inexpensive method for the identification of fluoranthene (Flan), benz(a)anthracene (BaA), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), pyrene (Pyr), benz(ghi)perylene (BghiP) in suspended particulate matter in an urban environment of Delhi. Suspended particulate matter samples of 24 h duration were collected on glass fiber filter papers. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were extracted from the filter papers using dichloromethane (DCM) and hexane with ultrasonication method. Comparison of the characteristic emission of spectra of PAHs with standard spectra indicated the degree of condensation of aromatic compounds present in investigated mixtures. It was also possible to identify some individual compounds. However, this identification could be more effective with the use of the respective values of Δλ parameter for each particular component of the mixture.

  7. Use of constant wavelength synchronous spectrofluorimetry for identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air particulate samples.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Homdutt; Jain, V K; Khan, Zahid H

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a simple, rapid, inexpensive method for the identification of fluoranthene (Flan), benz(a)anthracene (BaA), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), pyrene (Pyr), benz(ghi)perylene (BghiP) in suspended particulate matter in an urban environment of Delhi. Suspended particulate matter samples of 24h duration were collected on glass fiber filter papers. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were extracted from the filter papers using dichloromethane (DCM) and hexane with ultrasonication method. Comparison of the characteristic emission of spectra of PAHs with standard spectra indicated the degree of condensation of aromatic compounds present in investigated mixtures. It was also possible to identify some individual compounds. However, this identification could be more effective with the use of the respective values of Δλ parameter for each particular component of the mixture. PMID:23501938

  8. Sampling and analysis of selected toxic substances. Task 1: polybrominated biphenyls in air and soil at user sites. Final report 28 dec 78-5 jun 79

    SciTech Connect

    Zweidinger, R.A.; Pellizzari, E.D.

    1980-02-01

    Field sampling for air and soil was conducted in the vicinity of two Borg Warner Co. facilities - one in Oxnard, CA and the other near Parkersburg, WV. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were found in all of the soil samples from Oxnard with the highest levels (36,000 microgram/kg) nearest the facility and the lowest (5 microgram/kg) upwind the greatest distance. No PBBs were found in any of the air samples (<3 ng/cu m). Polybrominated biphenyls were confirmed in seven of the thirteen soil samples from West Virginia (up to 12 microgram/kg) traces detected but not confirmed in three, and no PBBs were detected in the other three. The highest levels were from samples collected in the Ohio River basin especially along the eastern bank. No PBBs were confirmed in the air samples (<4 ng/cu m).

  9. Assessment of Air Quality in the Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Based on Samples Returned by STS-102 at the Conclusion of 5A.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicological assessment of air samples returned at the end of the STS-102 (5A.1) flight to the ISS is reported. ISS air samples were taken in late February 2001 from the Service Module, FGB, and U.S. Laboratory using grab sample canisters (GSCs) and/or formaldehyde badges . A "first-entry" sample of the multipurpose logistics module (MPLM) atmosphere was taken with a GSC, and preflight and end-of-mission samples were obtained from Discovery using GSCs. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports, and all quality control measures were met for the data presented herein. The two general criteria used to assess air quality are the total-non-methane-volatile organic hydrocarbons (NMVOCs) and the total T-value (minus the CO2 contribution). Control of atmospheric alcohols is important to the water recovery system engineers, hence total alcohols were also assessed in each sample. Formaldehyde is quantified separately.

  10. Antipiracy Campaign Exasperates Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampell, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the withdrawal of some universities' support of a music industry's campaign against music piracy on their campuses. Talk to the chief information officer at just about any American university, and he will probably say that his institution has bent over backward to help the Recording Industry Association of America curb…

  11. Campaign Finance: Reporter Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieder, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Campaign finance might seem like the exclusive province of political reporters, but there are many good reasons why authors should be paying attention--both in races for education positions and in other key races at the local, state, and federal levels with implications for education. Basic math is a necessary skill and familiarity with a…

  12. Campaign Drama, Classroom Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    The hoopla surrounding the New Hampshire presidential primaries earlier this month stirred some students at Timberlane High School to watch the candidates' debates, read news coverage, attend rallies, and even volunteer in local campaign offices. That interest, in turn, stimulated discussions in Bob Dawson's government classes at the school,…

  13. Development of NO/NO{sub x}/NO{sub y} monitors for urban air sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, T.J.; Spicer, C.W.; Ward, G.F.

    1994-12-31

    The ideal methodology for NO, NO{sub x}, and NO{sub y} would have the following attributes: compatibility with existing monitoring network facilities and procedures; equipment cost in the range of current network NO{sub x} monitors; capability for specific monitoring of NO, NO{sub 2}, and NO{sub y}; detection limit of 0.1 ppb or lower. This report describes an evaluation of two approaches to meet these monitoring network needs. Both approaches make use of commercially available instruments for detection, with continuous pretreatment of the sample for selectivity. System A makes use of two commercial chemiluminescence instruments to monitor NO, NO{sub y}, and NO{sub 2}. System B utilizes the luminol chemiluminescence reaction to detect NO{sub 2}, and employs multiple catalysts to obtain measurements of NO{sub x} and NO{sub y}. This report describes these two approaches and evaluates them in terms of linearity, converter efficiency, interferences, and detection limits.

  14. Molecular-beam sampling study of extinguishment of methane-air flames by dry chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, E. L.; Ni, W.-F.; Seeger, C.

    1982-01-01

    The use of Al2O3, NaHCO3, KHCO3, NH4H2PO4 and KCl powders for the inhibition of a methane/oxygen diffusion flame is studied through measurement of composition and temperature profiles, using a molecular beam mass spectrometer sampling system. In order to obtain significant inhibition without extinguishing the flame, a powder feeding rate of 2 mg/liter of gas was used for KCl and Al2O3, and of 3 mg/liter of gas for the remaining powders. CH4, O2, N2, H2O and CO2 concentrations were measured by the mass spectrometer, while temperature was measured by the time-of-flight technique. For the powder feeding rates used, Al2O3 was the least and KCl and NH2H4PO2 the most effective in reducing temperature; in reaction-inhibition effectiveness, Al2O3 was again lowest while KCl was superior to all others. Because the KCl concentration was only 2/3 that of NH4H2PO4, it is recommended as the most effective temperature reducer and reaction inhibitor.

  15. Assessment of Air Quality in the Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Based on Samples Returned by STS-105 at the Conclusion of 7A.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicological assessment of air samples returned at the end of the STS-105 (7 A.1) flight to the ISS is reported. ISS air samples were taken in August 2001 from the Service Module, FGB, and U.S. Laboratory using grab sample canisters (GSCs) and/or formaldehyde badges. Preflight and end-of-mission samples were obtained from Discovery using GSCs. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports, and surrogate standard recoveries were 64-115%. Pressure tracking indicated no leaks in the canisters.

  16. Determination of trichloroanisole and trichlorophenol in wineries' ambient air by passive sampling and thermal desorption-gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Camino-Sánchez, F J; Bermúdez-Peinado, R; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ruíz-García, J; Vílchez-Quero, J L

    2015-02-01

    The present paper describes the calibration of selected passive samplers used in the quantitation of trichlorophenol and trichloroanisole in wineries' ambient air, by calculating the corresponding sampling rates. The method is based on passive sampling with sorbent tubes and involves thermal desorption-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis. Three commercially available sorbents were tested using sampling cartridges with a radial design instead of axial ones. The best results were found for Tenax TA™. Sampling rates (R-values) for the selected sorbents were determined. Passive sampling was also used for accurately determining the amount of compounds present in the air. Adequate correlation coefficients between the mass of the target analytes and exposure time were obtained. The proposed validated method is a useful tool for the early detection of trichloroanisole and its precursor trichlorophenol in wineries' ambient air while avoiding contamination of wine or winery facilities.

  17. Some Communication Effects of Charity Advertising Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; And Others

    A study was conducted to examine the relationship of advertising exposure to a variety of cognitive and affective variables in a nonprofit charity campaign. The study also tested the transactional model of advertising effects, which combines exposure, motivations, and gratifications for viewing. A sample of 350 adults was randomly selected and…

  18. An overview of the AROMAT campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlaud, Alexis; Dekemper, Emmanuel; Van Roozendael, Michel; Constantin, Daniel; Georgescu, Lucian; Meier, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Den Hoed, Mirjam; Allaart, Marc; Boscornea, Andreea; Vajaiac, Sorin; Bellegante, Livio; Nemuc, Anca; Nicolae, Doina; Shaifangar, Reza; Dörner, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas; Stebel, Kerstin; Schuettemeyer, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaign and its follow-up AROMAT-2 were held in September 2014 and August 2015, respectively. Both campaigns focused on two geophysical targets: the city of Bucharest and the large power plants of the Jiu Valley, which are located in a rural area 170 km West of Bucharest. These two areas are complementary in terms of emitted chemical species and their spatial distributions. The objectives of the AROMAT campaigns were (i) to test recently developed airborne observation systems dedicated to air quality satellite validation studies such as the AirMAP imaging DOAS system (University of Bremen), the NO2 sonde (KNMI), and the compact SWING whiskbroom imager (BIRA), and (ii) to prepare the validation programme of the future Atmospheric Sentinels, starting with Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) to be launched in early summer 2016. We present results from the different airborne instrumentations and from coincident ground-based measurements (lidar, in-situ, and mobile DOAS systems) performed during both campaigns. The AROMAT dataset addresses several of the mandatory products of TROPOMI/S5P, in particular NO2 and SO2 (horizontal distribution and profile from aircraft, plume image with ground-based SO2 and NO2 cameras, transects with mobile DOAS, in-situ), H2CO (mobile MAX-DOAS), and aerosols (lidar, airborne FUBISS-ASA2 sun-photometer, and aircraft in-situ). We investigate the information content of the AROMAT dataset for satellite validation studies based on co-located OMI and GOME-2 data, and simulations of TROPOMI measurements. The experience gained during AROMAT and AROMAT-2 will be used in support of a large-scale TROPOMI/S5P validation campaign in Romania scheduled for summer 2017.

  19. Personal air sampling and biological monitoring of occupational exposure to the soil fumigant cis-1,3-dichloropropene

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, E; Verplanke, A; Boogaard, P; Bloemen, L; Van Sittert, N J; Christian, F; Stokkentreeff, M; Dijksterhuis, A; Mulder, A; De Wolff, F A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess exposure of commercial application workers to the nematocide cis-1,3-dichloropropene (cis-DCP).
METHODS—The study was conducted during the annual application season, August to 15 November, in the starch potato growing region in The Netherlands. 14 Application workers collected end of shift urine samples on each fumigation day (n=119). The mercapturic acid metabolite N-acetyl-S-(cis-3-chloro-2-propenyl)-L-cysteine (cis-DCP-MA) in urine was used for biological monitoring of the cis-DCP uptake. Inhalatory exposure was assessed by personal air sampling during a representative sample (n=37) of the fumigation days. Extensive information was collected on factors of possible relevance to the exposure and the application workers were observed for compliance with the statutory directions for use. The inhalatory exposure during all fumigation days was estimated from the relation between the personal air sampling data and the biological monitoring data. Exposure levels were correlated with the general work practice. The fumigation equipment and procedures were in accordance with the statutory directions of use, with the exception of the antidrip systems. Two antidrip systems were used: antidrip nozzles or a compressed air system.
RESULTS—The geometric mean exposure of the application workers was 2.7 mg/m3 (8 hour time weighted average); range 0.1-9.5 mg/m3. On 25 days (21%) the exposure exceeded the Dutch occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 5 mg/m3. This could mainly be explained by prolonged working days of more than 8 hours. The general work practice of the application workers was rated by the observers as good or poor. No difference in exposure to cis-DCP was found in the use of none, one, or two antidrip systems. Malfunctioning of the antidrip systems and lack of experience with the compressed air system were identified as possible causes for the lack of effectiveness of these antidrip systems. The use of personal protection was not

  20. Air sampling sensors, the Open Skies Treaty, and verifying the chemical weapons convention. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, G.D.

    1995-12-01

    This thesis examines a novel proposal to join two separate arms control measures to achieve unique counterproliferation benefits. The Open Skies Treaty (OST) is a confidence-building measure between the states of NATO and the former Warsaw Pact. The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) attempts to eliminate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction. OST overflights could be used to verify the CWC, aiding CWC inspectors to plan their inspections. This cross-treaty measure could be enhanced further with the addition of air sampling sensors capable of testing for chemical weapons production, creating inter-treaty synergy. Obstacles for this inter-treaty coordination include the lack of formal mechanisms in either treaty for a complementary role and the lack of political impetus to effect it.

  1. Saturation sampling for spatial variation in multiple air pollutants across an inversion-prone metropolitan area of complex terrain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Characterizing intra-urban variation in air quality is important for epidemiological investigation of health outcomes and disparities. To date, however, few studies have been designed to capture spatial variation during select hours of the day, or to examine the roles of meteorology and complex terrain in shaping intra-urban exposure gradients. Methods We designed a spatial saturation monitoring study to target local air pollution sources, and to understand the role of topography and temperature inversions on fine-scale pollution variation by systematically allocating sampling locations across gradients in key local emissions sources (vehicle traffic, industrial facilities) and topography (elevation) in the Pittsburgh area. Street-level integrated samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3) were collected during morning rush and probable inversion hours (6-11 AM), during summer and winter. We hypothesized that pollution concentrations would be: 1) higher under inversion conditions, 2) exacerbated in lower-elevation areas, and 3) vary by season. Results During July - August 2011 and January - March 2012, we observed wide spatial and seasonal variability in pollution concentrations, exceeding the range measured at regulatory monitors. We identified elevated concentrations of multiple pollutants at lower-elevation sites, and a positive association between inversion frequency and NO2 concentration. We examined temporal adjustment methods for deriving seasonal concentration estimates, and found that the appropriate reference temporal trend differs between pollutants. Conclusions Our time-stratified spatial saturation approach found some evidence for modification of inversion-concentration relationships by topography, and provided useful insights for refining and interpreting GIS-based pollution source indicators for Land Use Regression modeling. PMID:24735818

  2. Application of end-expired breath sampling to estimate carboxyhemoglobin levels in community air pollution exposure assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, William E.; Colome, Steven D.; Wojciechowski, Sandra L.

    Measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) in end-expired air after breath-holding permits the estimation of blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels. Some literature suggests that the precision of the method decreases at low COHb levels. As part of a community exposure and health study, the end-expired breath method was applied to estimate COHb levels in 28 men with ischemic heart disease. Paired samples of blood and breath were collected at the beginning and end of the 24-h CO monitoring periods. The aggregate regression of all subjects' COHb on breath CO displayed high variability. However, the variability was substantially reduced for any particular subject, promoting the use of individualized blood-breath standard curves to improve the precision of COHb estimates made from breath CO. The ultimate accuracy of the blood-breath relationship could not be resolved by our data. Two major sources of error are identified. The observed person-to-person variability may be caused by physiologic factors or differences in ability to deliver an end-expired breath sample representative of alveolar air. This variation may also be due to instrumentation factors, specifically the accuracy of the IL282 CO-Oximeter at 0-3% levels. Further research into the sources of variability in the end-expired breath method is recommended. Epidemiologists using similar end-expired breath measurements to predict COHb levels should be cognizant of the magnitude and probable direction of the error in COHb estimates. This non-invasive method should continue to allow evaluation of the success of personal monitoring efforts and pharmacokinetic modeling of CO uptake in community exposure research.

  3. The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). Dry-Season Campaign: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swap, R. J.; Annegarn, H. J.; Suttles, J. T.; Haywood, J.; Hely, C.; Hobbs, P. V.; Holben, B. N.; Ji, J.; King, M. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) is an international science project investigating the southern African earth-atmosphere-human system. The experiment was conducted over a two-year period March 1999 - March 2001. The dry season field campaign (August-Steptember 2000) was the most intensive activity and involving over 200 scientists from 18 different nations. The main objectives of this campaign were to characterize and quantify the biogenic, pyrogenic and anthropogenic aerosol and trace gas emissions and their transport and transformations in the atmosphere and to validate the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite Terra within a scientific context. Five aircraft, namely two South African Weather Service aircraft, University of Washington CV-580, the UK Meteorological Office C-130 and the NASA ER-2, with different altitude capabilities, participated in the campaign. Additional airborne sampling of southern African air masses that had moved downwind of the subcontinent was conducted by the CSIRO over Australia. Multiple observations were taken in various sectors for a variety of synoptic conditions. Flight missions were designed to maximize synchronous over-flights of the NASA TERRA satellite platform, above regional ground validation and science targets. Numerous smaller-scale ground validation activities took place throughout the region during the campaign period.

  4. Campaigns in Agricultural Extension Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaven, John W.

    A booklet designed to aid those who use agricultural campaigns in their educational and advisory programs is presented. It is pointed out that a good campaign works as a chain reaction, inciting enthusiasm among workers and planners. The five steps in a well-organized campaign are: (1) planning, (2) preparing people for their jobs, (3) producing…

  5. Leadership Transitions during Fundraising Campaigns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehls, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Capital campaigns are intense efforts to build the financial assets of an institution in a specified amount of time. This study provides an empirical view of how changes in leadership affected concomitant capital campaigns at ten colleges and universities. The transitions during these 10 campaigns influenced morale on campus, altered timing of the…

  6. Measurements of VOCs in Mexico City during the MILAGRO Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. K.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, N. J.; Meinardi, S.; Atlas, E.; Rowland, F.; Blake, D. R.

    2006-12-01

    During March of 2006 we participated in MILAGRO (Megacities Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations), a multi-platform campaign to measure pollutants in and in outflow from the Mexico City metropolitan area. As part of MILAGRO we collected whole air canister samples at two Mexico City ground sites: the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, located in the city, northeast of the center, and the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac, a suburban site approximately 50 km northeast of the city center. Samples were also collected in various other locations throughout Mexico City. Over 300 whole air samples were collected and analyzed for a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including methane, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and halocarbons. Propane was the most abundant NMHC at both the urban and suburban locations, with mixing ratios frequently in excess of 10 parts per billion at both locations. This is likely the result of the widespread use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) of which propane is the major component. For most species, median mixing ratios at the urban sites were significantly greater than at the suburban site. Here we compare results from both urban and suburban locations and also examine the influence of transport on the composition of outflow from Mexico City.

  7. Evaluation of the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer for analysis of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the presence of freon-113 in carbon disulfide eluates of charcoal air sampling tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, H.K.; Levine, S.P.; Kinnes, G.; Almaguer, D. )

    1990-07-01

    Results obtained using Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) for the analysis of samples of carbon disulfide (CS2) eluates containing trichloroethylene (TCE) and freon from charcoal air sampling tubes were evaluated by comparison with results obtained when using gas chromatography (GC). The FTIR yielded accurate results without regard to the presence of freon.

  8. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING AIR SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF NEUTRAL PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.12)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The method is for extracting an indoor and outdoor air sample consisting of a quartz fiber filter and an XAD-2 cartridge for analysis of neutral persistent organic pollutants. It covers the extraction and concentration of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass...

  9. STS 127 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality aboard the Shuttle (STS-127) and International Space Station (2J/A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of 2 grab sample canisters (GSCs) from the Shuttle are reported. The toxicological assessment of 9 GSCs and 6 pairs of formaldehyde badges from the ISS is also reported. Other than a problem with traces of acrolein in the samples, the air quality was acceptable for respiration.

  10. Multistage open-tube trap for enrichment of part-per-trillion trace components of low-pressure (below 27-kPa) air samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, D.; Vo, T.; Vedder, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    A multistage open-tube trap for cryogenic collection of trace components in low-pressure air samples is described. The open-tube design allows higher volumetric flow rates than densely packed glass-bead traps commonly reported and is suitable for air samples at pressures below 27 kPa with liquid nitrogen as the cryogen. Gas blends containing 200 to 2500 parts per trillion by volume each of ethane and ethene were sampled and hydrocarbons were enriched with 100 + or - 4 percent trap efficiency. The multistage design is more efficient than equal-length open-tube traps under the conditions of the measurements.

  11. Stationary source sampling report: Ambient and source volatile organic compound testing, Production air stripper unit 1 (PASU-1) and pilot air stripper (PAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-05

    Tests were performed to measure the ambient concentrations of perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane in the A/M area and to determine, for compliance purposes, the emissions and concentrations of those compounds issued from the Production Air Stripper Unit 1 (PASU-1) column and from the Pilot Air Stripper (PAS) column.

  12. Volatile N-nitrosamines in Environment Tobacco Smoke: Sampling,Analysis, Smission Factors, and Indoor Air Exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Mahanama, K.R.R.; Daisey, J.M.

    1995-05-01

    A more convenient sampling and analysis method for the volatile N-nitrosamines (VNA) in ETS, using commercially available TherrnosorbIN cartridges, was developed and validated. Using the method, emission factors for the two major VNA in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were determined in a room-sized environmental chamber for six commercial cigarette brands, which together accounted for 62.5% of the total market in California in 1990. The average emission factors were 565 {+-} 115 and 104 {+-} 20 ng per cigarette for N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine, respectively. The emission factors were used to estimate VNA exposures from ETS in a typical office building and an average residence. Indoor concentrations of N,N dimethylnitrosamine from ETS for these scenarios were less than 10% of the reported median outdoor concentration. This median outdoor concentration, however, includes many measurements made in source-dominated areas and may be considerably higher than one based on more representative sampling of outdoor air.

  13. Vapor-phase and particulate-associated pesticides and PCB concentrations in eastern North Dakota air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Miller, D.J.; Louie, P.K.K.

    1996-05-01

    Vapor-phase and suspended particulate (<50 {mu}m) samples were collected on polyurethane foam (PUF) and quartz fiber filters in rural North Dakota to determine the air concentrations of pesticides in an area where agriculture is a primary source of semivolatile pollutants. Samples were collected at two sites from 1992 to 1994 that were at least 0.4 km from the nearest farmed fields and known application of pesticides, and analyzed for 22 different organochlorine, triazine, and acid herbicide pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were found above the detection limits (typically <1 pg/m{sup 3}). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were much lower (<50 pg/m{sup 3} in all cases) than many of the pesticides. These results demonstrate that pesticides are among the most prevalent chlorinated semivolatile pollutants present in rural North Dakota, that significant transport of pesticides occurs both in the vapor-phase and on suspended particulate matter, and that blown soil may be a significant mechanism for introducing pesticides into surface and ground waters. 32 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Passive sampling for volatile organic compounds in indoor air-controlled laboratory comparison of four sampler types.

    PubMed

    McAlary, Todd; Groenevelt, Hester; Disher, Stephen; Arnold, Jason; Seethapathy, Suresh; Sacco, Paolo; Crump, Derrick; Schumacher, Brian; Hayes, Heidi; Johnson, Paul; Górecki, Tadeusz

    2015-05-01

    This article describes laboratory testing of four passive diffusive samplers for assessing indoor air concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including SKC Ultra II, Radiello®, Waterloo Membrane Sampler (WMS) and Automated Thermal Desorption (ATD) tubes with two different sorbents (Tenax TA and Carbopack B). The testing included 10 VOCs (including chlorinated ethenes, ethanes, and methanes, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons), spanning a range of properties and including some compounds expected to pose challenges (naphthalene, methyl ethyl ketone). Tests were conducted at different temperatures (17 to 30 °C), relative humidities (30 to 90% RH), face velocities (0.014 to 0.41 m s(-1)), concentrations (1 to 100 parts per billion by volume [ppbv]) and sampling durations (1 to 7 days). The results show that all of the passive samplers provided data that met the success criteria (relative percent difference [RPD] ≤ 45% of active sample concentrations and coefficient of variation [COV] ≤ 30%) in the majority of cases, but some compounds were problematic for some samplers. The passive sampler uptake rates depend to varying degrees on the sampler, sorbent, target compounds and environmental conditions, so field calibration is advantageous for the highest levels of data quality.

  15. Prevalence and Serogroup Diversity of Salmonella for Broiler Neck Skin, Whole Carcass Rinse, and Whole Carcass Enrichment Sampling Methodologies following Air or Immersion Chilling.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, D V; Holmes, J M; Cason, J A; Cox, N A; Rigsby, L L; Buhr, R J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck skin (NS), whole carcass rinse (WCR), and whole carcass enrichment (WCE) sampling procedures for Salmonella isolation and serogroup identification from the same broiler chicken carcass treated with air or immersion chilling. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler carcasses were collected from a commercial processing plant, individually bagged, and transported to the pilot processing plant. In experiment 1, carcasses were air chilled to 4°C. In experiment 2, carcasses were immersion chilled with or without chlorine. After air chilling, Salmonella was detected on 78% of NS and 89% of WCE samples. Only one Salmonella serogroup was detected from each of 13 Salmonella-positive NS samples, and two serogroups were detected on 1 Salmonella-positive NS sample. Only one Salmonella serogroup was detected from each of 13 Salmonella-positive WCE samples, and two serogroups were detected from 3 Salmonella-positive WCE samples. After immersion chilling without chlorine, Salmonella was detected on 38% of NS, 45% of WCR, and 100% of WCE samples. Without chlorine, the 15 Salmonella-positive NS samples included 14 samples with one serogroup and 1 sample with two serogroups. Only one Salmonella serogroup was detected from WCR samples after immersion chilling. Of 40 Salmonella-positive WCE samples, 23 had a one, 14 had two, and 3 had three Salmonella serogroups. After immersion chilling with chlorine, Salmonella was detected on 35% of NS, 0% of WCR, and 90% of WCE samples. With chlorine, the 14 Salmonella-positive NS samples included 11 samples with one serogroup and 3 samples with two serogroups. No Salmonella serogroups were detected from WCR samples after immersion chilling with 20 mg/liter free chlorine. The 36 Salmonella-positive WCE samples included 21 samples with one serogroup and 15 samples with two serogroups. NS and WCE sampling methodologies yielded similar prevalence and serogroup diversity after air chilling. However

  16. VELETA 2002 Field Campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alados-Arboledas, L.; Veleta2002 Team

    2003-04-01

    Depletion of the Earth's ozone layer is considered responsible of an increase in the solar ultraviolet irradiance incoming at surface level (WMO, 1998). For this reason, it is important to know the amount of ultraviolet radiation received by plants and animal organisms to evaluate the potential impact of increased UV radiation on biological systems. During recent years several studies has investigated the differences in UV radiation between places located at different altitude. Depending on the choice of the experimental area altitudinal gradients in erythemal UV have been reported ranging from 0.08 to 0.40 at different regions. Rather high altitudinal gradients were obtained when the studies have been undertaken at sites with important tropospheric pollution or when snow cover was present in the high-level sites. In this sense, it seems of interest to study these altitudinal gradients including comprehensive observations of the environmental conditions relevant to the incoming UV irradiance in order to separate the different contributions to this altitudinal effect. This paper presents the field campaign VELETA2002 (eValuation of the Effects of eLevation and aErosols on the ultravioleT rAdiation), developed during the month of July 2002 in the area of Sierra Nevada (Spain). This field campaign was designed to obtain experimental data on elevation and atmospheric aerosol effects on the solar ultraviolet irradiance. For this purpose a set of radiometers and spectroradiometers has been installed at both slopes of Sierra Nevada Massif, from coastal to inland locations. The field stations include Motril, a coastal location at sea level, Pitres (1200 m a.s.l.) located in the South slope of Sierra Nevada Massif, the Veleta Peak (3398 m a.s.l.), Las Sabinas (2200 m a.s.l.) located on the north slope of the mountain range and Armilla (680 m a.s.l.) located in the valley. The principal feature of the locations is that they provide a strong altitudinal gradient considering

  17. Passive sampling of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in indoor and outdoor air in Shanghai, China: seasonal variations, sources, and inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Han, Wenliang; Fan, Tao; Xu, Binhua; Feng, Jialiang; Zhang, Gan; Wu, Minghong; Yu, Yingxin; Fu, Jiamo

    2016-03-01

    Ninety-seven seasonal, passive indoor and outdoor air samples were collected in Shanghai to study polybrominated diphenyl ethers (ΣPBDEs, 16 congeners including BDE-209), their concentrations, composition profiles, seasonal variations, influencing factors, emission sources, and human inhalation exposure. In summer, median indoor concentrations of Σ 15 PBDEs (excluding BDE-209) were 82 pg m(-3) in offices and 30 pg m(-3) in homes, ∼3 times the winter concentrations. The average summer concentration of 130 pg m(-3) BDE-209 in homes was higher than that in offices (which was 90 pg m(-3)); in winter, home and office concentrations were similar (46 and 47 pg m(-3), respectively). For outdoor air, the median concentration of Σ 15 PBDEs in summer (12 pg m(-3)) was twice the winter concentration (6 pg m(-3)), while the summer median concentration of BDE-209 (398 pg m(-3)) was half the winter concentration (794 pg m(-3)). Higher concentrations of Σ 15 PBDEs indoors compared with outdoors showed that the lower brominated BDEs found were mainly from indoor sources. Meanwhile, the much lower indoor concentration of BDE-209 compared with the outdoors showed that BDE-209 came mainly from outdoor sources. The data set also indicated that electric/electronic appliances were the main sources of indoor ΣPBDEs, and old appliances emitted more lower brominated BDEs, while industrial emissions should be the main source of the outdoor BDE-209. Median daily human exposures to Σ 15 PBDEs and BDE-209 through inhalation were estimated to be 0.23 and 1.73 ng day(-1) in winter and 0.65 and 2.28 ng day(-1) in summer for adults. The human inhalation exposure to ΣPBDEs (3.44 ng day(-1) for adults and 1.33 ng day(-1) for toddlers) was comparable to that from eating contaminated fish for both toddlers and adults in Shanghai.

  18. Portable XRF analysis of occupational air filter samples from different workplaces using different samplers: final results, summary and conclusions.

    PubMed

    Harper, Martin; Pacolay, Bruce; Hintz, Patrick; Bartley, David L; Slaven, James E; Andrew, Michael E

    2007-11-01

    This paper concludes a five-year program on research into the use of a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer for analyzing lead in air sampling filters from different industrial environments, including mining, manufacturing and recycling. The results from four of these environments have already been reported. The results from two additional metal processes are presented here. At both of these sites, lead was a minor component of the total airborne metals and interferences from other elements were minimal. Nevertheless, only results from the three sites where lead was the most abundant metal were used in the overall calculation of method accuracy. The XRF analyzer was used to interrogate the filters, which were then subjected to acid digestion and analysis by inductively-coupled plasma optical-emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The filter samples were collected using different filter-holders or "samplers" where the size (diameter), depth and homogeneity of aerosol deposit varied from sampler to sampler. The aerosol collection efficiencies of the samplers were expected to differ, especially for larger particles. The distribution of particles once having entered the sampler was also expected to differ between samplers. Samplers were paired to allow the between-sampler variability to be addressed, and, in some cases, internal sampler wall deposits were evaluated and compared to the filter catch. It was found, rather surprisingly, that analysis of the filter deposits (by ICP-OES) of all the samplers gave equivalent results. It was also found that deposits on some of the sampler walls, which in some protocols are considered part of the sample, could be significant in comparison to the filter deposit. If it is concluded that wall-deposits should be analyzed, then XRF analysis of the filter can only give a minimum estimate of the concentration. Techniques for the statistical analysis of field data were also developed as part of this program and have been reported

  19. TYCHO Brahe's Copernican Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.; Voelkel, J. R.

    1997-12-01

    Historians of astronomy have generally assumed that the Ptolemaic and Copernican systems give equivalent predictions of planetary positions, but Tycho Brahe knew that in the Ptolemaic arrangement Mars' distance was always greater than the sun's, whereas in the Copernican system Mars at opposition approached to half the sun's distance. Because Tycho accepted the traditional solar distance scale, 20 times too small, he expected to measure a Martian diurnal parallax of 4.5' at opposition if the Copernican system was true. (In reality the horizontal parallax was too small to measure by naked-eye observations.) Hence, during the golden decade of the 1580s at Hven, Tycho undertook a major campaign to find Mars' parallax. Observations at the opposition of 1582-83 failed, according to a letter he wrote in 1584. The campaign at the next opposition led to frustration, but after the 1587 opposition he claimed that in fact he had already found the parallax in 1582. Was Tycho merely prevaricating because he wanted to have an observational basis for his new Tychonic cosmology? During this decade Tycho gradually became aware of the role of refraction, and much of the new instrumentation built at Stjerneborg seems to have been motivated by this problem. Using an erroneously chosen refraction table Tycho apparently convinced himself of a large parallax for Mars. He may well have discovered his error by 1592, for he never again claimed to have found the large parallax. Because of the failure of this major goal, Tycho's reputation as a very smart and program-motivated observer has suffered, but because of this particular observational campaign, there were ultimately enough astonishingly accurate Mars observations for Kepler's later studies to succeed in finding the law of areas and the elliptical form of planetary orbits.

  20. Comparison of 24 h averaged VOC monitoring results for residential indoor and outdoor air using Carbopack X-filled diffusive samplers and active sampling--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    McClenny, William A; Jacumin, Henry H; Oliver, Karen D; Daughtrey, E Hunter; Whitaker, Donald A

    2006-02-01

    Analytical results obtained by thermal desorption GC/MS for 24 h diffusive sampling of 11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are compared with results of time-averaged active sampling at a known constant flow rate. Air samples were collected with co-located duplicate diffusive sampling tubes and one passivated canister. A total of eight multiple-component sampling events took place at fixed positions inside and outside three private homes. Subsequently, a known amount of sample air was transferred from the canister to an adsorbent tube for analysis by thermal desorption GC/MS. Results for the 11 most prevalent compounds--Freon 11, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, tetrachloroethene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, 4-ethyltoluene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, and p-dichlorobenzene--show that the ratio of average study values (diffusive sampling to active sampling) is 0.92 with 0.70 and 1.14 extreme ratios. Absolute percent difference for duplicate samples using diffusive sampling was <10% for the four most prevalent compounds. Agreement between the two sampling approaches indicates that the prediction of approximately constant diffusive sampling rates based on previous laboratory studies is valid under the field conditions.

  1. Review of sampling and analysis methodology for polynuclear aromatic compounds in air from mobile sources. Final report, 1 March-30 November 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, C.C.; Petersen, B.A.

    1985-06-01

    The objective of the program was to review and recommend test compounds and sampling and analysis methods for a future EPA study of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in microenvironments. Review of PAH profiles in ambient air indicated that concentrations of PAH were generally higher in winter than summer and varied with climate and between sampling sites within an urban area. Levels of several PAH were found to be proportional to traffic density. Studies of the biological activity of ambient air samples showed that some PAH and their nitrated derivatives are extremely carcinogenic and mutagenic. The following compounds were determined to be the most prevalent and mutagenic in ambient air and were recommended for the future EPA study: phenanthrene, pyrene, cyclopenta(c,d)pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, 1-nitropyrene, fluoranthene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, coronene, and 3-nitrofluoranthene. In the review of PAH sampling methods, collection of both gaseous and particulate bound PAH was determined to be necessary to accurately characterize health effects of PAH in ambient air. Most studies have used filters to sample particulate-bound PAH and absorbents to collect vapor phase PAH. The major sampling problems encountered in the studies were PAH losses due to volatilization and reactivity.

  2. Prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms in Italian general population samples exposed to different levels of air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Viegi, G; Paoletti, P; Carrozzi, L; Vellutini, M; Diviggiano, E; Di Pede, C; Pistelli, G; Giutini, G; Lebowitz, M D

    1991-01-01

    We surveyed two general population samples aged 8 to 64 living in the unpolluted, rural area of the Po Delta (northern Italy) (n = 3289) and in the urban area of Pisa (central Italy) (n = 2917). Each subject filled out a standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire. The Pisa sample was divided into three groups according to their residence in the urban-suburban areas and to outdoor air pollution exposure (automobile exhaust only or industrial fumes as well). Significantly higher prevalence rates of all the respiratory symptoms and diseases were found in Pisa compared with the Po Delta. In particular, rhinitis and wheezing symptoms were higher in all the three urban zones; chronic cough and phlegm were higher in the zone with the automobile exhaust and the additional industrial exposure. Current smoking was more frequent in the rural area, but the urban smokers had a higher lifetime cigarette consumption. Childhood respiratory trouble and recurrent respiratory illnesses were evenly distributed. Exposure to parental smoking in childhood and lower educational level were more frequent in Po Delta, whereas familial history of respiratory/allergic disorders and work and indoor exposures were more often reported in the city. Multiple logistic regression models estimating independently the role of the various risk factors showed significant odds ratios associated with residence in Pisa for all the symptoms but chronic phlegm. For example, those living in the urban-industrial zone had an odds ratio of 4.0 (4.3-3.7) for rhinitis and 2.8 (3.0-2.6) for wheeze with respect to those living in the Po Delta.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1954948

  3. The functions of social support as protective factors for suicidal ideation in a sample of air force personnel.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; Hernandez, Ann Marie

    2013-10-01

    This study examined various functions of social support (i.e., tangible, esteem, belonging, and appraisal) were examined as protective factors for suicidal ideation in a sample of 273 active duty Air Force Security Forces personnel. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted to determine if various social support functions were differentially associated with the presence and severity of suicidal ideation, both as main effects and as moderators of emotional distress. None of the four social support functions differentiated suicidal from nonsuicidal Airmen, but esteem support (i.e., feeling respected, encouraged, and valued by others) was associated with significantly less severe suicidal ideation (B = -.074, SE = .025, p = .003). A significant interaction of tangible support (i.e., access to material resources) with emotional distress indicated that emotional distress was associated with more severe suicidal ideation only among Airmen reporting low levels of tangible support (B = .006, SE = .003, p = .018). When considered concurrently, both tangible and self-esteem functions of social support are differentially associated with decreased suicidal ideation among Airmen, but belonging (i.e., having someone to do things with) and appraisal (i.e., having someone to talk to about problems) functions were not. Findings suggest that different aspects of social support affect suicidal ideation in different ways.

  4. Regional differences in major carbon emissions observed during FRAPPE (Front Range Air Pollution Photochemical Experiment) and WINTER (Wintertime Investigation of Transport, Emissions, and Reactivity) experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stell, M. H.; Campos, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Sampling of coal powered power plant emission plumes during two NCAR airborne field campaigns using the NSF NCAR C-130, FRAPPE (Front Range Air Pollution Photochemical Experiment) and WINTER (Wintertime Investigation of Transport, Emissions, and Reactivity) revealed different plume composition in different areas of the continental United States. The FRAPPE campaign sampled along the Colorado Front Range and the WINTER campaign, based out of Virginia sampled along the East Coast. Analysis of the relative production of the three major carbon species, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane from power plant plumes sampled in both these campaigns will be compared to the emissions reported to the EPA by the power plants. Regional differences will be highlighted. Spatial distribution of the pollution plume will also be presented, looking at factors such as topographic barriers, and meteorological phenomena such as subsidence and wind advection. This analysis will take into account experimental condition differences such as the summer versus winter sampling and night/day.

  5. Morpheus Lander Testing Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Jeremy J.; Mitchell, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing designed to serve as a testbed for advanced spacecraft technologies. The Morpheus vehicle has successfully performed a set of integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire and tether tests, ultimately culminating in an un-tethered "free-flight" This development and testing campaign was conducted on-site at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), less than one year after project start. Designed, developed, manufactured and operated in-house by engineers at JSC, the Morpheus Project represents an unprecedented departure from recent NASA programs and projects that traditionally require longer development lifecycles and testing at remote, dedicated testing facilities. This paper documents the integrated testing campaign, including descriptions of test types (hot-fire, tether, and free-flight), test objectives, and the infrastructure of JSC testing facilities. A major focus of the paper will be the fast pace of the project, rapid prototyping, frequent testing, and lessons learned from this departure from the traditional engineering development process at NASA s Johnson Space Center.

  6. AH Her Observing Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-05-01

    Dr. Juan Echevarria (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México) and colleagues request AAVSO assistance in a campaign on the Z Cam-type cataclysmic variable AH Her being carried out 2013 May 29 - June 18. They will be making photometric and spectroscopic observations of AH Her using the 2.1m and 0.84m telescopes at San Pedro Martir Observatory (SPM). Their goal is to carry out a radial velocity study of the system components using modern detectors; no study of AH Her has been made since the one by Horne, Wade, and Szkody in 1980-1981 (1986MNRAS.219..791H). Photometry and spectroscopy are requested. AH Her, for decades a reasonably "regular" Z Cam system, began exhibiting significantly anomalous behavior in ~2007. Since then it has experienced brief periods of fairly typical behavior interspersed with more anomalous intervals, including some unprecedented behavior. Most recently, it has returned to a more normal pattern of outbursts shape-wise but it is not back to its normal amplitude or frequency. AAVSO data will be essential for correlation in order to determine the precise time(s) of minimum occurring during the campaign. Finder charts with sequences may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

  7. Significance of High-Speed Air Temperature Measurements in the Sampling Cell of a Closed-Path Gas Analyzer with a Short Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathilankal, James; Fratini, Gerardo; Burba, George

    2015-04-01

    Eddy covariance gas analyzers measure gas content in a known volume, thus essentially measuring gas density. The fundamental flux equation, however, is based on the dry mole fraction. The relationship between dry mole fraction and density is regulated by the ideal gas law describing the processes of temperature- and pressure-related expansions and contractions, and by the law of partial pressures, describing the process of dilution. As a result, this relationship depends on water vapor content, temperature and pressure of the air sample. If the instrument is able to output precise high-speed dry mole fraction, the flux processing is significantly simplified and WPL density terms accounting for the air density fluctuations are no longer required. This should also lead to the reduction in uncertainties associated with the density terms resulting from the eddy covariance measurements of sensible and latent heat fluxes used in these terms. In this framework, three main measurement approaches may be considered: Open-path approach Outputting correct high-speed dry mole fraction from the open-path instrument is difficult because of complexities with maintaining reliable fast temperature measurements integrated over the entire measuring path, and also because of extraordinary challenges with accurate measurements of fast pressure in the open air flow. Classical long-tube closed-path approach For instruments utilizing traditional long-tube closed-path design, with tube length 1000 or more times the tube diameter, the fast dry mole fraction can be used successfully when instantaneous fluctuations in the air temperature of the sampled air are effectively dampened to negligible levels, instantaneous pressure fluctuations are regulated or negligible, and water vapor is measured simultaneously with gas or the air sample is dried. Short-tube closed-path approach, the enclosed design For instruments with a short-tube enclosed design, most - but not all - of the temperature

  8. Analytical method validation for the determination of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene in air samples using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Mawn, Michael P; Kurtz, Kristine; Stahl, Deborah; Chalfant, Richard L; Koban, Mary E; Dawson, Barbara J

    2013-01-01

    A new low global warming refrigerant, 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro propene, or HFO-1234yf, has been successfully evaluated for automotive air conditioning, and is also being evaluated for stationary refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Due to the advantageous environmental properties of HFO-1234yf versus HFC-134a, coupled with its similar physical properties and system performance, HFO-1234yf is also being evaluated to replace HFC-134a in refrigeration applications where neat HFC-134a is currently used. This study reports on the development and validation of a sampling and analytical method for the determination of HFO-1234yf in air. Different collection media were screened for desorption and simulated sampling efficiency with three-section (350/350/350 mg) Anasorb CSC showing the best results. Therefore, air samples were collected using two 3-section Anasorb CSC sorbent tubes in series at 0.02 L/min for up to 8 hr for sample volumes of up to 9.6 L. The sorbent tubes were extracted in methylene chloride, and analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The method was validated from 0.1× to 20× the target level of 0.5 ppm (2.3 mg/m(3)) for a 9.6 L air volume. Desorption efficiencies for HFO-1234yf were 88 to 109% for all replicates over the validation range with a mean overall recovery of 93%. Simulated sampling efficiencies ranged from 87 to 104% with a mean of 94%. No migration or breakthrough to the back tube was observed under the sampling conditions evaluated. HFO-1234yf samples showed acceptable storage stability on Anasorb CSC sorbent up to a period of 30 days when stored under ambient, refrigerated, or frozen temperature conditions.

  9. Stimulating dialogue: measuring success of the "Smoke Free Horry" campaign.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christina; Holody, Kyle J

    2013-01-01

    Smoke Free Horry was an anti-secondhand smoke media campaign that ran in Horry County, South Carolina in 2011 and 2012. The present study assessed the campaign's ability to stimulate interpersonal dialogue about the campaign-specifically its four television public service announcements (PSAs)-as well as about other smoking-related topics, among a sample of 285 Horry County young adults. Survey data suggested talking about anti-smoking PSAs was related to subsequent discussion about smoking-related topics and positive perceptions of the campaign's effectiveness. PSAs using emotional appeals and that discussed the negative health effects of smoking/secondhand smoke were related to the most interpersonal discussions about smoking, secondhand smoking, and smoking bans. Implications for future anti-smoking campaign design are discussed.

  10. Diffusive sampling of 25 volatile organic compounds in indoor air: Uptake rate determination and application in Flemish homes for the elderly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walgraeve, C.; Demeestere, K.; Dewulf, J.; Van Huffel, K.; Van Langenhove, H.

    2011-10-01

    Passive sampling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air has received increasing attention in recent years. However, in order to use passive sampling as a reliable sampling technique a compound and sampler specific uptake rate is needed. Therefore, the scope of our study was threefold. First, uptake rates for 25 VOCs were determined under real indoor and outdoor conditions using axial-sampling tube-type samplers filled with Tenax TA, and active (pumped) sampling as a reference technique. Secondly, the mechanisms of passive sampling were investigated by comparing the experimentally determined uptake rates (0.13-0.46 ml min-1) to the ideal uptake rates, calculated based on Fick's first law of diffusion and sampler geometry. Sampling efficiency SE, defined as the ratio between the experimental and ideal uptake rate, was introduced as a correction factor and showed that ideal uptake rates may underestimate VOC concentrations by a factor up to 4. This compound dependent SE is explained in terms of the partitioning coefficient K, i.e. the compound's Tenax TA to air concentration equilibrium ratio. Compounds with a low K-value showed the most pronounced non-ideal sorptive behavior. Third, the experimentally determined uptake rates were used to determine VOC concentrations (between 12 and 311 μg m-3) in 6 homes for the elderly in Antwerp (Belgium). This study provides unique data for indoor air quality at care centers in Flanders.

  11. A COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF BOISE, IDAHO, AMBIENT AIR FINE PARTICLE SAMPLES USING THE PLATE AND MICROSUSPENSION SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this study is to characterize the genotoxic potential of the ambient air aerosols collected within an air shed impacted primarily by wood smoke and automotive emissions. The study also examines the relative merits of a microsuspension assay and the standa...

  12. Investigation on the Importance of Fast Air Temperature Measurements in the Sampling Cell of Short-Tube Closed-Path Gas Analyzer for Eddy-Covariance Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathilankal, J. C.; Fratini, G.; Burba, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    High-speed, precise gas analyzers used in eddy covariance flux research measure gas content in a known volume, thus essentially measuring gas density. The classical eddy flux equation, however, is based on the dry mole fraction. The relation between dry mole fraction and density is regulated by the ideal gas law and law of partial pressures, and depends on water vapor content, temperature and pressure of air. If the instrument can output precise fast dry mole fraction, the flux processing is significantly simplified and WPL terms accounting for air density fluctuations are no longer required. This will also lead to the reduction in uncertainties associated with the WPL terms. For instruments adopting an open-path design, this method is difficult to use because of complexities with maintaining reliable fast temperature measurements integrated over the entire measuring path, and also because of extraordinary challenges with accurate measurements of fast pressure in the open air flow. For instruments utilizing a traditional long-tube closed-path design, with tube length 1000 or more times the tube diameter, this method can be used when instantaneous fluctuations in the air temperature of the sampled air are effectively dampened, instantaneous pressure fluctuations are regulated or negligible, and water vapor is measured simultaneously with gas, or the sample is dried. For instruments with a short-tube enclosed design, most - but not all - of the temperature fluctuations are attenuated, so calculating unbiased fluxes using fast dry mole fraction output requires high-speed, precise temperature measurements of the air stream inside the cell. In this presentation, authors look at short-term and long-term data sets to assess the importance of high-speed, precise air temperature measurements in the sampling cell of short-tube enclosed gas analyzers. The CO2 and H2O half hourly flux calculations, as well as long-term carbon and water budgets, are examined.

  13. The Ocean Literacy Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; Strang, C.

    2008-12-01

    "Ocean Literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on you and your influence on the ocean." This simple statement captures the spirit of a conceptual framework supporting ocean literacy (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework comprises 7 essential principles and 44 fundamental concepts an ocean literate person would know (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework is the result of an extensive grassroots effort to reach consensus on (1) a definition for ocean literacy and (2) an articulation of the most important concepts to be understood by ocean-literate citizen (Cava et al., 2005). In the process of reaching consensus on these "big ideas" about the ocean, what began as a series of workshops has emerged as a campaign "owned" by an ever-expanding community of individuals, organizations and networks involved in developing and promoting the framework. The Ocean Literacy Framework has provided a common language for scientists and educators working together and serves as key guidance for the ocean science education efforts. This presentation will focus on the impact this Ocean Literacy Campaign has had to date as well as efforts underway to provide additional tools to enable educators and educational policy makers to further integrate teaching and learning about the ocean and our coasts into formal K-12 education and informal education. COSEE, National Geographic Society, NOAA, College of Exploration (2005). Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences Grades K-12, a jointly published brochure, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OceanLitChart.pdf Cava, F., S. Schoedinger , C. Strang, and P. Tuddenham (2005). Science Content and Standards for Ocean Literacy: A Report on Ocean Literacy, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OLit2004-05_Final_Report.pdf.

  14. Tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate--an unexpected organochlorine contaminant in some charcoal air-sampling sorbent tubes

    SciTech Connect

    van Netten, C.; Brands, R.; Park, J.; Deverall, R. )

    1991-09-01

    Air sampling in a government building was necessary in response to reports of a cancer cluster. SKC (Eighty Four, Pa.) charcoal coconut shell-based sorbent tubes (226-01 lot 120) were recommended for this procedure. A recently purchased supply was present at the University of British Columbia and consequently was used for this particular study. Analysis of the front charcoal section showed the presence of a flame retardant, tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate, which was confirmed by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and mass spectrometry analysis. In an effort to identify the source of this fire retardant in the building, it became apparent from the analysis done on unknown field blanks that tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate was a contaminant of the sorbent tubes used. Analysis of additional blank tubes identified the foam separators as the most likely source of contamination. Levels of tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate in the front charcoal section ranged from 1.3 to 5.9 micrograms. The foam separator contained between 11.4 and 16.5 micrograms, and the backup charcoal section contained between 14.5 and 24.0 micrograms of tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate. In addition, another flame retardant, tri (1,3 dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate was also found. Because these contaminants have long column retention times in GLC, it may not be apparent that these contaminants are present and consequently are likely to have modified the sorbent characteristics of the activated charcoal. Another batch of sorbent tubes bearing the same catalog number and lot number was purchased from the supplier; no flame retardants were found in this batch.

  15. Adhaeribacter aerophilus sp. nov., Adhaeribacter aerolatus sp. nov. and Segetibacter aerophilus sp. nov., isolated from air samples.

    PubMed

    Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Son, Jung-A; Kim, Soo-Jin; Kim, Yi-Seul; Kim, Byung-Yong; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2010-10-01

    Three bacterial isolates from air samples in Korea, designated strains 6424S-25(T), 6515J-31(T) and 6424S-61(T), were characterized using a polyphasic approach. The cells were strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped. Phylogenetic analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a clear affiliation with the phylum Bacteroidetes. Strains 6424S-25(T) and 6515J-31(T) showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 92.7-94.8 % to type strains of recognized species of the genus Adhaeribacter and strain 6424S-61(T) was closely related to Segetibacter koreensis Gsoil 664(T) (93.9 % similarity). The G+C contents of the DNA of strains 6424S-25(T), 6515J-31(T) and 6424S-61(T) were 44.5, 43.9 and 38.4 mol%, respectively. Major fatty acids of strains 6424S-25(T) and 6515J-31(T) were summed feature 4 (iso-C₁₇:₁ I and/or anteiso-C₁₇ :₁ B), iso-C₁₅:₀ and C₁₆:₁ω5c. The fatty acid content of strain 6424S-61(T) mainly comprised iso-C₁₅ :₁ G and iso-C₁₅:₀. Comparative analysis of phenotypic and phylogenetic traits indicated that strains 6424S-25(T) and 6515J-31(T) represented two novel species of the genus Adhaeribacter and that strain 6424S-61(T) should be considered as a novel species of the genus Segetibacter. The names Adhaeribacter aerophilus sp. nov. (type strain 6424S-25(T) =KACC 14118(T) =NBRC 106134(T)), Adhaeribacter aerolatus sp. nov. (type strain 6515J-31(T) =KACC 14117(T) =NBRC 106133(T)) and Segetibacter aerophilus sp. nov. (type strain 6424S-61(T) =KACC 14119(T) =NBRC 106135(T)) are proposed for these organisms.

  16. Prevalence and serogroup diversity of Salmonella for broiler neck skin, whole carcass rinse, and whole carcass enrichment sampling methodologies following air or immersion chilling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck skin (NS), whole carcass rinse (WCR), and whole carcass enrichment (WCE) sampling procedures for Salmonella isolation and serogroup from the same broiler carcass following either air or immersion chilling. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler ...

  17. RELATIVE CONGENER SCALING OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS TO ESTIMATE BUILDING FIRE CONTRIBUTIONS IN AIR, SURFACE WIPES, AND DUST SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA collected ambient air samples in lower Manhattan for about nine months following the September 11, 2001 (9/11) World Trade Center (WTC) attacks. Measurements were made of a host of airborne contaminants including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydroca...

  18. Trace Analysis in End-Exhaled Air Using Direct Solvent Extraction in Gas Sampling Tubes: Tetrachloroethene in Workers as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Braunsdorf, Pia-Paulin

    2014-01-01

    Simple and cost-effective analytical methods are required to overcome the barriers preventing the use of exhaled air in routine occupational biological monitoring. Against this background, a new method is proposed that simplifies the automation and calibration of the analytical measurements. End-exhaled air is sampled using valveless gas sampling tubes made of glass. Gaseous analytes are transferred to a liquid phase using a microscale solvent extraction performed directly inside the gas sampling tubes. The liquid extracts are analysed using a gas chromatograph equipped, as usual, with a liquid autosampler, and liquid standards are used for calibration. For demonstration purposes, the method's concept was applied to the determination of tetrachloroethene in end-exhaled air, which is a biomarker for occupational tetrachloroethene exposure. The method's performance was investigated in the concentration range 2 to 20 μg tetrachloroethene/L, which corresponds to today's exposure levels. The calibration curve was linear, and the intra-assay repeatability and recovery rate were sufficient. Analysis of real samples from dry-cleaning workers occupationally exposed to tetrachloroethene and from nonexposed subjects demonstrated the method's utility. In the case of tetrachloroethene, the method can be deployed quickly, requires no previous experiences in gas analysis, provides sufficient analytical reliability, and addresses typical end-exhaled air concentrations from exposed workers. PMID:24772171

  19. Assessment of Air Quality in the Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Based on Samples Returned by STS-100 at the Conclusion of 6A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicological assessment of air samples returned at the end of the STS-100 (6A) flight to the ISS is reported. ISS air samples were taken in March and April 2001 from the Service Module, FGB, and U.S. Laboratory using grab sample canisters (GSCs) and/or formaldehyde badges. An unplanned "first-entry" sample of the MPLM2 (multipurpose logistics module) atmosphere was taken with a GSC, and preflight and end-of-mission samples were obtained from Endeavour using GSCs. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports, and all quality control measures were met for the data presented herein. The two general criteria used to assess air quality are the total-non-methane-volatile organic hydrocarbons (NMVOCs) and the total T-value (minus the CO2 and formaldehyde contribution). Because of the Freon 218 (octafluoropropane, OFP) leak, its contribution to the NMVOC is indicated in brackets. When comparing the NMVOC values with the 25 mg/cubic m guideline, the OFP contributions should be subtracted. Control of atmospheric alcohols is important to the water recovery system engineers, hence total alcohols were also assessed in each sample.

  20. Feasibility study of the AOSTA experimental campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carta, M.; Blaise, P.; Bethaz, C.; Boccia, F.; Fabrizio, V.; Geslot, B.; Grossi, A.; Gruel, A.

    2016-03-01

    The reduction of the nuclear waste is one of the most important nuclear issues. The high radiotoxicity of the spent fuel is due to plutonium and some minor actinides (MAs) such as neptunium, americium and curium, above all. One way to reduce their hazard is to destroy by fission MAs in appropriate nuclear reactors. To allow the MAs destruction an important effort have been done on the nuclear data due to the poor knowledge in this field. In the framework of one of the NEA Expert Group on Integral Experiments for Minor Actinide Management an analysis of the feasibility of MAs irradiation campaign in the TAPIRO fast research reactor is carried out. This paper provides preliminary results obtained by calculations modelling the irradiation, in different TAPIRO irradiation channels, of some CEA samples coming from the French experimental campaign OSMOSE, loaded with different contents of MAs, in order to access, through particular peak spectrometry, to their capture cross section. On the basis of neutron transport calculation results, obtained by both deterministic and Monte Carlo methods, an estimate of the irradiated samples counting levels from the AOSTA (Activation of OSMOSE Samples in TAPIRO) experimental campaign is provided.

  1. Coordinated Field Campaigns in Chesapeake Bay and Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannino, Antonio; Novak, Michael; Tzortziou, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission concept recommended by the U.S. National Research Council (2007) focuses on measurements of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols and aquatic coastal ecology and biogeochemistry from geostationary orbit (35,786 km altitude). Two GEO-CAPE-sponsored multi-investigator ship-based field campaigns were conducted to coincide with the NASA Earth Venture Suborbital project DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaigns: (1) Chesapeake Bay in July 2011 and (2) northwestern Gulf of Mexico in September 2013. Goal: to evaluate whether GEO-CAPE coastal mission measurement and instrument requirements are optimized to address science objectives while minimizing ocean color satellite sensor complexity, size and cost - critical mission risk reduction activities. NASA continues to support science studies related to the analysis of data collected as part of these coordinated field campaigns and smaller efforts.

  2. 75 FR 43395 - Campaign Travel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... of 2007. See Final Rules on Campaign Travel, 74 FR 63951 (Dec. 7, 2009) (the ``Travel Rules... 11 CFR 9004.7 at a later date. Travel Rules, 74 FR at 63951. Through this Notice, the Commission... of the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act governing campaign travel on noncommercial...

  3. Foreign Policy: A Campaign Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    Presidential campaigns are usually eager to provide mind-numbingly detailed domestic-policy proposals. When it comes to foreign policy, however, campaigns often prefer to operate on the plane of generality and gesture. In the absence of blueprints, journalists and tea-leaf readers scrutinize the foreign-policy advisers attached to each candidate:…

  4. Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) 2014 Western Pacific Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, E.; Pfister, L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) is a series of airborne campaigns focused on understanding physical processes in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and their role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. ATTREX is using the high-altitude, long-duration NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Air System to make in situ and remote-sensing measurements spanning the Pacific. A particular ATTREX emphasis is to better understand the dehydration of air as it passes through the cold tropical tropopause region. The ATTREX payload contains 12 in situ and remote sensing instruments that measure water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide), reactive chemical compounds (ozone, bromine, nitrous oxide), meteorological parameters, and radiative fluxes. During January-March, 2014, the Global Hawk was deployed to Guam for ATTREX flights. Six science flights were conducted from Guam (in addition to the transits across the Pacific), resulting in over 100 hours of Western Pacific TTL sampling and about 180 vertical profiles through the TTL. I will provide an overview of the dataset, with examples of the measurements including meteorological parameters, clouds and water vapor, and chemical tracers.

  5. The DIAMET campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, G.

    2012-04-01

    DIAMET (DIAbatic influences on Mesoscale structures in ExTratropical storms) is a joint project between the UK academic community and the Met Office. Its focus is on understanding and predicting mesoscale structures in synoptic-scale storms, and in particular on the role of diabatic processes in generating and maintaining them. Such structures include fronts, rain bands, secondary cyclones, sting jets etc, and are important because much of the extreme weather we experience (e.g. strong winds, heavy rain) comes from such regions. The project conducted two field campaigns in the autumn of 2011, from September 14 - 30 and November 24 - December 14, based around the FAAM BAe146 aircraft with support from ground-based radar and radiosonde measurements. Detailed modelling, mainly using the Met Office Unified model, supported the planning and interpretation of these campaigns. This presentation will give a brief overview of the campaigns. Both in September and November-December the weather regime was westerly, with a strong jet stream directed across the Atlantic. Three IOPs were conducted in September, to observe a convective band ahead of an upper-level trough, waves on a long trailing cold front, and a warm conveyor belt associated with a secondary cyclone. In November-December six IOPs were conducted, to observe frontal passages and high winds. This period was notable for a number of very strong windstorms passing across the north of the UK, and gave us an opportunity to examine bent-back warm fronts in the southern quadrant of these storms where the strongest winds are found. The case studies fell into two basic patterns. In the majority of cases, dropsonde legs at high level were used to obtain a cross-section of winds and thermodynamic structure (e.g. across a front), followed by in situ legs at lower levels (generally where the temperature was between 0 and -10°) to examine microphysical processes, especially ice multiplication and the extent of supercooled water

  6. Campaign Policies, Broadcasters, and the Presidential Election of 1924.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Louise M.

    The policies initiated by broadcasters for campaign coverage during the 1924 presidential election influenced the treatment of political candidates on the air and helped set the stage for inclusion of the equal opportunities clause in the Radio Act of 1927. AT&T, RCA, and General Electric formed policies to treat candidates fairly in allocating…

  7. The STAR Grants Contribution to the SOAS Campaign

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) is a community-led field campaign that was part of the Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS). As one of the largest field studies in decades to characterize air quality in the Southeastern United States, SAS is a collaborative project invo...

  8. Methods to infer the compliance status with interval-averaged and with instantaneous occupational exposure limits from the results of longer-duration, integrated air sampling.

    PubMed

    Hunsaker, Harry A

    2016-01-01

    The duration of integrated air sampling for a substance may exceed the time frame of a substance's occupational exposure limit. Nonetheless, the compliance status of a limit may be inferred, under some circumstances, by the application of certain methods to the results of longer-duration samples. The purpose of this article is to define the inference methods and to illustrate their utility with actual and hypothetical examples. A review of articles and reports in U.S.-based Industrial Hygiene publications and databases revealed that the methods often were not but arguably should have been applied. Also revealed were inappropriate conclusions about the compliance status with exposure limits. Among the benefits of employing the inference methods is gaining information on exposures that might otherwise be overlooked. This article discusses the potential limitations of using the methods, and highlights some of the challenges of using integrated air sampling for assessing compliance with shorter-term exposure limits. PMID:26366477

  9. The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000): Overview of the Dry Season Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swap, R. J.; Annegarn, H. J.; Suttles, J. T.; Haywood, J.; Helmlinger, M. C.; Hely, C.; Hobbs, P. V.; Holben, B. N.; Ji, J.; King, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) is an international project investigating the earth atmosphere -human system in southern Africa. The programme was conducted over a two year period from March 1999 to March 2001. The dry season field campaign (August-September 2000) was the most intensive activity involved over 200 scientist from eighteen countries. The main objectives were to characterize and quantify biogenic, pyrogenic and anthropogenic aerosol and trace gas emissions and their transport and transformations in the atmosphere and to validate NASA's Earth Observing System's Satellite Terra within a scientific context. Five aircraft-- two South African Weather Service Aeorcommanders, the University of Washington's CV-880, the U.K. Meteorological Office's C-130, and NASA's ER-2 --with different altitude capabilities, participated in the campaign. Additional airborne sampling of southern African air masses, that had moved downwind of the subcontinent, was conducted by the CSIRO over Australia. Multiple Observations were made in various geographical sections under different synoptic conditions. Airborne missions were designed to optimize the value of synchronous over-flights of the Terra Satellite platform, above regional ground validation and science targets. Numerous smaller scale ground validation activities took place throughout the subcontinent during the campaign period.

  10. Comparison of passive diffusion bag samplers and submersible pump sampling methods for monitoring volatile organic compounds in ground water at Area 6, Naval Air Station, Whidbey Island, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, Raegan L.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected in April 1999 at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Washington, with passive diffusion samplers and a submersible pump to compare concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water samples collected using the two sampling methods. Single diffusion samplers were installed in wells with 10-foot screened intervals, and multiple diffusion samplers were installed in wells with 20- to 40-foot screened intervals. The diffusion samplers were recovered after 20 days and the wells were then sampled using a submersible pump. VOC concentrations in the 10-foot screened wells in water samples collected with diffusion samplers closely matched concentrations in samples collected with the submersible pump. Analysis of VOC concentrations in samples collected from the 20- to 40-foot screened wells with multiple diffusion samplers indicated vertical concentration variation within the screened interval, whereas the analysis of VOC concentrations in samples collected with the submersible pump indicated mixing during pumping. The results obtained using the two sampling methods indicate that the samples collected with the diffusion samplers were comparable with and can be considerably less expensive than samples collected using a submersible pump.

  11. Challenges associated with the sampling and analysis of organosulfur compounds in air using real-time PTR-ToF-MS and offline GC-FID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perraud, Véronique; Meinardi, Simone; Blake, Donald R.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2016-03-01

    Organosulfur compounds (OSCs) are naturally emitted via various processes involving phytoplankton and algae in marine regions, from animal metabolism, and from biomass decomposition inland. These compounds are malodorant and reactive. Their oxidation to methanesulfonic and sulfuric acids leads to the formation and growth of atmospheric particles, which are known to influence clouds and climate, atmospheric chemical processes. In addition, particles in air have been linked to negative impacts on visibility and human health. Accurate measurements of the OSC precursors are thus essential to reduce uncertainties in their sources and contributions to particle formation in air. Two different approaches, proton-transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) and canister sampling coupled to gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID), are compared for both laboratory standards (dimethyl sulfide, DMS; dimethyl disulfide, DMDS; dimethyl trisulfide, DMTS; and methanethiol, MTO) and for a complex sample. Results show that both techniques produce accurate quantification of DMS. While PTR-ToF-MS provides real-time measurements of all four OSCs individually, significant fragmentation of DMDS and DMTS occurs, which can complicate their identification in complex mixtures. Canister sampling coupled with GC-FID provides excellent sensitivity for DMS, DMDS, and DMTS. However, MTO was observed to react on metal surfaces to produce DMDS and, in the presence of hydrogen sulfide, even DMTS. Avoiding metal in sampling systems seems to be necessary for measuring all but dimethyl sulfide in air.

  12. Quantification of VX vapor in ambient air by liquid chromatography isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometric analysis of glass bead filled sampling tubes.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ronald A; Smith, Wendy L; Nguyen, Nam-Phuong; Crouse, Kathy L; Crouse, Charles L; Norman, Steven D; Jakubowski, E Michael

    2011-02-15

    An analysis method has been developed for determining low parts-per-quadrillion by volume (ppqv) concentrations of nerve agent VX vapor actively sampled from ambient air. The method utilizes glass bead filled depot area air monitoring system (DAAMS) sampling tubes with isopropyl alcohol extraction and isotope dilution using liquid chromatography coupled with a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC/MS/MS) with positive ion electrospray ionization for quantitation. The dynamic range was from one-tenth of the worker population limit (WPL) to the short-term exposure limit (STEL) for a 24 L air sample taken over a 1 h period. The precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated using liquid-spiked tubes, and the collection characteristics of the DAAMS tubes were assessed by collecting trace level vapor generated in a 1000 L continuous flow chamber. The method described here has significant improvements over currently employed thermal desorption techniques that utilize a silver fluoride pad during sampling to convert VX to a higher volatility G-analogue for gas chromatographic analysis. The benefits of this method are the ability to directly analyze VX with improved selectivity and sensitivity, the injection of a fraction of the extract, quantitation using an isotopically labeled internal standard, and a short instrument cycle time.

  13. Detection of Legionella spp. by a nested-PCR assay in air samples of a wastewater treatment plant and downwind distances in Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaee, Seyyed Abbas; Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Hajizadeh, Yaghob; Nabavi, BiBi Fatemeh; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Wastewater contains a variety of pathogens and bio -aerosols generated during the wastewater treatment process, which could be a potential health risk for exposed individuals. This study was carried out to detect Legionella spp. in the bio -aerosols generated from different processes of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Isfahan, Iran, and the downwind distances. Materials and Methods: A total of 54 air samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of Legionella spp. by a nested- polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. A liquid impingement biosampler was used to capture bio -aerosols. The weather conditions were also recorded. Results: Legionella were detected in 6% of the samples, including air samples above the aeration tank (1/9), belt filter press (1/9), and 250 m downwind (1/9). Conclusion: The result of this study revealed the presence of Legionella spp. in air samples of a WWTP and downwind distance, which consequently represent a potential health risk to the exposed individuals. PMID:25802817

  14. Symptomatic Effects of Exposure to Diluted Air Sampled from a Swine Confinement Atmosphere on Healthy Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Schiffman, Susan S.; Studwell, Clare E.; Landerman, Lawrence R.; Berman, Katherine; Sundy, John S.

    2005-01-01

    Aerial emissions from a swine house at North Carolina State University’s field laboratory were diluted to a level that could occur at varying distances downwind from a confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) both within and beyond the property line, and these emissions were delivered to an environmental exposure chamber. The study design consisted of two 1-hr sessions, one in which 48 healthy human adult volunteers were exposed to diluted swine air and another in which they were exposed to clean air (control). Objective measures of blood pressure, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, lung function, nasal inflammation, secretory immunity, mood, attention, and memory were correlated with objective measures of air quality. Ratings of perceived (self-reported) health symptoms were also obtained. The mean levels of airborne constituents in the swine air condition were hydrogen sulfide (24 ppb), ammonia (817 ppb), total suspended particulates (0.0241 mg/m3), endotoxin (7.40 endotoxin units/m3), and odor (57 times above odor threshold). No statistical differences on objective measures of physical symptoms, mood, or attention resulted from the 1-hr exposure to swine emissions in the environmental chamber when compared with clean air for healthy human volunteers. However, subjects were 4.1 (p = 0.001) times more likely to report headaches, 6.1 (p = 0.004) times more likely to report eye irritation, and 7.8 (p = 0.014) times more likely to report nausea in the swine air (experimental) condition than in the control condition. These results indicate that short-term exposure in an environmental chamber to malodorous emissions from a swine house at levels expected downwind can induce clinically important symptoms in healthy human volunteers. PMID:15866765

  15. Symptomatic effects of exposure to diluted air sampled from a swine confinement atmosphere on healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Susan S; Studwell, Clare E; Landerman, Lawrence R; Berman, Katherine; Sundy, John S

    2005-05-01

    Aerial emissions from a swine house at North Carolina State University's field laboratory were diluted to a level that could occur at varying distances downwind from a confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) both within and beyond the property line, and these emissions were delivered to an environmental exposure chamber. The study design consisted of two 1-hr sessions, one in which 48 healthy human adult volunteers were exposed to diluted swine air and another in which they were exposed to clean air (control). Objective measures of blood pressure, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, lung function, nasal inflammation, secretory immunity, mood, attention, and memory were correlated with objective measures of air quality. Ratings of perceived (self-reported) health symptoms were also obtained. The mean levels of airborne constituents in the swine air condition were hydrogen sulfide (24 ppb), ammonia (817 ppb), total suspended particulates (0.0241 mg/m3), endotoxin (7.40 endotoxin units/m3), and odor (57 times above odor threshold). No statistical differences on objective measures of physical symptoms, mood, or attention resulted from the 1-hr exposure to swine emissions in the environmental chamber when compared with clean air for healthy human volunteers. However, subjects were 4.1 (p = 0.001) times more likely to report headaches, 6.1 (p = 0.004) times more likely to report eye irritation, and 7.8 (p = 0.014) times more likely to report nausea in the swine air (experimental) condition than in the control condition. These results indicate that short-term exposure in an environmental chamber to malodorous emissions from a swine house at levels expected downwind can induce clinically important symptoms in healthy human volunteers. PMID:15866765

  16. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF OUTDOOR, INDOOR, AND PERSONAL PARTICULATE AIR SAMPLES COLLECTED IN AND AROUND A RETIREMENT FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential, personal, indoor, and outdoor sampling of particulate matter was conducted at a retirement center in the Towson area of northern Baltimore County in 1998. Concurrent sampling was conducted at a central community site. Computer-controlled scanning electron microsco...

  17. Evaluation of a Social Marketing Campaign to Support Mexico City's Comprehensive Smoke-Free Law

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liling; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Alday, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to assess the level of awareness and impact of a social marketing campaign to promote Mexico City's 2008 comprehensive smoke-free law. Methods. Four months after the smoke-free law was implemented but before the campaign launch, we collected data from a population-based, random sample of 961 inhabitants of Mexico City. We analyzed data from 786 respondents who completed follow-up at the end of the campaign to determine campaign exposure and the association between campaign exposure and changes in campaign-targeted knowledge and attitudes. Results. Recall of any of the 5 campaign materials was 69%, with a uniform distribution of exposure to 1, 2, and 3 or more campaign materials (25%, 25%, and 19%, respectively). Exposure to a greater number of campaign materials was associated in a monotonic relation with campaign-targeted knowledge of ammonia and arsenic in cigarette smoke. In models assessing support for, perceived benefits of, and perceived right to smoke-free places, campaign exposure accounted for a positive change in half of the indicators within each of these domains. Conclusions. Social marketing campaigns can reinforce knowledge and attitudes that favor smoke-free laws, thereby helping to establish smoke-free norms. PMID:21164097

  18. Assessment of Air Quality in the International Space Station (ISS) and Space Shuttle Based on Samples Returned Aboard STS-110 (ISS-8A) in April 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2002-01-01

    The toxicological assessment of grab sample canisters (GSCs) returned aboard STS-110 is reported. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports, and surrogate standard recoveries from the GSCs were 77-121%, with one exception. Pressure tracking indicated no leaks in the canisters. Recoveries from lab and trip controls for formaldehyde analyses ranged from 87 to 96%. The two general criteria used to assess air quality are the total-non-methane-volatile organic hydrocarbons (NMVOCs) and the total T-value (minus the CO2 and formaldehyde contributions). Because of the inertness of Freon 218 (octafluoropropane, OFP), its contribution to the NMVOC is subtracted and tabulated separately. Control of atmospheric alcohols is important to the water recovery system engineers, hence total alcohols are also shown for each sample. Because formaldehyde is quantified from sorbent badges, its concentration is listed separately. These five indices of air quality are summarized.

  19. Comparison of three sampling and analytical methods for measuring m-xylene in expired air of exposed humans.

    PubMed

    Glaser, R A; Arnold, J E; Shulman, S A

    1990-03-01

    Three breath sampling and analytical methods were tested following exposure of 12 subjects for 4 hr to 75 ppm m-xylene in a controlled environmental chamber. Mixed-expired breath was sampled for m-xylene from all 12 subjects with a new stainless steel device that permits continuous mainstream or sidestream sampling of the solvents present. The m-xylene was sampled from the mainstream using charcoal cloth and from the sidestream using Tenax TA. Alveolar breath also was sampled for m-xylene from 6 of these subjects using bags. The carbon dioxide concentrations of the mixed and alveolar samples, obtained from these 6 subjects, were also determined and used to assess the accuracy of the mixed-expired sampling and analytical procedures. Breath sampling was conducted over the immediate 240-min postexposure period. All m-xylene samples were analyzed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Carbon dioxide concentrations were determined with an infrared analyzer. Nonlinear regression analysis was used to model the desaturation of m-xylene via the breath. Overall, the desaturation of m-xylene from all subjects by all methods was best described using three-compartment pharmacokinetic models. The precision of each sampling and analytical method, estimated from the residual variabilities of the desaturation curves were 0.13 for alveolar sampling, 0.14 for mainstream-mixed sampling (12 subjects), and 0.23 for sidestream-mixed sampling (12 subjects). For all 12 subjects, the breath m-xylene concentrations determined by sidestream-mixed sampling averaged 83% of those determined by mainstream-mixed sampling; this bias was significant. For the 6 subjects from whom both mixed-expired and alveolar breath samples were obtained, the average m-xylene desaturation rates determined by both mainstream-mixed and alveolar sampling were comparable but substantially different from those determined by sidestream-mixed sampling. For these subjects, comparison of the average and

  20. Determination of aflatoxins in air samples of refuse-derived fuel by thin-layer chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence spectrometric detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bicking, M.K.L.; Kniseley, R.N.; Svec, H.J.

    1983-02-01

    An analytical method is described which allows determination of aflatoxins in a complex matrix. An apparatus has been developed that quantitates fluorescent compounds on thin-layer chromatography plates. A nitrogen laser excitation source produces a detection limit of 10 pg for four aflatoxins. Aflatoxin B1 has been found at levels up to 17 ppb in solid samples collected from the air at a plant which produces refuse-derived fuel. 7 figures, 1 table.

  1. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities. PMID:27077742

  2. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations.

    PubMed

    Traag, Vincent A

    2016-01-01

    Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50,000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities. PMID:27077742

  3. [PUF passive air sampling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmosphere of the Yangtze River Delta, China: spatio-temporal distribution and potential sources].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-fei; Yang, Wen-long; Dong, Liang; Shi, Shuang-xin; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Xiu-lan; Li, Ling-ling; Niu, Shan; Huang, Ye-ru

    2013-09-01

    Atmosphere is regarded to be an important media in the environmental pollution research area. Passive air sampling was one of the effective complementary sampling techniques for the active high volume air sampler in recent decades. A regional scale investigation on the atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was conducted in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). Polyurethane foam based passive air samplers were used to collect the atmospheric PAHs from 31 sampling sites in this area. PAHs concentrations ranged from 10.1 ng x m(-1) to 367 ng x m(-3) in this study. The annual average concentration of benzo [a] pyrene (BaP) reached 2.25 ng x m(-3), which was two times higher exceeding the national standard, GB 3095-2012. The atmospheric PAHs during four seasons decreased in the following order: autumn > winter > spring > summer. Larger BaP excessive areas were found in autumn and winter than other seasons. Moreover, an obvious emission of BaP was confirmed during the winter time. Traffic related petroleum combustion, coal and biomass burning, and coke oven were identified as potential sources of atmospheric PAHs, contributing 38.1%, 42.4%, and 19.5%, respectively.

  4. Evaluation of silica gel cartridges coated in situ with acidified 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine for sampling aldehydes and ketones in air.

    PubMed

    Tejada, S B

    1986-01-01

    A procedure for coating in situ silica gel in prepacked cartridges with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) acidified with hydrochloric acid is described. The coated cartridge was compared with a validated DNPH impinger method for sampling organic carbonyl compounds (aldehydes and ketones) in diluted automotive exhaust emissions and in ambient air for subsequent analysis of the DNPH derivatives by high performance liquid chromatography. Qualitative and quantitative data are presented that show that the two sampling devices are equivalent. The coated cartridge is ideal for long-term sampling of carbonyls at sub to low parts-per-billion level in ambient air or for short-term sampling of carbonyls at low ppb to parts-per-million level in diluted automotive exhaust emissions. An unknown degradation product of acrolein has been tentatively identified as x-acrolein. The disappearance of acrolein in the analytical sample matrix correlates quantitatively almost on a mole for mole basis with the growth of x-acrolein. The sum of the concentration of acrolein and x-acrolein appears to be invariant with time. PMID:3019907

  5. Elevated α-methyl-γ-hydroxy-1,N2-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in urinary samples from individuals exposed to urban air pollution.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Camila C M; Freitas, Florêncio P; Sanchez, Angélica B; Di Mascio, Paolo; Medeiros, Marisa H G

    2013-11-18

    Acetaldehyde and crotonaldehyde are genotoxic aldehydes present in tobacco smoke and vehicle exhaust. The reaction of these aldehydes with 2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA produces α-methyl-γ-hydroxy-1,N(2)-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine (1,N(2)-propanodGuo). Online HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry was utilized to accurately quantify 1,N(2)-propanodGuo in human urinary samples from 47 residents of São Paulo City (SP) and 35 residents of the rural municipality of São João da Boa Vista (SJBV) in the state of São Paulo. Significantly higher 1,N(2)-propanodGuo levels were found in the samples from SP donors than in samples from SJBV donors. Our results provide the first evidence that elevated levels of 1,N(2)-propanodGuo in urinary samples may be correlated with urban air pollution.

  6. Determination of formaldehyde by HPLC as the DNPH derivative following high-volume air sampling onto bisulfite-coated cellulose filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Andrade, Jailson B.; Tanner, Roger L.

    A method is described for the specific collection of formaldehyde as hydroxymethanesulfonate on bisulfate-coated cellulose filters. Following extraction in aqueous acid and removal on unreacted bisulfite, the hydroxymethanesulfonate is decomposed by base, and HCHO is determined by DNPH (2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine) derivatization and HPLC. Since the collection efficiency for formaldehyde is moderately high even when sampling ambient air at high-volume flow rates, a limit of detection of 0.2 ppbv is achieved with 30 min sampling times. Interference from acetaldehyde co-collected as 1-hydroxyethanesulfonate is <5% using this procedure. The technique shows promise for both short-term airborne sampling, and as a means of collecting mg-sized samples of HCHO on an inorganic matrix for carbon isotopic analyses.

  7. Evaluation of silica-gel cartridges coated in situ with acidified 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine for sampling aldehydes and ketones in air

    SciTech Connect

    Tejada, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure for coating in-situ silica in commercially available prepacked cartridges with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) acidified with hydrochloric acid is described. The coated cartridge was compared with a validated DNPH impinger method for sampling organic carbonyl compounds (aldehydes and ketones) in diluted automotive exhaust emissions and in ambient air for subsequent analysis of the DNPH derivatives by high performance liquid chromatography. Qualitative and quantitative results show that the two sampling devices are equivalent. An unknown degradation product of acrolein has been tentatively identified as x-acrolein. The disappearance of acrolein in the analytical sample matrix correlated quantitatively almost on a mole-for-mole basis with the growth of x-acrolein. The sum of the concentration of acrolein and x-acrolein appears to be invariant with time. This sum could possibly be used as a more-accurate value of the concentration of acrolein in the integratated sample.

  8. Lessons Learned in a Breastfeeding Media Campaign.

    PubMed

    Ware, Julie L; Mzayek, Fawaz; Levy, Marian

    2016-09-01

    Breastfeeding is well accepted as the optimal nutrition for babies. The American Academy of Pediatrics states that infant feeding should no longer be thought of as a lifestyle choice, but rather as a public health issue. In Shelby County, Tennessee, rates of breastfeeding continue to be disparately low. To address this public health problem, a focus group study was conducted with the Shelby County population least likely to breastfeed. Following participants' suggestion to use a billboard campaign with pictures of local mothers and families, one highway billboard and ten bus stop signs were placed around the city in areas of the lowest breastfeeding rates. Self-administered surveys were completed by convenience sampling in target population areas with women least likely to breastfeed, both before placing the signs and 6 months later. No significant differences were noted in knowledge, attitudes, or practices after the media campaign, but trends toward increased intention to breastfeed were noted among expectant mothers. With collapsed data (pre and post), a majority of participants believed that breastfeeding is the best way to feed a baby and they were significantly more likely to plan to breastfeed if they knew about health benefits to the baby and to themselves. If they had heard about breastfeeding on the TV or radio, they were more likely to believe breastfeeding is important for long-term health. These findings suggest that a media campaign could have a complementary role in promoting breastfeeding among women with low initiation rates. PMID:27463248

  9. Results from Geothermal Logging, Air and Core-Water Chemistry Sampling, Air Injection Testing and Tracer Testing in the Northern Ghost Dance Fault, YUCCA Mountain, Nevada, November 1996 to August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Lecain, G.D.; Anna, L.O.; Fahy, M.F.

    1998-08-01

    Geothermal logging, air and core-water chemistry sampling, air-injection testing, and tracer testing were done in the northern Ghost Dance Fault at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, from November 1996 to August 1998. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. The fault-testing drill room and test boreholes were located in the crystal-poor, middle nonlithophysal zone of the Topopah Spring Tuff, a tuff deposit of Miocene age. The drill room is located off the Yucca Mountain underground Exploratory Studies Facility at about 230 meters below ground surface. Borehole geothermal logging identified a temperature decrease of 0.1 degree Celsius near the Ghost Dance Fault. The temperature decrease could indicate movement of cooler air or water, or both, down the fault, or it may be due to drilling-induced evaporative or adiabatic cooling. In-situ pneumatic pressure monitoring indicated that barometric pressure changes were transmitted from the ground surface to depth through the Ghost Dance Fault. Values of carbon dioxide and delta carbon-13 from gas samples indicated that air from the underground drill room had penetrated the tuff, supporting the concept of a well-developed fracture system. Uncorrected carbon-14-age estimates from gas samples ranged from 2,400 to 4,500 years. Tritium levels in borehole core water indicated that the fault may have been a conduit for the transport of water from the ground surface to depth during the last 100 years.

  10. Analysis of water from K west basin canisters (second campaign)

    SciTech Connect

    Trimble, D.J., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    Gas and liquid samples have been obtained from a selection of the approximately 3,820 spent fuel storage canisters in the K West Basin. The samples were taken to characterize the contents of the gas and water in the canisters. The data will provide source term information for two subprojects of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) (Fulton 1994): the K Basins Integrated Water Treatment System subproject (Ball 1996) and the K Basins Fuel Retrieval System subproject (Waymire 1996). The barrels of ten canisters were sampled in 1995, and 50 canisters were sampled in a second campaign in 1996. The analysis results for the gas and liquid samples of the first campaign have been reported (Trimble 1995a; Trimble 1995b; Trimble 1996a; Trimble 1996b). An analysis of cesium-137 (137CS ) data from the second campaign samples was reported (Trimble and Welsh 1997), and the gas sample results are documented in Trimble 1997. This report documents the results of all analytes of liquid samples from the second campaign.